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Sample records for microbial forensic methods

  1. A validation framework for microbial forensic methods based on statistical pattern recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velsko, S P

    2007-11-12

    This report discusses a general approach to validating microbial forensic methods that attempt to simultaneously distinguish among many hypotheses concerning the manufacture of a questioned biological agent sample. It focuses on the concrete example of determining growth medium from chemical or molecular properties of a bacterial agent to illustrate the concepts involved.

  2. Microbial Forensics: A Scientific Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keim, Paul

    2003-02-17

    procedures and training to meet these initial challenges so as minimize disturbance of the evidence. While epidemiology and forensics are similar sciences with similar goals when applied to biocrimes, forensics has additional and more stringent requirements. Maintaining a chain of custody on evidentiary samples is one example of an extra requirement imposed on an investigation of a biocrime. Another issue is the intent in microbial forensics to identify a bioattack organism in greatest detail. If possible, forensic investigations will strive to identify the precise strain and substrain, rather than just to the species level, which might be sufficient in an epidemiological investigation. Although multiple groups have developed lists of bioterrorism target pathogens, these lists are too narrow. An expansion of microorganisms relevant to food and water threats should be considered. Computerized networks should be established to track infectious disease outbreaks in real time. These systems could alert public health and agricultural officials to the existence of a potential bioattack earlier than simply waiting for a report of a suspicious cluster of similar patients. Once a biocrime is suspected, a wide variety of methods are available to identify the microorganism used in the bioattack and to analyze features that might lead to the source of the event. A multi-pronged approach to such an investigation may be preferable, using many available methods-ranging from genomics to sequencing to physiology to analysis of substances in the sample. Microbial forensics will be most effective if there is sufficient basic scientific information concerning microbial genetics, evolution, physiology, and ecology. Strain subtyping analysis will be difficult to interpret if we do not understand some of the basic evolutionary mechanisms and population diversity of pathogens. Phenotypic features associated with evidentiary pathogens also may provide investigative leads, but full exploitation of

  3. Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters

    OpenAIRE

    NOVÁKOVÁ, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    The title of my bachelor work is ?Forensic linguistics: Applications of forensic linguistics methods to anonymous letters?. Forensic linguistics is young and not very known branch of applied linguistics. This bachelor work wants to introduce forensic linguistics and its method. The bachelor work has two parts ? theory and practice. The theoretical part informs about forensic linguistics in general. Its two basic aspects utilized in forensic science and respective methods. The practical part t...

  4. Method Development in Forensic Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Frank T; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Busardo, Francesco Paolo; Marchei, Emilia; Pichini, Simona

    2017-01-01

    In the field of forensic toxicology, the quality of analytical methods is of great importance to ensure the reliability of results and to avoid unjustified legal consequences. A key to high quality analytical methods is a thorough method development. The presented article will provide an overview on the process of developing methods for forensic applications. This includes the definition of the method's purpose (e.g. qualitative vs quantitative) and the analytes to be included, choosing an appropriate sample matrix, setting up separation and detection systems as well as establishing a versatile sample preparation. Method development is concluded by an optimization process after which the new method is subject to method validation. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Conditional Dependence in Microbial Forensic Assays - A Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velsko, Stephan P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-11-08

    This report provides an introduction to the topic of conditional dependence in the context of microbial forensic assays. Conditional dependence between two items of evidence E1 and E2 occurs when they are both used to support a hypothesis, but E1 affects the probability of E2 and vice versa. Ignoring this dependence can lead to very large errors in estimating the diagnosticity of the combined evidence. To introduce readers to this concept, a number of definitions of conditional dependence that have been used by authors in the past have been collected together and compared. Formal mathematical relationships that constrain conditional dependence are summarized. There are several specific scenarios in which unrecognized conditional dependence can arise in microbial forensic contexts. This report provides some notional examples that illustrate dramatic effects of conditional dependence on the weight of microbial forensic evidence, and discusses the relevance of these observations for the validation of microbial forensic assays. A two-­parameter model that describes the transition between various limiting forms of conditional dependence relations is provided in an appendix.

  6. Whole-Genome Sequencing in Microbial Forensic Analysis of Gamma-Irradiated Microbial Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broomall, Stacey M; Ait Ichou, Mohamed; Krepps, Michael D; Johnsky, Lauren A; Karavis, Mark A; Hubbard, Kyle S; Insalaco, Joseph M; Betters, Janet L; Redmond, Brady W; Rivers, Bryan A; Liem, Alvin T; Hill, Jessica M; Fochler, Edward T; Roth, Pierce A; Rosenzweig, C Nicole; Skowronski, Evan W; Gibbons, Henry S

    2016-01-15

    Effective microbial forensic analysis of materials used in a potential biological attack requires robust methods of morphological and genetic characterization of the attack materials in order to enable the attribution of the materials to potential sources and to exclude other potential sources. The genetic homogeneity and potential intersample variability of many of the category A to C bioterrorism agents offer a particular challenge to the generation of attributive signatures, potentially requiring whole-genome or proteomic approaches to be utilized. Currently, irradiation of mail is standard practice at several government facilities judged to be at particularly high risk. Thus, initial forensic signatures would need to be recovered from inactivated (nonviable) material. In the study described in this report, we determined the effects of high-dose gamma irradiation on forensic markers of bacterial biothreat agent surrogate organisms with a particular emphasis on the suitability of genomic DNA (gDNA) recovered from such sources as a template for whole-genome analysis. While irradiation of spores and vegetative cells affected the retention of Gram and spore stains and sheared gDNA into small fragments, we found that irradiated material could be utilized to generate accurate whole-genome sequence data on the Illumina and Roche 454 sequencing platforms. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. The need for high-quality whole-genome sequence databases in microbial forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjödin, Andreas; Broman, Tina; Melefors, Öjar; Andersson, Gunnar; Rasmusson, Birgitta; Knutsson, Rickard; Forsman, Mats

    2013-09-01

    Microbial forensics is an important part of a strengthened capability to respond to biocrime and bioterrorism incidents to aid in the complex task of distinguishing between natural outbreaks and deliberate acts. The goal of a microbial forensic investigation is to identify and criminally prosecute those responsible for a biological attack, and it involves a detailed analysis of the weapon--that is, the pathogen. The recent development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has greatly increased the resolution that can be achieved in microbial forensic analyses. It is now possible to identify, quickly and in an unbiased manner, previously undetectable genome differences between closely related isolates. This development is particularly relevant for the most deadly bacterial diseases that are caused by bacterial lineages with extremely low levels of genetic diversity. Whole-genome analysis of pathogens is envisaged to be increasingly essential for this purpose. In a microbial forensic context, whole-genome sequence analysis is the ultimate method for strain comparisons as it is informative during identification, characterization, and attribution--all 3 major stages of the investigation--and at all levels of microbial strain identity resolution (ie, it resolves the full spectrum from family to isolate). Given these capabilities, one bottleneck in microbial forensics investigations is the availability of high-quality reference databases of bacterial whole-genome sequences. To be of high quality, databases need to be curated and accurate in terms of sequences, metadata, and genetic diversity coverage. The development of whole-genome sequence databases will be instrumental in successfully tracing pathogens in the future.

  8. Microbial soil community analyses for forensic science: Application to a blind test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demanèche, Sandrine; Schauser, Leif; Dawson, Lorna; Franqueville, Laure; Simonet, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Soil complexity, heterogeneity and transferability make it valuable in forensic investigations to help obtain clues as to the origin of an unknown sample, or to compare samples from a suspect or object with samples collected at a crime scene. In a few countries, soil analysis is used in matters from site verification to estimates of time after death. However, up to date the application or use of soil information in criminal investigations has been limited. In particular, comparing bacterial communities in soil samples could be a useful tool for forensic science. To evaluate the relevance of this approach, a blind test was performed to determine the origin of two questioned samples (one from the mock crime scene and the other from a 50:50 mixture of the crime scene and the alibi site) compared to three control samples (soil samples from the crime scene, from a context site 25m away from the crime scene and from the alibi site which was the suspect's home). Two biological methods were used, Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (RISA), and 16S rRNA gene sequencing with Illumina Miseq, to evaluate the discriminating power of soil bacterial communities. Both techniques discriminated well between soils from a single source, but a combination of both techniques was necessary to show that the origin was a mixture of soils. This study illustrates the potential of applying microbial ecology methodologies in soil as an evaluative forensic tool. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Application of DNA-based methods in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jeffrey D; Stevens, Jamie R

    2008-01-01

    A forensic entomological investigation can benefit from a variety of widely practiced molecular genotyping methods. The most commonly used is DNA-based specimen identification. Other applications include the identification of insect gut contents and the characterization of the population genetic structure of a forensically important insect species. The proper application of these procedures demands that the analyst be technically expert. However, one must also be aware of the extensive list of standards and expectations that many legal systems have developed for forensic DNA analysis. We summarize the DNA techniques that are currently used in, or have been proposed for, forensic entomology and review established genetic analyses from other scientific fields that address questions similar to those in forensic entomology. We describe how accepted standards for forensic DNA practice and method validation are likely to apply to insect evidence used in a death or other forensic entomological investigation.

  10. Environmental Microbial Forensics and Archaeology of Past Pandemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaciari, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The development of paleomicrobiology with new molecular techniques such as metagenomics is revolutionizing our knowledge of microbial evolution in human history. The study of microbial agents that are concomitantly active in the same biological environment makes it possible to obtain a picture of the complex interrelations among the different pathogens and gives us the perspective to understand the microecosystem of ancient times. This research acts as a bridge between disciplines such as archaeology, biology, and medicine, and the development of paleomicrobiology forces archaeology to broaden and update its methods. This chapter addresses the archaeological issues related to the identification of cemeteries from epidemic catastrophes (typology of burials, stratigraphy, topography, paleodemography) and the issues related to the sampling of human remains for biomolecular analysis. Developments in the field of paleomicrobiology are described with the example of the plague. Because of its powerful interdisciplinary features, the paleomicrobiological study of Yersinia pestis is an extremely interesting field, in which paleomicrobiology, historical research, and archeology are closely related, and it has important implications for the current dynamics of epidemiology.

  11. Microbial population analysis improves the evidential value of faecal traces in forensic investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaak, Frederike C A; de Graaf, Mei-Lan M; Weterings, Rob; Kuiper, Irene

    2017-01-01

    The forensic science community has a growing interest in microbial population analysis, especially the microbial populations found inside and on the human body. Both their high abundance, microbes outnumber human cells by a factor 10, and their diversity, different sites of the human body harbour different microbial communities, make them an interesting tool for forensics. Faecal material is a type of trace evidence which can be found in a variety of criminal cases, but is often being ignored in forensic investigations. Deriving a human short tandem repeat (STR) profile from a faecal sample can be challenging. However, the microbial communities within faecal material can be of additional criminalistic value in linking a faecal trace to the possible donor. We present a microarray technique in which the faecal microbial community is used to differentiate between faecal samples and developed a decision model to predict the possible common origin of questioned samples. The results show that this technique may be a useful additional tool when no or only partial human STR profiles can be generated.

  12. Microbial Degradation of Forensic Samples of Biological Origin: Potential Threat to Human DNA Typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Hirak Ranjan; Das, Surajit

    2018-02-01

    Forensic biology is a sub-discipline of biological science with an amalgam of other branches of science used in the criminal justice system. Any nucleated cell/tissue harbouring DNA, either live or dead, can be used as forensic exhibits, a source of investigation through DNA typing. These biological materials of human origin are rich source of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, trace elements as well as water and, thus, provide a virtuous milieu for the growth of microbes. The obstinate microbial growth augments the degradation process and is amplified with the passage of time and improper storage of the biological materials. Degradation of these biological materials carriages a huge challenge in the downstream processes of forensic DNA typing technique, such as short tandem repeats (STR) DNA typing. Microbial degradation yields improper or no PCR amplification, heterozygous peak imbalance, DNA contamination from non-human sources, degradation of DNA by microbial by-products, etc. Consequently, the most precise STR DNA typing technique is nullified and definite opinion can be hardly given with degraded forensic exhibits. Thus, suitable precautionary measures should be taken for proper storage and processing of the biological exhibits to minimize their decaying process by micro-organisms.

  13. Designing an effective microbial forensics program for law enforcement and national security purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murch, Randall S

    2014-06-01

    Forensic capabilities that provide lead information, and investigative, intelligence, prosecution and policy decision support can be invaluable for responding to and resolving bioterrorism events. Attributing biological attacks through scientific and other resources and processes is an important goal, for which science can be instrumental. Some even believe that having effective microbial forensics capabilities along with others can even deter adversaries from using biological weapons. For those nations that do not have such or wish to integrate or upgrade capabilities, thoughtful analysis and consideration of certain design principles will increase the likelihood that success will be attained.

  14. Harnessing Next-Generation Sequencing Capabilities for Microbial Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-15

    2011 E. coli O104:H4 outbreak in Germany (Grad et al., 2012; Mellmann et al., 2011). Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) (Altschul, Gish...and other complications in this outbreak was unexpectedly high (Frank et al., 2011; Jansen & Kielstein, 2011). Importantly, the German and French ...forensic attribution, an enemy combatant or other violent actor will leave behind petri dishes inoculated with a pure culture of the agent being used as a

  15. Modern Instrumental Methods in Forensic Toxicology*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael L.; Vorce, Shawn P.; Holler, Justin M.; Shimomura, Eric; Magluilo, Joe; Jacobs, Aaron J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews modern analytical instrumentation in forensic toxicology for identification and quantification of drugs and toxins in biological fluids and tissues. A brief description of the theory and inherent strengths and limitations of each methodology is included. The focus is on new technologies that address current analytical limitations. A goal of this review is to encourage innovations to improve our technological capabilities and to encourage use of these analytical techniques in forensic toxicology practice. PMID:17579968

  16. Population-Sequencing as a Biomarker of Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei Evolution through Microbial Forensic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Jakupciak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale genomics projects are identifying biomarkers to detect human disease. B. pseudomallei and B. mallei are two closely related select agents that cause melioidosis and glanders. Accurate characterization of metagenomic samples is dependent on accurate measurements of genetic variation between isolates with resolution down to strain level. Often single biomarker sensitivity is augmented by use of multiple or panels of biomarkers. In parallel with single biomarker validation, advances in DNA sequencing enable analysis of entire genomes in a single run: population-sequencing. Potentially, direct sequencing could be used to analyze an entire genome to serve as the biomarker for genome identification. However, genome variation and population diversity complicate use of direct sequencing, as well as differences caused by sample preparation protocols including sequencing artifacts and mistakes. As part of a Department of Homeland Security program in bacterial forensics, we examined how to implement whole genome sequencing (WGS analysis as a judicially defensible forensic method for attributing microbial sample relatedness; and also to determine the strengths and limitations of whole genome sequence analysis in a forensics context. Herein, we demonstrate use of sequencing to provide genetic characterization of populations: direct sequencing of populations.

  17. Validation of Likelihood Ratio Methods Used for Forensic Evidence Evaluation: Application in Forensic Fingerprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haraksim, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter the Likelihood Ratio (LR) inference model will be introduced, the theoretical aspects of probabilities will be discussed and the validation framework for LR methods used for forensic evidence evaluation will be presented. Prior to introducing the validation framework, following

  18. A review of bioinformatic methods for forensic DNA analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao-Yuan; Harbison, SallyAnn

    2018-03-01

    Short tandem repeats, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and whole mitochondrial analyses are three classes of markers which will play an important role in the future of forensic DNA typing. The arrival of massively parallel sequencing platforms in forensic science reveals new information such as insights into the complexity and variability of the markers that were previously unseen, along with amounts of data too immense for analyses by manual means. Along with the sequencing chemistries employed, bioinformatic methods are required to process and interpret this new and extensive data. As more is learnt about the use of these new technologies for forensic applications, development and standardization of efficient, favourable tools for each stage of data processing is being carried out, and faster, more accurate methods that improve on the original approaches have been developed. As forensic laboratories search for the optimal pipeline of tools, sequencer manufacturers have incorporated pipelines into sequencer software to make analyses convenient. This review explores the current state of bioinformatic methods and tools used for the analyses of forensic markers sequenced on the massively parallel sequencing (MPS) platforms currently most widely used. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Computer Anti-forensics Methods and their Impact on Computer Forensic Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Pajek, Przemyslaw; Pimenidis, Elias

    2009-01-01

    Electronic crime is very difficult to investigate and prosecute, mainly\\ud due to the fact that investigators have to build their cases based on artefacts left\\ud on computer systems. Nowadays, computer criminals are aware of computer forensics\\ud methods and techniques and try to use countermeasure techniques to efficiently\\ud impede the investigation processes. In many cases investigation with\\ud such countermeasure techniques in place appears to be too expensive, or too\\ud time consuming t...

  20. Network Forensics Method Based on Evidence Graph and Vulnerability Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingsha He

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As the Internet becomes larger in scale, more complex in structure and more diversified in traffic, the number of crimes that utilize computer technologies is also increasing at a phenomenal rate. To react to the increasing number of computer crimes, the field of computer and network forensics has emerged. The general purpose of network forensics is to find malicious users or activities by gathering and dissecting firm evidences about computer crimes, e.g., hacking. However, due to the large volume of Internet traffic, not all the traffic captured and analyzed is valuable for investigation or confirmation. After analyzing some existing network forensics methods to identify common shortcomings, we propose in this paper a new network forensics method that uses a combination of network vulnerability and network evidence graph. In our proposed method, we use vulnerability evidence and reasoning algorithm to reconstruct attack scenarios and then backtrack the network packets to find the original evidences. Our proposed method can reconstruct attack scenarios effectively and then identify multi-staged attacks through evidential reasoning. Results of experiments show that the evidence graph constructed using our method is more complete and credible while possessing the reasoning capability.

  1. Microbial DNA fingerprinting of human fingerprints: dynamic colonization of fingertip microflora challenges human host inferences for forensic purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Tims (Sebastian); W.J.B. van Wamel (Willem); H.P. Endtz (Hubert); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractHuman fingertip microflora is transferred to touched objects and may provide forensically relevant information on individual hosts, such as on geographic origins, if endogenous microbial skin species/strains would be retrievable from physical fingerprints and would carry geographically

  2. Forensic neuropsychology: a reply to the method skeptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, J T; Ryan, T V; Hawk, G L

    1991-09-01

    Various critics or "method skeptics" have contended that clinical neuropsychology is not sufficiently developed as a science to be offered as evidence in legal or trial proceedings. The present article attempts to balance the extreme position of the method skeptics with an overview of legal and research data that support forensic applications of neuropsychology. It is suggested that clinical evidence can usefully inform legal decision making and that the modern trend has been for courts to be increasingly open to such expert testimony. The relevance of studies of clinical judgement, experience, and actuarial prediction is discussed, and neuropsychological assessment validity is specifically addressed. It is concluded that the arguments of the method skeptics should guide future research and caution forensic neuropsychologists, but that a retreat from the courtroom is unwarranted.

  3. Management of inpatient aggression in forensic mental health nursing : the application of the Early Recognition Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fluttert, F.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Management of Inpatient Aggression in Forensic Mental Health Nursing. The application of the Early Recognition Method. Forensic mental health nurses take care of forensic patients convicted for an offense for which they were assessed not to be fully accountable due to their psychiatric disorder. For

  4. Assessing thermochromatography as a separation method for nuclear forensics. Current capability vis-a-vis forensic requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.E.; Garrison, J.R.; Hall, H.L.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear forensic science has become increasingly important for global nuclear security. However, many current laboratory analysis techniques are based on methods developed without the imperative for timely analysis that underlies the post-detonation forensics mission requirements. Current analysis of actinides, fission products, and fuel-specific materials requires time-consuming chemical separation coupled with nuclear counting or mass spectrometry. High-temperature gas-phase separations have been used in the past for the rapid separation of newly created elements/isotopes and as a basis for chemical classification of that element. We are assessing the utility of this method for rapid separation in the gas-phase to accelerate the separations of radioisotopes germane to post-detonation nuclear forensic investigations. The existing state of the art for thermo chromatographic separations, and its applicability to nuclear forensics, will be reviewed. (author)

  5. Microbial DNA fingerprinting of human fingerprints: dynamic colonization of fingertip microflora challenges human host inferences for forensic purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tims, Sebastian; van Wamel, Willem; Endtz, Hubert P; van Belkum, Alex; Kayser, Manfred

    2010-09-01

    Human fingertip microflora is transferred to touched objects and may provide forensically relevant information on individual hosts, such as on geographic origins, if endogenous microbial skin species/strains would be retrievable from physical fingerprints and would carry geographically restricted DNA diversity. We tested the suitability of physical fingerprints for revealing human host information, with geographic inference as example, via microbial DNA fingerprinting. We showed that the transient exogenous fingertip microflora is frequently different from the resident endogenous bacteria of the same individuals. In only 54% of the experiments, the DNA analysis of the transient fingertip microflora allowed the detection of defined, but often not the major, elements of the resident microflora. Although we found microbial persistency in certain individuals, time-wise variation of transient and resident microflora within individuals was also observed when resampling fingerprints after 3 weeks. While microbial species differed considerably in their frequency spectrum between fingerprint samples from volunteers in Europe and southern Asia, there was no clear geographic distinction between Staphylococcus strains in a cluster analysis, although bacterial genotypes did not overlap between both continental regions. Our results, though limited in quantity, clearly demonstrate that the dynamic fingerprint microflora challenges human host inferences for forensic purposes including geographic ones. Overall, our results suggest that human fingerprint microflora is too dynamic to allow for forensic marker developments for retrieving human information.

  6. Statistical methods for the forensic analysis of striated tool marks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeksema, Amy Beth [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In forensics, fingerprints can be used to uniquely identify suspects in a crime. Similarly, a tool mark left at a crime scene can be used to identify the tool that was used. However, the current practice of identifying matching tool marks involves visual inspection of marks by forensic experts which can be a very subjective process. As a result, declared matches are often successfully challenged in court, so law enforcement agencies are particularly interested in encouraging research in more objective approaches. Our analysis is based on comparisons of profilometry data, essentially depth contours of a tool mark surface taken along a linear path. In current practice, for stronger support of a match or non-match, multiple marks are made in the lab under the same conditions by the suspect tool. We propose the use of a likelihood ratio test to analyze the difference between a sample of comparisons of lab tool marks to a field tool mark, against a sample of comparisons of two lab tool marks. Chumbley et al. (2010) point out that the angle of incidence between the tool and the marked surface can have a substantial impact on the tool mark and on the effectiveness of both manual and algorithmic matching procedures. To better address this problem, we describe how the analysis can be enhanced to model the effect of tool angle and allow for angle estimation for a tool mark left at a crime scene. With sufficient development, such methods may lead to more defensible forensic analyses.

  7. Evaluation of the Universal Viral Transport system for long-term storage of virus specimens for microbial forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa-Muto, Junji; Fujinami, Yoshihito; Mizuno, Natsuko

    2015-08-01

    Forensic microbial specimens, including bacteria and viruses, are collected at biocrime and bioterrorism scenes. Although it is preferable that the pathogens in these samples are alive and kept in a steady state, the samples may be stored for prolonged periods before analysis. Therefore, it is important to understand the effects of storage conditions on the pathogens contained within such samples. To evaluate the capacity to preserve viable virus and the viral genome, influenza virus was added to the transport medium of the Universal Viral Transport system and stored for over 3 months at various temperatures, after which virus titrations and quantitative analysis of the influenza hemagglutinin gene were performed. Although viable viruses became undetectable 29 days after the medium was stored at room temperature, viruses in the medium stored at 4°C were viable even after 99 days. A quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the hemagglutinin gene was maintained for 99 days at both 4°C and room temperature. Therefore, long-term storage at 4°C has little effect on viable virus and viral genes, so the Universal Viral Transport system can be useful for microbial forensics. This study provides important information for the handling of forensic virus specimens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. The Use of Resistivity Methods in Terrestrial Forensic Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R. C.; Raisuddin, I.; Bank, C.

    2013-12-01

    The increasing use of near-surface geophysical methods in forensic searches has demonstrated the need for further studies to identify the ideal physical, environmental and temporal settings for each geophysical method. Previous studies using resistivity methods have shown promising results, but additional work is required to more accurately interpret and analyze survey findings. The Ontario Provincial Police's UCRT (Urban Search and Rescue; Chemical, Biolgical, Radiological, Nuclear and Explosives; Response Team) is collaborating with the University of Toronto and two additional universities in a multi-year study investigating the applications of near-surface geophysical methods to terrestrial forensic searches. In the summer of 2012, on a test site near Bolton, Ontario, the OPP buried weapons, drums and pigs (naked, tarped, and clothed) to simulate clandestine graves and caches. Our study aims to conduct repeat surveys using an IRIS Syscal Junior with 48 electrode switching system resistivity-meter. These surveys will monitor changes in resistivity reflecting decomposition of the object since burial, and identify the strengths and weaknesses of resistivity when used in a rural, clandestine burial setting. Our initial findings indicate the usefulness of this method, as prominent resistivity changes have been observed. We anticipate our results will help to assist law enforcement agencies in determining the type of resistivity results to expect based on time since burial, depth of burial and state of dress of the body.

  9. Сlassification of methods of production of computer forensic by usage approach of graph theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ravilyevna Smolina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Сlassification of methods of production of computer forensic by usage approach of graph theory is proposed. If use this classification, it is possible to accelerate and simplify the search of methods of production of computer forensic and this process to automatize.

  10. Сlassification of methods of production of computer forensic by usage approach of graph theory

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Ravilyevna Smolina; Alexander Alexandrovich Shelupanov

    2016-01-01

    Сlassification of methods of production of computer forensic by usage approach of graph theory is proposed. If use this classification, it is possible to accelerate and simplify the search of methods of production of computer forensic and this process to automatize.

  11. [Applicability of non-invasive imaging methods in forensic medicine and forensic anthropology in particular].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinková, Mária; Straka, Ľubomír; Novomeský, František; Janík, Martin; Štuller, František; Krajčovič, Jozef

    2018-01-01

    Massive progress in developing even more precise imaging modalities influenced all medical branches including the forensic medicine. In forensic anthropology, an inevitable part of forensic medicine itself, the use of all imaging modalities becomes even more important. Despite of acquiring more accurate informations about the deceased, all of them can be used in the process of identification and/or age estimation. X - ray imaging is most commonly used in detecting foreign bodies or various pathological changes of the deceased. Computed tomography, on the other hand, can be very helpful in the process of identification, whereas outcomes of this examination can be used for virtual reconstruction of living objects. Magnetic resonance imaging offers new opportunities in detecting cardiovascular pathological processes or develompental anomalies. Ultrasonography provides promising results in age estimation of living subjects without excessive doses of radiation. Processing the latest information sources available, authors introduce the application examples of X - ray imaging, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography in everyday forensic medicine routine, with particular focusing on forensic anthropology.

  12. Forensic Pollen Evidence from Clothes by the Tape Adhesive Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Liang Wu

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Collection and identification of pollen is becoming important in forensic applications. Many criminal cases have been reported to link suspects to the crime scene by analysis of pollen. Several methods have been used in the pollen collection and analysis, but they are expensive and tedious. Therefore, it is important to develop a simple method to collect pollen grains from clothes. We tried to recover pollen from clothing surface by using the sticky tapes method. The tape adhesive method has been widely used for sample collection for various purposes, but the efficiency of recovery of invisible pollen from clothes has rarely been reported. Therefore, to test the efficiency of the tape adhesive method in recovering pollen from clothes is important. The first author wore clothes that were made from textile S made by the mixture of cotton 60% and polyester fiber 40% to collect pollen from 26 different areas mostly in the northern part of Taiwan and then used cellophane tape D (Sirchie Finger Print Lab., Inc-No. 131LT4 to recover them from different body parts. Twenty-six pollen taxa were detected in different parts of clothes depending upon what kind of plant the first author stayed near. From the results, we concluded that the tape adhesive method is suitable in recovering pollen from clothes. We have suggested that the tape adhesive method could be part of methods for collecting pollen from clothes of suspects. It is simpler, faster and less expensive than other methods.

  13. Validation of the New Interpretation of Gerasimov's Nasal Projection Method for Forensic Facial Approximation Using CT Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maltais Lapointe, Genevieve; Lynnerup, Niels; Hoppa, Robert D

    2016-01-01

    The most common method to predict nasal projection for forensic facial approximation is Gerasimov's two-tangent method. Ullrich H, Stephan CN (J Forensic Sci, 2011; 56: 470) argued that the method has not being properly implemented and a revised interpretation was proposed. The aim of this study......, and Ullrich H, Stephan CN (J Forensic Sci, 2011; 56: 470) interpretation should be used instead....

  14. Molecular approaches for forensic cell type identification: On mRNA, miRNA, DNA methylation and microbial markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijen, Titia

    2015-09-01

    Human biological traces have the potential to present strong evidence for placing a suspect at a crime scene. In cases, the activity that led to deposition of an individual's cellular material is increasingly disputed, for which the identification of cell types could be crucial. This review aims to give an overview of the possibilities of the employment of mRNA, miRNA, DNA methylation and microbial markers for tissue identification in a forensic context. The biological background that renders these markers tissue-specificity is considered, as this can affect data interpretation. Furthermore, the forensic relevance of inferring certain cell types is discussed, as are the various methodologies that can be applied. Forensic stains can carry minute amounts of cell material that may be degraded or polluted and most likely cell material of multiple sources will be present. The interpretational challenges that are imposed by this compromised state will be discussed as well. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Detection of Metabolism Function of Microbial Community of Corpses by Biolog-Eco Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X Y; Wang, J F; Zhu, G H; Ma, M Y; Lai, Y; Zhou, H

    2016-06-01

    To detect the changes of microbial community functional diversity of corpses with different postmortem interval (PMI) and to evaluate forensic application value for estimating PMI. The cultivation of microbial community from the anal swabs of a Sus scrofa and a human corpse placed in field environment from 0 to 240 h after death was performed using the Biolog-Eco Microplate and the variations of the absorbance values were also monitored. Combined with the technology of forensic pathology and flies succession, the metabolic characteristics and changes of microbial community on the decomposed corpse under natural environment were also observed. The diversity of microbial metabolism function was found to be negatively correlated with the number of maggots in the corpses. The freezing processing had the greatest impact on average well color development value at 0 h and the impact almost disappeared after 48 h. The diversity of microbial metabolism of the samples became relatively unstable after 192 h. The principal component analysis showed that 31 carbon sources could be consolidated for 5 principal components (accumulative contribution ratio >90%).The carbon source tsquare-analysis showed that N -acetyl- D -glucosamine and L -serine were the dominant carbon sources for estimating the PMI (0=240 h) of the Sus scrofa and human corpse. The Biolog-Eco method can be used to reveal the metabolic differences of the carbon resources utilization of the microbial community on the corpses during 0-240 h after death, which could provide a new basis for estimating the PMI. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  16. Forensic psychiatric evaluations: an overview of methods, ethical issues, and criminal and civil assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Leo

    2015-05-01

    Forensic psychiatry is frequently defined as the branch of psychiatry that deals with issues arising in the interface between psychiatry and the law. Psychiatrists are called on by the legal system to provide testimony in a wide variety of cases, criminal and civil. In criminal cases, forensic psychiatrists may be asked to comment on the competence of a person to make decisions throughout all the phases of criminal investigation, trial, and punishment. These include the competence to stand trial, to plead guilty, to be sentenced, to waive appeal, and to be executed. In civil cases, forensic psychiatric experts are asked to evaluate a number of civil competences, including competence to make a will or contract or to make decisions about one's person and property. Psychiatrists are also called on to testify about many other issues related to civil cases. Forensic psychiatrists who work with children and adolescents are frequently involved in evaluations and testimonies concerning juvenile delinquency, child custody, termination of parental rights, and other issues. As such, forensic psychiatric experts have now developed into a reputable and well-known group of professionals. Forensic evaluation methods, ethical issues related to forensic psychiatric practice, and some common criminal and civil forensic psychiatric evaluations are discussed in this overview.

  17. Forensic microbiology: Evolving from discriminating distinct microbes to characterizing entire microbial communities on decomposing remains

    Science.gov (United States)

    The body of an animal encompasses a multitude of compositionally and functionally unique microbial environments, from the skin to the gastrointestinal system. Each of these systems harbor microbial communities that have adapted in order to cohabitate with their specific host resulting in a distinct...

  18. Methods in gut microbial ecology for ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makkar, H.P.S.; McSweeney, C.S.

    2005-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive up-to-date account of the methodologies and protocols for conventional and modern molecular techniques that are currently in use for studying the gut microbial ecology of ruminants. Each chapter has been contributed by experts in the field and methods have been presented in a recipe-like format designed for direct practical use in the laboratory and also to provide insight into the most appropriate techniques, their applications and the type of information that could be expected. The techniques and procedures described are also relevant and adaptable to other gastrointestinal ecosystems and the microbiology of anaerobic environments in general. This manual will 'demystify' the methods in molecular microbial ecology for readers who are novice in the field but are excited by the prospects of this technology. It would also be invaluable for the experienced workers striving for giving new dimension to their research - expanding the work in other fields and initiating cross-cutting activities

  19. Forensic Science--Where Scientific Methods Are Utilized to Fight the Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Henry C.

    1980-01-01

    Describes various scientific techniques used to analyze physical evidence, ten areas of specialization in forensic science, courses needed by forensic scientists, and the future of forensic science. (DS)

  20. Microbial Forensics for Natural and Intentional Incidents of Infectious Disease Involving Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Microbiologie medico-legale. ~ Microbiologia foren~e para ca£J~s de erderm®rdJ©lrdJ®$ DlTil~®©©D@$©l$ d® origen natural o intenciorm~d(il qa.u~ tEl~~ct...ll1 iBl ©lll1Dm©l~®$ S.A. McEwen, T.M Wilson, D.A. Ashford, E. D. Heegaard, T. Kuiken & B. Kournikakis Resumen La microbiologia forense es una... microbiologia y epidemiologia tradicionales, pero opera dentro de un marco juridico especifico. Entre las importantes razones que motivan una

  1. [Research Progress on the Detection Method of DNA Methylation and Its Application in Forensic Science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Y C; Yu, L J; Guan, H; Zhao, Y; Rong, H B; Jiang, B W; Zhang, T

    2017-06-01

    As an important part of epigenetic marker, DNA methylation involves in the gene regulation and attracts a wide spread attention in biological auxology, geratology and oncology fields. In forensic science, because of the relative stable, heritable, abundant, and age-related characteristics, DNA methylation is considered to be a useful complement to the classic genetic markers for age-prediction, tissue-identification, and monozygotic twins' discrimination. Various methods for DNA methylation detection have been validated based on methylation sensitive restriction endonuclease, bisulfite modification and methylation-CpG binding protein. In recent years, it is reported that the third generation sequencing method can be used to detect DNA methylation. This paper aims to make a review on the detection method of DNA methylation and its applications in forensic science. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine.

  2. Forensic Examination Using a Nondestructive Evaluation Method for Surface Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, David J.; Chumbley, L. Scott

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the use of a new technique of optical profilometry in a nondestructive, non-contact fashion for the comparison of two metallic surfaces, one hard and one soft. When brought in contact with one another, the harder material (i.e. the tool) will impress its surface roughness onto the softer. It is understood that the resulting set of impressions left from a tool tip act in a manner similar to a photographic negative, in that it leaves a reverse, or negative impression on the surface of a plate. If properly inverted and reversed, measurements from the softer material should be identical to the harder indenting object with regard to surface texture and roughness. This assumption is inherent in the area of forensics, where bullets, cartridge cases, and toolmarked surfaces from crime scenes are compared to similar marks made under controlled conditions in the forensic laboratory. This paper will examine the methodology used to compare two surfaces for similarities and dissimilarities, and comment on the applicability of this technique to other studies.

  3. Preventing aggressive incidents and seclusions in forensic care by means of the 'Early Recognition Method'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fluttert, F.A.J.; Meijel, B.K.G. van; Nijman, H.L.I.; Björkly, S.; Grypdonck, M.H.F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. The Early Recognition Method aims at improving collaboration between nurses and patients to prevent aggression in forensic psychiatric care. To achieve this goal, Early Recognition Method strongly focuses on early signs of aggression. In the current study, we investigated whether

  4. EFFECTS OF RADIATION ON ESTABLISHED FORENSIC EVIDENCE CONTAINMENT METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, C.; Duff, M.; Clark, E.; Chapman, G.

    2010-11-29

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory is currently exploring needs and protocols for the storage of evidentiary items contaminated with radioactive material. While a large body of knowledge on the behavior of storage polymers in radiation fields exists, this knowledge has not been applied to the field of forensics and maintaining evidentiary integrity. The focus of this research was to evaluate the behavior of several traditional evidentiary containment polymers when exposed to significant alpha, beta, gamma, neutron and mixed radiation sources. Doses were designed to simulate exposures possible during storage of materials. Several products were found to be poorly suited for use in this specific application based on standardized mechanical testing results. Remaining products were determined to warrant further investigation for the storage of radiologically contaminated evidence.

  5. Effects of radiation on established forensic evidence containment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, C.E.; Duff, M.C.; Clark, E.A.; Chapman, G.K.; Leggitt, J.L.; Monson, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory is currently exploring needs and protocols for the storage of evidentiary items contaminated with radioactive material. While a large body of knowledge on the behavior of storage polymers in radiation fields exists, this knowledge has not been applied to the field of forensics and maintaining evidentiary integrity. The focus of this research was to evaluate the behavior of several traditional evidentiary containment polymers when exposed to significant alpha, beta, gamma, neutron and mixed radiation sources. Doses were designed to simulate exposures possible during storage of materials. Several products were found to be poorly suited for use in this specific application based on standardized mechanical testing results. Remaining products were determined to warrant further investigation for the storage of radiologically-contaminated evidence. (author)

  6. Effects Of Radiation On Established Forensic Evidence Containment Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, C.; Duff, M.; Clark, E.; Chapman, G.

    2010-01-01

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory is currently exploring needs and protocols for the storage of evidentiary items contaminated with radioactive material. While a large body of knowledge on the behavior of storage polymers in radiation fields exists, this knowledge has not been applied to the field of forensics and maintaining evidentiary integrity. The focus of this research was to evaluate the behavior of several traditional evidentiary containment polymers when exposed to significant alpha, beta, gamma, neutron and mixed radiation sources. Doses were designed to simulate exposures possible during storage of materials. Several products were found to be poorly suited for use in this specific application based on standardized mechanical testing results. Remaining products were determined to warrant further investigation for the storage of radiologically contaminated evidence.

  7. Likelihood ratio data to report the validation of a forensic fingerprint evaluation method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos, Daniel; Haraksim, Rudolf; Meuwly, Didier

    2017-01-01

    Data to which the authors refer to throughout this article are likelihood ratios (LR) computed from the comparison of 5–12 minutiae fingermarks with fingerprints. These LRs data are used for the validation of a likelihood ratio (LR) method in forensic evidence evaluation. These data present a

  8. A guideline for the validation of likelihood ratio methods used for forensic evidence evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier; Ramos, Daniel; Haraksim, Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    This Guideline proposes a protocol for the validation of forensic evaluation methods at the source level, using the Likelihood Ratio framework as defined within the Bayes’ inference model. In the context of the inference of identity of source, the Likelihood Ratio is used to evaluate the strength of

  9. HRM and SNaPshot as alternative forensic SNP genotyping methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Bhavik; Daniel, Runa; McNevin, Dennis

    2017-09-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been widely used in forensics for prediction of identity, biogeographical ancestry (BGA) and externally visible characteristics (EVCs). Single base extension (SBE) assays, most notably SNaPshot® (Thermo Fisher Scientific), are commonly used for forensic SNP genotyping as they can be employed on standard instrumentation in forensic laboratories (e.g. capillary electrophoresis). High resolution melt (HRM) analysis is an alternative method and is a simple, fast, single tube assay for low throughput SNP typing. This study compares HRM and SNaPshot®. HRM produced reproducible and concordant genotypes at 500 pg, however, difficulties were encountered when genotyping SNPs with high GC content in flanking regions and differentiating variants of symmetrical SNPs. SNaPshot® was reproducible at 100 pg and is less dependent on SNP choice. HRM has a shorter processing time in comparison to SNaPshot®, avoids post PCR contamination risk and has potential as a screening tool for many forensic applications.

  10. Likelihood ratio data to report the validation of a forensic fingerprint evaluation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ramos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Data to which the authors refer to throughout this article are likelihood ratios (LR computed from the comparison of 5–12 minutiae fingermarks with fingerprints. These LRs data are used for the validation of a likelihood ratio (LR method in forensic evidence evaluation. These data present a necessary asset for conducting validation experiments when validating LR methods used in forensic evidence evaluation and set up validation reports. These data can be also used as a baseline for comparing the fingermark evidence in the same minutiae configuration as presented in (D. Meuwly, D. Ramos, R. Haraksim, [1], although the reader should keep in mind that different feature extraction algorithms and different AFIS systems used may produce different LRs values. Moreover, these data may serve as a reproducibility exercise, in order to train the generation of validation reports of forensic methods, according to [1]. Alongside the data, a justification and motivation for the use of methods is given. These methods calculate LRs from the fingerprint/mark data and are subject to a validation procedure. The choice of using real forensic fingerprint in the validation and simulated data in the development is described and justified. Validation criteria are set for the purpose of validation of the LR methods, which are used to calculate the LR values from the data and the validation report. For privacy and data protection reasons, the original fingerprint/mark images cannot be shared. But these images do not constitute the core data for the validation, contrarily to the LRs that are shared.

  11. Automated PCR setup for forensic casework samples using the Normalization Wizard and PCR Setup robotic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspoon, S A; Sykes, K L V; Ban, J D; Pollard, A; Baisden, M; Farr, M; Graham, N; Collins, B L; Green, M M; Christenson, C C

    2006-12-20

    Human genome, pharmaceutical and research laboratories have long enjoyed the application of robotics to performing repetitive laboratory tasks. However, the utilization of robotics in forensic laboratories for processing casework samples is relatively new and poses particular challenges. Since the quantity and quality (a mixture versus a single source sample, the level of degradation, the presence of PCR inhibitors) of the DNA contained within a casework sample is unknown, particular attention must be paid to procedural susceptibility to contamination, as well as DNA yield, especially as it pertains to samples with little biological material. The Virginia Department of Forensic Science (VDFS) has successfully automated forensic casework DNA extraction utilizing the DNA IQ(trade mark) System in conjunction with the Biomek 2000 Automation Workstation. Human DNA quantitation is also performed in a near complete automated fashion utilizing the AluQuant Human DNA Quantitation System and the Biomek 2000 Automation Workstation. Recently, the PCR setup for casework samples has been automated, employing the Biomek 2000 Automation Workstation and Normalization Wizard, Genetic Identity version, which utilizes the quantitation data, imported into the software, to create a customized automated method for DNA dilution, unique to that plate of DNA samples. The PCR Setup software method, used in conjunction with the Normalization Wizard method and written for the Biomek 2000, functions to mix the diluted DNA samples, transfer the PCR master mix, and transfer the diluted DNA samples to PCR amplification tubes. Once the process is complete, the DNA extracts, still on the deck of the robot in PCR amplification strip tubes, are transferred to pre-labeled 1.5 mL tubes for long-term storage using an automated method. The automation of these steps in the process of forensic DNA casework analysis has been accomplished by performing extensive optimization, validation and testing of the

  12. Forensic Service Supply by Audit Firms: Classification, Market, Methods, and Prior Research

    OpenAIRE

    Quick, Reiner

    2017-01-01

    Provision of non-audit services is of increasing economic importance for audit firms Especially provision to non-audit clients Wide range of offered services From detection to prevention, from bribery to fraud to violation of code of conduct Small, but growing market with Big 4 as clear leaders Wide variety of backgrounds of forensic services professionals Consequently, diverse portfolio of methods Most research focuses on fraud with some high-quality publications Miss...

  13. A guideline for the validation of likelihood ratio methods used for forensic evidence evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuwly, Didier; Ramos, Daniel; Haraksim, Rudolf

    2017-07-01

    This Guideline proposes a protocol for the validation of forensic evaluation methods at the source level, using the Likelihood Ratio framework as defined within the Bayes' inference model. In the context of the inference of identity of source, the Likelihood Ratio is used to evaluate the strength of the evidence for a trace specimen, e.g. a fingermark, and a reference specimen, e.g. a fingerprint, to originate from common or different sources. Some theoretical aspects of probabilities necessary for this Guideline were discussed prior to its elaboration, which started after a workshop of forensic researchers and practitioners involved in this topic. In the workshop, the following questions were addressed: "which aspects of a forensic evaluation scenario need to be validated?", "what is the role of the LR as part of a decision process?" and "how to deal with uncertainty in the LR calculation?". The questions: "what to validate?" focuses on the validation methods and criteria and "how to validate?" deals with the implementation of the validation protocol. Answers to these questions were deemed necessary with several objectives. First, concepts typical for validation standards [1], such as performance characteristics, performance metrics and validation criteria, will be adapted or applied by analogy to the LR framework. Second, a validation strategy will be defined. Third, validation methods will be described. Finally, a validation protocol and an example of validation report will be proposed, which can be applied to the forensic fields developing and validating LR methods for the evaluation of the strength of evidence at source level under the following propositions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Emerging non-invasive Raman methods in process control and forensic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Neil A; Matousek, Pavel

    2008-10-01

    This article reviews emerging Raman techniques (Spatially Offset and Transmission Raman Spectroscopy) for non-invasive, sub-surface probing in process control and forensic applications. New capabilities offered by these methods are discussed and several application examples are given including the non-invasive detection of counterfeit drugs through blister packs and opaque plastic bottles and the rapid quantitative analysis of the bulk content of pharmaceutical tablets and capsules without sub-sampling.

  15. Age estimation in forensic anthropology: quantification of observer error in phase versus component-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Natalie R; Ramirez Montes, Paula Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess observer error in phase versus component-based scoring systems used to develop age estimation methods in forensic anthropology. A method preferred by forensic anthropologists in the AAFS was selected for this evaluation (the Suchey-Brooks method for the pubic symphysis). The Suchey-Brooks descriptions were used to develop a corresponding component-based scoring system for comparison. Several commonly used reliability statistics (kappa, weighted kappa, and the intraclass correlation coefficient) were calculated to assess observer agreement between two observers and to evaluate the efficacy of each of these statistics for this study. The linear weighted kappa was determined to be the most suitable measure of observer agreement. The results show that a component-based system offers the possibility for more objective scoring than a phase system as long as the coding possibilities for each trait do not exceed three states of expression, each with as little overlap as possible. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Update of Standard Practices for New Method Validation in Forensic Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Sarah M R; Coucke, Wim; De Baere, Thierry; Peters, Frank T

    2017-01-01

    International agreement concerning validation guidelines is important to obtain quality forensic bioanalytical research and routine applications as it all starts with the reporting of reliable analytical data. Standards for fundamental validation parameters are provided in guidelines as those from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the European Medicines Agency (EMA), the German speaking Gesellschaft fur Toxikologie und Forensische Chemie (GTFCH) and the Scientific Working Group of Forensic Toxicology (SWGTOX). These validation parameters include selectivity, matrix effects, method limits, calibration, accuracy and stability, as well as other parameters such as carryover, dilution integrity and incurred sample reanalysis. It is, however, not easy for laboratories to implement these guidelines into practice as these international guidelines remain nonbinding protocols, that depend on the applied analytical technique, and that need to be updated according the analyst's method requirements and the application type. In this manuscript, a review of the current guidelines and literature concerning bioanalytical validation parameters in a forensic context is given and discussed. In addition, suggestions for the experimental set-up, the pros and cons of statistical approaches and adequate acceptance criteria for the validation of bioanalytical applications are given. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Monte Carlo analysis of thermochromatography as a fast separation method for nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrison, J.R.; Hanson, D.E.; Hall, H.L.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear forensic science has become increasingly important for global nuclear security, and enhancing the timeliness of forensic analysis has been established as an important objective in the field. New, faster techniques must be developed to meet this objective. Current approaches for the analysis of minor actinides, fission products, and fuel-specific materials require time-consuming chemical separation coupled with measurement through either nuclear counting or mass spectrometry. These very sensitive measurement techniques can be hindered by impurities or incomplete separation in even the most painstaking chemical separations. High-temperature gas-phase separation or thermochromatography has been used in the past for the rapid separations in the study of newly created elements and as a basis for chemical classification of that element. This work examines the potential for rapid separation of gaseous species to be applied in nuclear forensic investigations. Monte Carlo modeling has been used to evaluate the potential utility of the thermochromatographic separation method, albeit this assessment is necessarily limited due to the lack of available experimental data for validation. (author)

  18. Monte Carlo analysis of thermochromatography as a fast separation method for nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Howard L.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear forensic science has become increasingly important for global nuclear security, and enhancing the timeliness of forensic analysis has been established as an important objective in the field. New, faster techniques must be developed to meet this objective. Current approaches for the analysis of minor actinides, fission products, and fuel-specific materials require time-consuming chemical separation coupled with measurement through either nuclear counting or mass spectrometry. These very sensitive measurement techniques can be hindered by impurities or incomplete separation in even the most painstaking chemical separations. High-temperature gas-phase separation or thermochromatography has been used in the past for the rapid separations in the study of newly created elements and as a basis for chemical classification of that element. This work examines the potential for rapid separation of gaseous species to be applied in nuclear forensic investigations. Monte Carlo modeling has been used to evaluate the potential utility of the thermochromatographic separation method, albeit this assessment is necessarily limited due to the lack of available experimental data for validation.

  19. Defining the role of a forensic hospital registered nurse using the Delphi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Claire; Patterson, Karen; Eason, Michelle; Short, Ben

    2016-11-01

    A Delphi survey was undertaken to refine the position description of a registered nurse working in a forensic hospital, in New South Wales, Australia. Prior to commencing operation in 2008, position descriptions were developed from a review of legislation, as well as policies and procedures used by existing forensic mental health services in Australia. With an established workforce and an evolving model of care, a review of the initial registered nurse position description was required. An online Delphi survey was undertaken. Eight executive (88.9%) and 12 (58.3%) senior nursing staff participated in the first survey round. A total of four survey rounds were completed. At the final round, there was consensus (70%) that the revised position description was either very or somewhat suitable. There were a total of nine statements, from 31 originally produced in round 1, that did not reach consensus. The Delphi survey enabled a process for refining the Forensic Hospital registered nurse position description. Methods that facilitate executive and senior nursing staff consensus in the development and review of position descriptions should be considered in nursing management. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Forensic pedology, forensic geology, forensic geoscience, geoforensics and soil forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffell, Alastair

    2010-10-10

    We now have a confusing set of five commonly used terms for the application of Earth evidence in forensic science. This confusion is resulting in Earth scientists who use these methods mentioning different terms, sometimes for the same type of study. Likewise, forensic scientists, police/law enforcement officers and those employed by courts of law are becoming confused as to what each term means. A nomenclatural framework (based on the first use of each term) is proposed to encourage consistency in the use of terminology. Generally, the number of Earth science applications has grown through time, from soil and sediment analysis to remote sensing and GIS. The issue of where forensic biology and microbiology sits with these uses of Earth evidence is considered. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Digital forensics and its application to forensic audit

    OpenAIRE

    Martinka, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This thesis aims to describe a process framework suitable for conducting digital forensics investigation projects as support for forensic audit. Selection of existing digital forensics investigation framework was a subject of criterial comparison. Described new framework is a result of combination and enhancement of those frameworks, which were suitable for the characteristics of forensic audit. Thesis also discusses digital forensics methods for fraud examination and risk assessment as a par...

  2. Review and future prospects for DNA barcoding methods in forensic palynology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Karen L; Burgess, Kevin S; Okamoto, Kazufusa C; Aranda, Roman; Brosi, Berry J

    2016-03-01

    Pollen can be a critical forensic marker in cases where determining geographic origin is important, including investigative leads, missing persons cases, and intelligence applications. However, its use has previously been limited by the need for a high level of specialization by expert palynologists, slow speeds of identification, and relatively poor taxonomic resolution (typically to the plant family or genus level). By contrast, identification of pollen through DNA barcoding has the potential to overcome all three of these limitations, and it may seem surprising that the method has not been widely implemented. Despite what might seem a straightforward application of DNA barcoding to pollen, there are technical issues that have delayed progress. However, recent developments of standard methods for DNA barcoding of pollen, along with improvements in high-throughput sequencing technology, have overcome most of these technical issues. Based on these recent methodological developments in pollen DNA barcoding, we believe that now is the time to start applying these techniques in forensic palynology. In this article, we discuss the potential for these methods, and outline directions for future research to further improve on the technology and increase its applicability to a broader range of situations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Alternative microbial methods: An overview and selection criteria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jasson, V.; Jacxsens, L.; Luning, P.A.; Rajkovic, A.; Uyttendaele, M.

    2010-01-01

    This study provides an overview and criteria for the selection of a method, other than the reference method, for microbial analysis of foods. In a first part an overview of the general characteristics of rapid methods available, both for enumeration and detection, is given with reference to relevant

  4. Blind Forensics of Successive Geometric Transformations in Digital Images Using Spectral Method: Theory and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chenglong; Ni, Jiangqun; Shen, Zhaoyi; Shi, Yun Qing

    2017-06-01

    Geometric transformations, such as resizing and rotation, are almost always needed when two or more images are spliced together to create convincing image forgeries. In recent years, researchers have developed many digital forensic techniques to identify these operations. Most previous works in this area focus on the analysis of images that have undergone single geometric transformations, e.g., resizing or rotation. In several recent works, researchers have addressed yet another practical and realistic situation: successive geometric transformations, e.g., repeated resizing, resizing-rotation, rotation-resizing, and repeated rotation. We will also concentrate on this topic in this paper. Specifically, we present an in-depth analysis in the frequency domain of the second-order statistics of the geometrically transformed images. We give an exact formulation of how the parameters of the first and second geometric transformations influence the appearance of periodic artifacts. The expected positions of characteristic resampling peaks are analytically derived. The theory developed here helps to address the gap left by previous works on this topic and is useful for image security and authentication, in particular, the forensics of geometric transformations in digital images. As an application of the developed theory, we present an effective method that allows one to distinguish between the aforementioned four different processing chains. The proposed method can further estimate all the geometric transformation parameters. This may provide useful clues for image forgery detection.

  5. Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)

  6. Validation and evaluation of measuring methods for the 3D documentation of external injuries in the field of forensic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Ursula; Buße, Kirsten; Campana, Lorenzo; Schyma, Christian

    2018-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) measurement techniques are gaining importance in many areas. The latest developments brought more cost-effective, user-friendly, and faster technologies onto the market. Which 3D techniques are suitable in the field of forensic medicine and what are their advantages and disadvantages? This wide-ranging study evaluated and validated various 3D measurement techniques for the forensic requirements. High-tech methods as well as low-budget systems have been tested and compared in terms of accuracy, ease of use, expenditure of time, mobility, cost, necessary knowhow, and their limitations. Within this study, various commercial measuring systems of the different techniques were tested. Based on the first results, one measuring system was selected for each technique, which appeared to be the most suitable for the forensic application or is already established in forensic medicine. A body of a deceased, a face and an injury of a living person, and a shoe sole were recorded by 11 people with different professions and previous knowledge using the selected systems. The results were assessed and the personal experiences were evaluated using a questionnaire. In addition, precision investigations were carried out using test objects. The study shows that the hand-held scanner and photogrammetry are very suitable for the 3D documentation of forensic medical findings. Their moderate acquisition costs and easy operation could lead to more frequent application in forensic medicine in the future. For special applications, the stripe-light scanner still has its justification due to its high precision, the flexible application area, and the high reliability. The results show that, thanks to the technological advances, the 3D measurement technology will have more and more impact on the routine of the forensic medical examination.

  7. Effect of Fermentation Methods on Chemical and Microbial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mung flours were fermented using spontaneous and backslopping methods for 72 h and microbial analysis over a period of 72 h fermentation was carried out. The samples were subjected to biochemical test, anti-nutrient and selected mineral and vitamin contents evaluation using standard methods. There was a gradual ...

