Sample records for microarchitectural design space

  1. Design of Processors with Reconfigurable Microarchitecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Mokhov


    Full Text Available Energy becomes a dominating factor for a wide spectrum of computations: from intensive data processing in “big data” companies resulting in large electricity bills, to infrastructure monitoring with wireless sensors relying on energy harvesting. In this context it is essential for a computation system to be adaptable to the power supply and the service demand, which often vary dramatically during runtime. In this paper we present an approach to building processors with reconfigurable microarchitecture capable of changing the way they fetch and execute instructions depending on energy availability and application requirements. We show how to use Conditional Partial Order Graphs to formally specify the microarchitecture of such a processor, explore the design possibilities for its instruction set, and synthesise the instruction decoder using correct-by-construction techniques. The paper is focused on the design methodology, which is evaluated by implementing a power-proportional version of Intel 8051 microprocessor.

  2. DENA: A Configurable Microarchitecture and Design Flow for Biomedical DNA-Based Logic Design. (United States)

    Beiki, Zohre; Jahanian, Ali


    DNA is known as the building block for storing the life codes and transferring the genetic features through the generations. However, it is found that DNA strands can be used for a new type of computation that opens fascinating horizons in computational medicine. Significant contributions are addressed on design of DNA-based logic gates for medical and computational applications but there are serious challenges for designing the medium and large-scale DNA circuits. In this paper, a new microarchitecture and corresponding design flow is proposed to facilitate the design of multistage large-scale DNA logic systems. Feasibility and efficiency of the proposed microarchitecture are evaluated by implementing a full adder and, then, its cascadability is determined by implementing a multistage 8-bit adder. Simulation results show the highlight features of the proposed design style and microarchitecture in terms of the scalability, implementation cost, and signal integrity of the DNA-based logic system compared to the traditional approaches.

  3. Shape-morphing composites with designed micro-architectures. (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jennifer N; Zhu, Cheng; Duoss, Eric B; Wilson, Thomas S; Spadaccini, Christopher M; Lewicki, James P


    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are attractive materials due to their unique mechanical properties, including high deformation capacity and shape recovery. SMPs are easier to process, lightweight, and inexpensive compared to their metallic counterparts, shape memory alloys. However, SMPs are limited to relatively small form factors due to their low recovery stresses. Lightweight, micro-architected composite SMPs may overcome these size limitations and offer the ability to combine functional properties (e.g., electrical conductivity) with shape memory behavior. Fabrication of 3D SMP thermoset structures via traditional manufacturing methods is challenging, especially for designs that are composed of multiple materials within porous microarchitectures designed for specific shape change strategies, e.g. sequential shape recovery. We report thermoset SMP composite inks containing some materials from renewable resources that can be 3D printed into complex, multi-material architectures that exhibit programmable shape changes with temperature and time. Through addition of fiber-based fillers, we demonstrate printing of electrically conductive SMPs where multiple shape states may induce functional changes in a device and that shape changes can be actuated via heating of printed composites. The ability of SMPs to recover their original shapes will be advantageous for a broad range of applications, including medical, aerospace, and robotic devices.

  4. Design spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Digital technologies and media are becoming increasingly embodied and entangled in the spaces and places at work and at home. However, our material environment is more than a geometric abstractions of space: it contains familiar places, social arenas for human action. For designers, the integration...... of digital technology with space poses new challenges that call for new approaches. Creative alternatives to traditional systems methodologies are called for when designers use digital media to create new possibilities for action in space. Design Spaces explores how design and media art can provide creative...... alternatives for integrating digital technology with space. Connecting practical design work with conceptual development and theorizing, art with technology, and usesr-centered methods with social sciences, Design Spaces provides a useful research paradigm for designing ubiquitous computing. This book...

  5. A microarchitecture for resource-limited superscalar microprocessors (United States)

    Basso, Todd David


    Microelectronic components in space and satellite systems must be resistant to total dose radiation, single-even upset, and latchup in order to accomplish their missions. The demand for inexpensive, high-volume, radiation hardened (rad-hard) integrated circuits (ICs) is expected to increase dramatically as the communication market continues to expand. Motorola's Complementary Gallium Arsenide (CGaAsTM) technology offers superior radiation tolerance compared to traditional CMOS processes, while being more economical than dedicated rad-hard CMOS processes. The goals of this dissertation are to optimize a superscalar microarchitecture suitable for CGaAsTM microprocessors, develop circuit techniques for such applications, and evaluate the potential of CGaAsTM for the development of digital VLSI circuits. Motorola's 0.5 mum CGaAsTM process is summarized and circuit techniques applicable to digital CGaAsTM are developed. Direct coupled FET, complementary, and domino logic circuits are compared based on speed, power, area, and noise margins. These circuit techniques are employed in the design of a 600 MHz PowerPCTM arithmetic logic unit. The dissertation emphasizes CGaASTM-specific design considerations, specifically, low integration level. A baseline superscalar microarchitecture is defined and SPEC95 integer benchmark simulations are used to evaluate the applicability of advanced architectural features to microprocessors having low integration levels. The performance simulations center around the optimization of a simple superscalar core, small-scale branch prediction, instruction prefetching, and an off-chip primary data cache. The simulation results are used to develop a superscalar microarchitecture capable of outperforming a comparable sequential pipeline, while using only 500,000 transistors. The architecture, running at 200 MHz, is capable of achieving an estimated 153 MIPS, translating to a 27% performance increase over a comparable traditional pipelined

  6. Learning Space Service Design (United States)

    Felix, Elliot


    Much progress has been made in creating informal learning spaces that incorporate technology and flexibly support a variety of activities. This progress has been principally in designing the right combination of furniture, technology, and space. However, colleges and universities do not design services within learning spaces with nearly the same…

  7. Learning Space Service Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Felix


    Full Text Available Much progress has been made in creating informal learning spaces that incorporate technology and flexibly support a variety of activities. This progress has been principally in designing the right combination of furniture, technology, and space. However, colleges and universities do not design services within learning spaces with nearly the same level of sophistication or integration. Nor do they adequately assess their services. This paper calls for a focus on designing services to facilitate better learning experiences. It describes the fundamentals of service design practice, a selection of exemplary spaces, and the implications for design, budgeting, and staffing.

  8. Space Station galley design (United States)

    Trabanino, Rudy; Murphy, George L.; Yakut, M. M.


    An Advanced Food Hardware System galley for the initial operating capability (IOC) Space Station is discussed. Space Station will employ food hardware items that have never been flown in space, such as a dishwasher, microwave oven, blender/mixer, bulk food and beverage dispensers, automated food inventory management, a trash compactor, and an advanced technology refrigerator/freezer. These new technologies and designs are described and the trades, design, development, and testing associated with each are summarized.

  9. Temporary Design Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe


    For more than 40 years designers, researchers and engineers have used prototypes and other types of materiality to involve a great number of diverse actors in co-design processes. Researchers such as Blanco, Boujout, Vinck and Jeantet (Blanco & Boujut, 2003; Vinck & Jeantet, 1995) has promoted...... the concept of intermediary objects focusing on direct interactions centred around prototypes. However, not on-ly the prototype foster production and translation of knowledge in design processes, which is why this article introduces the concept of intermediary spaces to broaden the perspective. Intermediary...... spaces offer a framework for analysing design pro-cesses and following the translation and navigation of knowledge and actors from one space to the next. The framework can be used analytically to follow the translation and transformation of knowledge and actors and practically for designers to stage...

  10. Software-based Microarchitectural Attacks


    Gruss, Daniel


    Modern processors are highly optimized systems where every single cycle of computation time matters. Many optimizations depend on the data that is being processed. Software-based microarchitectural attacks exploit effects of these optimizations. Microarchitectural side-channel attacks leak secrets from cryptographic computations, from general purpose computations, or from the kernel. This leakage even persists across all common isolation boundaries, such as processes, containers, and virtual ...

  11. The Design Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heape, Chris

    was to also understand what was meaningful to the students in their process of designing, a hermeneutic phenomenological research perspective was also adopted throughout this study, where human actions and language are considered as expressions of meaning in the context within which they occur. From......, the one effecting the other. As much as the processes of construction, exploration and expansion of a Design Space can be described in general terms as social and as design activities, it also emerged that there are a number of interrelated processes, sensibilities and skills in constant transaction...... the shifting flow of adjustments and perspectives necessary to relate to the ongoing contingency of a design task. From these interweavings a design proposal is gradually pulled to the fore as an emergent composition, a figure of parts that is directly related to the structure and ground of a Design Space...

  12. Design of Game Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Erik


    Playing games of any kind, from tennis to board games, it is easy to notice that games are configured in space, often using stripes or a kind of map on a board. Some games are clearly performed within this marked border, while it may be difficult to pinpoint such a visual border in a game like hide....... This makes sense, but also demands that play and non-play can be easily separated. I will examine how games make use of space, and show that the magic circle not only is a viable, though criticized, concept but should be understood as a spatial concept. In order to do this several games are examined, leading...... to introduce a spatial model of the game performance comprising a primary and secondary game space. I will show how new game genres can profit from using this model when designing new games....

  13. Space Station Engineering Design Issues (United States)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Boehm, Barry W.; Debra, Daniel B.; Green, C. Cordell; Henry, Richard C.; Maycock, Paul D.; Mcelroy, John H.; Pierce, Chester M.; Stafford, Thomas P.; Young, Laurence R.


    Space Station Freedom topics addressed include: general design issues; issues related to utilization and operations; issues related to systems requirements and design; and management issues relevant to design.

  14. Interaction Design for Public Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortbek, Karen Johanne


    In this abstract I describe the doctorial research project "Interaction Design for Public Spaces". The objective of the project is to explore and design interaction contexts in culture related public spaces such as museums, experience centres and festivals. As a perspective on this domain, I...... will focus on the usage of the body as an interaction device. Furthermore, the project will involve a dramaturgic take on communication and design of interactive systems in the pursuit of new ways to stage the interactive contexts. The outcome of the project will be guidelines and conceptual frameworks which...... will help interaction designers when designing for bodily movement, and communicating and staging interactive content in public spaces....

  15. Designing New Learning Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus


    We are moving towards new learning spaces merging the digital and the physical world. Real world objects get augmented by information streams and real world activities are measured with sensor technology to be reviewed afterwards or in real time. A variety of links is currently created to link

  16. Designing Inclusive Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colfelt, Solvej


    CWUAAT -6.TH CAMBRIDGE WORKSHOP – 2012 Designing inclusive systems for real-world applications Abstracht: Denmark has planned huge investments in development in healthcare systems. Nearly 50 billion danish krones has been set aside on the stately budget for this purpose to be spent over the next 10...... in existing hospital complexes only half the size of these new ones is already recognized as a big problem: How can we avoid the wayfinding-problem of the new complexes to grow to the double with the doubling of the complex size ? What kind of design application can improve the accessibility of future...

  17. Designing Inclusive Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colfelt, Solvej


    CWUAAT -6.TH CAMBRIDGE WORKSHOP – 2012 Designing inclusive systems for real-world applications Abstracht: Denmark has planned huge investments in development in healthcare systems. Nearly 50 billion danish krones has been set aside on the stately budget for this purpose to be spent over the next 10...... hospital complexes ? The article will explore the fundament of wayshowing on the basis of prior research as well as on the basis of the results of a case study in a large existing danish hospital complex. The result points to signage being an inevitable factor but also that it is a factor that is not very...

  18. Requirements for Space Settlement Design (United States)

    Gale, Anita E.; Edwards, Richard P.


    When large space settlements are finally built, inevitably the customers who pay for them will start the process by specifying requirements with a Request for Proposal (RFP). Although we are decades away from seeing the first of these documents, some of their contents can be anticipated now, and provide insight into the variety of elements that must be researched and developed before space settlements can happen. Space Settlement Design Competitions for High School students present design challenges in the form of RFPs, which predict basic requirements for space settlement attributes in the future, including structural features, infrastructure, living conveniences, computers, business areas, and safety. These requirements are generically summarized, and unique requirements are noted for specific space settlement locations and applications.

  19. Expanding the Game Design Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel; Majgaard, Gunver


    This article considers game design research in educational settings. Its focus is on how undergraduate students – particularly engineering students – learn computer game design. From observations conducted during our game design courses we have developed a model of expanded game design space...... layer establishes correspondence between formal elements of computer games and the structure of problem-based creativity. It addresses how game design challenges should be formulated and how creative solutions can be measured. The fourth and final layer demonstrates how clear framing can act....... It encapsulates the entire development process from the first ideas to the final game with emphasis on game design thinking. Our model of expanded game design space consists of four separate – yet interconnected – layers in the process of game development. The first layer addresses the importance of framing...

  20. The Information Infrastructures Design Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Rapti, Charikleia; Jensen, Thomas


    This paper develops a framework for characterising the design space of Information Infrastructures (IIs). Existing research has generally sought to unravel the convergent characteristics and mechanisms uniting IIs across a wide range of manifestations. In this research, we explore this divergence...... within the II design space. We do so by reviewing the II literature, focusing on the two domains of design situation and design resolution. Design situation refers to the relevant dimensions of the context in which an II is employed. Design resolution covers the dimensions along which the socio......-technical constituents can be assembled to form an effective solution. The resulting framework allows for the comparing and contrasting of II initiatives, and contributes towards a cumulative knowledge process aimed at a more refined understanding of how an II can be configured to address the specific problem at hand....

  1. Space reactor preliminary mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, K.L.


    An analysis was performed on the SABRE reactor space power system to determine the effect of the number and size of heat pipes on the design parameters of the nuclear subsystem. Small numbers of thin walled heat pipes were found to give a lower subsystem mass, but excessive fuel swelling resulted. The SP-100 preliminary design uses 120 heat pipes because of acceptable fuel swelling and a minimum nuclear subsystem mass of 1875 kg. Salient features of the reactor preliminary design are: individual fuel modules, ZrO 2 block core mounts, bolted collar fuel module restraints, and a BeO central plug

  2. Design course in space astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, A J; Perez-Fournon, I


    The aim of this course is to provide direct experience of collaboration with other European astronomy/space science students and to gain an insight into the establishment of ESA space science programmes. The first half of the course takes place in Southampton. The Southampton students work as a team to track a past ESA space science mission from initial conception through to final realization and operations. This is achieved through the study of the high quality documentation available in the form of ESA reports. Each student has well defined responsibilities within the team. The second half of the course takes place in Tenerife, at the University of La Laguna. Again the students are expected to complete a team study of a space science mission. This time, however, there are important differences: the study teams are now international, approximately half Southampton and half University of La Laguna students; and this time they are expected to design a completely new space astronomy mission with clearly specified scientific objectives and operational constraints

  3. Constructive approaches to the space NPP designing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremin, A.G.; Korobkov, L.S.; Matveev, A.V.; Trukhanov, Yu.L.; Pyshko, A.P.


    An example of designing a space NPP intended for power supply of telecommunication satellite is considered. It is shown that the designing approach based on the introduction of a leading criterion and dividing the design problems in two independent groups (reactor with radiation shield and equipment module) permits to develop the optimal design of a space NPP [ru

  4. Lost in Space: Designing for Learning (United States)

    La Marca, Susan


    The design of a learning space, and the many factors that come together to create that space, impact on how we feel and behave in that space and ultimately how we learn. This paper will discuss the importance of mission statements, policy and planning in light of how we create spaces that are learning-driven, human-centred and flexible. Of…

  5. Worship space acoustics 3 decades of design

    CERN Document Server

    Ryherd, Erica; Ronsse, Lauren


    This book takes the reader on a wide-ranging tour through churches, synagogues, mosques, and other worship spaces designed during the past 30 years. The book begins with a series of essays on topics ranging from the soundscape of worship spaces to ecclesiastical design at the turn of the 21st Century. Perspective pieces from an architect, audio designer, music director, and worship space owner are also included. The core of the book presents the acoustical and architectural design of a wide variety of individual worship space venues. Acoustical consulting firms, architects, and worship space designers from across the world contributed their recent innovative works in the area of worship space acoustics. The contributions include detailed renderings and architectural drawings, as well as informative acoustic data graphs and evocative descriptions of the spaces. Filled with beautiful photography and fascinating modern design, this book is a must-read for anyone interested in religious architecture, acoustical d...

  6. Enabling Rapid Naval Architecture Design Space Exploration (United States)

    Mueller, Michael A.; Dufresne, Stephane; Balestrini-Robinson, Santiago; Mavris, Dimitri


    Well accepted conceptual ship design tools can be used to explore a design space, but more precise results can be found using detailed models in full-feature computer aided design programs. However, defining a detailed model can be a time intensive task and hence there is an incentive for time sensitive projects to use conceptual design tools to explore the design space. In this project, the combination of advanced aerospace systems design methods and an accepted conceptual design tool facilitates the creation of a tool that enables the user to not only visualize ship geometry but also determine design feasibility and estimate the performance of a design.

  7. Designing informal learning spaces using student perspectives


    Matthew David Riddle; Kay Souter


    This article describes the design of informal learning spaces at an Australian university that support students in the generation of knowledge. Recent learning space design projects at La Trobe have been informed by a number of pre-existing projects, including a small research project on student use of technologies, a national project on learning space design, and a significant curriculum renewal process at the university. It demonstrates the ways in which evidence based on student perspectiv...

  8. Designing informal learning spaces using student perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew David Riddle


    Full Text Available This article describes the design of informal learning spaces at an Australian university that support students in the generation of knowledge. Recent learning space design projects at La Trobe have been informed by a number of pre-existing projects, including a small research project on student use of technologies, a national project on learning space design, and a significant curriculum renewal process at the university. It demonstrates the ways in which evidence based on student perspectives and principles developed through applied research in teaching and learning can inform real world learning space design projects in a higher education context.

  9. The Space House TM : Space Technologies in Architectural Design (United States)

    Gampe, F.; Raitt, D.


    The word "space" has always been associated with and had a profound impact upon architectural design. Until relatively recently, however, the term has been used in a different sense to that understood by the aerospace community - for them, space was less abstract, more concrete and used in the context of space flight and space exploration, rather than, say, an empty area or space requiring to be filled by furniture. However, the two senses of the word space have now converged to some extent. Interior designers and architects have been involved in designing the interior of Skylab, the structure of the International Space Station, and futuristic space hotels. Today, architects are designing, and builders are building, houses, offices and other structures which incorporate a plethora of new technologies, materials and production processes in an effort not only to introduce innovative and adventurous ideas but also in an attempt to address environmental and social issues. Foremost among these new technologies and materials being considered today are those that have been developed for and by the space industry. This paper examines some of these space technologies, such as energy efficient solar cells, durable plastics, air and water filtration techniques, which have been adapted to both provide power while reducing energy consumption, conserve resources and so on. Several of these technologies have now been employed by the European Space Agency to develop a Space House TM - the first of its kind, which will be deployed not so much on planets like Mars, but rather here on Earth. The Space House TM, which exhibits many innovative features such as high strength light-weight carbon composites, active noise-damped, (glass and plastic) windows, low-cost solar arrays and latent heat storage, air and water purification systems will be described.

  10. Long range node-strut analysis of trabecular bone microarchitecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmah, Tanya; Marwan, Norbert; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus


    PURPOSE: We present a new morphometric measure of trabecular bone microarchitecture, called mean node strength (NdStr), which is part of a newly developed approach called long range node-strut analysis. Our general aim is to describe and quantify the apparent "latticelike" microarchitecture of th...

  11. Design spaces in the making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binder, Thomas; Hellström, Maria


    to an increasing extent have to face challenges of the conventional conceiption of design as "a means to convey symbolic meaning through physical form". The "designer" is nog longer the outstanding, creative individual bringing artifacts into the world, but rather a member of a collaborative design team engaging...... will emerge. Whether taking the form of an almost canned experience - as in amusement parks or densely narrated fashion sportswear - or providing for endless interpretations and re-configurations - as in mobile phones or open-source software packages, the design itself becomes yet more open...

  12. The Personal Health Technology Design Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Frost, Mads


    . To enable designers to make informed and well-articulated design decision, the authors propose a design space for personal health technologies. This space consists of 10 dimensions related to the design of data sampling strategies, visualization and feedback approaches, treatment models, and regulatory......Interest is increasing in personal health technologies that utilize mobile platforms for improved health and well-being. However, although a wide variety of these systems exist, each is designed quite differently and materializes many different and more or less explicit design assumptions...

  13. Designing the robot inclusive space challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Elara Mohan


    Full Text Available A novel robotic challenge, namely the robot inclusive spaces (RIS challenge, is proposed in this paper, which is a cross disciplinary and design focused initiative. It aims to foster the roboticists, architects, and designers towards realizing robot friendly social spaces. Contrary to conventional robotics competitions focusing on designing robots and its component technologies, robot inclusive spaces challenge adopts an interdisciplinary “design for robots” strategy to overcome the traditional research problem in real world deployments of social robots. In order to realize the RIS, various architectural elements must be adapted including: design principles for inclusive spaces, lighting schemes, furniture choices and arrangement, wall and floor surfaces, pathways among others. This paper introduces the format and design principles of RIS challenge, presents a first run of the challenge, and gives the corresponding analysis.

  14. A design space of visualization tasks. (United States)

    Schulz, Hans-Jörg; Nocke, Thomas; Heitzler, Magnus; Schumann, Heidrun


    Knowledge about visualization tasks plays an important role in choosing or building suitable visual representations to pursue them. Yet, tasks are a multi-faceted concept and it is thus not surprising that the many existing task taxonomies and models all describe different aspects of tasks, depending on what these task descriptions aim to capture. This results in a clear need to bring these different aspects together under the common hood of a general design space of visualization tasks, which we propose in this paper. Our design space consists of five design dimensions that characterize the main aspects of tasks and that have so far been distributed across different task descriptions. We exemplify its concrete use by applying our design space in the domain of climate impact research. To this end, we propose interfaces to our design space for different user roles (developers, authors, and end users) that allow users of different levels of expertise to work with it.

  15. Integrated design for space transportation system

    CERN Document Server

    Suresh, B N


    The book addresses the overall integrated design aspects of a space transportation system involving several disciplines like propulsion, vehicle structures, aerodynamics, flight mechanics, navigation, guidance and control systems, stage auxiliary systems, thermal systems etc. and discusses the system approach for design, trade off analysis, system life cycle considerations, important aspects in mission management, the risk assessment, etc. There are several books authored to describe the design aspects of various areas, viz., propulsion, aerodynamics, structures, control, etc., but there is no book which presents space transportation system (STS) design in an integrated manner. This book attempts to fill this gap by addressing systems approach for STS design, highlighting the integrated design aspects, interactions between various subsystems and interdependencies. The main focus is towards the complex integrated design to arrive at an optimum, robust and cost effective space transportation system. The orbit...