  8. Identifying a Path Towards Rapid Discrimination of Infection Disease Outbreaks: Harnessing Next-Generation Sequencing Capabilities for Microbial Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-15

    2011 E. coli O104:H4 outbreak in Germany (Grad et al., 2012; Mellmann et al., 2011). Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) (Altschul, Gish...and other complications in this outbreak was unexpectedly high (Frank et al., 2011; Jansen & Kielstein, 2011). Importantly, the German and French ...forensic attribution, an enemy combatant or other violent actor will leave behind petri dishes inoculated with a pure culture of the agent being used as a

  9. An automatic image-based modelling method applied to forensic infography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Zancajo-Blazquez

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method based on 3D reconstruction from images that demonstrates the utility and integration of close-range photogrammetry and computer vision as an efficient alternative to modelling complex objects and scenarios of forensic infography. The results obtained confirm the validity of the method compared to other existing alternatives as it guarantees the following: (i flexibility, permitting work with any type of camera (calibrated and non-calibrated, smartphone or tablet and image (visible, infrared, thermal, etc.; (ii automation, allowing the reconstruction of three-dimensional scenarios in the absence of manual intervention, and (iii high quality results, sometimes providing higher resolution than modern laser scanning systems. As a result, each ocular inspection of a crime scene with any camera performed by the scientific police can be transformed into a scaled 3d model.

  10. The Microbial DNA Index System (MiDIS): A tool for microbial pathogen source identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velsko, S. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-09

    The microbial DNA Index System (MiDIS) is a concept for a microbial forensic database and investigative decision support system that can be used to help investigators identify the sources of microbial agents that have been used in a criminal or terrorist incident. The heart of the proposed system is a rigorous method for calculating source probabilities by using certain fundamental sampling distributions associated with the propagation and mutation of microbes on disease transmission networks. This formalism has a close relationship to mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal human DNA forensics, and the proposed decision support system is somewhat analogous to the CODIS and SWGDAM mtDNA databases. The MiDIS concept does not involve the use of opportunistic collections of microbial isolates and phylogenetic tree building as a basis for inference. A staged approach can be used to build MiDIS as an enduring capability, beginning with a pilot demonstration program that must meet user expectations for performance and validation before evolving into a continuing effort. Because MiDIS requires input from a a broad array of expertise including outbreak surveillance, field microbial isolate collection, microbial genome sequencing, disease transmission networks, and laboratory mutation rate studies, it will be necessary to assemble a national multi-laboratory team to develop such a system. The MiDIS effort would lend direction and focus to the national microbial genetics research program for microbial forensics, and would provide an appropriate forensic framework for interfacing to future national and international disease surveillance efforts.

  11. A Suitable Method for DNA Extraction from Bones for Forensic Applications: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqeela S. Abuidrees

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human identification techniques are constantly developing. Before the discovery of DNA, anthropology accompanied with odontology was the most applicable technique for human identification. With the new era of molecular biology and the revolution of DNA and PCR techniques, DNA profiling has become the core of the human forensic identification process. Different types of samples can be exploited in forensic DNA analysis. In some extreme cases, bone samples are the only accessible samples of DNA due to the bad conditions of putrefaction or degradation of other biological materials and tissues. Therefore, an appropriate method should be determined to yield a full and clean profile. A case study is presented here in order to identify human remains and conclude the most appropriate method of DNA extraction from human remains. In addition, this study looks at the best part of the skeletal remains to be considered in the extraction of DNA for the purposes of identification. A suspect admitted that he buried his aborted son six months ago. The remains were recovered and DNA analysis was performed in order to determine any genetic link of the remains to the suspect and the female who delivered the baby. Two extraction methods were compared, the standard organic (phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol and automated extraction using magnetic beads coated with silica (Qiagen EZ1 Advanced XL. Two bone parts, femur and clavicle, were also compared in terms of DNA yield. The efficiency of the two methods of DNA extraction from bones is illustrated quantitatively and qualitatively. Paternity testing was performed and the suspect was excluded from being the alleged father.

  12. Harmonisation of microbial sampling and testing methods for distillate fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, G.C.; Hill, E.C. [ECHA Microbiology Ltd., Cardiff (United Kingdom)

    1995-05-01

    Increased incidence of microbial infection in distillate fuels has led to a demand for organisations such as the Institute of Petroleum to propose standards for microbiological quality, based on numbers of viable microbial colony forming units. Variations in quality requirements, and in the spoilage significance of contaminating microbes plus a tendency for temporal and spatial changes in the distribution of microbes, makes such standards difficult to implement. The problem is compounded by a diversity in the procedures employed for sampling and testing for microbial contamination and in the interpretation of the data obtained. The following paper reviews these problems and describes the efforts of The Institute of Petroleum Microbiology Fuels Group to address these issues and in particular to bring about harmonisation of sampling and testing methods. The benefits and drawbacks of available test methods, both laboratory based and on-site, are discussed.

  13. Efficacy of DNA typing as an accurate method in forensic medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namazi H

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available DNA typing is a new method with important applications in forensic medicine. In the present study, we evaluated application of DNA typing in Iran. Loci Hum LPL, Hum Tpox, Hum F13, Hum vw 31A, Hum TH01 and Hum FES/FPS of DNA short tandem repeats were studied. To determine sensitivity of the test, 85 mother-child couples (1020 chromosomes that were referred to DNA section of legal medicine organization of Iran were included and for determination of it's specificity 42 brother-sister couples (1200 chromosomes and 58 non-relative couples were examined. The results show lack of mutations in the studied loci and acceptable sensitivity of the test. Of 12 alleles of siblings, there were 2-6 differences, in contrast with 3-9 differences in non-relatives, so the test has 100% specificity in these loci. Considering polymorphism, power of exclusion of these 6 sites was 99%.

  14. Database Application Schema Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Quintus Beyers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The application schema layer of a Database Management System (DBMS can be modified to deliver results that may warrant a forensic investigation. Table structures can be corrupted by changing the metadata of a database or operators of the database can be altered to deliver incorrect results when used in queries. This paper will discuss categories of possibilities that exist to alter the application schema with some practical examples. Two forensic environments are introduced where a forensic investigation can take place in. Arguments are provided why these environments are important. Methods are presented how these environments can be achieved for the application schema layer of a DBMS. A process is proposed on how forensic evidence should be extracted from the application schema layer of a DBMS. The application schema forensic evidence identification process can be applied to a wide range of forensic settings.

  15. Some non-thermal microbial inactivation methods in dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yangilar, F.; Kabil, E.

    2013-01-01

    During the production of dairy products, some thermal processes such as pasteurization and sterilization are used commonly to inactive microorganisms. But as a result of thermal processes, loss of nutrient and aroma, non-enzymatic browning and organoleptic differentiation especially in dairy products are seen. Because of this, alternative methods are needed to provide microbial inactivation and as major problems are caused by high temperatures, non-thermal processes are focused on. For this purpose, some methods such as high pressure (HP), pulsed light (PL), ultraviolet radiation (UV), supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) or pulsed electric field (PEF) are used in food. These methods products are processed in ambient temperature and so not only mentioned losses are minimized but also freshness and naturality of products can be preserved. In this work, we will try to be given information about methods of non-thermal microbial inactivation of dairy products. (author) [tr

  16. Two-Step Injection Method for Collecting Digital Evidence in Digital Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Rachmana Syambas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In digital forensic investigations, the investigators take digital evidence from computers, laptops or other electronic goods. There are many complications when a suspect or related person does not want to cooperate or has removed digital evidence. A lot of research has been done with the goal of retrieving data from flash memory or other digital storage media from which the content has been deleted. Unfortunately, such methods cannot guarantee that all data will be recovered. Most data can only be recovered partially and sometimes not perfectly, so that some or all files cannot be opened. This paper proposes the development of a new method for the retrieval of digital evidence called the Two-Step Injection method (TSI. It focuses on the prevention of the loss of digital evidence through the deletion of data by suspects or other parties. The advantage of this method is that the system works in secret and can be combined with other digital evidence applications that already exist, so that the accuracy and completeness of the resulting digital evidence can be improved. An experiment to test the effectiveness of the method was set up. The developed TSI system worked properly and had a 100% success rate.

  17. Alternative microbial methods: An overview and selection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasson, Vicky; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Luning, Pieternel; Rajkovic, Andreja; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2010-09-01

    This study provides an overview and criteria for the selection of a method, other than the reference method, for microbial analysis of foods. In a first part an overview of the general characteristics of rapid methods available, both for enumeration and detection, is given with reference to relevant bibliography. Perspectives on future development and the potential of the rapid method for routine application in food diagnostics are discussed. As various alternative "rapid" methods in different formats are available on the market, it can be very difficult for a food business operator or for a control authority to select the most appropriate method which fits its purpose. Validation of a method by a third party, according to international accepted protocol based upon ISO 16140, may increase the confidence in the performance of a method. A list of at the moment validated methods for enumeration of both utility indicators (aerobic plate count) and hygiene indicators (Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, coagulase positive Staphylococcus) as well as for detection of the four major pathogens (Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, E. coli O157 and Campylobacter spp.) is included with reference to relevant websites to check for updates. In a second part of this study, selection criteria are introduced to underpin the choice of the appropriate method(s) for a defined application. The selection criteria link the definition of the context in which the user of the method functions - and thus the prospective use of the microbial test results - with the technical information on the method and its operational requirements and sustainability. The selection criteria can help the end user of the method to obtain a systematic insight into all relevant factors to be taken into account for selection of a method for microbial analysis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Testing inter-observer reliability of the Transition Analysis aging method on the William M. Bass forensic skeletal collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojas, Christina L; Kim, Jieun; Minsky-Rowland, Jocelyn D; Algee-Hewitt, Bridget F B

    2018-01-01

    Skeletal age estimation is an integral part of the biological profile. Recent work shows how multiple-trait approaches better capture senescence as it occurs at different rates among individuals. Furthermore, a Bayesian statistical framework of analysis provides more useful age estimates. The component-scoring method of Transition Analysis (TA) may resolve many of the functional and statistical limitations of traditional phase-aging methods and is applicable to both paleodemography and forensic casework. The present study contributes to TA-research by validating TA for multiple, differently experienced observers using a collection of modern forensic skeletal cases. Five researchers independently applied TA to a random sample of 58 documented individuals from the William M. Bass Forensic Skeletal Collection, for whom knowledge of chronological age was withheld. Resulting scores were input into the ADBOU software and maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were produced using the forensic prior. Krippendorff's alpha was used to evaluate interrater reliability and agreement. Inaccuracy and bias were measured to gauge the magnitude and direction of difference between estimated ages and chronological ages among the five observers. The majority of traits had moderate to excellent agreement among observers (≥0.6). The superior surface morphology had the least congruence (0.4), while the ventral symphyseal margin had the most (0.9) among scores. Inaccuracy was the lowest for individuals younger than 30 and the greatest for individuals over 60. Consistent over-estimation of individuals younger than 30 and under-estimation of individuals over 40 years old occurred. Individuals in their 30s showed a mixed pattern of under- and over-estimation among observers. These results support the use of the TA method by researchers of varying experience levels. Further, they validate its use on forensic cases, given the low error overall. © 2017 Wiley

  19. An Efficient Forensic Method for Copy–move Forgery Detection based on DWT-FWHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Yang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As the increased availability of sophisticated image processing software and the widespread use of Internet, digital images are easy to acquire and manipulate. The authenticity of the received images is becoming more and more important. Copy-move forgery is one of the most common forgery methods. When creating a Copy-move forgery, it is often necessary to add or remove important features from an image. To carry out such forensic analysis, various technological instruments have been developed in the literatures. However, most of them are time-consuming. In this paper, a more efficient method is proposed. First, the image size is reduced by Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT. Second, the image is divided into overlapping blocks of equal size and, feature of each block is extracted by fast Walsh-Hadamard Transform (FWHT. Duplicated regions are then detected by lexicographically sorting all features of the image blocks. To make the range matching more efficient, multi-hop jump (MHJ algorithm is using to jump over some the “unnecessary testing blocks” (UTB. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method not only is able to detect the copy-move forgery accurately but also can reduce the processing time greatly compared with other methods.

  20. A novel method for detecting light source for digital images forensic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A. K.; Mitra, S. K.; Agrawal, R.

    2011-06-01

    Manipulation in image has been in practice since centuries. These manipulated images are intended to alter facts — facts of ethics, morality, politics, sex, celebrity or chaos. Image forensic science is used to detect these manipulations in a digital image. There are several standard ways to analyze an image for manipulation. Each one has some limitation. Also very rarely any method tried to capitalize on the way image was taken by the camera. We propose a new method that is based on light and its shade as light and shade are the fundamental input resources that may carry all the information of the image. The proposed method measures the direction of light source and uses the light based technique for identification of any intentional partial manipulation in the said digital image. The method is tested for known manipulated images to correctly identify the light sources. The light source of an image is measured in terms of angle. The experimental results show the robustness of the methodology.

  1. Forensic Toxicology: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael P; Bluth, Martin H

    2016-12-01

    This article presents an overview of forensic toxicology. The authors describe the three components that make up forensic toxicology: workplace drug testing, postmortem toxicology, and human performance toxicology. Also discussed are the specimens that are tested, the methods used, and how the results are interpreted in this particular discipline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ascertaining year of birth/age at death in forensic cases: A review of conventional methods and methods allowing for absolute chronology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Kjeldsen, H; Zweihoff, R

    2010-01-01

    Based on an actual case, where we were able to ascertain the year of birth of three dead babies found in a deep-freezer to within 1–2 years (1986, 1988 and 2004, respectively), we review the current state of forensic age determination/year of birth determination. The age of an individual (year...... of birth) is often a fundamental piece of data in connection with forensic identification of unidentified bodies. The methods most often used are based on determining various morphological, age-related, changes on the skeleton (or teeth, although odontological methods are not reviewed in this paper...

  3. Aggression control therapy for violent forensic psychiatric patients: method and clinical practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hornsveld, R.H.J.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Hollin, C.R.; Kraaimaat, F.W.

    2008-01-01

    Aggression control therapy is based on Goldstein, Gibbs, and Glick's aggression replacement training and was developed for violent forensic psychiatric in- and outpatients (adolescents and adults) with a (oppositional-defiant) conduct disorder or an antisocial personality disorder. First, the

  4. Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turick, C.E.

    1997-06-10

    A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases. 3 figs.

  5. Determining 'age at death' for forensic purposes using human bone by a laboratory-based biomechanical analytical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zioupos, P; Williams, A; Christodoulou, G; Giles, R

    2014-05-01

    Determination of age-at-death (AAD) is an important and frequent requirement in contemporary forensic science and in the reconstruction of past populations and societies from their remains. Its estimation is relatively straightforward and accurate (±3yr) for immature skeletons by using morphological features and reference tables within the context of forensic anthropology. However, after skeletal maturity (>35yr) estimates become inaccurate, particularly in the legal context. In line with the general migration of all the forensic sciences from reliance upon empirical criteria to those which are more evidence-based, AAD determination should rely more-and-more upon more quantitative methods. We explore here whether well-known changes in the biomechanical properties of bone and the properties of bone matrix, which have been seen to change with age even after skeletal maturity in a traceable manner, can be used to provide a reliable estimate of AAD. This method charts a combination of physical characteristics some of which are measured at a macroscopic level (wet & dry apparent density, porosity, organic/mineral/water fractions, collagen thermal degradation properties, ash content) and others at the microscopic level (Ca/P ratios, osteonal and matrix microhardness, image analysis of sections). This method produced successful age estimates on a cohort of 12 donors of age 53-85yr (7 male, 5 female), where the age of the individual could be approximated within less than ±1yr. This represents a vastly improved level of accuracy than currently extant age estimation techniques. It also presents: (1) a greater level of reliability and objectivity as the results are not dependent on the experience and expertise of the observer, as is so often the case in forensic skeletal age estimation methods; (2) it is purely laboratory-based analytical technique which can be carried out by someone with technical skills and not the specialised forensic anthropology experience; (3) it can

  6. The role of geological forensic methods for disaster assessment in Cigintung, West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Zufialdi; Mulyo, Agung; Muslim, Dicky; Jihadi, Luthfan H.

    2017-07-01

    Geological forensic is a branch of geology which study focused on deciphering facts by using geological science method mainly for legal purposes. The use of geological forensic may be applied to fulfill legal purposes of insurance agency, compensation decisions, and also criminal cases. In this study case, geotechnical and geological engineering are used beforehand in order to identify the cause of geological phenomenon by using quantitative assessment. Soil movement disaster can be caused by several aspects. The assessment of the disaster which is rapid creeping movement of soil is conducted in a disaster case of Cigintung, West Java. The impact of disaster is significant enough to affect up to 700 families, which have to be evacuated from the disaster site, due to massive infrastructural damage. The soil of the area is categorized into clay with high plasticity and silt with high plasticity, which liquid limit (LL) is vary between 77.77% - 98.41%. Activity number (A) of each soils are is vary between 0.964 - 2.192. Based on Skempton Chart is indicating montmorillonitic and illitic soils, and also the cause of their characteristic which is swelling if it is wet and shrinking if it is dry. Therefore, by using Seed method and William & Donovan Chart, we can conclude that soil in the area is categorized into expansive soil due to its high tendency of swelling-shrinking characteristic. Chronologically, the soil movement in Cigintung is initiated with first landslide which caused surface water to infiltrate easier into porous soil and reach the expansive soil below it. The second soil movement occurred rapidly and affected almost all infrastructures in the area in 12 hours timespan, due to the change of soil bearing capacity which caused by water infiltration. The accepted soil bearing capacity (qa) with factor of stability (FS) = 3 for square-shaped shallow foundation is between 3.66 T/m2 - 9.52 T/m2, while for circle-shaped foundation is between 3.67 T/m2 - 7.53 T/m2

  7. Forensic odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2012-04-01

    Forensic odontology is a specialized field of dentistry which analyses dental evidence in the interest of justice. Forensic odontology embraces all dental specialities and it is almost impossible to segregate this branch from other dental specialities. This review aims to discuss the utility of various dental specialities with forensic odontology.

  8. Cellular Phone-Based Image Acquisition and Quantitative Ratiometric Method for Detecting Cocaine and Benzoylecgonine for Biological and Forensic Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Cadle, Brian A.; Rasmus, Kristin C.; Varela, Juan A.; Leverich, Leah S.; O’Neill, Casey E.; Bachtell, Ryan K.; Cooper, Donald C.

    2010-01-01

    Here we describe the first report of using low-cost cellular or web-based digital cameras to image and quantify standardized rapid immunoassay strips as a new point-of-care diagnostic and forensics tool with health applications. Quantitative ratiometric pixel density analysis (QRPDA) is an automated method requiring end-users to utilize inexpensive (~ $1 USD/each) immunotest strips, a commonly available web or mobile phone camera or scanner, and internet or cellular service. A model is descri...

  9. Establishing a novel automated magnetic bead-based method for the extraction of DNA from a variety of forensic samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Sebastian; Neumann, Jan; Zierdt, Holger; Gébel, Gabriella; Röscheisen, Christiane

    2012-09-01

    Automated systems have been increasingly utilized for DNA extraction by many forensic laboratories to handle growing numbers of forensic casework samples while minimizing the risk of human errors and assuring high reproducibility. The step towards automation however is not easy: The automated extraction method has to be very versatile to reliably prepare high yields of pure genomic DNA from a broad variety of sample types on different carrier materials. To prevent possible cross-contamination of samples or the loss of DNA, the components of the kit have to be designed in a way that allows for the automated handling of the samples with no manual intervention necessary. DNA extraction using paramagnetic particles coated with a DNA-binding surface is predestined for an automated approach. For this study, we tested different DNA extraction kits using DNA-binding paramagnetic particles with regard to DNA yield and handling by a Freedom EVO(®)150 extraction robot (Tecan) equipped with a Te-MagS magnetic separator. Among others, the extraction kits tested were the ChargeSwitch(®)Forensic DNA Purification Kit (Invitrogen), the PrepFiler™Automated Forensic DNA Extraction Kit (Applied Biosystems) and NucleoMag™96 Trace (Macherey-Nagel). After an extensive test phase, we established a novel magnetic bead extraction method based upon the NucleoMag™ extraction kit (Macherey-Nagel). The new method is readily automatable and produces high yields of DNA from different sample types (blood, saliva, sperm, contact stains) on various substrates (filter paper, swabs, cigarette butts) with no evidence of a loss of magnetic beads or sample cross-contamination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Forensic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Suzanne

    2009-07-01

    Forensic chemistry is unique among chemical sciences in that its research, practice, and presentation must meet the needs of both the scientific and the legal communities. As such, forensic chemistry research is applied and derivative by nature and design, and it emphasizes metrology (the science of measurement) and validation. Forensic chemistry has moved away from its analytical roots and is incorporating a broader spectrum of chemical sciences. Existing forensic practices are being revisited as the purview of forensic chemistry extends outward from drug analysis and toxicology into such diverse areas as combustion chemistry, materials science, and pattern evidence.

  11. Using a Forensic Research Method for Establishing an Alternative Method for Audience Measurement in Print Advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marcus; Krause, Niels; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    2012-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of the survey approach are discussed. It is hypothesized that observational methods sometimes constitute reasonable and powerful substitute to traditional survey methods. Under certain circumstances, unobtrusive methods may even outperform traditional techniques. Non...... amount of pages, the method appears applicable for flyers with multiple pages....

  12. Acceptability criteria for linear dependence in validating UV-spectrophotometric methods of quantitative determination in forensic and toxicological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu. Klimenko

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article is the result of authors’ research in the field of development of the approaches to validation of quantitative determination methods for purposes of forensic and toxicological analysis and devoted to the problem of acceptability criteria formation for validation parameter «linearity/calibration model». The aim of research. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the present approaches to acceptability estimation of the calibration model chosen for method description according to the requirements of the international guidances, to form the own approaches to acceptability estimation of the linear dependence when carrying out the validation of UV-spectrophotometric methods of quantitative determination for forensic and toxicological analysis. Materials and methods. UV-spectrophotometric method of doxylamine quantitative determination in blood. Results. The approaches to acceptability estimation of calibration models when carrying out the validation of bioanalytical methods is stated in international papers, namely «Guidance for Industry: Bioanalytical method validation» (U.S. FDA, 2001, «Standard Practices for Method Validation in Forensic Toxicology» (SWGTOX, 2012, «Guidance for the Validation of Analytical Methodology and Calibration of Equipment used for Testing of Illicit Drugs in Seized Materials and Biological Specimens» (UNODC, 2009 and «Guideline on validation of bioanalytical methods» (ЕМА, 2011 have been analysed. It has been suggested to be guided by domestic developments in the field of validation of analysis methods for medicines and, particularly, by the approaches to validation methods in the variant of the calibration curve method for forming the acceptability criteria of the obtained linear dependences when carrying out the validation of UV-spectrophotometric methods of quantitative determination for forensic and toxicological analysis. The choice of the method of calibration curve is

  13. Forensic microbiology and bioterrorism risk (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nasso

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The letters containing anthrax, sent in 2001 in USA, showed that pathogens and toxins can be effectively used for terrorist purposes. A new subfield of forensic science, called “microbial forensics”, has been developed. It is a new scientific discipline dedicated to collect and analyze microbiological evidence from a scene of crime. In addition to collecting and analyzing traditional forensic evidences, the microbial forensic investigation will attempt to determine the identity of the causal agent, as so as epidemiologic investigation, but with higher-resolution characterization. The tools for a successful attribution include genetically based-assays to determine the exact strain of isolate, aiming the individualization of the source of the pathogen used in a biological weapon. Following the 2001 anthrax attacks, genotyping of B. anthracis was done on 8 variable number tandem repeats loci (VNTR polymorphisms, with multilocus variable number tandem repeats (MLVA method. In recent years some research groups have increased the VNTR markers number to 25 loci, while other groups have identified single nucleotide repeat (SNR polymorphisms, which display very high mutation rates. SNR marker system allows the distinguishing of isolates with extremely low levels of genetic diversity within the same MLVA genotype.

  14. Forgotten evidence: A mixed methods study of why sexual assault kits (SAKs) are not submitted for DNA forensic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rebecca; Fehler-Cabral, Giannina; Bybee, Deborah; Shaw, Jessica

    2017-10-01

    Throughout the United States, hundreds of thousands of sexual assault kits (SAKs) (also termed "rape kits") have not been submitted by the police for forensic DNA testing. DNA evidence can help sexual assault investigations and prosecutions by identifying offenders, revealing serial offenders through DNA matches across cases, and exonerating those who have been wrongly accused. In this article, we describe a 5-year action research project conducted with 1 city that had large numbers of untested SAKs-Detroit, Michigan-and our examination into why thousands of rape kits in this city were never submitted for forensic DNA testing. This mixed methods study combined ethnographic observations and qualitative interviews to identify stakeholders' perspectives as to why rape kits were not routinely submitted for testing. Then, we quantitatively examined whether these factors may have affected police practices regarding SAK testing, as evidenced by predictable changes in SAK submission rates over time. Chronic resource scarcity only partially explained why the organizations that serve rape victims-the police, crime lab, prosecution, and victim advocacy-could not test all rape kits, investigate all reported sexual assaults, and support all rape survivors. SAK submission rates significantly increased once criminal justice professionals in this city had full access to the FBI DNA forensic database Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), but even then, most SAKs were still not submitted for DNA testing. Building crime laboratories' capacities for DNA testing and training police on the utility of forensic evidence and best practices in sexual assault investigations can help remedy, and possibly prevent, the problem of untested rape kits. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Hair elemental analysis for forensic science using nuclear and related analytical methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Jan; Kameník, Jan; Havránek, Vladimír

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2018), s. 65-74 ISSN 2468-1709 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : hair * forensic analysis * neutron activation analysis * particle induced X-ray emission Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry

  16. Mendel Meets CSI: Forensic Genotyping as a Method to Teach Genetics & DNA Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurowski, Scotia; Reiss, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a forensic DNA science laboratory exercise for advanced high school and introductory college level biology courses. Students use a commercial genotyping kit and genetic analyzer or gene sequencer to analyze DNA recovered from a fictitious crime scene. DNA profiling and STR genotyping are outlined. DNA extraction, PCR, and…

  17. Forensic entomology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendt, Jens; Krettek, Roman; Zehner, Richard

    Necrophagous insects are important in the decomposition of cadavers. The close association between insects and corpses and the use of insects in medicocriminal investigations is the subject of forensic entomology. The present paper reviews the historical background of this discipline, important postmortem processes, and discusses the scientific basis underlying attempts to determine the time interval since death. Using medical techniques, such as the measurement of body temperature or analysing livor and rigor mortis, time since death can only be accurately measured for the first two or three days after death. In contrast, by calculating the age of immature insect stages feeding on a corpse and analysing the necrophagous species present, postmortem intervals from the first day to several weeks can be estimated. These entomological methods may be hampered by difficulties associated with species identification, but modern DNA techniques are contributing to the rapid and authoritative identification of necrophagous insects. Other uses of entomological data include the toxicological examination of necrophagous larvae from a corpse to identify and estimate drugs and toxicants ingested by the person when alive and the proof of possible postmortem manipulations. Forensic entomology may even help in investigations dealing with people who are alive but in need of care, by revealing information about cases of neglect.

  18. Methods to identify the unexplored diversity of microbial exopolysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühmann, Broder; Schmid, Jochen; Sieber, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Microbial exopolysaccharides (EPS) are a structurally very diverse class of molecules. A number of them have found their application in rather diverging fields that extend from medicine, food, and cosmetics on the one side to construction, drilling, and chemical industry on the other side. The analysis of microbial strains for their competence in polysaccharide production has therefore been a major issue in the past, especially in the search for new polysaccharide variants among natural strain isolates. Concerning the fact that nearly all microbes carry the genetic equipment for the production of polysaccharides under specific conditions, the naturally provided EPS portfolio seems to be still massively underexplored. Therefore, there is a need for high throughput screening techniques capable of identifying novel variants of bacterial EPS with properties superior to the already described ones, or even totally new ones. A great variety of different techniques has been used in screening approaches for identifying microorganisms that are producing EPS in substantial amounts. Mucoid growth is often the method of choice for visual identification of EPS producing strains. Depending on the thickening characteristics of the polysaccharide, observation of viscosity in culture broth can also be an option to evaluate EPS production. Precipitation with different alcohols represents a common detection, isolation, and purification method for many EPS. A more quantitative approach is found in the total carbohydrate content analysis, normally determined, e.g., by phenol-sulfuric-acid-method. In addition, recently a new and reliable method for the detailed analysis of the monomeric composition and the presence of rare sugars and sugar substitutions has become available, which could give a first hint of the polymer structure of unknown EPS. This minireview will compare available methods and novel techniques and discuss their benefits and disadvantages.

  19. Methods to identify the unexplored diversity of microbial exopolysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broder eRühmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial exopolysaccharides (EPS are a structurally very diverse class of molecules. A number of them have found their application in rather diverging fields that extend from medicine, food and cosmetics on the one side to construction, drilling and chemical industry on the other side. The analysis of microbial strains for their competence in polysaccharide production has therefore been a major issue in the past, especially in the search for new polysaccharide variants among natural strain isolates. Concerning the fact that nearly all microbes carry the genetic equipment for the production of polysaccharides under specific conditions, the naturally provided EPS portfolio seems to be still massively underexplored. Therefore, there is a need for high throughput screening techniques capable of identifying novel variants of bacterial exopolysaccharides with properties superior to the already described ones, or even totally new ones. A great variety of different techniques has been used in screening approaches for identifying microorganisms that are producing EPS in substantial amounts. Mucoid growth is often the method of choice for visual identification of EPS producing strains. Depending on the thickening characteristics of the polysaccharide, observation of viscosity in culture broth can also be an option to evaluate EPS production. Precipitation with different alcohols represents a common detection, isolation and purification method for many EPS. A more quantitative approach is found in the total carbohydrate content analysis, normally determined e.g. by phenol-sulfuric-acid-method. In addition, recently a new and reliable method for the detailed analysis of the monomeric composition and the presence of rare sugars and sugar substitutions has become available, which could give a first hint of the polymer structure of unknown EPS. This minireview will compare available methods and novel techniques and discuss their benefits and disadvantages.

  20. A method for sampling microbial aerosols using high altitude balloons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, N C; Stewart, M; Granger, D; Guzik, T G; Christner, B C

    2014-12-01

    Owing to the challenges posed to microbial aerosol sampling at high altitudes, very little is known about the abundance, diversity, and extent of microbial taxa in the Earth-atmosphere system. To directly address this knowledge gap, we designed, constructed, and tested a system that passively samples aerosols during ascent through the atmosphere while tethered to a helium-filled latex sounding balloon. The sampling payload is ~ 2.7 kg and comprised of an electronics box and three sampling chambers (one serving as a procedural control). Each chamber is sealed with retractable doors that can be commanded to open and close at designated altitudes. The payload is deployed together with radio beacons that transmit GPS coordinates (latitude, longitude and altitude) in real time for tracking and recovery. A cut mechanism separates the payload string from the balloon at any desired altitude, returning all equipment safely to the ground on a parachute. When the chambers are opened, aerosol sampling is performed using the Rotorod® collection method (40 rods per chamber), with each rod passing through 0.035 m3 per km of altitude sampled. Based on quality control measurements, the collection of ~ 100 cells rod(-1) provided a 3-sigma confidence level of detection. The payload system described can be mated with any type of balloon platform and provides a tool for characterizing the vertical distribution of microorganisms in the troposphere and stratosphere. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Human DNA Extraction by Two Extraction Methods for Forensic Typification from Human Feces on FTA Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirleny Monserrat Sandoval-Arias

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The identification of suspects in criminal investigations has been facilitated since DNA test are executed on different samples. The application of this technology for forensic typification from human fecal samples still presents complications therefore this research evaluated two DNA extraction protocols with modifications to determine that of major efficiency. Organic extractions and extractions using the commercial kit “IQTM DNA Casework Sample Kit for Maxwell ® 16” on FTA portions of 4cm2 and 1cm2 impregnated with feces from the same individual were done to accomplish the objective. In all the assays the results were useful, however; the best forensic typification (by the electropherogram characteristics was obtained by using the commercial kit in an area of 1 cm2 of FTA paper impregnated in a 1:4 dilution.

  2. [The prospect of application of toxicogenetics/pharmcogenetics theory and methods in forensic practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dan-na; Yi, Xu-fu; Chen, Xiao-gang; Xu, Tong-li; Cui, Li-juan

    2007-10-01

    Individual response to drugs, toxicants, environmental chemicals and allergens varies with genotype. Some respond well to these substances without significant consequences, while others may respond strongly with severe consequences and even death. Toxicogenetics and toxicogenomics as well as pharmacogenetics explain the genetic basis for the variations of individual response to toxicants by sequencing the human genome and large-scale identification of genome polymorphism. The new disciplines will provide a new route for forensic specialists to determine the cause of death.

  3. Digital Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harron, Jason; Langdon, John; Gonzalez, Jennifer; Cater, Scott

    2017-01-01

    The term forensic science may evoke thoughts of blood-spatter analysis, DNA testing, and identifying molds, spores, and larvae. A growing part of this field, however, is that of digital forensics, involving techniques with clear connections to math and physics. This article describes a five-part project involving smartphones and the investigation…

  4. Forensic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yellin, E.

    1981-01-01

    Modern scientific technology now plays an increasingly important role in the process of law enforcement. Neutron activation, as developed for elemental analysis offers, in many cases, the suitable answer to forensic problems. The author discusses the use NAA has been put to in forensic science. (Auth.)

  5. Nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal, V.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear forensics is the analysis of nuclear materials recovered from either the capture of unused materials, or from the radioactive debris following a nuclear explosion and can contribute significantly to the identification of the sources of the materials and the industrial processes used to obtain them. In the case of an explosion, nuclear forensics can also reconstruct key features of the nuclear device. Nuclear forensic analysis works best in conjunction with other law enforcement, radiological protection dosimetry, traditional forensics, and intelligence work to provide the basis for attributing the materials and/or nuclear device to its originators. Nuclear forensics is a piece of the overall attribution process, not a stand-alone activity

  6. Nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karadeniz, O.; Guenalp, G.

    2010-01-01

    This review discusses the methodology of nuclear forensics and illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. Nuclear forensics is relatively new scientific branch whose aim it is to read out material inherent from nuclear material. Nuclear forensics investigations have to be considered as part of a comprehensive set of measures for detection,interception, categorization and characterization of illicitly trafficking nuclear material. Prevention, detection and response are the main elements in combating illicit trafficking. Forensics is a key element in the response process. Forensic science is defined as the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to the legal system. Besides, in this study we will explain age determination of nuclear materials.

  7. The Use of Laser Microdissection in Forensic Sexual Assault Casework: Pros and Cons Compared to Standard Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sergio; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo; Porto, Maria J; Cainé, Laura

    2017-07-01

    Sexual assault samples are among the most frequently analyzed in a forensic laboratory. These account for almost half of all samples processed routinely, and a large portion of these cases remain unsolved. These samples often pose problems to traditional analytic methods of identification because they consist most frequently of cell mixtures from at least two contributors: the victim (usually female) and the perpetrator (usually male). In this study, we propose the use of current preliminary testing for sperm detection in order to determine the chances of success when faced with samples which can be good candidates to undergo analysis with the laser microdissection technology. Also, we used laser microdissection technology to capture fluorescently stained cells of interest differentiated by gender. Collected materials were then used for DNA genotyping with commercially available amplification kits such as Minifiler, Identifiler Plus, NGM, and Y-Filer. Both the methodology and the quality of the results were evaluated to assess the pros and cons of laser microdissection compared with standard methods. Overall, the combination of fluorescent staining combined with the Minifiler amplification kit provided the best results for autosomal markers, whereas the Y-Filer kit returned the expected results regardless of the used method. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. Shifts in microbial populations in Rusitec fermenters as affected by the type of diet and impact of the method for estimating microbial growth (15N v. microbial DNA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, I; Ranilla, M J; Saro, C; Carro, M D

    2017-11-01

    offered similar results for diets comparison, but both methods presented contrasting results for microbial growth in SOL and LIQ phases. The study showed that fermentation parameters remained fairly stable over the commonly used sampling period (days 8 to 14), but shifts in microbial populations were detected. Moreover, microbial populations differed markedly from those in the inocula, which indicates the difficulty of directly transposing results on microbial populations developed in Rusitec fermenters to in vivo conditions.

  9. A New Method for Water Desalination Using Microbial Desalination Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Xiaoxin

    2009-09-15

    Current water desalination techniques are energy intensive and some use membranes operated at high pressures. It is shownhere that water desalination can be accomplished without electrical energy input or high water pressure by using a source of organic matter as the fuel to desalinate water. A microbial fuel cell was modified by placing two membranes between the anode and cathode, creating a middle chamber for water desalination between the membranes. An anion exchange membrane was placed adjacent to the anode, and a cation exchange membrane was positioned next to the cathode. When current was produced by bacteria on the anode, ionic species in the middle chamber were transferred into the two electrode chambers, desalinating the water in the middle chamber. Proof-of-concept experiments for this approach, using what we call a microbial desalination cell (MDC), was demonstrated using water at different initial salt concentrations (5, 20, and 35 g/L) with acetate used as the substrate for the bacteria. The MDC produced a maximum of 2 W/m2 (31 W/m3) while at the same time removing about 90% of the salt in a single desalination cycle. As the salt was removed from the middle chamber the ohmic resistance of the MDC (measured using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) increased from 25 Ω to 970 Ω at the end of the cycle. This increased resistance was reflected by a continuous decrease in the voltage produced over the cycle. These results demonstrate for the first time the possibility for a new method for water desalination and power production that uses only a source of biodegradable organic matter and bacteria. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  10. Microbial ecology of artisanal italian cheese: Molecular microbial characterization by culture-independent method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, E.; Scarpellini, M.; Franzatti, L.; Dioguardi, L.

    2009-01-01

    Present study will treat the next topics: ecology of the natural and man made environments and functional diversity of bacteria. The microbial communities in artisanal goat cheeses produced in mountain pastures (typical farms) in Piemonte mountain (North of Italy) change a lot during precessing and ripening time. Moreover cheese microbial ecosystems are different in each small dairy because adventitious microflora can come from the environment and contamination the milk before the cheese making process and the product during manufacture and ripening. (Author)

  11. Microbial ecology of artisanal italian cheese: Molecular microbial characterization by culture-independent method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombo, E.; Scarpellini, M.; Franzatti, L.; Dioguardi, L.

    2009-07-01

    Present study will treat the next topics: ecology of the natural and man made environments and functional diversity of bacteria. The microbial communities in artisanal goat cheeses produced in mountain pastures (typical farms) in Piemonte mountain (North of Italy) change a lot during precessing and ripening time. Moreover cheese microbial ecosystems are different in each small dairy because adventitious microflora can come from the environment and contamination the milk before the cheese making process and the product during manufacture and ripening. (Author)

  12. Correlation between average tissue depth data and quantitative accuracy of forensic craniofacial reconstructions measured by geometric surface comparison method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Joon; Wilkinson, Caroline M; Hwang, Hyeon-Shik; Lee, Sang-Mi

    2015-05-01

    Accuracy is the most important factor supporting the reliability of forensic facial reconstruction (FFR) comparing to the corresponding actual face. A number of methods have been employed to evaluate objective accuracy of FFR. Recently, it has been attempted that the degree of resemblance between computer-generated FFR and actual face is measured by geometric surface comparison method. In this study, three FFRs were produced employing live adult Korean subjects and three-dimensional computerized modeling software. The deviations of the facial surfaces between the FFR and the head scan CT of the corresponding subject were analyzed in reverse modeling software. The results were compared with those from a previous study which applied the same methodology as this study except average facial soft tissue depth dataset. Three FFRs of this study that applied updated dataset demonstrated lesser deviation errors between the facial surfaces of the FFR and corresponding subject than those from the previous study. The results proposed that appropriate average tissue depth data are important to increase quantitative accuracy of FFR. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Human DNA Extraction by Two Extraction Methods for Forensic Typification from Human Feces on FTA Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Sandoval-Arias, Shirleny Monserrat

    2014-01-01

    La identificación de sospechosos en casos criminales se ha facilitado desde la aplicación de pruebas de ADN a diferentes muestras. El uso de esta técnica para la tipificación forense a partir de muestras fecales humanas aún presenta complicaciones, por lo que en esta investigación se evaluaron dos protocolos de extracción de ADN con ciertas modificaciones para determinar el de mayor efectividad. Se realizaron extracciones orgánicas y mediante el kit comercial “DNA IQTM Casework Sample Kit par...

  14. Analysis of laser and inkjet prints using spectroscopic methods for forensic identification of questioned documents

    OpenAIRE

    Gál, Lukáš; Belovičová, Michaela; Oravec, Michal; Palková, Miroslava; Čeppan, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The spectral properties in UV-VIS-NIR and IR regions of laser and inkjet prints were studied for the purposes of forensic analysis of documents. The procedures of measurements and processing of spectra of printed documents using fibre optics reflectance spectroscopy in UV-VIS and NIR region, FTIR-ATR with diamond/ZnSe and germanium crystals were optimized. It was found that the shapes of spectra of various black laser jet prints and inkjet prints generally differ in the spectral regions...

  15. Rapid and robust detection methods for poison and microbial contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehl, Melanie M; Lu, Peter J; Sims, Peter A; Slocum, Alexander H

    2012-06-27

    Real-time on-site monitoring of analytes is currently in high demand for food contamination, water, medicines, and ingestible household products that were never tested appropriately. Here we introduce chemical methods for the rapid quantification of a wide range of chemical and microbial contaminations using a simple instrument. Within the testing procedure, we used a multichannel, multisample, UV-vis spectrophotometer/fluorometer that employs two frequencies of light simultaneously to interrogate the sample. We present new enzyme- and dye-based methods to detect (di)ethylene glycol in consumables above 0.1 wt % without interference and alcohols above 1 ppb. Using DNA intercalating dyes, we can detect a range of pathogens ( E. coli , Salmonella , V. Cholera, and a model for Malaria) in water, foods, and blood without background signal. We achieved universal scaling independent of pathogen size above 10(4) CFU/mL by taking advantage of the simultaneous measurement at multiple wavelengths. We can detect contaminants directly, without separation, purification, concentration, or incubation. Our chemistry is stable to ± 1% for >3 weeks without refrigeration, and measurements require <5 min.

  16. Genetic differentiation between fake abalone and genuine Haliotis species using the forensically informative nucleotide sequencing (FINS) method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Wai Y; Reid, David G; Kam, Wan L; Lau, Yuk Y; Sham, Wing C; Tam, Silvia Y K; Sin, Della W M; Mok, Chuen S

    2011-05-25

    Abalones ( Haliotis species) are a popular delicacy and commonly preserved in dried form either whole or in slices or small pieces for consumption in Asian countries. Driven by the huge profit from trading abalones, dishonest traders may substitute other molluscan species for processed abalone, of which the morphological characteristics are frequently lost in the processed form. For protection of consumer rights and law enforcement against fraud, there is a need for an effective methodology to differentiate between fake and genuine abalone. This paper describes a method (validated according to the international forensic guidelines provided by SWGDAM) for the identification of fake abalone species using forensically informative nucleotide sequence (FINS) analysis. A study of the local market revealed that many claimed "abalone slice" samples on sale are not genuine. The fake abalone samples were found to be either volutids of the genus Cymbium (93%) or the muricid Concholepas concholepas (7%). This is the first report of Cymbium species being used for the preparation and sale as "abalone" in dried sliced form in Hong Kong.

  17. Forensic psychologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinkara Pavšič Mrevlje

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a review of different issues that a forensic psychologists encounter at work. Forensic assessment might be needed in civil law cases, administrative procedures and in criminal law cases. The paper focuses on referrals in criminal law cases regarding matters such as assessing competence to stand trial, criminal responsibility and violence risk assessment. Finally, the role of expert testimony on eyewitness memory, which is not used in practice in Slovenia yet, is presented.

  18. Forensic postmortem computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lykke Schrøder; Lundemose, Sissel; Banner, Jytte

    2016-01-01

    differences. CONCLUSIONS: Noninvasive in situ PMCT methods for organ measuring, as performed in this study, are not useful tools in forensic pathology. The best method to estimate organ volume is a CT-scan of the eviscerated organ. PMCT-determined CTR seems to be useless for ascertaining cardiomegaly...

  19. Novel Selectivity-Based Forensic Toxicological Validation of a Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry Method for the Quantitative Determination of Eight Amphetamines in Whole Blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, Sebastiaan F.; Fedick, Patrick W.; Berendsen, Bjorn J.A.; Nielen, Michel W.F.; Eberlin, Marcos N.; Graham Cooks, R.; Asten, van Arian C.

    2017-01-01

    Paper spray tandem mass spectrometry is used to identify and quantify eight individual amphetamines in whole blood in 1.3 min. The method has been optimized and fully validated according to forensic toxicology guidelines, for the quantification of amphetamine, methamphetamine,

  20. On the added value of forensic science and grand innovation challenges for the forensic community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asten, Arian C

    2014-03-01

    In this paper the insights and results are presented of a long term and ongoing improvement effort within the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI) to establish a valuable innovation programme. From the overall perspective of the role and use of forensic science in the criminal justice system, the concepts of Forensic Information Value Added (FIVA) and Forensic Information Value Efficiency (FIVE) are introduced. From these concepts the key factors determining the added value of forensic investigations are discussed; Evidential Value, Relevance, Quality, Speed and Cost. By unravelling the added value of forensic science and combining this with the future needs and scientific and technological developments, six forensic grand challenges are introduced: i) Molecular Photo-fitting; ii) chemical imaging, profiling and age estimation of finger marks; iii) Advancing Forensic Medicine; iv) Objective Forensic Evaluation; v) the Digital Forensic Service Centre and vi) Real time In-Situ Chemical Identification. Finally, models for forensic innovation are presented that could lead to major international breakthroughs on all these six themes within a five year time span. This could cause a step change in the added value of forensic science and would make forensic investigative methods even more valuable than they already are today. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd on behalf of Forensic Science Society. All rights reserved.

  1. New perspectives in forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirkmaat, Dennis C; Cabo, Luis L; Ousley, Stephen D; Symes, Steven A

    2008-01-01

    A critical review of the conceptual and practical evolution of forensic anthropology during the last two decades serves to identify two key external factors and four tightly inter-related internal methodological advances that have significantly affected the discipline. These key developments have not only altered the current practice of forensic anthropology, but also its goals, objectives, scope, and definition. The development of DNA analysis techniques served to undermine the classic role of forensic anthropology as a field almost exclusively focused on victim identification. The introduction of the Daubert criteria in the courtroom presentation of scientific testimony accompanied the development of new human comparative samples and tools for data analysis and sharing, resulting in a vastly enhanced role for quantitative methods in human skeletal analysis. Additionally, new questions asked of forensic anthropologists, beyond identity, required sound scientific bases and expanded the scope of the field. This environment favored the incipient development of the interrelated fields of forensic taphonomy, forensic archaeology, and forensic trauma analysis, fields concerned with the reconstruction of events surrounding death. Far from representing the mere addition of new methodological techniques, these disciplines (especially, forensic taphonomy) provide forensic anthropology with a new conceptual framework, which is broader, deeper, and more solidly entrenched in the natural sciences. It is argued that this new framework represents a true paradigm shift, as it modifies not only the way in which classic forensic anthropological questions are answered, but also the goals and tasks of forensic anthropologists, and their perception of what can be considered a legitimate question or problem to be answered within the field.

  2. An introduction to computer forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furneaux, Nick

    2006-07-01

    This paper provides an introduction to the discipline of Computer Forensics. With computers being involved in an increasing number, and type, of crimes the trace data left on electronic media can play a vital part in the legal process. To ensure acceptance by the courts, accepted processes and procedures have to be adopted and demonstrated which are not dissimilar to the issues surrounding traditional forensic investigations. This paper provides a straightforward overview of the three steps involved in the examination of digital media: Acquisition of data. Investigation of evidence. Reporting and presentation of evidence. Although many of the traditional readers of Medicine, Science and the Law are those involved in the biological aspects of forensics, I believe that both disciplines can learn from each other, with electronic evidence being more readily sought and considered by the legal community and the long, tried and tested scientific methods of the forensic community being shared and adopted by the computer forensic world.

  3. Kindle Forensics: Acquisition & Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hannay

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon Kindle eBook reader supports a wide range of capabilities beyond reading books. This functionality includes an inbuilt cellular data connection known as Whispernet. The Kindle provides web browsing, an application framework, eBook delivery and other services over this connection. The historic data left by user interaction with this device may be of forensic interest. Analysis of the Amazon Kindle device has resulted in a method to reliably extract and interpret data from these devices in a forensically complete manner.

  4. Molecular identification of Indian crocodile species: PCR-RFLP method for forensic authentication*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meganathan, P R; Dubey, Bhawna; Haque, Ikramul

    2009-09-01

    South East Asian countries are known for illegal poaching and trade of crocodiles clandestinely, to be used in skin, medicinal, and cosmetic industries. Besides crocodiles being listed in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, India has its Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 for conservation of crocodile species. Hitherto, lack of any rapid and reliable technique for examinations of crocodile-based crime exhibits such as skin, bones, etc. has been a major problem for an effective promulgation of law on illegal trade. DNA-based identification of species using PCR-RFLP technique for an apt identification of all the three Indian crocodile species namely, Crocodylus porosus, Crocodylus palustris and Gavialis gangeticus is presented here. A 628 bp segment of cytochrome b gene was amplified using novel primers followed by restriction digestion with three enzymes i.e., HaeIII, MboI, and MwoI, separately and in combination. The technique has produced a species-specific pattern for identifying the three crocodile species individually, which fulfills the requirement for its forensic application. It is expected that the technique will prove handy in identification of all the three Indian crocodile species and strengthen conservation efforts.

  5. Application of Sequence-based Methods in Human MicrobialEcology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Li; Rubin, Edward M.; Bristow, James

    2005-08-29

    Ecologists studying microbial life in the environment have recognized the enormous complexity of microbial diversity for many years, and the development of a variety of culture-independent methods, many of them coupled with high-throughput DNA sequencing, has allowed this diversity to be explored in ever greater detail. Despite the widespread application of these new techniques to the characterization of uncultivated microbes and microbial communities in the environment, their application to human health and disease has lagged behind. Because DNA based-techniques for defining uncultured microbes allow not only cataloging of microbial diversity, but also insight into microbial functions, investigators are beginning to apply these tools to the microbial communities that abound on and within us, in what has aptly been called the second Human Genome Project. In this review we discuss the sequence-based methods for microbial analysis that are currently available and their application to identify novel human pathogens, improve diagnosis of known infectious diseases, and to advance understanding of our relationship with microbial communities that normally reside in and on the human body.

  6. Detection and quantitation of trace phenolphthalein (in pharmaceutical preparations and in forensic exhibits) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, a sensitive and accurate method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kakali; Sharma, Shiba P; Lahiri, Sujit C

    2013-01-01

    Phenolphthalein, an acid-base indicator and laxative, is important as a constituent of widely used weight-reducing multicomponent food formulations. Phenolphthalein is an useful reagent in forensic science for the identification of blood stains of suspected victims and for apprehending erring officials accepting bribes in graft or trap cases. The pink-colored alkaline hand washes originating from the phenolphthalein-smeared notes can easily be determined spectrophotometrically. But in many cases, colored solution turns colorless with time, which renders the genuineness of bribe cases doubtful to the judiciary. No method is known till now for the detection and identification of phenolphthalein in colorless forensic exhibits with positive proof. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry had been found to be most sensitive, accurate method capable of detection and quantitation of trace phenolphthalein in commercial formulations and colorless forensic exhibits with positive proof. The detection limit of phenolphthalein was found to be 1.66 pg/L or ng/mL, and the calibration curve shows good linearity (r(2) = 0.9974). © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. A quantitative method for determining a representative detection limit of the forensic luminol test for latent bloodstains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Brianna M; Lu, Zhenyu; Martin, Jennifer P; Tazik, Shawna K; Kellogg, Katie W; DeJong, Stephanie A; Belliveau, Elle O; Kilgore, Katherine E; Ervin, Samantha M; Meece-Rayle, Mackenzie; Abraham, Alyssa M; Myrick, Michael L; Morgan, Stephen L

    2017-09-01

    The luminol test has been used for over 60 years by forensic investigators for presumptive identification of blood and visualization of blood splatter patterns. Multiple studies have estimated the limit of detection (LD) for bloodstains when luminol is employed, with results ranging from 100× to 5,000,000× dilute. However, these studies typically have not identified and controlled important experimental variables which may affect the luminol LD for bloodstains. Without control of experimental parameters in the laboratory, variables which affect the potential of presumptive bloodstain test methods remain largely unknown, and comparisons required to establish new, more powerful detection methods are simply impossible. We have developed a quantitative method to determine the relationship between the amount of blood present and its reaction with luminol by measuring, under controlled conditions, the resulting chemiluminescent intensity with a video camera, combined with processing of the digital intensity data. The method resulted in an estimated LD for bloodstains on cotton fabric at ∼200,000× diluted blood with a specific luminol formulation. Although luminol is the focus of this study, the experimental protocol used could be modified to study effects of variables using other blood detection reagents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Forensic entomology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Açikgöz, Halide Nihal

    2010-01-01

    Odour of the animal or human corpses immediately after death is very attractive for insects and other invertebrates. Blue and green bottle flies from the Calliphoridae family are the first colonizers of cadaver and immediately later necrophagous Diptera from the Sarcophagidae family settle on the same corpse. It is essential to determine the time past after death for elucidating the event in case of the homicide or suspicious death, and it is directly proportional to the post mortem interval expected time, which is based upon the speed of the larval growth. In this article, we purposed to stress the special interest of forensic entomology for the scientists who will apply this science in their forensic researches and case studies, and also to provide information to our judges, prosecutors and law enforcement agents in order to consider the entomological samples to be reliable and applicable evidences as biological stains and hairs. We are of the opinion that if any forensic entomologist is called to the crime scene or if the evidences are collected and then delivered to an entomologist, the forensic cases will be elucidated faster and more accurately.

  9. Microbial Signatures of Cadaver Gravesoil During Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Sheree J; Pechal, Jennifer L; Benbow, M Eric; Robertson, B K; Javan, Gulnaz T

    2016-04-01

    Genomic studies have estimated there are approximately 10(3)-10(6) bacterial species per gram of soil. The microbial species found in soil associated with decomposing human remains (gravesoil) have been investigated and recognized as potential molecular determinants for estimates of time since death. The nascent era of high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the conserved 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene region of gravesoil microbes is allowing research to expand beyond more subjective empirical methods used in forensic microbiology. The goal of the present study was to evaluate microbial communities and identify taxonomic signatures associated with the gravesoil human cadavers. Using 16S rRNA gene amplicon-based sequencing, soil microbial communities were surveyed from 18 cadavers placed on the surface or buried that were allowed to decompose over a range of decomposition time periods (3-303 days). Surface soil microbial communities showed a decreasing trend in taxon richness, diversity, and evenness over decomposition, while buried cadaver-soil microbial communities demonstrated increasing taxon richness, consistent diversity, and decreasing evenness. The results show that ubiquitous Proteobacteria was confirmed as the most abundant phylum in all gravesoil samples. Surface cadaver-soil communities demonstrated a decrease in Acidobacteria and an increase in Firmicutes relative abundance over decomposition, while buried soil communities were consistent in their community composition throughout decomposition. Better understanding of microbial community structure and its shifts over time may be important for advancing general knowledge of decomposition soil ecology and its potential use during forensic investigations.

  10. Microbial Hydrocarbon and ToxicPollutant Degradation Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, Dietrich [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Janabi, Mustafa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); O' Neil, James [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Budinger, Thomas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-08-16

    The goal of this project is to determine optimum conditions for bacterial oxidation of hydrocarbons and long-chain alkanes that are representative of petroleum contamination of the environment. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of concern because of their toxicity, low volatility, and resistance to microbial degradation, especially under anaerobic conditions. The uniqueness of our approach is to use carbon-11 in lieu of the traditional use of carbon-14.