  16. Design of Urban Public Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort, Mikkel; Martin, W Mike; Stewart, Tom


    knowledge, and that expert knowledge was chosen randomly. These findings point to a systematic lack of evidence-based practice when designing sport and recreational facilities. This article has implications for landscape architects and urban planners; a new method must be developed to embed...

  17. Translating material and design space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Joseffson, Kristoffer


    This paper shares findings from the project DevA (Developable surfaces in Architecture), a research by design based project developed a collaboration between academic and industry partners. The project aims to investigate the use of curved sheet material in architecture using hybridised 3D...

  18. An Argument for Design Space Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dove, Graham; Halskov, Kim; Hansen, Nicolai Brodersen


    We argue that documenting, revisiting and reflecting on the design space of a project provides three important benefits. First it increases our awareness of the constraints introduced by particular design choices. Second, this qualifies our understanding of the way a design space has been filtered...... by design activities. Third we are prompted to challenge these constraints and reconsider disregarded opportunities. To support this argument, we revisit key activities from two projects in our interaction design lab’s portfolio, selected because of the detailed documentation available. We also introduce...... SnapShot, the web-based tool we are developing for this method of design space reflection. Based on these examples, we present a critical discussion and outline areas of future research....

  19. Cloud Computing Techniques for Space Mission Design (United States)

    Arrieta, Juan; Senent, Juan


    The overarching objective of space mission design is to tackle complex problems producing better results, and faster. In developing the methods and tools to fulfill this objective, the user interacts with the different layers of a computing system.

  20. Blended Interaction Spaces for Collaborative Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Peter; Halskov, Kim; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted

    During the past five years, we have explored the use, potentials and challenges of Blended Interaction spaces. In addition, we have a long background in developing and exploring methods for collaborative design. In this workshop paper, we give an overview of our work and present our visions...... and ongoing research in developing Blended Interaction spaces for collaborative design. We then identify key themes and challenges pertinent for the workshop....

  1. Structural optimization via a design space hierarchy (United States)

    Vanderplaats, G. N.


    Mathematical programming techniques provide a general approach to automated structural design. An iterative method is proposed in which design is treated as a hierarchy of subproblems, one being locally constrained and the other being locally unconstrained. It is assumed that the design space is locally convex in the case of good initial designs and that the objective and constraint functions are continuous, with continuous first derivatives. A general design algorithm is outlined for finding a move direction which will decrease the value of the objective function while maintaining a feasible design. The case of one-dimensional search in a two-variable design space is discussed. Possible applications are discussed. A major feature of the proposed algorithm is its application to problems which are inherently ill-conditioned, such as design of structures for optimum geometry.

  2. Cache timing attacks on recent microarchitectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreou, Alexandres; Bogdanov, Andrey; Tischhauser, Elmar Wolfgang


    Cache timing attacks have been known for a long time, however since the rise of cloud computing and shared hardware resources, such attacks found new potentially devastating applications. One prominent example is S$A (presented by Irazoqui et al at S&P 2015) which is a cache timing attack against...... AES or similar algorithms in virtualized environments. This paper applies variants of this cache timing attack to Intel's latest generation of microprocessors. It enables a spy-process to recover cryptographic keys, interacting with the victim processes only over TCP. The threat model is a logically...... separated but CPU co-located attacker with root privileges. We report successful and practically verified applications of this attack against a wide range of microarchitectures, from a two-core Nehalem processor (i5-650) to two-core Haswell (i7-4600M) and four-core Skylake processors (i7-6700). The attack...

  3. Space in Space: Designing for Privacy in the Workplace (United States)

    Akin, Jonie


    Privacy is cultural, socially embedded in the spatial, temporal, and material aspects of the lived experience. Definitions of privacy are as varied among scholars as they are among those who fight for their personal rights in the home and the workplace. Privacy in the workplace has become a topic of interest in recent years, as evident in discussions on Big Data as well as the shrinking office spaces in which people work. An article in The New York Times published in February of this year noted that "many companies are looking to cut costs, and one way to do that is by trimming personal space". Increasingly, organizations ranging from tech start-ups to large corporations are downsizing square footage and opting for open-office floorplans hoping to trim the budget and spark creative, productive communication among their employees. The question of how much is too much to trim when it comes to privacy, is one that is being actively addressed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as they explore habitat designs for future space missions. NASA recognizes privacy as a design-related stressor impacting human health and performance. Given the challenges of sustaining life in an isolated, confined, and extreme environment such as Mars, NASA deems it necessary to determine the acceptable minimal amount for habitable volume for activities requiring at least some level of privacy in order to support optimal crew performance. Ethnographic research was conducted in 2013 to explore perceptions of privacy and privacy needs among astronauts living and working in space as part of a long-distance, long-duration mission. The allocation of space, or habitable volume, becomes an increasingly complex issue in outer space due to the costs associated with maintaining an artificial, confined environment bounded by limitations of mass while located in an extreme environment. Privacy in space, or space in space, provides a unique case study of the complex notions of

  4. Post Millennium Urban Space Design in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    Hans Kiib Post Millennium Urban Space Design in Denmark - a survey on 100 Danish projects from 2002 – 2010. This article is based on an evaluation of 100 Danish open space projects form 2000 – 2010. The projects was initially proposals from Danish municipalities for the Campaign on Better Open...... Spaces (Bedre Byrums Kampagne) run by Realdania stating in 2002. These projects are all proposed just after 2002. Based on the quality of the projects including the goals for the proposal, the quality of the proposed design, and finally to what extent the projects contributed to new concepts...... and perspectives in open space design, 24 proposals were selected for further development. These projects were developed in the period from 2003 – 2007 with support from consultants. The evaluation has been carried out in 2011. It categorizes the initial 100 projects in relation to location, goals, concepts, scale...

  5. Design methodology and projects for space engineering (United States)

    Nichols, S.; Kleespies, H.; Wood, K.; Crawford, R.


    NASA/USRA is an ongoing sponsor of space design projects in the senior design course of the Mechanical Engineering Department at The University of Texas at Austin. This paper describes the UT senior design sequence, consisting of a design methodology course and a capstone design course. The philosophical basis of this sequence is briefly summarized. A history of the Department's activities in the Advanced Design Program is then presented. The paper concludes with a description of the projects completed during the 1991-92 academic year and the ongoing projects for the Fall 1992 semester.

  6. Three-dimensional Microarchitecture of Adolescent Cancellous Bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Hvid, I; Overgaard, Søren

    regarding three-dimensional (3-D) microarchitecture of normal adolescent cancellous bone. The objective of this study was to investigate 3-D microarchitecture of normal adolescent cancellous bone, and compared them with adult cancellous bone, thus seeking more insight into the subchondral bone adaptations...... of lateral condyle in the young adult. There were no statistical significances in the mechanical properties apart from the Young’s modulus of adolescent in anterior-posterior direction was significantly lower than the other groups. DISCUSSION: This is the first study on the 3-D microarchitecture of human......, Switzerland) resulting in cubic voxel sizes of 10*10*10 m3. Microarchitectural properties were calculated, and the mean values for either tibia, medial or lateral condyle were used in analyses. Furthermore, the samples were first tested non-destructively in compression in antero-posterior (AP) and medial...

  7. Urban public space materials. Maintenance and design?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Iglesias Campos


    Full Text Available In this paper, certain aspects related to the conservation of materials commonly used in the design of public spaces are analysed and discussed from a starting point of maintenance definition. The main area of discussion is whether materials selection for pavements and urban furniture, and their placement in the designed space, take into account their maintenance needs. Here the definition of maintenance is the cleaning and repair done by municipal services that is always necessary after construction. From certain examples it can be concluded that, in several cases, the form, the organization and the distribution of the different elements within the public space can cause difficulties for its appropriate conservation, giving rise to alterations and consequently having a negative impact on the durability of this space.

  8. Analytical Tools for Space Suit Design (United States)

    Aitchison, Lindsay


    As indicated by the implementation of multiple small project teams within the agency, NASA is adopting a lean approach to hardware development that emphasizes quick product realization and rapid response to shifting program and agency goals. Over the past two decades, space suit design has been evolutionary in approach with emphasis on building prototypes then testing with the largest practical range of subjects possible. The results of these efforts show continuous improvement but make scaled design and performance predictions almost impossible with limited budgets and little time. Thus, in an effort to start changing the way NASA approaches space suit design and analysis, the Advanced Space Suit group has initiated the development of an integrated design and analysis tool. It is a multi-year-if not decadal-development effort that, when fully implemented, is envisioned to generate analysis of any given space suit architecture or, conversely, predictions of ideal space suit architectures given specific mission parameters. The master tool will exchange information to and from a set of five sub-tool groups in order to generate the desired output. The basic functions of each sub-tool group, the initial relationships between the sub-tools, and a comparison to state of the art software and tools are discussed.

  9. Innovation in Deep Space Habitat Interior Design: Lessons Learned From Small Space Design in Terrestrial Architecture (United States)

    Simon, Matthew A.; Toups, Larry


    Increased public awareness of carbon footprints, crowding in urban areas, and rising housing costs have spawned a 'small house movement' in the housing industry. Members of this movement desire small, yet highly functional residences which are both affordable and sensitive to consumer comfort standards. In order to create comfortable, minimum-volume interiors, recent advances have been made in furniture design and approaches to interior layout that improve both space utilization and encourage multi-functional design for small homes, apartments, naval, and recreational vehicles. Design efforts in this evolving niche of terrestrial architecture can provide useful insights leading to innovation and efficiency in the design of space habitats for future human space exploration missions. This paper highlights many of the cross-cutting architectural solutions used in small space design which are applicable to the spacecraft interior design problem. Specific solutions discussed include reconfigurable, multi-purpose spaces; collapsible or transformable furniture; multi-purpose accommodations; efficient, space saving appliances; stowable and mobile workstations; and the miniaturization of electronics and computing hardware. For each of these design features, descriptions of how they save interior volume or mitigate other small space issues such as confinement stress or crowding are discussed. Finally, recommendations are provided to provide guidance for future designs and identify potential collaborations with the small spaces design community.

  10. Biomedical engineering strategies in system design space. (United States)

    Savageau, Michael A


    Modern systems biology and synthetic bioengineering face two major challenges in relating properties of the genetic components of a natural or engineered system to its integrated behavior. The first is the fundamental unsolved problem of relating the digital representation of the genotype to the analog representation of the parameters for the molecular components. For example, knowing the DNA sequence does not allow one to determine the kinetic parameters of an enzyme. The second is the fundamental unsolved problem of relating the parameters of the components and the environment to the phenotype of the global system. For example, knowing the parameters does not tell one how many qualitatively distinct phenotypes are in the organism's repertoire or the relative fitness of the phenotypes in different environments. These also are challenges for biomedical engineers as they attempt to develop therapeutic strategies to treat pathology or to redirect normal cellular functions for biotechnological purposes. In this article, the second of these fundamental challenges will be addressed, and the notion of a "system design space" for relating the parameter space of components to the phenotype space of bioengineering systems will be focused upon. First, the concept of a system design space will be motivated by introducing one of its key components from an intuitive perspective. Second, a simple linear example will be used to illustrate a generic method for constructing the design space in which qualitatively distinct phenotypes can be identified and counted, their fitness analyzed and compared, and their tolerance to change measured. Third, two examples of nonlinear systems from different areas of biomedical engineering will be presented. Finally, after giving reference to a few other applications that have made use of the system design space approach to reveal important design principles, some concluding remarks concerning challenges and opportunities for further development

  11. Space station interior design: Results of the NASA/AIA space station interior national design competition (United States)

    Haines, R. F.


    The results of the NASA/AIA space station interior national design competition held during 1971 are presented in order to make available to those who work in the architectural, engineering, and interior design fields the results of this design activity in which the interiors of several space shuttle size modules were designed for optimal habitability. Each design entry also includes a final configuration of all modules into a complete space station. A brief history of the competition is presented with the competition guidelines and constraints. The first place award entry is presented in detail, and specific features from other selected designs are discussed. This is followed by a discussion of how some of these design features might be applied to terrestrial as well as space situations.

  12. Space shuttle booster separation motor design (United States)

    Smith, G. W.; Chase, C. A.


    The separation characteristics of the space shuttle solid rocket boosters (SRBs) are introduced along with the system level requirements for the booster separation motors (BSMs). These system requirements are then translated into specific motor requirements that control the design of the BSM. Each motor component is discussed including its geometry, material selection, and fabrication process. Also discussed is the propellant selection, grain design, and performance capabilities of the motor. The upcoming test program to develop and qualify the motor is outlined.

  13. Modelization of three-dimensional bone micro-architecture using Markov random fields with a multi-level clique system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamotte, T.; Dinten, J.M.; Peyrin, F.


    Imaging trabecular bone micro-architecture in vivo non-invasively is still a challenging issue due to the complexity and small size of the structure. Thus, having a realistic 3D model of bone micro-architecture could be useful in image segmentation or image reconstruction. The goal of this work was to develop a 3D model of trabecular bone micro-architecture which can be seen as a problem of texture synthesis. We investigated a statistical model based on 3D Markov Random Fields (MRF's). Due to the Hammersley-Clifford theorem MRF's may equivalently be defined by an energy function on some set of cliques. In order to model 3D binary bone texture images (bone / background), we first used a particular well-known subclass of MRFs: the Ising model. The local energy function at some voxel depends on the closest neighbors of the voxels and on some parameters which control the shape and the proportion of bone. However, simulations yielded textures organized as connected clusters which even when varying the parameters did not approach the complexity of bone micro-architecture. Then, we introduced a second level of cliques taking into account neighbors located at some distance d from the site s and a new set of cliques allowing to control the plate thickness and spacing. The 3D bone texture images generated using the proposed model were analyzed using the usual bone-architecture quantification tools in order to relate the parameters of the MRF model to the characteristic parameters of bone micro-architecture (trabecular spacing, trabecular thickness, number of trabeculae...). (authors)

  14. Universal design of public open spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Krajner


    Full Text Available Urban open spaces are public places that must assure access for all users. They should be designed for equal use despite disabilities and special recreational needs. Their design must be functional and must meet user’s special requirements, either everyday functional or special (recreational needs. It is not just about overcoming architectural obstacles by building ramps of suitable slope and size; it is about inclusive, universal landscape design of urban space made for all citizens. For this matter, different ways of public use for each group of users is defined, functional criteria are determined, and examples of good and bad design are assembled to present the differences between technically accomplished ramps, and slope paths that include quality landscape inclusive design. To prove the unsuitability of public open spaces in Ljubljana, various analyses were made, including the measurement of steepness, lengths and wideness of certain urban elements. As an application of results, the universal designing principles are summarized in new proposal for entrance into Tivoli Park.

  15. The Design Space of Information Presentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Michael; Petersen, Johannes


    A semiotic approach to the design space of information presentation is presented in which Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) is used to represent and explore attributes of abstract sign types and the media (graphical, haptic, acoustic, gestic) through which they are presented as specific...

  16. Public Space Design between Alienation and Appropriation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Shelley; Steinø, Nicolai


    Urban public space in a Western context has become increasingly functionalized and pre-determined. Designations for use, and by whom, have become more prolific – often in the name of practicality or safety – and have introduced more or less formalised codes of accepted behaviour. This represents ...

  17. Public Space Design Between Alienation and Approporiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Shelley; Steinø, Nicolai


    Urban public space in a Western context has become increasingly functionalized and pre-determined. Designations for use, and by whom, have become more prolific – often in the name of practicality or safety – and have introduced more or less formalized codes of accepted behaviour. This represents ...

  18. Axiomatic Design of Space Life Support Systems (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.


    Systems engineering is an organized way to design and develop systems, but the initial system design concepts are usually seen as the products of unexplained but highly creative intuition. Axiomatic design is a mathematical approach to produce and compare system architectures. The two axioms are:- Maintain the independence of the functional requirements.- Minimize the information content (or complexity) of the design. The first axiom generates good system design structures and the second axiom ranks them. The closed system human life support architecture now implemented in the International Space Station has been essentially unchanged for fifty years. In contrast, brief missions such as Apollo and Shuttle have used open loop life support. As mission length increases, greater system closure and increased recycling become more cost-effective.Closure can be gradually increased, first recycling humidity condensate, then hygiene wastewater, urine, carbon dioxide, and water recovery brine. A long term space station or planetary base could implement nearly full closure, including food production. Dynamic systems theory supports the axioms by showing that fewer requirements, fewer subsystems, and fewer interconnections all increase system stability. If systems are too complex and interconnected, reliability is reduced and operations and maintenance become more difficult. Using axiomatic design shows how the mission duration and other requirements determine the best life support system design including the degree of closure.

  19. Design space pruning through hybrid analysis in system-level design space exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piscitelli, R.; Pimentel, A.D.


    System-level design space exploration (DSE), which is performed early in the design process, is of eminent importance to the design of complex multi-processor embedded system archi- tectures. During system-level DSE, system parameters like, e.g., the number and type of processors, the type and size

  20. Design and comfort in office space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele M. Lepore


    Full Text Available The theme of office space is of particular interest because it is a sector strongly involved by technological development. The high concentration of plant engineering systems makes it essential to the attention to environmental parameters and to research on the quality of the relationship which binds man to artificial dimension of built space. In the design of office spaces, the general objective must be to be able to achieve a new working environment relationship. A ratio in which optimal balance is always sought in terms of igrothermal, acoustic and luminous comfort conditions, without noting that the psychological and sociological component plays an important role among the environmental factors, and this significantly interferes with the conditions of physiological comfort. The following work is an essay on the subject.

  1. High-strength cellular ceramic composites with 3D microarchitecture. (United States)

    Bauer, Jens; Hengsbach, Stefan; Tesari, Iwiza; Schwaiger, Ruth; Kraft, Oliver


    To enhance the strength-to-weight ratio of a material, one may try to either improve the strength or lower the density, or both. The lightest solid materials have a density in the range of 1,000 kg/m(3); only cellular materials, such as technical foams, can reach considerably lower values. However, compared with corresponding bulk materials, their specific strength generally is significantly lower. Cellular topologies may be divided into bending- and stretching-dominated ones. Technical foams are structured randomly and behave in a bending-dominated way, which is less weight efficient, with respect to strength, than stretching-dominated behavior, such as in regular braced frameworks. Cancellous bone and other natural cellular solids have an optimized architecture. Their basic material is structured hierarchically and consists of nanometer-size elements, providing a benefit from size effects in the material strength. Designing cellular materials with a specific microarchitecture would allow one to exploit the structural advantages of stretching-dominated constructions as well as size-dependent strengthening effects. In this paper, we demonstrate that such materials may be fabricated. Applying 3D laser lithography, we produced and characterized micro-truss and -shell structures made from alumina-polymer composite. Size-dependent strengthening of alumina shells has been observed, particularly when applied with a characteristic thickness below 100 nm. The presented artificial cellular materials reach compressive strengths up to 280 MPa with densities well below 1,000 kg/m(3).

  2. Design and volume optimization of space structures

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui


    We study the design and optimization of statically sound and materially efficient space structures constructed by connected beams. We propose a systematic computational framework for the design of space structures that incorporates static soundness, approximation of reference surfaces, boundary alignment, and geometric regularity. To tackle this challenging problem, we first jointly optimize node positions and connectivity through a nonlinear continuous optimization algorithm. Next, with fixed nodes and connectivity, we formulate the assignment of beam cross sections as a mixed-integer programming problem with a bilinear objective function and quadratic constraints. We solve this problem with a novel and practical alternating direction method based on linear programming relaxation. The capability and efficiency of the algorithms and the computational framework are validated by a variety of examples and comparisons.

  3. Space shuttle configuration accounting functional design specification (United States)


    An analysis is presented of the requirements for an on-line automated system which must be capable of tracking the status of requirements and engineering changes and of providing accurate and timely records. The functional design specification provides the definition, description, and character length of the required data elements and the interrelationship of data elements to adequately track, display, and report the status of active configuration changes. As changes to the space shuttle program levels II and III configuration are proposed, evaluated, and dispositioned, it is the function of the configuration management office to maintain records regarding changes to the baseline and to track and report the status of those changes. The configuration accounting system will consist of a combination of computers, computer terminals, software, and procedures, all of which are designed to store, retrieve, display, and process information required to track proposed and proved engineering changes to maintain baseline documentation of the space shuttle program levels II and III.

  4. Design and volume optimization of space structures

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Caigui; Tang, Chengcheng; Seidel, Hans-Peter; Wonka, Peter


    We study the design and optimization of statically sound and materially efficient space structures constructed by connected beams. We propose a systematic computational framework for the design of space structures that incorporates static soundness, approximation of reference surfaces, boundary alignment, and geometric regularity. To tackle this challenging problem, we first jointly optimize node positions and connectivity through a nonlinear continuous optimization algorithm. Next, with fixed nodes and connectivity, we formulate the assignment of beam cross sections as a mixed-integer programming problem with a bilinear objective function and quadratic constraints. We solve this problem with a novel and practical alternating direction method based on linear programming relaxation. The capability and efficiency of the algorithms and the computational framework are validated by a variety of examples and comparisons.

  5. Which Space? Whose Space? An Experience in Involving Students and Teachers in Space Design (United States)

    Casanova, Diogo; Di Napoli, Roberto; Leijon, Marie


    To date, learning spaces in higher education have been designed with little engagement on the part of their most important users: students and teachers. In this paper, we present the results of research carried out in a UK university. The research aimed to understand how students and teachers conceptualise learning spaces when they are given the…

  6. Space tourism optimized reusable spaceplane design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penn, J.P.; Lindley, C.A. [The Aerospace Corporation El Segundo, California90245-4691 (United States)


    Market surveys suggest that a viable space tourism industry will require flight rates about two orders of magnitude higher than those required for conventional spacelift. Although enabling round-trip cost goals for a viable space tourism business are about {dollar_sign}240 per pound ({dollar_sign}529/kg), or {dollar_sign}72,000 per passenger round-trip, goals should be about {dollar_sign}50 per pound ({dollar_sign}110/kg) or approximately {dollar_sign}15,000 for a typical passenger and baggage. The lower price will probably open space tourism to the general population. Vehicle reliabilities must approach those of commercial aircraft as closely as possible. This paper addresses the development of spaceplanes optimized for the ultra-high flight rate and high reliability demands of the space tourism mission. It addresses the fundamental operability, reliability, and cost drivers needed to satisfy this mission need. Figures of merit similar to those used to evaluate the economic viability of conventional commercial aircraft are developed, including items such as payload/vehicle dry weight, turnaround time, propellant cost per passenger, and insurance and depreciation costs, which show that infrastructure can be developed for a viable space tourism industry. A reference spaceplane design optimized for space tourism is described. Subsystem allocations for reliability, operability, and costs are made and a route to developing such a capability is discussed. The vehicle{close_quote}s ability to also satisfy the traditional spacelift market is shown. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Space Launch System Ascent Flight Control Design (United States)

    Orr, Jeb S.; Wall, John H.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Hall, Charles E.


    A robust and flexible autopilot architecture for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) family of launch vehicles is presented. The SLS configurations represent a potentially significant increase in complexity and performance capability when compared with other manned launch vehicles. It was recognized early in the program that a new, generalized autopilot design should be formulated to fulfill the needs of this new space launch architecture. The present design concept is intended to leverage existing NASA and industry launch vehicle design experience and maintain the extensibility and modularity necessary to accommodate multiple vehicle configurations while relying on proven and flight-tested control design principles for large boost vehicles. The SLS flight control architecture combines a digital three-axis autopilot with traditional bending filters to support robust active or passive stabilization of the vehicle's bending and sloshing dynamics using optimally blended measurements from multiple rate gyros on the vehicle structure. The algorithm also relies on a pseudo-optimal control allocation scheme to maximize the performance capability of multiple vectored engines while accommodating throttling and engine failure contingencies in real time with negligible impact to stability characteristics. The architecture supports active in-flight disturbance compensation through the use of nonlinear observers driven by acceleration measurements. Envelope expansion and robustness enhancement is obtained through the use of a multiplicative forward gain modulation law based upon a simple model reference adaptive control scheme.

  8. Deep Space Habitat ECLSS Design Concept (United States)

    Curley, Su; Stambaugh, Imelda; Swickrath, Michael; Anderson, Molly S.; Rotter, Henry


    Life support is vital to human spaceflight, and most current life support systems employ single-use hardware or regenerable technologies that throw away the waste products, relying on resupply to make up the consumables lost in the process. Because the long-term goal of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is to expand human presence beyond low-earth orbit, life support systems must become self-sustaining for missions where resupply is not practical. From May through October 2011, the life support team at the Johnson Space Center was challenged to define requirements, develop a system concept, and create a preliminary life support system design for a non-planetary Deep Space Habitat that could sustain a crew of four in near earth orbit for a duration of 388 days. Some of the preferred technology choices to support this architecture were passed over because the mission definition has an unmanned portion lasting 825 days. The main portion of the architecture was derived from technologies currently integrated on the International Space Station as well as upcoming technologies with moderate Technology Readiness Levels. The final architecture concept contains only partially-closed air and water systems, as the breakeven point for some of the closure technologies was not achieved with the mission duration.

  9. Deep Space Habitat ECLS Design Concept (United States)

    Curley, Su; Stambaugh, Imelda; Swickrath, Mike; Anderson, Molly; Rotter, Hank


    Life support is vital to human spaceflight, and most current life support systems employ single-use hardware or regenerable technologies that throw away the waste products, relying on resupply to make up the consumables lost in the process. Because the long-term goal of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is to expand human presence beyond low-earth orbit, life support systems must become self-sustaining for missions where resupply is not practical. From May through October 2011, the life support team at the Johnson Space Center was challenged to define requirements, develop a system concept, and create a preliminary life support system design for a non-planetary Deep Space Habitat that could sustain a crew of four in near earth orbit for a duration of 388 days. Some of the preferred technology choices to support this architecture were passed over as the mission definition also has an unmanned portion lasting 825 days. The main portion of the architecture was derived from technologies currently integrated on the International Space Station as well as upcoming technologies with moderate Technology Readiness Levels. The final architecture concept contains only partially-closed air and water systems, as the breakeven point for some of the closure technologies was not achieved with the mission duration.

  10. Using the Phase Space to Design Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrich, Mary Katherine; Ayres, Phil


    Architecture that is responsive, adaptive, or interactive can contain active architectural elements or robotic sensor-actuator systems. The consideration of architectural robotic elements that utilize distributed control and distributed communication allows for self-organization, emergence...... with materializations left by robot swarms or elements, rather than robots' internal states. We detail a case study examination of design methodology using the formation space concept for assessment and decision-making in the design of active architectural artifacts......., and evolution on site in real-time. The potential complexity of behaviors in such architectural robotic systems requires design methodology able to encompass a range of possible outcomes, rather than a single solution. We present an approach of adopting an aspect of complexity science and applying...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ümran TOPÇU


    Full Text Available Learning is a central part of everyone’s life that is often associated with school and  classrooms. Today’ classroom looks and functions like the classroom of an earlier century. Desks lined up in neat rows, facing the teacher and a board or screen is the general condition in many educational institutions. Most of us have sat through classes in plain, hard rooms. Although they did not look very pleasant, we all coped with them. If they could be designed slightly more tolerable, would they help in the betterment of education and learning in any measurable way? This paper aims at describing an attempt to design an alternative classroom. Based on several years of experience, it is observed that there is a demand among students for softer, warmer and more intimate instructional spaces. Students of “People and Environment” Course were asked to select a suitable space to redesign as a “Soft Classroom” within Bahçeşehir University Besiktas Campus  premises. This case study presented a potential research project to etter understand,  how student engagement can be increased by changing learning spaces.

  12. International Space Station Crew Restraint Design (United States)

    Whitmore, M.; Norris, L.; Holden, K.


    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), crews will be living and working in microgravity, dealing with the challenges of a weightless environment. In addition, the confined nature of the spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity areas, as well as prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Without optimum restraints, crewmembers may be handicapped for performing some of the on-orbit tasks. Currently, many of the tasks on ISS are performed with the crew restrained merely by hooking their arms or toes around handrails to steady themselves. This is adequate for some tasks, but not all. There have been some reports of discomfort/calluses on the top of the toes. In addition, this type of restraint is simply insufficient for tasks that require a large degree of stability. Glovebox design is a good example of a confined workstation concept requiring stability for successful use. They are widely used in industry, university, and government laboratories, as well as in the space environment, and are known to cause postural limitations and visual restrictions. Although there are numerous guidelines pertaining to ventilation, seals, and glove attachment, most of the data have been gathered in a 1-g environment, or are from studies that were conducted prior to the early 1980 s. Little is known about how best to restrain a crewmember using a glovebox in microgravity. In 2004, The Usability Testing and Analysis Facility (UTAF) at the NASA Johnson Space Center completed development/evaluation of several design concepts for crew restraints to meet the various needs outlined above. Restraints were designed for general purpose use, for teleoperation (Robonaut) and for use with the Life Sciences Glovebox. All design efforts followed a human factors engineering design lifecycle, beginning with identification of requirements followed by an iterative prototype/test cycle. Anthropometric

  13. Designing Interfaces for Astronaut Autonomy in Space (United States)

    Hillenius, Steve


    As we move towards human deep space missions, astronauts will no longer be able to say, Houston, we have a problem. The restricted contact with mission control because of the incredible distance from Earth will require astronauts to make autonomous decisions. How will astronauts take on the roles of mission control? This is an area of active research that has far reaching implications for the future of distant spaceflight. Come to this talk to hear how we are using design and user research to come up with innovative solutions for astronauts to effectively explore the Moon, Mars, and beyond.

  14. Reliable avionics design for deep space (United States)

    Johnson, Stephen B.

    The technical and organizational problems posed by the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) are discussed, and some possible solutions are examined. It is pointed out that SEI poses a whole new set of challenging problems in the design of reliable systems. These missions and their corresponding systems are far more complex than current systems. The initiative requires a set of vehicles and systems which must have very high levels of autonomy, reliability, and operability for long periods of time. It is emphasized that to achieve these goals in the face of great complexity, new technologies and organizational techniques will be necessary. It is noted that the key to a good design is good people. Not only must good people be found, but they must be placed in positions appropriate to their skills. It is argued that the atomistic and autocratic paradigm of vertical organizations must be replaced with more team-oriented and democratic structures.

  15. Understanding the Lunar System Architecture Design Space (United States)

    Arney, Dale C.; Wilhite, Alan W.; Reeves, David M.


    Based on the flexible path strategy and the desire of the international community, the lunar surface remains a destination for future human exploration. This paper explores options within the lunar system architecture design space, identifying performance requirements placed on the propulsive system that performs Earth departure within that architecture based on existing and/or near-term capabilities. The lander crew module and ascent stage propellant mass fraction are primary drivers for feasibility in multiple lander configurations. As the aggregation location moves further out of the lunar gravity well, the lunar lander is required to perform larger burns, increasing the sensitivity to these two factors. Adding an orbit transfer stage to a two-stage lunar lander and using a large storable stage for braking with a one-stage lunar lander enable higher aggregation locations than Low Lunar Orbit. Finally, while using larger vehicles enables a larger feasible design space, there are still feasible scenarios that use three launches of smaller vehicles.

  16. Space-Time Code Designs for Broadband Wireless Communications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xia, Xiang-Gen


    The goal of this research is to design new space AND time codes, such as complex orthogonal space AND time block codes with rate above 1/2 from complex orthogonal designs for QAM, PSK, and CPM signals...

  17. Medullar fat influences texture analysis of trabecular microarchitecture on X-ray radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chappard, Daniel; Pascaretti-Grizon, Florence; Gallois, Yves; Mercier, Philippe; Basle, Michel F.; Audran, Maurice


    Alteration of trabecular architecture is a predictor of fracture risk in osteoporosis. Until now, microarchitecture analysis is difficult to evaluate in routine clinical practice for osteoporosis. Texture analysis on X-ray images has been advocated to be a suitable method to assess microarchitecture in bone diseases. The X-ray acquisition conditions have been often taken into consideration; however, the influence of anatomical conditions on texture parameters has received little interest. Because fat is a well-known problem with computed tomography and densitometry, we have designed a cadaver study to compare the influence of marrow lipids on numerous texture parameters. Twenty-one human distal radii were obtained, radiographed, and analyzed using a software that measures: heterogeneity, skeletonized parameters, run-lengths and fractal dimensions. Texture parameters were measured before, and after an extensive delipidation period lasting 3 weeks. Quality of the radiographs was improved after defatting. Delipidation had a very significant effect on measurements: afterwards defatting, the images were less blurred, and a better delineation of trabeculae and marrow cavities was obtained. This provoked an increase of parameters based on the grey level distribution but had no influence on parameters describing the reticulated honeycomb microarchitecture of the trabeculae (i.e., fractal dimension). Some parameters appeared anisotropy-sensitive, due to the different constitution and size of the trabeculae. The fat content of bone marrow induces noise that can modify some texture parameters. One should take into account the fat content of the marrow when using texture analysis to compare patients with osteoporosis due to various etiologies

  18. Analytic processor model for fast design-space exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerius, R.; Mariani, G.; Anghel, A.; Dittmann, G.; Vermij, E.; Corporaal, H.


    In this paper, we propose an analytic model that takes as inputs a) a parametric microarchitecture-independent characterization of the target workload, and b) a hardware configuration of the core and the memory hierarchy, and returns as output an estimation of processor-core performance. To validate

  19. A Constraint-Based Understanding of Design Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biskjaer, Michael Mose; Dalsgaard, Peter; Halskov, Kim


    space schema, can identify the properties of the prospective product that s/he can form. Through a case study, we show how design space schemas can support designers in various ways, including gaining an overview of the design process, documenting it, reflecting on it, and developing design concepts...

  20. Wooden Spaceships: Human-Centered Vehicle Design for Space (United States)

    Twyford, Evan


    Presentation will focus on creative human centered design solutions in relation to manned space vehicle design and development in the NASA culture. We will talk about design process, iterative prototyping, mockup building and user testing and evaluation. We will take an inside look at how new space vehicle concepts are developed and designed for real life exploration scenarios.

  1. Microarchitectural adaptations in aging and osteoarthrotic subchondral bone tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming


    . These diseases are among the major health care problems in terms of socio-economic costs. The overall goals of the current series of studies were to investigate the age-related and osteoarthrosis (OA) related changes in the 3-D microarchitectural properties, mechanical properties, collagen and mineral quality......-related development of guinea pig OA; secondly, the potential effects of hyaluronan on OA subchondral bone tissues; and thirdly, the effects on OA progression of an increase in subchondral bone density by inhibition of bone remodeling with a bisphosphonate. These investigations aimed to obtain more insight...... into the age-related and OA-related subchondral bone adaptations.   Microarchitectural adaptation in human aging cancellous bone The precision of micro-CT measurement is excellent. Accurate 3-D micro-CT image datasets can be generated by applying an appropriate segmentation threshold. A fixed threshold may...

  2. Mechanical design of a lidar system for space applications - LITE (United States)

    Crockett, Sharon K.


    The Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) is a Shuttle experiment that will demonstrate the first use of a lidar system in space. Its design process must take into account not only the system design but also the unique design requirements for spaceborne experiment.

  3. CASPER: Embedding Power Estimation and Hardware-Controlled Power Management in a Cycle-Accurate Micro-Architecture Simulation Platform for Many-Core Multi-Threading Heterogeneous Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Ravindran


    Full Text Available Despite the promising performance improvement observed in emerging many-core architectures in high performance processors, high power consumption prohibitively affects their use and marketability in the low-energy sectors, such as embedded processors, network processors and application specific instruction processors (ASIPs. While most chip architects design power-efficient processors by finding an optimal power-performance balance in their design, some use sophisticated on-chip autonomous power management units, which dynamically reduce the voltage or frequencies of idle cores and hence extend battery life and reduce operating costs. For large scale designs of many-core processors, a holistic approach integrating both these techniques at different levels of abstraction can potentially achieve maximal power savings. In this paper we present CASPER, a robust instruction trace driven cycle-accurate many-core multi-threading micro-architecture simulation platform where we have incorporated power estimation models of a wide variety of tunable many-core micro-architectural design parameters, thus enabling processor architects to explore a sufficiently large design space and achieve power-efficient designs. Additionally CASPER is designed to accommodate cycle-accurate models of hardware controlled power management units, enabling architects to experiment with and evaluate different autonomous power-saving mechanisms to study the run-time power-performance trade-offs in embedded many-core processors. We have implemented two such techniques in CASPER–Chipwide Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling, and Performance Aware Core-Specific Frequency Scaling, which show average power savings of 35.9% and 26.2% on a baseline 4-core SPARC based architecture respectively. This power saving data accounts for the power consumption of the power management units themselves. The CASPER simulation platform also provides users with complete support of SPARCV9

  4. Theory and design methods of special space orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yasheng; Zhou, Haijun


    This book focuses on the theory and design of special space orbits. Offering a systematic and detailed introduction to the hovering orbit, spiral cruising orbit, multi-target rendezvous orbit, initiative approaching orbit, responsive orbit and earth pole-sitter orbit, it also discusses the concept, theory, design methods and application of special space orbits, particularly the design and control method based on kinematics and astrodynamics. In addition the book presents the latest research and its application in space missions. It is intended for researchers, engineers and postgraduates, especially those working in the fields of orbit design and control, as well as space-mission planning and research.

  5. Mission Trade Space Evaluation through Multiphysics Design and Optimization (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In recent years, modeling and simulation tools have enabled engineers to design highly complex systems while taking into consideration constraints across multiple...

  6. The construction of fictional space in participatory design practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian


    games of make-believe mediated by props. The motivation for discussing fictional space is traced through ongoing work on designing new exhibition spaces for museums. Through a case study from a participatory design session, it is explored how games of make-believe progress and the role of props...... the process through which participants in participatory design create a design space in which established conventions of everyday practice are altered or suspended. With inspiration from literary theory, it is argued that the production of fictional space may be understood in terms of participants practicing...

  7. An Opening: Graphic Design's Discursive Spaces. (United States)

    Blauvelt, Andrew


    Introduces a special issue on critical histories of graphic design with a review of the particular problems identified with the history of graphic design as a field of study and the emerging discipline of graphic design history. Makes a case for the examination of graphic design through its relationships with larger discourses. (SR)

  8. Scientific, statistical, practical, and regulatory considerations in design space development. (United States)

    Debevec, Veronika; Srčič, Stanko; Horvat, Matej


    The quality by design (QbD) paradigm guides the pharmaceutical industry towards improved understanding of products and processes, and at the same time facilitates a high degree of manufacturing and regulatory flexibility throughout the establishment of the design space. This review article presents scientific, statistical and regulatory considerations in design space development. All key development milestones, starting with planning, selection of factors, experimental execution, data analysis, model development and assessment, verification, and validation, and ending with design space submission, are presented and discussed. The focus is especially on frequently ignored topics, like management of factors and CQAs that will not be included in experimental design, evaluation of risk of failure on design space edges, or modeling scale-up strategy. Moreover, development of a design space that is independent of manufacturing scale is proposed as the preferred approach.

  9. Monolithic Compliant Space Mechanisms Design Strategies (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New additive manufacturing technologies such as Direct Metal Laser Sintering and Electron Beam Melting now allow 3D printing of complex geometries. These processes...

  10. NASA universities advanced space design program, focus on nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.F. III; George, J.A.; Alred, J.W.; Peddicord, K.L.


    In January 1985, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in affiliation with the Universities Space Research Association (USRA), inaugurated the NASA Universities Advanced Space Design Program. The purpose of the program was to encourage participating universities to utilize design projects for the senior and graduate level design courses that would focus on topics relevant to the nation's space program. The activities and projects being carried out under the NASA Universities Advanced Space Design Program are excellent experiences for the participants. This program is a well-conceived, well-planned effort to achieve the maximum benefit out of not only the university design experience but also of the subsequent summer programs. The students in the university design classes have the opportunity to investigate dramatic and new concepts, which at the same time have a place in a program of national importance. This program could serve as a very useful model for the development of university interaction with other federal agencies

  11. Space mapping optimization algorithms for engineering design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziel, Slawomir; Bandler, John W.; Madsen, Kaj


    A simple, efficient optimization algorithm based on space mapping (SM) is presented. It utilizes input SM to reduce the misalignment between the coarse and fine models of the optimized object over a region of interest, and output space mapping (OSM) to ensure matching of response and first...... to a benchmark problem. In comparison with SMIS, the models presented are simple and have a small number of parameters that need to be extracted. The new algorithm is applied to the optimization of coupled-line band-pass filter....

  12. Designing Interaction Spaces for Rich Internet Applications with UML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter; Stage, Jan


    In this paper, we propose a new method for designing rich internet applications. The design process uses results from an object-oriented analysis and employs interaction spaces as the basic abstraction mechanism. State diagrams are employed as refinements of interaction spaces and task models...

  13. The role of urban space design characteristics in influencing social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is based on a study carried out in Old Town Mombasa, a Swahili city in Kenya, situated along the East African Coast. Its focus is on social life of the town's street system as a correlate of urban space design characteristics. Urban design elements within the streets have been disregarded resulting in spaces that do ...

  14. Conceptual designs for 100-MW space radiators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prenger, F.C.; Sullivan, J.A.


    A description and comparison of heat rejection systems for multimegawatt space-based power supplies is given. Current concepts are described, and through a common performance parameter, these are compared with three advanced radiator concepts. The comparison is based on a power system that rejects 100 MW of heat while generating 10 MW of electrical power

  15. Information Architecture the Design of Digital Information Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Wei


    Information Architecture is about organizing and simplifying information, designing and integrating information spaces/systems, and creating ways for people to find and interact with information content. Its goal is to help people understand and manage information and make right decisions accordingly. In the ever-changing social, organizational and technological contexts, Information Architects not only design individual information spaces (e.g., individual websites, software applications, and mobile devices), but also tackle strategic aggregation and integration of multiple information spaces

  16. Funky-Design-Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucero, Andrés


    Research in surface computing has traditionally been driven by technology. A project that explored ways to provide support for professional users in their work with novel technology by focusing on people instead is presented. A co-design approach was applied by systematically involving end users ...... the creation of mood boards was co-designed, brought to life in two prototypes, and evaluated with designers. The results suggest these environments could stimulate designers to break away from their desks and encourage collaboration with more people....

  17. Three-dimensional microarchitecture of adolescent cancellous bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Danielsen, Carl Christian; Hvid, Ivan


    , the adolescent cancellous bone had similar bone volume fraction (BV/TV), structure type (plate, rod or mixtures), and connectivity (3-D trabecular networks) as the adult cancellous bone. The adolescent cancellous bone had significantly lower bone surface density (bone surface per total volume of specimen...... and lateral condyle. These samples were micro-CT scanned (vivaCT 40, Scanco Medical AG, Switzerland) resulting in cubic voxel sizes of 10.5⁎10.5⁎10.5μm(3). Microarchitectural properties were calculated. The samples were then tested in compression followed by collagen and mineral determination. Interestingly...

  18. Space Transportation Analysis and Design (Reissue A) (United States)


    RECOVERABLE LAUNCH VEHICLES ..................... 3-12 1. Domestic (STS Space Shuttle) ....................................... 3-12 2. Foreign (CIS Energia ...affects solar heating of the spacecraft and the availability of solar energy for generating spacecraft power. 2-1 Table 2-1. Typical Orbits and...Foreign (CIS Energia Buran) The CIS Energia , which became operational in 1987, was developed to launch a variety of heavy payloads including the Buran

  19. Biodigester Feasibility and Design for Space & Earth (United States)

    Shutts, Stacy; Ewert, Mike; Bacon, Jack


    Anaerobic digestion converts organic waste into methane gas and fertilizer effluent. The ICA-developed prototype system is designed for planetary surface operation. It uses passive hydrostatic control for reliability, and is modular and redundant. The serpentine configuration accommodates tight geometric constraints similar to the ISS ECLSS rack architectures. Its shallow, low-tilt design enables (variable) lower-g convection than standard Earth (1 g) digesters. This technology will reuse and recycle materials including human waste, excess food, as well as packaging (if biodegradable bags are used).

  20. Space Mapping With Adaptive Response Correction for Microwave Design Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziel, S.; Bandler, J.W.; Madsen, Kaj


    at which the term was calculated, as in the surrogate model optimization process. In this paper, an adaptive response correction scheme is presented to work in conjunction with space-mapping optimization algorithms. This technique is designed to alleviate the difficulties of the standard output space......Output space mapping is a technique introduced to enhance the robustness of the space-mapping optimization process in case the space-mapped coarse model cannot provide sufficient matching with the fine model. The technique often works very well; however, in some cases it fails. Especially...

  1. Utilizing Uncertainty Multidisciplinary Design Optimization for Conceptual Design of Space Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, W.; Guo, J.; Chen, X.; Van Tooren, M.