  11. Detached concern of forensic mental health nurses in therapeutic relationships with patients the application of the early recognition method related to detached concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluttert, Frans; van Meijel, Berno; Nijman, Henk; Bjørkly, Stål; Grypdonck, Mieke

    2010-08-01

    Improvement of the interaction between forensic mental health nurses and patients may lead to a reduction of inpatient violence. The concept under study is detached concern, which refers to nurses' skills to neutralize the emotional appeal of patients by a balanced attitude between objectivity and emotional involvement. The Patient Contact Questionnaire (PCQ) aims at measuring the degree of concern of nurses for their patients. The PCQ was applied in a pretest-posttest design, evaluating the effects of the Early Recognition Method (ERM). This method aims at the prevention of inpatient violence in forensic psychiatry. Subjects were 116 forensic mental heath nurses working on 16 wards of a large Dutch forensic hospital. First, the baseline scores were compared to scores reported in an earlier study conducted in general psychiatry. Second, pretest-posttest comparisons were carried out for all nurses, and for subgroups of nurses with regard to gender, educational level, years of working experience, and patient population. Third, pretest-posttest comparisons were made on the PCQ item level. The baseline scores of male nurses indicated significantly higher levels of concern than those of female nurses. In addition, more experienced nurses scored significantly higher with regard to concern than less experienced nurses. When comparing the scores before and after applying ERM, no significant differences were found. However, the sores of female nurses showed a tendency toward more concern after implementation of ERM. Detached concern may be a meaningful concept in forensic mental health nursing in measuring nurses' concern for their patients. Levels of detached concern did not change significantly after application of ERM. However, the application of the PCQ could contribute to a better understanding of the interaction between nurses and their patients. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Forensic microbiology and the bioterrorism risk (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nasso

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The letters containing anthrax, sent in 2001 in USA, showed that pathogens and toxins can be effectively used for terrorist purposes. A new subfield of forensic science, called “microbial forensics”, has been developed. It is a new scientific discipline dedicated to collect and analyze microbiological evidence from a scene of crime. In addition to collecting and analyzing traditional forensic evidences, the microbial forensic investigation will attempt to determine the identity of the causal agent, as so as epidemiologic investigation, but with higher-resolution characterization. The tools for a successful attribution include genetically based-assays to determine the exact strain of isolate, aiming the individualization of the source of the pathogen used in a biological weapon. Following the 2001 anthrax attacks, genotyping of B. anthracis was done on 8 variable number tandem repeats loci (VNTR polymorphisms, with multilocus variable number tandem repeats (MLVA method. In recent years some research groups have increased the VNTR markers number to 25 loci, while other groups have identified single nucleotide repeat (SNR polymorphisms, which display very high mutation rates. SNR marker system allows the distinguishing of isolates with extremely low levels of genetic diversity within the same MLVA genotype.

  13. [Forensic age estimation in juveniles and young adults: Reducing the range of scatter in age diagnosis by combining different methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sven; Schramm, Danilo; Ribbecke, Sebastian; Schulz, Ronald; Wittschieber, Daniel; Olze, Andreas; Vieth, Volker; Ramsthaler, H Frank; Pfischel, Klaus; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Geserick, Gunther; Schmeling, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The dramatic rise in the number of refugees entering Germany means that age estimation for juveniles and young adults whose age is unclear but relevant to legal and official procedures has become more important than ever. Until now, whether and to what extent the combination of methods recommended by the Study Group on Forensic Age Diagnostics has resulted in a reduction of the range of scatter of the summarized age diagnosis has been unclear. Hand skeletal age, third molar mineralization stage and ossification stage of the medial clavicular epiphyses were determined for 307 individuals aged between 10 and 29 at time of death on whom autopsies were performed at the Institutes of Legal Medicine in Berlin, Frankfurt am Main and Hamburg between 2001 and 2011. To measure the range of scatter, linear regression analysis was used to calculate the standard error of estimate for each of the above methods individually and in combination. It was found that combining the above methods led to a reduction in the range of scatter. Due to various limitations of the study, the statistical parameters determined cannot, however, be used for age estimation practice.

  14. Analysis Code - Data Analysis in 'Leveraging Multiple Statistical Methods for Inverse Prediction in Nuclear Forensics Applications' (LMSMIPNFA) v. 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2018-03-19

    R code that performs the analysis of a data set presented in the paper ‘Leveraging Multiple Statistical Methods for Inverse Prediction in Nuclear Forensics Applications’ by Lewis, J., Zhang, A., Anderson-Cook, C. It provides functions for doing inverse predictions in this setting using several different statistical methods. The data set is a publicly available data set from a historical Plutonium production experiment.

  15. Digital Forensics to Intelligent Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair Irons

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we posit that current investigative techniques—particularly as deployed by law enforcement, are becoming unsuitable for most types of crime investigation. The growth in cybercrime and the complexities of the types of the cybercrime coupled with the limitations in time and resources, both computational and human, in addressing cybercrime put an increasing strain on the ability of digital investigators to apply the processes of digital forensics and digital investigations to obtain timely results. In order to combat the problems, there is a need to enhance the use of the resources available and move beyond the capabilities and constraints of the forensic tools that are in current use. We argue that more intelligent techniques are necessary and should be used proactively. The paper makes the case for the need for such tools and techniques, and investigates and discusses the opportunities afforded by applying principles and procedures of artificial intelligence to digital forensics intelligence and to intelligent forensics and suggests that by applying new techniques to digital investigations there is the opportunity to address the challenges of the larger and more complex domains in which cybercrimes are taking place.

  16. Application of a new capillary electrophoretic method for the determination of carbohydrates in forensic, pharmaceutical, and beverage samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarazin, Cédric; Delaunay, Nathalie; Costanza, Christine; Eudes, Véronique; Gareil, Pierre

    2012-09-15

    A new capillary electrophoresis method dedicated to the analysis of neutral underivatized carbohydrates was recently developed by our group. It involved a background electrolyte composed of 98 mM NaOH and 120 mM NaCl, and direct UV detection via the formation of an absorbing intermediate in the detection window by photooxidation. This article focuses on the validation of this method for the determination of fructose, glucose, lactose, and sucrose in forensic, pharmaceutical, and beverage samples. Intermediate precisions were about 2.3% for normalized corrected peak areas and 1.8% for normalized migration times using naphthalenesulfonate as internal standard. Limits of detection varying from 5 μM for sucrose and lactose to 7 μM for glucose and 10 μM for fructose were obtained. Potential matrix effects were statistically studied for soil, cloth, plastic, cotton, red wine, and with simulated iron, calcium, and sucrose-based matrices, containing various inorganic anions and cations, sometimes at high levels. No significant matrix effect was observed. Finally, analyses of real post-explosion residues, smoke device, cough syrup, red wine, and apple juice were successfully performed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of the Efficacy of Real Time-PCR Method for Amikacin Determination Using Microbial Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Lotfipour

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Microbial assay is used to determine the potency of antibiotics and vitamins. In spite of its advantages like simplicity and easiness, and to reveal the slight changes in the molecules, the microbial assay suffers from significant limitations; these methods are of lower specificity, accuracy and sensitivity. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the efficacy of real time-PCR technique in comparison with turbidimetric method for microbial assay of amikacin. Methods: Microbial determination of amikacin by turbidimetric method was performed according to USP. Also amikacin concentrations were determined by microbial assay using taq-man quantitative PCR method. Standard curves in different concentration for both methods were plotted and method validation parameters of linearity, precision and accuracy were calculated using statistical procedures. Results: The RT-PCR method was linear in the wider concentration range (5.12 – 38.08 for RT-PCR versus 8.00 – 30.47 for turbidimetric method with a better correlation coefficient (0.976 for RT-PCR versus 0.958 for turbidimetric method. RT-PCR method with LOQ of 5.12 ng/ml was more sensitive than turbidimetric method with LOQ of 8.00 ng/ml and the former could detect and quantify low concentrations of amikacin. The results of accuracy and precision evaluation showed that the RT-PCR method was accurate and precise in all of the tested concentration. Conclusion: The RT-PCR method described here provided an accurate and precise technique for measurement of amikacin potency and it can be a candidate for microbial determination of the antibiotics with the same test organism.

  18. Modelling live forensic acquisition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of a South African model for Live Forensic Acquisition - Liforac. The Liforac model is a comprehensive model that presents a range of aspects related to Live Forensic Acquisition. The model provides forensic...

  19. Forensic importance of jealousy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzinić, Lana; Goreta, Miroslav; Jukić, Vlado; Dordević, Veljko; Koić, Elvira; Herceg, Miroslav

    2003-06-01

    The aim of the investigation is to define as clearly as possible specific forensic psychiatric characteristics of persons who committed homicide and or attempted due to jealousy (the nature and severity of psychopathology, the level of responsibility, danger for the community, intensity and nature of aggression, the victimologic dimension, the relation of alcohol and jealousy). A retrospective method based on forensic psychiatric expertises in the period 1975-1999 was used. They encompassed 200 examinees that committed murder or attempted it. The results show the connection of psychotic jealousy with the highest degree of danger in diagnostic categories of paranoid psychosis and paranoid schizophrenia. The time span from the first manifestations of jealousy until the actual commitment of a crime is the longest in personality disorders and the shortest in schizophrenia. Exogenous provoking situations were dominant for committing homicide due to jealousy in personality disorders. Acute alcohol intoxication has a specific significance in crime due to jealousy in the same diagnostic category. Clear criteria were designed for forensic psychiatric evaluation of murder and attempts of homicide caused by jealousy, which will be of help in everyday practice in the field forensic work and treatment.

  20. [Forensic anthropology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2009-09-07

    Forensic anthropology is the application of biological or physical anthropology in the service of justice. One main area is the analysis of human remains. Such analyses involve person identification by assessment of age and sex of the deceased, and comparison with ante-mortem data. Another major area is the analysis of surveillance pictures and videos. Such analyses may comprise facial and bodily morphological comparisons, multi-angle photogrammetry and gait analysis. We also perform studies of human remains for archaeologists.

  1. Validation of two ribosomal RNA removal methods for microbial metatranscriptomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Shaomei; Wurtzel, Omri; Singh, Kanwar; Froula, Jeff L; Yilmaz, Suzan; Tringe, Susannah G; Wang, Zhong; Chen, Feng; Lindquist, Erika A; Sorek, Rotem; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2010-10-01

    The predominance of rRNAs in the transcriptome is a major technical challenge in sequence-based analysis of cDNAs from microbial isolates and communities. Several approaches have been applied to deplete rRNAs from (meta)transcriptomes, but no systematic investigation of potential biases introduced by any of these approaches has been reported. Here we validated the effectiveness and fidelity of the two most commonly used approaches, subtractive hybridization and exonuclease digestion, as well as combinations of these treatments, on two synthetic five-microorganism metatranscriptomes using massively parallel sequencing. We found that the effectiveness of rRNA removal was a function of community composition and RNA integrity for these treatments. Subtractive hybridization alone introduced the least bias in relative transcript abundance, whereas exonuclease and in particular combined treatments greatly compromised mRNA abundance fidelity. Illumina sequencing itself also can compromise quantitative data analysis by introducing a G+C bias between runs.

  2. The use of the Podotrack in forensic podiatry for collection and analysis of bare footprints using the Reel method of measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrow, J Gordon

    2016-05-01

    This small-scale study examined the role that bare footprint collection and measurement processes have on the Reel method of measurement in forensic podiatry and its use in the Criminal Justice System. Previous research indicated that the Reel method was a valid and reliable measurement system for bare footprint analysis but various collection systems have been used to collect footprint data and both manual and digital measurement processes were utilized in forensic podiatry and other disciplines. This study contributes to the debate about collecting bare footprints; the techniques employed to quantify various Reel measurements and considered whether there was asymmetry between feet and footprints of the same person. An inductive, quantitative paradigm used the Podotrack gathering procedure for footprint collection and the subsequent dynamic footprints subjected to Adobe Photoshop techniques of calculating the Reel linear variables. Statistical analyses using paired-sample t tests were conducted to test hypotheses and compare data sets. Standard error of mean (SEM) showed variation between feet and the findings provide support for the Reel study and measurement method. Copyright © 2016 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cellular phone-based image acquisition and quantitative ratiometric method for detecting cocaine and benzoylecgonine for biological and forensic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadle, Brian A; Rasmus, Kristin C; Varela, Juan A; Leverich, Leah S; O'Neill, Casey E; Bachtell, Ryan K; Cooper, Donald C

    2010-01-01

    Here we describe the first report of using low-cost cellular or web-based digital cameras to image and quantify standardized rapid immunoassay strips as a new point-of-care diagnostic and forensics tool with health applications. Quantitative ratiometric pixel density analysis (QRPDA) is an automated method requiring end-users to utilize inexpensive (∼ $1 USD/each) immunotest strips, a commonly available web or mobile phone camera or scanner, and internet or cellular service. A model is described whereby a central computer server and freely available IMAGEJ image analysis software records and analyzes the incoming image data with time-stamp and geo-tag information and performs the QRPDA using custom JAVA based macros (http://www.neurocloud.org). To demonstrate QRPDA we developed a standardized method using rapid immunotest strips directed against cocaine and its major metabolite, benzoylecgonine. Images from standardized samples were acquired using several devices, including a mobile phone camera, web cam, and scanner. We performed image analysis of three brands of commercially available dye-conjugated anti-cocaine/benzoylecgonine (COC/BE) antibody test strips in response to three different series of cocaine concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 300 ng/ml and BE concentrations ranging from 0.003 to 0.1 ng/ml. This data was then used to create standard curves to allow quantification of COC/BE in biological samples. Across all devices, QRPDA quantification of COC and BE proved to be a sensitive, economical, and faster alternative to more costly methods, such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, tandem mass spectrometry, or high pressure liquid chromatography. The limit of detection was determined to be between 0.1 and 5 ng/ml. To simulate conditions in the field, QRPDA was found to be robust under a variety of image acquisition and testing conditions that varied temperature, lighting, resolution, magnification and concentrations of biological fluid in a sample. To

  4. Cellular Phone-Based Image Acquisition and Quantitative Ratiometric Method for Detecting Cocaine and Benzoylecgonine for Biological and Forensic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Cadle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe the first report of using low-cost cellular or web-based digital cameras to image and quantify standardized rapid immunoassay strips as a new point-of-care diagnostic and forensics tool with health applications. Quantitative ratiometric pixel density analysis (QRPDA is an automated method requiring end-users to utilize inexpensive (~ $1 USD/each immunotest strips, a commonly available web or mobile phone camera or scanner, and internet or cellular service. A model is described whereby a central computer server and freely available IMAGEJ image analysis software records and analyzes the incoming image data with time-stamp and geo-tag information and performs the QRPDA using custom JAVA based macros ( http://www.neurocloud.org . To demonstrate QRPDA we developed a standardized method using rapid immunotest strips directed against cocaine and its major metabolite, benzoylecgonine. Images from standardized samples were acquired using several devices, including a mobile phone camera, web cam, and scanner. We performed image analysis of three brands of commercially available dye-conjugated anti-cocaine/benzoylecgonine (COC/BE antibody test strips in response to three different series of cocaine concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 300 ng/ml and BE concentrations ranging from 0.003 to 0.1 ng/ml. This data was then used to create standard curves to allow quantification of COC/BE in biological samples. Across all devices, QRPDA quantification of COC and BE proved to be a sensitive, economical, and faster alternative to more costly methods, such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, tandem mass spectrometry, or high pressure liquid chromatography. The limit of detection was determined to be between 0.1 and 5 ng/ml. To simulate conditions in the field, QRPDA was found to be robust under a variety of image acquisition and testing conditions that varied temperature, lighting, resolution, magnification and concentrations of biological fluid

  5. Multimedia Forensics Is Not Computer Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhme, Rainer; Freiling, Felix C.; Gloe, Thomas; Kirchner, Matthias

    The recent popularity of research on topics of multimedia forensics justifies reflections on the definition of the field. This paper devises an ontology that structures forensic disciplines by their primary domain of evidence. In this sense, both multimedia forensics and computer forensics belong to the class of digital forensics, but they differ notably in the underlying observer model that defines the forensic investigator’s view on (parts of) reality, which itself is not fully cognizable. Important consequences on the reliability of probative facts emerge with regard to available counter-forensic techniques: while perfect concealment of traces is possible for computer forensics, this level of certainty cannot be expected for manipulations of sensor data. We cite concrete examples and refer to established techniques to support our arguments.

  6. A history of forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubelaker, Douglas H

    2018-04-01

    Forensic anthropology represents a dynamic and rapidly evolving complex discipline within anthropology and forensic science. Academic roots extend back to early European anatomists but development coalesced in the Americas through high-profile court testimony, assemblage of documented collections and focused research. Formation of the anthropology section of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences in 1972, the American Board of Forensic Anthropology in 1977/1978 and other organizational advances provided important stimuli for progress. While early pioneers concentrated on analysis of skeletonized human remains, applications today have expanded to include complex methods of search and recovery, the biomechanics of trauma interpretation, isotopic analysis related to diet and region of origin, age estimation of the living and issues related to humanitarian and human rights investigations. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Forensic entomology: a template for forensic acarology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Bryan

    2009-10-01

    Insects are used in a variety of ways in forensic science and the developing area of forensic acarology may have a similar range of potential. This short account summarises the main ways in which entomology currently contributes to forensic science and discusses to what extent acarology might also contribute in these areas.

  8. Evaluation of methods to improve the extraction and recovery of DNA from cotton swabs for forensic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, Michael S; Stasulli, Dominique M; Sobestanovich, Emily M; Bille, Todd W

    2014-01-01

    Samples for forensic DNA analysis are often collected from a wide variety of objects using cotton or nylon tipped swabs. Testing has shown that significant quantities of DNA are retained on the swab, however, and subsequently lost. When processing evidentiary samples, the recovery of the maximum amount of available DNA is critical, potentially dictating whether a usable profile can be derived from a piece of evidence or not. The QIAamp DNA Investigator extraction kit was used with its recommended protocol for swabs (one hour incubation at 56°C) as a baseline. Results indicate that over 50% of the recoverable DNA may be retained on the cotton swab tip, or otherwise lost, for both blood and buccal cell samples when using this protocol. The protocol's incubation time and temperature were altered, as was incubating while shaking or stationary to test for increases in recovery efficiency. An additional step was then tested that included periodic re-suspension of the swab tip in the extraction buffer during incubation. Aliquots of liquid blood or a buccal cell suspension were deposited and dried on cotton swabs and compared with swab-less controls. The concentration of DNA in each extract was quantified and STR analysis was performed to assess the quality of the extracted DNA. Stationary incubations and those performed at 65°C did not result in significant gains in DNA yield. Samples incubated for 24 hours yielded less DNA. Increased yields were observed with three and 18 hour incubation periods. Increases in DNA yields were also observed using a swab re-suspension method for both cell types. The swab re-suspension method yielded an average two-fold increase in recovered DNA yield with buccal cells and an average three-fold increase with blood cells. These findings demonstrate that more of the DNA collected on swabs can be recovered with specific protocol alterations.

  9. Evaluation of methods to improve the extraction and recovery of DNA from cotton swabs for forensic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Adamowicz

    Full Text Available Samples for forensic DNA analysis are often collected from a wide variety of objects using cotton or nylon tipped swabs. Testing has shown that significant quantities of DNA are retained on the swab, however, and subsequently lost. When processing evidentiary samples, the recovery of the maximum amount of available DNA is critical, potentially dictating whether a usable profile can be derived from a piece of evidence or not. The QIAamp DNA Investigator extraction kit was used with its recommended protocol for swabs (one hour incubation at 56°C as a baseline. Results indicate that over 50% of the recoverable DNA may be retained on the cotton swab tip, or otherwise lost, for both blood and buccal cell samples when using this protocol. The protocol's incubation time and temperature were altered, as was incubating while shaking or stationary to test for increases in recovery efficiency. An additional step was then tested that included periodic re-suspension of the swab tip in the extraction buffer during incubation. Aliquots of liquid blood or a buccal cell suspension were deposited and dried on cotton swabs and compared with swab-less controls. The concentration of DNA in each extract was quantified and STR analysis was performed to assess the quality of the extracted DNA. Stationary incubations and those performed at 65°C did not result in significant gains in DNA yield. Samples incubated for 24 hours yielded less DNA. Increased yields were observed with three and 18 hour incubation periods. Increases in DNA yields were also observed using a swab re-suspension method for both cell types. The swab re-suspension method yielded an average two-fold increase in recovered DNA yield with buccal cells and an average three-fold increase with blood cells. These findings demonstrate that more of the DNA collected on swabs can be recovered with specific protocol alterations.

  10. Application of next-generation sequencing methods for microbial monitoring of anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozan, Mahir; Akyol, Çağrı; Ince, Orhan; Aydin, Sevcan; Ince, Bahar

    2017-09-01

    The anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic wastes is considered an efficient method for managing the world's energy shortages and resolving contemporary environmental problems. However, the recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass represents a barrier to maximizing biogas production. The purpose of this review is to examine the extent to which sequencing methods can be employed to monitor such biofuel conversion processes. From a microbial perspective, we present a detailed insight into anaerobic digesters that utilize lignocellulosic biomass and discuss some benefits and disadvantages associated with the microbial sequencing techniques that are typically applied. We further evaluate the extent to which a hybrid approach incorporating a variation of existing methods can be utilized to develop a more in-depth understanding of microbial communities. It is hoped that this deeper knowledge will enhance the reliability and extent of research findings with the end objective of improving the stability of anaerobic digesters that manage lignocellulosic biomass.

  11. Microbial screening methods for detection of antibiotic residues in slaughter animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikkemaat, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring of food products from animal origin for the presence of antimicrobial residues is preferably done using microbial screening methods because of their high cost-effectiveness. Traditionally applied methods fail to detect the maximum residue limits which were established when EU Council

  12. Comparison of sampling methods for the assessment of indoor microbial exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, M; Timm, Michael; Hansen, E W

    2012-01-01

    revealed. This study thus facilitates comparison between methods and may therefore be used as a frame of reference when studying the literature or when conducting further studies on indoor microbial exposure. Results also imply that the relatively simple EDC method for the collection of settled dust may...

  13. A brief overview of forensic herpetology

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Barry

    2008-01-01

    The emerging field of forensic herpetology is reviewed. This research focus, defined here as the application of science to studies of reptiles and amphibians when these animals become the subject of legal investigations, has gained increasing attention in recent years. A diverse range of experts contributes to methods in forensic herpetology including forensic scientists, herpetologists, veterinarians, zookeepers, physicians, pathologists and toxicologists. The English language literature in ...

  14. Client-side Skype forensics: an overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meißner, Tina; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2013-03-01

    IT security and computer forensics are important components in the information technology. In the present study, a client-side Skype forensics is performed. It is designed to explain which kind of user data are stored on a computer and which tools allow the extraction of those data for a forensic investigation. There are described both methods - a manual analysis and an analysis with (mainly) open source tools, respectively.

  15. Forensic implications of rape

    OpenAIRE

    Novaković Milan

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Rape is a sexual act of violence in which physical strength is used. Criminal law imposes strict punishments for such crimes as rape. Psycho-pathologically, rape is among the gravest of crimes, often associated with extremely deviated behavior. This article deals with the forensic aspects of sexual violence in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the period from 2000-2004. We report about sexual assaults, personality of delinquents, motives and consequences of rape. Material and Methods. T...

  16. Using environmental forensic microscopy in exposure science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millette, James R; Brown, Richard S; Hill, Whitney B

    2008-01-01

    Environmental forensic microscopy investigations are based on the methods and procedures developed in the fields of criminal forensics, industrial hygiene and environmental monitoring. Using a variety of microscopes and techniques, the environmental forensic scientist attempts to reconstruct the sources and the extent of exposure based on the physical evidence left behind after particles are exchanged between an individual and the environments he or she passes through. This article describes how environmental forensic microscopy uses procedures developed for environmental monitoring, criminal forensics and industrial hygiene investigations. It provides key references to the interdisciplinary approach used in microscopic investigations. Case studies dealing with lead, asbestos, glass fibers and other particulate contaminants are used to illustrate how environmental forensic microscopy can be very useful in the initial stages of a variety of environmental exposure characterization efforts to eliminate some agents of concern and to narrow the field of possible sources of exposure.

  17. Investigation of effective forensic cleaning methods for bullet and cartridge case samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuherk, Cassie Marie

    Bullet and cartridge case evidence may potentially link weapons and crimes through the comparison of toolmark patterns. This analysis relies on the clarity of the toolmarks and the ability of the examiner to identify patterns on the evidence. These patterns may be distorted by debris such as soil, blood, cyanoacrylate, and construction materials. Despite the potential importance of bullet and cartridge case evidence, few investigations of proper cleaning methods have been conducted. The present study was designed to examine the effects of various cleaning solutions and application methods on copper and brass bullets and cartridge cases. Additionally, this research investigated the efficacy of these cleaning protocols on the common evidence contaminants blood and cyanoacrylate. No cleaning method was found to be universally effective on both contaminant types and nondestructive to the metal surface. Ultrasonication was the most efficient application method employed when used in conjunction with an appropriate cleaning solution. Acetone proved to be safe and successful at removing heavy cyanoacrylate deposits from brass cartridge cases without damaging the metal. Although sulfuric acid removed most of the cyanoacrylate from the brass cartridge case, ultrasonication of the fumed cartridge cases in sulfuric acid caused the nickel-plated primer caps to turn black. Additionally, etching occurred when sulfuric acid was allowed to dry on the cartridge case surface. Citric acid, salt-flour-vinegar paste, TergazymeRTM, and water did not effectively remove the cyanoacrylate from the cartridge cases, but the solutions were safe to use on the brass and sometimes resulted in a shinier surface. Regardless of the cleaning method employed, the bloodstained bullets retained most or all of the underlying brown tarnish. Ultrasonication with sulfuric acid was successful at removing some blood-initiated tarnishing; however, the removal of residues was not complete, making it difficult

  18. Applicability of Greulich and Pyle method for age assessment in forensic practice on an Italian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisè, Marco; Mazzarini, Laura; Fabrizzi, Giancarlo; Ferrante, Luigi; Giorgetti, Raffaele; Tagliabracci, Adriano

    2011-05-01

    The main importance in age estimation lies in the assessment of criminal liability and protection of unaccompanied minor immigrants, when their age is unknown. Under Italian law, persons are not criminally responsible before they reach the age of 14. The age of 18 is important when deciding whether juvenile or adult law must be applied. In the case of unaccompanied minors, it is important to assess age in order to establish special protective measures, and correct age estimation may prevent a person over 18 from benefiting from measures reserved for minors. Since the Greulich and Pyle method is one of the most frequently used in age estimation, the aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility and accuracy of the method on a large Italian sample of teenagers, to ascertain the applicability of the Atlas at the critical age thresholds of 14 and 18 years. This retrospective study examined posteroanterior X-ray projections of hand and wrist from 484 Italian-Caucasian young people (125 females, 359 males) between 11 and 19 years old. All radiographic images were taken from trauma patients hospitalized in the Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Ospedali Riuniti of Ancona (Italy) between 2006 and 2007. Two physicians analyzed all radiographic images separately. The blind method was used. In the case of an estimated age of 14 years old, the true age ranged from 12.2 to 15.9 years (median, 14.3 years, interquartile range, 1.0 years) for males, and 12.6 to 15.7 years (median, 14.2 years, interquartile range, 1.7 years) for females. In the case of an estimated age of 18 years, the true age ranged from 15.6 to 19.7 years (median, 17.7 years, interquartile range, 1.4 years) for males, and from 16.2 to 20.0 years (median, 18.7 years, interquartile range, 1.8 years) for females. Our study shows that although the GPM is a reproducible and repeatable method, there is a wide margin of error in the estimation of chronological age, mainly in the critical estimated

  19. DNA fingerprinting in forensics: past, present, future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roewer, Lutz

    2013-11-18

    DNA fingerprinting, one of the great discoveries of the late 20th century, has revolutionized forensic investigations. This review briefly recapitulates 30 years of progress in forensic DNA analysis which helps to convict criminals, exonerate the wrongly accused, and identify victims of crime, disasters, and war. Current standard methods based on short tandem repeats (STRs) as well as lineage markers (Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA) are covered and applications are illustrated by casework examples. Benefits and risks of expanding forensic DNA databases are discussed and we ask what the future holds for forensic DNA fingerprinting.

  20. Measurement methods and strategies for non-infectious microbial components in bioaerosols at the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduard, W

    1996-09-01

    Exposure to micro-organisms can be measured by different methods. Traditionally, viable methods and light microscopy have been used for detection of micro-organisms. Most viable methods measure micro-organisms that are able to grow in culture, and these methods are also common for the identification of micro-organisms. More recently, non-viable methods have been developed for the measurement of bioaerosol components originating from micro-organisms that are based on microscopic techniques, bioassays, immunoassays and chemical methods. These methods are important for the assessment of exposure to bioaerosols in work environments as non-infectious micro-organisms and microbial components may cause allergic and toxic reactions independent of viability. It is not clear to what extent micro-organisms should be identified because exposure-response data are limited and many different micro-organisms and microbial components may cause similar health effects. Viable methods have also been used in indoor environments for the detection of specific organisms as markers of indoor growth of micro-organisms. At present, the validity of measurement methods can only be assessed by comparative laboratory and field studies because standard materials of microbial bioaerosol components are not available. Systematic errors may occur especially when results obtained by different methods are compared. Differences between laboratories that use the same methods may also occur as quality assurance schemes of analytical methods for bioaerosol components do not exist. Measurement methods may also have poor precision, especially the viable methods. It therefore seems difficult to meet the criteria for accuracy of measurement methods of workplace exposure that have recently been adopted by the CEN. Risk assessment is limited by the lack of generally accepted reference values or guidelines for microbial bioaerosol components. The cost of measurements of exposure to microbial bioaerosol components

  1. Recovery of microbial community structure and functioning after wildfire in semi-arid environments: optimising methods for monitoring and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Martini, Dylan; Erickson, Todd; Merritt, David; Dixon, Kingsley

    2015-04-01

    Introduction In semi-arid areas such as northern Western Australia, wildfires are a natural part of the environment and many ecosystems in these landscapes have evolved and developed a strong relationship with fire. Soil microbial communities play a crucial role in ecosystem processes by regulating the cycling of nutrients via decomposition, mineralization, and immobilization processes. Thus, the structure (e.g. soil microbial biomass) and functioning (e.g. soil microbial activity) of microbial communities, as well as their changes after ecosystem disturbance, can be useful indicators of soil quality and health recovery. In this research, we assess the impacts of fire on soil microbial communities and their recovery in a biodiverse semi-arid environment of Western Australia (Pilbara region). New methods for determining soil microbial respiration as an indicator of microbial activity and soil health are also tested. Methodology Soil samples were collected from 10 similar ecosystems in the Pilbara with analogous native vegetation, but differing levels of post-fire disturbance (i.e. 3 months, 1 year, 5, 7 and 14 years after wildfire). Soil microbial activity was measured with the Solvita test which determines soil microbial respiration rate based on the measurement of the CO2 burst of a dry soil after it is moistened. Soils were dried and re-wetted and a CO2 probe was inserted before incubation at constant conditions of 25°C during 24 h. Measurements were taken with a digital mini spectrometer. Microbial (bacteria and fungi) biomass and community composition were measured by phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA). Results Immediately after the fire (i.e. 3 months), soil microbial activity and microbial biomass are similar to 14 years 'undisturbed' levels (53.18±3.68 ppm CO2-CO and 14.07±0.65 mg kg-1, respectively). However, after the first year post-fire, with larger plant productivity, microbial biomass and microbial activity increase rapidly, peaking after 5

  2. Forensic classification of counterfeit banknote paper by X-ray fluorescence and multivariate statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongling; Yin, Baohua; Zhang, Jie; Quan, Yangke; Shi, Gaojun

    2016-09-01

    Counterfeiting of banknotes is a crime and seriously harmful to economy. Examination of the paper, ink and toners used to make counterfeit banknotes can provide useful information to classify and link different cases in which the suspects use the same raw materials. In this paper, 21 paper samples of counterfeit banknotes seized from 13 cases were analyzed by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence. After measuring the elemental composition in paper semi-quantitatively, the normalized weight percentage data of 10 elements were processed by multivariate statistical methods of cluster analysis and principle component analysis. All these paper samples were mainly classified into 3 groups. Nine separate cases were successfully linked. It is demonstrated that elemental composition measured by XRF is a useful way to compare and classify papers used in different cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Microbiome Tools for Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Jessica L; Xu, Zhenjiang Z; Bouslimani, Amina; Dorrestein, Pieter; Carter, David O; Knight, Rob

    2017-09-01

    Microbes are present at every crime scene and have been used as physical evidence for over a century. Advances in DNA sequencing and computational approaches have led to recent breakthroughs in the use of microbiome approaches for forensic science, particularly in the areas of estimating postmortem intervals (PMIs), locating clandestine graves, and obtaining soil and skin trace evidence. Low-cost, high-throughput technologies allow us to accumulate molecular data quickly and to apply sophisticated machine-learning algorithms, building generalizable predictive models that will be useful in the criminal justice system. In particular, integrating microbiome and metabolomic data has excellent potential to advance microbial forensics. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Methods for microbial DNA extraction from soil for PCR amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeates C

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplification of DNA from soil is often inhibited by co-purified contaminants. A rapid, inexpensive, large-scale DNA extraction method involving minimal purification has been developed that is applicable to various soil types (1. DNA is also suitable for PCR amplification using various DNA targets. DNA was extracted from 100g of soil using direct lysis with glass beads and SDS followed by potassium acetate precipitation, polyethylene glycol precipitation, phenol extraction and isopropanol precipitation. This method was compared to other DNA extraction methods with regard to DNA purity and size.

  5. Indication of Importance of Including Soil Microbial Characteristics into Biotope Valuation Method.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trögl, J.; Pavlorková, Jana; Packová, P.; Seják, J.; Kuráň, P.; Kuráň, J.; Popelka, J.; Pacina, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2016), č. článku 253. ISSN 2071-1050 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : biotope assessment * biotope valuation method * soil microbial communities Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 1.789, year: 2016

  6. Monitoring Soil Microbial Activities in Different Cropping Systems Using Combined Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Zhimin; LIU Haijun; HAN Jun; SUN Jingjing; WU Xiaoying; YAO Jun

    2017-01-01

    Cropping activities may affect soil microbial activities and biomass,which would affect C and N cycling in soil and thus the crop yields and quality.In the present study,a combination of microcalorimetric,enzyme activity (sucrase,urease,catalase,and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis),and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses was used to investigate microbial status of farmland soils,collected from 5 different sites in Huazhong Agriculture University,China.Our results showed that among the 5 sites,both positive and negative impacts of cropping activities on soil microbial activity were observed.Enzyme activity analysis showed that cropping activities reduced soil sucrase and urease activities,which would influence the C and N cycles in soil.Much more attentions should be given to microbial status affected by cropping activities in future.According to the correlation analysis,fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis showed a significantly (P < 0.05) negative correlation with the time to reach the maximum power output (R =--0.898),but a significantly (P < 0.05) positive correlation with bacterial gene copy number (R =0.817).Soil catalase activity also showed a significantly (P < 0.05) positive correlation with bacterial gene copy number (R =0.965).Using combined methods would provide virtual information of soil microbial status.

  7. Development and validation of InnoQuant™, a sensitive human DNA quantitation and degradation assessment method for forensic samples using high copy number mobile elements Alu and SVA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Gina M; Montgomery, Anne H; Thompson, Robyn; Indest, Brooke; Carroll, Marion; Sinha, Sudhir K

    2014-11-01

    There is a constant need in forensic casework laboratories for an improved way to increase the first-pass success rate of forensic samples. The recent advances in mini STR analysis, SNP, and Alu marker systems have now made it possible to analyze highly compromised samples, yet few tools are available that can simultaneously provide an assessment of quantity, inhibition, and degradation in a sample prior to genotyping. Currently there are several different approaches used for fluorescence-based quantification assays which provide a measure of quantity and inhibition. However, a system which can also assess the extent of degradation in a forensic sample will be a useful tool for DNA analysts. Possessing this information prior to genotyping will allow an analyst to more informatively make downstream decisions for the successful typing of a forensic sample without unnecessarily consuming DNA extract. Real-time PCR provides a reliable method for determining the amount and quality of amplifiable DNA in a biological sample. Alu are Short Interspersed Elements (SINE), approximately 300bp insertions which are distributed throughout the human genome in large copy number. The use of an internal primer to amplify a segment of an Alu element allows for human specificity as well as high sensitivity when compared to a single copy target. The advantage of an Alu system is the presence of a large number (>1000) of fixed insertions in every human genome, which minimizes the individual specific variation possible when using a multi-copy target quantification system. This study utilizes two independent retrotransposon genomic targets to obtain quantification of an 80bp "short" DNA fragment and a 207bp "long" DNA fragment in a degraded DNA sample in the multiplex system InnoQuant™. The ratio of the two quantitation values provides a "Degradation Index", or a qualitative measure of a sample's extent of degradation. The Degradation Index was found to be predictive of the observed loss

  8. Comparison of certain microbial counting methods which are ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... tinuous food analyses. For example, the ... plate method for the enumeration of E. coli in foods. How- ... Although its preservation for 48 h is recommended in certain ..... Innovative Fungicide For Leather Industry: Essential Oil of.

  9. Development of a simple one-pot extraction method for various drugs and metabolites of forensic interest in blood by modifying the QuEChERS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuta, Shuntaro; Nakanishi, Keiko; Miki, Akihiro; Zaitsu, Kei; Shima, Noriaki; Kamata, Tooru; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Katagi, Munehiro; Tatsuno, Michiaki; Tsuboi, Kento; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Koichi

    2013-10-10

    A rapid and convenient extraction method has been developed for the determination of various drugs and metabolites of forensic interest in blood by modifying the dispersive solid-phase extraction method "QuEChERS". The following 13 analytes with various chemical properties were used for the method development and its validation: amphetamine, methamphetamine, zolpidem, the carboxylate-form major metabolite of zolpidem M-1, flunitrazepam, 7-aminoflunitrazepam, phenobarbital, triazolam, α-hydroxytriazolam, brotizolam, α-hydroxybrotizolam, chlorpromazine, and promethazine. The modification of the QuEChERS method includes the use of relatively large amounts of inorganic salts in order to coagulate blood, which allows easy isolation of the organic extract phase. A combination of 100 mg anhydrous magnesium sulfate as a dehydrating agent, 50mg sodium chloride as a salting-out agent, and 500 μL acetonitrile containing 0.2% acetic acid as the organic solvent provided the optimum conditions for processing a 100 μL whole blood sample. The recoveries of the analytes spiked into whole blood at 0.5 μg/mL ranged between 59% and 93%. Although the addition of the graphitized carbon Envi-carb for cleanup decreased the recoveries of zolpidem and its carboxylate-form metabolite M-1, it was very effective in avoiding interferences by cholesterol. The present method can provide a rapid, effective, user-friendly, and relatively hygienic method for the simultaneous extraction of a wide range of drugs and metabolites in whole blood specimens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The forensic aspects of sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Mary

    2013-02-01

    Complainants of sexual assault may disclose to different agencies, the police and health professionals being the most likely. It is possible for certain evidence types to be collected before a clinical forensic assessment takes place that do not require the need for a Forensic Medical Practitioner. If the time frames after the incident and the nature of assault warrant the need for a forensic medical examination of either a complainant or a suspect, this should only be conducted by doctors and nurses who have received relevant, up-to-date specialist theoretical and practical training. Clear evidence shows that few other criminal offences require as extensive an examination and collection of forensic evidence as that of a sexual assault. The forensic evidence in a case may identify an assailant, eliminate a nominated suspect(s), and assist in the prosecution of a case. The elements of forensic medical examination, reviewed in this chapter, are those that are the most varied across jurisdictions around the world currently. Key focus points of this chapter are considerations for early evidence collection, utilising dedicated medical examination facilities for sample collection, contamination issues associated with evidence collection and certain practical aspects of forensic sampling methods which have evolved given results identified by Forensic Scientists processing evidential samples in sexual assault cases, Some of the problems encountered by the forensic science provider will also be discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Microbial activity in aquatic environments measured by dimethyl sulfoxide reduction and intercomparison with commonly used methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebler, C; Slezak, D

    2001-01-01

    A new method to determine microbial (bacterial and fungal) activity in various freshwater habitats is described. Based on microbial reduction of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to dimethyl sulfide (DMS), our DMSO reduction method allows measurement of the respiratory activity in interstitial water, as well as in the water column. DMSO is added to water samples at a concentration (0.75% [vol/vol] or 106 mM) high enough to compete with other naturally occurring electron acceptors, as determined with oxygen and nitrate, without stimulating or inhibiting microbial activity. Addition of NaN(3), KCN, and formaldehyde, as well as autoclaving, inhibited the production of DMS, which proves that the reduction of DMSO is a biotic process. DMSO reduction is readily detectable via the formation of DMS even at low microbial activities. All water samples showed significant DMSO reduction over several hours. Microbially reduced DMSO is recovered in the form of DMS from water samples by a purge and trap system and is quantified by gas chromatography and detection with a flame photometric detector. The DMSO reduction method was compared with other methods commonly used for assessment of microbial activity. DMSO reduction activity correlated well with bacterial production in predator-free batch cultures. Cell-production-specific DMSO reduction rates did not differ significantly in batch cultures with different nutrient regimes but were different in different growth phases. Overall, a cell-production-specific DMSO reduction rate of 1.26 x 10(-17) +/- 0. 12 x 10(-17) mol of DMS per produced cell (mean +/- standard error; R(2) = 0.78) was calculated. We suggest that the relationship of DMSO reduction rates to thymidine and leucine incorporation is linear (the R(2) values ranged from 0.783 to 0.944), whereas there is an exponential relationship between DMSO reduction rates and glucose uptake, as well as incorporation (the R(2) values ranged from 0.821 to 0.931). Based on our results, we

  12. DNS in Computer Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Fowler Wright

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Domain Name Service (DNS is a critical core component of the global Internet and integral to the majority of corporate intranets. It provides resolution services between the human-readable name-based system addresses and the machine operable Internet Protocol (IP based addresses required for creating network level connections. Whilst structured as a globally dispersed resilient tree data structure, from the Global and Country Code Top Level Domains (gTLD/ccTLD down to the individual site and system leaf nodes, it is highly resilient although vulnerable to various attacks, exploits and systematic failures. This paper examines the history along with the rapid growth of DNS up to its current critical status. It then explores the often overlooked value of DNS query data; from packet traces, DNS cache data, and DNS logs, with its use in System Forensics and more frequently in Network Forensics, extrapolating examples and experiments that enhance knowledge.Continuing on, it details the common attacks that can be used directly against the DNS systems and services, before following on with the malicious uses of DNS in direct system attacks, Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS, traditional Denial of Service (DOS attacks and malware. It explores both cyber-criminal activities and cyber-warfare based attacks, and also extrapolates from a number of more recent attacks the possible methods for data exfiltration. It explores some of the potential analytical methodologies including; common uses in Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS, as well as infection and activity tracking in malware traffic analysis, and covers some of the associated methods around technology designed to defend against, mitigate, and/or manage these and other risks, plus the effect that ISP and nation states can have by direct manipulation of DNS queries and return traffic.This paper also investigates potential behavioural analysis and time-lining, which can then be used for the

  13. PhyloChip™ microarray comparison of sampling methods used for coral microbial ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Christina A.; Piceno, Yvette M.; Tom, Lauren M.; DeSantis, Todd Z.; Zawada, David G.; Andersen, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    Interest in coral microbial ecology has been increasing steadily over the last decade, yet standardized methods of sample collection still have not been defined. Two methods were compared for their ability to sample coral-associated microbial communities: tissue punches and foam swabs, the latter being less invasive and preferred by reef managers. Four colonies of star coral, Montastraea annularis, were sampled in the Dry Tortugas National Park (two healthy and two with white plague disease). The PhyloChip™ G3 microarray was used to assess microbial community structure of amplified 16S rRNA gene sequences. Samples clustered based on methodology rather than coral colony. Punch samples from healthy and diseased corals were distinct. All swab samples clustered closely together with the seawater control and did not group according to the health state of the corals. Although more microbial taxa were detected by the swab method, there is a much larger overlap between the water control and swab samples than punch samples, suggesting some of the additional diversity is due to contamination from water absorbed by the swab. While swabs are useful for noninvasive studies of the coral surface mucus layer, these results show that they are not optimal for studies of coral disease.

  14. NERL MICROBIAL PROGRAM WITH EMPHASIS ON PROTOZOAN METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Exposure Research Laboratory's facility in Cincinnati is engated in a variety of microbiological research projects that include studies on bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa. One of these was a protzoology project to determine the best way to evaluate methods rep...

  15. Surface sterilization method for reducing microbial contamination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An effective disinfection method for strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cv. Senga Sengana micropropagation using runner tips and nodal segments as explants was developed. The explants were surface sterilized with different sterilants for different durations. The present studies on the effect of different regimes of ...

  16. [Application of DNA labeling technology in forensic botany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Znang, Xian; Li, Jing-Lin; Zhang, Xiang-Yu

    2008-12-01

    Forensic botany is a study of judicial plant evidence. Recently, researches on DNA labeling technology have been a mainstream of forensic botany. The article systematically reviews various types of DNA labeling techniques in forensic botany with enumerated practical cases, as well as the potential forensic application of each individual technique. The advantages of the DNA labeling technology over traditional morphological taxonomic methods are also summarized.

  17. Seeking to understand lived experiences of personal recovery in personality disorder in community and forensic settings - a qualitative methods investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Andrew; Sanders, Caroline; Shaw, Jenny

    2017-08-01

    Understandings of personal recovery have emerged as an alternative framework to traditional ideas of clinical progression, or symptom remission, in clinical practice. Most research in this field has focussed on the experience of individuals suffering with psychotic disorders and little research has been conducted to explore the experience of individuals with a personality disorder diagnosis, despite the high prevalence of such difficulties. The nature of the personality disorder diagnosis, together with high prevalence rates in forensic settings, renders the understanding of recovery in these contexts particularly problematic. The current study seeks to map out pertinent themes relating to the recovery process in personality disorder as described by individuals accessing care in either community or forensic settings. Individual qualitative interviews were utilised to explore the lived experience of those receiving a personality disorder diagnosis and accessing mental health care in either community or forensic settings. A thematic analysis was conducted to identify shared concepts and understanding between participants. Fourty-one individual participant interviews were conducted across forensic and community settings. Recovery was presented by participants as a developing negotiated understanding of the self, together with looked for change and hope in the future. Four specific themes emerged in relation to this process: 1. Understanding early lived experience as informing sense of self 2. Developing emotional control 3. Diagnosis as linking understanding and hope for change 4. The role of mental health services. Through considering personal recovery in personality disorder as a negotiated understanding between the individual, their social networks and professionals this study illustrates the complexity of working through such a process. Clarity of understanding in this area is essential to avoid developing resistance in the recovery process. Understanding of

  18. Differential retention of pollen grains on clothing and the effectiveness of laboratory retrieval methods in forensic settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Julia C; Brown, Harriet A; Toms, Hannah; Goodenough, Anne E

    2018-07-01

    Forensic palynology has been important in criminal investigation since the 1950s and often provides evidence that is vital in identifying suspects and securing convictions. However, for such evidence to be used appropriately, it is necessary to understand the factors affecting taphonomic variability (i.e. the variability in the fate of pollen grains before they are found during forensic examination). Here, we test the relative amount of pollen retained on clothing after a period of simulated light or heavy wear based on pollen and fabric characteristics. We also test the efficiency of forensic laboratory protocols for retrieving pollen from fabrics for analysis. There was no statistically significant difference in retention of fresh or dried pollen on any fabric type. There was a substantial difference in pollen retention according to wear intensity, with considerably more pollen being retained after light wear than after heavy wear. Pollen from insect-pollinated species was retained at higher concentrations than pollen from wind-pollinated species. This pattern was consistent regardless of wear intensity but pollination type explained more of the variability in pollen retention after light wear. Fabric type was significantly related to pollen retention, but interacted strongly with plant species such that patterns were both complex and highly species-specific. The efficiency of removing pollen with the standard washing protocol differed substantially according to plant species, fabric type, and the interaction between these factors. The average efficiency was 67.7% but this ranged from 21% to 93%, demonstrating that previous assumptions on the reliability of the technique providing a representative sample for forensic use should be reviewed. This paper highlights the importance of understanding pollen and fabric characteristics when creating a pollen profile in criminal investigations and to ensure that evidence used in testimony is accurate and robust. Crown

  19. Microbial diversity in fecal samples depends on DNA extraction method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirsepasi, Hengameh; Persson, Søren; Struve, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    was to evaluate two different DNA extraction methods in order to choose the most efficient method for studying intestinal bacterial diversity using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). FINDINGS: In this study, a semi-automatic DNA extraction system (easyMag®, BioMérieux, Marcy I'Etoile, France......BACKGROUND: There are challenges, when extracting bacterial DNA from specimens for molecular diagnostics, since fecal samples also contain DNA from human cells and many different substances derived from food, cell residues and medication that can inhibit downstream PCR. The purpose of the study...... by easyMag® from the same fecal samples. Furthermore, DNA extracts obtained using easyMag® seemed to contain inhibitory compounds, since in order to perform a successful PCR-analysis, the sample should be diluted at least 10 times. DGGE performed on PCR from DNA extracted by QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit DNA...

  20. Expanding forensic science through forensic intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribaux, Olivier; Talbot Wright, Benjamin

    2014-12-01

    Research and Development ('R&D') in forensic science currently focuses on innovative technologies improving the efficiency of existing forensic processes, from the detection of marks and traces at the scene, to their presentation in Court. R&D approached from this perspective provides no response to doubts raised by recent criminological studies, which question the effective contribution of forensic science to crime reduction, and to policing in general. Traces (i.e. forensic case data), as remnants of criminal activity are collected and used in various forms of crime monitoring and investigation. The aforementioned doubts therefore need to be addressed by expressing how information is conveyed by traces in these processes. Modelling from this standpoint expands the scope of forensic science and provides new R&D opportunities. Twelve propositions for R&D are stated in order to pave the way. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Practical mobile forensics

    CERN Document Server

    Bommisetty, Satish; Mahalik, Heather

    2014-01-01

    The book is an easy-to-follow guide with clear instructions on various mobile forensic techniques. The chapters and the topics within are structured for a smooth learning curve, which will swiftly empower you to master mobile forensics. If you are a budding forensic analyst, consultant, engineer, or a forensic professional wanting to expand your skillset, this is the book for you. The book will also be beneficial to those with an interest in mobile forensics or wanting to find data lost on mobile devices. It will be helpful to be familiar with forensics in general but no prior experience is re

  2. Assessment of soil microbial diversity with functional multi-endpoint methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Anne; Creamer, R. E.; Rutgers, M.

    on CO2 development by the microbes such as substrate induced respiration (SIR) on specific substrates have lead to the development of MicroResp™ and Community Level Physiological Profile (CLPP) with Biolog™ plates, and soil enzymatic activity assayed by Extracellular Enzyme Activity (EEA) based on MUF......Soil microbial diversity provides the cornerstone for support of soil ecosystem services by key roles in soil organic matter turnover, carbon sequestration and water infiltration. However, standardized methods to quantify the multitude of microbial functions in soils are lacking. Methods based...... to the lack of principle methods, the data obtained from these substitute methods are currently not used in classification and assessment schemes, making quantification of natural capital and ecosystems services of the soil a difficult venture. In this contribution, we compare and contrast the three...

  3. Engineered microbes and methods for microbial oil production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Tai, Mitchell; Chakraborty, Sagar

    2018-01-09

    Some aspects of this invention provide engineered microbes for oil production. Methods for microbe engineering and for use of engineered microbes are also provided herein. In some embodiments, microbes are provided that are engineered to modulate a combination of rate-controlling steps of lipid synthesis, for example, a combination of a step generating metabolites, acetyl-CoA, ATP or NADPH for lipid synthesis (a push step), and a step sequestering a product or an intermediate of a lipid synthesis pathway that mediates feedback inhibition of lipid synthesis (a pull step). Such push-and-pull engineered microbes exhibit greatly enhanced conversion yields and TAG synthesis and storage properties.

  4. Engineered microbes and methods for microbial oil production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Tai, Mitchell; Chakraborty, Sagar

    2015-02-10

    Some aspects of this invention provide engineered microbes for oil production. Methods for microbe engineering and for use of engineered microbes are also provided herein. In some embodiments, microbes are provided that are engineered to modulate a combination of rate-controlling steps of lipid synthesis, for example, a combination of a step generating metabolites, acetyl-CoA, ATP or NADPH for lipid synthesis (a push step), and a step sequestering a product or an intermediate of a lipid synthesis pathway that mediates feedback inhibition of lipid synthesis (a pull step). Such push-and-pull engineered microbes exhibit greatly enhanced conversion yields and TAG synthesis and storage properties.

  5. Forensic Experts′ Opinion Regarding Clinical Forensic Medicine Practice in Indonesia and Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanusha Nair Gopalakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical forensic medicine is a progressing branch. In Indonesia and Malaysia, there is inadequate information regarding this practice. It is always unclear about the job scopes and practitioners involved in this field. The study outlined in this article is aimed to explore the current clinical forensic medicine practice compared to existing systematic practice globally and hence analyzing for presence of difference in this practice between these two countries. A qualitative study was conducted by forensic experts in Indonesia and Malaysia from September to November 2015. In-depth interview was carried out to obtain data which were then validated using literature and legal documents in Indonesia and Malaysia known as the triangulation validation method. Data were presented in narrative form. In Indonesia, forensic pathology and clinical forensic medicine were approached as one whereas in Malaysia separately. This practice was conducted by a general practitioner in collaboration with other specialists if needed in Indonesia; whereas, in Malaysia, this practice was conducted by forensic pathologists or medical officers in the absence of forensic pathologists. Both Indonesia and Malaysia followed the continental regimen in practicing clinical forensic medicine. There was still a lack of involvement of doctors in this field due to lack of understanding of clinical forensic medicine. The current clinical forensic medicine practice has not developed much and has no much difference in both countries. The gap between the current practice with systematic practice cannot be justified due to the absence of one standardized code of practice.

  6. American Academy of Forensic Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Programs Courses in Forensic Odontology Choosing a Career What is Forensic Science? What Do Forensic Scientists Do? What’s a Forensic Scientist? ... ve Decided You Want a Career in Forensic Science … Now What? Young Forensic Scientists Forum (YFSF) Annual Meeting Events ...

  7. Error and its meaning in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Angi M; Crowder, Christian M; Ousley, Stephen D; Houck, Max M

    2014-01-01

    The discussion of "error" has gained momentum in forensic science in the wake of the Daubert guidelines and has intensified with the National Academy of Sciences' Report. Error has many different meanings, and too often, forensic practitioners themselves as well as the courts misunderstand scientific error and statistical error rates, often confusing them with practitioner error (or mistakes). Here, we present an overview of these concepts as they pertain to forensic science applications, discussing the difference between practitioner error (including mistakes), instrument error, statistical error, and method error. We urge forensic practitioners to ensure that potential sources of error and method limitations are understood and clearly communicated and advocate that the legal community be informed regarding the differences between interobserver errors, uncertainty, variation, and mistakes. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. Performance of two quantitative PCR methods for microbial source tracking of human sewage and implications for microbial risk assessment in recreational waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Before new, rapid quantitative PCR (qPCR) methods for recreational water quality assessment and microbial source tracking (MST) can be useful in a regulatory context, an understanding of the ability of the method to detect a DNA target (marker) when the contaminant soure has been...