    With progress of space technology and increase of space mission demand, requirements for robustness and reliability of space systems are ever-increasing. For the whole space mission life cycle, the most important decisions are made in the conceptual design phase, so it is very crucial to take

  2. Scenarios and design: Scoping the dialogue space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selin, Cynthia Lea; Kimbell, Lucy; Ramirez, Rafael


    This paper examines the intersections between two futures-oriented domains of practice and research: scenario planning and design. Both are practice-led, with uneasy but productive relationships with theorizing. Exploring their relations offers ways to address challenges faced by interdisciplinar......'s contribution is to suggest how scenario planning can engage with design, resulting in new opportunities for research and projects. These modes of engagement provide a framing to explore dialogues between other management disciplines.......This paper examines the intersections between two futures-oriented domains of practice and research: scenario planning and design. Both are practice-led, with uneasy but productive relationships with theorizing. Exploring their relations offers ways to address challenges faced by interdisciplinary...... management research, which struggles to connect research and practice. The authors describe how they brought the two fields together. We outline how we convened, designed and facilitated the fourth Oxford Futures Forum held in May 2014. This event brought together leading practitioners and researchers...

  3. Enabling MPSoC design space exploration on FPGAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shabbir, A.; Kumar, A.; Mesman, B.; Corporaal, H.; Hussain, D.M.A.; Rajput, A.Q.K.; Chowdhry, B.S.; Gee, Q.


    Future applications for embedded systems demand chip multiprocessor designs to meet real-time deadlines. These multiprocessors are increasingly becoming heterogeneous for reasons of cost and power. Design space exploration (DSE) of application mapping becomes a major design decision in such systems.

  4. Design and Development of the Space Shuttle Tail Service Masts (United States)

    Dandage, S. R.; Herman, N. A.; Godfrey, S. E.; Uda, R. T.


    The successful launch of a space shuttle vehicle depends on the proper operation of two tail service masts (TSMs). Reliable TSM operation is assured through a comprehensive design, development, and testing program. The results of the concept verification test (CVT) and the resulting impact on prototype TSM design are presented. The design criteria are outlined, and the proposed prototype TSM tests are described.

  5. Dynamics and design of space nets for orbital capture

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Leping; Zhen, Ming; Liu, Haitao


    This book covers the topics of theoretical principles, dynamics model and algorithm, mission analysis, system design and experimental studies of space nets system, aiming to provide an initial framework in this field and serve as a ready reference for those interested. Space nets system represents a forefront field in future development of aerospace technologies. However, it involves new challenges and problems such as nonlinear and distorted nets structure, complex rigid flexible coupling dynamics, orbital transfer of space flexible composite and dynamics control. Currently, no comprehensive books on space nets dynamics and design are available, so potential readers can get to know the working mechanism, dynamics elements, and mission design of the space nets system from a Chinese perspective.

  6. Rethinking Space Design Standards Toward Quality Affordable Housing In Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak Nor Haniza


    Full Text Available Provision of affordable housing is important to low- and middle-income population. A fit form of house will not only fulfil a basic human need for shelter, but it also contributes to physical and psychological well-being of the occupants. Excellent quality and affordable housing is an indication of a high quality of life. While writings exist on various aspects of the quality of affordable housing in Malaysia, discussion regarding space and design standards has scarcely been given any serious academic attention. Standards concerning residential development usually cover different aspects or stages of the development process. They can include planning standards, design standards, space standards and technical construction standards. The main concern of this paper is on space and design standards specifically. Space standard can be defined as a set of framework which dictates fixed internal space minimums. Meanwhile, design standard indicates design guidelines to ensure the functionality, comfortability and habitability of the house. This paper is concerned exclusively with indoor spaces of a house excluding external circulation spaces and service facilities (in case of strata housing. Its interest is in internal space as an aspect of housing quality. It can be concluded that one of the way forward will be to find the balance between providing adequate minimum spaces for resident satisfactions and having economic values for housing developers. This paper may be used as a valuable reference for authorities and policy makers to better address the best housing space design standards that would benefit not only the occupants, but also the local government and developers alike.

  7. Unraveling bacterial networks and their antimicrobial susceptibility on silicon microarchitectures using intrinsic phase-shift spectroscopy (United States)

    Leonard, Heidi; Holtzman, Liran; Haimov, Yuri; Weizman, Daniel; Kashi, Yechezkel; Nativ, Ofer; Halachmi, Sarel; Segal, Ester


    We have developed a rapid phenotypic antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) in which photonic 2D silicon microarrays are employed as both the optical transducer element and as a preferable solid-liquid interface for bacterial colonization. We harness the intrinsic ability of the micro-architectures to relay optical phase-shift reflectometric interference spectroscopic measurements (termed PRISM) and incorporate it into a platform for culture-free, label-free tracking of bacterial accumulation, proliferation, and death. This assay employs microfluidic channels interfaced with PRISM chips and is carried out in a two-stage process, namely bacteria seeding and antibiotic incubation. Bacteria proliferation within the microtopologies results in an increase in refractive index of the medium, yielding an increase in optical path difference, while cell death or bacteriostatic activity results in decreasing or unchanged values. The optical responses of bacteria to various concentrations of relevant antibiotics have been tracked in real time, allowing for accurate determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values within 2-3 hours. We further extended this work to analyze antibiotic susceptibilities of clinical isolates and direct urine samples derived from patients at neighboring hospitals in newly designed, disposable microfluidic devices. This has opened the door to the observation of unique bacterial behaviors, as we can evaluate bacterial adhesion, growth, and antibiotic resistance on different microarchitectures, different surface chemistries, and even different strains. Motility, charge, and biofilm abilities have been explored for their effect of bacterial adhesion to the microstructures as we further develop our method of rapid, label-free AST for full clinical application.

  8. Design of outdoor urban spaces for thermal comfort (United States)

    Harriet J. Plumley


    Microclimates in outdoor urban spaces may be modified by controlling the wind and radiant environments in these spaces. Design guidelines were developed to specify how radiant environments may be selected or modified to provide conditions for thermal comfort. Fanger's human-thermal-comfort model was used to determine comfortable levels of radiant-heat exchange for...

  9. Design Optimization of Space Launch Vehicles Using a Genetic Algorithm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bayley, Douglas J


    .... A genetic algorithm (GA) was employed to optimize the design of the space launch vehicle. A cost model was incorporated into the optimization process with the goal of minimizing the overall vehicle cost...

  10. Communal space design as student interaction in polnep campus (United States)

    Hasriyanti, N.; Zulestari, A.; Judhi, J.; Ikayanti, P.


    Communal space is a means to do for social interaction, from private to the public. The purpose of this study was conducted to explore the phenomenon of communal space setting of Pontianak State Polytechnic students from 8 departments of study both indoor and outdoor spaces. The research method used is a rationalistic study. The planned activities to be undertaken include the determination of communal places (indoor and outdoor), sample determination, data collection with surveys and interviews, presenting data and analysis and drawing conclusions as a basis for designing communal space for Polnep students. The research were analyzed of building and space character, analysis of space organization and circulation, space requirement analysis, material and color analysis, site analysis, and analysis of inner space elements and outer space elements. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that Polnep campus environment requires the addition of public space for students in conducting formal activities outside lectures. Some activity which to do some student such as activity to waiting lecturer, do some coursework, discussion, relaxation, extracurricular activities, and other informal activities still require adequate space infrastructure and are equipped with street furnitures such as garden lights, benches, outer space markers and shade vegetation.

  11. NASA Space Engineering Research Center for VLSI systems design (United States)


    This annual review reports the center's activities and findings on very large scale integration (VLSI) systems design for 1990, including project status, financial support, publications, the NASA Space Engineering Research Center (SERC) Symposium on VLSI Design, research results, and outreach programs. Processor chips completed or under development are listed. Research results summarized include a design technique to harden complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) memory circuits against single event upset (SEU); improved circuit design procedures; and advances in computer aided design (CAD), communications, computer architectures, and reliability design. Also described is a high school teacher program that exposes teachers to the fundamentals of digital logic design.

  12. SEP Mission Design Space for Mars Orbiters (United States)

    Woolley, Ryan C.; Nicholas, Austin K.


    The advancement of solar-electric propulsion (SEP) technologies and larger, light-weight solar arrays offer a tremendous advantage to Mars orbiters in terms of both mass and timeline flexibility. These advantages are multiplied for round-trip orbiters (e.g. potential Mars sample return) where a large total Delta V would be required. In this paper we investigate the mission design characteristics of mission concepts utilizing various combinations and types of SEP thrusters, solar arrays, launch vehicles, launch dates, arrival dates, etc. SEP allows for greater than 50% more mass delivered and launch windows of months to years. We also present the SEP analog to the ballistic Porkchop plot - the "Bacon" plot.

  13. Design space of electrostatic chuck in etching chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yuchun; Cheng Jia; Lu Yijia; Hou Yuemin; Ji Linhong


    One of the core semiconductor devices is the electrostatic chuck. It has been widely used in plasma-based and vacuum-based semiconductor processing. The electrostatic chuck plays an important role in adsorbing and cooling/heating wafers, and has technical advantages on non-edge exclusion, high reliability, wafer planarity, particles reduction and so on. This article extracts key design elements from the existing knowledge and techniques of electrostatic chuck by the method proposed by Paul and Beitz, and establishes a design space systematically. The design space is composed of working objects, working principles and working structures. The working objects involve electrostatic chuck components and materials, classifications, and relevant properties; the working principles involve clamping force, residual force, and temperature control; the working structures describe how to compose an electrostatic chuck and to fulfill the overall functions. The systematic design space exhibits the main issues during electrostatic chuck design. The design space will facilitate and inspire designers to improve the design quality and shorten the design time in the conceptual design. (paper)

  14. Design space for space design: Dialogs through boundary objects at the intersections of art, design, science, and engineering (United States)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Pangaro, Paul


    For over half a century space exploration has been dominated by engineering and technology driven practices. This paradigm leaves limited room for art and design. Yet in other parts of our lives, art and design play important roles: they stimulate new ideas and connect people to their experiences and to each other at a deeper level, while affecting our worldview as we evolve our cognitive models. We develop these models through circular conversations with our environment, through perception and making sense through our sensory systems and responding back through language and interactions. Artists and designers create artifacts through conversation cycles of sense-giving and sense-making, thus increasing variety in the world in the form of evolving messages. Each message becomes information when the observer decodes it, through multiple sense-making and re-sampling cycles. The messages form triggers to the cognitive state of the observer. Having a shared key between the artist/designer and the observer-for example, in the form of language, gestures, and artistic/design styles-is fundamental to encode and decode the information, in conversations. Art, design, science, and engineering, are all creative practices. Yet, they often speak different languages, where some parts may correspond, while others address a different variety in a cybernetic sense. These specialized languages within disciplines streamline communications, but limit variety. Thus, different languages between disciplines may introduce communication blocks. Nevertheless, these differences are desired as they add variety to the interactions, and could lead to novel discourses and possibilities. We may dissolve communication blocks through the introduction of boundary objects in the intersection of multiple disciplines. Boundary objects can ground ideas and bridge language diversity across disciplines. These artifacts are created to facilitate circular cybernetic conversations, supporting convergence

  15. Design of Urban Public Spaces: Intent vs. Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Hjort


    Full Text Available This study investigated how two public spaces for sport and recreation were utilized by different user groups, and how this aligned with the initial design objectives for these spaces. Two newly built urban spaces situated in Copenhagen, Denmark, provided the context for this investigation. The System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC was used to examine the physical activity of users in these two urban spaces. The architects responsible for designing each space were interviewed to ascertain the intended target group of each space and to unravel the reasons behind the design decisions. The SOPARC observations revealed that males were more vigorously active than females when using the recreation facilities, and the observed users did not align with the intended target groups. The interviews suggested that design decisions were based on minimal interdisciplinary knowledge, and that expert knowledge was chosen randomly. These findings point to a systematic lack of evidence-based practice when designing sport and recreational facilities. This article has implications for landscape architects and urban planners; a new method must be developed to embed interdisciplinary knowledge in the planning process of future sport and recreation projects. This must be done in a systematic way to make the design process transparent.

  16. Design Space Exploration and Optimization Using Modern Ship Design Tools (United States)


    Model Editor will open again. Aviation Facilities Indicator should be set to MINOR AVN since we are required to have two helicopters in our design. The...other options are NONE and MAJOR AVN . The former should be selected if no aviation facilities are required and the latter should be chosen only for

  17. Space Station Freedom - Approaching the critical design phase (United States)

    Kohrs, Richard H.; Huckins, Earle, III


    The status and future developments of the Space Station Freedom are discussed. To date detailed design drawings are being produced to manufacture SSF hardware. A critical design review (CDR) for the man-tended capability configuration is planned to be performed in 1993 under the SSF program. The main objective of the CDR is to enable the program to make a full commitment to proceed to manufacture parts and assemblies. NASA recently signed a contract with the Russian space company, NPO Energia, to evaluate potential applications of various Russian space hardware for on-going NASA programs.

  18. Joint Curriculum Developments in the Field of Virtual Space Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael; Zupancic, Tadeja; Juvancic, Matevz


    initiates a discussion-forum to raise and discuss open questions of joint curriculum development in the field of virtual space design, especially where CVE-s take the key role within the educational process. The starting points of the discussion can be found in the ongoing endeavours of the e......The topic of joint degrees is high on the higher education policy agenda. The eCAADe 2006 theme offers the opportunity to investigate the topic from the aspect of virtual space design, especially within the second conference topic: communicating within mediated spaces (CVE-s). The paper proposed...

  19. New design for a space cryo-mechanism (United States)

    Durand, Gilles; Amiaux, Jérôme; Augueres, Jean-Louis; Carty, Michael; Barrière, Jean Christophe; Bouzat, Marylène; Duboué, Bruno; Lagage, Pierre Olivier; Lebeuf, Didier; Lepage, Erwan; Lemer, Isabelle; Marlaguey, Nathalie Peydrol; Poupar, Sébastien


    Based on its experience of space application instrument and its development of cryomechanism for astronomical ground based instrument VLT / VISIR, CEA Saclay is proposing a new concept of Space Cryomechanism. This design is based on VLT/VISIR cryo-mechanism design adapted to space requirements taking into account all the specification of space environment (vibrations at launch, cryogenic vacuum, materials, radiations, ...). The original concept of the design is based on the association of the key elements: a dog-clutch with Hirth teeth jaws coupled to a step-by-step space qualified cryo-motor, a bellows that allows for separation of indexing and rotating functions, and enlarged bearings design in "O" arrangement that increase robustness to vibration. The actuator has 360 steady positions that can be reached within les than a second with repeatability of 5 arcsec peak to peak. After a presentation of the details of the concept and of its benefits to robustness to space environment, the paper describes the thoroughly qualification program of the cryo-mechanism with respect to space requirements (cryo-cycling, indexing accuracy, power consumption, heat dissipation, motorisation margins, vibrations). This cryo-mechanism may be built in 3 different sizes for wheels up to 10 kg.

  20. Fictional space in participatory design of engaging interactive environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian


    practices of visitors and museum knowledge. The second and larger part of the contribution addresses the issue of shaping design inquiries. This part is summarized through the overarching notion of fictional space denoting a perspective on the creation of a design space where established norms...... spaces for museums and science centres. The dissertation is composed of seven research papers framed by a general overview that summarises the arguments made in the papers and outlines related work and research method. The contribution reflects a dual yet intertwined concern for understanding engagement...... in exhibition spaces and shaping design inquiries around the notion of engaging interactive environments. The first part of the contribution relates to conceptualising aspects of engagement in relation to interactive environments. The perspective of participatory engagement is presented as an overarching...

  1. Designing astrophysics missions for NASA's Space Launch System (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.; Schnell, Andrew; Smith, David Alan; Jackman, Angela; Warfield, Keith R.


    Large space telescope missions have always been limited by their launch vehicle's mass and volume capacities. The Hubble Space Telescope was specifically designed to fit inside the Space Shuttle and the James Webb Space Telescope was specifically designed to fit inside an Ariane 5. Astrophysicists desire even larger space telescopes. NASA's "Enduring Quests Daring Visions" report calls for an 8- to 16-m Large UV-Optical-IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor mission to enable ultrahigh-contrast spectroscopy and coronagraphy. Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy's "From Cosmic Birth to Living Earth" report calls for a 12-m class High-Definition Space Telescope to pursue transformational scientific discoveries. NASA's "Planning for the 2020 Decadal Survey" calls for a Habitable Exoplanet Imaging (HabEx) and an LUVOIR as well as Far-IR and an X-ray Surveyor missions. Packaging larger space telescopes into existing launch vehicles is a significant engineering complexity challenge that drives cost and risk. NASA's planned Space Launch System (SLS), with its 8- or 10-m diameter fairings and ability to deliver 35 to 45 mt of payload to Sun-Earth-Lagrange-2, mitigates this challenge by fundamentally changing the design paradigm for large space telescopes. This paper introduces the mass and volume capacities of the planned SLS, provides a simple mass allocation recipe for designing large space telescope missions to this capacity, and gives three specific mission concept implementation examples: a 4-m monolithic off-axis telescope, an 8-m monolithic on-axis telescope, and a 12-m segmented on-axis telescope.

  2. Software design space exploration for exascale combustion co-design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Cy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Unat, Didem [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lijewski, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhang, Weiqun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bell, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shalf, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The design of hardware for next-generation exascale computing systems will require a deep understanding of how software optimizations impact hardware design trade-offs. In order to characterize how co-tuning hardware and software parameters affects the performance of combustion simulation codes, we created ExaSAT, a compiler-driven static analysis and performance modeling framework. Our framework can evaluate hundreds of hardware/software configurations in seconds, providing an essential speed advantage over simulators and dynamic analysis techniques during the co-design process. Our analytic performance model shows that advanced code transformations, such as cache blocking and loop fusion, can have a significant impact on choices for cache and memory architecture. Our modeling helped us identify tuned configurations that achieve a 90% reduction in memory traffic, which could significantly improve performance and reduce energy consumption. These techniques will also be useful for the development of advanced programming models and runtimes, which must reason about these optimizations to deliver better performance and energy efficiency.

  3. Bone microarchitecture and bone mineral density in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, A; Oturai, A B; Søndergaard, H B


    BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are at increased risk of reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures. The aetiology of bone loss in MS is unclear. Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a novel analytical tool that provides a measurement of the bone microarchitecture. Decreased TBS...... included. TBS was calculated using TBS iNsight software (MediMaps® ). Multivariable regression analyses were performed with information on smoking, alcohol, glucocorticoid (GC) treatment, sun exposure, physical activity, vitamin D and BMI. RESULTS: Trabecular bone score was not significantly different from...... an age-matched reference population. Low TBS was associated with high age (P = .014) and smoking (P = .03). Smoking and physical inactivity were associated with low BMD in spine (P = .034, P = .032). GC treatment was not associated with TBS. CONCLUSION: We could not find altered TBS values among MS...

  4. Remodelling of the microarchitecture of resistance arteries in cardiovascular diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Maria; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Leurgans, Thomas

    Small resistance artery structure is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in essential hypertension [1, 2] and diabetes (types I and II) [3, 4]. In particular, the media-to-lumen ratio (M:L) is predictive of cardiovascular events. The exact nature of this resistance artery remodeling...... in comparison to other well-studied microvascular beds (e.g. rat mesentery). In the future we aim to compare the microarchitecture of small resistance arteries from parietal pericardial biopsies between patients with and without (treated) hypertension, diabetes and/or ischemic heart disease. 1. Buus, N.H., et...... al., Small artery structure during antihypertensive therapy is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in essential hypertension. J Hypertens, 2013. 31(4): p. 791-7. 2. Mathiassen, O.N., et al., Small artery structure is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in essential...

  5. Design and control considerations for industrial and space manipulators (United States)

    Whitney, D. E.; Book, W. J.; Lynch, P. M.


    This paper is a progress report summarizing theoretical and practical results concerning integration of design and control aspects of manipulator arms for industrial or space applications. The relationships between task specifications, gross motions, fine motions, actuator type and location, size and strength of structural members, control servos and strategies, and overall design evaluation are briefly discussed, with some technical examples.

  6. Using Typography to Expand the Design Space of Data Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Brath

    Full Text Available This article is a systematic exploration and expansion of the data visualization design space focusing on the role of text. A critical analysis of text usage in data visualizations reveals gaps in existing frameworks and practice. A cross-disciplinary review including the fields of typography, cartography, and coding interfaces yields various typographic techniques to encode data into text, and provides scope for an expanded design space. Mapping new attributes back to well understood principles frames the expanded design space and suggests potential areas of application. From ongoing research created with our framework, we show the design, implementation, and evaluation of six new visualization techniques. Finally, a broad evaluation of a number of visualizations, including critiques from several disciplinary experts, reveals opportunities as well as areas of concern, and points towards additional research with our framework.

  7. Conceptual design of jewellery: a space-based aesthetics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzintzi Vaia


    Full Text Available Conceptual design is a field that offers various aesthetic approaches to generation of nature-based product design concepts. Essentially, Conceptual Product Design (CPD uses similarities based on the geometrical forms and functionalities. Furthermore, the CAD-based freehand sketch is a primary conceptual tool in the early stages of the design process. The proposed Conceptual Product Design concept is dealing with jewelleries that are inspired from space. Specifically, a number of galaxy features, such as galaxy shapes, wormholes and graphical representation of planet magnetic field are used as inspirations. Those space-based design ideas at a conceptual level can lead to further opportunities for research and economic success of the jewellery industry. A number of illustrative case studies are presented and new opportunities can be derived for economic success.

  8. Interior design as a motivation for creating creative spaces


    Weiner, Nina


    The thesis underlines the importance of a thoughtful, systematic and modern way of designing classrooms due to its effects on productivity and creativity of pupils. The theoretical part focuses on the relationship between creativity and art classroom; a particular attention is given to the elements of interior design of art classrooms, enabling such organisation of space that fosters creativity in pupils. The emphasis is given on colour and lights as essential elements of interior design. In ...

  9. Gamers as Designers: A Framework for Investigating Design in Gaming Affinity Spaces (United States)

    Duncan, Sean C.


    This article addresses recent approaches to uncovering and theorizing the design activities that occur in online gaming affinity spaces. Examples are presented of productive d/Discourse present within online forums around three video game series, video games, or game platforms, and key design practices engaged upon by gamers in these spaces. It is…

  10. Space Mapping and Beyond: Knowledge-Driven Microwave Design Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziel, Slawomir; Madsen, Kaj


    in such a low-fidelity model allows us to dramatically reduce the number of EM simulations necessary to find a satisfactory design. Here, we review the concept of knowledge-driven design as well as specific design techniques, including space mapping, simulation-based tuning, and various response correction...... models that can replace the CPU-intensive EM-simulated structure of interest in the search for optimum design. The surrogate models exploiting physically-based low-fidelity models (e.g., circuit equivalents) can be particularly efficient: the knowledge about the structure under design embedded...

  11. Synthesis of three-dimensional flower-like BiOCl:RE{sup 3+} (RE{sup 3+} = Eu{sup 3+}, Sm{sup 3+}) globular microarchitectures and their luminescence properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yang-Yang; Zhang, Zhi-Jun [Department of Physics, Dongguk University, Seoul, 100715 (Korea, Republic of); Zhu, Gang-Qiang [Department of Physics, Shanxi Normal University, Xi’an, 710062 (China); Yang, Woochul, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Dongguk University, Seoul, 100715 (Korea, Republic of)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Three-dimensional flower-like Eu{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+}-activated BiOCl globular microarchitectures have been synthesized. • Ostwald ripening and recrystallization are responsible for the growth mechanism of BiOCl microarchitectures. • Efficient red-emission from Eu{sup 3+}:BiOCl is observed due to the well-crystallized structures of the microarchitectures. - Abstract: Three-dimensional flower-like Eu{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+}-activated BiOCl globular microarchitectures were synthesized by the solvothermal method employing urea as a dispersing agent for the first time. The crystal structure, morphologies and luminescence properties of Eu{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+} doped BiOCl have been systematically investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and spectroscopy, respectively. The unit cell volumes show a nearly linear decrease by about 0.18 and 0.15% with increasing Eu{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+} concentration up to 9 mol%, respectively. All of the prepared samples show flower-like globular microarchitectures with an average diameter about 3–5 μm with different Eu{sup 3+} and Sm{sup 3+} concentrations. Possible formation mechanism for the flower-like microarchitectures is proposed on the basis of time-dependent experiment. Both BiOCl:Eu{sup 3+} and BiOCl:Sm{sup 3+} samples show a strong red emission corresponding to the {sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 4} transition (700 nm) of Eu{sup 3+} and {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} → {sup 6}H{sub 7/2} transition (600 nm) of Sm{sup 3+}, respectively. This work sheds some light on the design and preparation of red-emitting phosphors with novel microstructures.

  12. Socio-technical Spaces: Guiding Politics, Staging Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Christian; Yoshinaka, Yutaka


    This article addresses how insights from the social shaping tradition and political process theory may contribute to an understanding of the sociotechnical design and implementation of change. This idea is pursued through the notion of 'socio-technical spaces' and its delineation, with respect...... political concerns. The paper tentatively points to some analytical implications and to challenges and possibilities for the 'bridging' between spaces otherwise rendered distinct....

  13. Automatic Design of a Maglev Controller in State Space (United States)


    Design of a Maglev Controller in State Space Feng Zhao Richard Thornton Abstract We describe the automatic synthesis of a global nonlinear controller for...the global switching points of the controller is presented. The synthesized control system can stabilize the maglev vehicle with large initial displace...NUMBERS Automation Desing of a Maglev Controller in State Space N00014-89-J-3202 MIP-9001651 6. AUTHOR(S) Feng Zhao and Richard Thornton 7. PERFORMING

  14. Space Station services and design features for users (United States)

    Kurzhals, Peter R.; Mckinney, Royce L.


    The operational design features and services planned for the NASA Space Station will furnish, in addition to novel opportunities and facilities, lower costs through interface standardization and automation and faster access by means of computer-aided integration and control processes. By furnishing a basis for large-scale space exploitation, the Space Station will possess industrial production and operational services capabilities that may be used by the private sector for commercial ventures; it could also ultimately support lunar and planetary exploration spacecraft assembly and launch facilities.

  15. Design of Urban Public Spaces: Intent vs. Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort, Mikkel; Martin, W Mike; Stewart, Tom


    knowledge, and that expert knowledge was chosen randomly. These findings point to a systematic lack of evidence-based practice when designing sport and recreational facilities. This article has implications for landscape architects and urban planners; a new method must be developed to embed......This study investigated how two public spaces for sport and recreation were utilized by different user groups, and how this aligned with the initial design objectives for these spaces. Two newly built urban spaces situated in Copenhagen, Denmark, provided the context for this investigation...... interdisciplinary knowledge in the planning process of future sport and recreation projects. This must be done in a systematic way to make the design process transparent....

  16. Designing for competence: spaces that enhance collaboration readiness in healthcare. (United States)

    Lamb, Gerri; Shraiky, James


    Many universities in the United States are investing in classrooms and campuses designed to increase collaboration and teamwork among the health professions. To date, we know little about whether these learning spaces are having the intended impact on student performance. Recent advances in the identification of interprofessional teamwork competencies provide a much-needed step toward a defined outcome metric. Rigorous study of the relationship between design and student competence in collaboration also requires clear specification of design concepts and development of testable frameworks. Such theory-based evaluation is crucial for design to become an integral part of interprofessional education strategies and initiatives. Current classroom and campus designs were analyzed for common themes and features in collaborative spaces as a starting place for specification of design concepts and model development. Four major themes were identified: flexibility, visual transparency/proximity, technology and environmental infrastructure. Potential models linking this preliminary set of design concepts to student competencies are proposed and used to generate hypotheses for future study of the impact of collaborative design spaces on student outcomes.

  17. Materials and design concepts for space-resilient structures (United States)

    Naser, Mohannad Z.; Chehab, Alaa I.


    Space exploration and terraforming nearby planets have been fascinating concepts for the longest time. Nowadays, that technological advancements with regard to space exploration are thriving, it is only a matter of time before humans can start colonizing nearby moons and planets. This paper presents a state-of-the-art literature review on recent developments of "space-native" construction materials, and highlights evolutionary design concepts for "space-resilient" structures (i.e., colonies and habitats). This paper also details effects of harsh (and unique) space environments on various terrestrial and extraterrestrial construction materials, as well as on space infrastructure and structural systems. The feasibility of exploiting available space resources in terms of "in-situ resource utilization" and "harvesting of elements and compounds", as well as emergence of enabling technologies such as "cultured (lab-grown)" space construction materials are discussed. Towards the end of the present review, number of limitations and challenges facing Lunar and Martian exploration, and venues in-need for urgent research are identified and examined.

  18. Design optimization of space launch vehicles using a genetic algorithm (United States)

    Bayley, Douglas James

    The United States Air Force (USAF) continues to have a need for assured access to space. In addition to flexible and responsive spacelift, a reduction in the cost per launch of space launch vehicles is also desirable. For this purpose, an investigation of the design optimization of space launch vehicles has been conducted. Using a suite of custom codes, the performance aspects of an entire space launch vehicle were analyzed. A genetic algorithm (GA) was employed to optimize the design of the space launch vehicle. A cost model was incorporated into the optimization process with the goal of minimizing the overall vehicle cost. The other goals of the design optimization included obtaining the proper altitude and velocity to achieve a low-Earth orbit. Specific mission parameters that are particular to USAF space endeavors were specified at the start of the design optimization process. Solid propellant motors, liquid fueled rockets, and air-launched systems in various configurations provided the propulsion systems for two, three and four-stage launch vehicles. Mass properties models, an aerodynamics model, and a six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) flight dynamics simulator were all used to model the system. The results show the feasibility of this method in designing launch vehicles that meet mission requirements. Comparisons to existing real world systems provide the validation for the physical system models. However, the ability to obtain a truly minimized cost was elusive. The cost model uses an industry standard approach, however, validation of this portion of the model was challenging due to the proprietary nature of cost figures and due to the dependence of many existing systems on surplus hardware.

  19. Exploring the Design Space of Shape-Changing Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merritt, Timothy; Petersen, Marianne Graves; Nørgaard, Mie


    In this paper we describe the outcomes from a design exercise in which eight groups of designers designed and built hardware sketches in the form of playful shape- changing prototypes, generatively working with Rasmussen et al’s [31] eight unique types of shape change. Seeing that shape-changing ......In this paper we describe the outcomes from a design exercise in which eight groups of designers designed and built hardware sketches in the form of playful shape- changing prototypes, generatively working with Rasmussen et al’s [31] eight unique types of shape change. Seeing that shape...... for the further expansion of the design space of shape changing interfaces relating to the perception and understanding of behaviour, causality and the mechanics involved in shape change events, which we call “Imagined Physics.” This concept is described along with additional insights into the qualities of shape...

  20. Exploring the design space of shape-changing objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Mie; Merritt, Timothy Robert; Rasmussen, Majken


    In this paper we describe the outcomes from a design exercise in which eight groups of designers designed and built hardware sketches in the form of playful shape-changing prototypes, generatively working with Rasmussen et al's [31] eight unique types of shape change. Seeing that shape-changing i......In this paper we describe the outcomes from a design exercise in which eight groups of designers designed and built hardware sketches in the form of playful shape-changing prototypes, generatively working with Rasmussen et al's [31] eight unique types of shape change. Seeing that shape...... for the further expansion of the design space of shape changing interfaces relating to the perception and understanding of behaviour, causality and the mechanics involved in shape change events, which we call "Imagined Physics." This concept is described along with additional insights into the qualities of shape...

  1. Expert systems for space power supply: design, analysis, and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.S.; Thomson, M.K.; Hoshor, A.


    The authors evaluated the feasibility of applying expert systems to the conceptual design, analysis, and evaluation of space power supplies in particular, and complex systems in general. To do this, they analyzed the space power supply design process and in associated knowledge base, and characterized them in a form suitable for computer emulation of a human expert. The existing expert system tools and the results achieved with them were evaluated to assess their applicability to power system design. They applied some new concepts for combining program architectures (modular expert systems and algorithms) with information about the domain to create a deep system for handling the complex design problem. They authors developed, programmed and tested NOVICE, a code to solve a simplified version of a scoping study of a wide variety of power supply types for a broad range of missions, as a concrete feasibility demonstration

  2. Interference Cancellation Using Space-Time Processing and Precoding Design

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Feng


    Interference Cancellation Using Space-Time Processing and Precoding Design introduces original design methods to achieve interference cancellation, low-complexity decoding and full diversity for a series of multi-user systems. In multi-user environments, co-channel interference will diminish the performance of wireless communications systems. In this book, we investigate how to design robust space-time codes and pre-coders to suppress the co-channel interference when multiple antennas are available.   This book offers a valuable reference work for graduate students, academic researchers and engineers who are interested in interference cancellation in wireless communications. Rigorous performance analysis and various simulation illustrations are included for each design method.   Dr. Feng Li is a scientific researcher at Cornell University.

  3. The fabrication and cell culture of three-dimensional rolled scaffolds with complex micro-architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yaxiong; Li Xiao; Qu Xiaoli; Zhu Lin; He Jiankang; Zhao Qian; Wu Wanquan; Li Dichen


    Cell cultures for tissue engineering are traditionally prepared on two-dimensional or three-dimensional scaffolds with simple pores; however, this limits mass transportation, which is necessary for cell viability and function. In this paper, an innovative method is proposed for fabricating porous scaffolds with designed complex micro-architectures. Channels devised by computer-aided design were used to simulate features of blood vessels in native rat liver. Rapid prototyping and microreplication were used to produce a negative polydimethylsiloxane mold, and then a planar porous scaffold with predefined microchannel parameters was obtained by freeze-drying a silk fibroin/gelatin solution of an optimized concentration. After seeding with rat primary hepatocytes, the planar scaffold was rolled up to build spatial channels. By reconstructing the three-dimensional channel model in the scaffold in the form of micro-computed topography data and observing the cross-sections of the scroll, we confirmed that the bent channels were still interconnected, with restricted deviations. A comparison of the primary hepatocyte culture in the scaffolds with and without the devised channels proved that our design influenced cell organization and improved cell survival and proliferation. This method can be used for the construction of complex tissues for implantation and for culturing cells in vitro for biological tests and observations.

  4. Space-time design of the public city

    CERN Document Server

    Thomaier, Susanne; Könecke, Benjamin; Zedda, Roberto; Stabilini, Stefano


    Time has become an increasingly important topic in urban studies and urban planning. The spatial-temporal interplay is not only of relevance for the theory of urban development and urban politics, but also for urban planning and governance. The space-time approach focuses on the human being with its various habits and routines in the city. Understanding and taking those habits into account in urban planning and public policies offers a new way to improve the quality of life in our cities. Adapting the supply and accessibility of public spaces and services to the inhabitants’ space-time needs calls for an integrated approach to the physical design of urban space and to the organization of cities. In the last two decades the body of practical and theoretical work on urban space-time topics has grown substantially. The book offers a state of the art overview of the theoretical reasoning, the development of new analytical tools, and practical experience of the space-time design of public cities in major Europea...

  5. Emotion and interior space design: an ergonomic perspective. (United States)

    Reddy, Swathi Matta; Chakrabarti, Debkumar; Karmakar, Sougata


    Interaction between the users and their environment is spontaneous and unavoidable. This interaction can be positive or negative. A good interior space is about considering all the physical, environmental and cognitive elements and harmonizing them to make it a space that feels right, functionally and emotionally. The important element that has to be considered the most in an interior space is the "user". Balancing all these elements is a challenging job and results in a perfect interior space design. This paper intends to bring to light the necessity of designing an optimum interior space, which is a balance of the user's choice and the mandatory standards that ought to be followed for user safety and convenience. There has to be an intervening domain of ergonomics which will guide to bring out a balance between the personal choice of the user and the usual standards followed. It should also provide a step-by-step information, guidance and direction to act to the specifications and standards systematically to adapt an integrated approach of handling all the elements holistically which will indeed result in a good interior space.

  6. The Hubble Space Telescope nickel-hydrogen battery design (United States)

    Nawrocki, D. E.; Armantrout, J. D.; Standlee, D. J.; Baker, R. C.; Lanier, J. R.


    Details are presented of the HST (Hubble Space Telescope) battery cell, battery package, and module mechanical and electrical designs. Also included are a summary of acceptance, qualification, and vibration tests and thermal vacuum testing. Unique details of battery cell charge retention performance characteristics associated with prelaunch hold conditions are discussed. Special charge control methods to minimize thermal dissipation during pad charging operations are summarized. This module design meets all NASA fracture control requirements for manned missions.

  7. Fluence-dependent sputtering yield of micro-architectured materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthes, Christopher S.R.; Ghoniem, Nasr M., E-mail:; Li, Gary Z.; Matlock, Taylor S.; Goebel, Dan M.; Dodson, Chris A.; Wirz, Richard E.


    Highlights: • Sputtering yield is shown to be transient and heavily dependent on surface architecture. • Fabricated nano- and Microstructures cause geometric re-trapping of sputtered material, which leads to a self-healing mechanism. • Initially, the sputtering yield of micro-architectured Mo is approximately 1/2 the value as that of a planar surface. • The study demonstrates that the sputtering yield is a dynamic property, dependent on the surface structure of a material. • A developed phenomenological model mathematically describes the transient behavior of the sputtering yield as a function of plasma fluence. - Abstract: We present an experimental examination of the relationship between the surface morphology of Mo and its instantaneous sputtering rate as function of low-energy plasma ion fluence. We quantify the dynamic evolution of nano/micro features of surfaces with built-in architecture, and the corresponding variation in the sputtering yield. Ballistic deposition of sputtered atoms as a result of geometric re-trapping is observed, and re-growth of surface layers is confirmed. This provides a self-healing mechanism of micro-architectured surfaces during plasma exposure. A variety of material characterization techniques are used to show that the sputtering yield is not a fundamental property, but that it is quantitatively related to the initial surface architecture and to its subsequent evolution. The sputtering yield of textured molybdenum samples exposed to 300 eV Ar plasma is roughly 1/2 of the corresponding value for flat samples, and increases with ion fluence. Mo samples exhibited a sputtering yield initially as low as 0.22 ± 5%, converging to 0.4 ± 5% at high fluence. The sputtering yield exhibits a transient behavior as function of the integrated ion fluence, reaching a steady-state value that is independent of initial surface conditions. A phenomenological model is proposed to explain the observed transient sputtering phenomenon, and to

  8. Defining process design space for monoclonal antibody cell culture. (United States)

    Abu-Absi, Susan Fugett; Yang, LiYing; Thompson, Patrick; Jiang, Canping; Kandula, Sunitha; Schilling, Bernhard; Shukla, Abhinav A


    The concept of design space has been taking root as a foundation of in-process control strategies for biopharmaceutical manufacturing processes. During mapping of the process design space, the multidimensional combination of operational variables is studied to quantify the impact on process performance in terms of productivity and product quality. An efficient methodology to map the design space for a monoclonal antibody cell culture process is described. A failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) was used as the basis for the process characterization exercise. This was followed by an integrated study of the inoculum stage of the process which includes progressive shake flask and seed bioreactor steps. The operating conditions for the seed bioreactor were studied in an integrated fashion with the production bioreactor using a two stage design of experiments (DOE) methodology to enable optimization of operating conditions. A two level Resolution IV design was followed by a central composite design (CCD). These experiments enabled identification of the edge of failure and classification of the operational parameters as non-key, key or critical. In addition, the models generated from the data provide further insight into balancing productivity of the cell culture process with product quality considerations. Finally, process and product-related impurity clearance was evaluated by studies linking the upstream process with downstream purification. Production bioreactor parameters that directly influence antibody charge variants and glycosylation in CHO systems were identified.

  9. Robonaut: a robot designed to work with humans in space (United States)

    Bluethmann, William; Ambrose, Robert; Diftler, Myron; Askew, Scott; Huber, Eric; Goza, Michael; Rehnmark, Fredrik; Lovchik, Chris; Magruder, Darby


    The Robotics Technology Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center is developing robotic systems to assist astronauts in space. One such system, Robonaut, is a humanoid robot with the dexterity approaching that of a suited astronaut. Robonaut currently has two dexterous arms and hands, a three degree-of-freedom articulating waist, and a two degree-of-freedom neck used as a camera and sensor platform. In contrast to other space manipulator systems, Robonaut is designed to work within existing corridors and use the same tools as space walking astronauts. Robonaut is envisioned as working with astronauts, both autonomously and by teleoperation, performing a variety of tasks including, routine maintenance, setting up and breaking down worksites, assisting crew members while outside of spacecraft, and serving in a rapid response capacity.

  10. The chatter door, designing for in-between spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duel, T.; Levy, P.


    The project presented in this paper is part of a broader research addressing in-between spaces and the designing of experiences taking place there. The project focuses on door frames, and inquires the way to improve social interactions taking place 'at the door'. To do so, the approach is structured


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    related injuries among its workforce. This research assessed work-space (WsD) and work-method designs (WmD), level of compliance with recommended standards (RSs) and effects on workers' wellbeing. Clearances for services in 55 supine ...

  12. A critical systems perspective on the design of organizational space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mobach, Mark P.


    This paper is the first to introduce critical systems thinking into a new emerging research strand: the design of organizational space. The study revealed two things. First, critical systems thinking provides a thorough framework to understand the possibilities to connect organization and building;


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Gasii


    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to identify main trends in the development of space grid structures. In order to reach the purpose it is necessary to conduct a review of the known structural concepts, nodal connections and specifics of the space grid structures and to make conclusions on feasibility improvement of the considered structural concepts that make it possible to develop new solutions without disadvantages residing in the analogues. Analysis of papers written by foreign and national scientists and devoted to theoretical, numerical and experimental studies of stress-strain state, influence of different factors on it and geometrical optimization and designing of space grid structures has been conducted in order to achieve the objectives. Space grid structures and, in particular, flat double-layer grid and most frequent nodes have been studied in the paper. The paper contains a short review of the history on development of space grid structures. It has been found that a rapid development of structural designs was caused by scientific and technical progress and, in particular, improvement of physical and mechanical properties of materials, development of calculation methods, application of software systems for simulating behavior of the structure under load, which significantly increased the calculation accuracy and reduced complexity of design. It has been also established that main parameters that have influence on effectiveness of a structural design are geometric dimensions of its modular elements, ratio of its depth to the span. The world experience on development of connection components has been studied in the paper. The paper presents general classification of nodal connections. Main advantages and disadvantages of existing space grid structures are highlighted and it allows to determine possible methods for their improvement. Theoretical research has permitted to establish that the main direction of spatial grid structures improvement

  14. Designing carbon markets, Part II: Carbon markets in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fankhauser, Samuel; Hepburn, Cameron


    This paper analyses the design of carbon markets in space (i.e., geographically). It is part of a twin set of papers that, starting from first principles, ask what an optimal global carbon market would look like by around 2030. Our focus is on firm-level cap-and-trade systems, although much of what we say would also apply to government-level trading and carbon offset schemes. We examine the 'first principles' of spatial design to maximise flexibility and to minimise costs, including key design issues in linking national and regional carbon markets together to create a global carbon market.

  15. Design of space-type electronic power transformers (United States)

    Ahearn, J. F.; Lagadinos, J. C.


    Both open and encapsulated varieties of high reliability, low weight, and high efficiency moderate and high voltage transformers were investigated to determine the advantages and limitations of their construction in the ranges of power and voltage required for operation in the hard vacuum environment of space. Topics covered include: (1) selection of the core material; (2) preliminary calculation of core dimensions; (3) selection of insulating materials including magnet wire insulation, coil forms, and layer and interwinding insulation; (4) coil design; (5) calculation of copper losses, core losses and efficiency; (6) calculation of temperature rise; and (7) optimization of design with changes in core selection or coil design as required to meet specifications.

  16. Thermal Design of a Protomodel Space Infrared Cryogenic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Suk Yang


    Full Text Available A Protomodel Space Infrared Cryogenic System (PSICS cooled by a stirling cryocooler has been designed. The PSICS has an IR sensor inside the cold box which is cooled by a stirling cryocooler with refrigeration capacity of 500mW at 80K in a vacuum vessel. It is important to minimize the heat load so that the background thermal noise can be reduced. In order to design the cryogenic system with low heat load and to reduce the remained heat load, we have performed numerical analyses. In this paper, we present the design factors and the results obtained by the thermal analysis of the PSICS.

  17. A Design Space for Virtuality-Introduced Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kota Gushima


    Full Text Available Augmented reality (AR and virtual reality (VR technologies have been dramatically expanded in recent years. In the near future, we expect that diverse digital services that employ Internet of Things (IoT technologies enhanced with AR and VR will become more popular. Advanced information technologies will enable the physical world to be fused with the virtual world. These digital services will be advanced via virtuality, which means that things that do not physically exist make people believe in their existence. We propose a design space for digital services that are enhanced via virtuality based on insights extracted from three case studies that we have developed and from discussions in focus groups that analyze how existing commercial IoT products proposed in a commercial crowdfunding platform, Kickstarter, could be enhanced through virtuality. The derived design space offers three dimensions to design a digital service to fuse IoT technologies with virtuality: (1 Taxonomy of IoT; (2 Visualizing Level, and (3 Virtuality Level. The design space will help IoT-based digital service designers to develop advanced future IoT products that incorporate virtuality.

  18. Model-Based Engineering Design for Trade Space Exploration throughout the Design Cycle (United States)

    Lamassoure, Elisabeth S.; Wall, Stephen D.; Easter, Robert W.