  9. A Novel Analysis Method for Paired-Sample Microbial Ecology Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Scott W; Vora, Suhani; Techtmann, Stephen M; Fortney, Julian L; Bastidas-Oyanedel, Juan R; Rodríguez, Jorge; Hazen, Terry C; Alm, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    Many microbial ecology experiments use sequencing data to measure a community's response to an experimental treatment. In a common experimental design, two units, one control and one experimental, are sampled before and after the treatment is applied to the experimental unit. The four resulting samples contain information about the dynamics of organisms that respond to the treatment, but there are no analytical methods designed to extract exactly this type of information from this configuration of samples. Here we present an analytical method specifically designed to visualize and generate hypotheses about microbial community dynamics in experiments that have paired samples and few or no replicates. The method is based on the Poisson lognormal distribution, long studied in macroecology, which we found accurately models the abundance distribution of taxa counts from 16S rRNA surveys. To demonstrate the method's validity and potential, we analyzed an experiment that measured the effect of crude oil on ocean microbial communities in microcosm. Our method identified known oil degraders as well as two clades, Maricurvus and Rhodobacteraceae, that responded to amendment with oil but do not include known oil degraders. Our approach is sensitive to organisms that increased in abundance only in the experimental unit but less sensitive to organisms that increased in both control and experimental units, thus mitigating the role of "bottle effects".

  10. Integrating Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funkhouser, John; Deslich, Barbara J.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the implementation of forensic science in an integrated curriculum and discusses the advantages of this approach. Lists the forensic science course syllabi studied in three high schools. Discusses the unit on polymers in detail. (YDS)

  11. Forensic speaker recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier

    2013-01-01

    The aim of forensic speaker recognition is to establish links between individuals and criminal activities, through audio speech recordings. This field is multidisciplinary, combining predominantly phonetics, linguistics, speech signal processing, and forensic statistics. On these bases, expert-based

  12. Learning Android forensics

    CERN Document Server

    Tamma, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    If you are a forensic analyst or an information security professional wanting to develop your knowledge of Android forensics, then this is the book for you. Some basic knowledge of the Android mobile platform is expected.

  13. Nuclear forensics: a comprehensive model action plan for Nuclear Forensics Laboratory in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, A.V.; Nyati, S.; Fatangre, N.M.; Raghav, N.K.; Reddy, P.G.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear forensic is an emerging and highly specialized discipline which deals with nuclear investigation and analysis of nuclear or radiological/radioactive materials. Nuclear Forensic analysis includes various methodology and analytical methods along with morphology, physical, chemical, elemental and isotopic analysis to characterize and develop nuclear database for the identification of unknown nuclear or radiological/radioactive material. The origin, source history, pathway and attribution of unknown radioactive/nuclear material is possible with certainty through Nuclear Forensics. Establishment of Nuclear Forensic Laboratory and development of expertise for nuclear investigation under one roof by developing the nuclear data base and laboratory network is need of the hour to ably address the problems of all the law enforcement and nuclear agencies. The present study provides insight in Nuclear Forensics and focuses on an urgent need for a comprehensive plan to set up Nuclear Forensic Laboratory across India. (author)

  14. Application of Nonlinear Analysis Methods for Identifying Relationships Between Microbial Community Structure and Groundwater Geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schryver, Jack C.; Brandt, Craig C.; Pfiffner, Susan M.; Palumbo, A V.; Peacock, Aaron D.; White, David C.; McKinley, James P.; Long, Philip E.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between groundwater geochemistry and microbial community structure can be complex and difficult to assess. We applied nonlinear and generalized linear data analysis methods to relate microbial biomarkers (phospholipids fatty acids, PLFA) to groundwater geochemical characteristics at the Shiprock uranium mill tailings disposal site that is primarily contaminated by uranium, sulfate, and nitrate. First, predictive models were constructed using feedforward artificial neural networks (NN) to predict PLFA classes from geochemistry. To reduce the danger of overfitting, parsimonious NN architectures were selected based on pruning of hidden nodes and elimination of redundant predictor (geochemical) variables. The resulting NN models greatly outperformed the generalized linear models. Sensitivity analysis indicated that tritium, which was indicative of riverine influences, and uranium were important in predicting the distributions of the PLFA classes. In contrast, nitrate concentration and inorganic carbon were least important, and total ionic strength was of intermediate importance. Second, nonlinear principal components (NPC) were extracted from the PLFA data using a variant of the feedforward NN. The NPC grouped the samples according to similar geochemistry. PLFA indicators of Gram-negative bacteria and eukaryotes were associated with the groups of wells with lower levels of contamination. The more contaminated samples contained microbial communities that were predominated by terminally branched saturates and branched monounsaturates that are indicative of metal reducers, actinomycetes, and Gram-positive bacteria. These results indicate that the microbial community at the site is coupled to the geochemistry and knowledge of the geochemistry allows prediction of the community composition

  15. A Novel Method for Analyzing Microbially Affiliated Volatile Organic Compounds in Soil Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhs, C. V.; McNeal, K. S.

    2010-12-01

    A concerted, international effort by citizens, governments, industries and educational systems is necessary to address the myriad environmental issues that face us today. The authors of this paper concentrate on soil environments and, specifically, the methods currently used to characterize them. The ability to efficiently and effectively monitor and characterize various soils is desired, allows for the study, supervision, and protection of natural and cultivated ecosystems, and may assist stakeholders in meeting governmentally-imposed environmental standards. This research addresses soil characterization by a comparison of four methods that emphasize a combination of microbial community and metabolic measures: BIOLOG, fatty acid methyl-ester analysis (FAME), descriptive physical and chemical analysis (moisture content, pH, carbon content, nutrient content, and grain size), and the novel soil-microbe volatile organic compound analysis (SMVOC) presented in this work. In order to achieve the method comparison, soils were collected from three climatic regions (Bahamas, Michigan, and Mississippi), with three samples taken from niche ecosystems found at each climatic region (a total of nine sites). Of interest to the authors is whether or not an investigation of microbial communities and the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by microbial communities from nine separate soil ecosystems provides useful information about soil dynamics. In essence, is analysis of soil-derived VOCs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) an effective method for characterizing microbial communities and their metabolic activity of soils rapidly and accurately compared with the other three traditional characterization methods? Preliminary results suggest that VOCs in each of these locales differ with changes in soil types, soil moisture, and bacterial community. Each niche site shows distinct patterns in both VOCs and BIOLOG readings. Results will be presented to show the

  16. EXTRACTION OF ASTAXANTHIN ESTERS FROM SHRIMP WASTE BY CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khanafari, A. Saberi, M. Azar, Gh. Vosooghi, Sh. Jamili, B. Sabbaghzadeh

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The carotenoid pigments specifically astaxanthin has many significant applications in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. The goal of this research was the extraction of Astaxanthin from a certain Persian Gulf shrimp species waste (Penaeus semisulcatus, purification and identification of the pigment by chemical and microbial methods. Microbial fermentation was obtained by inoculation of two Lactobacillus species Lb. plantarum and Lb. acidophilus in the medium culture containing shrimp waste powder by the intervention of lactose sugar, yeast extract, the composition of Both and the coolage (-20oC. The carotenoids were extracted by an organic solvent system. After purification of astaxanthin with the thin layer chromatography method by spectrophotometer, NMR and IR analysis the presence of astaxanthin esters was recognized in this specific species of Persian Gulf shrimp. Results obtained from this study showed that the coolage at –20 oC not only does not have an amplifying effect on the production of astaxanthin but also slightly reduces this effect. Also the effect of intervention of lactose sugar showed more effectiveness in producing astaxanthin than yeast extract or more than with the presence of both. The results also indicated that there is not much difference in the ability of producing the pigment by comparing both Lb. plantarum and Lb. acidophillus. Also results showed the microbial method of extraction of astaxanthin is more effective than chemical method. The pigment extracted from certain amount of shrimp powder, 23.128 mg/g, was calculated.

  17. Defining a Forensic Audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevenson G. Smith

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Disclosures about new financial frauds and scandals are continually appearing in the press.  As a consequence, the accounting profession's traditional methods of monitoring corporate financial activities are under intense scrutiny.  At the same time, there is recognition that principles-based GAAP from the International Accounting Standards Board will become the recognized standard in the U.S.  The authors argue that these two factors will change the practices used to fight corporate malfeasance as investigators adapt the techniques of accounting into a forensic audit engagement model.

  18. Oral Pathology in Forensic Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2018-01-01

    Forensic odontology is the subdiscipline of dentistry which analyses dental evidence in the interest of justice. Oral pathology is the subdiscipline of dentistry that deals with the pathology affecting the oral and maxillofacial regions. This subdiscipline is utilized for identification through oral and maxillofacial pathologies with associated syndromes, enamel rod patterns, sex determination using exfoliative cytology, identification from occlusal morphology of teeth, and deoxyribonucleic acid profiling from teeth. This subdiscipline is also utilized for age estimation studies which include Gustafson's method, incremental lines of Retzius, perikymata, natal line formation in teeth, neonatal line, racemization of collagen in dentin, cemental incremental lines, thickness of the cementum, and translucency of dentin. Even though the expertise of an oral pathologist is not taken in forensic investigations, this paper aims to discuss the role of oral pathology in forensic investigation.

  19. Feasability of respirometric Bartha method for microbial activity analisys in soils submitted to vinasses application

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia R. Cabello; Natália Pereira; Jaqueline A. Camargo; Francisco J. C. Teran

    2009-01-01

    The cultivation of sugar cane has gained prominence in Brazil, as a result of economic time lived in the country. National incentives are offered to increase its production in order to be used as fuel. Therefore, it generated a growing volume of vinasse which arouses attention as your destination and use. In this work provides the possibility of diagnosing the method of respirometry Bartha for analysis of microbial activity under the influence of the vinasse in the soil of the West Paulista. ...

  20. An Overview on Novel Microbial Determination Methods in Pharmaceutical and Food Quality Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboob Nemati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditional microbiological methods tend to be labor-intensive and time-consuming. Rapid and novel methods in microbiological tests provide more sensitive, precise and reproducible results compared with conventional methods. In microbiology, the most rapid testing methods belong to the field of biotechnology such as PCR, ELISA, ATP bioluminescence and etc. Nevertheless impedance microbiology, biosensors and analytical procedures to determine microbial constituents are of significance. The present review article was conducted using internet databases and related scientific literatures and articles that provide information on developments in the rapid methods in microbiology. The main focus is on the application of rapid methods in microbial quality control of pharmaceutical products. Reviewed literature showed that rapid methods and automation in microbiology is an advanced area for studying and applying of improved methods in the early detection, and characterization of microorganisms and their products in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industrials as well as environmental monitoring and clinical applications. It can be concluded that rapid methods and automation in microbiology should continue as potent and efficient technologies to develop the novel tests to be performed in the future because of the ever-increasing concerns about the safety of food and pharmaceutical products. However the main issues to be considered are the scale up of developed methods and the regulatory requirements.

  1. Effect of DNA extraction methods and sampling techniques on the apparent structure of cow and sheep rumen microbial communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Henderson

    Full Text Available Molecular microbial ecology techniques are widely used to study the composition of the rumen microbiota and to increase understanding of the roles they play. Therefore, sampling and DNA extraction methods that result in adequate yields of microbial DNA that also accurately represents the microbial community are crucial. Fifteen different methods were used to extract DNA from cow and sheep rumen samples. The DNA yield and quality, and its suitability for downstream PCR amplifications varied considerably, depending on the DNA extraction method used. DNA extracts from nine extraction methods that passed these first quality criteria were evaluated further by quantitative PCR enumeration of microbial marker loci. Absolute microbial numbers, determined on the same rumen samples, differed by more than 100-fold, depending on the DNA extraction method used. The apparent compositions of the archaeal, bacterial, ciliate protozoal, and fungal communities in identical rumen samples were assessed using 454 Titanium pyrosequencing. Significant differences in microbial community composition were observed between extraction methods, for example in the relative abundances of members of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Microbial communities in parallel samples collected from cows by oral stomach-tubing or through a rumen fistula, and in liquid and solid rumen digesta fractions, were compared using one of the DNA extraction methods. Community representations were generally similar, regardless of the rumen sampling technique used, but significant differences in the abundances of some microbial taxa such as the Clostridiales and the Methanobrevibacter ruminantium clade were observed. The apparent microbial community composition differed between rumen sample fractions, and Prevotellaceae were most abundant in the liquid fraction. DNA extraction methods that involved phenol-chloroform extraction and mechanical lysis steps tended to be more comparable. However

  2. A microbial clock provides an accurate estimate of the postmortem interval in a mouse model system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Jessica L; Wegener Parfrey, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonio; Lauber, Christian L; Knights, Dan; Ackermann, Gail; Humphrey, Gregory C; Gebert, Matthew J; Van Treuren, Will; Berg-Lyons, Donna; Keepers, Kyle; Guo, Yan; Bullard, James; Fierer, Noah; Carter, David O; Knight, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Establishing the time since death is critical in every death investigation, yet existing techniques are susceptible to a range of errors and biases. For example, forensic entomology is widely used to assess the postmortem interval (PMI), but errors can range from days to months. Microbes may provide a novel method for estimating PMI that avoids many of these limitations. Here we show that postmortem microbial community changes are dramatic, measurable, and repeatable in a mouse model system, allowing PMI to be estimated within approximately 3 days over 48 days. Our results provide a detailed understanding of bacterial and microbial eukaryotic ecology within a decomposing corpse system and suggest that microbial community data can be developed into a forensic tool for estimating PMI. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01104.001 PMID:24137541

  3. Forensic Computing (Dagstuhl Seminar 13482)

    OpenAIRE

    Freiling, Felix C.; Hornung, Gerrit; Polcák, Radim

    2014-01-01

    Forensic computing} (sometimes also called digital forensics, computer forensics or IT forensics) is a branch of forensic science pertaining to digital evidence, i.e., any legal evidence that is processed by digital computer systems or stored on digital storage media. Forensic computing is a new discipline evolving within the intersection of several established research areas such as computer science, computer engineering and law. Forensic computing is rapidly gaining importance since the...

  4. Development and validation of a simple GC-MS method for the simultaneous determination of 11 anticholinesterase pesticides in blood--clinical and forensic toxicology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoutsis, Ioannis; Mendonis, Marcela; Nikolaou, Panagiota; Athanaselis, Sotirios; Pistos, Constantinos; Maravelias, Constantinos; Spiliopoulou, Chara

    2012-05-01

    Anticholinesterase pesticides are widely used, and as a result they are involved in numerous acute and even fatal poisonings. The aim of this study was the development, optimization, and validation of a simple, rapid, specific, and sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the determination of 11 anticholinesterase pesticides (aldicarb, azinphos methyl, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, dialifos, diazinon, malathion, methamidophos, methidathion, methomyl, and terbufos) in blood. Only 500 μL of blood was used, and the recoveries after liquid-liquid extraction (toluene/chloroform, 4:1, v/v) were more than 65.6%. The calibration curves were linear (R(2) ≥ 0.996). Limit of detections and limit of quantifications were found to be between 1.00-10.0 and 3.00-30.0 μg/L, respectively. Accuracy expressed as the %E(r) was found to be between -11.0 and 7.8%. Precision expressed as the percent relative standard deviation was found to be forensic and clinical cases of accidental or suicidal poisoning with these pesticides. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Incorporating Argumentation through Forensic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lindsay B.; Maeng, Jennifer L.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2014-01-01

    This article outlines how to incorporate argumentation into a forensic science unit using a mock trial. Practical details of the mock trial include: (1) a method of scaffolding students' development of their argument for the trial, (2) a clearly outlined set of expectations for students during the planning and implementation of the mock…

  6. Method Verification Requirements for an Advanced Imaging System for Microbial Plate Count Enumeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David; Cundell, Tony

    2018-01-01

    The Growth Direct™ System that automates the incubation and reading of membrane filtration microbial counts on soybean-casein digest, Sabouraud dextrose, and R2A agar differs only from the traditional method in that micro-colonies on the membrane are counted using an advanced imaging system up to 50% earlier in the incubation. Based on the recommendations in USP Validation of New Microbiological Testing Methods , the system may be implemented in a microbiology laboratory after simple method verification and not a full method validation. LAY ABSTRACT: The Growth Direct™ System that automates the incubation and reading of microbial counts on membranes on solid agar differs only from the traditional method in that micro-colonies on the membrane are counted using an advanced imaging system up to 50% earlier in the incubation time. Based on the recommendations in USP Validation of New Microbiological Testing Methods , the system may be implemented in a microbiology laboratory after simple method verification and not a full method validation. © PDA, Inc. 2018.

  7. Sequence-based Methods in Human Microbial Ecology: A The 2nd HumanGenome Comes of Age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Li; Rubin, Edward M.; Bristow, James

    2005-06-01

    Ecologists studying microbial life in the environment have recognized the enormous complexity of microbial diversity for more than a decade (Whitman et al. 1998). The development of a variety of culture-independent methods, many of them coupled with high-throughput DNA sequencing, has allowed this diversity to be explored in ever greater detail (Handelsman 2004; Harris et al. 2004; Hugenholtz et al. 1998; Moreira and Lopez-Garcia 2002; Rappe and Giovannoni 2003). Despite the widespread application of these new techniques to the characterization of uncultivated microbes and microbial communities in the environment, their application to human health and disease has lagged behind. Because these techniques now allow not only cataloging of microbial diversity, but also insight into microbial functions, it is time for clinical microbiologists to apply these tools to the microbial communities that abound on and within us, in what has been aptly called ''the second Human Genome Project'' (Relman and Falkow 2001). In this review we will discuss the sequence-based methods for microbial analysis that are currently available and their application to identify novel human pathogens, improve diagnosis and treatment of known infectious diseases, and finally to advance understanding of our relationship with microbial communities that normally reside in and on the human body.

  8. Enrichment of the hydrogen-producing microbial community from marine intertidal sludge by different pretreatment methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongyan [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Nanhai Road, Shinan District, Qingdao 266071, Shandong (China); College of Marine Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Wang, Guangce [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Nanhai Road, Shinan District, Qingdao 266071, Shandong (China); College of Marine Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Zhu, Daling; Pan, Guanghua [College of Marine Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China)

    2009-12-15

    To determine the effects of pretreatment on hydrogen production and the hydrogen-producing microbial community, we treated the sludge from the intertidal zone of a bathing beach in Tianjin with four different pretreatment methods, including acid treatment, heat-shock, base treatment as well as freezing and thawing. The results showed that acid pretreatment significantly promoted the hydrogen production by sludge and provided the highest efficiency of hydrogen production among the four methods. The efficiency of the hydrogen production of the acid-pretreated sludge was 0.86 {+-} 0.07 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose (mean {+-} S.E.), whereas that of the sludge treated with heat-shock, freezing and thawing, base method and control was 0.41 {+-} 0.03 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose, 0.17 {+-} 0.01 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose, 0.11 {+-} 0.01 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose and 0.20 {+-} 0.04 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose, respectively. The result of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that pretreatment methods altered the composition of the microbial community that accounts for hydrogen production. Acid and heat pretreatments were favorable to enrich the dominant hydrogen-producing bacterium, i.e. Clostridium sp., Enterococcus sp. and Bacillus sp. However, besides hydrogen-producing bacteria, much non-hydrogen-producing Lactobacillus sp. was also found in the sludge pretreated with base, freezing and thawing methods. Therefore, based on our results, we concluded that, among the four pretreatment methods using acid, heat-shock, base or freezing and thawing, acid pretreatment was the most effective method for promoting hydrogen production of microbial community. (author)

  9. Thinking forensics: Cognitive science for forensic practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmond, Gary; Towler, Alice; Growns, Bethany; Ribeiro, Gianni; Found, Bryan; White, David; Ballantyne, Kaye; Searston, Rachel A; Thompson, Matthew B; Tangen, Jason M; Kemp, Richard I; Martire, Kristy

    2017-03-01

    Human factors and their implications for forensic science have attracted increasing levels of interest across criminal justice communities in recent years. Initial interest centred on cognitive biases, but has since expanded such that knowledge from psychology and cognitive science is slowly infiltrating forensic practices more broadly. This article highlights a series of important findings and insights of relevance to forensic practitioners. These include research on human perception, memory, context information, expertise, decision-making, communication, experience, verification, confidence, and feedback. The aim of this article is to sensitise forensic practitioners (and lawyers and judges) to a range of potentially significant issues, and encourage them to engage with research in these domains so that they may adapt procedures to improve performance, mitigate risks and reduce errors. Doing so will reduce the divide between forensic practitioners and research scientists as well as improve the value and utility of forensic science evidence. Copyright © 2016 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Novel Selectivity-Based Forensic Toxicological Validation of a Paper Spray Mass Spectrometry Method for the Quantitative Determination of Eight Amphetamines in Whole Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunissen, Sebastiaan F.; Fedick, Patrick W.; Berendsen, Bjorn J. A.; Nielen, Michel W. F.; Eberlin, Marcos N.; Graham Cooks, R.; van Asten, Arian C.

    2017-12-01

    Paper spray tandem mass spectrometry is used to identify and quantify eight individual amphetamines in whole blood in 1.3 min. The method has been optimized and fully validated according to forensic toxicology guidelines, for the quantification of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxy- N-methylamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxy- N-ethylamphetamine (MDEA), para-methoxyamphetamine (PMA), para-methoxymethamphetamine (PMMA), and 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA). Additionally, a new concept of intrinsic and application-based selectivity is discussed, featuring increased confidence in the power to discriminate the amphetamines from other chemically similar compounds when applying an ambient mass spectrometric method without chromatographic separation. Accuracy was within ±15% and average precision was better than 15%, and better than 20% at the LLOQ. Detection limits between 15 and 50 ng/mL were obtained using only 12 μL of whole blood. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. Extraction of solubles from plant biomass for use as microbial growth stimulant and methods related thereto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Ming Woei

    2015-12-08

    A method for producing a microbial growth stimulant (MGS) from a plant biomass is described. In one embodiment, an ammonium hydroxide solution is used to extract a solution of proteins and ammonia from the biomass. Some of the proteins and ammonia are separated from the extracted solution to provide the MGS solution. The removed ammonia can be recycled and the proteins are useful as animal feeds. In one embodiment, the method comprises extracting solubles from pretreated lignocellulosic biomass with a cellulase enzyme-producing growth medium (such T. reesei) in the presence of water and an aqueous extract.

  12. Scenario-Based Digital Forensics Challenges in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Miranda Lopez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of digital forensics is to extract information to answer the 5Ws (Why, When, Where, What, and Who from the data extracted from the evidence. In order to achieve this, most digital forensic processes assume absolute control of digital evidence. However, in a cloud environment forensic investigation, this is not always possible. Additionally, the unique characteristics of cloud computing create new technical, legal and architectural challenges when conducting a forensic investigation. We propose a hypothetical scenario to uncover and explain the challenges forensic practitioners face during cloud investigations. Additionally, we also provide solutions to address the challenges. Our hypothetical case scenario has shown that, in the long run, better live forensic tools, development of new methods tailored for cloud investigations and new procedures and standards are indeed needed. Furthermore, we have come to the conclusion that forensic investigations biggest challenge is not technical but legal.

  13. Live forensic acquisition as alternative to traditional forensic processes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lessing, M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of live forensic acquisition in general presents a remedy for some of the problems introduced by traditional forensic acquisition. However, this live forensic acquisition introduces a variety of additional problems, unique...

  14. Filter forensics: microbiota recovery from residential HVAC filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre, Juan P; Jennings, Wiley; Wylie, Dennis; Horner, Sharon D; Siegel, Jeffrey; Kinney, Kerry A

    2018-01-30

    Establishing reliable methods for assessing the microbiome within the built environment is critical for understanding the impact of biological exposures on human health. High-throughput DNA sequencing of dust samples provides valuable insights into the microbiome present in human-occupied spaces. However, the effect that different sampling methods have on the microbial community recovered from dust samples is not well understood across sample types. Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) filters hold promise as long-term, spatially integrated, high volume samplers to characterize the airborne microbiome in homes and other climate-controlled spaces. In this study, the effect that dust recovery method (i.e., cut and elution, swabbing, or vacuuming) has on the microbial community structure, membership, and repeatability inferred by Illumina sequencing was evaluated. The results indicate that vacuum samples captured higher quantities of total, bacterial, and fungal DNA than swab or cut samples. Repeated swab and vacuum samples collected from the same filter were less variable than cut samples with respect to both quantitative DNA recovery and bacterial community structure. Vacuum samples captured substantially greater bacterial diversity than the other methods, whereas fungal diversity was similar across all three methods. Vacuum and swab samples of HVAC filter dust were repeatable and generally superior to cut samples. Nevertheless, the contribution of environmental and human sources to the bacterial and fungal communities recovered via each sampling method was generally consistent across the methods investigated. Dust recovery methodologies have been shown to affect the recovery, repeatability, structure, and membership of microbial communities recovered from dust samples in the built environment. The results of this study are directly applicable to indoor microbiota studies utilizing the filter forensics approach. More broadly, this study provides a

  15. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.

    2016-06-01

    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  16. Dried blood spots combined to an UPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of drugs of abuse in forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler Simões, Susana; Castañera Ajenjo, Antonio; Dias, Mário João

    2018-01-05

    A method for the simultaneous determination of 11 illicit drugs, using the dried blood spot (DBS) sampling technique combined with the UPLC-MS/MS technology was developed to study its applicability within the forensic toxicology. The DBS samples, prepared from a blood volume of 50μL and using the Whatman® BFC 180 bloodstain cards, were extracted with a methanol/acetonitrile mixture. The chromatographic separation was performed using an Acquity UPLC ® HSS T3 column (100mm×2.1mm, 1.8μm) and an acetonitrile/2mM ammonium formate (0.1% formic acid) gradient. The detection was accomplished with a TQ Detector, operating in the ESI+ and MRM modes. The method was validated in terms of selectivity, matrix effect, extraction recovery (42%-91%), carryover, LOD and LOQ (0.5-1ng/mL and 1-5ng/mL, respectively), linearity (LOQ to 500ng/mL), intraday and interday precision (3.8-14% and 5.3-13%, respectively), accuracy (-9.3% to 7.9%) and dilution integrity. An eight months stability study at room temperature, 2-8°C and -10°C, was also performed, with the best results obtained at -10°C. The procedure was applied to 64 real samples (92 positive results for substances included in this study). The results were compared with the methodologies routinely applied in the laboratory and the statistical analysis allowed to establish an acceptable correlation. This study permitted to determine that the DBS can represent an alternative or a complement to conventional analytical and sampling techniques, responding to some of the present issues concerning the different forensic toxicology applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Plethora of Cyber Forensics

    OpenAIRE

    N.Sridhar; Dr.D.Lalitha Bhaskari; Dr.P.S.Avadhani

    2011-01-01

    As threats against digital assets have risen and there is necessitate exposing and eliminating hidden risks and threats. The ability of exposing is called “cyber forensics.” Cyber Penetrators have adopted more sophistical tools and tactics that endanger the operations of the global phenomena. These attackers are also using anti-forensic techniques to hide evidence of a cyber crime. Cyber forensics tools must increase its toughness and counteract these advanced persistent threats. This paper f...

  18. Biosensors in forensic sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederickx, C.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A biosensor is a device that uses biological materials to detect and monitor the presence of specific chemicals in an area. Traditional methods of volatile detection used by law enforcement agencies and rescue teams typically consist of reliance on canine olfaction. This concept of using dogs to detect specific substances is quite old. However, dogs have some limitations such as cost of training and time of conditioning. Thus, the possibility of using other organisms as biosensors including rats, dolphins, honeybees, and parasitic wasps for detecting explosives, narcotics and cadavers has been developed. Insects have several advantages unshared by mammals. Insects are sensitive, cheap to produce and can be conditioned with impressive speed for a specific chemical-detection task. Moreover, insects might be a preferred sensing method in scenarios that are deemed too dangerous to use mammals. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the biosensors used in forensic sciences.

  19. USNA DIGITAL FORENSICS LAB

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — To enable Digital Forensics and Computer Security research and educational opportunities across majors and departments. Lab MissionEstablish and maintain a Digital...

  20. Accuracy Rates of Ancestry Estimation by Forensic Anthropologists Using Identified Forensic Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Richard M; Parks, Connie L; Richard, Adam H

    2017-07-01

    A common task in forensic anthropology involves the estimation of the ancestry of a decedent by comparing their skeletal morphology and measurements to skeletons of individuals from known geographic groups. However, the accuracy rates of ancestry estimation methods in actual forensic casework have rarely been studied. This article uses 99 forensic cases with identified skeletal remains to develop accuracy rates for ancestry estimations conducted by forensic anthropologists. The overall rate of correct ancestry estimation from these cases is 90.9%, which is comparable to most research-derived rates and those reported by individual practitioners. Statistical tests showed no significant difference in accuracy rates depending on examiner education level or on the estimated or identified ancestry. More recent cases showed a significantly higher accuracy rate. The incorporation of metric analyses into the ancestry estimate in these cases led to a higher accuracy rate. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Multivariate methods for the analysis of complex and big data in forensic sciences. Application to age estimation in living persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Thomas; Chariot, Patrick; Chauvin, Pierre

    2016-09-01

    Researchers handle increasingly higher dimensional datasets, with many variables to explore. Such datasets pose several problems, since they are difficult to handle and present unexpected features. As dimensionality increases, classical statistical analysis becomes inoperative. Variables can present redundancy, and the reduction of dataset dimensionality to its lowest possible value is often needed. Principal components analysis (PCA) has proven useful to reduce dimensionality but present several shortcomings. As others, forensic sciences will face the issues specific related to an evergrowing quantity of data to be integrated. Age estimation in living persons, an unsolved problem so far, could benefit from the integration of various sources of data, e.g., clinical, dental and radiological data. We present here novel multivariate techniques (nonlinear dimensionality reduction techniques, NLDR), applied to a theoretical example. Results were compared to those of PCA. NLDR techniques were then applied to clinical, dental and radiological data (13 variables) used for age estimation. The correlation dimension of these data was estimated. NLDR techniques outperformed PCA results. They showed that two living persons sharing similar characteristics may present rather different estimated ages. Moreover, data presented a very high informational redundancy, i.e., a correlation dimension of 2. NLDR techniques should be used with or preferred to PCA techniques to analyze complex and big data. Data routinely used for age estimation may not be considered suitable for this purpose. How integrating other data or approaches could improve age estimation in living persons is still uncertain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular DNA Analysis in Forensic Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumache, Raluca; Ciocan, Veronica; Muresan, Camelia; Enache, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Serological and biochemical identification methods used in forensics have several major disadvantages, such as: long time in processing biological sample and lack of sensitivity and specificity. In the last 30 years, DNA molecular analysis has become an important tool in forensic investigations. DNA profiling is based on the short tandem repeats (STR) and aids in human identification from biological samples. Forensic genetics, can provide information on the events which occurred at the crime scene or to supplement other methods of forensic identification. Currently, the methods used in identification are based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. This method analyses the autosomal STRs, the Y-chromosome, and the mitochondrial DNA. Correlation of biological samples present at the crime scene with identification, selection, and the probative value factor is therefore the first aspect to be taken into consideration in the forensic genetic analysis. In the last decade, because of the advances in the field of molecular biology, new biomarkers such as: microRNAs (miR), messenger RNA (mRNA), and DNA methylation have been studied and proposed to be used in the forensic identifications of body fluids.

  3. COMPOSITION AND METHOD FOR CONTROLLING MICROBIAL ADHESION AND BIOFILM FORMATION OF SURFACES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention describes how coating of surfaces with an extract, particularly a fish extract, can significantly reduce microbial adhesion, attachment, colonization and biofilm formation on surfaces. Such reduction of microbial adherence, attachment and colonization will be applicable...

  4. Impact of acclimation methods on microbial communities and performance of anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactors

    KAUST Repository

    Labarge, Nicole

    2016-10-17

    An anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactor (AFMBR) is a new and effective method for energy-efficient treatment of low strength wastewater, but the factors that affect performance are not well known. Different inocula and acclimation methods of the granular activated carbon (GAC) used in the reactor were examined here to determine their impact on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and microbial community composition of domestic wastewater-fed AFMBRs. AFMBRs inoculated with anaerobic digester sludge (D) or domestic wastewater (W) and fed domestic wastewater, or inoculated with a microbiologically diverse anaerobic bog sediment and acclimated using methanol (M), all produced the same COD removal of 63 ± 12% using a diluted wastewater feed (100 ± 21 mg L−1 COD). However, an AFMBR with GAC inoculated with anaerobic digester sludge and acclimated using acetate (A) showed significantly increased wastewater COD removal to 84 ± 6%. In addition, feeding the AFMBR with the M-acclimated GAC with an acetate medium for one week subsequently increased COD removal to 70 ± 6%. Microbial communities enriched on the GAC included Geobacter, sulfur-reducing bacteria, Syntrophaceae, and Chlorobiaceae, with reactor A having the highest relative abundance of Geobacter. These results showed that acetate was the most useful substrate for acclimation of GAC communities, and GAC harbors unique communities relative to those in the AFMBR influent and recirculated solution.

  5. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods Capture Different Microbial Community Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck O P Stefani

    Full Text Available Bioremediation is a cost-effective and sustainable approach for treating polluted soils, but our ability to improve on current bioremediation strategies depends on our ability to isolate microorganisms from these soils. Although culturing is widely used in bioremediation research and applications, it is unknown whether the composition of cultured isolates closely mirrors the indigenous microbial community from contaminated soils. To assess this, we paired culture-independent (454-pyrosequencing of total soil DNA with culture-dependent (isolation using seven different growth media techniques to analyse the bacterial and fungal communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Although bacterial and fungal rarefaction curves were saturated for both methods, only 2.4% and 8.2% of the bacterial and fungal OTUs, respectively, were shared between datasets. Isolated taxa increased the total recovered species richness by only 2% for bacteria and 5% for fungi. Interestingly, none of the bacteria that we isolated were representative of the major bacterial OTUs recovered by 454-pyrosequencing. Isolation of fungi was moderately more effective at capturing the dominant OTUs observed by culture-independent analysis, as 3 of 31 cultured fungal strains ranked among the 20 most abundant fungal OTUs in the 454-pyrosequencing dataset. This study is one of the most comprehensive comparisons of microbial communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils using both isolation and high-throughput sequencing methods.

  6. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods Capture Different Microbial Community Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, Franck O P; Bell, Terrence H; Marchand, Charlotte; de la Providencia, Ivan E; El Yassimi, Abdel; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Bioremediation is a cost-effective and sustainable approach for treating polluted soils, but our ability to improve on current bioremediation strategies depends on our ability to isolate microorganisms from these soils. Although culturing is widely used in bioremediation research and applications, it is unknown whether the composition of cultured isolates closely mirrors the indigenous microbial community from contaminated soils. To assess this, we paired culture-independent (454-pyrosequencing of total soil DNA) with culture-dependent (isolation using seven different growth media) techniques to analyse the bacterial and fungal communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Although bacterial and fungal rarefaction curves were saturated for both methods, only 2.4% and 8.2% of the bacterial and fungal OTUs, respectively, were shared between datasets. Isolated taxa increased the total recovered species richness by only 2% for bacteria and 5% for fungi. Interestingly, none of the bacteria that we isolated were representative of the major bacterial OTUs recovered by 454-pyrosequencing. Isolation of fungi was moderately more effective at capturing the dominant OTUs observed by culture-independent analysis, as 3 of 31 cultured fungal strains ranked among the 20 most abundant fungal OTUs in the 454-pyrosequencing dataset. This study is one of the most comprehensive comparisons of microbial communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils using both isolation and high-throughput sequencing methods.

  7. Microbial Diversity of Browning Peninsula, Eastern Antarctica Revealed Using Molecular and Cultivation Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudasaini, Sarita; Wilson, John; Ji, Mukan; van Dorst, Josie; Snape, Ian; Palmer, Anne S; Burns, Brendan P; Ferrari, Belinda C

    2017-01-01

    Browning Peninsula is an ice-free polar desert situated in the Windmill Islands, Eastern Antarctica. The entire site is described as a barren landscape, comprised of frost boils with soils dominated by microbial life. In this study, we explored the microbial diversity and edaphic drivers of community structure across this site using traditional cultivation methods, a novel approach the soil substrate membrane system (SSMS), and culture-independent 454-tag pyrosequencing. The measured soil environmental and microphysical factors of chlorine, phosphate, aspect and elevation were found to be significant drivers of the bacterial community, while none of the soil parameters analyzed were significantly correlated to the fungal community. Overall, Browning Peninsula soil harbored a distinctive microbial community in comparison to other Antarctic soils comprised of a unique bacterial diversity and extremely limited fungal diversity. Tag pyrosequencing data revealed the bacterial community to be dominated by Actinobacteria (36%), followed by Chloroflexi (18%), Cyanobacteria (14%), and Proteobacteria (10%). For fungi, Ascomycota (97%) dominated the soil microbiome, followed by Basidiomycota. As expected the diversity recovered from culture-based techniques was lower than that detected using tag sequencing. However, in the SSMS enrichments, that mimic the natural conditions for cultivating oligophilic "k-selected" bacteria, a larger proportion of rare bacterial taxa (15%), such as Blastococcus, Devosia, Herbaspirillum, Propionibacterium and Methylocella and fungal (11%) taxa, such as Nigrospora, Exophiala, Hortaea , and Penidiella were recovered at the genus level. At phylum level, a comparison of OTU's showed that the SSMS shared 21% of Acidobacteria, 11% of Actinobacteria and 10% of Proteobacteria OTU's with soil. For fungi, the shared OTUs was 4% (Basidiomycota) and <0.5% (Ascomycota). This was the first known attempt to culture microfungi using the SSMS which resulted in

  8. Forensic radiology: An emerging tool in identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghav Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In any mass disaster condition, identification of the person is most important. For this purpose, the forensic investigators use different methods for identifying the dead. They consider skeletal remains of the dead as the initial step in identification. Radiographs carry great evidence to act as antemortem records and also assist in identifying the person, age, gender, race, etc. Forensic dentistry is also emerging as a new branch in forensics. So, the forensic dentist must be aware of different techniques, developments, and resources to incorporate the technology in order to achieve success in human identification. So, our aim of the present review is to focus on different radiological techniques and new developments available for successful identification of the dead.

  9. Forensic Science Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Forensic science technicians, also called crime laboratory technicians or police science technicians, help solve crimes. They examine and identify physical evidence to reconstruct a crime scene. This article discusses everything students need to know about careers for forensic science technicians--wages, responsibilities, skills needed, career…

  10. Development and validation of an EI-GC-MS method for the determination of benzodiazepine drugs and their metabolites in blood: applications in clinical and forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoutsis, Ioannis I; Athanaselis, Sotirios A; Nikolaou, Panagiota D; Pistos, Constantinos M; Spiliopoulou, Chara A; Maravelias, Constantinos P

    2010-08-01

    Benzodiazepines are used widely in daily clinical practice, due to their multiple pharmacological actions. The frequent problems associated with the wide use of benzodiazepines, as well as the multiple incidents of poisonings, led to the necessity for the development of a precise, sensitive and rapid method for the simultaneous determination of the 23 most commonly used benzodiazepines (diazepam, nordiazepam, oxazepam, bromazepam, alprazolam, lorazepam, medazepam, flurazepam, fludiazepam, tetrazepam, chlordiazepoxide, clobazam, midazolam, flunitrazepam, 7-amino-flunitrazepam, triazolam, prazepam, nimetazepam, nitrazepam, temazepam, lormetazepam, clonazepam, camazepam) in blood. A gas chromatographic method combined with mass spectrometric detection was developed, optimized and validated for the determination of the above substances. This method includes liquid-liquid extraction with chloroform at pH 9 and two stages of derivatization using tetramethylammonium hydroxide and propyliodide (propylation), as well as a mixture of triethylamine:propionic anhydride (propionylation). The recoveries were higher than 74% for all the benzodiazepines. The calibration curves were linear within the dynamic range of each benzodiazepine with a correlation coefficient higher than 0.9981. The limits of detection and quantification for each analyte were statistically calculated from the relative calibration curves. Accuracy and precision were also calculated and were found to be less than 8.5% and 11.1%, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied for the investigation of both forensic and clinical toxicological cases of accidental and suicidal poisoning. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A call for more science in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Suzanne; Sah, Sunita; Albright, Thomas D; Gates, S James; Denton, M Bonner; Casadevall, Arturo

    2018-05-01

    Forensic science is critical to the administration of justice. The discipline of forensic science is remarkably complex and includes methodologies ranging from DNA analysis to chemical composition to pattern recognition. Many forensic practices developed under the auspices of law enforcement and were vetted primarily by the legal system rather than being subjected to scientific scrutiny and empirical testing. Beginning in the 1990s, exonerations based on DNA-related methods revealed problems with some forensic disciplines, leading to calls for major reforms. This process generated a National Academy of Science report in 2009 that was highly critical of many forensic practices and eventually led to the establishment of the National Commission for Forensic Science (NCFS) in 2013. The NCFS was a deliberative body that catalyzed communication between nonforensic scientists, forensic scientists, and other stakeholders in the legal community. In 2017, despite continuing problems with forensic science, the Department of Justice terminated the NCFS. Just when forensic science needs the most support, it is getting the least. We urge the larger scientific community to come to the aid of our forensic colleagues by advocating for urgently needed research, testing, and financial support.

  12. Proteomic profiling of an undefined microbial consortium cultured in fermented dairy manure: Methods development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Andrea J; Paszczynski, Andrzej J; Coats, Erik R

    2016-03-01

    The production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA; bioplastics) from waste or surplus feedstocks using mixed microbial consortia (MMC) and aerobic dynamic feeding (ADF) is a growing field within mixed culture biotechnology. This study aimed to optimize a 2DE workflow to investigate the proteome dynamics of an MMC synthesizing PHA from fermented dairy manure. To mitigate the challenges posed to effective 2DE by this complex sample matrix, the bacterial biomass was purified using Accudenz gradient centrifugation (AGC) before protein extraction. The optimized 2DE method yielded high-quality gels suitable for quantitative comparative analysis and subsequent protein identification by LC-MS/MS. The optimized 2DE method could be adapted to other proteomic investigations involving MMC in complex organic or environmental matrices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Forensic odontological examinations of alleged torture victims at the University of Copenhagen 1997-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Sára Oladóttir; Hansen, Steen Holger; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical forensic examinations of alleged torture victims have been performed by forensic pathologists at the University of Copenhagen since 1995. In 13.2%/33 of these cases the examinations were supplemented by a forensic odontological clinical examination. In this study the forensic...... odontological cases from the years 1997-2011 are presented and discussed. METHODS: This study includes 33 reports from alleged torture victims (4 females, 29 males) who have been examined by a forensic odontologist at the Copenhagen School of Dentistry in the years 1997-2011.The material available consisted...... of copies of medical forensic reports and the forensic odontological reports including x-rays. BACKGROUND data, anamnestic data and results of the forensic odontological clinical examinations were registered as well as the conclusion of the clinical examinations. FINDINGS: The forensic odontological...

  14. PCR in forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morling, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction in the mid-1980s of analyses of minisatellites for DNA analyses, a revolution has taken place in forensic genetics. The subsequent invention of the PCR made it possible to develop forensic genetics tools that allow both very informative routine investigations and still more...... and more advanced, special investigations in cases concerning crime, paternity, relationship, disaster victim identification etc. The present review gives an update on the use of DNA investigations in forensic genetics.......Since the introduction in the mid-1980s of analyses of minisatellites for DNA analyses, a revolution has taken place in forensic genetics. The subsequent invention of the PCR made it possible to develop forensic genetics tools that allow both very informative routine investigations and still more...

  15. Glycogenomics as a mass spectrometry-guided genome-mining method for microbial glycosylated molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Roland D; Ziemert, Nadine; Gonzalez, David J; Duggan, Brendan M; Nizet, Victor; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Moore, Bradley S

    2013-11-19

    Glycosyl groups are an essential mediator of molecular interactions in cells and on cellular surfaces. There are very few methods that directly relate sugar-containing molecules to their biosynthetic machineries. Here, we introduce glycogenomics as an experiment-guided genome-mining approach for fast characterization of glycosylated natural products (GNPs) and their biosynthetic pathways from genome-sequenced microbes by targeting glycosyl groups in microbial metabolomes. Microbial GNPs consist of aglycone and glycosyl structure groups in which the sugar unit(s) are often critical for the GNP's bioactivity, e.g., by promoting binding to a target biomolecule. GNPs are a structurally diverse class of molecules with important pharmaceutical and agrochemical applications. Herein, O- and N-glycosyl groups are characterized in their sugar monomers by tandem mass spectrometry (MS) and matched to corresponding glycosylation genes in secondary metabolic pathways by a MS-glycogenetic code. The associated aglycone biosynthetic genes of the GNP genotype then classify the natural product to further guide structure elucidation. We highlight the glycogenomic strategy by the characterization of several bioactive glycosylated molecules and their gene clusters, including the anticancer agent cinerubin B from Streptomyces sp. SPB74 and an antibiotic, arenimycin B, from Salinispora arenicola CNB-527.

  16. Nuclear forensic analysis of thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, K.J.; Grant, P.M.

    1999-01-01

    A comprehensive radiochemical isolation procedure and data analysis/interpretation method for the nuclear forensic investigation of Th has been developed. The protocol includes sample dissolution, chemical separation, nuclear counting techniques, consideration of isotopic parent-daughter equilibria, and data interpretation tactics. Practical application of the technology was demonstrated by analyses of a questioned specimen confiscated at an illegal drug synthesis laboratory by law enforcement authorities. (author)

  17. A novel fast method for aqueous derivatization of THC, OH-THC and THC-COOH in human whole blood and urine samples for routine forensic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanelli, Fabio; Pesci, Federica Giorgia; Giusiani, Mario; Chericoni, Silvio

    2018-04-01

    A novel aqueous in situ derivatization procedure with propyl chloroformate (PCF) for the simultaneous, quantitative analysis of Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (OH-THC) and 11-nor-Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) in human blood and urine is proposed. Unlike current methods based on the silylating agent [N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide] added in an anhydrous environment, this new proposed method allows the addition of the derivatizing agent (propyl chloroformate, PCF) directly to the deproteinized blood and recovery of the derivatives by liquid-liquid extraction. This novel method can be also used for hydrolyzed urine samples. It is faster than the traditional method involving a derivatization with trimethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate. The analytes are separated, detected and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring mode (SIM). The method was validated in terms of selectivity, capacity of identification, limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), carryover, linearity, intra-assay precision, inter-assay precision and accuracy. The LOD and LOQ in hydrolyzed urine were 0.5 and 1.3 ng/mL for THC and 1.2 and 2.6 ng/mL for THC-COOH, respectively. In blood, the LOD and LOQ were 0.2 and 0.5 ng/mL for THC, 0.2 and 0.6 ng/mL for OH-THC, and 0.9 and 2.4 ng/mL for THC-COOH, respectively. This method was applied to 35 urine samples and 50 blood samples resulting to be equivalent to the previously used ones with the advantage of a simpler method and faster sample processing time. We believe that this method will be a more convenient option for the routine analysis of cannabinoids in toxicological and forensic laboratories. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Comparison of DNA extraction methods for human gut microbial community profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Mi Young; Song, Eun-Ji; Kim, Sang Ho; Lee, Jangwon; Nam, Young-Do

    2018-03-01

    The human gut harbors a vast range of microbes that have significant impact on health and disease. Therefore, gut microbiome profiling holds promise for use in early diagnosis and precision medicine development. Accurate profiling of the highly complex gut microbiome requires DNA extraction methods that provide sufficient coverage of the original community as well as adequate quality and quantity. We tested nine different DNA extraction methods using three commercial kits (TianLong Stool DNA/RNA Extraction Kit (TS), QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit (QS), and QIAamp PowerFecal DNA Kit (QP)) with or without additional bead-beating step using manual or automated methods and compared them in terms of DNA extraction ability from human fecal sample. All methods produced DNA in sufficient concentration and quality for use in sequencing, and the samples were clustered according to the DNA extraction method. Inclusion of bead-beating step especially resulted in higher degrees of microbial diversity and had the greatest effect on gut microbiome composition. Among the samples subjected to bead-beating method, TS kit samples were more similar to QP kit samples than QS kit samples. Our results emphasize the importance of mechanical disruption step for a more comprehensive profiling of the human gut microbiome. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of statistical methods used in library-based approaches to microbial source tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Kerry J; Carruthers, Ethan; Carson, C Andrew; Ellender, R D; Harwood, Valerie J; Kingsley, Kyle; Nakatsu, Cindy; Sadowsky, Michael; Shear, Brian; West, Brian; Whitlock, John E; Wiggins, Bruce A; Wilbur, Jayson D

    2003-12-01

    Several commonly used statistical methods for fingerprint identification in microbial source tracking (MST) were examined to assess the effectiveness of pattern-matching algorithms to correctly identify sources. Although numerous statistical methods have been employed for source identification, no widespread consensus exists as to which is most appropriate. A large-scale comparison of several MST methods, using identical fecal sources, presented a unique opportunity to assess the utility of several popular statistical methods. These included discriminant analysis, nearest neighbour analysis, maximum similarity and average similarity, along with several measures of distance or similarity. Threshold criteria for excluding uncertain or poorly matched isolates from final analysis were also examined for their ability to reduce false positives and increase prediction success. Six independent libraries used in the study were constructed from indicator bacteria isolated from fecal materials of humans, seagulls, cows and dogs. Three of these libraries were constructed using the rep-PCR technique and three relied on antibiotic resistance analysis (ARA). Five of the libraries were constructed using Escherichia coli and one using Enterococcus spp. (ARA). Overall, the outcome of this study suggests a high degree of variability across statistical methods. Despite large differences in correct classification rates among the statistical methods, no single statistical approach emerged as superior. Thresholds failed to consistently increase rates of correct classification and improvement was often associated with substantial effective sample size reduction. Recommendations are provided to aid in selecting appropriate analyses for these types of data.

  20. Evaluation of Sanitizing Methods for Reducing Microbial Contamination on Fresh Strawberry, Cherry Tomato, and Red Bayberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Strawberries, cherry tomatoes, and red bayberries, which are the most popular types of fresh produce in China, are vulnerable to microbial contamination. In this study, different sanitizing methods [treatment with 2% organic acids, 0.02% sodium hypochlorite (SH, 0.1% sodium chlorite (SC, and 0.1% acidified sodium chlorite (ASC] were applied to fresh strawberry, cherry tomato, and red bayberry, and their abilities to reduce aerobic bacteria, Escherichia coli O157:H7, mold, yeast, and Salmonella Typhimurium were evaluated. The commercially used SH method reduced the background microbiota on strawberry, cherry tomato, and red bayberry by 0.20–2.07 log cfu/g. The ASC method reduced background microbiota (except for mold on strawberry and cherry tomato by more than 3.0 log cfu/g. ASC was the only sanitizer that significantly reduced mold on red bayberry, and lactic acid was the only organic acid sanitizer that effectively reduced yeast on red bayberry. The ASC method had the best sterilizing effect on the three fresh fruits and also required the shortest sanitizing time and low chlorite content. The application of ASC method significantly reduced the microbiota on retail grocery samples, and the effect was similar to that achieved by sanitizing methods comparison.

  1. Molecular Imprinting Applications in Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Erkut; Garipcan, Bora; Patra, Hirak K; Uzun, Lokman

    2017-03-28

    Producing molecular imprinting-based materials has received increasing attention due to recognition selectivity, stability, cast effectiveness, and ease of production in various forms for a wide range of applications. The molecular imprinting technique has a variety of applications in the areas of the food industry, environmental monitoring, and medicine for diverse purposes like sample pretreatment, sensing, and separation/purification. A versatile usage, stability and recognition capabilities also make them perfect candidates for use in forensic sciences. Forensic science is a demanding area and there is a growing interest in molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) in this field. In this review, recent molecular imprinting applications in the related areas of forensic sciences are discussed while considering the literature of last two decades. Not only direct forensic applications but also studies of possible forensic value were taken into account like illicit drugs, banned sport drugs, effective toxins and chemical warfare agents in a review of over 100 articles. The literature was classified according to targets, material shapes, production strategies, detection method, and instrumentation. We aimed to summarize the current applications of MIPs in forensic science and put forth a projection of their potential uses as promising alternatives for benchmark competitors.

  2. The transfer of diatoms from freshwater to footwear materials: An experimental study assessing transfer, persistence, and extraction methods for forensic reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, E A; Morgan, R M; Scott, K R; Jones, V J

    2017-09-01

    In recent years there has been growing interest in environmental forms of trace evidence, and ecological trace evidence collected from footwear has proved valuable within casework. Simultaneously, there has been growing awareness of the need for empirical experimentation to underpin forensic inferences. Diatoms are unicellular algae, and each cell (or 'frustule') consists of two valves which are made of silica, a robust material that favours their preservation both in sediments and within forensic scenarios. A series of experiments were carried out to investigate the transfer and persistence of diatoms upon common footwear materials, a recipient surface that has historically been overlooked by studies of persistence. The effectiveness of two novel extraction techniques (jet rinsing, and heating and agitation with distilled water) was compared to the established extraction technique of hydrogen peroxide digestion, for a suite of five common footwear materials: canvas, leather, and 'suede' (representing upper materials), and rubber and polyurethane (representing sole materials). It was observed that the novel extraction technique of heating and agitation with distilled water did not extract fewer diatom valves, or cause increased fragmentation of valves, when compared to peroxide digestion, suggesting that the method may be viable where potentially hazardous chemical reactions may be encountered with the peroxide digestion method. Valves could be extracted from all five footwear materials after 3min of immersion, and more valves were extracted from the rougher, woven upper materials than the smoother sole materials. Canvas yielded the most valves (a mean of 2511/cm 2 ) and polyurethane the fewest (a mean of 15/cm 2 ). The persistence of diatoms on the three upper materials was addressed with a preliminary pilot investigation, with ten intervals sampled between 0 and 168h. Valves were seen to persist in detectable quantities after 168h on all three upper materials

  3. Using growth-based methods to determine direct effects of salinity on soil microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Kristin; Rousk, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Soil salinization is a widespread agricultural problem and increasing salt concentrations in soils have been found to be correlated with decreased microbial activity. A central challenge in microbial ecology is to link environmental factors, such as salinity, to responses in the soil microbial community. That is, it can be difficult to distinguish direct from indirect effects. In order to determine direct salinity effects on the community we employed the ecotoxicological concept of Pollution-Induced Community Tolerance (PICT). This concept is built on the assumption that if salinity had an ecologically relevant effect on the community, it should have selected for more tolerant species and strains, resulting in an overall higher community tolerance to salt in communities from saline soils. Growth-based measures, such as the 3H-leucine incorporation into bacterial protein , provide sensitive tools to estimate community tolerance. They can also provide high temporal resolution in tracking changes in tolerance over time. In our study we used growth-based methods to investigate: i) at what levels of salt exposure and over which time scales salt tolerance can be induced in a non-saline soil, and (ii) if communities from high salinity sites have higher tolerance to salt exposure along natural salinity gradients. In the first part of the study, we exposed a non-saline soil to a range of salinities and monitored the development of community tolerance over time. We found that community tolerance to intermediate salinities up to around 30 mg NaCl per g soil can be induced at relatively short time scales of a few days, providing evidence that microbial communities can adapt rapidly to changes in environmental conditions. In the second part of the study we used soil samples originating from natural salinity gradients encompassing a wide range of salinity levels, with electrical conductivities ranging from 0.1 dS/m to >10 dS/m. We assessed community tolerance to salt by

  4. Forensic Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, William D.; Jackson, Glen P.

    2015-07-01

    Developments in forensic mass spectrometry tend to follow, rather than lead, the developments in other disciplines. Examples of techniques having forensic potential born independently of forensic applications include ambient ionization, imaging mass spectrometry, isotope ratio mass spectrometry, portable mass spectrometers, and hyphenated chromatography-mass spectrometry instruments, to name a few. Forensic science has the potential to benefit enormously from developments that are funded by other means, if only the infrastructure and personnel existed to adopt, validate, and implement the new technologies into casework. Perhaps one unique area in which forensic science is at the cutting edge is in the area of chemometrics and the determination of likelihood ratios for the evaluation of the weight of evidence. Such statistical techniques have been developed most extensively for ignitable-liquid residue analyses and isotope ratio analysis. This review attempts to capture the trends, motivating forces, and likely impact of developing areas of forensic mass spectrometry, with the caveat that none of this research is likely to have any real impact in the forensic community unless: (a) The instruments developed are turned into robust black boxes with red and green lights for positives and negatives, respectively, or (b) there are PhD graduates in the workforce who can help adopt these sophisticated techniques.

  5. Evaluation of Nucleic Acid Isothermal Amplification Methods for Human Clinical Microbial Infection Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett E. Etchebarne

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Battling infection is a major healthcare objective. Untreated infections can rapidly evolve toward the condition of sepsis in which the body begins to fail and resuscitation becomes critical and tenuous. Identification of infection followed by rapid antimicrobial treatment are primary goals of medical care, but precise identification of offending organisms by current methods is slow and broad spectrum empirical therapy is employed to cover most potential pathogens. Current methods for identification of bacterial pathogens in a clinical setting typically require days of time, or a 4- to 8-h growth phase followed by DNA extraction, purification and PCR-based amplification. We demonstrate rapid (70–120 min genetic diagnostics methods utilizing loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP to test for 15 common infection pathogen targets, called the Infection Diagnosis Panel (In-Dx. The method utilizes filtration to rapidly concentrate bacteria in sample matrices with lower bacterial loads and direct LAMP amplification without DNA purification from clinical blood, urine, wound, sputum and stool samples. The In-Dx panel was tested using two methods of detection: (1 real-time thermocycler fluorescent detection of LAMP amplification and (2 visual discrimination of color change in the presence of Eriochrome Black T (EBT dye following amplification. In total, 239 duplicate samples were collected (31 blood, 122 urine, 73 mucocutaneous wound/swab, 11 sputum and two stool from 229 prospectively enrolled hospital patients with suspected clinical infection and analyzed both at the hospital and by In-Dx. Sensitivity (Se of the In-Dx panel targets pathogens from urine samples by In-Dx was 91.1% and specificity (Sp was 97.3%, with a positive predictive value (PPV of 53.7% and a negative predictive value (NPV of 99.7% as compared to clinical microbial detection methods. Sensitivity of detection of the In-Dx panel from mucocutaneous swab samples was 65.5% with a

  6. Forensic DNA testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, John M

    2011-12-01

    Forensic DNA testing has a number of applications, including parentage testing, identifying human remains from natural or man-made disasters or terrorist attacks, and solving crimes. This article provides background information followed by an overview of the process of forensic DNA testing, including sample collection, DNA extraction, PCR amplification, short tandem repeat (STR) allele separation and sizing, typing and profile interpretation, statistical analysis, and quality assurance. The article concludes with discussions of possible problems with the data and other forensic DNA testing techniques.

  7. Forensic anthropology and mortuary archaeology in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankauskas, Rimantas

    2009-12-01

    Forensic anthropology (in Lithuania, as everywhere in Eastern Europe, traditionally considered as a narrower field--forensic osteology) has a long history, experience being gained both during exhumations of mass killings during the Second World War and the subsequent totalitarian regime, investigations of historical mass graves, identification of historical personalities and routine forensic work. Experts of this field (usually a branch of forensic medicine) routinely are solving "technical" questions of crime investigation, particularly identification of (usually dead) individuals. Practical implementation of the mission of forensic anthropology is not an easy task due to interdisciplinary character of the field. On one hand, physical anthropology has in its disposition numerous scientifically tested methods, however, their practical value in particular legal processes is limited. Reasons for these discrepancies can be related both to insufficient understanding of possibilities and limitations of forensic anthropology and archaeology by officials representing legal institutions that perform investigations, and sometimes too "academic" research, that is conducted at anthropological laboratories, when methods developed are not completely relevant to practical needs. Besides of answering to direct questions (number of individuals, sex, age, stature, population affinity, individual traits, evidence of violence), important humanitarian aspects--the individual's right for identity, the right of the relatives to know the fate of their beloved ones--should not be neglected. Practical use of other identification methods faces difficulties of their own (e.g., odontology--lack of regular dental registration system and compatible database). Two examples of forensic anthropological work of mass graves, even when the results were much influenced by the questions raised by investigators, can serve as an illustration of the above-mentioned issues.

  8. Analysis of composition of microbiomes: a novel method for studying microbial composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Mandal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding the factors regulating our microbiota is important but requires appropriate statistical methodology. When comparing two or more populations most existing approaches either discount the underlying compositional structure in the microbiome data or use probability models such as the multinomial and Dirichlet-multinomial distributions, which may impose a correlation structure not suitable for microbiome data. Objective: To develop a methodology that accounts for compositional constraints to reduce false discoveries in detecting differentially abundant taxa at an ecosystem level, while maintaining high statistical power. Methods: We introduced a novel statistical framework called analysis of composition of microbiomes (ANCOM. ANCOM accounts for the underlying structure in the data and can be used for comparing the composition of microbiomes in two or more populations. ANCOM makes no distributional assumptions and can be implemented in a linear model framework to adjust for covariates as well as model longitudinal data. ANCOM also scales well to compare samples involving thousands of taxa. Results: We compared the performance of ANCOM to the standard t-test and a recently published methodology called Zero Inflated Gaussian (ZIG methodology (1 for drawing inferences on the mean taxa abundance in two or more populations. ANCOM controlled the false discovery rate (FDR at the desired nominal level while also improving power, whereas the t-test and ZIG had inflated FDRs, in some instances as high as 68% for the t-test and 60% for ZIG. We illustrate the performance of ANCOM using two publicly available microbial datasets in the human gut, demonstrating its general applicability to testing hypotheses about compositional differences in microbial communities. Conclusion: Accounting for compositionality using log-ratio analysis results in significantly improved inference in microbiota survey data.

  9. Developing digital forensic governance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a Digital Forensic (DF) governance framework and its mapping on the SANS ISO/IEC 38500:2009 Corporate governance of information technology structure. DF governance assists organisations in guiding the management team...

  10. Physics and forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, T.J.; Perry, D.L.; Martin, M.C.; McKinney, W.R.

    2001-01-01

    This popular article in Physics World reviews the application of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectromicroscopy to Forensics, and predicts further applications due to the high inherent signal to noise available for FTIR microscopy at synchrotron sources

  11. Forensic entomology: applications and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendt, J; Richards, C S; Campobasso, C P; Zehner, R; Hall, M J R

    2011-12-01

    Forensic entomology is the science of collecting and analysing insect evidence to aid in forensic investigations. Its main application is in the determination of the minimum time since death in cases of suspicious death, either by estimating the age of the oldest necrophagous insects that developed on the corpse, or by analysing the insect species composition on the corpse. In addition, toxicological and molecular examinations of these insects may help reveal the cause of death or even the identity of a victim, by associating a larva with its last meal, for example, in cases where insect evidence is left at a scene after human remains have been deliberately removed. Some fly species can develop not only on corpses but on living bodies too, causing myiasis. Analysis of larvae in such cases can demonstrate the period of neglect of humans or animals. Without the appropriate professional collection of insect evidence, an accurate and convincing presentation of such evidence in court will be hampered or even impossible. The present paper describes the principles and methods of forensic entomology and the optimal techniques for collecting insect evidence.

  12. Bayesian networks for evaluation of evidence from forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, M Gunnar; Sundström, Anders; Lindström, Anders

    2013-09-01

    In the aftermath of a CBRN incident, there is an urgent need to reconstruct events in order to bring the perpetrators to court and to take preventive actions for the future. The challenge is to discriminate, based on available information, between alternative scenarios. Forensic interpretation is used to evaluate to what extent results from the forensic investigation favor the prosecutors' or the defendants' arguments, using the framework of Bayesian hypothesis testing. Recently, several new scientific disciplines have been used in a forensic context. In the AniBioThreat project, the framework was applied to veterinary forensic pathology, tracing of pathogenic microorganisms, and forensic entomology. Forensic entomology is an important tool for estimating the postmortem interval in, for example, homicide investigations as a complement to more traditional methods. In this article we demonstrate the applicability of the Bayesian framework for evaluating entomological evidence in a forensic investigation through the analysis of a hypothetical scenario involving suspect movement of carcasses from a clandestine laboratory. Probabilities of different findings under the alternative hypotheses were estimated using a combination of statistical analysis of data, expert knowledge, and simulation, and entomological findings are used to update the beliefs about the prosecutors' and defendants' hypotheses and to calculate the value of evidence. The Bayesian framework proved useful for evaluating complex hypotheses using findings from several insect species, accounting for uncertainty about development rate, temperature, and precolonization. The applicability of the forensic statistic approach to evaluating forensic results from a CBRN incident is discussed.

  13. What is nuclear forensics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halevy, Itzhak

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear forensics is the investigation of nuclear materials to find evidence for example the source, the trafficking, and the enrichment of the material. The material can be recovered from various sources including dust from the vicinity of a nuclear facility, or from the radioactive debris following a nuclear explosion. Results of nuclear forensic testing are used by different organizations to make decisions. The information is typically combined with other sources of information such as law enforcement and intelligence information

  14. Mac OS X Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craiger, Philip; Burke, Paul

    This paper describes procedures for conducting forensic examinations of Apple Macs running Mac OS X. The target disk mode is used to create a forensic duplicate of a Mac hard drive and preview it. Procedures are discussed for recovering evidence from allocated space, unallocated space, slack space and virtual memory. Furthermore, procedures are described for recovering trace evidence from Mac OS X default email, web browser and instant messaging applications, as well as evidence pertaining to commands executed from a terminal.

  15. Research in computer forensics

    OpenAIRE

    Wai, Hor Cheong

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Computer Forensics involves the preservation, identification, extraction and documentation of computer evidence stored in the form of magnetically encoded information. With the proliferation of E-commerce initiatives and the increasing criminal activities on the web, this area of study is catching on in the IT industry and among the law enforcement agencies. The objective of the study is to explore the techniques of computer forensics ...

  16. Forensic biometrics: From two communities to one discipline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier; Meuwly, Didier; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes how the fields of biometrics and forensic science can contribute and benefit from each other. The aim is to foster the development of new methods and tools improving the current forensic biometric applications and allowing for the creation of new ones. The article begins with

  17. Validation of a PCR-based method for the detection of various rendered materials in feedstuffs using a forensic DNA extraction kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Michael J; Yancy, Haile F; Araneta, Michael; Armour, Jennifer; Derr, Janice; Hoostelaere, Lawrence A D; Farmer, Doris; Jackson, Falana; Kiessling, William M; Koch, Henry; Lin, Huahua; Liu, Yan; Mowlds, Gabrielle; Pinero, David; Riter, Ken L; Sedwick, John; Shen, Yuelian; Wetherington, June; Younkins, Ronsha

    2006-01-01

    A method trial was initiated to validate the use of a commercial DNA forensic kit to extract DNA from animal feed as part of a PCR-based method. Four different PCR primer pairs (one bovine pair, one porcine pair, one ovine primer pair, and one multispecies pair) were also evaluated. Each laboratory was required to analyze a total of 120 dairy feed samples either not fortified (control, true negative) or fortified with bovine meat and bone meal, porcine meat and bone meal (PMBM), or lamb meal. Feeds were fortified with the animal meals at a concentration of 0.1% (wt/wt). Ten laboratories participated in this trial, and each laboratory was required to evaluate two different primer pairs, i.e., each PCR primer pair was evaluated by five different laboratories. The method was considered to be validated for a given animal source when three or more laboratories achieved at least 97% accuracy (29 correct of 30 samples for 96.7% accuracy, rounded up to 97%) in detecting the fortified samples for that source. Using this criterion, the method was validated for the bovine primer because three laboratories met the criterion, with an average accuracy of 98.9%. The average false-positive rate was 3.0% in these laboratories. A fourth laboratory was 80% accurate in identifying the samples fortified with bovine meat and bone meal. A fifth laboratory was not able to consistently extract the DNA from the feed samples and did not achieve the criterion for accuracy for either the bovine or multispecies PCR primers. For the porcine primers, the method was validated, with four laboratories meeting the criterion for accuracy with an average accuracy of 99.2%. The fifth laboratory had a 93.3% accuracy outcome for the porcine primer. Collectively, these five laboratories had a 1.3% false-positive rate for the porcine primer. No laboratory was able to meet the criterion for accuracy with the ovine primers, most likely because of problems with the synthesis of the primer pair; none of the

  18. [Research Progress on Forensic Dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F; Dang, Y H

    2017-04-01

    Forensic dentistry is an interdiscipline of forensic medicine and stomatology, which provides legal information by collecting, testing and assessing the dental evidence scientifically. In this review, the present application of forensic dentistry has been described, such as the estimation of age, sex, species, occupation and living habit, as well as the identification of individual, domestic violence or abuse, which aims to enrich and improve forensic dentistry for making it be more useful in forensic medicine even in juridical practice. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine.

  19. Nuclear forensics and nuclear analytical chemistry - iridium determination in a referred forensic sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, A.K.; Bhadkambekar, C.A.; Tripathi, A.B.R.; Chattopadhyay, N.; Ghosh, P.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear approaches for compositional characterization has bright application prospect in forensic perspective towards assessment of nature and origin of seized material. The macro and micro physical properties of nuclear materials can be specifically associated with a process or type of nuclear activity. Under the jurisdiction of nuclear analytical chemistry as well as nuclear forensics, thrust areas of scientific endeavor like determination of radioisotopes, isotopic and mass ratios, analysis for impurity contents, arriving at chemical forms/species and physical parameters play supporting evidence in forensic investigations. The analytical methods developed for this purposes can be used in international safeguards as well for nuclear forensics. Nuclear material seized in nuclear trafficking can be identified and a profile of the nuclear material can be created

  20. Forensic human identification in the United States and Canada: a review of the law, admissible techniques, and the legal implications of their application in forensic cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holobinko, Anastasia

    2012-10-10

    Forensic human identification techniques are successful if they lead to positive personal identification. However, the strongest personal identification is of no use in the prosecution--or vindication--of an accused if the associated evidence and testimony is ruled inadmissible in a court of law. This review examines the U.S. and Canadian legal rulings regarding the admissibility of expert evidence and testimony, and subsequently explores four established methods of human identification (i.e., DNA profiling, forensic anthropology, forensic radiography, forensic odontology) and one complementary technique useful in determining identity, and the legal implications of their application in forensic cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Microbially-mediated method for synthesis of non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelps, Tommy J.; Lauf, Robert J.; Moon, Ji-Won; Rondinone, Adam Justin; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad Edward; Madden, Andrew Stephen; Li, Yiliang; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Rawn, Claudia Jeanette

    2017-09-19

    The invention is directed to a method for producing non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, the method comprising: (a) subjecting a combination of reaction components to conditions conducive to microbially-mediated formation of non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, wherein said combination of reaction components comprises i) anaerobic microbes, ii) a culture medium suitable for sustaining said anaerobic microbes, iii) a metal component comprising at least one type of metal ion, iv) a non-metal component comprising at least one non-metal selected from the group consisting of S, Se, Te, and As, and v) one or more electron donors that provide donatable electrons to said anaerobic microbes during consumption of the electron donor by said anaerobic microbes; and (b) isolating said non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, which contain at least one of said metal ions and at least one of said non-metals. The invention is also directed to non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticle compositions produced as above and having distinctive properties.

  2. Microbially-mediated method for synthesis of non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Tommy J.; Lauf, Robert J.; Moon, Ji Won; Rondinone, Adam J.; Love, Lonnie J.; Duty, Chad Edward; Madden, Andrew Stephen; Li, Yiliang; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Rawn, Claudia Jeanette

    2014-06-24

    The invention is directed to a method for producing non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, the method comprising: (a) subjecting a combination of reaction components to conditions conducive to microbially-mediated formation of non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, wherein said combination of reaction components comprises i) anaerobic microbes, ii) a culture medium suitable for sustaining said anaerobic microbes, iii) a metal component comprising at least one type of metal ion, iv) a non-metal component containing at least one non-metal selected from the group consisting of S, Se, Te, and As, and v) one or more electron donors that provide donatable electrons to said anaerobic microbes during consumption of the electron donor by said anaerobic microbes; and (b) isolating said non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticles, which contain at least one of said metal ions and at least one of said non-metals. The invention is also directed to non-oxide semiconductor nanoparticle compositions produced as above and having distinctive properties.

  3. Microbial diversity in an Armenian geothermal spring assessed by molecular and culture-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panosyan, Hovik; Birkeland, Nils-Kåre

    2014-11-01

    The phylogenetic diversity of the prokaryotic community thriving in the Arzakan hot spring in Armenia was studied using molecular and culture-based methods. A sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries demonstrated the presence of a diversity of microorganisms belonging to the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes phyla, and Cyanobacteria. Proteobacteria was the dominant group, representing 52% of the bacterial clones. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments also indicated the abundance of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Cyanobacteria populations. Most of the sequences were most closely related to uncultivated microorganisms and shared less than 96% similarity with their closest matches in GenBank, indicating that this spring harbors a unique community of novel microbial species or genera. The majority of the sequences of an archaeal 16S rRNA gene library, generated from a methanogenic enrichment, were close relatives of members of the genus Methanoculleus. Aerobic endospore-forming bacteria mainly belonging to Bacillus and Geobacillus were detected only by culture-dependent methods. Three isolates were successfully obtained having 99, 96, and 96% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to Arcobacter sp., Methylocaldum sp., and Methanoculleus sp., respectively. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Development of an analytical microbial consortia method for enhancing performance monitoring at aerobic wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razban, Behrooz; Nelson, Kristina Y; McMartin, Dena W; Cullimore, D Roy; Wall, Michelle; Wang, Dunling

    2012-01-01

    An analytical method to produce profiles of bacterial biomass fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) was developed employing rapid agitation followed by static incubation (RASI) using selective media of wastewater microbial communities. The results were compiled to produce a unique library for comparison and performance analysis at a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP). A total of 146 samples from the aerated WWTP, comprising 73 samples of each secondary and tertiary effluent, were included analyzed. For comparison purposes, all samples were evaluated via a similarity index (SI) with secondary effluents producing an SI of 0.88 with 2.7% variation and tertiary samples producing an SI 0.86 with 5.0% variation. The results also highlighted significant differences between the fatty acid profiles of the tertiary and secondary effluents indicating considerable shifts in the bacterial community profile between these treatment phases. The WWTP performance results using this method were highly replicable and reproducible indicating that the protocol has potential as a performance-monitoring tool for aerated WWTPs. The results quickly and accurately reflect shifts in dominant bacterial communities that result when processes operations and performance change.

  5. Air sampling methods to evaluate microbial contamination in operating theatres: results of a comparative study in an orthopaedics department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, C; Tafuri, S; Montenegro, L; Cassano, M; Notarnicola, A; Lattarulo, S; Montagna, M T; Moretti, B

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the level of microbial contamination of air in operating theatres using active [i.e. surface air system (SAS)] and passive [i.e. index of microbial air contamination (IMA) and nitrocellulose membranes positioned near the wound] sampling systems. Sampling was performed between January 2010 and January 2011 in the operating theatre of the orthopaedics department in a university hospital in Southern Italy. During surgery, the mean bacterial loads recorded were 2232.9 colony-forming units (cfu)/m(2)/h with the IMA method, 123.2 cfu/m(3) with the SAS method and 2768.2 cfu/m(2)/h with the nitrocellulose membranes. Correlation was found between the results of the three methods. Staphylococcus aureus was detected in 12 of 60 operations (20%) with the membranes, five (8.3%) operations with the SAS method, and three operations (5%) with the IMA method. Use of nitrocellulose membranes placed near a wound is a valid method for measuring the microbial contamination of air. This method was more sensitive than the IMA method and was not subject to any calibration bias, unlike active air monitoring systems. Copyright © 2011 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Computational intelligence in digital forensics forensic investigation and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Choo, Yun-Huoy; Abraham, Ajith; Srihari, Sargur

    2014-01-01

    Computational Intelligence techniques have been widely explored in various domains including forensics. Analysis in forensic encompasses the study of pattern analysis that answer the question of interest in security, medical, legal, genetic studies and etc. However, forensic analysis is usually performed through experiments in lab which is expensive both in cost and time. Therefore, this book seeks to explore the progress and advancement of computational intelligence technique in different focus areas of forensic studies. This aims to build stronger connection between computer scientists and forensic field experts.   This book, Computational Intelligence in Digital Forensics: Forensic Investigation and Applications, is the first volume in the Intelligent Systems Reference Library series. The book presents original research results and innovative applications of computational intelligence in digital forensics. This edited volume contains seventeen chapters and presents the latest state-of-the-art advancement ...

  7. Increasing the reach of forensic genetics with massively parallel sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budowle, Bruce; Schmedes, Sarah E; Wendt, Frank R

    2017-09-01

    The field of forensic genetics has made great strides in the analysis of biological evidence related to criminal and civil matters. More so, the discipline has set a standard of performance and quality in the forensic sciences. The advent of massively parallel sequencing will allow the field to expand its capabilities substantially. This review describes the salient features of massively parallel sequencing and how it can impact forensic genetics. The features of this technology offer increased number and types of genetic markers that can be analyzed, higher throughput of samples, and the capability of targeting different organisms, all by one unifying methodology. While there are many applications, three are described where massively parallel sequencing will have immediate impact: molecular autopsy, microbial forensics and differentiation of monozygotic twins. The intent of this review is to expose the forensic science community to the potential enhancements that have or are soon to arrive and demonstrate the continued expansion the field of forensic genetics and its service in the investigation of legal matters.

  8. A fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for determining benzodiazepines and analogues in urine. Validation and application to real cases of forensic interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, Alberto; Gerace, Enrico; Brizio, Paola; Gennaro, M Carla; Vincenti, Marco

    2011-11-01

    A fast liquid chromatographic/tandem mass spectrometric method was developed for the simultaneous determination in human urine of seventeen benzodiazepines, four relevant metabolites together plus zolpidem and zopiclone. The sample preparation, optimized to take into account the matrix effect, was based on enzymatic hydrolysis and liquid-liquid extraction. The separation of the twenty-three analytes was achieved in less than eight minutes. The whole methodology was fully validated according to UNI EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005 rules and 2006 SOFT/AAFS guidelines. Selectivity, linearity range, identification (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) limits, precision, accuracy and recovery were evaluated. For all the species the signal/concentration linearity was satisfactory in the 50-1000 ng/mL concentration range. The limits of detection ranged from 0.5 to 30 ng/mL and LOQs from 1.7 to 100.0 ng/mL. Precisions were in the ranges 5.0-11.8%, 1.5-11.0% and 1.1-4.4% for low (100 ng/mL), medium (300 ng/mL) and high (1000 ng/mL) concentration, respectively. The accuracy, expressed as bias% was within ± 25 % for all the analytes. The recovery values, evaluated at 300 ng/mL concentration, ranged from 56.2% to 98.8%. The present method for the determination of several benzodiazepines, zolpidem and zopiclone in human urine proved to be simple, fast, specific and sensitive. The quantification by LC-MS/MS was successfully applied to 329 forensic cases among driving re-licensing, car accidents and alleged sexual violence cases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Research on Linux Memory Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Che, ShengBing

    2018-03-01

    Memory forensics is a branch of computer forensics. It does not depend on the operating system API, and analyzes operating system information from binary memory data. Based on the 64-bit Linux operating system, it analyzes system process and thread information from physical memory data. Using ELF file debugging information and propose a method for locating kernel structure member variable, it can be applied to different versions of the Linux operating system. The experimental results show that the method can successfully obtain the sytem process information from physical memory data, and can be compatible with multiple versions of the Linux kernel.

  10. Intra- and interobserver error of the Greulich-Pyle method as used on a Danish forensic sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, N; Belard, E; Buch-Olsen, K

    2008-01-01

    that atlas-based techniques are obsolete and ought to be replaced by other methods. Specifically, the GPA test sample consisted of American "white" children "above average in economic and educational status", leading to the question as to how comparable subjects being scored by the GPA method today...... and intraoral dental radiographs. Different methods are used depending on the maturity of the individual examined; and (3) a carpal X-ray examination, using the Greulich and Pyle Atlas (GPA) method. We present the results of intra- and interobserver tests of carpal X-rays in blind trials, and a comparison...... of the age estimations by carpal X-rays and odontological age estimation. We retrieved 159 cases from the years 2000-2002 (inclusive). The intra- and interobserver errors are overall small. We found full agreement in 126/159 cases, and this was between experienced users and novices. Overall, the mean...

  11. From Computer Forensics to Forensic Computing: Investigators Investigate, Scientists Associate

    OpenAIRE

    Dewald, Andreas; Freiling, Felix C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper draws a comparison of fundamental theories in traditional forensic science and the state of the art in current computer forensics, thereby identifying a certain disproportion between the perception of central aspects in common theory and the digital forensics reality. We propose a separation of what is currently demanded of practitioners in digital forensics into a rigorous scientific part on the one hand, and a more general methodology of searching and seizing digital evidence an...

  12. Defense Forensics: Additional Planning and Oversight Needed to Establish an Enduring Expeditionary Forensic Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    forensic pathology, forensic anthropology, and forensic toxicology . 13DOD’s forensic directive defines DOD components as the Office of the...DEFENSE FORENSICS Additional Planning and Oversight Needed to Establish an Enduring Expeditionary Forensic ...COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Forensics : Additional Planning and Oversight Needed to Establish an Enduring

  13. Best practice in forensic entomology--standards and guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendt, Jens; Campobasso, Carlo P; Gaudry, Emmanuel; Reiter, Christian; LeBlanc, Hélène N; Hall, Martin J R

    2007-03-01

    Forensic entomology, the use of insects and other arthropods in forensic investigations, is becoming increasingly more important in such investigations. To ensure its optimal use by a diverse group of professionals including pathologists, entomologists and police officers, a common frame of guidelines and standards is essential. Therefore, the European Association for Forensic Entomology has developed a protocol document for best practice in forensic entomology, which includes an overview of equipment used for collection of entomological evidence and a detailed description of the methods applied. Together with the definitions of key terms and a short introduction to the most important methods for the estimation of the minimum postmortem interval, the present paper aims to encourage a high level of competency in the field of forensic entomology.

  14. Impact of temperature and time storage on the microbial detection of oral samples by Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Cássio; dos Santos, Janine Navarro; Pedrazzi, Vinícius; Pita, Murillo Sucena; Monesi, Nadia; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria; de Albuquerque, Rubens Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Molecular diagnosis methods have been largely used in epidemiological or clinical studies to detect and quantify microbial species that may colonize the oral cavity in healthy or disease. The preservation of genetic material from samples remains the major challenge to ensure the feasibility of these methodologies. Long-term storage may compromise the final result. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of temperature and time storage on the microbial detection of oral samples by Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Saliva and supragingival biofilm were taken from 10 healthy subjects, aliquoted (n=364) and processed according to proposed protocols: immediate processing and processed after 2 or 4 weeks, and 6 or 12 months of storage at 4°C, -20°C and -80°C. Either total or individual microbial counts were recorded in lower values for samples processed after 12 months of storage, irrespective of temperatures tested. Samples stored up to 6 months at cold temperatures showed similar counts to those immediately processed. The microbial incidence was also significantly reduced in samples stored during 12 months in all temperatures. Temperature and time of oral samples storage have relevant impact in the detection and quantification of bacterial and fungal species by Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method. Samples should be processed immediately after collection or up to 6 months if conserved at cold temperatures to avoid false-negative results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Anode modification with formic acid: A simple and effective method to improve the power generation of microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Weifeng; Cheng, Shaoan, E-mail: shaoancheng@zju.edu.cn; Guo, Jian

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Carbon cloth anode is modified with formic acid by a simple and reliable approach. • The modification significantly enhances the power output of microbial fuel cells. • The modified anode surface favors the bacterial attachment and growth on anode. • The electron transfer rate of anode is promoted. - Abstract: The physicochemical properties of anode material directly affect the anodic biofilm formation and electron transfer, thus are critical for the power generation of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In this work, carbon cloth anode was modified with formic acid to enhance the power production of MFCs. Formic acid modification of anode increased the maximum power density of a single-chamber air-cathode MFC by 38.1% (from 611.5 ± 6 mW/m{sup 2} to 877.9 ± 5 mW/m{sup 2}). The modification generated a cleaner electrode surface and a reduced content of oxygen and nitrogen groups on the anode. The surface changes facilitated bacterial growth on the anode and resulted in an optimized microbial community. Thus, the electron transfer rate on the modified anodes was enhanced remarkably, contributing to a higher power output of MFCs. Anode modification with formic acid could be an effective and simple method for improving the power generation of MFCs. The modification method holds a huge potential for large scale applications and is valuable for the scale-up and commercialization of microbial fuel cells.

  16. Impact of acclimation methods on microbial communities and performance of anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactors

    KAUST Repository

    Labarge, Nicole; Ye, Yaoli; Kim, Kyoung Yeol; Yilmazel, Yasemin Dilsad; Saikaly, Pascal; Hong, Pei-Ying; Logan, Bruce E.

    2016-01-01

    of the granular activated carbon (GAC) used in the reactor were examined here to determine their impact on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and microbial community composition of domestic wastewater-fed AFMBRs. AFMBRs inoculated with anaerobic digester sludge

  17. A quantitative method to evaluate microbial electrolysis cell effectiveness for energy recovery and wastewater treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Ivan; Ren, Lijiao; Siegert, Michael; Logan, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are potential candidates for sustainable wastewater treatment as they allow for recovery of the energy input by producing valuable chemicals such as hydrogen gas. Evaluating the effectiveness of MEC treatment

  18. Digital forensic standards: international progress

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available With the explosion of digital crime, digital forensics is more often applied. The digital forensic discipline developed rather rapidly, but up to date very little international standardization with regard to processes, procedures or management has...

  19. Microbial ecology-based methods to characterize the bacterial communities of non-model insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosdocimi, Erica M; Mapelli, Francesca; Gonella, Elena; Borin, Sara; Crotti, Elena

    2015-12-01

    Among the animals of the Kingdom Animalia, insects are unparalleled for their widespread diffusion, diversity and number of occupied ecological niches. In recent years they have raised researcher interest not only because of their importance as human and agricultural pests, disease vectors and as useful breeding species (e.g. honeybee and silkworm), but also because of their suitability as animal models. It is now fully recognized that microorganisms form symbiotic relationships with insects, influencing their survival, fitness, development, mating habits and the immune system and other aspects of the biology and ecology of the insect host. Thus, any research aimed at deepening the knowledge of any given insect species (perhaps species of applied interest or species emerging as novel pests or vectors) must consider the characterization of the associated microbiome. The present review critically examines the microbiology and molecular ecology techniques that can be applied to the taxonomical and functional analysis of the microbiome of non-model insects. Our goal is to provide an overview of current approaches and methods addressing the ecology and functions of microorganisms and microbiomes associated with insects. Our focus is on operational details, aiming to provide a concise guide to currently available advanced techniques, in an effort to extend insect microbiome research beyond simple descriptions of microbial communities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A method for high throughput bioelectrochemical research based on small scale microbial electrolysis cells

    KAUST Repository

    Call, Douglas F.

    2011-07-01

    There is great interest in studying exoelectrogenic microorganisms, but existing methods can require expensive electrochemical equipment and specialized reactors. We developed a simple system for conducting high throughput bioelectrochemical research using multiple inexpensive microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) built with commercially available materials and operated using a single power source. MECs were small crimp top serum bottles (5mL) with a graphite plate anode (92m 2/m 3) and a cathode of stainless steel (SS) mesh (86m 2/m 3), graphite plate, SS wire, or platinum wire. The highest volumetric current density (240A/m 3, applied potential of 0.7V) was obtained using a SS mesh cathode and a wastewater inoculum (acetate electron donor). Parallel operated MECs (single power source) did not lead to differences in performance compared to non-parallel operated MECs, which can allow for high throughput reactor operation (>1000 reactors) using a single power supply. The utility of this method for cultivating exoelectrogenic microorganisms was demonstrated through comparison of buffer effects on pure (Geobacter sulfurreducens and Geobacter metallireducens) and mixed cultures. Mixed cultures produced current densities equal to or higher than pure cultures in the different media, and current densities for all cultures were higher using a 50mM phosphate buffer than a 30mM bicarbonate buffer. Only the mixed culture was capable of sustained current generation with a 200mM phosphate buffer. These results demonstrate the usefulness of this inexpensive method for conducting in-depth examinations of pure and mixed exoelectrogenic cultures. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Design of experiments, a powerful tool for method development in forensic toxicology: application to the optimization of urinary morphine 3-glucuronide acid hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, S; Barroso, M; Castañera, A; Dias, M

    2010-04-01

    The application of the design of experiments to optimize method development in the field of forensic toxicology using the urinary morphine 3-glucuronide acid hydrolysis as an example is described. Morphine and its trideuterated analogue (used as an internal standard) were extracted from urine samples by liquid-liquid extraction (ToxiTubes A) and derivatized by silylation. Chromatographic analysis was done by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring mode. Using the peak area ratio (morphine-to-internal standard) as the response, we investigated the independent variables that could influence the acid hydrolysis, including temperature (range 70-130 degrees C), acid volume (range 500-1,000 microL) and time (range 15-90 min). A 2(3) full factorial design for the screening and a response surface methodology, including a central composite design for optimization, were applied. The factors which influenced the response to a greater extent were temperature and its interaction both with time and acid volume. By application of a multiple regression analysis to the experimental data, a second-order polynomial equation was obtained. The optimal predicted conditions for morphine 3-glucuronide acid hydrolysis were 115 degrees C, 38 min and 500 microL for temperature, time and acid volume, respectively. Using design of experiments, instead of the one factor at a time approach, we achieved the optimum combination of all factor values, and this allowed the best results to be obtained, simultaneously optimizing resources. In addition, time and money can be saved, since other approaches are in general more time-consuming and laborious, and do not take into account the interactions between factors.

  2. Forensic psychiatry in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lai Gwen; Tomita, Todd

    2013-12-01

    Singapore is a geographically small nation-state that has transformed itself from a third-world country to a developed nation after attaining political independence 46 years ago. The pace of change has been tremendous and mental health care is no exception. This paper provides an overview of mental health care and a review of key mental health legislation, including a National Mental Health Blueprint that was rolled out in 2007. On this background, the paper focuses on a description of forensic psychiatric services in Singapore. The role of the Department of Forensic Psychiatry at the Institute of Mental Health, which is the only forensic psychiatry department in the country, will be highlighted. Civil commitment and the treatment of unfit accused persons and insanity acquittees is reviewed. The role of forensic psychiatric assessments in the Singapore courts is examined. The application of the insanity and diminished responsibility defenses are reviewed. A trend is identified in the Singapore courts towards a more rehabilitation-focused sentencing approach and the role that forensic psychiatric assessments play in cases involving mentally disordered offenders is highlighted. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Testing Framework for Mobile Device Forensics Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Anobah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of mobile communication and computing devices, in particular smart mobile phones, is almost paralleled with the increasing number of mobile device forensics tools in the market. Each mobile forensics tool vendor, on one hand claims to have a tool that is best in terms of performance, while on the other hand each tool vendor seems to be using different standards for testing their tools and thereby defining what support means differently. To overcome this problem, a testing framework based on a series of tests ranging from basic forensics tasks such as file system reconstruction up to more complex ones countering antiforensic techniques is proposed. The framework, which is an extension of an existing effort done in 2010, prescribes a method to clearly circumscribe the term support into precise levels. It also gives an idea of the standard to be developed and accepted by the forensic community that will make it easier for forensics investigators to quickly select the most appropriate tool for a particular mobile device.

  4. Forensic entomology and main challenges in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Leonardo; Von Zuben, Cláudio J

    2006-01-01

    Apart from an early case report from China (13th century), the first observations on insects and other arthropods as forensic indicators were documented in Germany and France during mass exhumations in the 1880s by Reinhard, who is considered a co-founder of the discipline. After the French publication of Mégnin's popular book on the applied aspects of forensic entomology, the concept quickly spread to Canada and United States. At that time, researchers recognized that the lack of systematic observations of insects of forensic importance jeopardized their use as indicators of postmortem interval. General advances in insect taxonomy and ecology helped to fill this gap over the following decades. After World Wars, few forensic entomology cases were reported in the scientific literature. From 1960s to the 1980s, Leclercq and Nuorteva were primarily responsible for maintaining the method in Central Europe, reporting isolated cases. Since then, basic research in the USA, Russia and Canada opened the way to the routine use of Entomology in forensic investigations. Identifications of insects associated with human cadavers are relatively few in the literature of the Neotropical region and have received little attention in Brazil. This article brings an overview of historic developments in this field, the recent studies and the main problems and challenges in South America and mainly in Brazil.

  5. A TRUSTWORTHY CLOUD FORENSICS ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Zawoad , Shams; Hasan , Ragib

    2015-01-01

    Part 5: CLOUD FORENSICS; International audience; The rapid migration from traditional computing and storage models to cloud computing environments has made it necessary to support reliable forensic investigations in the cloud. However, current cloud computing environments often lack support for forensic investigations and the trustworthiness of evidence is often questionable because of the possibility of collusion between dishonest cloud providers, users and forensic investigators. This chapt...

  6. Detached Concern of Forensic Mental Health Nurses in Therapeutic Relationships With Patients: The Application of the Early Recognition Method Related to Detached Concern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fluttert, F.A.J.; Meijel, B.K.G. van; Nijman, H.L.I.; Björkly, S.; Grypdonck, M.H.F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective - Improvement of the interaction between forensic mental health nurses and patients may lead to a reduction of inpatient violence. The concept under study is detached concern, which refers to nurses' skills to neutralize the emotional appeal of patients by a balanced attitude between

  7. [The application of cybernetic modeling methods for the forensic medical personality identification based on the voice and sounding speech characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaganov, A Sh; Kir'yanov, P A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present publication was to discuss the possibility of application of cybernetic modeling methods to overcome the apparent discrepancy between two kinds of the speech records, viz. initial ones (e.g. obtained in the course of special investigation activities) and the voice prints obtained from the persons subjected to the criminalistic examination. The paper is based on the literature sources and the materials of original criminalistics expertises performed by the authors.

  8. Computer Forensics Method in Analysis of Files Timestamps in Microsoft Windows Operating System and NTFS File System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesta Sergeevna Matveeva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available All existing file browsers displays 3 timestamps for every file in file system NTFS. Nowadays there are a lot of utilities that can manipulate temporal attributes to conceal the traces of file using. However every file in NTFS has 8 timestamps that are stored in file record and used in detecting the fact of attributes substitution. The authors suggest a method of revealing original timestamps after replacement and automated variant of it in case of a set of files.

  9. Forensic seismology revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, A.

    2007-01-01

    The first technical discussions, held in 1958, on methods of verifying compliance with a treaty banning nuclear explosions, concluded that a monitoring system could be set up to detect and identify such explosions anywhere except underground: the difficulty with underground explosions was that there would be some earthquakes that could not be distinguished from an explosion. The development of adequate ways of discriminating between earthquakes and underground explosions proved to be difficult so that only in 1996 was a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) finally negotiated. Some of the important improvements in the detection and identification of underground tests—that is in forensic seismology—have been made by the UK through a research group at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE). The paper describes some of the advances made in identification since 1958, particularly by the AWE Group, and the main features of the International Monitoring System (IMS), being set up to verify the Test Ban. Once the Treaty enters into force, then should a suspicious disturbance be detected the State under suspicion of testing will have to demonstrate that the disturbance was not a test. If this cannot be done satisfactorily the Treaty has provisions for on-site inspections (OSIs): for a suspicious seismic disturbance for example, an international team of inspectors will search the area around the estimated epicentre of the disturbance for evidence that a nuclear test really took place. Early observations made at epicentral distances out to 2,000 km from the Nevada Test Site showed that there is little to distinguish explosion seismograms from those of nearby earthquakes: for both source types the short-period (SP: ˜1 Hz) seismograms are complex showing multiple arrivals. At long range, say 3,000 10,000 km, loosely called teleseismic distances, the AWE Group noted that SP P waves—the most widely and well-recorded waves from underground explosions—were in

  10. Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic…

  11. Nuclear Forensics and Radiochemistry: Fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundberg, Robert S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-07

    Radiochemistry has been used to study fission since it’ discovery. Radiochemical methods are used to determine cumulative mass yields. These measurements have led to the two-mode fission hypothesis to model the neutron energy dependence of fission product yields. Fission product yields can be used for the nuclear forensics of nuclear explosions. The mass yield curve depends on both the fuel and the neutron spectrum of a device. Recent studies have shown that the nuclear structure of the compound nucleus can affect the mass yield distribution.

  12. Suicide among forensic psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C; Smith, J; Crowe, C; Donovan, M

    1993-04-01

    This paper examines the problem of suicide among patients discharged from a Regional Secure Unit. The stereotype that emerges is a young man with anti-social personality traits, suffering from an affective psychosis, with a history of substance abuse and impulsive violence directed both towards himself and others, who is alienated from care staff and social supports because of his provocative and uncooperative behaviour. In contrast with the general population, forensic patients are more likely to commit suicide using a violent method and are more likely to have a suicide verdict recorded by the coroner. The implications of these findings for treatment and preventive interventions are discussed.

  13. A quantitative method to evaluate microbial electrolysis cell effectiveness for energy recovery and wastewater treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Ivan

    2013-10-01

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are potential candidates for sustainable wastewater treatment as they allow for recovery of the energy input by producing valuable chemicals such as hydrogen gas. Evaluating the effectiveness of MEC treatment for different wastewaters requires new approaches to quantify performance, and the establishment of specific procedures and parameters to characterize the outcome of fed-batch treatability tests. It is shown here that Coulombic efficiency can be used to directly calculate energy consumption relative to wastewater treatment in terms of COD removal, and that the average current, not maximum current, is a better metric to evaluate the rate of the bioelectrochemical reactions. The utility of these methods was demonstrated using simulated current profiles and actual wastewater tests. Industrial and domestic wastewaters were evaluated using small volume MECs, and different inoculation strategies. The energy needed for treatment was 2.17kWhkgCOD-1 for industrial wastewater and 2.59kWhkgCOD-1 for domestic wastewater. When these wastewaters were combined in equal amounts, the energy required was reduced to 0.63kWhkgCOD-1. Acclimation of the MEC to domestic wastewater, prior to tests with industrial wastewaters, was the easiest and most direct method to optimize MEC performance for industrial wastewater treatment. A pre-acclimated MEC accomplished the same removal (1847 ± 53 mg L-1) as reactor acclimated to only the industrial wastewater (1839 ± 57 mg L-1), but treatment was achieved in significantly less time (70 h versus 238 h). © 2013, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. From forensic epigenetics to forensic epigenomics: broadening DNA investigative intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidaki, Athina; Kayser, Manfred

    2017-12-21

    Human genetic variation is a major resource in forensics, but does not allow all forensically relevant questions to be answered. Some questions may instead be addressable via epigenomics, as the epigenome acts as an interphase between the fixed genome and the dynamic environment. We envision future forensic applications of DNA methylation analysis that will broaden DNA-based forensic intelligence. Together with genetic prediction of appearance and biogeographic ancestry, epigenomic lifestyle prediction is expected to increase the ability of police to find unknown perpetrators of crime who are not identifiable using current forensic DNA profiling.

  15. Developing a Forensic Continuous Audit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grover S. Kearns

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite increased attention to internal controls and risk assessment, traditional audit approaches do not seem to be highly effective in uncovering the majority of frauds. Less than 20 percent of all occupational frauds are uncovered by auditors. Forensic accounting has recognized the need for automated approaches to fraud analysis yet research has not examined the benefits of forensic continuous auditing as a method to detect and deter corporate fraud. The purpose of this paper is to show how such an approach is possible. A model is presented that supports the acceptance of forensic continuous auditing by auditors and management as an effective tool to support the audit function, meet management’s regulatory objectives, and to combat fraud. An approach to developing such a system is presented.

  16. A CONCEPT FOR NATIONAL NUCLEAR FORENSIC LIBRARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wacker, John F.; Curry, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The interpretation of data from the nuclear forensic analysis of illicit nuclear material of unknown origin requires comparative data from samples of known origin. One way to provide such comparative data is to create a system of national nuclear forensics libraries, in which each participating country stores information about nuclear or other radioactive material that either resides in or was manufactured by that country. Such national libraries could provide an authoritative record of the material located in or produced by a particular country, and thus forms an essential prerequisite for a government to investigate illicit uses of nuclear or other radioactive material within its borders. We describe the concept of the national nuclear forensic library, recommendations for content and structure, and suggested querying methods for utilizing the information for addressing nuclear smuggling.

  17. Nuclear forensic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomar, B.S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present talk the fundamentals of the nuclear forensic investigations will be discussed followed by the detailed standard operating procedure (SOP) for the nuclear forensic analysis. The characteristics, such as, dimensions, particle size, elemental and isotopic composition help the nuclear forensic analyst in source attribution of the interdicted material, as the specifications of the nuclear materials used by different countries are different. The analysis of elemental composition could be done by SEM-EDS, XRF, CHNS analyser, etc. depending upon the type of the material. Often the trace constituents (analysed by ICP-AES, ICP-MS, AAS, etc) provide valuable information about the processes followed during the production of the material. Likewise the isotopic composition determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry provides useful information about the enrichment of the nuclear fuel and hence its intended use

  18. Column: File Cabinet Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simson Garfinkel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers can spend their time reverse engineering, performing reverse analysis, or making substantive contributions to digital forensics science. Although work in all of these areas is important, it is the scientific breakthroughs that are the most critical for addressing the challenges that we face.Reverse Engineering is the traditional bread-and-butter of digital forensics research. Companies like Microsoft and Apple deliver computational artifacts (operating systems, applications and phones to the commercial market. These artifacts are bought and used by billions. Some have evil intent, and (if society is lucky, the computers end up in the hands of law enforcement. Unfortunately the original vendors rarely provide digital forensics tools that make their systems amenable to analysis by law enforcement. Hence the need for reverse engineering.(see PDF for full column

  19. Efficacy of nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazi, Reshmi

    2011-01-01

    In a strange turn of history, the threat of global nuclear war has gone down, but the risk of a nuclear attack has gone up. The danger of nuclear terrorism and ways to thwart it, tackle it and manage it in the event of an attack is increasingly gaining the attention of nuclear analysts all over the world. There is rising awareness among nuclear experts to develop mechanisms to prevent, deter and deal with the threat of nuclear terrorism. Nuclear specialists are seeking to develop and improve the science of nuclear forensics so as to provide faster analysis during a crisis. Nuclear forensics can play an important role in detecting illicit nuclear materials to counter trafficking in nuclear and radiological materials. An effective nuclear forensic and attribution strategy can enable policy makers, decision makers and technical managers to respond to situations involving interception of special nuclear materials

  20. Audit in forensic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M P; Opeskin, K

    2000-09-01

    Autopsy numbers in Australian hospitals have declined markedly during the past decade despite evidence of a relatively static rate of demonstrable clinical misdiagnosis during this time. The reason for this decrease in autopsy numbers is multifactorial and may include a general lack of clinical and pathologic interest in the autopsy with a possible decline in autopsy standard, a lack of clinicopathologic correlation after autopsies, and an increased emphasis on surgical biopsy reporting within hospital pathology departments. Although forensic autopsies are currently maintaining their numbers, it is incumbent on forensic pathologists to demonstrate the wealth of important information a carefully performed postmortem examination can reveal. To this end, the Pathology Division of the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine has instituted a program of minimum standards in varied types of coroner cases and commenced a system of internal and external audit. The minimum standard for a routine, sudden, presumed natural death is presented and the audit system is discussed.

  1. Geoethics and Forensic Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Laurance

    2017-04-01

    The International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS), Initiative on Forensic Geology (IFG) was set up in 2011 to promote and develop the applications of geology to policing and law enforcement throughout the world. This includes the provision of crime scene examinations, searches to locate graves or items of interest that have been buried beneath the ground surface as part of a criminal act and geological trace analysis and evidence. Forensic geologists may assist the police and law enforcement in a range of ways including for example; homicide, sexual assaults, counter terrorism, kidnapping, humanitarian incidents, environmental crimes, precious minerals theft, fakes and fraudulent crimes. The objective of this paper is to consider the geoethical aspects of forensic geology. This includes both delivery to research and teaching, and contribution to the practical applications of forensic geology in case work. The case examples cited are based on the personal experiences of the authors. Often, the technical and scientific aspect of forensic geology investigation may be the most straightforward, after all, this is what the forensic geologist has been trained to do. The associated geoethical issues can be the most challenging and complex to manage. Generally, forensic geologists are driven to carry-out their research or case work with integrity, honesty and in a manner that is law abiding, professional, socially acceptable and highly responsible. This is necessary in advising law enforcement organisations, society and the scientific community that they represent. As the science of forensic geology begins to advance around the world it is desirable to establish a standard set of principles, values and to provide an agreed ethical a framework. But what are these core values? Who is responsible for producing these? How may these become enforced? What happens when geoethical standards are breached? This paper does not attempt to provide all of the answers, as further work

  2. Microbial Contamination Detection in Water Resources: Interest of Current Optical Methods, Trends and Needs in the Context of Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude-Valérie Jung

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Microbial pollution in aquatic environments is one of the crucial issues with regard to the sanitary state of water bodies used for drinking water supply, recreational activities and harvesting seafood due to a potential contamination by pathogenic bacteria, protozoa or viruses. To address this risk, microbial contamination monitoring is usually assessed by turbidity measurements performed at drinking water plants. Some recent studies have shown significant correlations of microbial contamination with the risk of endemic gastroenteresis. However the relevance of turbidimetry may be limited since the presence of colloids in water creates interferences with the nephelometric response. Thus there is a need for a more relevant, simple and fast indicator for microbial contamination detection in water, especially in the perspective of climate change with the increase of heavy rainfall events. This review focuses on the one hand on sources, fate and behavior of microorganisms in water and factors influencing pathogens’ presence, transportation and mobilization, and on the second hand, on the existing optical methods used for monitoring microbiological risks. Finally, this paper proposes new ways of research.

  3. Course constructions: A case-base of forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nan; Wu, Yeda; Su, Terry; Zhang, Liyong; Yin, Kun; Zheng, Da; Zheng, Jingjing; Huang, Lei; Wu, Qiuping; Cheng, Jianding

    2017-08-01

    Forensic toxicology education in China is limited by insufficient teaching methods and resources, resulting in students with adequate theoretical principles but lacking practice experience. Typical cases used as teaching materials vividly represent intoxication and provide students with an opportunity to practice and hone resolving skills. In 2013, the Department of Forensic Pathology at Zhongshan School of Medicine began to construct top-quality courses in forensic toxicology, with its first step, creating a base containing typical cases of intoxication. This essay reviews the construction process of said cases-base, which is intended to set an example of forensic toxicology education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. Forensic 3D documentation of skin injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    An accurate and precise documentation of injuries is fundamental in a forensic pathological context. Photographs and manual measurements are taken of all injuries during autopsies, but ordinary photography projects a 3D wound on a 2D space. Using technologies such as photogrammetry, it is possible...... methods (p > 0.05). The results of intra- and inter-observer tests indicated perfect agreement between the observers with mean value differences of ≤ 0.02 cm. This study demonstrated the validity of using photogrammetry for documentation of injuries in a forensic pathological context. Importantly...

  5. The evaluation of forensic cases reported due to food poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyza Urazel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study it is aimed to examine forensic food poisoning cases and to evaluate the clinical presentation of food poisoning in people within the context of forensic medicine. Methods: In the study, 215 food poisoning cases are evaluated, which applied to the forensic medicine branch office in our city between 01.01.2007 and 31.12.2011. The forensic reports and forensic investigations of these cases are analyzed retrospectively. The cases are examined in terms of gender, age, the type of food consumed, the treatment applied and the result of the forensic report. Results: It is determined that in 83 cases (38.6% food poisoning was caused by chicken products, and in 178 cases (82.8% the poisoned people were students. In 3 cases (1.4% the poisoning was life threatening. For 75 cases (34.9% no forensic report was prepared in emergency service and among the 140 cases for which a forensic report was prepared, only 3 of the reports were prepared in a correct manner. Conclusions: It is determined that the demographic data of the cases complies with the city where the study was conducted. It is found out that in emergency services the food poisoning cases are usually misevaluated.

  6. History, research and practice of forensic anthropology in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traithepchanapai, Pongpon; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk; Kranioti, Elena F

    2016-04-01

    Forensic anthropology is an increasingly developing discipline born about a century ago in the United States with the objective to contribute the knowledge of bone biology and physical anthropology to the emerging needs of the court of law. The development of research in biological and forensic anthropology has made rapid progress worldwide in the past few years, however, in most countries--with the exception of the United States--forensic anthropology work is still considered within the duties of the forensic pathologist. This paper attempts to summarise the history and development of forensic anthropology in Thailand by providing information on past and current research and practice that can help forensic practitioners to apply existing methods in forensic cases and mass disasters. It is hoped that the lessons learned from the tsunami catastrophe and the emerging need for positive identification in medicolegal settings will lead to rapid advances in education, training and professional engagement of anthropologists from the forensic departments and the law enforcement agencies in Thailand. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiochronology in nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamelu, D.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear forensics corresponds to the forensic analysis of nuclear materials. The samples analysed may either be those that are confiscated during any act of smuggling or that is retrieved from a postexplosion debris. The characterisation of the material is based on the isotopic composition, physical and chemical compositions, age and history of the material which are determined by suitable analytical techniques. The interpretation of the analytical results is necessary to understand the details of the material such as its provenance, the industrial history of the material as well as the implications of the probable use of the material

  8. La geomatica forense e il Forensic GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Carlucci

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La Conferenza ASITA 2012, tenutasi lo scorso novembre a Vicenza, ha rivelato una piacevole sorpresa con unasessione speciale che ha visto magistrati, avvocati e geomatici coinvolti per discutere l'aspetto relativo all’impattodella determinazione scientifica in iter giudiziari quali i contesti investigativi e processuali.AbstractIn the ASITA Conference 2012, held last November in Vicenza,a special session on “Forensic geomatics”, with judges and lawyers involved to discuss a very important aspect about the impact of scientific geomatics determinations arising during the judicial process of contexts analysis and investigative proceedings. 

  9. La geomatica forense e il Forensic GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Carlucci

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La Conferenza ASITA 2012, tenutasi lo scorso novembre a Vicenza, ha rivelato una piacevole sorpresa con unasessione speciale che ha visto magistrati, avvocati e geomatici coinvolti per discutere l'aspetto relativo all’impattodella determinazione scientifica in iter giudiziari quali i contesti investigativi e processuali. Abstract In the ASITA Conference 2012, held last November in Vicenza,a special session on “Forensic geomatics”, with judges and lawyers involved to discuss a very important aspect about the impact of scientific geomatics determinations arising during the judicial process of contexts analysis and investigative proceedings.