    This paper presents ongoing work to standardize model-based system engineering as a complement to point design development in the conceptual design phase of deep space missions. It summarizes two first steps towards practical application of this capability within the framework of concurrent engineering design teams and their customers. The first step is standard generation of system sensitivities models as the output of concurrent engineering design sessions, representing the local trade space around a point design. A review of the chosen model development process, and the results of three case study examples, demonstrate that a simple update to the concurrent engineering design process can easily capture sensitivities to key requirements. It can serve as a valuable tool to analyze design drivers and uncover breakpoints in the design. The second step is development of rough-order- of-magnitude, broad-range-of-validity design models for rapid exploration of the trade space, before selection of a point design. At least one case study demonstrated the feasibility to generate such models in a concurrent engineering session. The experiment indicated that such a capability could yield valid system-level conclusions for a trade space composed of understood elements. Ongoing efforts are assessing the practicality of developing end-to-end system-level design models for use before even convening the first concurrent engineering session, starting with modeling an end-to-end Mars architecture.

  19. Timelines Revisited: A Design Space and Considerations for Expressive Storytelling. (United States)

    Brehmer, Matthew; Lee, Bongshin; Bach, Benjamin; Riche, Nathalie Henry; Munzner, Tamara


    There are many ways to visualize event sequences as timelines. In a storytelling context where the intent is to convey multiple narrative points, a richer set of timeline designs may be more appropriate than the narrow range that has been used for exploratory data analysis by the research community. Informed by a survey of 263 timelines, we present a design space for storytelling with timelines that balances expressiveness and effectiveness, identifying 14 design choices characterized by three dimensions: representation, scale, and layout. Twenty combinations of these choices are viable timeline designs that can be matched to different narrative points, while smooth animated transitions between narrative points allow for the presentation of a cohesive story, an important aspect of both interactive storytelling and data videos. We further validate this design space by realizing the full set of viable timeline designs and transitions in a proof-of-concept sandbox implementation that we used to produce seven example timeline stories. Ultimately, this work is intended to inform and inspire the design of future tools for storytelling with timelines.

  20. Space Station Freedom pressurized element interior design process (United States)

    Hopson, George D.; Aaron, John; Grant, Richard L.


    The process used to develop the on-orbit working and living environment of the Space Station Freedom has some very unique constraints and conditions to satisfy. The goal is to provide maximum efficiency and utilization of the available space, in on-orbit, zero G conditions that establishes a comfortable, productive, and safe working environment for the crew. The Space Station Freedom on-orbit living and working space can be divided into support for three major functions: (1) operations, maintenance, and management of the station; (2) conduct of experiments, both directly in the laboratories and remotely for experiments outside the pressurized environment; and (3) crew related functions for food preparation, housekeeping, storage, personal hygiene, health maintenance, zero G environment conditioning, and individual privacy, and rest. The process used to implement these functions, the major requirements driving the design, unique considerations and constraints that influence the design, and summaries of the analysis performed to establish the current configurations are described. Sketches and pictures showing the layout and internal arrangement of the Nodes, U.S. Laboratory and Habitation modules identify the current design relationships of the common and unique station housekeeping subsystems. The crew facilities, work stations, food preparation and eating areas (galley and wardroom), and exercise/health maintenance configurations, waste management and personal hygiene area configuration are shown. U.S. Laboratory experiment facilities and maintenance work areas planned to support the wide variety and mixtures of life science and materials processing payloads are described.

  1. Advanced Space Suit Portable Life Support Subsystem Packaging Design (United States)

    Howe, Robert; Diep, Chuong; Barnett, Bob; Thomas, Gretchen; Rouen, Michael; Kobus, Jack


    This paper discusses the Portable Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) packaging design work done by the NASA and Hamilton Sundstrand in support of the 3 future space missions; Lunar, Mars and zero-g. The goal is to seek ways to reduce the weight of PLSS packaging, and at the same time, develop a packaging scheme that would make PLSS technology changes less costly than the current packaging methods. This study builds on the results of NASA s in-house 1998 study, which resulted in the "Flex PLSS" concept. For this study the present EMU schematic (low earth orbit) was used so that the work team could concentrate on the packaging. The Flex PLSS packaging is required to: protect, connect, and hold the PLSS and its components together internally and externally while providing access to PLSS components internally for maintenance and for technology change without extensive redesign impact. The goal of this study was two fold: 1. Bring the advanced space suit integrated Flex PLSS concept from its current state of development to a preliminary design level and build a proof of concept mockup of the proposed design, and; 2. "Design" a Design Process, which accommodates both the initial Flex PLSS design and the package modifications, required to accommodate new technology.

  2. Commercial Spacewalking: Designing an EVA Qualification Program for Space Tourism (United States)

    Gast, Matthew A.


    In the near future, accessibility to space will be opened to anyone with the means and the desire to experience the weightlessness of microgravity, and to look out upon both the curvature of the Earth and the blackness of space, from the protected, shirt-sleeved environment of a commercial spacecraft. Initial forays will be short-duration, suborbital flights, but the experience and expertise of half a century of spaceflight will soon produce commercial vehicles capable of achieving low Earth orbit. Even with the commercial space industry still in its infancy, and manned orbital flight a number of years away, there is little doubt that there will one day be a feasible and viable market for those courageous enough to venture outside the vehicle and into the void, wearing nothing but a spacesuit, armed with nothing but preflight training. What that Extravehicular Activity (EVA) preflight training entails, however, is something that has yet to be defined. A number of significant factors will influence the composition of a commercial EVA training program, but a fundamental question remains: 'what minimum training guidelines must be met to ensure a safe and successful commercial spacewalk?' Utilizing the experience gained through the development of NASA's Skills program - designed to qualify NASA and International Partner astronauts for EVA aboard the International Space Station - this paper identifies the attributes and training objectives essential to the safe conduct of an EVA, and attempts to conceptually design a comprehensive training methodology meant to represent an acceptable qualification standard.

  3. Interactive Design and Visualization of Branched Covering Spaces. (United States)

    Roy, Lawrence; Kumar, Prashant; Golbabaei, Sanaz; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Eugene


    Branched covering spaces are a mathematical concept which originates from complex analysis and topology and has applications in tensor field topology and geometry remeshing. Given a manifold surface and an -way rotational symmetry field, a branched covering space is a manifold surface that has an -to-1 map to the original surface except at the ramification points, which correspond to the singularities in the rotational symmetry field. Understanding the notion and mathematical properties of branched covering spaces is important to researchers in tensor field visualization and geometry processing, and their application areas. In this paper, we provide a framework to interactively design and visualize the branched covering space (BCS) of an input mesh surface and a rotational symmetry field defined on it. In our framework, the user can visualize not only the BCSs but also their construction process. In addition, our system allows the user to design the geometric realization of the BCS using mesh deformation techniques as well as connecting tubes. This enables the user to verify important facts about BCSs such as that they are manifold surfaces around singularities, as well as the Riemann-Hurwitz formula which relates the Euler characteristic of the BCS to that of the original mesh. Our system is evaluated by student researchers in scientific visualization and geometry processing as well as faculty members in mathematics at our university who teach topology. We include their evaluations and feedback in the paper.

  4. Hybrid Enhanced Epidermal SpaceSuit Design Approaches (United States)

    Jessup, Joseph M.

    A Space suit that does not rely on gas pressurization is a multi-faceted problem that requires major stability controls to be incorporated during design and construction. The concept of Hybrid Epidermal Enhancement space suit integrates evolved human anthropomorphic and physiological adaptations into its functionality, using commercially available bio-medical technologies to address shortcomings of conventional gas pressure suits, and the impracticalities of MCP suits. The prototype HEE Space Suit explored integumentary homeostasis, thermal control and mobility using advanced bio-medical materials technology and construction concepts. The goal was a space suit that functions as an enhanced, multi-functional bio-mimic of the human epidermal layer that works in attunement with the wearer rather than as a separate system. In addressing human physiological requirements for design and construction of the HEE suit, testing regimes were devised and integrated into the prototype which was then subject to a series of detailed tests using both anatomical reproduction methods and human subject.

  5. Bone microarchitecture and estimated bone strength in men with active acromegaly. (United States)

    Silva, Paula P B; Amlashi, Fatemeh G; Yu, Elaine W; Pulaski-Liebert, Karen J; Gerweck, Anu V; Fazeli, Pouneh K; Lawson, Elizabeth; Nachtigall, Lisa B; Biller, Beverly M K; Miller, Karen K; Klibanski, Anne; Bouxsein, Mary; Tritos, Nicholas A


    Both acromegaly and adult growth hormone deficiency (GHD) are associated with increased fracture risk. Sufficient data are lacking regarding cortical bone microarchitecture and bone strength, as assessed by microfinite element analysis (µFEA). To elucidate both cortical and trabecular bone microarchitecture and estimated bone strength in men with active acromegaly or GHD compared to healthy controls. Cross-sectional study at a clinical research center, including 48 men (16 with acromegaly, 16 with GHD and 16 healthy controls). Areal bone mineral density (aBMD), cortical and trabecular bone microarchitecture and estimated bone strength (µFEA) at the radius and tibia. aBMD was not different between the 3 groups at any skeletal site. At the radius, patients with acromegaly had greater cortical area ( P  acromegaly had lower trabecular bone density ( P  = 0.0082), but no differences in cortical bone microstructure. Compressive strength and failure load did not significantly differ between groups. These findings persisted after excluding patients with hypogonadism. Bone microarchitecture was not deficient in patients with GHD. Both cortical and trabecular microarchitecture are altered in men with acromegaly. Our data indicate that GH excess is associated with distinct effects in cortical vs trabecular bone compartments. Our observations also affirm the limitations of aBMD testing in the evaluation of patients with acromegaly. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  6. The Design Space of Multi-Language Development Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeiffer, Rolf-Helge; Wasowski, Andrzej


    Non-trivial software systems integrate many artifacts expressed in multiple modeling and program- ming languages. However, even though these artifacts heavily depend on each other, existing development envi- ronments do not sufficiently support handling relations between artifacts in different...... languages. By means of a literature survey, tool prototyping and experiments we study the design space of multi-language development environments (MLDEs)—tools that consider the cross-language relations as first artifacts. We ask: what is the state of the art in the MLDE space? What are the design choices...... and challenges faced by tool builders? To what extent MLDEs are desired by users, and for what support features? Our main conclusions are that (a) cross-language re- lations are ubiquitous and troublesome in multi-language systems, (b) users highly appreciated cross-language sup- port mechanisms of MLDEs and (c...

  7. Apodized Pupil Lyot Coronagraphs designs for future segmented space telescopes (United States)

    St. Laurent, Kathryn; Fogarty, Kevin; Zimmerman, Neil; N’Diaye, Mamadou; Stark, Chris; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Pueyo, Laurent; Vanderbei, Robert; Soummer, Remi


    A coronagraphic starlight suppression system situated on a future flagship space observatory offers a promising avenue to image Earth-like exoplanets and search for biomarkers in their atmospheric spectra. One NASA mission concept that could serve as the platform to realize this scientific breakthrough is the Large UV/Optical/IR Surveyor (LUVOIR). Such a mission would also address a broad range of topics in astrophysics with a multi-wavelength suite of instruments.In support of the community’s assessment of the scientific capability of a LUVOIR mission, the Exoplanet Exploration Program (ExEP) has launched a multi-team technical study: Segmented Coronagraph Design and Analysis (SCDA). The goal of this study is to develop viable coronagraph instrument concepts for a LUVOIR-type mission. Results of the SCDA effort will directly inform the mission concept evaluation being carried out by the LUVOIR Science and Technology Definition Team. The apodized pupil Lyot coronagraph (APLC) is one of several coronagraph design families that the SCDA study is assessing. The APLC is a Lyot-style coronagraph that suppresses starlight through a series of amplitude operations on the on-axis field. Given a suite of seven plausible segmented telescope apertures, we have developed an object-oriented software toolkit to automate the exploration of thousands of APLC design parameter combinations. In the course of exploring this parameter space we have established relationships between APLC throughput and telescope aperture geometry, Lyot stop, inner working angle, bandwidth, and contrast level. In parallel with the parameter space exploration, we have investigated several strategies to improve the robustness of APLC designs to fabrication and alignment errors and integrated a Design Reference Mission framework to evaluate designs with scientific yield metrics.

  8. Exploiting Hardware Vulnerabilities to Attack Embedded System Devices: a Survey of Potent Microarchitectural Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos P. Fournaris


    Full Text Available Cyber-Physical system devices nowadays constitute a mixture of Information Technology (IT and Operational Technology (OT systems that are meant to operate harmonically under a security critical framework. As security IT countermeasures are gradually been installed in many embedded system nodes, thus securing them from many well-know cyber attacks there is a lurking danger that is still overlooked. Apart from the software vulnerabilities that typical malicious programs use, there are some very interesting hardware vulnerabilities that can be exploited in order to mount devastating software or hardware attacks (typically undetected by software countermeasures capable of fully compromising any embedded system device. Real-time microarchitecture attacks such as the cache side-channel attacks are such case but also the newly discovered Rowhammer fault injection attack that can be mounted even remotely to gain full access to a device DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory. Under the light of the above dangers that are focused on the device hardware structure, in this paper, an overview of this attack field is provided including attacks, threat directives and countermeasures. The goal of this paper is not to exhaustively overview attacks and countermeasures but rather to survey the various, possible, existing attack directions and highlight the security risks that they can pose to security critical embedded systems as well as indicate their strength on compromising the Quality of Service (QoS such systems are designed to provide.

  9. Exploring the Design Space of Longitudinal Censorship Measurement Platforms


    Razaghpanah, Abbas; Li, Anke; Filastò, Arturo; Nithyanand, Rishab; Ververis, Vasilis; Scott, Will; Gill, Phillipa


    Despite the high perceived value and increasing severity of online information controls, a data-driven understanding of the phenomenon has remained elusive. In this paper, we consider two design points in the space of Internet censorship measurement with particular emphasis on how they address the challenges of locating vantage points, choosing content to test, and analyzing results. We discuss the trade offs of decisions made by each platform and show how the resulting data provides compleme...

  10. Design of annual storage solar space heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, F C; Cook, J D


    Design considerations for annual storage solar space heating systems are discussed. A simulation model for the performance of suh systems is described, and a method of classifying system configurations is proposed. It is shown that annual systems sized for unconstrained performance, with no unused collector or storage capacity, and no rejected heat, minimize solar acquisition costs. The optimal performance corresponds to the condition where the marginal storage-to-collector sizing ratio is equal to the corresponding marginal cost ratio.

  11. Novel Design Aspects of the Space Technology 5 Mechanical Subsystem (United States)

    Rossoni, Peter; McGill, William


    This paper describes several novel design elements of the Space Technology 5 (ST5) spacecraft mechanical subsystem. The spacecraft structure itself takes a significant step in integrating electronics into the primary structure. The deployment system restrains the spacecraft during launch and imparts a predetermined spin rate upon release from its secondary payload accommodations. The deployable instrument boom incorporates some traditional as well as new techniques for lightweight and stiffness. Analysis and test techniques used to validate these technologies are described. Numerous design choices were necessitated due to the compact spacecraft size and strict mechanical subsystem requirements.

  12. Interactive Building Design Space Exploration Using Regionalized Sensitivity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Torben; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Maagaard, Steffen


    simulation inputs are most important and which have negligible influence on the model output. Popular sensitivity methods include the Morris method, variance-based methods (e.g. Sobol’s), and regression methods (e.g. SRC). However, all these methods only address one output at a time, which makes it difficult...... in combination with the interactive parallel coordinate plot (PCP). The latter is an effective tool to explore stochastic simulations and to find high-performing building designs. The proposed methods help decision makers to focus their attention to the most important design parameters when exploring......Monte Carlo simulations combined with regionalized sensitivity analysis provide the means to explore a vast, multivariate design space in building design. Typically, sensitivity analysis shows how the variability of model output relates to the uncertainties in models inputs. This reveals which...

  13. Space shuttle OMS helium regulator design and development (United States)

    Wichmann, H.; Kelly, T. L.; Lynch, R.


    Analysis, design, fabrication and design verification testing was conducted on the technological feasiblity of the helium pressurization regulator for the space shuttle orbital maneuvering system application. A prototype regulator was fabricated which was a single-stage design featuring the most reliable and lowest cost concept. A tradeoff study on regulator concepts indicated that a single-stage regulator with a lever arm between the valve and the actuator section would offer significant weight savings. Damping concepts were tested to determine the amount of damping required to restrict actuator travel during vibration. Component design parameters such as spring rates, effective area, contamination cutting, and damping were determined by test prior to regulator final assembly. The unit was subjected to performance testing at widely ranging flow rates, temperatures, inlet pressures, and random vibration levels. A test plan for propellant compatibility and extended life tests is included.

  14. Design of a space-based infrared imaging interferometer (United States)

    Hart, Michael; Hope, Douglas; Romeo, Robert


    Present space-based optical imaging sensors are expensive. Launch costs are dictated by weight and size, and system design must take into account the low fault tolerance of a system that cannot be readily accessed once deployed. We describe the design and first prototype of the space-based infrared imaging interferometer (SIRII) that aims to mitigate several aspects of the cost challenge. SIRII is a six-element Fizeau interferometer intended to operate in the short-wave and midwave IR spectral regions over a 6×6 mrad field of view. The volume is smaller by a factor of three than a filled-aperture telescope with equivalent resolving power. The structure and primary optics are fabricated from light-weight space-qualified carbon fiber reinforced polymer; they are easy to replicate and inexpensive. The design is intended to permit one-time alignment during assembly, with no need for further adjustment once on orbit. A three-element prototype of the SIRII imager has been constructed with a unit telescope primary mirror diameter of 165 mm and edge-to-edge baseline of 540 mm. The optics, structure, and interferometric signal processing principles draw on experience developed in ground-based astronomical applications designed to yield the highest sensitivity and resolution with cost-effective optical solutions. The initial motivation for the development of SIRII was the long-term collection of technical intelligence from geosynchronous orbit, but the scalable nature of the design will likely make it suitable for a range of IR imaging scenarios.

  15. Design and Parametric Sizing of Deep Space Habitats Supporting NASA'S Human Space Flight Architecture Team (United States)

    Toups, Larry; Simon, Matthew; Smitherman, David; Spexarth, Gary


    NASA's Human Space Flight Architecture Team (HAT) is a multi-disciplinary, cross-agency study team that conducts strategic analysis of integrated development approaches for human and robotic space exploration architectures. During each analysis cycle, HAT iterates and refines the definition of design reference missions (DRMs), which inform the definition of a set of integrated capabilities required to explore multiple destinations. An important capability identified in this capability-driven approach is habitation, which is necessary for crewmembers to live and work effectively during long duration transits to and operations at exploration destinations beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). This capability is captured by an element referred to as the Deep Space Habitat (DSH), which provides all equipment and resources for the functions required to support crew safety, health, and work including: life support, food preparation, waste management, sleep quarters, and housekeeping.The purpose of this paper is to describe the design of the DSH capable of supporting crew during exploration missions. First, the paper describes the functionality required in a DSH to support the HAT defined exploration missions, the parameters affecting its design, and the assumptions used in the sizing of the habitat. Then, the process used for arriving at parametric sizing estimates to support additional HAT analyses is detailed. Finally, results from the HAT Cycle C DSH sizing are presented followed by a brief description of the remaining design trades and technological advancements necessary to enable the exploration habitation capability.

  16. Morphological Control: A Design Principal for Applications in Space Science (United States)

    Füchslin, R. M.; Dumont, E.; Flumini, D.; Fuchs, H. U.; Hauser, H.; Jaeger, C.; Scheidegger, S.; Schönenberger-Deuel, J.; Lichtensteiger, L.; Luchsinger, R.; Weyland, M.

    Designing robots for applications in space flight requires a different prioritization of design criteria than for systems operating on Earth. In this article, we argue that the field of soft robotics offers novel approaches meeting the specific requirements of space flight. We present one especially promising construction principle, so called Tensairity, in some detail. Tensairity, as the name suggests, takes ideas from Tensegrity, but uses inflatable structures instead of cables and struts. Soft robots pose substantial challenges with respect to control. One way to meet these challenges is given by the concept of morphological computation and control. Morphological computation can be loosely defined as the exploitation of the shape, material properties, and dynamics of a physical system to improve the efficiency of computation and to deal with systems for which it is difficult to construct a virtual representation using a kinematic model. We discuss fundamental aspects of morphological control and their relevance for space flight. Besides low weight, small consumption of space in the inactive state and advantageous properties with respect to intrinsic safety and energy consumption, we discuss how the blurring of the discrimination of hard- and software leads to control strategies that require only very little and very simple electronic circuitry (which is beneficial in an environment with high irradiation). Finally, we present a research strategy that bundles activities in space flight with research and development in medicine, especially for support systems for an aging population, that are faced with similar morphological computing challenges to astronauts. Such a combination meets the demands for research that is not only effective, but also efficient with respect to economic resources.

  17. Three-dimensional microarchitecture of human osteoporotic, osteoarthrotic and rheumatoid arthritic cancellous bones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Overgaard, Søren

    , OP often leads to skeletal fractures, and OA and RA result in severe joint disability. Over the last a few decades, much significant research on the properties has been carried out on these diseases, however, a detailed comparison of the microarchitecture of cancellous bones of these diseases...... is not available. In this study, we investigated three-dimensional (3-D) microarchitectural properties of OP, OA and RA cancellous bone. We hypothesized that there were significant differences in microarchitecture among OP, OA and RA bone tissues that might lead to different bone quality. Materials and Method...... Twenty OP, fifty OA, and twelve RA femur heads were harvested from patients undergone total hip replacement surgery. Cubic cancellous bone samples (8*8*8 mm3) were prepared and scanned with a high resolution microtomographic system (vivaCT 40, Scanco Medical AG., Brüttisellen, Switzerland). Then micro...

  18. Preliminary result on trabecular bone score (TBS in lumbar vertebrae with experimentally altered microarchitecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Di Stefano


    Full Text Available The aim of this preliminary research is to investigate the reliability of a new qualitative parameter, called Trabecular Bone Score (TBS, recently proposed for evaluating the microarchitectural arrangement of cancellous bone in scans carried out by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Vertebral bodies of 15 fresh samples of lumbar spines of adult pig were analysed either in basal conditions and with altered microarchitecture of the cancellous bone obtained by progressive drilling. The examined bony areas do not show changes in bone mineral density (BMD, whereas TBS values decrease with the increasing alteration of the vertebral microtrabecular structure. Our preliminary data seem to confirm the reliability of TBS as a qualitative parameter useful for evaluating the microarchitectural strength in bony areas quantitatively analysed by DXA.

  19. Designing interior space for drivers of passenger vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević-Brkić Vesna K.


    Full Text Available The current study is a review of our previous papers with certain improvements, so it proves the hypothesis that passenger vehicles are still not sufficiently adapted to man in terms of ergonomics, especially from the aspect of interior space. In the ergonomic adjustment of passenger vehicles, the limits of anthropomeasures and technical limitations, are the most important. The methodology mainly uses operative investigations, and the 'man-vehicle' system is optimized within existing limitations. Here, we also explain original methodology for modeling that space. The fact that there is a point '0' as the origin point of a coordinate system with x, y and z axes of the man-vehicle system, which can be considered to be more or less fixed, enabled us to determine more accurately the mechanical and mathematical codependence in this system. The paper also proves that the anthropomeasures of length have mechanical and mathematical functions which also determine the width, i.e. all three dimensions and provides the design of the space behind the windscreen glass, the position of the steering wheel and the position of the foot commands with space for feet and knees determined, as well as the total space which the driver occupies. It is proved that the floor-ceiling height of a vehicle is primarily affected by the anthropomeasures of seating height and lower leg, while width is affected by the anthropomeasures of lower and upper leg and only then by shoulder width, so that the interior space for the driver of a passenger vehicle is 1250 mm and the width for knees spread at seat level is 926 mm maximum.

  20. Space Launch Systems Block 1B Preliminary Navigation System Design (United States)

    Oliver, T. Emerson; Park, Thomas; Anzalone, Evan; Smith, Austin; Strickland, Dennis; Patrick, Sean


    NASA is currently building the Space Launch Systems (SLS) Block 1 launch vehicle for the Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) test flight. In parallel, NASA is also designing the Block 1B launch vehicle. The Block 1B vehicle is an evolution of the Block 1 vehicle and extends the capability of the NASA launch vehicle. This evolution replaces the Interim Cryogenic Propulsive Stage (ICPS) with the Exploration Upper Stage (EUS). As the vehicle evolves to provide greater lift capability, increased robustness for manned missions, and the capability to execute more demanding missions so must the SLS Integrated Navigation System evolved to support those missions. This paper describes the preliminary navigation systems design for the SLS Block 1B vehicle. The evolution of the navigation hard-ware and algorithms from an inertial-only navigation system for Block 1 ascent flight to a tightly coupled GPS-aided inertial navigation system for Block 1B is described. The Block 1 GN&C system has been designed to meet a LEO insertion target with a specified accuracy. The Block 1B vehicle navigation system is de-signed to support the Block 1 LEO target accuracy as well as trans-lunar or trans-planetary injection accuracy. Additionally, the Block 1B vehicle is designed to support human exploration and thus is designed to minimize the probability of Loss of Crew (LOC) through high-quality inertial instruments and robust algorithm design, including Fault Detection, Isolation, and Recovery (FDIR) logic.

  1. A Markovian state-space framework for integrating flexibility into space system design decisions (United States)

    Lafleur, Jarret M.

    The past decades have seen the state of the art in aerospace system design progress from a scope of simple optimization to one including robustness, with the objective of permitting a single system to perform well even in off-nominal future environments. Integrating flexibility, or the capability to easily modify a system after it has been fielded in response to changing environments, into system design represents a further step forward. One challenge in accomplishing this rests in that the decision-maker must consider not only the present system design decision, but also sequential future design and operation decisions. Despite extensive interest in the topic, the state of the art in designing flexibility into aerospace systems, and particularly space systems, tends to be limited to analyses that are qualitative, deterministic, single-objective, and/or limited to consider a single future time period. To address these gaps, this thesis develops a stochastic, multi-objective, and multi-period framework for integrating flexibility into space system design decisions. Central to the framework are five steps. First, system configuration options are identified and costs of switching from one configuration to another are compiled into a cost transition matrix. Second, probabilities that demand on the system will transition from one mission to another are compiled into a mission demand Markov chain. Third, one performance matrix for each design objective is populated to describe how well the identified system configurations perform in each of the identified mission demand environments. The fourth step employs multi-period decision analysis techniques, including Markov decision processes from the field of operations research, to find efficient paths and policies a decision-maker may follow. The final step examines the implications of these paths and policies for the primary goal of informing initial system selection. Overall, this thesis unifies state-centric concepts of

  2. Game Changing: NASA's Space Launch System and Science Mission Design (United States)

    Creech, Stephen D.


    NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is directing efforts to build the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy-lift rocket that will carry the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and other important payloads far beyond Earth orbit (BEO). Its evolvable architecture will allow NASA to begin with Moon fly-bys and then go on to transport humans or robots to distant places such as asteroids and Mars. Designed to simplify spacecraft complexity, the SLS rocket will provide improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduced mission durations. These capabilities offer attractive advantages for ambitious missions such as a Mars sample return, by reducing infrastructure requirements, cost, and schedule. For example, if an evolved expendable launch vehicle (EELV) were used for a proposed mission to investigate the Saturn system, a complicated trajectory would be required - with several gravity-assist planetary fly-bys - to achieve the necessary outbound velocity. The SLS rocket, using significantly higher C3 energies, can more quickly and effectively take the mission directly to its destination, reducing trip time and cost. As this paper will report, the SLS rocket will launch payloads of unprecedented mass and volume, such as "monolithic" telescopes and in-space infrastructure. Thanks to its ability to co-manifest large payloads, it also can accomplish complex missions in fewer launches. Future analyses will include reviews of alternate mission concepts and detailed evaluations of SLS figures of merit, helping the new rocket revolutionize science mission planning and design for years to come.

  3. Structural design considerations for an 8-m space telescope (United States)

    Arnold, William r., Sr.; Stahl, H. Philip


    NASA's upcoming ARES V launch vehicle, with its' immense payload capacities (both volume and mass) has opened the possibilities for a whole new paradigm of space observatories. It becomes practical to consider a monolith mirror of sufficient size to permit significant scientific advantages, both in collection area and smoothness or figure at a reasonable price. The technologies and engineering to manufacture and test 8 meter class monoliths is mature, with nearly a dozen of such mirrors already in operation around the world. This paper will discuss the design requirements to adapt an 8m meniscus mirror into a Space Telescope System, both launch and operational considerations are included. With objects this massive and structurally sensitive, the mirror design must include all stages of the process. Based upon the experiences of the Hubble Space Telescope, testing and verification at both component and integrated system levels are considered vital to mission success. To this end, two different component level test methods for gravity sag (the so call zero- gravity simulation or test mount) are proposed, with one of these methods suitable for the full up system level testing as well.

  4. Value-informed space systems design and acquisition (United States)

    Brathwaite, Joy

    Investments in space systems are substantial, indivisible, and irreversible, characteristics that make them high-risk, especially when coupled with an uncertain demand environment. Traditional approaches to system design and acquisition, derived from a performance- or cost-centric mindset, incorporate little information about the spacecraft in relation to its environment and its value to its stakeholders. These traditional approaches, while appropriate in stable environments, are ill-suited for the current, distinctly uncertain, and rapidly changing technical and economic conditions; as such, they have to be revisited and adapted to the present context. This thesis proposes that in uncertain environments, decision-making with respect to space system design and acquisition should be value-based, or at a minimum value-informed. This research advances the value-centric paradigm by providing the theoretical basis, foundational frameworks, and supporting analytical tools for value assessment of priced and unpriced space systems. For priced systems, stochastic models of the market environment and financial models of stakeholder preferences are developed and integrated with a spacecraft-sizing tool to assess the system's net present value. The analytical framework is applied to a case study of a communications satellite, with market, financial, and technical data obtained from the satellite operator, Intelsat. The case study investigates the implications of the value-centric versus the cost-centric design and acquisition choices. Results identify the ways in which value-optimal spacecraft design choices are contingent on both technical and market conditions, and that larger spacecraft for example, which reap economies of scale benefits, as reflected by their decreasing cost-per-transponder, are not always the best (most valuable) choices. Market conditions and technical constraints for which convergence occurs between design choices under a cost-centric and a value

  5. Designing for Virtual Windows in a Deep Space Habitat (United States)

    Howe, A. Scott; Howard, Robert L.; Moore, Nathan; Amoroso, Michael


    This paper discusses configurations and test analogs toward the design of a virtual window capability in a Deep Space Habitat. Long-duration space missions will require crews to remain in the confines of a spacecraft for extended periods of time, with possible harmful effects if a crewmember cannot cope with the small habitable volume. Virtual windows expand perceived volume using a minimal amount of image projection equipment and computing resources, and allow a limited immersion in remote environments. Uses for the virtual window include: live or augmented reality views of the external environment; flight deck, piloting, observation, or other participation in remote missions through live transmission of cameras mounted to remote vehicles; pre-recorded background views of nature areas, seasonal occurrences, or cultural events; and pre-recorded events such as birthdays, anniversaries, and other meaningful events prepared by ground support and families of the crewmembers.

  6. Designing learning spaces for interprofessional education in the anatomical sciences. (United States)

    Cleveland, Benjamin; Kvan, Thomas


    This article explores connections between interprofessional education (IPE) models and the design of learning spaces for undergraduate and graduate education in the anatomical sciences and other professional preparation. The authors argue that for IPE models to be successful and sustained they must be embodied in the environment in which interprofessional learning occurs. To elaborate these arguments, two exemplar tertiary education facilities are discussed: the Charles Perkins Centre at the University of Sydney for science education and research, and Victoria University's Interprofessional Clinic in Wyndham for undergraduate IPE in health care. Backed by well-conceived curriculum and pedagogical models, the architectures of these facilities embody the educational visions, methods, and practices they were designed to support. Subsequently, the article discusses the spatial implications of curriculum and pedagogical change in the teaching of the anatomical sciences and explores how architecture might further the development of IPE models in the field. In conclusion, it is argued that learning spaces should be designed and developed (socially) with the expressed intention of supporting collaborative IPE models in health education settings, including those in the anatomical sciences. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  7. The Space Mission Design Example Using LEO Bolos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Nizhnik


    Full Text Available Four sample space launch missions were designed using rotating momentum transfer tethers (bolos within low Earth orbit and a previously unknown phenomenon of “aerospinning” was identified and simulated. The momentum transfer tethers were found to be only marginally more efficient than the use of chemical rocket boosters. Insufficient power density of modern spacecrafts was identified as the principal inhibitory factor for tether usage as a means of launch-assistance, with power densities at least 10 W/kg required for effective bolos operation.

  8. Three-dimensional evaluation of human jaw bone microarchitecture: correlation between the microarchitectural parameters of cone beam computed tomography and micro-computer tomography. (United States)

    Kim, Jo-Eun; Yi, Won-Jin; Heo, Min-Suk; Lee, Sam-Sun; Choi, Soon-Chul; Huh, Kyung-Hoe


    To evaluate the potential feasibility of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in the assessment of trabecular bone microarchitecture. Sixty-eight specimens from four pairs of human jaw were scanned using both micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) of 19.37-μm voxel size and CBCT of 100-μm voxel size. The correlation of 3-dimensional parameters between CBCT and micro-CT was evaluated. All parameters, except bone-specific surface and trabecular thickness, showed linear correlations between the 2 imaging modalities (P < .05). Among the parameters, bone volume, percent bone volume, trabecular separation, and degree of anisotropy (DA) of CBCT images showed strong correlations with those of micro-CT images. DA showed the strongest correlation (r = 0.693). Most microarchitectural parameters from CBCT were correlated with those from micro-CT. Some microarchitectural parameters, especially DA, could be used as strong predictors of bone quality in the human jaw. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A future large-aperture UVOIR space observatory: reference designs (United States)

    Rioux, Norman; Thronson, Harley; Feinberg, Lee; Stahl, H. Philip; Redding, Dave; Jones, Andrew; Sturm, James; Collins, Christine; Liu, Alice


    Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI study team has used community-provided science goals to derive mission needs, requirements, and candidate mission architectures for a future large-aperture, non-cryogenic UVOIR space observatory. We describe the feasibility assessment of system thermal and dynamic stability for supporting coronagraphy. The observatory is in a Sun-Earth L2 orbit providing a stable thermal environment and excellent field of regard. Reference designs include a 36-segment 9.2 m aperture telescope that stows within a five meter diameter launch vehicle fairing. Performance needs developed under the study are traceable to a variety of reference designs including options for a monolithic primary mirror.

  10. Approach to design space from retrospective quality data. (United States)

    Puñal Peces, Daniel; García-Montoya, Encarna; Manich, Albert; Suñé-Negre, Josep Maria; Pérez-Lozano, Pilar; Miñarro, Montse; Ticó, Josep Ramon


    Nowadays, the entire manufacturing process is based on the current GMPs, which emphasize the reproducibility of the process, and companies have a lot of recorded data about their processes. The establishment of the design space (DS) from retrospective data for a wet compression process. A design of experiments (DoE) with historical data from 4 years of industrial production has been carried out using the experimental factors as the results of the previous risk analysis and eight key parameters (quality specifications) that encompassed process and quality control data. Software Statgraphics 5.0 was applied, and data were processed to obtain eight DS as well as their safe and working ranges. Experience shows that it is possible to determine DS retrospectively, being the greatest difficulty in handling and processing of high amounts of data; however, the practicality of this study is very interesting as it let have the DS with minimal investment in experiments since actual production batch data are processed statistically.

  11. SNS accumulator ring design and space charge considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, W.T.


    The goal of the proposed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is to provide a short pulse proton beam of about 0.5 {micro}s with average beam power of 1 MW. To achieve such purpose, a proton storage ring operated at 60 Hz with 1 {times} 10{sup 14} protons per pulse at 1 GeV is required. The Accumulator Ring (AR) receives 1 msec long H{sup {minus}} beam bunches of 28 mA from a 1 GeV linac. Scope and design performance goals of the AR are presented. About 1,200 turns of charge exchange injection is needed to accumulate 1 mA in the ring. After a brief description of the lattice design and machine performance parameters, space charge related issues, such as: tune shifts, stopband corrections, halo generatino and beam collimation etc. is discussed.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The goal of the proposed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is to provide a short pulse proton beam of about 0.5{micro}s with average beam power of 1MW. To achieve such purpose, a proton storage ring operated at 60Hz with 1 x 10{sup 14} protons per pulse at 1GeV is required. The Accumulator Ring (AR) receives 1msec long H{sup {minus}} beam bunches of 28mA from a 1GeV linac. Scope and design performance goals of the AR are presented. About 1,200 turns of charge exchange injection is needed to accumulate 1mA in the ring. After a brief description of the lattice design and machine performance parameters, space charge related issues, such as: tune shifts, stopband corrections, halo generation and beam collimation etc. is discussed.

  13. SNS accumulator ring design and space charge considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W.T.


    The goal of the proposed Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is to provide a short pulse proton beam of about 0.5micros with average beam power of 1MW. To achieve such purpose, a proton storage ring operated at 60Hz with 1 x 10 14 protons per pulse at 1GeV is required. The Accumulator Ring (AR) receives 1msec long H - beam bunches of 28mA from a 1GeV linac. Scope and design performance goals of the AR are presented. About 1,200 turns of charge exchange injection is needed to accumulate 1mA in the ring. After a brief description of the lattice design and machine performance parameters, space charge related issues, such as: tune shifts, stopband corrections, halo generation and beam collimation etc. is discussed

  14. NASA's Space Launch Transitions: From Design to Production (United States)

    Askins, Bruce; Robinson, Kimberly


    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) successfully completed its Critical Design Review (CDR) in 2015, a major milestone on the journey to an unprecedented era of exploration for humanity. CDR formally marked the program's transition from design to production phase just four years after the program's inception and the first such milestone for a human launch vehicle in 40 years. While challenges typical of a complex development program lie ahead, CDR evaluators concluded that the design is technically and programmatically sound and ready to press forward to Design Certification Review (DCR) and readiness for launch of Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) in the 2018 timeframe. SLS is prudently based on existing propulsion systems, infrastructure and knowledge with a clear, evolutionary path as required by mission needs. In its initial configuration, designated Block I, SLS will a minimum of 70 metric tons (t) of payload to low Earth orbit (LEO). It can evolve to a 130 t payload capacity by upgrading its engines, boosters, and upper stage, dramatically increasing the mass and volume of human and robotic exploration while decreasing mission risk, increasing safety, and simplifying ground and mission operations. CDR was the central programmatic accomplishment among many technical accomplishments that will be described in this paper. The government/industry SLS team successfully test fired a flight-like five-segment solid rocket motor, as well as seven hotfire development tests of the RS-25 core stage engine. The majority of the major test article and flight barrels, rings, and domes for the core stage liquid oxygen, liquid hydrogen, engine section, intertank, and forward skirt were manufactured at NASA's Michoud Assembly Facility. Renovations to the B-2 test stand for stage green run testing were completed at NASA Stennis Space Center. Core stage test stands are rising at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The modified Pegasus barge for core stage transportation from manufacturing

  15. Communication-Oriented Design Space Exploration for Reconfigurable Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogniat Guy


    Full Text Available Many academic works in computer engineering focus on reconfigurable architectures and associated tools. Fine-grain architectures, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs, are the most well-known structures of reconfigurable hardware. Dedicated tools (generic or specific allow for the exploration of their design space to choose the best architecture characteristics and/or to explore the application characteristics. The aim is to increase the synergy between the application and the architecture in order to get the best performance. However, there is no generic tool to perform such an exploration for coarse-grain or heterogeneous-grain architectures, just a small number of very specific tools are able to explore a limited set of architectures. To address this major lack, in this paper we propose a new design space exploration approach adapted to fine- and coarse-grain granularities. Our approach combines algorithmic and architecture explorations. It relies on an automatic estimation tool which computes the communication hierarchical distribution and the architectural processing resources use rate for the architecture under exploration. Such an approach forwards the rapid definition of efficient reconfigurable architectures dedicated to one or several applications.

  16. International Space Station Crew Quarters Ventilation and Acoustic Design Implementation (United States)

    Broyan, James L., Jr.; Cady, Scott M; Welsh, David A.


    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Operational Segment has four permanent rack sized ISS Crew Quarters (CQs) providing a private crew member space. The CQs use Node 2 cabin air for ventilation/thermal cooling, as opposed to conditioned ducted air-from the ISS Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA) or the ISS fluid cooling loop. Consequently, CQ can only increase the air flow rate to reduce the temperature delta between the cabin and the CQ interior. However, increasing airflow causes increased acoustic noise so efficient airflow distribution is an important design parameter. The CQ utilized a two fan push-pull configuration to ensure fresh air at the crew member's head position and reduce acoustic exposure. The CQ ventilation ducts are conduits to the louder Node 2 cabin aisle way which required significant acoustic mitigation controls. The CQ interior needs to be below noise criteria curve 40 (NC-40). The design implementation of the CQ ventilation system and acoustic mitigation are very inter-related and require consideration of crew comfort balanced with use of interior habitable volume, accommodation of fan failures, and possible crew uses that impact ventilation and acoustic performance. Each CQ required 13% of its total volume and approximately 6% of its total mass to reduce acoustic noise. This paper illustrates the types of model analysis, assumptions, vehicle interactions, and trade-offs required for CQ ventilation and acoustics. Additionally, on-orbit ventilation system performance and initial crew feedback is presented. This approach is applicable to any private enclosed space that the crew will occupy.

  17. Designing for the Edge of Space and Beyond (United States)

    Jenkins, Dennis R.


    Despite the fanciful predictions of Eugen Sanger, Wernher von Braun, and a wealth of science fiction novelists, it was not until the mid-1950s that the first piloted spacecraft design was undertaken in earnest. It was the height of the Cold War, and the paranoia that swept the country and the military had resulted in the largest arms race the world had ever seen. In aviation the desire was to go higher, faster, and farther than ever before. In response to a need for basic research into the ever-increasing speeds and altitudes, the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA) began preliminary research into a piloted vehicle that could exceed five times the speed of sound. The research was felt necessary to support both unmanned missile programs and the eventual development of hypersonic combat aircraft. Interestingly, the group of researchers that took the lead in developing the concept (led by John V. Becker) at the NACA s Langley Laboratory added a new wrinkle-they wanted to be able to leave the sensible atmosphere for a few minutes in order to gain a preliminary understanding of space flight2 At the time it was generally felt that piloted space flight would not take place until the turn of the century, although contemporary science fiction-a genre that enjoyed a resurgence of popularity in the mid-1 950s-usually showed it coming much earlier. In fact, many serious researchers believed that the group at Langley should remove the "space leap" from their concept for a hypersonic research airlane. However, the basic designs for a very high speed airplane and for one capable of short excursions outside the atmosphere were not radically different, so the capability remained.

  18. Without Gravity: Designing Science Equipment for the International Space Station and Beyond (United States)

    Sato, Kevin Y.


    This presentation discusses space biology research, the space flight factors needed to design hardware to conduct biological science in microgravity, and examples of NASA and commercial hardware that enable space biology study.

  19. Space Station Human Factors: Designing a Human-Robot Interface (United States)

    Rochlis, Jennifer L.; Clarke, John Paul; Goza, S. Michael


    The experiments described in this paper are part of a larger joint MIT/NASA research effort and focus on the development of a methodology for designing and evaluating integrated interfaces for highly dexterous and multifunctional telerobot. Specifically, a telerobotic workstation is being designed for an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) anthropomorphic space station telerobot called Robonaut. Previous researchers have designed telerobotic workstations based upon performance of discrete subsets of tasks (for example, peg-in-hole, tracking, etc.) without regard for transitions that operators go through between tasks performed sequentially in the context of larger integrated tasks. The experiments presented here took an integrated approach to describing teleoperator performance and assessed how subjects operating a full-immersion telerobot perform during fine position and gross position tasks. In addition, a Robonaut simulation was also developed as part of this research effort, and experimentally tested against Robonaut itself to determine its utility. Results show that subject performance of teleoperated tasks using both Robonaut and the simulation are virtually identical, with no significant difference between the two. These results indicate that the simulation can be utilized as both a Robonaut training tool, and as a powerful design platform for telepresence displays and aids.