  10. Unraveling microbial ecology of industrial-scale Kombucha fermentations by metabarcoding and culture-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coton, Monika; Pawtowski, Audrey; Taminiau, Bernard; Burgaud, Gaëtan; Deniel, Franck; Coulloumme-Labarthe, Laurent; Fall, Abdoulaye; Daube, Georges; Coton, Emmanuel

    2017-05-01

    Kombucha, historically an Asian tea-based fermented drink, has recently become trendy in Western countries. Producers claim it bears health-enhancing properties that may come from the tea or metabolites produced by its microbiome. Despite its long history of production, microbial richness and dynamics have not been fully unraveled, especially at an industrial scale. Moreover, the impact of tea type (green or black) on microbial ecology was not studied. Here, we compared microbial communities from industrial-scale black and green tea fermentations, still traditionally carried out by a microbial biofilm, using culture-dependent and metabarcoding approaches. Dominant bacterial species belonged to Acetobacteraceae and to a lesser extent Lactobacteriaceae, while the main identified yeasts corresponded to Dekkera, Hanseniaspora and Zygosaccharomyces during all fermentations. Species richness decreased over the 8-day fermentation. Among acetic acid bacteria, Gluconacetobacter europaeus, Gluconobacter oxydans, G. saccharivorans and Acetobacter peroxydans emerged as dominant species. The main lactic acid bacteria, Oenococcus oeni, was strongly associated with green tea fermentations. Tea type did not influence yeast community, with Dekkera bruxellensis, D. anomala, Zygosaccharomyces bailii and Hanseniaspora valbyensis as most dominant. This study unraveled a distinctive core microbial community which is essential for fermentation control and could lead to Kombucha quality standardization. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Conceptualising forensic science and forensic reconstruction. Part II: The critical interaction between research, policy/law and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R M

    2017-11-01

    This paper builds on the FoRTE conceptual model presented in part I to address the forms of knowledge that are integral to the four components of the model. Articulating the different forms of knowledge within effective forensic reconstructions is valuable. It enables a nuanced approach to the development and use of evidence bases to underpin decision-making at every stage of a forensic reconstruction by enabling transparency in the reporting of inferences. It also enables appropriate methods to be developed to ensure quality and validity. It is recognised that the domains of practice, research, and policy/law intersect to form the nexus where forensic science is situated. Each domain has a distinctive infrastructure that influences the production and application of different forms of knowledge in forensic science. The channels that can enable the interaction between these domains, enhance the impact of research in theory and practice, increase access to research findings, and support quality are presented. The particular strengths within the different domains to deliver problem solving forensic reconstructions are thereby identified and articulated. It is argued that a conceptual understanding of forensic reconstruction that draws on the full range of both explicit and tacit forms of knowledge, and incorporates the strengths of the different domains pertinent to forensic science, offers a pathway to harness the full value of trace evidence for context sensitive, problem-solving forensic applications. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Estimating Population Turnover Rates by Relative Quantification Methods Reveals Microbial Dynamics in Marine Sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevorkian, Richard; Bird, Jordan T; Shumaker, Alexander; Lloyd, Karen G

    2018-01-01

    growth only in a few clades directly involved in methanogenesis, rather than in the whole microbial community. IMPORTANCE Many microbes cannot be isolated in pure culture to determine their preferential growth conditions and predict their response to changing environmental conditions. We created a microcosm of marine sediments that allowed us to simulate a diagenetic profile using a temporal analog for depth. This allowed for the observation of the microbial community population dynamics caused by the natural shift from sulfate reduction to methanogenesis. Our research provides evidence for the population dynamics of uncultured microbes as well as the application of a novel method of turnover rate analysis for individual taxa within a mixed incubation, FRAxC, which stands for "fraction of read abundance times cells," which was verified by quantitative PCR. This allows for the calculation of population turnover times for microbes in a natural setting and the identification of uncultured clades involved in geochemical processes. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Microbial environmental contamination in Italian dental clinics: A multicenter study yielding recommendations for standardized sampling methods and threshold values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquarella, Cesira; Veronesi, Licia; Napoli, Christian; Castiglia, Paolo; Liguori, Giorgio; Rizzetto, Rolando; Torre, Ida; Righi, Elena; Farruggia, Patrizia; Tesauro, Marina; Torregrossa, Maria V; Montagna, Maria T; Colucci, Maria E; Gallè, Francesca; Masia, Maria D; Strohmenger, Laura; Bergomi, Margherita; Tinteri, Carola; Panico, Manuela; Pennino, Francesca; Cannova, Lucia; Tanzi, Marialuisa

    2012-03-15

    A microbiological environmental investigation was carried out in ten dental clinics in Italy. Microbial contamination of water, air and surfaces was assessed in each clinic during the five working days, for one week per month, for a three-month period. Water and surfaces were sampled before and after clinical activity; air was sampled before, after, and during clinical activity. A wide variation was found in microbial environmental contamination, both within the participating clinics and for the different sampling times. Before clinical activity, microbial water contamination in tap water reached 51,200cfu/mL (colony forming units per milliliter), and that in Dental Unit Water Systems (DUWSs) reached 872,000cfu/mL. After clinical activity, there was a significant decrease in the Total Viable Count (TVC) in tap water and in DUWSs. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found in 2.38% (7/294) of tap water samples and in 20.06% (59/294) of DUWS samples; Legionella spp. was found in 29.96% (89/297) of tap water samples and 15.82% (47/297) of DUWS samples, with no significant difference between pre- and post-clinical activity. Microbial air contamination was highest during dental treatments, and decreased significantly at the end of the working activity (p<0.05). The microbial buildup on surfaces increased significantly during the working hours. This study provides data for the establishment of standardized sampling methods, and threshold values for contamination monitoring in dentistry. Some very critical situations have been observed which require urgent intervention. Furthermore, the study emphasizes the need for research aimed at defining effective managing strategies for dental clinics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Nuclear Forensics and Radiochemistry: Radiation Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundberg, Robert S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-08

    Radiation detection is necessary for isotope identification and assay in nuclear forensic applications. The principles of operation of gas proportional counters, scintillation counters, germanium and silicon semiconductor counters will be presented. Methods for calibration and potential pitfalls in isotope quantification will be described.

  15. Nuclear Forensics and Radiochemistry: Radiation Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundberg, Robert S.

    2017-01-01

    Radiation detection is necessary for isotope identification and assay in nuclear forensic applications. The principles of operation of gas proportional counters, scintillation counters, germanium and silicon semiconductor counters will be presented. Methods for calibration and potential pitfalls in isotope quantification will be described.

  16. Evaluating Digital Forensic Options for the Apple iPad

    OpenAIRE

    Hay , Andrew; Krill , Dennis; Kuhar , Benjamin; Peterson , Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    Part 5: ADVANCED FORENSIC TECHNIQUES; International audience; The iPod Touch, iPhone and iPad from Apple are among the most popular mobile computing platforms in use today. These devices are of forensic interest because of their high adoption rate and potential for containing digital evidence. The uniformity in their design and underlying operating system (iOS) also allows forensic tools and methods to be shared across product types. This paper analyzes the tools and methods available for con...

  17. Forensic entomology: implementing quality assurance for expertise work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudry, Emmanuel; Dourel, Laurent

    2013-09-01

    The Department of Forensic Entomology (Institut de Recherche Criminelle de la Gendarmerie Nationale, France) was accredited by the French Committee of Accreditation (Cofrac's Healthcare section) in October 2007 on the basis of NF EN ISO/CEI 17025 standard. It was the first accreditation in this specific field of forensic sciences in France and in Europe. The present paper introduces the accreditation process in forensic entomology (FE) through the experience of the Department of Forensic Entomology. Based upon the identification of necrophagous insects and the study of their biology, FE must, as any other expertise work in forensic sciences, demonstrate integrity and good working practice to satisfy both the courts and the scientific community. FE does not, strictly speaking, follow an analytical method. This could explain why, to make up for a lack of appropriate quality reference, a specific documentation was drafted and written by the staff of the Department of Forensic Entomology in order to define working methods complying with quality standards (testing methods). A quality assurance system is laborious to set up and maintain and can be perceived as complex, time-consuming and never-ending. However, a survey performed in 2011 revealed that the accreditation process in the frame of expertise work has led to new well-defined working habits, based on an effort at transparency. It also requires constant questioning and a proactive approach, both profitable for customers (magistrates, investigators) and analysts (forensic entomologists).

  18. Forensic Applications of LIBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hark, Richard R.; East, Lucille J.

    Forensic science is broadly defined as the application of science to matters of the law. Practitioners typically use multidisciplinary scientific techniques for the analysis of physical evidence in an attempt to establish or exclude an association between a suspect and the scene of a crime.

  19. Nuclear forensics case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedchenko, Vitaly

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this presentation is to share three case studies from the Institute of Transuranium Elements (ITU) which describe the application of nuclear forensics to events where nuclear and other radioactive material was found to be out of regulatory control

  20. FORENSIC CRIMINOLOGY - FUGITIVE PSYCHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Nyagudi, Nyagudi Musandu

    2014-01-01

    Forensic Criminology – Fugitive Psychology, 2010 Security Summit (Regional Security Exhibition & Conference ) a forum hosted by Kenya Security Industry Association, Securi Fast Trainers & Consultants, Fidelity Security Limited at Desmond Tutu Conference Centre, Nairobi Kenya from 4th-5th March, 2010  

  1. Soil Science Forensic Application

    OpenAIRE

    Rēpele, M; Alksne, M

    2009-01-01

    The forensic potential of soil and geological evidence has been recognized for more than a century, but in the last 15 years these types of evidence have been used much more widely both as an investigative intelligence tool and as evidence in court.

  2. Development of a UPLC–MS/MS method for determining ɣ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and GHB glucuronide concentrations in hair and application to forensic cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xin; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Linnet, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    We present a series of forensic cases measuring concentrations in hair of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and its glucuronide. The compounds were extracted from hair by incubation for 1.5 h in a 25:25:50 (v/v/v) mixture of methanol/acetonitrile/2 mM ammonium formate (8 % acetonitrile, pH 5.3). The co......We present a series of forensic cases measuring concentrations in hair of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and its glucuronide. The compounds were extracted from hair by incubation for 1.5 h in a 25:25:50 (v/v/v) mixture of methanol/acetonitrile/2 mM ammonium formate (8 % acetonitrile, pH 5...... to detection of exogenous exposure. To our knowledge, this is the first report to present GHB glucuronide in human hair....

  3. Method for the prioritization of areas experiencing microbial pollution of surface water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venter, SN

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased threat of faecal pollution in recent years and the high priority of protecting human health by the government led to the initiation of a national microbial monitoring programme for surface water in South Africa. According to the design...

  4. Molecular microbial ecology manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalchuk, G.A.; Bruijn, de F.J.; Head, I.M.; Akkermans, A.D.L.

    2004-01-01

    The field of microbial ecology has been revolutionized in the past two decades by the introduction of molecular methods into the toolbox of the microbial ecologist. This molecular arsenal has helped to unveil the enormity of microbial diversity across the breadth of the earth's ecosystems, and has

  5. Forensic learning disability nursing skills and competencies: a study of forensic and non-forensic nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Tom; Phipps, Dianne

    2010-11-01

    This paper reports on an investigation into the skills and competencies of forensic learning disability nurses in the United Kingdom. The two sample populations were forensic learning disability nurses from the high, medium, and low secure psychiatric services and non-forensic learning disability nurses from generic services. An information gathering schedule was used to collect the data; of 1200 schedules, 643 were returned for a response rate of 53.5%. The data identified the "top ten" problems that forensic learning disability nurses may encounter, the skills and competencies necessary to overcome them, and the areas that need to be developed in the future. The results indicated that the forensic learning disability nurses tended to focus on the physical aspects to the role whilst the non-forensic learning disability nurses tended to perceive the forensic role in relational terms. This has implications for practice, policy, and procedures.

  6. Neutron radiography with 252Cf in forensic science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cason, J.L.

    1972-01-01

    Equipment and methods for neutron radiographic examination of objects in forensic science are described. Examples discussed include booby-trapped ammunition, bomb in a matchbook, gun barrel analysis, narcotics in pen, and chemicals and metals in body tissue

  7. Location tracking forensics on mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Stefan; Kröger, Knut; Creutzburg, Reiner

    2013-03-01

    The spread of navigation devices has increased significantly over the last 10 years. With the help of the current development of even smaller navigation receiver units it is to navigate with almost any current smart phone. Modern navigation systems are no longer limited to satellite navigation, but use current techniques, e.g. WLAN localization. Due to the increased use of navigation devices their relevance to forensic investigations has risen rapidly. Because navigation, for example with navigation equipment and smartphones, have become common place these days, also the amount of saved navigation data has risen rapidly. All of these developments lead to a necessary forensic analysis of these devices. However, there are very few current procedures for investigating of navigation devices. Navigation data is forensically interesting because by the position of the devices in most cases the location and the traveled path of the owner can be reconstructed. In this work practices for forensic analysis of navigation devices are developed. Different devices will be analyzed and it is attempted, by means of forensic procedures to restore the traveled path of the mobile device. For analysis of the various devices different software and hardware is used. There will be presented common procedures for securing and testing of mobile devices. Further there will be represented the specials in the investigation of each device. The different classes considered are GPS handhelds, mobile navigation devices and smartphones. It will be attempted, wherever possible, to read all data of the device. The aim is to restore complete histories of the navigation data and to forensically study and analyze these data. This is realized by the usage of current forensic software e.g. TomTology or Oxygen Forensic Suite. It is also attempted to use free software whenever possible. Further alternative methods are used (e.g. rooting) to access locked data of the unit. To limit the practical work the

  8. My-Forensic-Loci-queries (MyFLq) framework for analysis of forensic STR data generated by massive parallel sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Neste, Christophe; Vandewoestyne, Mado; Van Criekinge, Wim; Deforce, Dieter; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip

    2014-03-01

    Forensic scientists are currently investigating how to transition from capillary electrophoresis (CE) to massive parallel sequencing (MPS) for analysis of forensic DNA profiles. MPS offers several advantages over CE such as virtually unlimited multiplexy of loci, combining both short tandem repeat (STR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci, small amplicons without constraints of size separation, more discrimination power, deep mixture resolution and sample multiplexing. We present our bioinformatic framework My-Forensic-Loci-queries (MyFLq) for analysis of MPS forensic data. For allele calling, the framework uses a MySQL reference allele database with automatically determined regions of interest (ROIs) by a generic maximal flanking algorithm which makes it possible to use any STR or SNP forensic locus. Python scripts were designed to automatically make allele calls starting from raw MPS data. We also present a method to assess the usefulness and overall performance of a forensic locus with respect to MPS, as well as methods to estimate whether an unknown allele, which sequence is not present in the MySQL database, is in fact a new allele or a sequencing error. The MyFLq framework was applied to an Illumina MiSeq dataset of a forensic Illumina amplicon library, generated from multilocus STR polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on both single contributor samples and multiple person DNA mixtures. Although the multilocus PCR was not yet optimized for MPS in terms of amplicon length or locus selection, the results show excellent results for most loci. The results show a high signal-to-noise ratio, correct allele calls, and a low limit of detection for minor DNA contributors in mixed DNA samples. Technically, forensic MPS affords great promise for routine implementation in forensic genomics. The method is also applicable to adjacent disciplines such as molecular autopsy in legal medicine and in mitochondrial DNA research. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by

  9. Traditional method of fish treatment, microbial count and palatability studies on spoiled fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Aziz, N. A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the microbial count and palatability acceptance of spoiled fish after treatment with traditionally used naturalsolution.Methodology and results: To compare microbial count of spoiled fish before and after treatment with natural solution practicedby local people in Malaysia, 10 g of spoiled fish was respectively rinsed with 100 mL of 0.1% of natural solution such as Averrhoabilimbi extract, rice rinsed water, rice vinegar, Citrus aurantifolia extract, salt, flour, and Tamarindus indica extract. Flesh of fishrinsed with rice vinegar was found to be able to reduce microbial count (CFU/mL = 0.37 X 107 more than 4.5 times whencompared to spoiled fish (CFU/mL=1.67x 107. Spoiled fish that was treated with rice vinegar was prepared into a cutlet and fried.The cutlet was subjected to palatability acceptance study by a group of residents in Palm Court Condominium, Brickfields, KualaLumpur. The palatability study from the Cronbach alpha shown that the taste have the reliability of 0.802, the aroma has thereliability of 0.888, colour with the reliability of 0.772, texture or mouth feel have reliability of 0.840 and physical structure of thecutlet is 0.829.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Treatment of spoiled fish using rice vinegar as practice by local peopletraditionally shown a significant reduction in microbial count and the vinegar-treated fish could be developed into a product that issafe and acceptable by the consumer.

  10. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods Capture Different Microbial Community Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Stefani, Franck O. P.; Bell, Terrence H.; Marchand, Charlotte; de la Providencia, Ivan E.; El Yassimi, Abdel; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Bioremediation is a cost-effective and sustainable approach for treating polluted soils, but our ability to improve on current bioremediation strategies depends on our ability to isolate microorganisms from these soils. Although culturing is widely used in bioremediation research and applications, it is unknown whether the composition of cultured isolates closely mirrors the indigenous microbial community from contaminated soils. To assess this, we paired culture-independent (454-pyrosequenci...

  11. Analytical and Radiochemistry for Nuclear Forensics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Robert Ernest [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dry, Donald E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kinman, William Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Podlesak, David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tandon, Lav [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-26

    Information about nonproliferation nuclear forensics, activities in forensics at Los Alamos National Laboratory, radio analytical work at LANL, radiochemical characterization capabilities, bulk chemical and materials analysis capabilities, and future interests in forensics interactions.

  12. Liforac - A Model For Live Forensic Acquisition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available ways in which such an acquisition should take place to ensure forensic soundness. The study presents information on a relatively new field of expertise and considers the Digital Forensic discipline, forensic tools, practical problems experienced during...

  13. Multifarious applications of atomic force microscopy in forensic science investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Gaurav; Tharmavaram, Maithri; Rawtani, Deepak; Kumar, Sumit; Agrawal, Y

    2017-04-01

    Forensic science is a wide field comprising of several subspecialties and uses methods derived from natural sciences for finding criminals and other evidence valid in a legal court. A relatively new area; Nano-forensics brings a new era of investigation in forensic science in which instantaneous results can be produced that determine various agents such as explosive gasses, biological agents and residues in different crime scenes and terrorist activity investigations. This can be achieved by applying Nanotechnology and its associated characterization techniques in forensic sciences. Several characterization techniques exist in Nanotechnology and nano-analysis is one such technique that is used in forensic science which includes Electron microscopes (EM) like Transmission (TEM) and Scanning (SEM), Raman microscopy (Micro -Raman) and Scanning Probe Microscopes (SPMs) like Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). Atomic force microscopy enables surface characterization of different materials by examining their morphology and mechanical properties. Materials that are immeasurable such as hair, body fluids, textile fibers, documents, polymers, pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs), etc. are often encountered during forensic investigations. This review article will mainly focus on the use of AFM in the examination of different evidence such as blood stains, forged documents, human hair samples, ammunitions, explosives, and other such applications in the field of Forensic Science. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Forensic geotechnical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Babu, GL

    2016-01-01

    In this edited volume on advances in forensic geotechnical engineering, a number of technical contributions by experts and professionals in this area are included. The work is the outcome of deliberations at various conferences in the area conducted by Prof. G.L. Sivakumar Babu and Dr. V.V.S. Rao as secretary and Chairman of Technical Committee on Forensic Geotechnical Engineering of International Society for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering (ISSMGE). This volume contains papers on topics such as guidelines, evidence/data collection, distress characterization, use of diagnostic tests (laboratory and field tests), back analysis, failure hypothesis formulation, role of instrumentation and sensor-based technologies, risk analysis, technical shortcomings. This volume will prove useful to researchers and practitioners alike.

  15. Veterinary Forensic Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwaltney-Brant, S M

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary pathologists working in diagnostic laboratories are sometimes presented with cases involving animal poisonings that become the object of criminal or civil litigation. Forensic veterinary toxicology cases can include cases involving animal cruelty (malicious poisoning), regulatory issues (eg, contamination of the food supply), insurance litigation, or poisoning of wildlife. An understanding of the appropriate approach to these types of cases, including proper sample collection, handling, and transport, is essential so that chain of custody rules are followed and proper samples are obtained for toxicological analysis. Consultation with veterinary toxicologists at the diagnostic laboratory that will be processing the samples before, during, and after the forensic necropsy can help to ensure that the analytical tests performed are appropriate for the circumstances and findings surrounding the individual case. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. FORENSIC ACCOUNTING: THE ESSENCE AND PROSPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna Dubinina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the study is a set of theoretical, organizational, and methodological principles for the development of forensic accounting in Ukraine. General scientific and special methods of cognition are the methodological basis of the study. The content of the concept “forensic accounting” is specified using theoretical generalization methods; the comparison of audit and forensic accounting using comparison method is carried out. Using the abstract-logical method and structural-logical analysis, features, current problems, and obstacles to the development of forensic accounting in Ukraine are determined. The objective of the study is to consider the essence of the concept of “forensic accounting”, to introduce the main obstacles, and to propose a list of measures for its development in Ukraine. As a result of the study, it is established that forensic accounting is a combination of legal and financial audit and forensic accounting expertise. Therefore, experts of all these profiles should be involved to the forensic accounting, which will help the company solve the conflict situations related to fraud. It is substantiated that when improving the method of forensic accounting, it is necessary to understand its difference from the audit. The study found that the most common types of fraud faced by Ukrainian companies are asset theft, unreasonable and inappropriate spending. The most common ways to detect fraud in Ukraine are internal audit and informal internal sources. Only 10% of Ukrainian companies have experience in attracting external consultants to independent investigations. However, as practice shows, the very independent, unbiased view of the external specialist on the control system and business processes allows creating a high-quality system of preventive mechanisms for counteracting fraudulent actions and in general, improving the efficiency of business processes of the company. It is substantiated that forensic accounting

  17. Automatic Speaker Recognition for Mobile Forensic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Algabri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently, lawyers, law enforcement agencies, and judges in courts use speech and other biometric features to recognize suspects. In general, speaker recognition is used for discriminating people based on their voices. The process of determining, if a suspected speaker is the source of trace, is called forensic speaker recognition. In such applications, the voice samples are most probably noisy, the recording sessions might mismatch each other, the sessions might not contain sufficient recording for recognition purposes, and the suspect voices are recorded through mobile channel. The identification of a person through his voice within a forensic quality context is challenging. In this paper, we propose a method for forensic speaker recognition for the Arabic language; the King Saud University Arabic Speech Database is used for obtaining experimental results. The advantage of this database is that each speaker’s voice is recorded in both clean and noisy environments, through a microphone and a mobile channel. This diversity facilitates its usage in forensic experimentations. Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients are used for feature extraction and the Gaussian mixture model-universal background model is used for speaker modeling. Our approach has shown low equal error rates (EER, within noisy environments and with very short test samples.

  18. CYBER FORENSICS COMPETENCY-BASED FRAMEWORK - AREVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Elfadil Sabeil; Azizah Bt Abdul Manaf; Zuraini Ismail; Mohamed Abas

    2011-01-01

    Lack of Cyber Forensics experts is a huge challenge facing the world today. It comes due to the fancy of Cyber Forensics training or education. The multidisciplinary nature of Cyber Forensics proliferates to diverse training programmes, from a handful day‟s workshop to Postgraduate in Cyber Forensics. Consequently, this paper concentrates on analyzing the Cyber Forensics training programmes in terms of Competency-Based Framework. The study proves that Cyber Forensics training or education h...

  19. Technical and legal perspectives on forensics scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Solinas, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    The dissertation concerns digital forensic. The expression digital forensic (sometimes called digital forensic science) is the science that studies the identification, storage, protection, retrieval, documentation, use, and every other form of computer data processing in order to be evaluated in a legal trial. Digital forensic is a branch of forensic science. First of all, digital forensic represents the extension of theories, principles and procedures that are typical and importa...

  20. Forensic radiology in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Manigandan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiography can play an important part in forensic odontology, mainly to establish identification. This may take the precise form of comparison between antemortem and postmortem radiographs. Radiographs may also be taken to determine the age of a minor victim and even help in the assessment of the sex and ethnic group. Comparable radiographs are an essential factor to confirm identification in a mass disaster.

  1. Forensic neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, T.

    1987-01-01

    The progress of forensic neutron activation analysis (FNAA) in Japan is described. FNAA began in 1965 and during the past 20 years many cases have been handled; these include determination of toxic materials, comparison examination of physical evidences (e.g., paints, metal fragments, plastics and inks) and drug sample differentiation. Neutron activation analysis is applied routinely to the scientific criminal investigation as one of multielement analytical techniques. This paper also discusses these routine works. (author) 14 refs

  2. Nuclear forensics: strategies and analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, Rafael C.; Sarkis, Jorge E.S.; Pestana, Rafael C.B.

    2013-01-01

    The development of nuclear forensics as a field of science arose in response to international demand for methods to investigate the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. After being seized, unknown nuclear material is collected and analyzed by a set of analytical methods. The fingerprints of these materials can be identified and further used during the investigations. Data interpretation is an extensive process aiming to validate the hypotheses made by the experts, and can help confirm the origin of seized nuclear materials at the end of the process or investigation. This work presents the set of measures and analytical methods that have been inherited by nuclear forensics from several fields of science. The main characteristics of these methods are evaluated and the analytical techniques employed to determine the fingerprint of nuclear materials are described. (author)

  3. Tattoos: forensic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W

    2013-12-01

    Tattooing refers to marking of the skin by puncturing and introducing pigmented material. Although it derives from a Polynesian word, tautau, decorative tattooing has been found in most societies over many centuries. The purpose of tattooing has varied from simple decoration, to a marker of social rank, criminal and noncriminal group membership, or a particular rite of passage in tribal communities. Tattooing may be used in medicine to mark areas for radiotherapy, and may occur inadvertently associated with certain occupations such as coal mining. Forensically, tattoos may be very useful in assisting with body identification if facial features or fingers have been damaged or removed. Aspects of a decedent's history may also be deduced from certain tattoos such as military tattoos in service personnel, rudimentary line tattoos with antisocial and anti-police messages in ex-prisoners, and syringes, marihuana leaves or mushrooms in illicit drug users. Tattoos have become more common in recent years in younger individuals in the West and so should be expected to be found with increasing incidence at the time of forensic autopsy examinations. Increasing population movements also mean that less common tattoos may be encountered during forensic evaluations.

  4. Emergence of forensic podiatry--A novel sub-discipline of forensic sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; DiMaggio, John A

    2015-10-01

    "Forensic podiatry is defined as the application of sound and researched podiatric knowledge and experience in forensic investigations; to show the association of an individual with a scene of crime, or to answer any other legal question concerned with the foot or footwear that requires knowledge of the functioning foot". Forensic podiatrists can contribute to forensic identification by associating the pedal evidence with the criminal or crime scene. The most common pedal evidence collected from the crime scene is in the form of footprints, shoeprints and their tracks and trails. Forensic podiatrists can establish identity of the individuals from the footprints in many ways. The analysis of bare footprints involves the identification based on the individualistic features like flat footedness, ridges, humps, creases, an extra toe, missing toe, corns, cuts, cracks, pits, deformities, and various features of the toe and heel region. All these individualistic features can link the criminal with the crime. In addition to these, parameters of body size like stature and body weight as well as sex can also be estimated by using anthropometric methods. If a series of footprints are recovered from the crime scene, then parameters of the gait analysis such as stride/step length and general movement of the criminal can be traced. Apart from these, a newly established biometric parameter of the footprints i.e. footprint ridge density can also be evaluated for personal identification. Careful analysis of the footprint ridge density can give an idea about the sex of the criminal whose footprints are recovered at the scene which can further help to reduce the burden of the investigating officer as the investigations then may be directed toward either a male suspect or a female suspect accordingly. This paper highlights various aspects of Forensic Podiatry and discusses the different methods of personal identification related to pedal evidence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland

  5. Forensic Facial Reconstruction: The Final Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sonia; Gupta, Vineeta; Vij, Hitesh; Vij, Ruchieka; Tyagi, Nutan

    2015-09-01

    Forensic facial reconstruction can be used to identify unknown human remains when other techniques fail. Through this article, we attempt to review the different methods of facial reconstruction reported in literature. There are several techniques of doing facial reconstruction, which vary from two dimensional drawings to three dimensional clay models. With the advancement in 3D technology, a rapid, efficient and cost effective computerized 3D forensic facial reconstruction method has been developed which has brought down the degree of error previously encountered. There are several methods of manual facial reconstruction but the combination Manchester method has been reported to be the best and most accurate method for the positive recognition of an individual. Recognition allows the involved government agencies to make a list of suspected victims'. This list can then be narrowed down and a positive identification may be given by the more conventional method of forensic medicine. Facial reconstruction allows visual identification by the individual's family and associates to become easy and more definite.

  6. From forensic epigenetics to forensic epigenomics: Broadening DNA investigative intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Vidaki (Athina); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractHuman genetic variation is a major resource in forensics, but does not allow all forensically relevant questions to be answered. Some questions may instead be addressable via epigenomics, as the epigenome acts as an interphase between the fixed genome and the dynamic environment. We

  7. Concurrent validity and clinical utility of the HCR-20V3 compared with the HCR-20 in forensic mental health nursing: similar tools but improved method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørkly, Stål; Eidhammer, Gunnar; Selmer, Lars Erik

    2014-01-01

    The main scope of this small-scale investigation was to compare clinical application of the HCR-20V3 with its predecessor, the HCR-20. To explore concurrent validity, two experienced nurses assessed 20 forensic mental health service patients with the tools. Estimates of internal consistency for the HCR-20 and the HCR-20V3 were calculated by Cronbach's alpha for two levels of measurement: the H-, C-, and R-scales and the total sum scores. We found moderate (C-scale) to good (H- and R- scales and aggregate scores) estimates of internal consistency and significant differences for the two versions of the HCR. This finding indicates that the two versions reflect common underlying dimensions and that there still appears to be differences between V2 and V3 ratings for the same patients. A case from forensic mental health was used to illustrate similarities and differences in assessment results between the two HCR-20 versions. The case illustration depicts clinical use of the HCR-20V3 and application of two structured nursing interventions pertaining to the risk management part of the tool. According to our experience, Version 3 is superior to Version 2 concerning: (a) item clarity; (b) the distinction between presence and relevance of risk factors; (c) the integration of risk formulation and risk scenario; and (d) the explicit demand to construct a risk management plan as part of the standard assessment procedure.

  8. Book Review: Computer Forensics: Principles and Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigang Liu

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Linda Volonino, Reynaldo Anzaldua, and Jana Godwin (2007. Computer Forensics: Principles and Practices. Pearson/Prentice Hall. 534 pages, ISBN: 0-13-154727-5 (paper, US$85.33Reviewed by Jigang Liu (Jigang.Liu@metrostate.edu, Department of Information and Computer Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Metropolitan State University, St. Paul, MN 55106“Computer Forensics: Principles and Practices” by Linda Volonino, Reynaldo Anzaldua, and Jana Godwin, published by Pearson/Prentice Hall in 2007 is one of the newest computer forensics textbooks on the market. The goal of the book, as the authors put it, is to teach “students who want to learn about electronic evidence – including what types exist and where it may be found – and the computer forensics methods to investigate it” so that they will be prepared “in a career in information security, criminal justice, accounting, law enforcement, and federal investigations – as well as computer forensics.”Linda, Reynaldo, and Jana are not only experienced college professors, but also industry bounded professionals. All of them have substantial working experience with law firms or law enforcement in dealing with both civil and criminal cases. They are all certified information system security professionals (CISSP. Their teaching experience at the college level and their working experience on real cases make this book a must-read book for a college professor.(see PDF for full review

  9. Forensic archaeology and anthropology : An Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Kate

    2005-09-01

    Forensic archaeology is an extremely powerful investigative discipline and, in combination with forensic anthropology, can provide a wealth of evidentiary information to police investigators and the forensic community. The re-emergence of forensic archaeology and anthropology within Australia relies on its diversification and cooperation with established forensic medical organizations, law enforcement forensic service divisions, and national forensic boards. This presents a unique opportunity to develop a new multidisciplinary approach to forensic archaeology/anthropology within Australia as we hold a unique set of environmental, social, and cultural conditions that diverge from overseas models and require different methodological approaches. In the current world political climate, more forensic techniques are being applied at scenes of mass disasters, genocide, and terrorism. This provides Australian forensic archaeology/anthropology with a unique opportunity to develop multidisciplinary models with contributions from psychological profiling, ballistics, sociopolitics, cultural anthropology, mortuary technicians, post-blast analysis, fire analysis, and other disciplines from the world of forensic science.

  10. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LITTLE, CHARLES Q.; PETERS, RALPH R.; RIGDON, J. BRIAN; SMALL, DANIEL E.

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene

  11. Two sampling methods yield distinct microbial signatures in the nasopharynges of asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Crandall, Keith A; Freishtat, Robert J

    2016-06-16

    The nasopharynx is a reservoir for pathogens associated with respiratory illnesses, such as asthma. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been used to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiome during health and disease. Most studies so far have surveyed the nasopharynx as a whole; however, less is known about spatial variation (biogeography) in nasal microenvironments and how sampling techniques may capture that microbial diversity. We used targeted 16S rRNA MiSeq sequencing and two different sampling strategies [nasal washes (NW) and nasal brushes (NB)] to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiota in 30 asthmatic children. Nasal brushing is more abrasive than nasal washing and targeted the inner portion of the inferior turbinate. This region is expected to be different from other nasal microenvironments. Nasal washing is not spatially specific. Our 30 × 2 nasal microbiomes generated 1,474,497 sequences, from which we identified an average of 157 and 186 OTUs per sample in the NW and NB groups, respectively. Microbiotas from NB showed significantly higher alpha-diversity than microbiotas from NW. Similarly, both nasal microbiotas were distinct from each other (PCoA) and significantly differed in their community composition and abundance in at least 9 genera (effective size ≥1 %). Nasopharyngeal microenvironments in asthmatic children contain microbiotas with different diversity and structure. Nasal washes and brushes capture that diversity differently. Future microbial studies of the nasopharynx need to be aware of potential spatial variation (biogeography).

  12. Antioxidant, Anti-microbial Properties and Chemical Composition of Cumin Essential Oils Extracted by Three Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Lianying

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate the chemical composition, antioxidant and anti-bacterial activity of cumin essential oils (CEOs extracted by different techniques, including supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCE, subcritical butane extraction (SBE and traditional solvent extraction (SE. Our results indicated that CEOs are a valuable source of bioactive compounds, including cumin aldehyde, γ-terpinene and β-pinene. The most abundant components found in CEOs obtained by SCE and SBE were similar, while the abundant components in SE, β-Cumic aldehyde (19.31% and α-phellandrene (9.49%, were distinctive. CEOs obtained by SCE exhibited higher antioxidant activity, followed by those extracted by SE and SBE. Moreover, the anti-microbial properties of CEOs obtained by SCE and SBE were higher than that of CEOs collected by SE. In conclusion, CEOs exhibit strong antioxidant and anti-microbial properties, which suggests a potential role of CEOs in preventing diseases associated with aging and oxidative stress, and our results highlight the potential usage of CEOs in the food industry.

  13. Estimating the measurement uncertainty in forensic blood alcohol analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullberg, Rod G

    2012-04-01

    For many reasons, forensic toxicologists are being asked to determine and report their measurement uncertainty in blood alcohol analysis. While understood conceptually, the elements and computations involved in determining measurement uncertainty are generally foreign to most forensic toxicologists. Several established and well-documented methods are available to determine and report the uncertainty in blood alcohol measurement. A straightforward bottom-up approach is presented that includes: (1) specifying the measurand, (2) identifying the major components of uncertainty, (3) quantifying the components, (4) statistically combining the components and (5) reporting the results. A hypothetical example is presented that employs reasonable estimates for forensic blood alcohol analysis assuming headspace gas chromatography. These computations are easily employed in spreadsheet programs as well. Determining and reporting measurement uncertainty is an important element in establishing fitness-for-purpose. Indeed, the demand for such computations and information from the forensic toxicologist will continue to increase.

  14. Colloid-based multiplexed method for screening plant biomass-degrading glycoside hydrolase activities in microbial communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reindl, W.; Deng, K.; Gladden, J.M.; Cheng, G.; Wong, A.; Singer, S.W.; Singh, S.; Lee, J.-C.; Yao, J.-S.; Hazen, T.C.; Singh, A.K; Simmons, B.A.; Adams, P.D.; Northen, T.R.

    2011-05-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of long-chain polysaccharides is a crucial step in the conversion of biomass to lignocellulosic biofuels. The identification and characterization of optimal glycoside hydrolases is dependent on enzyme activity assays, however existing methods are limited in terms of compatibility with a broad range of reaction conditions, sample complexity, and especially multiplexity. The method we present is a multiplexed approach based on Nanostructure-Initiator Mass Spectrometry (NIMS) that allowed studying several glycolytic activities in parallel under diverse assay conditions. Although the substrate analogs carried a highly hydrophobic perfluorinated tag, assays could be performed in aqueous solutions due colloid formation of the substrate molecules. We first validated our method by analyzing known {beta}-glucosidase and {beta}-xylosidase activities in single and parallel assay setups, followed by the identification and characterization of yet unknown glycoside hydrolase activities in microbial communities.

  15. Nuclear Forensics Technologies in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, N.; Kimura, Y.; Okubo, A.; Tomikawa, H.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear forensics is the analysis of intercepted illicit nuclear or radioactive material and any associated material to provide evidence for nuclear attribution by determining origin, history, transit routes and purpose involving such material. Nuclear forensics activities include sampling of the illicit material, analysis of the samples and evaluation of the attribution by comparing the analysed data with database or numerical simulation. Because the nuclear forensics methodologies provide hints of the origin of the nuclear materials used in illegal dealings or nuclear terrorism, it contributes to identify and indict offenders, hence to enhance deterrent effect against such terrorism. Worldwide network on nuclear forensics can lead to strengthening global nuclear security regime. In the ESARDA Symposium 2015, the results of research and development of fundamental nuclear forensics technologies performed in Japan Atomic Energy Agency during the term of 2011-2013 were reported, namely (1) technique to analyse isotopic composition of nuclear material, (2) technique to identify the impurities contained in the material, (3) technique to determine the age of the purified material by measuring the isotopic ratio of daughter thorium to parent uranium, (4) technique to make image data by observing particle shapes with electron microscope, and (5) prototype nuclear forensics library for comparison of the analysed data with database in order to evaluate its evidence such as origin and history. Japan’s capability on nuclear forensics and effective international cooperation are also mentioned for contribution to the international nuclear forensics community.

  16. Towards automatic forensic face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a methodology and experimental results for evidence evaluation in the context of forensic face recognition. In forensic applications, the matching score (hereafter referred to as similarity score) from a biometric system must be represented as a Likelihood Ratio (LR). In our

  17. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    2010-01-01

    Beside a few papers which focus on the forensic aspects of automatic face recognition, there is not much published about it in contrast to the literature on developing new techniques and methodologies for biometric face recognition. In this report, we review forensic facial identification which is

  18. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Quaglia, Adamo; Epifano, Calogera M.

    2012-01-01

    The improvements of automatic face recognition during the last 2 decades have disclosed new applications like border control and camera surveillance. A new application field is forensic face recognition. Traditionally, face recognition by human experts has been used in forensics, but now there is a

  19. Microbial electrosynthetic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Harold D.; Marshall, Christopher W.; Labelle, Edward V.

    2018-01-30

    Methods are provided for microbial electrosynthesis of H.sub.2 and organic compounds such as methane and acetate. Method of producing mature electrosynthetic microbial populations by continuous culture is also provided. Microbial populations produced in accordance with the embodiments as shown to efficiently synthesize H.sub.2, methane and acetate in the presence of CO.sub.2 and a voltage potential. The production of biodegradable and renewable plastics from electricity and carbon dioxide is also disclosed.

  20. Physicochemical, microbial and sensory quality of fresh-cut red beetroots in relation to sanization method and storage duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulal Chandra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Effects of sanitization and storage on fresh-cut beetroots (Beta vulgaris L. were evaluated following sanitation – peeling - cutting (SPC, peeling – sanitation – cutting (PSC and peeling – cutting – sanitation (PCS methods with (Cl, or without (TW, 100 ppm chlorine solution, then packaged in polyethylene bag and stored at 5°C for up to 14 days. Chroma values of fresh-cut beetroots significantly declined whereas whiteness index and titratable acidity values increased, however, texture and total soluble solid contents showed no significant variation. Betalain contents decreased gradually and total phenol content showed inconsistence trend. PCS-Cl treated samples accounted for higher betalains decline and received lower visual quality scores despite its lower total aerobic bacterial count. Minimum microbial population was observed in PSC-Cl methodsalong with higher levels of betalain contents. Considering pigment retention, microbial and visual qualities, beetroots sanitized with chlorine water following PSC method was the best processingway for fresh-cut beetroots and therefore, PSC-Cl treatment could commercially be used for processing of fresh-cut beetroots.

  1. Rehydration of forensically important larval Diptera specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Michelle R; Pechal, Jennifer L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2011-01-01

    Established procedures for collecting and preserving evidence are essential for all forensic disciplines to be accepted in court and by the forensic community at large. Entomological evidence, such as Diptera larvae, are primarily preserved in ethanol, which can evaporate over time, resulting in the dehydration of specimens. In this study, methods used for rehydrating specimens were compared. The changes in larval specimens with respect to larval length and weight for three forensically important blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) species in North America were quantified. Phormia regina (Meigen), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) third-instar larvae were collected from various decomposing animals and preserved with three preservation methods (80% ethanol, 70% isopropyl alcohol, and hot-water kill then 80% ethanol). Preservative solutions were allowed to evaporate. Rehydration was attempted with either of the following: 80% ethanol, commercial trisodium phosphate substitute solution, or 0.5% trisodium phosphate solution. All three methods partially restored weight and length of specimens recorded before preservation. Analysis of variance results indicated that effects of preservation, rehydration treatment, and collection animal were different in each species. The interaction between preservative method and rehydration treatment had a significant effect on both P. regina and C. macellaria larval length and weight. In addition, there was a significant interaction effect of collection animal on larval C. macellaria measurements. No significant effect was observed in C. rufifacies larval length or weight among the preservatives or treatments. These methods could be used to establish a standard operating procedure for dealing with dehydrated larval specimens in forensic investigations.

  2. New method for characterizing electron mediators in microbial systems using a thin-layer twin-working electrode cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Md Mahamudul; Cheng, Ka Yu; Ho, Goen; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2017-01-15

    Microbial biofilms are significant ecosystems where the existence of redox gradients drive electron transfer often via soluble electron mediators. This study describes the use of two interfacing working electrodes (WEs) to simulate redox gradients within close proximity (250µm) for the detection and quantification of electron mediators. By using a common counter and reference electrode, the potentials of the two WEs were independently controlled to maintain a suitable "voltage window", which enabled simultaneous oxidation and reduction of electron mediators as evidenced by the concurrent anodic and cathodic currents, respectively. To validate the method, the electrochemical properties of different mediators (hexacyanoferrate, HCF, riboflavin, RF) were characterized by stepwise shifting the "voltage window" (ranging between 25 and 200mV) within a range of potentials after steady equilibrium current of both WEs was established. The resulting differences in electrical currents between the two WEs were recorded across a defined potential spectrum (between -1V and +0.5V vs. Ag/AgCl). Results indicated that the technique enabled identification (by the distinct peak locations at the potential scale) and quantification (by the peak of current) of the mediators for individual species as well as in an aqueous mixture. It enabled a precise determination of mid-potentials of the externally added mediators (HCF, RF) and mediators produced by pyocyanin-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa (WACC 91) culture. The twin working electrode described is particularly suitable for studying mediator-dependent microbial electron transfer processes or simulating redox gradients as they exist in microbial biofilms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Implementing chain of custody requirements in database audit records for forensic purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Flores Armas, Denys; Jhumka, Arshad

    2017-01-01

    During forensic database investigations, audit records become a crucial evidential element; particularly, when certain events can be attributed to insider activity. However, traditional reactive forensic methods may not be suitable, urging the adoption of proactive approaches that can be used to ensure accountability through audit records whilst satisfying Chain of Custody (CoC) requirements for forensic purposes. In this paper, role segregation, evidence provenance, event timeliness and caus...

  4. Computer forensics with FTK

    CERN Document Server

    Carbone, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This tutorial contains detailed instructions with useful integrated examples that help you understand the main features of FTK and how you can use it to analyze evidence. This book has clear and concise guidance in an easily accessible format.This tutorial-based guide is great for you if you want to conduct digital investigations with an integrated platform. Whether you are new to Computer Forensics or have some experience, this book will help you get started with FTK so you can analyze evidence effectively and efficiently. If you are a law enforcement official, corporate security, or IT profe

  5. Forensic applications of physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Ernesto N.

    2002-01-01

    Science and the law are considered to be the two main shaping forces in modern societies. The Regional Seminars on Forensic Physics are organized by (mostly CNEA) scientists in Bariloche with a twofold purpose: to increase the participation of researchers as experts witnesses in the solution of legal problems, and to make judges aware of facilities and techniques that might prove useful. Some of the contributions to the last seminar are discussed, ranging from the numerical simulation of mayor explosions to the behavior of snow avalanches, and from the proper control of a trace laboratory to the distribution of words in the plays of Shakespeare. (author)

  6. Pharmacogenetics and forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musshoff, Frank; Stamer, Ulrike M; Madea, Burkhard

    2010-12-15

    Large inter-individual variability in drug response and toxicity, as well as in drug concentrations after application of the same dosage, can be of genetic, physiological, pathophysiological, or environmental origin. Absorption, distribution and metabolism of a drug and interactions with its target often are determined by genetic differences. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic variations can appear at the level of drug metabolizing enzymes (e.g., the cytochrome P450 system), drug transporters, drug targets or other biomarker genes. Pharmacogenetics or toxicogenetics can therefore be relevant in forensic toxicology. This review presents relevant aspects together with some examples from daily routines. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. BIOETHICS AND FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Călin SCRIPCARU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent laws on mental health define psychiatric illness as a loss of consciousness and understanding of consequences of self-behavioral acts, evaluated by loss of discernment. As discernment represents the main criteria of responsibility towards personal actions, this study attempts at presenting the ethical issues related to discernment evaluation from the perspective of forensic medicine. We propose a "mint" representation of the content and consequences of one’s own actions as a new criteria of evaluation, taking into account the modern principles of psychology and psychiatry.

  8. Forensic Memories: After Testimony

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøndergaard, Johanne Helbo

    2014-01-01

    of writing that might in fact come “after” testimony. In this paper I attempt to describe a mode of writing in contemporary literature on memory and history, which allows later generations to address historical events to which they did not bear witness, challenging the testimonial mode while bearing its...... strategies and strengths in mind - “after” in both senses of the word. The central argument is that just as the legal concept of testimony was introduced into the cultural sphere to describe a particular genre or mode of writing, the legal concept of forensics will serve as a useful term for describing...

  9. Methods for Detecting Microbial Methane Production and Consumption by Gas Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Jared T; Catlett, Jennie L; Smith, Megan L; Buan, Nicole R

    2016-04-05

    Methane is an energy-dense fuel but is also a greenhouse gas 25 times more detrimental to the environment than CO 2 . Methane can be produced abiotically by serpentinization, chemically by Sabatier or Fisher-Tropsh chemistry, or biotically by microbes (Berndt et al. , 1996; Horita and Berndt, 1999; Dry, 2002; Wolfe, 1982; Thauer, 1998; Metcalf et al. , 2002). Methanogens are anaerobic archaea that grow by producing methane gas as a metabolic byproduct (Wolfe, 1982; Thauer, 1998). Our lab has developed and optimized three different gas chromatograph-utilizing assays to characterize methanogen metabolism (Catlett et al. , 2015). Here we describe the end point and kinetic assays that can be used to measure methane production by methanogens or methane consumption by methanotrophic microbes. The protocols can be used for measuring methane production or consumption by microbial pure cultures or by enrichment cultures.

  10. Biodiversity of Soil Microbial Communities Following Woody Plant Invasion of Grassland: An Assessment Using Molecular Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantola, I. B.; Gentry, T. J.; Filley, T. R.; Boutton, T. W.

    2012-12-01

    Woody plants have encroached into grasslands, savannas, and other grass-dominated ecosystems throughout the world during the last century. This dramatic vegetation change is likely driven by livestock grazing, altered fire frequencies, elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and/or changes in atmospheric deposition patterns. Woody invasion often results in significant changes in ecosystem function, including alterations in above- and belowground primary productivity, soil C, N, and P storage and turnover, and the size and activity of the soil microbial biomass pool. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships and interactions between plant communities and soil microbial communities in the Rio Grande Plains region of southern Texas where grasslands have been largely replaced by woodlands. Research was conducted along a successional chronosequence representing the stages of woody plant encroachment from open grassland to closed-canopy woodland. To characterize soil microbial community composition, soil samples (0-7.5 cm) were collected in remnant grasslands (representing time 0) and near the centers of woody plant clusters, groves, and drainage woodlands ranging in age from 10 to 130 yrs. Ages of woody plant stands were determined by dendrochronology. Community DNA was extracted from each soil sample with a MoBio PowerMax Soil DNA isolation kit. The DNA concentrations were quantified on a NanoDrop ND-1000 spectrophotometer and diluted to a standard concentration. Pyrosequencing was performed by the Research and Testing Laboratory (Lubbock, TX) according to Roche 454 Titanium chemistry protocols. Samples were amplified with primers 27F and 519R for bacteria, and primers ITS1F and ITS4 for fungi. Sequences were aligned using BioEdit and the RDP Pipeline and analyzed in MOTHUR. Non-metric multidimensional scaling of the operational taxonomic units identified by pyrosequencing revealed that both bacterial and fungal community composition were

  11. Air sampling procedures to evaluate microbial contamination: a comparison between active and passive methods in operating theatres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napoli Christian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since air can play a central role as a reservoir for microorganisms, in controlled environments such as operating theatres regular microbial monitoring is useful to measure air quality and identify critical situations. The aim of this study is to assess microbial contamination levels in operating theatres using both an active and a passive sampling method and then to assess if there is a correlation between the results of the two different sampling methods. Methods The study was performed in 32 turbulent air flow operating theatres of a University Hospital in Southern Italy. Active sampling was carried out using the Surface Air System and passive sampling with settle plates, in accordance with ISO 14698. The Total Viable Count (TVC was evaluated at rest (in the morning before the beginning of surgical activity and in operational (during surgery. Results The mean TVC at rest was 12.4 CFU/m3 and 722.5 CFU/m2/h for active and passive samplings respectively. The mean in operational TVC was 93.8 CFU/m3 (SD = 52.69; range = 22-256 and 10496.5 CFU/m2/h (SD = 7460.5; range = 1415.5-25479.7 for active and passive samplings respectively. Statistical analysis confirmed that the two methods correlate in a comparable way with the quality of air. Conclusion It is possible to conclude that both methods can be used for general monitoring of air contamination, such as routine surveillance programs. However, the choice must be made between one or the other to obtain specific information.

  12. Speech pattern recognition for forensic acoustic purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Martínez, Marcelo; Aldana Blanco, Andrea Lorena; Guzmán Palacios, Ana María

    2014-01-01

    The present paper describes the development of a software for analysis of acoustic voice parameters (APAVOIX), which can be used for forensic acoustic purposes, based on the speaker recognition and identification. This software enables to observe in a clear manner, the parameters which are sufficient and necessary when performing a comparison between two voice signals, the suspicious and the original one. These parameters are used according to the classic method, generally used by state entit...

  13. Forensic culture as epistemic culture: the sociology of forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Simon A

    2013-03-01

    This paper explores whether we can interpret the notion of 'forensic culture' as something akin to what Knorr-Cetina called an 'epistemic culture'. Can we speak of a 'forensic culture', and, if so, how is it similar to, or different from, other epistemic cultures that exist in what is conventionally called 'science'? This question has important policy implications given the National Academy Science's (NAS) recent identification of 'culture' as one of the problems at the root of what it identified as 'serious deficiencies' in U.S. forensic science and 'scientific culture' as an antidote to those problems. Finding the NAS's characterisation of 'scientific culture' overly general and naïve, this paper offers a preliminary exploration of what might be called a 'forensic culture'. Specifically, the paper explores the way in which few of the empirical findings accumulated by sociologists of science about research science seem to apply to forensic science. Instead, forensic science seems to have developed a distinct culture for which a sociological analysis will require new explanatory tools. Faithful sociological analysis of 'forensic culture' will be a necessary prerequisite for the kind of culture change prescribed by external reformist bodies like the NAS. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Molecular methods for pathogen and microbial community detection and characterization: current and potential application in diagnostic microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Christopher D; Peirano, Gisele; Church, Deirdre L

    2012-04-01

    Clinical microbiology laboratories worldwide have historically relied on phenotypic methods (i.e., culture and biochemical tests) for detection, identification and characterization of virulence traits (e.g., antibiotic resistance genes, toxins) of human pathogens. However, limitations to implementation of molecular methods for human infectious diseases testing are being rapidly overcome allowing for the clinical evaluation and implementation of diverse technologies with expanding diagnostic capabilities. The advantages and limitation of molecular techniques including real-time polymerase chain reaction, partial or whole genome sequencing, molecular typing, microarrays, broad-range PCR and multiplexing will be discussed. Finally, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and deep sequencing are introduced as technologies at the clinical interface with the potential to dramatically enhance our ability to diagnose infectious diseases and better define the epidemiology and microbial ecology of a wide range of complex infections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Air sampling procedures to evaluate microbial contamination: a comparison between active and passive methods in operating theatres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Christian; Marcotrigiano, Vincenzo; Montagna, Maria Teresa

    2012-08-02

    Since air can play a central role as a reservoir for microorganisms, in controlled environments such as operating theatres regular microbial monitoring is useful to measure air quality and identify critical situations. The aim of this study is to assess microbial contamination levels in operating theatres using both an active and a passive sampling method and then to assess if there is a correlation between the results of the two different sampling methods. The study was performed in 32 turbulent air flow operating theatres of a University Hospital in Southern Italy. Active sampling was carried out using the Surface Air System and passive sampling with settle plates, in accordance with ISO 14698. The Total Viable Count (TVC) was evaluated at rest (in the morning before the beginning of surgical activity) and in operational (during surgery). The mean TVC at rest was 12.4 CFU/m3 and 722.5 CFU/m2/h for active and passive samplings respectively. The mean in operational TVC was 93.8 CFU/m3 (SD = 52.69; range = 22-256) and 10496.5 CFU/m2/h (SD = 7460.5; range = 1415.5-25479.7) for active and passive samplings respectively. Statistical analysis confirmed that the two methods correlate in a comparable way with the quality of air. It is possible to conclude that both methods can be used for general monitoring of air contamination, such as routine surveillance programs. However, the choice must be made between one or the other to obtain specific information.

  16. First evaluation of alkylpyrazine application as a novel method to decrease microbial contaminations in processed meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöck, Matthias; Liebminger, Stefan; Berg, Gabriele; Cernava, Tomislav

    2018-04-03

    Every year about 20% of the globally produced meat gets lost due to microbial spoilage. Nevertheless, the demand for processed meat is constantly rising and producers are searching for novel strategies to reduce microbial contaminations in their products. In the present study, we evaluated the applicability of alkylpyrazines as antimicrobial agents. These fragrant molecules naturally occur in different vegetables, fruits, roasted nut and meat. Several pyrazine derivatives are readily added to processed products for flavoring purposes in the food industry. To evaluate their potential for application, two derivatives were tested for their antimicrobial activity against meat-associated bacterial contaminants and chicken meat as a whole. Isolates assigned to Carnobacteriaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Listeriaceae, and Moraxellaceae were substantially inhibited in the pilot tests. Moreover, treatments of pyrazine-susceptible isolates resulted in 4-log reductions in bacterial cell counts. The effect was more pronounced when the model contaminants were exposed to higher concentrations of 5-isobutyl-2,3-dimethylpyrazine. In a first small-scale application with processed chicken meat, it was demonstrated that the antimicrobial effects of 2-isobutyl-3-methylpyrazine can be improved by additionally lowering the water activity on the meat surface when maltodextrin is used as a carrier substance. At low pyrazine dosages, the number of viable bacteria was decreased up to 95% in comparison to the corresponding controls. A complementary imaging method that was developed to assess the efficacy on the product, reinforced the applicability of this two-component system.

  17. Nuclear forensics support. Reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    or Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Material (IAEA-TECDOC-1313). It was quickly recognized that much can be learned from the analysis of reported cases of illicit trafficking. For example, what specifically could the material have been used for? Where was the material obtained: in stock, scrap or waste? Was the amount seized only a sample of a much more significant quantity? These and many other questions can be answered through detailed technical characterization of seized material samples. The combination of scientific methods used for this purpose is normally referred to as 'nuclear forensics', which has become an indispensable tool for use in law enforcement investigations of nuclear trafficking. This publication is based on a document entitled Model Action Plan for Nuclear Forensics and Nuclear Attribution (UCLR-TR-202675). The document is unique in that it brings together, for the first time, a concise but comprehensive description of the various tools and procedures of nuclear forensic investigations that was earlier available only in different areas of the scientific literature. It also has the merit of incorporating experience accumulated over the past decade by law enforcement agencies and nuclear forensics laboratories confronted with cases of illicit events involving nuclear or other radioactive material

  18. Nanoparticles in forensic science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Antonio A.

    2008-10-01

    Nanoparticles appear in several areas of forensic science including security documents, paints, inks, and reagents that develop latent prints. One reagent (known as the silver physical developer) that visualizes the water insoluble components of latent print residue is based on the formation of highly charged silver nanoparticles. These attach to and grow on the residue and generate a silver image. Another such reagent involves highly charged gold nanoparticles. These attach to the residue forming a weak gold image which can be amplified with a silver physical developer. Nanoparaticles are also used in items such as paints, printing inks, and writing inks. Paints and most printing inks consist of nano-sized pigments in a vehicle. However, certain modern ink jet printing inks now contain nano-sized pigments to improve their light fastness and most gel inks are also based on nano scale pigments. These nanoparticlecontaining materials often appear as evidence and are thus subject to forensic characterization. Both luminescent (quantum dots), up-converting nano scale phosphors, and non luminescent nanoparticles are used as security tags to label product, add security to documents, and as anti counterfeiting measures. These assist in determining if an item is fraudulently made.

  19. Nuclear forensics: Soil content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, Merilyn Amy

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear Forensics is a growing field that is concerned with all stages of the process of creating and detonating a nuclear weapon. The main goal is to prevent nuclear attack by locating and securing nuclear material before it can be used in an aggressive manner. This stage of the process is mostly paperwork; laws, regulations, treaties, and declarations made by individual countries or by the UN Security Council. There is some preliminary leg work done in the form of field testing detection equipment and tracking down orphan materials; however, none of these have yielded any spectacular or useful results. In the event of a nuclear attack, the first step is to analyze the post detonation debris to aid in the identification of the responsible party. This aspect of the nuclear forensics process, while reactive in nature, is more scientific. A rock sample taken from the detonation site can be dissolved into liquid form and analyzed to determine its chemical composition. The chemical analysis of spent nuclear material can provide valuable information if properly processed and analyzed. In order to accurately evaluate the results, scientists require information on the natural occurring elements in the detonation zone. From this information, scientists can determine what percentage of the element originated in the bomb itself rather than the environment. To this end, element concentrations in soils from sixty-nine different cities are given, along with activity concentrations for uranium, thorium, potassium, and radium in various building materials. These data are used in the analysis program Python.

  20. Nuclear forensics: Soil content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beebe, Merilyn Amy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Nuclear Forensics is a growing field that is concerned with all stages of the process of creating and detonating a nuclear weapon. The main goal is to prevent nuclear attack by locating and securing nuclear material before it can be used in an aggressive manner. This stage of the process is mostly paperwork; laws, regulations, treaties, and declarations made by individual countries or by the UN Security Council. There is some preliminary leg work done in the form of field testing detection equipment and tracking down orphan materials; however, none of these have yielded any spectacular or useful results. In the event of a nuclear attack, the first step is to analyze the post detonation debris to aid in the identification of the responsible party. This aspect of the nuclear forensics process, while reactive in nature, is more scientific. A rock sample taken from the detonation site can be dissolved into liquid form and analyzed to determine its chemical composition. The chemical analysis of spent nuclear material can provide valuable information if properly processed and analyzed. In order to accurately evaluate the results, scientists require information on the natural occurring elements in the detonation zone. From this information, scientists can determine what percentage of the element originated in the bomb itself rather than the environment. To this end, element concentrations in soils from sixty-nine different cities are given, along with activity concentrations for uranium, thorium, potassium, and radium in various building materials. These data are used in the analysis program Python.

  1. NanoSIMS analysis of Bacillus spores for forensics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, P K; Davisson, M L; Velsko, S P

    2010-02-23

    The threat associated with the potential use of radiological, nuclear, chemical and biological materials in terrorist acts has resulted in new fields of forensic science requiring the application of state-of-the-science analytical techniques. Since the anthrax letter attacks in the United States in the fall of 2001, there has been increased interest in physical and chemical characterization of bacterial spores. While molecular methods are powerful tools for identifying genetic differences, other methods may be able to differentiate genetically identical samples based on physical and chemical properties, as well as provide complimentary information, such as methods of production and approximate date of production. Microanalysis has the potential to contribute significantly to microbial forensics. Bacillus spores are highly structured, consisting of a core, cortex, coat, and in some species, an exosporium. This structure provides a template for constraining elemental abundance differences at the nanometer scale. The primary controls on the distribution of major elements in spores are likely structural and physiological. For example, P and Ca are known to be abundant in the spore core because that is where P-rich nucleic acids and Cadipicolinic acid are located, respectively. Trace elements are known to bind to the spore coat but the controls on these elements are less well understood. Elemental distributions and abundances may be directly related to spore production, purification and stabilization methodologies, which are of particular interest for forensic investigation. To this end, we are developing a high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry method using a Cameca NanoSIMS 50 to study the distribution and abundance of trace elements in bacterial spores. In this presentation we will review and compare methods for preparing and analyzing samples, as well as review results on the distribution and abundance of elements in bacterial spores. We use NanoSIMS to

  2. Animal experimentation in forensic sciences: How far have we come?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, C; Maderna, E; Rendinelli, A; Gibelli, D

    2015-09-01

    In the third millennium where ethical, ethological and cultural evolution seem to be leading more and more towards an inter-species society, the issue of animal experimentation is a moral dilemma. Speaking from a self-interested human perspective, avoiding all animal testing where human disease and therapy are concerned may be very difficult or even impossible; such testing may not be so easily justifiable when suffering-or killing-of non human animals is inflicted for forensic research. In order to verify how forensic scientists are evolving in this ethical issue, we undertook a systematic review of the current literature. We investigated the frequency of animal experimentation in forensic studies in the past 15 years and trends in publication in the main forensic science journals. Types of species, lesions inflicted, manner of sedation or anesthesia and euthanasia were examined in a total of 404 articles reviewed, among which 279 (69.1%) concerned studies involving animals sacrificed exclusively for the sake of the experiment. Killing still frequently includes painful methods such as blunt trauma, electrocution, mechanical asphyxia, hypothermia, and even exsanguination; of all these animals, apparently only 60.8% were anesthetized. The most recent call for a severe reduction if not a total halt to the use of animals in forensic sciences was made by Bernard Knight in 1992. In fact the principle of reduction and replacement, frequently respected in clinical research, must be considered the basis for forensic science research needing animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Commentary: Coming Full Circle--Psychoanalysis, Psychodynamics, and Forensic Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, Angela M

    2015-12-01

    Drs. Simopoulos and Cohen argue that knowledge of one's unconscious processes improves the forensic psychiatrist's capacity to manage complex forensic situations and to generate forensic formulations and opinions that are demonstrably more valid and reliable, much like competence in cultural assessment and formulation. In practice, the challenges posed by the application of these principles in forensic settings are far outweighed by the potential benefit. Forensic practice is informed by many specialties. Forensic psychiatrists do not have to complete full training in these disciplines to make use of the knowledge and perspectives they offer. The same may not be true of psychodynamic assessment and formulation. Although much can be learned from supervision, case seminars, conferences, and reading, such knowledge does little to foster awareness of one's unconscious processes that by definition operate outside awareness and thus contribute to the vitiating effect of bias. To date, the only method whereby psychiatrists can effectively come to appreciate their own unconscious processes in action is arguably through their own analysis conducted in the course of training in analysis or psychodynamic psychotherapy. © 2015 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  4. The state of nuclear forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristo, Michael J.; Tumey, Scott J.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear terrorism has been identified as one of the most serious security threats facing the world today. Many countries, including the United States, have incorporated nuclear forensic analysis as a component of their strategy to prevent nuclear terrorism. Nuclear forensics involves the laboratory analysis of seized illicit nuclear materials or debris from a nuclear detonation to identify the origins of the material or weapon. Over the years, a number of forensic signatures have been developed to improve the confidence with which forensic analysts can draw conclusions. These signatures are validated and new signatures are discovered through research and development programs and in round-robin exercises among nuclear forensic laboratories. The recent Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group Third Round Robin Exercise and an on-going program focused on attribution of uranium ore concentrate provide prime examples of the current state of nuclear forensics. These case studies will be examined and the opportunities for accelerator mass spectrometry to play a role in nuclear forensics will be discussed.

  5. The state of nuclear forensics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristo, Michael J. [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-186, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Tumey, Scott J., E-mail: tumey2@llnl.gov [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-397, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Nuclear terrorism has been identified as one of the most serious security threats facing the world today. Many countries, including the United States, have incorporated nuclear forensic analysis as a component of their strategy to prevent nuclear terrorism. Nuclear forensics involves the laboratory analysis of seized illicit nuclear materials or debris from a nuclear detonation to identify the origins of the material or weapon. Over the years, a number of forensic signatures have been developed to improve the confidence with which forensic analysts can draw conclusions. These signatures are validated and new signatures are discovered through research and development programs and in round-robin exercises among nuclear forensic laboratories. The recent Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group Third Round Robin Exercise and an on-going program focused on attribution of uranium ore concentrate provide prime examples of the current state of nuclear forensics. These case studies will be examined and the opportunities for accelerator mass spectrometry to play a role in nuclear forensics will be discussed.

  6. Bacterial Population Genetics in a Forensic Context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velsko, S P

    2009-11-02

    This report addresses the recent Department of Homeland Security (DHS) call for a Phase I study to (1) assess gaps in the forensically relevant knowledge about the population genetics of eight bacterial agents of concern, (2) formulate a technical roadmap to address those gaps, and (3) identify new bioinformatics tools that would be necessary to analyze and interpret population genetic data in a forensic context. The eight organisms that were studied are B. anthracis, Y. pestis, F. tularensis, Brucella spp., E. coli O157/H7, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia pseudomallei, and C. botulinum. Our study focused on the use of bacterial population genetics by forensic investigators to test hypotheses about the possible provenance of an agent that was used in a crime or act of terrorism. Just as human population genetics underpins the calculations of match probabilities for human DNA evidence, bacterial population genetics determines the level of support that microbial DNA evidence provides for or against certain well-defined hypotheses about the origins of an infecting strain. Our key findings are: (1) Bacterial population genetics is critical for answering certain types of questions in a probabilistic manner, akin (but not identical) to 'match probabilities' in DNA forensics. (2) A basic theoretical framework for calculating likelihood ratios or posterior probabilities for forensic hypotheses based on microbial genetic comparisons has been formulated. This 'inference-on-networks' framework has deep but simple connections to the population genetics of mtDNA and Y-STRs in human DNA forensics. (3) The 'phylogeographic' approach to identifying microbial sources is not an adequate basis for understanding bacterial population genetics in a forensic context, and has limited utility, even for generating 'leads' with respect to strain origin. (4) A collection of genotyped isolates obtained opportunistically from international locations

  7. Postmortem aviation forensic toxicology: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K

    2010-05-01

    An overview of the subtopic aviation combustion toxicology of the field of aerospace toxicology has been published. In a continuation of the overview, the findings associated with postmortem aviation forensic toxicology are being summarized in the present overview. A literature search for the period of 1960-2007 was performed. The important findings related to postmortem toxicology were evaluated. In addition to a brief introduction, this overview is divided into the sections of analytical methods; carboxyhemoglobin and blood cyanide ion; ethanol; drugs; result interpretation; glucose and hemoglobin A(1c); and references. Specific details of the subject matter were discussed. It is anticipated that this overview will be an outline source for aviation forensic toxicology within the field of aerospace toxicology.

  8. Estimating true human and animal host source contribution in quantitative microbial source tracking using the Monte Carlo method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Silkie, Sarah S; Nelson, Kara L; Wuertz, Stefan

    2010-09-01

    Cultivation- and library-independent, quantitative PCR-based methods have become the method of choice in microbial source tracking. However, these qPCR assays are not 100% specific and sensitive for the target sequence in their respective hosts' genome. The factors that can lead to false positive and false negative information in qPCR results are well defined. It is highly desirable to have a way of removing such false information to estimate the true concentration of host-specific genetic markers and help guide the interpretation of environmental monitoring studies. Here we propose a statistical model based on the Law of Total Probability to predict the true concentration of these markers. The distributions of the probabilities of obtaining false information are estimated from representative fecal samples of known origin. Measurement error is derived from the sample precision error of replicated qPCR reactions. Then, the Monte Carlo method is applied to sample from these distributions of probabilities and measurement error. The set of equations given by the Law of Total Probability allows one to calculate the distribution of true concentrations, from which their expected value, confidence interval and other statistical characteristics can be easily evaluated. The output distributions of predicted true concentrations can then be used as input to watershed-wide total maximum daily load determinations, quantitative microbial risk assessment and other environmental models. This model was validated by both statistical simulations and real world samples. It was able to correct the intrinsic false information associated with qPCR assays and output the distribution of true concentrations of Bacteroidales for each animal host group. Model performance was strongly affected by the precision error. It could perform reliably and precisely when the standard deviation of the precision error was small (≤ 0.1). Further improvement on the precision of sample processing and q

  9. Psychiatric/ psychological forensic report writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gerald

    Approaches to forensic report writing in psychiatry, psychology, and related mental health disciplines have moved from an organization, content, and stylistic framework to considering ethical and other codes, evidentiary standards, and practice considerations. The first part of the article surveys different approaches to forensic report writing, including that of forensic mental health assessment and psychiatric ethics. The second part deals especially with psychological ethical approaches. The American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct (2002) provide one set of principles on which to base forensic report writing. The U.S. Federal Rules of Evidence (2014) and related state rules provide another basis. The American Psychological Association's Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology (2013) provide a third source. Some work has expanded the principles in ethics codes; and, in the third part of this article, these additions are applied to forensic report writing. Other work that could help with the question of forensic report writing concerns the 4 Ds in psychological injury assessments (e.g., conduct oneself with Dignity, avoid the adversary Divide, get the needed reliable Data, Determine interpretations and conclusions judiciously). One overarching ethical principle that is especially applicable in forensic report writing is to be comprehensive, scientific, and impartial. As applied to forensic report writing, the overall principle that applies is that the work process and product should reflect integrity in its ethics, law, and science. Four principles that derive from this meta-principle concern: Competency and Communication; Procedure and Protection; Dignity and Distance; and Data Collection and Determination. The standards or rules associated with each of these principles are reviewed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nails in Forensic Toxicology: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solimini, Renata; Minutillo, Adele; Kyriakou, Chrystalla; Pichini, Simona; Pacifici, Roberta; Busardo, Francesco Paolo

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of nails as a keratinized matrix to detect drugs or illicit substances has been increasingly used in forensic and clinical toxicology as a complementary test, especially for the specific characteristics of stably accumulating substances for long periods of time. This allows a retrospective investigation of chronic drug abuse, monitoring continuous drug or pharmaceutical use, reveal in utero drug exposure or environmental exposures. We herein review the recent literature investigating drug incorporation mechanisms and drug detection in nails for forensic toxicological purposes. Mechanisms of drug incorporation have not yet been fully elucidated. However, some research has lately contributed to a better understanding of how substances are incorporated into nails, suggesting three potential mechanisms of drug incorporation: contamination from sweat, incorporation from nail bed and incorporation from germinal matrix. In addition, numerous methods dealing with the determination of drugs of abuse, medications and alcohol biomarkers in nails have been reported in studies over the years. The latter methods could find application in clinical and forensic toxicology. The studies herein reviewed point out how important it is to standardize and harmonize the methodologies (either pre-analytical or analytical) for nails analysis and the optimization of sampling as well as the development of proficiency testing programs and the determination of cut-off values. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. A New Method for Sensing Soil Water Content in Green Roofs Using Plant Microbial Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, Natalia F; Rojas, Claudia; Bonilla, Carlos A; Vargas, Ignacio T

    2017-12-28

    Green roofs have many benefits, but in countries with semiarid climates the amount of water needed for irrigation is a limiting factor for their maintenance. The use of drought-tolerant plants such as Sedum species, reduces the water requirements in the dry season, but, even so, in semiarid environments these can reach up to 60 L m -2 per day. Continuous substrate/soil water content monitoring would facilitate the efficient use of this critical resource. In this context, the use of plant microbial fuel cells (PMFCs) emerges as a suitable and more sustainable alternative for monitoring water content in green roofs in semiarid climates. In this study, bench and pilot-scale experiments using seven Sedum species showed a positive relationship between current generation and water content in the substrate. PMFC reactors with higher water content (around 27% vs. 17.5% v / v ) showed larger power density (114.6 and 82.3 μW m -2 vs. 32.5 μW m -2 ). Moreover, a correlation coefficient of 0.95 (±0.01) between current density and water content was observed. The results of this research represent the first effort of using PMFCs as low-cost water content biosensors for green roofs.

  12. Analysis of polarization methods for elimination of power overshoot in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Watson, Valerie J.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2011-01-01

    Polarization curves from microbial fuel cells (MFCs) often show an unexpectedly large drop in voltage with increased current densities, leading to a phenomenon in the power density curve referred to as "power overshoot". Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV, 1 mV s- 1) and variable external resistances (at fixed intervals of 20 min) over a single fed-batch cycle in an MFC both resulted in power overshoot in power density curves due to anode potentials. Increasing the anode enrichment time from 30 days to 100 days did not eliminate overshoot, suggesting that insufficient enrichment of the anode biofilm was not the primary cause. Running the reactor at a fixed resistance for a full fed-batch cycle (~ 1 to 2 days), however, completely eliminated the overshoot in the power density curve. These results show that long times at a fixed resistance are needed to stabilize current generation by bacteria in MFCs, and that even relatively slow LSV scan rates and long times between switching circuit loads during a fed-batch cycle may produce inaccurate polarization and power density results for these biological systems. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Computer Forensics JumpStart

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Michael G; Tittel, Ed; Broom, Neil; Barrett, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Essential reading for launching a career in computer forensicsInternet crime is on the rise, catapulting the need for computer forensics specialists. This new edition presents you with a completely updated overview of the basic skills that are required as a computer forensics professional. The author team of technology security veterans introduces the latest software and tools that exist and they review the available certifications in this growing segment of IT that can help take your career to a new level. A variety of real-world practices take you behind the scenes to look at the root causes

  14. [Research Progress on Forensic Entomotoxicology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-jiang; Zhai, Xian-dun; Guan, Ling; Mo, Yao-nan

    2015-06-01

    Forensic entomotoxicology is a branch of forensic medicine, which applies entomology, toxicology and other related studies to solve the poisoning cases. It has an obvious advantage in the investigation on poisoning death. Based on the expounding definition and research of entomotoxicology, this paper reviews research progress and application value in some aspects of forensic medicine, such as the effects of drugs/toxins on the growth and development of sarcosaphagous insects and the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the drugs/toxins in the poisoned body tissue.

  15. Forensic Science Education and Educational Requirements for Forensic Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaensslen, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on criminalistics, which can be understood to mean the activities and specialty areas characteristic of most municipal, county, or state forensic science laboratories in the United States. (DDR)

  16. Author Guidelines: The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM)

    OpenAIRE

    Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine

    2017-01-01

    The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM) is a peer-reviewed, open access (CC BY-NC), international journal for publishing original contributions in various fields of forensic science. These fields include, but are not limited to forensic pathology and histochemistry, toxicology(drugs, alcohol, etc.), forensic biology (serology, human DNA profiling, entomology, population genetics), forensic chemistry(inks, paints, dyes, explosives, fire accelerants), psychiatry and...

  17. A rapid method for the determination of microbial susceptibility using the firefly luciferase assay for adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellend, H.; Tuttle, S. A.; Barza, M.; Weinstein, L.; Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W.

    1975-01-01

    Luciferase assay for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was optimized for pure bacteria in broth in order to evaluate if changes in bacterial ATP content could be used as a rapid measure of antibiotic effect on microorganisms. Broth cultures of log phase bacteria were incubated at 310 K (37 C) for 2.5 hours at antimicrobial concentrations which resulted in the best discrimination between sensitive and resistant strains. Eighty-seven strains of 11 bacterial species were studied for their susceptibility to 12 commonly used antimicrobial agents: ampicillin, Penicillin G, nafcillin, carbenicillin, cephalothin, tetracycline, erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, colistin, and chloramplenicol. The major advantage of the ATP system over existing methods of rapid microbial susceptibility testing is that the assay can be made specific for bacterial ATP.

  18. The Effect of Different Starch Liberation and Saccharification Methods on the Microbial Contaminations of Distillery Mashes, Fermentation Efficiency, and Spirits Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielech-Przybylska, Katarzyna; Balcerek, Maria; Nowak, Agnieszka; Wojtczak, Maciej; Czyżowska, Agata; Dziekońska-Kubczak, Urszula; Patelski, Piotr

    2017-09-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different starch liberation and saccharification methods on microbiological contamination of distillery mashes. Moreover, the effect of hop α-acid preparation for protection against microbial infections was assessed. The quality of agricultural distillates was also evaluated. When applying the pressureless liberation of starch (PLS) and malt as a source of amylolytic enzymes, the lactic acid bacteria count in the mashes increased several times during fermentation. The mashes obtained using the pressure-thermal method and malt enzymes revealed a similar pattern. Samples prepared using cereal malt exhibited higher concentrations of lactic and acetic acids, as compared to mashes prepared using enzymes of microbial origin. The use of hop α-acids led to the reduction of bacterial contamination in all tested mashes. As a result, fermentation of both mashes prepared with microbial origin enzyme preparations and with barley malt resulted in satisfactory efficiency and distillates with low concentrations of aldehydes.

  19. Professional convergence in forensic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, D; Mason, T; Richman, J

    2001-06-01

    This paper outlines the development and convergence of forensic science and secure psychiatric services in the UK, locating the professionalization of forensic nursing within a complex web of political, economic, and ideological structures. It is suggested that a stagnation of the therapeutic enterprise in high and medium security provision has witnessed an intrusion of medical power into the societal body. Expanding technologies of control and surveillance are discussed in relation to the move from modernity to postmodernity and the ongoing dynamic of medicalized offending. Four aspects of globalization are identified as impacting upon the organization and application of forensic practice: (i) organized capitalism and the exhaustion of the welfare state; (ii) security versus danger and trust versus risk; (iii) science as a meta-language; and (iv) foreclosure as a mechanism of censorship. Finally, as a challenge for the profession, some predictions are offered about the future directions or demise of forensic nursing.

  20. Forensic historiography: narratives and science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drukteinis, Albert M

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatrists function, in part, as historians who rely on patient narratives to help them understand presenting mental disorders and explain their causes. Forensic psychiatrists have been skeptical of using narratives, raising concerns about their lack of objectivity and potential for bias. They also have criticized narratives as being more performative than scientific. Recent authors, however, have pointed out that narratives may be helpful in forming forensic opinions and supporting oral testimony, while stressing that their use must be consistent with the ethics espoused by forensic psychiatry. This article reviews the role of narratives in understanding human events and the ubiquitous presence of narratives in the judicial process. It delves into the inescapability of using explicit or implicit narratives in the course of forensic practice, as well as how they may be meaningfully incorporated into evaluations and find expression alongside scientific principles. © 2014 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  1. Forensic Science--A Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geesaman, Donald P.; Abrahamson, Dean E.

    1973-01-01

    Forensic science is an approach to study desirability of specific technologies in the context of value objectives and biological imperatives of society. Such groups should be formed with people from various physical and social sciences. (PS)

  2. Evidentiary standards for forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Angi M; Crowder, Christian M

    2009-11-01

    As issues of professional standards and error rates continue to be addressed in the courts, forensic anthropologists should be proactive by developing and adhering to professional standards of best practice. There has been recent increased awareness and interest in critically assessing some of the techniques used by forensic anthropologists, but issues such as validation, error rates, and professional standards have seldom been addressed. Here we explore the legal impetus for this trend and identify areas where we can improve regarding these issues. We also discuss the recent formation of a Scientific Working Group for Forensic Anthropology (SWGANTH), which was created with the purposes of encouraging discourse among anthropologists and developing and disseminating consensus guidelines for the practice of forensic anthropology. We believe it is possible and advisable for anthropologists to seek and espouse research and methodological techniques that meet higher standards to ensure quality and consistency in our field.

  3. The microscopic (optical and SEM) examination of dental calculus deposits (DCD). Potential interest in forensic anthropology of a bio-archaeological method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, Philippe; Huynh-Charlier, Isabelle; Munoz, Olivia; Billard, Michel; Brun, Luc; de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy Lorin

    2010-07-01

    This article describes the potential interest in forensic anthropology of the microscopic analysis of dental calculus deposits (DCD), a calcified residue frequently found on the surface of teeth. Its sampling and analysis seem straightforward and relatively reproducible. Samples came from archaeological material (KHB-1 Ra's al-Khabbah and RH-5 Ra's al-Hamra, two Prehistoric graveyards located in the Sultanate of Oman, dated between the 5th and 4th millennium B.C.; Montenzio Vecchia, an Etruscan-Celtic necropolis from the north of Italy, dated between the 5th and 3rd century B.C.; body rests of Agnès Sorel, French royal mistress died in 1450 A.D.; skeleton of Pierre Hazard, French royal notary from the 15th century A.D.). Samples were studies by direct optical microscope (OM) or scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Many cytological, histological and elemental analyses were possible, producing precious data for the identification of these remains, the reconstitution of their alimentation and occupational habits, and propositions for manner of death. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecular forensic science of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkerson, Marianne Perry

    2010-01-01

    We are interested in applying our understanding of actinide chemical structure and bonding to broaden the suite of analytical tools available for nuclear forensic analyses. Uranium- and plutonium-oxide systems form under a variety of conditions, and these chemical species exhibit some of the most complex behavior of metal oxide systems known. No less intriguing is the ability of AnO 2 (An: U, Pu) to form non-stoichiometric species described as AnO 2+x . Environmental studies have shown the value of utilizing the chemical signatures of these actinide oxides materials to understand transport following release into the environment. Chemical speciation of actinide-oxide samples may also provide clues as to the age, source, process history, or transport of the material. The scientific challenge is to identify, measure and understand those aspects of speciation of actinide analytes that carry information about material origin and history most relevant to forensics. Here, we will describe our efforts in material synthesis and analytical methods development that we will use to provide the fundamental science required to characterize actinide oxide molecular structures for forensics science. Structural properties and initial results to measure structural variability of uranium oxide samples using synchrotron-based X-ray Absorption Fine Structure will be discussed.

  5. Collection of biological samples in forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis-Oliveira, R J; Carvalho, F; Duarte, J A; Remião, F; Marques, A; Santos, A; Magalhães, T

    2010-09-01

    Forensic toxicology is the study and practice of the application of toxicology to the purposes of the law. The relevance of any finding is determined, in the first instance, by the nature and integrity of the specimen(s) submitted for analysis. This means that there are several specific challenges to select and collect specimens for ante-mortem and post-mortem toxicology investigation. Post-mortem specimens may be numerous and can endow some special difficulties compared to clinical specimens, namely those resulting from autolytic and putrefactive changes. Storage stability is also an important issue to be considered during the pre-analytic phase, since its consideration should facilitate the assessment of sample quality and the analytical result obtained from that sample. The knowledge on degradation mechanisms and methods to increase storage stability may enable the forensic toxicologist to circumvent possible difficulties. Therefore, advantages and limitations of specimen preservation procedures are thoroughfully discussed in this review. Presently, harmonized protocols for sampling in suspected intoxications would have obvious utility. In the present article an overview is given on sampling procedures for routinely collected specimens as well as on alternative specimens that may provide additional information on the route and timing of exposure to a specific xenobiotic. Last, but not least, a discussion on possible bias that can influence the interpretation of toxicological results is provided. This comprehensive review article is intented as a significant help for forensic toxicologists to accomplish their frequently overwhelming mission.

  6. Survey of Forensically Important Calliphoridae in Samsun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Kökdener

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted from June 2009 to 2010 in north of Turkey, province Samsun. The objective was to determine forensically important Calliphoridae (Diptera species and their seasonal distribution on dog carrcass during one year, this studies were carried out in a three different area of Samsun. Material and Methods: Three dogs carcass (Canis lupus familiaris L., weighing approximately 15-20 kg each, were used as models for studying decomposition and insect succession in each experiments. Ambient daily temperature (maximum and minimum, relative humidity (RH were recorded and existing keys were used for identification of different species. Results: Lucillia sericata (Meigen, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, Calliphora vomitoria (Linnaeus and Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy species were encountered. It was shown that the seasonal distribution of the collected species was different from each other. Chrysomya albiceps was observed in summer, auntumn and spring. In the spring and winter, the dominant fly species were Calliphora vicina. The rate of carcass's decomposition was faster in summer and autumn as compared to spring and winter. Results indicated that ambient temperature is the chief factor determining the seasonal variations in decay rate. Conclusion: This report also identified some of the Calliphoridae that occur in north of Turkey. The importance of regional faunistic studies of the calliphoridous community, the results of which may be applied to forensic practice in the future. Keywords: Forensic entomology, insect succession, corpse, postmortem interval, decomposition.

  7. Recommended Practice: Creating Cyber Forensics Plans for Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Cornelius; Mark Fabro

    2008-08-01

    Cyber forensics has been in the popular mainstream for some time, and has matured into an information-technology capability that is very common among modern information security programs. The goal of cyber forensics is to support the elements of troubleshooting, monitoring, recovery, and the protection of sensitive data. Moreover, in the event of a crime being committed, cyber forensics is also the approach to collecting, analyzing, and archiving data as evidence in a court of law. Although scalable to many information technology domains, especially modern corporate architectures, cyber forensics can be challenging when being applied to non-traditional environments, which are not comprised of current information technologies or are designed with technologies that do not provide adequate data storage or audit capabilities. In addition, further complexity is introduced if the environments are designed using proprietary solutions and protocols, thus limiting the ease of which modern forensic methods can be utilized. The legacy nature and somewhat diverse or disparate component aspects of control systems environments can often prohibit the smooth translation of modern forensics analysis into the control systems domain. Compounded by a wide variety of proprietary technologies and protocols, as well as critical system technologies with no capability to store significant amounts of event information, the task of creating a ubiquitous and unified strategy for technical cyber forensics on a control systems device or computing resource is far from trivial. To date, no direction regarding cyber forensics as it relates to control systems has been produced other than what might be privately available from commercial vendors. Current materials have been designed to support event recreation (event-based), and although important, these requirements do not always satisfy the needs associated with incident response or forensics that are driven by cyber incidents. To address these

  8. Parasites in Forensic Science: a historic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Rita; Alves, Helena; Richter, Joachim; Botelho, Monica C

    Parasites show a great potential to Forensic Science. Forensic Science is the application of any science and methodology to the legal system. The forensic scientist collects and analyses the physical evidence and produce a report of the results to the court. A parasite is an organism that lives at the expense of another and they exist in any ecosystem. Parasites are the cause of many important diseases. The forensic scientists can use the parasites to identify a crime scene, to determine the murder weapon or simply identify an individual. The applications for parasites in the Forensic Science can be many and more studies should be made in Forensic Parasitology. The most important parasites in Forensic Science are helminths specifically schistosomes. Through history there are many cases where schistosomes were described in autopsies and it was related to the cause of death. Here we review the applications of parasites in Forensic Science and its importance to the forensic scientist.

  9. [Forensic assessments from the Netherlands Institute of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology in retrospect; applications of genetics and neuroscience, in 2000 and 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Harmsel, J F; Molendijk, T; van El, C G; M'charek, A; Kempes, M; Rinne, T; Pieters, T

    2016-01-01

    Developments in neurosciences and genetics are relevant for forensic psychiatry. To find out whether and how genetic and neuroscientific applications are being used in forensic psychiatric assessments, and, if they are, to estimate to what extent new applications will fit in with these uses. We analysed 60 forensic psychiatric assessments from the Netherlands Institute of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology, Pieter Baan Center, and 30 non-clinical assessments from 2000 and 2009. We found that (behavioral) genetic, neurological and neuropsychological applications played only a modest role in forensic psychiatric assessment and they represent different phases of the implementation process. Neuropsychological assessment already occupied a position of some importance, but needed to be better integrated. Applications from neurology were still being developed. Clinical genetic assessment was being used occasionally in order to diagnose a genetic syndrome with behavioral consequences. If further validated information becomes available in the future, it should be possible to integrate new research methods more fully into current clinical practice.

  10. The Effect of DNA Extraction Methods on Observed Microbial Communities from Fibrous and Liquid Rumen Fractions of Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Jueeli D; van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Edwards, Joan E; Boekhorst, Jos; van Gastelen, Sanne; Saccenti, Edoardo; Plugge, Caroline M; Smidt, Hauke

    2018-01-01

    DNA based methods have been widely used to study the complexity of the rumen microbiota, and it is well known that the method of DNA extraction is a critical step in enabling accurate assessment of this complexity. Rumen fluid (RF) and fibrous content (FC) fractions differ substantially in terms of their physical nature and associated microorganisms. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the effect of four DNA extraction methods (RBB, PBB, FDSS, PQIAmini) differing in cell lysis and/or DNA recovery methods on the observed microbial diversity in RF and FC fractions using samples from four rumen cannulated dairy cows fed 100% grass silage (GS100), 67% GS and 33% maize silage (GS67MS33), 33% GS and 67% MS (GS33MS67), or 100% MS (MS100). An ANOVA statistical test was applied on DNA quality and yield measurements, and it was found that the DNA yield was significantly affected by extraction method ( p anaerobic fungal communities using quantitative PCR and pyrosequencing of relevant taxonomic markers. Redundancy analysis (RDA) of bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence data at the family level showed that there was a significant effect of rumen fraction ( p = 0.012), and that PBB ( p = 0.012) and FDSS ( p = 0.024) also significantly contributed to explaining the observed variation in bacterial community composition. Whilst the DNA extraction method affected the apparent bacterial community composition, no single extraction method could be concluded to be ineffective. No obvious effect of DNA extraction method on the anaerobic fungi or archaea was observed, although fraction effects were evident for both. In summary, the comprehensive assessment of observed communities of bacteria, archaea and anaerobic fungi described here provides insight into a rational basis for selecting an optimal methodology to obtain a representative picture of the rumen microbiota.

  11. Comparison of three 15N methods to correct for microbial contamination when assessing in situ protein degradability of fresh forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamoun, M; Ammar, H; Théwis, A; Beckers, Y; France, J; López, S

    2014-11-01

    The use of stable (15)N as a marker to determine microbial contamination in nylon bag incubation residues to estimate protein degradability was investigated. Three methods using (15)N were compared: (15)N-labeled forage (dilution method, LF), (15)N enrichment of rumen solids-associated bacteria (SAB), and (15)N enrichment of rumen liquid-associated bacteria (LAB). Herbage from forages differing in protein and fiber contents (early-cut Italian ryegrass, late-cut Italian ryegrass, and red clover) were freeze-dried and ground and then incubated in situ in the rumen of 3 steers for 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h using the nylon bag technique. The (15)N-labeled forages were obtained by fertilizing the plots where herbage was grown with (15)NH4 (15)NO3. Unlabeled forages (obtained from plots fertilized with NH4NO3) were incubated at the same time that ((15)NH4)2SO4 was continuously infused into the rumen of the steers, and then pellets of labeled SAB and LAB were isolated by differential centrifugation of samples of ruminal contents. The proportion of bacterial N in the incubation residues increased from 0.09 and 0.45 g bacterial N/g total N at 3 h of incubation to 0.37 and 0.85 g bacterial N/g total N at 48 h of incubation for early-cut and late-cut ryegrass, respectively. There were differences (P forage (late-cut ryegrass) was 0.51, whereas the corrected values were 0.85, 0.84, and 0.77 for the LF, SAB, and LAB methods, respectively. With early-cut ryegrass and red clover, the differences between uncorrected and corrected values ranged between 6% and 13%, with small differences among the labeling methods. Generally, methods using labeled forage or labeled SAB and LAB provided similar corrected degradability values. The accuracy in estimating the extent of degradation of protein in the rumen from in situ disappearance curves is improved when values are corrected for microbial contamination of the bag residue.

  12. Use of Biological Methods in Criminology

    OpenAIRE

    Müllerová, Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Criminology is a science dealing with the protection of citizens and state from infringement. Criminology uses mostly biological or genetic methods for crime detection. Forensic traces which are collected by forensic experts on the scene are the key items of those methods. Forensic genetics is among the most important forensic subdisciplines. Forensic genetics uses DNA analysis for identification. The main aims of this study are description and importance of biological, anthropological and ge...

  13. Forensic hash for multimedia information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenjun; Varna, Avinash L.; Wu, Min

    2010-01-01

    Digital multimedia such as images and videos are prevalent on today's internet and cause significant social impact, which can be evidenced by the proliferation of social networking sites with user generated contents. Due to the ease of generating and modifying images and videos, it is critical to establish trustworthiness for online multimedia information. In this paper, we propose novel approaches to perform multimedia forensics using compact side information to reconstruct the processing history of a document. We refer to this as FASHION, standing for Forensic hASH for informatION assurance. Based on the Radon transform and scale space theory, the proposed forensic hash is compact and can effectively estimate the parameters of geometric transforms and detect local tampering that an image may have undergone. Forensic hash is designed to answer a broader range of questions regarding the processing history of multimedia data than the simple binary decision from traditional robust image hashing, and also offers more efficient and accurate forensic analysis than multimedia forensic techniques that do not use any side information.

  14. Forensic medical examination of refugees who claim to have been tortured

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Banner, Jytte

    2005-01-01

    of 59 torture victims investigated at the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Aarhus, Denmark, 1996-2002, are presented and discussed. Variables including age, sex, education, health, torture methods, condition of confinement, torture aftereffects, and findings at the forensic examination...

  15. A sensitive issue: Pyrosequencing as a valuable forensic SNP typing platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, C.; Musgrave-Brown, E.; Bender, K.

    2006-01-01

    Analysing minute amounts of DNA is a routine challenge in forensics in part due to the poor sensitivity of an instrument and its inability to detect results from forensic samples. In this study, the sensitivity of the Pyrosequencing method is investigated using varying concentrations of DNA and f...

  16. Use of images for human identification in forensic dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Suzana Papile Maciel; Lopes-Junior, Cesar; Silva, Ricardo Henrique Alves da; Peres, Arsenio Sales

    2009-01-01

    The present systematic review article is aimed at describing radiological methods utilized for human identification in forensic dentistry. For this purpose, a literature review was undertaken, and out of 45 papers, 19 were selected in accordance with inclusion criteria. Several radiological techniques can be used to assist in both individual and general identification, including determination of gender, ethnic group and, mainly, age. The analysis of ante-mortem and post-mortem radiographic and tomographic images has become an essential tool for human identification in forensic dentistry, particularly with the refinement of techniques resulting from developments in the field of the radiology itself as well as the incorporation of information technology resources to the technique. It can be concluded that, based on an appropriate knowledge on the available methods, forensic dentists can choose the best method to achieve a successful identification with a careful application of the technique and accurate interpretation of data. (author)

  17. Determining the Diversity and Species Abundance Patterns in Arctic Soils using Rational Methods for Exploring Microbial Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovreas, L.; Quince, C.; Sloan, W.; Lanzen, A.; Davenport, R.; Green, J.; Coulson, S.; Curtis, T.

    2012-12-01

    Arctic microbial soil communities are intrinsically interesting and poorly characterised. We have inferred the diversity and species abundance distribution of 6 Arctic soils: new and mature soil at the foot of a receding glacier, Arctic Semi Desert, the foot of bird cliffs and soil underlying Arctic Tundra Heath: all near Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen. Diversity, distribution and sample sizes were estimated using the rational method of Quince et al., (Isme Journal 2 2008:997-1006) to determine the most plausible underlying species abundance distribution. A log-normal species abundance curve was found to give a slightly better fit than an inverse Gaussian curve if, and only if, sequencing error was removed. The median estimates of diversity of operational taxonomic units (at the 3% level) were 3600-5600 (lognormal assumed) and 2825-4100 (inverse Gaussian assumed). The nature and origins of species abundance distributions are poorly understood but may yet be grasped by observing and analysing such distributions in the microbial world. The sample size required to observe the distribution (by sequencing 90% of the taxa) varied between ~ 106 and ~105 for the lognormal and inverse Gaussian respectively. We infer that between 5 and 50 GB of sequencing would be required to capture 90% or the metagenome. Though a principle components analysis clearly divided the sites into three groups there was a high (20-45%) degree of overlap in between locations irrespective of geographical proximity. Interestingly, the nearest relatives of the most abundant taxa at a number of most sites were of alpine or polar origin. Samples plotted on first two principal components together with arbitrary discriminatory OTUs

  18. Digital Stratigraphy: Contextual Analysis of File System Traces in Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Eoghan

    2017-12-28

    This work introduces novel methods for conducting forensic analysis of file allocation traces, collectively called digital stratigraphy. These in-depth forensic analysis methods can provide insight into the origin, composition, distribution, and time frame of strata within storage media. Using case examples and empirical studies, this paper illuminates the successes, challenges, and limitations of digital stratigraphy. This study also shows how understanding file allocation methods can provide insight into concealment activities and how real-world computer usage can complicate digital stratigraphy. Furthermore, this work explains how forensic analysts have misinterpreted traces of normal file system behavior as indications of concealment activities. This work raises awareness of the value of taking the overall context into account when analyzing file system traces. This work calls for further research in this area and for forensic tools to provide necessary information for such contextual analysis, such as highlighting mass deletion, mass copying, and potential backdating. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. Comparison among four proposed direct blood culture microbial identification methods using MALDI-TOF MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M. Bazzi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry facilitates rapid and accurate identification of pathogens, which is critical for sepsis patients.In this study, we assessed the accuracy in identification of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, except for Streptococcus viridans, using four rapid blood culture methods with Vitek MALDI-TOF-MS. We compared our proposed lysis centrifugation followed by washing and 30% acetic acid treatment method (method 2 with two other lysis centrifugation methods (washing and 30% formic acid treatment (method 1; 100% ethanol treatment (method 3, and picking colonies from 90 to 180 min subculture plates (method 4. Methods 1 and 2 identified all organisms down to species level with 100% accuracy, except for Streptococcus viridans, Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterobacter cloacae and Proteus vulgaris. The latter two were identified to genus level with 100% accuracy. Each method exhibited excellent accuracy and precision in terms of identification to genus level with certain limitations. Keywords: MALDI-TOF, Gram-negative, Gram-positive, Sepsis, Blood culture

  20. Microscale validation of 4-aminoantipyrine test method for quantifying phenolic compounds in microbial culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justiz Mendoza, Ibrahin; Aguilera Rodriguez, Isabel; Perez Portuondo, Irasema

    2014-01-01

    Validation of test methods microscale is currently of great importance due to the economic and environmental advantages possessed, which constitutes a prerequisite for the performance of services and quality assurance of the results to provide customer. This paper addresses the microscale validation of 4-aminoantipyrine spectrophotometric method for the quantification of phenolic compounds in culture medium. Parameters linearity, precision, regression, accuracy, detection limits, quantification limits and robustness were evaluated, addition to the comparison test with no standardized method for determining polyphenols (Folin Ciocalteu). The results showed that both methods are feasible for determining phenols

  1. Comparison among four proposed direct blood culture microbial identification methods using MALDI-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Ali M; Rabaan, Ali A; El Edaily, Zeyad; John, Susan; Fawarah, Mahmoud M; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry facilitates rapid and accurate identification of pathogens, which is critical for sepsis patients. In this study, we assessed the accuracy in identification of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, except for Streptococcus viridans, using four rapid blood culture methods with Vitek MALDI-TOF-MS. We compared our proposed lysis centrifugation followed by washing and 30% acetic acid treatment method (method 2) with two other lysis centrifugation methods (washing and 30% formic acid treatment (method 1); 100% ethanol treatment (method 3)), and picking colonies from 90 to 180min subculture plates (method 4). Methods 1 and 2 identified all organisms down to species level with 100% accuracy, except for Streptococcus viridans, Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterobacter cloacae and Proteus vulgaris. The latter two were identified to genus level with 100% accuracy. Each method exhibited excellent accuracy and precision in terms of identification to genus level with certain limitations. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Microbial Biofilm Community Variation in Flowing Habitats: Potential Utility as Bioindicators of Postmortem Submersion Intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Lang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofilms are a ubiquitous formation of microbial communities found on surfaces in aqueous environments. These structures have been investigated as biomonitoring indicators for stream heath, and here were used for the potential use in forensic sciences. Biofilm successional development has been proposed as a method to determine the postmortem submersion interval (PMSI of remains because there are no standard methods for estimating the PMSI and biofilms are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats. We sought to compare the development of epinecrotic (biofilms on Sus scrofa domesticus carcasses and epilithic (biofilms on unglazed ceramic tiles communities in two small streams using bacterial automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis. Epinecrotic communities were significantly different from epilithic communities even though environmental factors associated with each stream location also had a significant influence on biofilm structure. All communities at both locations exhibited significant succession suggesting that changing communities throughout time is a general characteristic of stream biofilm communities. The implications resulting from this work are that epinecrotic communities have distinctive shifts at the first and second weeks, and therefore the potential to be used in forensic applications by associating successional changes with submersion time to estimate a PMSI. The influence of environmental factors, however, indicates the lack of a successional pattern with the same organisms and a focus on functional diversity may be more applicable in a forensic context.

  3. ALIS-FLP: Amplified ligation selected fragment-length polymorphism method for microbial genotyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brillowska-Dabrowska, A.; Wianecka, M.; Dabrowski, Slawomir

    2008-01-01

    A DNA fingerprinting method known as ALIS-FLP (amplified ligation selected fragment-length polymorphism) has been developed for selective and specific amplification of restriction fragments from TspRI restriction endonuclease digested genomic DNA. The method is similar to AFLP, but differs...

  4. Optimizing pressurized liquid extraction of microbial lipids using the response surface method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cescut, J; Severac, E; Molina-Jouve, C; Uribelarrea, J-L

    2011-01-21

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the determination of optimum extraction parameters to reach maximum lipid extraction yield with yeast. Total lipids were extracted from oleaginous yeast (Rhodotorula glutinis) using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). The effects of extraction parameters on lipid extraction yield were studied by employing a second-order central composite design. The optimal condition was obtained as three cycles of 15 min at 100°C with a ratio of 144 g of hydromatrix per 100 g of dry cell weight. Different analysis methods were used to compare the optimized PLE method with two conventional methods (Soxhlet and modification of Bligh and Dyer methods) under efficiency, selectivity and reproducibility criteria thanks to gravimetric analysis, GC with flame ionization detector, High Performance Liquid Chromatography linked to Evaporative Light Scattering Detector (HPLC-ELSD) and thin-layer chromatographic analysis. For each sample, the lipid extraction yield with optimized PLE was higher than those obtained with referenced methods (Soxhlet and Bligh and Dyer methods with, respectively, a recovery of 78% and 85% compared to PLE method). Moreover, the use of PLE led to major advantages such as an analysis time reduction by a factor of 10 and solvent quantity reduction by 70%, compared with traditional extraction methods. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Advances in forensic DNA quantification: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Steven B; McCord, Bruce; Buel, Eric

    2014-11-01

    This review focuses upon a critical step in forensic biology: detection and quantification of human DNA from biological samples. Determination of the quantity and quality of human DNA extracted from biological evidence is important for several reasons. Firstly, depending on the source and extraction method, the quality (purity and length), and quantity of the resultant DNA extract can vary greatly. This affects the downstream method as the quantity of input DNA and its relative length can determine which genotyping procedure to use-standard short-tandem repeat (STR) typing, mini-STR typing or mitochondrial DNA sequencing. Secondly, because it is important in forensic analysis to preserve as much of the evidence as possible for retesting, it is important to determine the total DNA amount available prior to utilizing any destructive analytical method. Lastly, results from initial quantitative and qualitative evaluations permit a more informed interpretation of downstream analytical results. Newer quantitative techniques involving real-time PCR can reveal the presence of degraded DNA and PCR inhibitors, that provide potential reasons for poor genotyping results and may indicate methods to use for downstream typing success. In general, the more information available, the easier it is to interpret and process the sample resulting in a higher likelihood of successful DNA typing. The history of the development of quantitative methods has involved two main goals-improving precision of the analysis and increasing the information content of the result. This review covers advances in forensic DNA quantification methods and recent developments in RNA quantification. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Metagenomic analyses of bacteria on human hairs: a qualitative assessment for applications in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tridico, Silvana R; Murray, Dáithí C; Addison, Jayne; Kirkbride, Kenneth P; Bunce, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian hairs are one of the most ubiquitous types of trace evidence collected in the course of forensic investigations. However, hairs that are naturally shed or that lack roots are problematic substrates for DNA profiling; these hair types often contain insufficient nuclear DNA to yield short tandem repeat (STR) profiles. Whilst there have been a number of initial investigations evaluating the value of metagenomics analyses for forensic applications (e.g. examination of computer keyboards), there have been no metagenomic evaluations of human hairs-a substrate commonly encountered during forensic practice. This present study attempts to address this forensic capability gap, by conducting a qualitative assessment into the applicability of metagenomic analyses of human scalp and pubic hair. Forty-two DNA extracts obtained from human scalp and pubic hairs generated a total of 79,766 reads, yielding 39,814 reads post control and abundance filtering. The results revealed the presence of unique combinations of microbial taxa that can enable discrimination between individuals and signature taxa indigenous to female pubic hairs. Microbial data from a single co-habiting couple added an extra dimension to the study by suggesting that metagenomic analyses might be of evidentiary value in sexual assault cases when other associative evidence is not present. Of all the data generated in this study, the next-generation sequencing (NGS) data generated from pubic hair held the most potential for forensic applications. Metagenomic analyses of human hairs may provide independent data to augment other forensic results and possibly provide association between victims of sexual assault and offender when other associative evidence is absent. Based on results garnered in the present study, we believe that with further development, bacterial profiling of hair will become a valuable addition to the forensic toolkit.

  7. Validation of an analytical method for nitrous oxide (N2O) laughing gas by headspace gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS): forensic application to a lethal intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, N; Beyer, J; Augsburger, M; Varlet, V

    2015-03-01

    Drug abuse is a widespread problem affecting both teenagers and adults. Nitrous oxide is becoming increasingly popular as an inhalation drug, causing harmful neurological and hematological effects. Some gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods for nitrous oxide measurement have been previously described. The main drawbacks of these methods include a lack of sensitivity for forensic applications; including an inability to quantitatively determine the concentration of gas present. The following study provides a validated method using HS-GC-MS which incorporates hydrogen sulfide as a suitable internal standard allowing the quantification of nitrous oxide. Upon analysis, sample and internal standard have similar retention times and are eluted quickly from the molecular sieve 5Å PLOT capillary column and the Porabond Q column therefore providing rapid data collection whilst preserving well defined peaks. After validation, the method has been applied to a real case of N2O intoxication indicating concentrations in a mono-intoxication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Next generation sequencing and its applications in forensic genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2015-09-01

    It has been almost a decade since the first next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies emerged and quickly changed the way genetic research is conducted. Today, full genomes are mapped and published almost weekly and with ever increasing speed and decreasing costs. NGS methods and platforms have matured during the last 10 years, and the quality of the sequences has reached a level where NGS is used in clinical diagnostics of humans. Forensic genetic laboratories have also explored NGS technologies and especially in the last year, there has been a small explosion in the number of scientific articles and presentations at conferences with forensic aspects of NGS. These contributions have demonstrated that NGS offers new possibilities for forensic genetic case work. More information may be obtained from unique samples in a single experiment by analyzing combinations of markers (STRs, SNPs, insertion/deletions, mRNA) that cannot be analyzed simultaneously with the standard PCR-CE methods used today. The true variation in core forensic STR loci has been uncovered, and previously unknown STR alleles have been discovered. The detailed sequence information may aid mixture interpretation and will increase the statistical weight of the evidence. In this review, we will give an introduction to NGS and single-molecule sequencing, and we will discuss the possible applications of NGS in forensic genetics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A method for high throughput bioelectrochemical research based on small scale microbial electrolysis cells

    KAUST Repository

    Call, Douglas F.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2011-01-01

    There is great interest in studying exoelectrogenic microorganisms, but existing methods can require expensive electrochemical equipment and specialized reactors. We developed a simple system for conducting high throughput bioelectrochemical

  10. Forensic Evaluation of Deaf Individuals: Challenges and Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Robert Q; Berlinski, Brian T

    2017-01-01

    Forensic evaluation of deaf individuals presents unique challenges due to many examinees' fund of information deficits, potential for language deprivation, and examiners' frequent lack of creativity regarding communication methods. This article describes challenges most frequently encountered in competency to stand trial and criminal responsibility evaluations and offers strategies for overcoming them. The value of employing multiple communication methods, especially the use of illustrations, is emphasized. Suggestions also are offered regarding preparing evaluation reports and effectively communicating "key deaf fundamentals" to legal personnel. Encouragement is offered for qualified, sign-fluent professionals to engage in forensic work.

  11. Psychiatric comorbidity in forensic psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palijan, Tija Zarković; Muzinić, Lana; Radeljak, Sanja

    2009-09-01

    For the past several years a numerous studies in the field of forensic psychiatry confirmed a close relationship between violent offenders and comorbid substance abuse. The comorbid substance abuse in violent offenders was usually unrecognized and misdiagnosed. Furthermore, comorbidity in forensic psychiatry describes the co-occurrence of two or more conditions or psychiatric disorder known in the literature as dual diagnosis and defined by World Health Organization (WHO). In fact, many violent offenders have multiple psychiatric diagnoses. Recent studies have confirmed causal relationship between major psychiatric disorders and concomitant substance abuse (comorbidity) in 50-80% of forensic cases. In general, there is a high level of psychiatric comorbidity in forensic patients with prevalence of personality disorders (50-90%), mood disorders (20-60%) and psychotic disorders (15-20%) coupled with substance abuse disorders. Moreover, the high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities could be found in mentally retarded individuals, as well as, in epileptic patients. Drugs and alcohol abuse can produce serious psychotoxic effects that may lead to extreme violent behavior and consequently to serious criminal offence such as physical assault, rape, armed robbery, attempted murder and homicide, all due to an altered brain function and generating psychotic-like symptoms. Studies have confirmed a significant statistical relevance in causal relationship between substance abuse and violent offences. In terms of forensic psychiatry, the comorbidity strongly contributes in the process of establishing psychiatric diagnosis of diminished mental capacity or insanity at the time of the offence in the course of clinical assessment and evaluation of violent offenders. Today, the primary focus of forensic psychiatry treatment services (in-patient or community) is management of the violent offenders with psychiatric comorbidity which requires a multilevel, evidence based approach to

  12. The routine use of C-reactive protein in forensic investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, B S; Thomsen, Jørgen Lange

    2007-01-01

    with special reference to the cause of death and survival time, Forensic Sci. Int. 130 (2002) 160-166; L. Uhlin-Hansen, C-reactive protein (CRP), a comparison of pre- and post-mortem blood levels, Forensic Sci. Int. 124 (2001) 32-35]. We have analysed the routine use of CRP in non-selected cases. Scarcity...... of blood available for analysis is a common problem in forensic investigation, and in response to this we have developed a method using liver as a source. In 50 consecutive autopsy cases, we have evaluated method, validated results and discussed their interpretation. In three cases the analysis......, and liver is a good post-mortem alternative when blood is not available. We conclude that CRP measurements are easy, viable and inexpensive in a forensic setting, and that the number of cases with CRP elevation is high in a non-selected forensic material. In cases of doubt, marked elevation of CRP...

  13. Routine Violence Risk Assessment in Community Forensic Mental Healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, Rob H. S.; Hooijschuur, Alex; van Os, Titus W. D. P.; Savenije, Wim; Wiersma, Durk

    2010-01-01

    We developed a method for periodic monitoring of violence risk, as part of routine community forensic mental healthcare. The feasibility of the method was tested, as well as its predictive validity for violent and risk enhancing behavior in the subsequent months. Participants were 83 clients who

  14. Effect of low-cost irrigation methods on microbial contamination of lettuce irrigated with untreated wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Konradsen, Flemming; Drechsel, P.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of simple irrigation methods such as drip irrigation kits, furrow irrigation and use of watering cans in reducing contamination of lettuce irrigated with polluted water in urban farming in Ghana. METHODS: Trials on drip kits, furrow irrigation and watering...... cans were conducted with urban vegetable farmers. Trials were arranged in a completely randomised block design with each plot having all three irrigation methods tested. This was conducted in both dry and wet seasons. Three hundred and ninety-six lettuce, 72 soil, 15 poultry manure and 32 water samples...... were analysed for thermotolerant coliforms and helminth eggs. RESULTS: Lettuce irrigated with drip kits had the lowest levels of contamination, with, on average, 4 log units per 100 g, fewer thermotolerant coliforms than that irrigated with watering cans. However, drip kits often got clogged, required...

  15. Molecular Profiling of Microbial Communities from Contaminated Sources: Use of Subtractive Cloning Methods and rDNA Spacer Sequences; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, Frank T.

    2001-01-01

    The major objective of this research was to provide appropriate sequences and assemble a DNA array of oligonucleotides to be used for rapid profiling of microbial populations from polluted areas and other areas of interest. The sequences to be assigned to the DNA array were chosen from cloned genomic DNA taken from groundwater sites having well characterized pollutant histories at Hanford Nuclear Plant and Lawrence Livermore Site 300. Glass-slide arrays were made and tested; and a new multiplexed, bead-based method was developed that uses nucleic acid hybridization on the surface of microscopic polystyrene spheres to identify specific sequences in heterogeneous mixtures of DNA sequences. The test data revealed considerable strain variation between sample sites showing a striking distribution of sequences. It also suggests that diversity varies greatly with bioremediation, and that there are many bacterial intergenic spacer region sequences that can indicate its effects. The bead method exhibited superior sequence discrimination and has features for easier and more accurate measurement

  16. Simple Sample Preparation Method for Direct Microbial Identification and Susceptibility Testing From Positive Blood Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hong-Wei; Li, Wei; Li, Rong-Guo; Li, Yong; Zhang, Yi; Sun, En-Hua

    2018-01-01

    Rapid identification and determination of the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of the infectious agents in patients with bloodstream infections are critical steps in choosing an effective targeted antibiotic for treatment. However, there has been minimal effort focused on developing combined methods for the simultaneous direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility determination of bacteria in positive blood cultures. In this study, we constructed a lysis-centrifugation-wash procedure to prepare a bacterial pellet from positive blood cultures, which can be used directly for identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and antibiotic susceptibility testing by the Vitek 2 system. The method was evaluated using a total of 129 clinical bacteria-positive blood cultures. The whole sample preparation process could be completed in identification was 96.49% for gram-negative bacteria and 97.22% for gram-positive bacteria. Vitek 2 antimicrobial susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacteria showed an agreement rate of antimicrobial categories of 96.89% with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 2.63, 0.24, and 0.24%, respectively. Category agreement of antimicrobials against gram-positive bacteria was 92.81%, with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 4.51, 1.22, and 1.46%, respectively. These results indicated that our direct antibiotic susceptibility analysis method worked well compared to the conventional culture-dependent laboratory method. Overall, this fast, easy, and accurate method can facilitate the direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of bacteria in positive blood cultures.

  17. Simple Sample Preparation Method for Direct Microbial Identification and Susceptibility Testing From Positive Blood Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-wei Pan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid identification and determination of the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of the infectious agents in patients with bloodstream infections are critical steps in choosing an effective targeted antibiotic for treatment. However, there has been minimal effort focused on developing combined methods for the simultaneous direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility determination of bacteria in positive blood cultures. In this study, we constructed a lysis-centrifugation-wash procedure to prepare a bacterial pellet from positive blood cultures, which can be used directly for identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and antibiotic susceptibility testing by the Vitek 2 system. The method was evaluated using a total of 129 clinical bacteria-positive blood cultures. The whole sample preparation process could be completed in <15 min. The correct rate of direct MALDI-TOF MS identification was 96.49% for gram-negative bacteria and 97.22% for gram-positive bacteria. Vitek 2 antimicrobial susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacteria showed an agreement rate of antimicrobial categories of 96.89% with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 2.63, 0.24, and 0.24%, respectively. Category agreement of antimicrobials against gram-positive bacteria was 92.81%, with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 4.51, 1.22, and 1.46%, respectively. These results indicated that our direct antibiotic susceptibility analysis method worked well compared to the conventional culture-dependent laboratory method. Overall, this fast, easy, and accurate method can facilitate the direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of bacteria in positive blood cultures.

  18. Forensic psychiatry in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Denis, Emily E; Sepúlveda, Enrique; Téllez, Carlos; Arboleda-Flórez, Julio; Stuart, Heather; Lam, Miu

    2012-01-01

    Mental disorders are among the most prevalent of chronic disorders, and a high prevalence of these disorders has been consistently found in jails and prisons. This study was a retrospective case series that described the population of adults charged with a criminal offense who were court ordered to undergo a psychiatric assessment within the Medical Legal Service in Santiago, Chile from 2005 to 2006. Characteristics were explored in order to better understand this population in light of the recent reforms in the judicial and health systems of Chile. Ninety percent of sampled individuals were male, primarily between the ages of 18-39 years. Seventy percent of the evaluations came from the pre-reformed judicial system and 30% were from the reformed system. Approximately 63% of evaluated offenders were considered to have a psychiatric pathology, the most common being the personality disorders. Of the evaluated offenders, approximately 84% were considered by a psychiatrist to be criminally responsible for their crime, 7% were regarded as having diminished criminal responsibility, 4% were considered to be not criminally responsible for their crime, and 4% were cases where criminal responsibility was not applicable. Profession status, municipality of residence, type of residence, ICD-10 diagnosis, treatment recommendation, and criminal responsibility were found to be significantly different between male and female evaluated offenders. Results from this investigation will contribute to knowledge about forensic psychiatry and mental health in Latin America, and will hopefully pave the way for more research and international comparisons. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Ethanol Forensic Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Paul J; Doroudgar, Shadi; Van Dyke, Priscilla

    2017-12-01

    Ethanol abuse can lead to negative consequences that oftentimes result in criminal charges and civil lawsuits. When an individual is suspected of driving under the influence, law enforcement agents can determine the extent of intoxication by measuring the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and performing a standardized field sobriety test. The BAC is dependent on rates of absorption, distribution, and elimination, which are influenced mostly by the dose of ethanol ingested and rate of consumption. Other factors contributing to BAC are gender, body mass and composition, food effects, type of alcohol, and chronic alcohol exposure. Because of individual variability in ethanol pharmacology and toxicology, careful extrapolation and interpretation of the BAC is needed, to justify an arrest and assignment of criminal liability. This review provides a summary of the pharmacokinetic properties of ethanol and the clinical effects of acute intoxication as they relate to common forensic questions. Concerns regarding the extrapolation of BAC and the implications of impaired memory caused by alcohol-induced blackouts are discussed. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  20. Forensic Physics 101: Falls from a height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2008-09-01

    The physics of falling from a height, a topic that could be included in a course on forensic physics or in an undergraduate class as an example of Newton's laws, is applied to a common forensic problem.

  1. Nuclear Forensics at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinman, William Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Steiner, Robert Ernest [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lamont, Stephen Philip [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-30

    Nuclear forensics assists in responding to any event where nuclear material is found outside of regulatory control; a response plan is presented and a nuclear forensics program is undergoing further development so that smugglers are sufficiently deterred.

  2. Drawbacks in the scientification of forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, A; Curran, J

    2014-12-01

    This letter to the Editor comments on the article On the limitations of probability in conceptualizing pattern matches in forensic science by P. T. Jayaprakash (Forensic Science International, [10]). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Active Traffic Capture for Network Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaviero, Marco; Granova, Anna; Olivier, Martin

    Network traffic capture is an integral part of network forensics, but current traffic capture techniques are typically passive in nature. Under heavy loads, it is possible for a sniffer to miss packets, which affects the quality of forensic evidence.

  4. MODERN METHOD OF DETECTION OF TAXONOMIC COMPOSITION OF MICROBIALS IN URINARY WAYS OF WOMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Bendas, V. V.; Stefak, Ya. P.; Moysyuk, V. D.; Mihalchan, A. B.

    2018-01-01

    In case of necessity to conduct a more qualitative examination of women with inflammatory processes, which are localized in the organs of the genitourinary system and in order to obtain an objective assessment of normal and pathogenic microflora in the urogenital pathways of a woman, a polymerase chain reaction method is proposed with the use of the diagnostic test of the system "Femoflore-16". This system help identification of Lactobacillus spp., Enterobacterium spp., Streptococcus spp., St...

  5. Information Assurance and Forensic Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangalos, Georgios; Katos, Vasilios

    Egalitarianism and justice are amongst the core attributes of a democratic regime and should be also secured in an e-democratic setting. As such, the rise of computer related offenses pose a threat to the fundamental aspects of e-democracy and e-governance. Digital forensics are a key component for protecting and enabling the underlying (e-)democratic values and therefore forensic readiness should be considered in an e-democratic setting. This position paper commences from the observation that the density of compliance and potential litigation activities is monotonically increasing in modern organizations, as rules, legislative regulations and policies are being constantly added to the corporate environment. Forensic practices seem to be departing from the niche of law enforcement and are becoming a business function and infrastructural component, posing new challenges to the security professionals. Having no a priori knowledge on whether a security related event or corporate policy violation will lead to litigation, we advocate that computer forensics need to be applied to all investigatory, monitoring and auditing activities. This would result into an inflation of the responsibilities of the Information Security Officer. After exploring some commonalities and differences between IS audit and computer forensics, we present a list of strategic challenges the organization and, in effect, the IS security and audit practitioner will face.

  6. The Effect of DNA Extraction Methods on Observed Microbial Communities from Fibrous and Liquid Rumen Fractions of Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jueeli D. Vaidya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA based methods have been widely used to study the complexity of the rumen microbiota, and it is well known that the method of DNA extraction is a critical step in enabling accurate assessment of this complexity. Rumen fluid (RF and fibrous content (FC fractions differ substantially in terms of their physical nature and associated microorganisms. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the effect of four DNA extraction methods (RBB, PBB, FDSS, PQIAmini differing in cell lysis and/or DNA recovery methods on the observed microbial diversity in RF and FC fractions using samples from four rumen cannulated dairy cows fed 100% grass silage (GS100, 67% GS and 33% maize silage (GS67MS33, 33% GS and 67% MS (GS33MS67, or 100% MS (MS100. An ANOVA statistical test was applied on DNA quality and yield measurements, and it was found that the DNA yield was significantly affected by extraction method (p < 0.001 and fraction (p < 0.001. The 260/280 ratio was not affected by extraction (p = 0.08 but was affected by fraction (p = 0.03. On the other hand, the 260/230 ratio was affected by extraction method (p < 0.001 but not affected by fraction (p = 0.8. However, all four extraction procedures yielded DNA suitable for further analysis of bacterial, archaeal and anaerobic fungal communities using quantitative PCR and pyrosequencing of relevant taxonomic markers. Redundancy analysis (RDA of bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence data at the family level showed that there was a significant effect of rumen fraction (p = 0.012, and that PBB (p = 0.012 and FDSS (p = 0.024 also significantly contributed to explaining the observed variation in bacterial community composition. Whilst the DNA extraction method affected the apparent bacterial community composition, no single extraction method could be concluded to be ineffective. No obvious effect of DNA extraction method on the anaerobic fungi or archaea was observed, although fraction effects were evident for both. In

  7. Statistical basis for positive identification in forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steadman, Dawnie Wolfe; Adams, Bradley J; Konigsberg, Lyle W

    2006-09-01

    Forensic scientists are often expected to present the likelihood of DNA identifications in US courts based on comparative population data, yet forensic anthropologists tend not to quantify the strength of an osteological identification. Because forensic anthropologists are trained first and foremost as physical anthropologists, they emphasize estimation problems at the expense of evidentiary problems, but this approach must be reexamined. In this paper, the statistical bases for presenting osteological and dental evidence are outlined, using a forensic case as a motivating example. A brief overview of Bayesian statistics is provided, and methods to calculate likelihood ratios for five aspects of the biological profile are demonstrated. This paper emphasizes the definition of appropriate reference samples and of the "population at large," and points out the conceptual differences between them. Several databases are introduced for both reference information and to characterize the "population at large," and new data are compiled to calculate the frequency of specific characters, such as age or fractures, within the "population at large." Despite small individual likelihood ratios for age, sex, and stature in the case example, the power of this approach is that, assuming each likelihood ratio is independent, the product rule can be applied. In this particular example, it is over three million times more likely to obtain the observed osteological and dental data if the identification is correct than if the identification is incorrect. This likelihood ratio is a convincing statistic that can support the forensic anthropologist's opinion on personal identity in court. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Methodology of Implementation of Computer Forensics

    OpenAIRE

    Gelev, Saso; Golubovski, Roman; Hristov, Risto; Nikolov, Elenior

    2013-01-01

    Compared to other sciences, computer forensics (digital forensics) is a relatively young discipline. It was established in 1999 and it has been an irreplaceable tool in sanctioning cybercrime ever since. Good knowledge of computer forensics can be really helpful in uncovering a committed crime. Not adhering to the methodology of computer forensics, however, makes the obtained evidence invalid/irrelevant and as such it cannot be used in legal proceedings. This paper is to explain the methodolo...

  9. Civil forensic psychiatry - Part 1: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Anthony H

    2018-02-01

    Objectives This paper provides an overview for general and forensic psychiatrists of the complexity and challenge of working in the civil medico-legal arena. It covers expert evidence, ethics, core concepts in civil forensic psychiatry and report writing. Conclusions Civil forensic psychiatry is an important sub-speciality component of forensic psychiatry that requires specific skills, knowledge and the ability to assist legal bodies in determining the significance of psychiatric issues.

  10. Method of microbially producing metal gallate spinel nano-objects, and compositions produced thereby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duty, Chad E.; Jellison, Jr., Gerald E.; Love, Lonnie J.; Moon, Ji Won; Phelps, Tommy J.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Kim, Jongsu; Park, Jehong; Lauf, Robert

    2018-01-16

    A method of forming a metal gallate spinel structure that includes mixing a divalent metal-containing salt and a gallium-containing salt in solution with fermentative or thermophilic bacteria. In the process, the bacteria nucleate metal gallate spinel nano-objects from the divalent metal-containing salt and the gallium-containing salt without requiring reduction of a metal in the solution. The metal gallate spinel structures, as well as light-emitting structures in which they are incorporated, are also described.

  11. Methods for the Isolation of Genes Encoding Novel PHA Metabolism Enzymes from Complex Microbial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jiujun; Nordeste, Ricardo; Trainer, Maria A; Charles, Trevor C

    2017-01-01

    Development of different PHAs as alternatives to petrochemically derived plastics can be facilitated by mining metagenomic libraries for diverse PHA cycle genes that might be useful for synthesis of bio-plastics. The specific phenotypes associated with mutations of the PHA synthesis pathway genes in Sinorhizobium meliloti and Pseudomonas putida, allows the use of powerful selection and screening tools to identify complementing novel PHA synthesis genes. Identification of novel genes through their function rather than sequence facilitates the functional proteins that may otherwise have been excluded through sequence-only screening methodology. We present here methods that we have developed for the isolation of clones expressing novel PHA metabolism genes from metagenomic libraries.

  12. Methods for the isolation of genes encoding novel PHB cycle enzymes from complex microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordeste, Ricardo F; Trainer, Maria A; Charles, Trevor C

    2010-01-01

    Development of different PHAs as alternatives to petrochemically derived plastics can be facilitated by mining metagenomic libraries for diverse PHA cycle genes that might be useful for synthesis of bioplastics. The specific phenotypes associated with mutations of the PHA synthesis pathway genes in Sinorhizobium meliloti allows for the use of powerful selection and screening tools to identify complementing novel PHA synthesis genes. Identification of novel genes through their function rather than sequence facilitates finding functional proteins that may otherwise have been excluded through sequence-only screening methodology. We present here methods that we have developed for the isolation of clones expressing novel PHA metabolism genes from metagenomic libraries.

  13. Age Estimation in Forensic Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkass, Kanar; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Ohtani, Susumu; Yamamoto, Toshiharu; Druid, Henrik; Spalding, Kirsty L.

    2010-01-01

    Age determination of unknown human bodies is important in the setting of a crime investigation or a mass disaster because the age at death, birth date, and year of death as well as gender can guide investigators to the correct identity among a large number of possible matches. Traditional morphological methods used by anthropologists to determine age are often imprecise, whereas chemical analysis of tooth dentin, such as aspartic acid racemization, has shown reproducible and more precise results. In this study, we analyzed teeth from Swedish individuals using both aspartic acid racemization and radiocarbon methodologies. The rationale behind using radiocarbon analysis is that aboveground testing of nuclear weapons during the cold war (1955–1963) caused an extreme increase in global levels of carbon-14 (14C), which has been carefully recorded over time. Forty-four teeth from 41 individuals were analyzed using aspartic acid racemization analysis of tooth crown dentin or radiocarbon analysis of enamel, and 10 of these were split and subjected to both radiocarbon and racemization analysis. Combined analysis showed that the two methods correlated well (R2 = 0.66, p Aspartic acid racemization also showed a good precision with an overall absolute error of 5.4 ± 4.2 years. Whereas radiocarbon analysis gives an estimated year of birth, racemization analysis indicates the chronological age of the individual at the time of death. We show how these methods in combination can also assist in the estimation of date of death of an unidentified victim. This strategy can be of significant assistance in forensic casework involving dead victim identification. PMID:19965905

  14. Home - Virginia Department of Forensic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collecting DNA Data Bank Samples Forensic Training Forensic Science Academy Short Course Schedule Forensic gross weights, marijuana food products and search warrant cases. Click anywhere on the image to open the -screen comparison software system to perform and document the comparison. Virginia DNA Data Bank

  15. THE ROLE OF FORENSIC DENTIST FOLLOWING MASS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and dental practitioners of the crucial role of dentist in victim's identification and ... role of forensic dental personnel in human identification following ... matrimonial, or financial reasons6. The first and .... chief physician during the systematic extermination of the Jews at ... of police officers with forensic pathologist and forensic.

  16. Simultaneous amplification of two bacterial genes: more reliable method of Helicobacter pylori detection in microbial rich dental plaque samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Saima; Idrees, Muhammad; Izhar, Mateen; Butt, Arshad Kamal; Khan, Ayyaz Ali

    2011-01-01

    Polymerase Chain reaction (PCR) assay is considered superior to other methods for detection of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in oral cavity; however, it also has limitations when sample under study is microbial rich dental plaque. The type of gene targeted and number of primers used for bacterial detection in dental plaque samples can have a significant effect on the results obtained as there are a number of closely related bacterial species residing in plaque biofilm. Also due to high recombination rate of H. pylori some of the genes might be down regulated or absent. The present study was conducted to determine the frequency of H. pylori colonization of dental plaque by simultaneously amplifying two genes of the bacterium. One hundred dental plaque specimens were collected from dyspeptic patients before their upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and presence of H. pylori was determined through PCR assay using primers targeting two different genes of the bacterium. Eighty-nine of the 100 samples were included in final analysis. With simultaneous amplification of two bacterial genes 51.6% of the dental plaque samples were positive for H. pylori while this prevalence increased to 73% when only one gene amplification was used for bacterial identification. Detection of H. pylori in dental plaque samples is more reliable when two genes of the bacterium are simultaneously amplified as compared to one gene amplification only.

  17. Structural, Optical, Morphological and Microbial Studies on SnO₂ Nanoparticles Prepared by Co-Precipitation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arularasu, M V; Anbarasu, M; Poovaragan, S; Sundaram, R; Kanimozhi, K; Magdalane, C Maria; Kaviyarasu, K; Thema, F T; Letsholathebe, D; Mola, Genene T; Maaza, M

    2018-05-01

    Nanoparticles of tin oxide (SnO2) powders were prepared by co-precipitation method at 500 °C, 700 °C and 900 °C temperature. The sintered SnO2 nanoparticles, structural, optical, magnetic, morphological properties and microbial activity have been studied. XRD studies reveals that sintered powder which exhibits tetragonal crystal structure and both crystallinity as well as crystal size increase with increase in temperature. The morphological studies reveal randomly arranged grains with compact nature grain size increases with sintering temperature. The compositional analyses of SnO2 nanoparticles have been studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The optical band gap values of SnO2 nanoparticles were calculated to be about 4.3 eV in the temperature 500 °C, comparing with that of the bulk SnO2 3.78 eV, by optical absorption measurement. Room temperature M-H curve for pure SnO2 nanoparticles exhibits ferromagnetic behaviour. The tin oxide nanoparticles are acted as potential candidate material for bacterial and fungal activity.

  18. Sampling methods for rumen microbial counts by Real-Time PCR techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Puppo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Fresh rumen samples were withdrawn from 4 cannulated buffalo females fed a fibrous diets in order to quantify bacteria concentration in the rumen by Real-Time PCR techniques. To obtain DNA of a good quality from whole rumen fluid, eight (M1-M8 different pre-filtration methods (cheese cloths, glass-fibre and nylon filter in combination with various centrifugation speeds (1000, 5000 and 14,000 rpm were tested. Genomic DNA extraction was performed either on fresh or frozen samples (-20°C. The quantitative bacteria analysis was realized according to Real-Time PCR procedure for Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens reported in literature. M5 resulted the best sampling procedure allowing to obtain a suitable genomic DNA. No differences were revealed between fresh and frozen samples.

  19. Microbial transformation of tannin-rich substrate to gallic acid through co-culture method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rintu; Mukherjee, Gargi; Patra, Krushna Chandra

    2005-05-01

    Modified solid-state fermentation (MSSF) of tannin-rich substrate yielding tannase and gallic acid was carried out using a co-culture of the filamentous fungi, Rhizopus oryzae (RO IIT RB-13, NRRL 21498) and Aspergillus foetidus (GMRB013 MTCC 3557). Powdered fruits of Terminalia chebula and powdered pod cover of Caesalpinia digyna was used in the process and the different process parameters for maximum production of tannase and gallic acid by co-culture method were optimized through media engineering. MSSF was carried out at the optimum conditions of 30 degrees C and 80% relative humidity. The optimal pH and incubation period was 5.0 and 48 h respectively. Through the co-culture technique the maximum yield of tannase and gallic acid was found to be 41.3 U/ml and 94.8% respectively.

  20. Next generation sequencing and its applications in forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2015-01-01

    articles and presentations at conferences with forensic aspects of NGS. These contributions have demonstrated that NGS offers new possibilities for forensic genetic case work. More information may be obtained from unique samples in a single experiment by analyzing combinations of markers (STRs, SNPs......It has been almost a decade since the first next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies emerged and quickly changed the way genetic research is conducted. Today, full genomes are mapped and published almost weekly and with ever increasing speed and decreasing costs. NGS methods and platforms have...... matured during the last 10 years, and the quality of the sequences has reached a level where NGS is used in clinical diagnostics of humans. Forensic genetic laboratories have also explored NGS technologies and especially in the last year, there has been a small explosion in the number of scientific...

  1. Acryloylfentanyl: Identification in seized powder and a fatal forensic case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breindahl, Torben; Kimergård, Andreas; Sejer Pedersen, Daniel

    identified in a forensic pathology case, where it was suspected to have caused a fatal overdose in combination with aspiration. This is an example of a rapidly transforming drug market, where new synthetic opioids emerge at a growing rate and cause harm. New synthetic opioids of the fentanyl class......Background Powder in a capsule seized during a smuggling attempt in a forensic psychiatric department in Denmark was analysed and unambiguously identified as the new synthetic opioid acryloylfentanyl. Shortly after, in the same geographical region, a 28-year-old male was found dead. The police...... and a forensic physician performed a crime scene investigation. The decedent was a known drug user, and he and a friend had been snorting “fentanyl and benzo”. Medico-legal autopsy was performed on the deceased and relevant samples were submitted for toxicological examination. Methods Identification...

  2. Forensic validation of the SNPforID 52-plex assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musgrave-Brown, Esther; Ballard, David; Balogh, Kinga

    2007-01-01

    The advantages of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing in forensic genetics are well known and include a wider choice of high-throughput typing platforms, lower mutation rates, and improved analysis of degraded samples. However, if SNPs are to become a realistic supplement to current short...... tandem repeat (STR) typing methods, they must be shown to successfully and reliably analyse the challenging samples commonly encountered in casework situations. The European SNPforID consortium, supported by the EU GROWTH programme, has developed a multiplex of 52 SNPs for forensic analysis...... in forensic casework. A total of 40 extracts were used in the study, each of which was sent to two of the five participating laboratories for typing in duplicate or triplicate. Laboratories were instructed to carry out their analyses as if they were dealing with normal casework samples. Results were reported...

  3. Forensic Analysis of a Contact Lens in a Murder Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwerling, Charles S

    2016-03-01

    Contact lenses have had rare relevance in trials and/or investigations. After 5 years of burial, orbital remnants were retrieved from an exhumed body and subsequently identified as a key piece of material evidence in a murder trial. The exhumed case materials were evaluated under laboratory conditions and were determined to be contact lens remnants. Contact lens fracture and burial simulation studies were performed to provide additional corroboration of the physical findings of the exhumed contact lens remnants. This material evidence was instrumental in providing factual proof refuting the defendant's testimony in the murder trial. A brief history of contact lens composition and use is provided for understanding the methods and observational results. This forensic case study represents the first published documentation of a contact lens from an exhumed body being used in a murder investigation and establishes an operational procedure for future forensic contact lens examinations. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. System Support for Forensic Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehani, Ashish; Kirchner, Florent; Shankar, Natarajan

    Digital evidence is playing an increasingly important role in prosecuting crimes. The reasons are manifold: financially lucrative targets are now connected online, systems are so complex that vulnerabilities abound and strong digital identities are being adopted, making audit trails more useful. If the discoveries of forensic analysts are to hold up to scrutiny in court, they must meet the standard for scientific evidence. Software systems are currently developed without consideration of this fact. This paper argues for the development of a formal framework for constructing “digital artifacts” that can serve as proxies for physical evidence; a system so imbued would facilitate sound digital forensic inference. A case study involving a filesystem augmentation that provides transparent support for forensic inference is described.

  5. Identical twins in forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Morling, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The increase in the number of forensic genetic loci used for identification purposes results in infinitesimal random match probabilities. These probabilities are computed under assumptions made for rather simple population genetic models. Often, the forensic expert reports likelihood ratios, where...... published results accounting for close familial relationships. However, we revisit the discussion to increase the awareness among forensic genetic practitioners and include new information on medical and societal factors to assess the risk of not considering a monozygotic twin as the true perpetrator......, then data relevant for the Danish society suggests that the threshold of likelihood ratios should approximately be between 150,000 and 2,000,000 in order to take the risk of an unrecognised identical, monozygotic twin into consideration. In other societies, the threshold of the likelihood ratio in crime...

  6. Keeping the Momentum and Nuclear Forensics at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, Robert Ernest; Dion, Heather M.; Dry, Donald E.; Kinman, William Scott; LaMont, Stephen Philip; Podlesak, David; Tandon, Lav

    2016-01-01

    LANL has 70 years of experience in nuclear forensics and supports the community through a wide variety of efforts and leveraged capabilities: Expanding the understanding of nuclear forensics, providing training on nuclear forensics methods, and developing bilateral relationships to expand our understanding of nuclear forensic science. LANL remains highly supportive of several key organizations tasked with carrying forth the Nuclear Security Summit messages: IAEA, GICNT, and INTERPOL. Analytical chemistry measurements on plutonium and uranium matrices are critical to numerous programs including safeguards accountancy verification measurements. Los Alamos National Laboratory operates capable actinide analytical chemistry and material science laboratories suitable for nuclear material and environmental forensic characterization. Los Alamos National Laboratory uses numerous means to validate and independently verify that measurement data quality objectives are met. Numerous LANL nuclear facilities support the nuclear material handling, preparation, and analysis capabilities necessary to evaluate samples containing nearly any mass of an actinide (attogram to kilogram levels).

  7. Keeping the Momentum and Nuclear Forensics at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Robert Ernest [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dion, Heather M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dry, Donald E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kinman, William Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); LaMont, Stephen Philip [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Podlesak, David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tandon, Lav [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-22

    LANL has 70 years of experience in nuclear forensics and supports the community through a wide variety of efforts and leveraged capabilities: Expanding the understanding of nuclear forensics, providing training on nuclear forensics methods, and developing bilateral relationships to expand our understanding of nuclear forensic science. LANL remains highly supportive of several key organizations tasked with carrying forth the Nuclear Security Summit messages: IAEA, GICNT, and INTERPOL. Analytical chemistry measurements on plutonium and uranium matrices are critical to numerous programs including safeguards accountancy verification measurements. Los Alamos National Laboratory operates capable actinide analytical chemistry and material science laboratories suitable for nuclear material and environmental forensic characterization. Los Alamos National Laboratory uses numerous means to validate and independently verify that measurement data quality objectives are met. Numerous LANL nuclear facilities support the nuclear material handling, preparation, and analysis capabilities necessary to evaluate samples containing nearly any mass of an actinide (attogram to kilogram levels).

  8. Virtopsy: An integration of forensic science and imageology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, T Isaac; Girish, K L; Sathyan, Pradeesh; Kiran, M Shashi; Vidya, S

    2017-01-01

    In an era where noninvasive and minimally invasive techniques are heralding medical innovations and health science technology, necrological analysis is not bereft of this wave. Virtopsy is virtual autopsy. It is a new-age complimentary documentation approach to identify and analyze the details of demise. Utilizing virtual autopsy for orofacial forensic examination is an emerging specialty which holds a plethora of potential for future trends in forensic science. Being a noninvasive technique, it is a rapid method which facilitates the medicolegal process and aids in the delivery of justice. The present article is an overview of this emerging methodology.

  9. Issues in the global applications of methodology in forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubelaker, Douglas H

    2008-05-01

    The project and research reported in this collection of articles follows a long-term historical pattern in forensic anthropology in which new case work and applications reveal methodological issues that need to be addressed. Forensic anthropological analysis in the area of the former Yugoslavia led to questions raised regarding the applicability of methods developed from samples in other regions. The subsequently organized project reveals that such differences exist and new methodology and data are presented to facilitate applications in the Balkan area. The effort illustrates how case applications and court testimony can stimulate research advances. The articles also serve as a model for the improvement of methodology available for global applications.

  10. Forensic Odontology: A Boon to Community in Medico-legal Affairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramasamy Chidambaram

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Forensic odontology is a sub-discipline of dental science which involves the relationship between dentistry and the law. The specialty of forensic odontology is applied in radiographic investigation, human bite marks analysis, anthropologic examination and during mass disasters. Besides the fact that radiographs require pretentious laboratory, it is still claimed to be a facile, rapid, non-invasive method of age identification in the deceased. The budding DNA technology has conquered the traditional procedures and currently being contemplated as chief investigating tool in revealing the hidden mysteries of victims and suspects, especially in hopeless circumstances. Forensic odontology has played a chief role in solving cold cases and proved to be strong evidence in the court of law. Systematic collection of dental records and preservation of the same would marshal the legal officials in identification of the deceased. To serve the forensic operation and legal authorities, dental professionals need to be familiar with the basics of forensic odontology, which would create a consciousness to preserve the dental data. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the vital applications of forensic odontology in medico-legal issues. Conjointly the recent advancements applied in forensic human identification have been updated. Keywords: bite marks; dental records; forensic identification; mass disaster; medico-legal issues. | PubMed

  11. Importance of electromyography and the electrophysiological severity scale in forensic reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgin, Nursel Gamsiz; Ozge, Aynur; Mert, Ertan; Yalçinkaya, Deniz E; Kar, Hakan

    2007-05-01

    Forensic reports on traumatic peripheral nerve injuries include dysfunction degrees of extremities, which are arranged according to the Turkish Penalty Code. The aim of this study is to discuss the role and importance of electromyography while preparing forensic reports in the cases of traumatic peripheral nerve injuries and the usefulness of scoring systems. A modified global scale, recommended by Mondelli et al., was used to assess the electrophysiological impairment of each peripheral nerve. Forensic reports of 106 patients, reported between 2002 and 2004, were evaluated. Thirty-four percent of the cases were reported as "total loss of function," 41.5% were reported as "functional disability," and there were no dysfunctions in the other cases in forensic reports that were prepared based on Council of Social Insurance Regulations of Health Processes and Guide prepared by the Council of Forensic Medicine and profession associations of forensic medicine. When we rearranged these forensic reports based on the electrophysiological severity scale (ESS), it was clearly found that all of the score 2 cases and 86.7% of the score 3 cases corresponded to "functional disability" and 91.4% of the score 4 cases correspond to "total loss of function." We found a significant correlation between the ESS and functional evaluation in peripheral nerve injury cases. Evaluation of functional disabilities in peripheral nerve injuries with the ESS represents a standardized and objective method used for forensic reports.

  12. Toward the establishment of a forensic nursing specialty in Brazil: an integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Rafael Braga; Lasiuk, Gerri C; Cardoso, Lucilene; Kent-Wilkinson, Arlene

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, Brazil has made progress in bringing political and community attention to issues related to violence. The recognition of links between violence and health has intensified calls to accelerate the development of a forensic nursing specialty in Brazil. The aim of this study was to systematically examine and synthesize the literature on the development of the forensic nursing specialty around the globe and to extract important lessons for the establishment of a forensic nursing specialty in Brazil. An integrative review was conducted according to the method described by Whittmore and Knafl (2005). Electronic searches of the following databases were conducted between December 2012 and March 2013: CINAHL Plus with Full Text, Criminal Justice, Index to Legal periodicals, MEDLINE, Soc Index with Full Text, Social Work Abstracts, SCOPUS, and PsycINFO. The search terms used were: [(TI nurs* or SU nurs*) and [TI (forensic* or penal or prison*) or SU (forensic* or penal or prison*)] and (sexual assault nurse examiner*). Preestablished inclusion/exclusion criteria were used to select published articles for review. Twenty-three articles met inclusion criteria and were included in the full review. Important lessons for Brazil are discussed in terms of education and curricular issues and forensic psychiatric nursing. In Brazil, there is a window of opportunity to contribute the theoretical foundations of forensic nursing science and to advance nursing specialty practice in the areas of Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners and forensic psychiatric nurses.

  13. High Performance Proactive Digital Forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alharbi, Soltan; Traore, Issa; Moa, Belaid; Weber-Jahnke, Jens

    2012-01-01

    With the increase in the number of digital crimes and in their sophistication, High Performance Computing (HPC) is becoming a must in Digital Forensics (DF). According to the FBI annual report, the size of data processed during the 2010 fiscal year reached 3,086 TB (compared to 2,334 TB in 2009) and the number of agencies that requested Regional Computer Forensics Laboratory assistance increasing from 689 in 2009 to 722 in 2010. Since most investigation tools are both I/O and CPU bound, the next-generation DF tools are required to be distributed and offer HPC capabilities. The need for HPC is even more evident in investigating crimes on clouds or when proactive DF analysis and on-site investigation, requiring semi-real time processing, are performed. Although overcoming the performance challenge is a major goal in DF, as far as we know, there is almost no research on HPC-DF except for few papers. As such, in this work, we extend our work on the need of a proactive system and present a high performance automated proactive digital forensic system. The most expensive phase of the system, namely proactive analysis and detection, uses a parallel extension of the iterative z algorithm. It also implements new parallel information-based outlier detection algorithms to proactively and forensically handle suspicious activities. To analyse a large number of targets and events and continuously do so (to capture the dynamics of the system), we rely on a multi-resolution approach to explore the digital forensic space. Data set from the Honeynet Forensic Challenge in 2001 is used to evaluate the system from DF and HPC perspectives.

  14. Alternate switching between microbial fuel cell and microbial electrolysis cell operation as a new method to control H2O2 level in Bioelectro-Fenton system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Wang, Yong; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    cell (MEC) and microbial fuel cell (MFC) mode of operation was developed to meet the challenges. In the MEC mode, a bioelectrochemical system (BES) produces H2O2 which reacts with Fenton's reagent (Fe II) to form hydroxyradical. The unused H2O2 (residual H2O2) is removed as electron acceptor...... by switching the system to MFC mode of operation. Complete decolorization and mineralization of 50 mg L−1 methylene blue (MB) was achieved in the MEC mode with apparent first order rate constants of 0.43 and 0.22 h−1, respectively. After switching to the MFC mode, residual H2O2 of 180 mg L−1 was removed...... at a removal rate of 4.61 mg L−1 h−1 while generating a maximum current density of 0.49 A m−2. The MB degradation and residual H2O2 removal were affected by external resistance, cathode pH and initial MB concentration. Furthermore, the system performance was enhanced under stack operation. This study provides...

  15. Digital forensics for handheld devices

    CERN Document Server

    Doherty, Eamon P

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 80 percent of the world's population now owns a cell phone, which can hold evidence or contain logs about communications concerning a crime. Cameras, PDAs, and GPS devices can also contain information related to corporate policy infractions and crimes. Aimed to prepare investigators in the public and private sectors, Digital Forensics for Handheld Devices examines both the theoretical and practical aspects of investigating handheld digital devices. This book touches on all areas of mobile device forensics, including topics from the legal, technical, academic, and social aspects o

  16. Forensic aspects of animal abusing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal abuse is important social issue, which includes a wide range of behaviors of humans that are harmful to animals, starting from unintentional neglect to intentional cruelty. Types of animal abuse are different and they can include physical, sexual, emotional abuse or neglect. Training dogs for fights and dog fighting are considered to be neglection of animals. Forensic veterinarians are called for testifining more often now for presenting the evidence that can lead to making a case regarding animal abuse. This study will include an explanation of forensic vet's role and different types of animal abuse.

  17. Technological Innovations in Forensic Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienroth, Matthias; Morling, Niels; Williams, Robin

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the nature of four waves of technological innovations in forensic genetics alongside the social, legal and ethical aspect of these innovations. It emphasises the way in which technological advances and their socio-legal frameworks are co-produced, shaping technology...... expectations, social identities, and legal institutions. It also considers how imagined and actual uses of forensic genetic technologies are entangled with assertions about social order, affirmations of common values and civil rights, and promises about security and justice. Our comments seek to encourage...

  18. A simple experiment with Microsoft Office 2010 and Windows 7 utilizing digital forensic methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory H. Carlton

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Digital forensic examiners are tasked with retrieving data from digital storage devices, and frequently these examiners are expected to explain the circumstances that led to the data being in its current state. Through written reports or verbal, expert testimony delivered in court, digital forensic examiners are expected to describe whether data have been altered, and if so, then to what extent have data been altered. Addressing these expectations results from opinions digital forensic examiners reach concerning their understanding of electronic storage and retrieval methods. The credibility of these opinions evolves from the scientific basis from which they are drawn using forensic methodology.   Digital forensic methodology, being a scientific process, is derived from observations and repeatable findings in controlled environments. Furthermore, scientific research methods have established that causal conclusions can be drawn only when observed in controlled experiments. With this in mind, it seems beneficial that digital forensic examiners have a library of experiments from which they can perform, observe results, and derive conclusions. After having conducted an experiment on a specific topic, a digital forensic examiner will be in a better position to express with confidence the state of the current data and perhaps the conditions that led to its current state.   This study provides a simple experiment using the contemporary versions of the most widely used software applications running on the most commonly installed operation system. Here, using the Microsoft Office 2010 applications, a simple Word document, an Excel spreadsheet, a PowerPoint presentation, and an Access database are created and then modified. A forensic analysis is performed to determine the extent in which the changes to the data are identified. The value in this study is not that it yields new forensic analysis techniques, but rather that it illustrates a

  19. Procedures for a harmonised digital forensic process in live forensics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sibiya, G

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a novel computing paradigm that presents new research opportunities in the field of digital forensics. Cloud computing is based on the following principles: on-demand self-service, broad network access, resource pooling, rapid...

  20. BioDry: An Inexpensive, Low-Power Method to Preserve Aquatic Microbial Biomass at Room Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuorto, Steven J; Brown, Chris M; Bidle, Kay D; McGuinness, Lora R; Kerkhof, Lee J

    2015-01-01

    This report describes BioDry (patent pending), a method for reliably preserving the biomolecules associated with aquatic microbial biomass samples, without the need of hazardous materials (e.g. liquid nitrogen, preservatives, etc.), freezing, or bulky storage/sampling equipment. Gel electrophoresis analysis of nucleic acid extracts from samples treated in the lab with the BioDry method indicated that molecular integrity was protected in samples stored at room temperature for up to 30 days. Analysis of 16S/18S rRNA genes for presence/absence and relative abundance of microorganisms using both 454-pyrosequencing and TRFLP profiling revealed statistically indistinguishable communities from control samples that were frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after collection. Seawater and river water biomass samples collected with a portable BioDry "field unit", constructed from off-the-shelf materials and a battery-operated pumping system, also displayed high levels of community rRNA preservation, despite a slight decrease in nucleic acid recovery over the course of storage for 30 days. Functional mRNA and protein pools from the field samples were also effectively conserved with BioDry, as assessed by respective RT-PCR amplification and western blot of ribulose-1-5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Collectively, these results demonstrate that BioDry can adequately preserve a suite of biomolecules from aquatic biomass at ambient temperatures for up to a month, giving it great potential for high resolution sampling in remote locations or on autonomous platforms where space and power are limited.

  1. BioDry: An Inexpensive, Low-Power Method to Preserve Aquatic Microbial Biomass at Room Temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J Tuorto

    Full Text Available This report describes BioDry (patent pending, a method for reliably preserving the biomolecules associated with aquatic microbial biomass samples, without the need of hazardous materials (e.g. liquid nitrogen, preservatives, etc., freezing, or bulky storage/sampling equipment. Gel electrophoresis analysis of nucleic acid extracts from samples treated in the lab with the BioDry method indicated that molecular integrity was protected in samples stored at room temperature for up to 30 days. Analysis of 16S/18S rRNA genes for presence/absence and relative abundance of microorganisms using both 454-pyrosequencing and TRFLP profiling revealed statistically indistinguishable communities from control samples that were frozen in liquid nitrogen immediately after collection. Seawater and river water biomass samples collected with a portable BioDry "field unit", constructed from off-the-shelf materials and a battery-operated pumping system, also displayed high levels of community rRNA preservation, despite a slight decrease in nucleic acid recovery over the course of storage for 30 days. Functional mRNA and protein pools from the field samples were also effectively conserved with BioDry, as assessed by respective RT-PCR amplification and western blot of ribulose-1-5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Collectively, these results demonstrate that BioDry can adequately preserve a suite of biomolecules from aquatic biomass at ambient temperatures for up to a month, giving it great potential for high resolution sampling in remote locations or on autonomous platforms where space and power are limited.

  2. A Review of Forensic Science Management Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, M M; McAndrew, W P; Porter, M; Davies, B

    2015-01-01

    The science in forensic science has received increased scrutiny in recent years, but interest in how forensic science is managed is a relatively new line of research. This paper summarizes the literature in forensic science management generally from 2009 to 2013, with some recent additions, to provide an overview of the growth of topics, results, and improvements in the management of forensic services in the public and private sectors. This review covers only the last three years or so and a version of this paper was originally produced for the 2013 Interpol Forensic Science Managers Symposium and is available at interpol.int. Copyright © 2015 Central Police University.

  3. [Advances of forensic entomology in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ling-mei; Liao, Zhi-gang; Chen, Yao-qing; Yao, Yue; Li, Jian-bo; Li, Mao-yang; Cai, Ji-feng

    2006-12-01

    Forensic entomology is a branch of forensic medicine, which applies studies of insects and arthropods to getting evidence for court and has an analogous advantage in the estimation of the postmortem interval (PMI) and other questions of forensic relevance. The paper expounds its definition and contents and reviews some progress of the studies in some aspects in China such as the constitution and succession of insect community on the different cadavers, the applications of morphological features of insects and the technology of analysis of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in forensic entomology, and forensic entomological toxicology etc.

  4. Role of Forensic Pathology in Clinical Practice and Public Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The request for and performance of autopsy have been on the decline despite its obvious merits to medical practice, the patients and public health. Several surveys have exposed some reasons for this decline. Method: This work is a review of the role of forensic pathology to medical practice and public health. The author ...

  5. Forensic pregnancy diagnostics with placental mRNA markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Gauvin (Jeanot); D. Zubakov (Dmitry); J. van Rhee-Binkhorst (Joke); A. Kloosterman (Ate); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractCurrent methods for pregnancy diagnostics are based on immunodetection of pregnancy-specific proteins and in a forensic context suffer from sensitivity and specificity issues. Here, we applied reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technology to 11 genes previously

  6. Veterinary Forensic Pathology: The Search for Truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, S P; McEwen, B J

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary forensic pathology is emerging as a distinct discipline, and this special issue is a major step forward in establishing the scientific basis of the discipline. A forensic necropsy uses the same skill set needed for investigations of natural disease, but the analytical framework and purpose of forensic pathology differ significantly. The requirement of legal credibility and all that it entails distinguishes the forensic from routine diagnostic cases. Despite the extraordinary depth and breadth of knowledge afforded by their training, almost 75% of veterinary pathologists report that their training has not adequately prepared them to handle forensic cases. Many veterinary pathologists, however, are interested and willing to develop expertise in the discipline. Lessons learned from tragic examples of wrongful convictions in medical forensic pathology indicate that a solid foundation for the evolving discipline of veterinary forensic pathology requires a commitment to education, training, and certification. The overarching theme of this issue is that the forensic necropsy is just one aspect in the investigation of a case of suspected animal abuse or neglect. As veterinary pathologists, we must be aware of the roles filled by other veterinary forensic experts involved in these cases and how our findings are an integral part of an investigation. We hope that the outcome of this special issue of the journal is that veterinary pathologists begin to familiarize themselves with not only forensic pathology but also all aspects of veterinary forensic science. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Activation Analysis in Forensic Science. Survey Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jervis, R. E. [University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    1967-10-15

    Recently the unique features of the activation analysis method have been utilized to advantage to meet some specialized needs in the scientific investigation of crime. A review of the principal forensic activation analysis applications to biological materials to date indicates that they may be roughly classified as: (i) the detection and determination of residues of toxic materials in foodstuffs, human tissues, sera and excreta; (ii) the 'individualization' of hair, fibres, narcotics and drugs; and (iii) investigation of the transference of ballistic material to bone, cloth or paper. Analyses of these materials in some actual forensic investigations have been perfected to the point of acceptance in the law courts of several countries. Additional and broader areas of application are under development in a number of nuclear and forensic laboratories. (i) The determination of sub microgram quantities of phosphorus compounds, arsenic, mercury, selenium and thallium in specimens from post-mortem examinations and from living persons showing symptoms of toxicity has revealed certain ingestion of abnormal amount of toxic substances by comparison with similar specimens from healthy persons. In some cases, with tissues such as hair and nails, the time scale of the ingestion of arsenic or mercury has been revealed through the distribution of the deposited element with distance from the growing end or edge. (ii) A series of feasibility studies on the possibility of distinguishing similar materials through their characteristic trace-element patterns have resulted from observations of the wide range or variation in trace impurity content in specimens which come from different individuals or different natural sources. For example, extensive activation analyses for more than twenty elements in human head hair from many people have been carried out and a statistical analysis of the results indicate that activation hair comparisons in forensic investigations may be quite definitive

  8. Author Guidelines: The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences & Forensic Medicine

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Arab Journal of Forensic Sciences and Forensic Medicine (AJFSFM is a peer-reviewed, open access (CC BY-NC, international journal for publishing original contributions in various fields of forensic science. These fields include, but are not limited to forensic pathology and histochemistry, toxicology(drugs, alcohol, etc., forensic biology (serology, human DNA profiling, entomology, population genetics, forensic chemistry(inks, paints, dyes, explosives, fire accelerants, psychiatry and hypnotics, forensic anthropology and archeology, forensic odontology, fingerprints and impressions, firearms and tool marks, white collar crimes (counterfeit and forgery; questioned documents, digital forensics; cyber-crimes, criminal justice and crime scene investigation, as well as many other disciplines where science and medicine interact with the law.

  9. On the Development of Digital Forensics Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manghui Tu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Computer Crime and computer related incidents continue their prevalence and frequency and result in loss of billions of dollars. To fight against those crimes and frauds, it is urgent to develop digital forensics education programs to train a suitable workforce to efficiently and effectively investigate crimes and frauds. However, there is no standard to guide the design of digital forensics curriculum for an academic program. In this research, we investigate the research works on digital forensics curriculum design and existing education programs.  Both digital forensics educators and practitioners were surveyed and the results are analyzed to determine what industry and law enforcement need. Based on the survey results and what the industry certificate programs cover, we identified topics that are desired to be covered in digital forensics courses. Finally, we propose six digital forensics courses and their topics that can be offered in both undergraduate and graduate digital forensics programs.

  10. Research in forensic radiology and imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalders, M. C.; Adolphi, N. L.; Daly, B.

    2017-01-01

    of America, and the Netherlands Forensic Institute. During this meeting, an international and multidisciplinary panel of forensic scientists discussed the current state of science in forensic radiology, and drafted a research agenda to further advance the field. Four groups for further research focus were...... identified: big data and statistics, identification and biological profiling, multimodal imaging, and visualization and presentation. This paper describes each of these research topics and thereby hopes to contribute to the development of this exciting new field of forensic medical science.......This paper presents the outcome of the first international forensic radiology and imaging research summit, organized by the International Society of Forensic Radiology and Imaging, the International Association of Forensic Radiographers, the National Institute of Justice of the United States...

  11. A Positive Behavioral Approach for Aggression in Forensic Psychiatric Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolisano, Peter; Sondik, Tracey M; Dike, Charles C

    2017-03-01

    Aggression toward self and others by complex patients admitted to forensic psychiatric settings is a relatively common yet extremely difficult behavior to treat. Traditional interventions in forensic inpatient settings have historically emphasized control and management over treatment. Research over the past several years has demonstrated the value of behavioral and psychosocial treatment interventions to reduce aggression and to increase prosocial skill development in inpatient forensic population. Positive behavioral support (PBS) offers a comprehensive approach that incorporates the science of applied behavioral analysis (ABA) in support of patients with challenging behaviors, including aggression and violence. In this article, we describe a PBS model to treat aggression in forensic settings. PBS includes a comprehensive functional assessment, along with four basic elements: ecological strategies, positive programming, focused support strategies, and reactive strategies. Other key components are described, including data collection, staff training, fidelity checks to ensure correct implementation of the plan, and ongoing monitoring and revision of PBS strategies, according to treatment outcomes. Finally, a behavioral consultation team approach within the inpatient forensic setting is recommended, led by an assigned doctoral-level psychologist with specialized knowledge and training in behavioral methods. The behavioral consultation team works directly with the unit treatment team and the identified patient to develop, implement, and track a plan that may extend over several weeks to several months including transition into the community. PBS can offer a positive systemic impact in forensic inpatient settings, such as providing a nonpharmacologic means to address aggression, reducing the incidences of restraint and seclusion, enhancing staff proficiency in managing challenging patient presentations, and reducing recidivism when used as part of the bridge to

  12. Forensic Science in Support of Wildlife Conservation Efforts - Genetic Approaches (Global Trends).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linacre, A

    2011-01-01

    Wildlife forensic science is a relatively recent development to meet the increasing need of the criminal justice system where there are investigations in alleged transgressions of either international or national legislation. This application of science draws on conservation genetics and forensic geneticists from mainstream forensic science. This review is a broad overview of the history of forensic wildlife science and some of the recent developments in forensic wildlife genetics with the application of DNA developments to nonhuman samples encountered in a forensic science investigation. The review will move from methods to look at the entire genome, when there is no previous knowledge of the species studied, through methods of species identification, using DNA to determine a possible geographic origin, through to assigning samples to a particular individual or a close genetic relative of this individual. The transfer of research methods into the criminal justice system for the investigation of wildlife crimes has been largely successful as is illustrated in the review. The review concludes with comments on the need for standardization and regulation in wildlife forensic science. Copyright © 2011 Central Police University.

  13. Forensic trace DNA: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A.H. van Oorschot (Roland ); K. Ballantyne (Kaye); R.J. Mitchell (R. John)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractDNA analysis is frequently used to acquire information from biological material to aid enquiries associated with criminal offences, disaster victim identification and missing persons investigations. As the relevance and value of DNA profiling to forensic investigations has increased, so

  14. Peer review in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Kaye N; Edmond, Gary; Found, Bryan

    2017-08-01

    Peer review features prominently in the forensic sciences. Drawing on recent research and studies, this article examines different types of peer review, specifically: editorial peer review; peer review by the scientific community; technical and administrative review; and verification (and replication). The article reviews the different meanings of these quite disparate activities and their utility in relation to enhancing performance and reducing error. It explains how forensic practitioners should approach and use peer review, as well as how it should be described in expert reports and oral testimony. While peer review has considerable potential, and is a key component of modern quality management systems, its actual value in most forensic science settings has yet to be determined. In consequence, forensic practitioners should reflect on why they use specific review procedures and endeavour to make their actual practices and their potential value transparent to consumers; whether investigators, lawyers, jurors or judges. Claims that review increases the validity of a scientific technique or accuracy of opinions within a particular case should be avoided until empirical evidence is available to support such assertions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Forensic Palynology as Classroom Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Steven L.; Warny, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    This activity introduces the science of "forensic palynology": the use of microscopic pollen and spores (also called "palynomorphs") to solve criminal cases. Plants produce large amounts of pollen or spores during reproductive cycles. Because of their chemical resistance, small size, and morphology, pollen and spores can be…

  16. Genomic applications in forensic medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1980s, advances in DNA technology have revolutionized the scope and practice of forensic medicine. From the days of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) to short tandem repeats (STRs), the current focus is on the next generation genome sequencing. It has been almost a decad...

  17. Selection effects in forensic science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franx, G.J.; Gennip, van Yves; Hochs, P.; Nuyens, M.; Palla, L.; Quant, C.; Trapman, P.; Berg, van den J.B.; Bhulai, S.; Hulshof, J.; Koole, G.; Quant, C.; Williams, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    In this report we consider the following question: does a forensic expert need to know exactly how the evidential material was selected? We set up a few simple models of situations in which the way evidence is selected may influence its value in court. Although reality is far from a probabilistic

  18. Forensic nursing in secure environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    There are few well-designed studies of corrections or prison nursing roles. This study seeks to describe the corrections or prison role of forensic nurses in the United States who provide care in secure environments. National data detailing the scope of practice in secure environments are limited. This pencil and paper survey describes the roles of 180 forensic nurses from 14 states who work in secure environments. Descriptive statistics are utilized. A repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc analyses was implemented. These nurses were older than average in age, but had 10 years or less experience in forensic nursing practice. Two significant roles emerged to "promote and implement principles that underpin effective quality and practice" and to "assess, develop, implement, and improve programs of care for individuals." Significant roles varied based upon the security classification of the unit or institution in which the nurses were employed. Access to information about these nurses and their nursing practice was difficult in these closed systems. Minimal data are available nationally, indicating a need for collection of additional data over time to examine changes in role. It is through such developments that forensic nursing provided in secure environments will define its specialization and attract the attention it deserves.

  19. Learning iOS forensics

    CERN Document Server

    Epifani, Mattia

    2015-01-01

    If you are a digital forensics examiner daily involved in the acquisition and analysis of mobile devices and want to have a complete overview of how to perform your work on iOS devices, this book is definitely for you.

  20. The Clinical, Forensic and Treatment Outcome Factors of Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder Treated in a Forensic Intellectual Disability Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esan, Fola; Chester, Verity; Gunaratna, Ignatius J.; Hoare, Sudeep; Alexander, Regi T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: To describe the characteristics of those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) treated within a forensic intellectual disability hospital and to compare them with those without ASD. Method: Service evaluation of a cohort of 138 patients treated over a 6-year period. Results: Of the 138, 42 had an ASD. Personality disorders and harmful…