  20. Space Launch System, Core Stage, Structural Test Design and Implementation (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Ray


    As part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, engineers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama are working to design, develop and implement the SLS Core Stage structural testing. The SLS will have the capability to return humans to the Moon and beyond and its first launch is scheduled for December of 2017. The SLS Core Stage consist of five major elements; Forward Skirt, Liquid Oxygen (LOX) tank, Intertank (IT), Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) tank and the Engine Section (ES). Structural Test Articles (STA) for each of these elements are being designed and produced by Boeing at Michoud Assembly Facility located in New Orleans, La. The structural test for the Core Stage STAs (LH2, LOX, IT and ES) are to be conducted by the MSFC Test Laboratory. Additionally, the MSFC Test Laboratory manages the Structural Test Equipment (STE) design and development to support the STAs. It was decided early (April 2012) in the project life that the LH2 and LOX tank STAs would require new test stands and the Engine Section and Intertank would be tested in existing facilities. This decision impacted schedules immediately because the new facilities would require Construction of Facilities (C of F) funds that require congressional approval and long lead times. The Engine Section and Intertank structural test are to be conducted in existing facilities which will limit lead times required to support the first launch of SLS. With a SLS launch date of December, 2017 Boeing had a need date for testing to be complete by September of 2017 to support flight certification requirements. The test facilities were required to be ready by October of 2016 to support test article delivery. The race was on to get the stands ready before Test Article delivery and meet the test complete date of September 2017. This paper documents the past and current design and development phases and the supporting processes, tools, and

  1. Crew Restraint Design for the International Space Station (United States)

    Norris, Lena; Holden, Kritina; Whitmore, Mihriban


    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), crews will be living and working in microgravity, dealing with the challenges of a weightless environment. In addition, the confined nature of the spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity areas, as well as prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Without optimum restraints, crewmembers may be handicapped for performing some of the on-orbit tasks. Currently, many of the tasks on ISS are performed with the crew restrained merely by hooking their arms or toes around handrails to steady themselves. This is adequate for some tasks, but not all. There have been some reports of discomfort/calluses on the top of the toes. In addition, this type of restraint is simply insufficient for tasks that require a large degree of stability. Glovebox design is a good example of a confined workstation concept requiring stability for successful use. They are widely used in industry, university, and government laboratories, as well as in the space environment, and are known to cause postural limitations and visual restrictions. Although there are numerous guidelines pertaining to ventilation, seals, and glove attachment, most of the data have been gathered in a 1-g environment, or are from studies that were conducted prior to the early 1980 s. Little is known about how best to restrain a crewmember using a glovebox in microgravity. Another ISS task that requires special consideration with respect to restraints is robotic teleoperation. The Robot Systems Technology Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center is developing a humanoid robot astronaut, or Robonaut. It is being designed to perform extravehicular activities (EVAs) in the hazardous environment of space. An astronaut located inside the ISS will remotely operate Robonaut through a telepresence control system. Essentially, the robot mimics every move the operator makes. This requires the

  2. Esprit de Place: Maintaining and Designing Library Buildings To Provide Transcendent Spaces. (United States)

    Demas, Sam; Scherer, Jeffrey A.


    Discusses library buildings and their role in building community. Reviews current design trends, including reading and study spaces; collaborative workspaces; technology-free zones; archives and special collections; cultural events spaces; age-specific spaces; shared spaces; natural light and landscapes; and interior design trends. (LRW)

  3. Integrated design support systems for conceptual design of a space power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoda, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Takahashi, Makoto; Takeoka, Satoshi; Nagamatsu, Takashi; Ishizaki, Hiroaki


    In the process of conceptual design of large and complex engineering systems such as a nuclear power reactor, there must be various human works by several fields of engineers on each stage of design, analysis and evaluation. In this study, we have rearranged the design information to reduce the human workloads and have studied an efficient method to support the conceptual design works by new information technologies. For this purpose, we have developed two design support environments for conceptual design of a space power reactor as a concrete design target. When constructing an integrated design support environment, VINDS, which employs virtual reality(VR) technology, we focused on visualization of physical structure, functional organization and analysis calculation with full usage of easy perception and direct manipulation of VR. On the other hand, when constructing another asynchronous and distributed design support environment, WINDS, which employs WWW technology, we improved the support functions for cooperative design works among various fields of experts. In this paper, the basic concepts, configurations and functions of the design support environments are first described, then the future improvement is surveyed by their intercomparison. (author)

  4. Designing localized electromagnetic fields in a source-free space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borzdov, George N.


    An approach to characterizing and designing localized electromagnetic fields, based on the use of differentiable manifolds, differentiable mappings, and the group of rotation, is presented. By way of illustration, novel families of exact time-harmonic solutions to Maxwell's equations in the source-free space - localized fields defined by the rotation group - are obtained. The proposed approach provides a broad spectrum of tools to design localized fields, i.e., to build-in symmetry properties of oscillating electric and magnetic fields, to govern the distributions of their energy densities (both size and form of localization domains), and to set the structure of time-average energy fluxes. It is shown that localized fields can be combined as constructive elements to obtain a complex field structure with desirable properties, such as one-, two-, or three-dimensional field gratings. The proposed approach can be used in designing localized electromagnetic fields to govern motion and state of charged and neutral particles. As an example, motion of relativistic electrons in one-dimensional and three-dimensional field gratings is treated

  5. On public space design for Chinese urban residential area based on integrated architectural physics environment evaluation (United States)

    Dong, J. Y.; Cheng, W.; Ma, C. P.; Tan, Y. T.; Xin, L. S.


    The residential public space is an important part in designing the ecological residence, and a proper physics environment of public space is of greater significance to urban residence in China. Actually, the measure to apply computer aided design software into residential design can effectively avoid an inconformity of design intent with actual using condition, and a negative impact on users due to bad architectural physics environment of buildings, etc. The paper largely adopts a design method of analyzing architectural physics environment of residential public space. By analyzing and evaluating various physics environments, a suitability assessment is obtained for residential public space, thereby guiding the space design.

  6. Supporting Space Systems Design via Systems Dependency Analysis Methodology (United States)

    Guariniello, Cesare

    The increasing size and complexity of space systems and space missions pose severe challenges to space systems engineers. When complex systems and Systems-of-Systems are involved, the behavior of the whole entity is not only due to that of the individual systems involved but also to the interactions and dependencies between the systems. Dependencies can be varied and complex, and designers usually do not perform analysis of the impact of dependencies at the level of complex systems, or this analysis involves excessive computational cost, or occurs at a later stage of the design process, after designers have already set detailed requirements, following a bottom-up approach. While classical systems engineering attempts to integrate the perspectives involved across the variety of engineering disciplines and the objectives of multiple stakeholders, there is still a need for more effective tools and methods capable to identify, analyze and quantify properties of the complex system as a whole and to model explicitly the effect of some of the features that characterize complex systems. This research describes the development and usage of Systems Operational Dependency Analysis and Systems Developmental Dependency Analysis, two methods based on parametric models of the behavior of complex systems, one in the operational domain and one in the developmental domain. The parameters of the developed models have intuitive meaning, are usable with subjective and quantitative data alike, and give direct insight into the causes of observed, and possibly emergent, behavior. The approach proposed in this dissertation combines models of one-to-one dependencies among systems and between systems and capabilities, to analyze and evaluate the impact of failures or delays on the outcome of the whole complex system. The analysis accounts for cascading effects, partial operational failures, multiple failures or delays, and partial developmental dependencies. The user of these methods can

  7. Conceptualizing, Designing, and Investigating Locative Media Use in Urban Space (United States)

    Diamantaki, Katerina; Rizopoulos, Charalampos; Charitos, Dimitris; Kaimakamis, Nikos

    This chapter investigates the social implications of locative media (LM) use and attempts to outline a theoretical framework that may support the design and implementation of location-based applications. Furthermore, it stresses the significance of physical space and location awareness as important factors that influence both human-computer interaction and computer-mediated communication. The chapter documents part of the theoretical aspect of the research undertaken as part of LOcation-based Communication Urban NETwork (LOCUNET), a project that aims to investigate the way users interact with one another (human-computer-human interaction aspect) and with the location-based system itself (human-computer interaction aspect). A number of relevant theoretical approaches are discussed in an attempt to provide a holistic theoretical background for LM use. Additionally, the actual implementation of the LOCUNET system is described and some of the findings are discussed.

  8. Innovative hand exoskeleton design for extravehicular activities in space

    CERN Document Server

    Freni, Pierluigi; Randazzo, Luca; Ariano, Paolo


    Environmental conditions and pressurized spacesuits expose astronauts to problems of fatigue during lengthy extravehicular activities, with adverse impacts especially on the dexterity, force and endurance of the hands and arms. A state-of-the-art exploration in the field of hand exoskeletons revealed that available products are unsuitable for space applications because of their bulkiness and mass. This book proposes a novel approach to the development of hand exoskeletons, based on an innovative soft robotics concept that relies on the exploitation of electroactive polymers operating as sensors and actuators, on a combination of electromyography and mechanomyography for detection of the user’s will and on neural networks for control. The result is a design that should enhance astronauts’ performance during extravehicular activities. In summary, the advantages of the described approach are a low-weight, high-flexibility exoskeleton that allows for dexterity and compliance with the user’s will.

  9. Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Application Repository Design and Analysis (United States)

    Handler, Louis M.


    The Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Application Repository Design and Analysis document describes the STRS application repository for software-defined radio (SDR) applications intended to be compliant to the STRS Architecture Standard. The document provides information about the submission of artifacts to the STRS application repository, to provide information to the potential users of that information, and for the systems engineer to understand the requirements, concepts, and approach to the STRS application repository. The STRS application repository is intended to capture knowledge, documents, and other artifacts for each waveform application or other application outside of its project so that when the project ends, the knowledge is retained. The document describes the transmission of technology from mission to mission capturing lessons learned that are used for continuous improvement across projects and supporting NASA Procedural Requirements (NPRs) for performing software engineering projects and NASAs release process.

  10. The Design Space of Type Checkers for XML Transformation Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff


    We survey work on statically type checking XML transformations, covering a wide range of notations and ambitions. The concept of type may vary from idealizations of DTD to full-blown XML Schema or even more expressive formalisms. The notion of transformation may vary from clean and simple...... transductions to domain-specific languages or integration of XML in general-purpose programming languages. Type annotations can be either explicit or implicit, and type checking ranges from exact decidability to pragmatic approximations. We characterize and evaluate existing tools in this design space......, including a recent result of the authors providing practical type checking of full unannotated XSLT 1.0 stylesheets given general DTDs that describe the input and output languages....

  11. Deficiency of the Space Syntax method as an urban design tool in designing traditional urban space and the need for some supplementary methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Bahrainy


    Full Text Available Urban design problems have become so complex that no single designer is able to consider all aspects of a design area simultaneously. Lately the application of computerized and scientific methods have helped designers analyze complex problems. One of these new methods is Space Syntax. The purpose of this study is to first investigate the strengths and weaknesses of this method and then suggest some supplementary methods to cover its pitfalls. On the next phase Space Syntax and supplementary methods will be used to design a pedestrian pathway in the Imamzade Ghasem neighborhood as a traditional context. Space Syntax will identify the existing spatial structure and direct future changes toward its strengthening. The case study reveals that Space Syntax can be successfully used in analysis of traditional spaces, but in order to successfully design a neighborhood in such a complex context, it involves logistical shortcomings which could be eliminated through supplementary methods.

  12. A heat receiver design for solar dynamic space power systems (United States)

    Baker, Karl W.; Dustin, Miles O.; Crane, Roger


    An advanced heat pipe receiver designed for a solar dynamic space power system is described. The power system consists of a solar concentrator, solar heat receiver, Stirling heat engine, linear alternator and waste heat radiator. The solar concentrator focuses the sun's energy into a heat receiver. The engine and alternator convert a portion of this energy to electric power and the remaining heat is rejected by a waste heat radiator. Primary liquid metal heat pipes transport heat energy to the Stirling engine. Thermal energy storage allows this power system to operate during the shade portion of an orbit. Lithium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic is the thermal energy storage material. Thermal energy storage canisters are attached to the midsection of each heat pipe. The primary heat pipes pass through a secondary vapor cavity heat pipe near the engine and receiver interface. The secondary vapor cavity heat pipe serves three important functions. First, it smooths out hot spots in the solar cavity and provides even distribution of heat to the engine. Second, the event of a heat pipe failure, the secondary heat pipe cavity can efficiently transfer heat from other operating primary heat pipes to the engine heat exchanger of the defunct heat pipe. Third, the secondary heat pipe vapor cavity reduces temperature drops caused by heat flow into the engine. This unique design provides a high level of reliability and performance.

  13. Design of triads for probing the direct through space energy transfers in closely spaced assemblies. (United States)

    Camus, Jean-Michel; Aly, Shawkat M; Fortin, Daniel; Guilard, Roger; Harvey, Pierre D


    Using a selective stepwise Suzuki cross-coupling reaction, two trimers built on three different chromophores were prepared. These trimers exhibit a D(^)A1-A2 structure where the donor D (octa-β-alkyl zinc(II)porphyrin either as diethylhexamethyl, 10a, or tetraethyltetramethyl, 10b, derivatives) through space transfers the S1 energy to two different acceptors, di(4-ethylbenzene) zinc(II)porphyrin (A1; acceptor 1) placed cofacial with D, and the corresponding free base (A2; acceptor 2), which is meso-meso-linked with A1. This structure design allows for the possibility of comparing two series of assemblies, 9a,b (D(^)A1) with 10a,b (D(^)Â1-A2), for the evaluation of the S1 energy transfer for the global process D*→A2 in the trimers. From the comparison of the decays of the fluorescence of D, the rates for through space energy transfer, kET for 10a,b (kET ≈ 6.4 × 10(9) (10a), 5.9 × 10(9) s(-1) (10b)), and those for the corresponding cofacial D(^)A1 systems, 9a,b, (kET ≈ 5.0 × 10(9) (9a), 4.7 × 10(9) s(-1) (9b)), provide an estimate for kET for the direct through space D*→A2 process (i.e., kET(D(^)A1-A2) - kET(D(^)A1) = kET(D*→A2) ∼ 1 × 10(9) s(-1)). This channel of relaxation represents ∼15% of kET for D*→A1.

  14. New Designs for Modular Ultra-Light Precision Space Structures (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In a shared effort of advancing our scientific understanding of planets, stars, and galaxies, space agencies and astronomical centers have been building increasingly...

  15. Deep Space CubeSat Prototype Platform Design and Testing (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This IRAD will significantly advance a GSFC Deep Space CubeSat prototype effort in almost all subsystems.  Because it represents a “tall pole” for lunar orbiters, as...

  16. Architecture Design for the Space Situational Awareness System in the Preparedness Plan for Space Hazards of Republic of Korea (United States)

    Choi, E.; Cho, S.; Shin, S.; Park, J.; Kim, J.; Kim, D.

    The threat posed by asteroids and comets has become one of the important issues. Jinju meteorite discovered in March 2014 has expanded the interest of the people of the fall of the natural space objects. Furthermore, the growing quantity of space debris is a serious threat to satellites and other spacecraft, which risk being damaged or even destroyed. In May of 2014, Korea established the preparedness plan for space hazards according to the space development promotion act which is amended to take action with respect to hazards from space. This plan is largely composed of 3 items such as system, technology and infrastructure. System is included the establishment and management of national space hazards headquarters at risk situation. Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) was designated as a space environment monitoring agency under the ministry of science, ICT and future planning (MSIP). Technology is supposed to develop the space situational awareness system that can monitor and detect space objects. For infrastructure, research and development of core technology will be promoted for capabilities improvement of space hazards preparedness such as software tools, application and data systems. This paper presents the architectural design for building space situational awareness system. The trade-off study of space situational awareness system for the Korea situation was performed. The results have shown the proposed architectural design. The baseline architecture is composed of Integrated Analysis System and Space Objects Monitoring System. Integrated Analysis System collects the status data from Space Objects Monitoring System and analyzes the space risk information through a data processing. For Space Objects Monitoring System, the all-sky surveillance camera, array radar and meteoroid surveillance sensor networks were considered. This system focuses on not only the threat of a large artificial satellite and natural space objects such as asteroids that

  17. A Cost Effective System Design Approach for Critical Space Systems (United States)

    Abbott, Larry Wayne; Cox, Gary; Nguyen, Hai


    NASA-JSC required an avionics platform capable of serving a wide range of applications in a cost-effective manner. In part, making the avionics platform cost effective means adhering to open standards and supporting the integration of COTS products with custom products. Inherently, operation in space requires low power, mass, and volume while retaining high performance, reconfigurability, scalability, and upgradability. The Universal Mini-Controller project is based on a modified PC/104-Plus architecture while maintaining full compatibility with standard COTS PC/104 products. The architecture consists of a library of building block modules, which can be mixed and matched to meet a specific application. A set of NASA developed core building blocks, processor card, analog input/output card, and a Mil-Std-1553 card, have been constructed to meet critical functions and unique interfaces. The design for the processor card is based on the PowerPC architecture. This architecture provides an excellent balance between power consumption and performance, and has an upgrade path to the forthcoming radiation hardened PowerPC processor. The processor card, which makes extensive use of surface mount technology, has a 166 MHz PowerPC 603e processor, 32 Mbytes of error detected and corrected RAM, 8 Mbytes of Flash, and I Mbytes of EPROM, on a single PC/104-Plus card. Similar densities have been achieved with the quad channel Mil-Std-1553 card and the analog input/output cards. The power management built into the processor and its peripheral chip allows the power and performance of the system to be adjusted to meet the requirements of the application, allowing another dimension to the flexibility of the Universal Mini-Controller. Unique mechanical packaging allows the Universal Mini-Controller to accommodate standard COTS and custom oversized PC/104-Plus cards. This mechanical packaging also provides thermal management via conductive cooling of COTS boards, which are typically

  18. Optomechanical stability design of space optical mapping camera (United States)

    Li, Fuqiang; Cai, Weijun; Zhang, Fengqin; Li, Na; Fan, Junjie


    According to the interior orientation elements and imaging quality requirements of mapping application to mapping camera and combined with off-axis three-mirror anastigmat(TMA) system, high optomechanical stability design of a space optical mapping camera is introduced in this paper. The configuration is a coaxial TMA system used in off-axis situation. Firstly, the overall optical arrangement is described., and an overview of the optomechanical packaging is provided. Zerodurglass, carbon fiber composite and carbon-fiber reinforced silicon carbon (C/SiC) are widely used in the optomechanical structure, because their low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) can reduce the thermal sensitivity of the mirrors and focal plane. Flexible and unloading support are used in reflector and camera supporting structure. Epoxy structural adhesives is used for bonding optics to metal structure is also introduced in this paper. The primary mirror is mounted by means of three-point ball joint flexures system, which is attach to the back of the mirror. Then, In order to predict flexural displacements due to gravity, static finite element analysis (FEA) is performed on the primary mirror. The optical performance peak-to-valley (PV) and root-mean-square (RMS) wavefront errors are detected before and after assemble. Also, the dynamic finite element analysis(FEA) of the whole optical arrangement is carried out as to investigate the performance of optomechanical. Finally, in order to evaluate the stability of the design, the thermal vacuum test and vibration test are carried out and the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) and elements of interior orientation are presented as the evaluation index. Before and after the thermal vacuum test and vibration test, the MTF, focal distance and position of the principal point of optical system are measured and the result is as expected.

  19. Design package for a complete residential solar space heating and hot water system (United States)


    Information necessary to evaluate the design of a solar space heating and hot water system is reported. System performance specifications, the design data brochure, the system description, and other information pertaining to the design are included.

  20. Chronic alcohol abuse in men alters bone mechanical properties by affecting both tissue mechanical properties and microarchitectural parameters. (United States)

    Cruel, M; Granke, M; Bosser, C; Audran, M; Hoc, T


    Alcohol-induced secondary osteoporosis in men has been characterized by higher fracture prevalence and a modification of bone microarchitecture. Chronic alcohol consumption impairs bone cell activity and results in an increased fragility. A few studies highlighted effects of heavy alcohol consumption on some microarchitectural parameters of trabecular bone. But to date and to our knowledge, micro- and macro-mechanical properties of bone of alcoholic subjects have not been investigated. In the present study, mechanical properties and microarchitecture of trabecular bone samples from the iliac crest of alcoholic male patients (n=15) were analyzed and compared to a control group (n=8). Nanoindentation tests were performed to determine the tissue's micromechanical properties, micro-computed tomography was used to measure microarchitectural parameters, and numerical simulations provided the apparent mechanical properties of the samples. Compared to controls, bone tissue from alcoholic patients exhibited an increase of micromechanical properties at tissue scale, a significant decrease of apparent mechanical properties at sample scale, and significant changes in several microarchitectural parameters. In particular, a crucial role of structure model index (SMI) on mechanical properties was identified. 3D microarchitectural parameters are at least as important as bone volume fraction to predict bone fracture risk in the case of alcoholic patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Exploring the Model Design Space for Battery Health Management (United States)

    Saha, Bhaskar; Quach, Cuong Chi; Goebel, Kai Frank


    Battery Health Management (BHM) is a core enabling technology for the success and widespread adoption of the emerging electric vehicles of today. Although battery chemistries have been studied in detail in literature, an accurate run-time battery life prediction algorithm has eluded us. Current reliability-based techniques are insufficient to manage the use of such batteries when they are an active power source with frequently varying loads in uncertain environments. The amount of usable charge of a battery for a given discharge profile is not only dependent on the starting state-of-charge (SOC), but also other factors like battery health and the discharge or load profile imposed. This paper presents a Particle Filter (PF) based BHM framework with plug-and-play modules for battery models and uncertainty management. The batteries are modeled at three different levels of granularity with associated uncertainty distributions, encoding the basic electrochemical processes of a Lithium-polymer battery. The effects of different choices in the model design space are explored in the context of prediction performance in an electric unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) application with emulated flight profiles.

  2. Staged Event-Driven Architecture As A Micro-Architecture Of Distributed And Pluginable Crawling Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Siwik


    attention paid to its crucial architectural element i.e. design, implementation and applying of staged event-driven architecture being a micro-architecture of Cassiopeia’s agents i.e. its key computational and processing units

  3. Space Mission Design in the Vicinity of Small Bodies and Libration Points, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for applying advanced dynamical theories to space mission design and analysis, especially in the context of unstable orbital trajectories in...

  4. Passive Radiation Shielding: Integrating Multilayer and Multipurpose Materials into Space Habitat Design (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The prospect of long-term human spaceflight beyond low Earth orbit poses a unique set of challenges for space habitat designers. One of those challenges is...

  5. Low-Dose, Ionizing Radiation and Age-Related Changes in Skeletal Microarchitecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua S. Alwood


    Full Text Available Osteoporosis can profoundly affect the aged as a consequence of progressive bone loss; high-dose ionizing radiation can cause similar changes, although less is known about lower doses (≤100 cGy. We hypothesized that exposure to relatively low doses of gamma radiation accelerates structural changes characteristic of skeletal aging. Mice (C57BL/6J-10 wk old, male were irradiated (total body; 0-sham, 1, 10 or 100 cGy 137Cs and tissues harvested on the day of irradiation, 1 or 4 months later. Microcomputed tomography was used to quantify microarchitecture of high turnover, cancellous bone. Irradiation at 100 cGy caused transient microarchitectural changes over one month that were only evident at longer times in controls (4 months. Ex vivo bone cell differentiation from the marrow was unaffected by gamma radiation. In conclusion, acute ionizing gamma irradiation at 100 cGy (but not at 1 cGy or 10 cGy exacerbated microarchitectural changes normally found during progressive, postpubertal aging prior to the onset of age-related osteoporosis.

  6. Space as a Resource in Creative Design Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; van der Veer, Gerrit C.; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Gross, Tom


    Based on longitudinal ethnographic fieldwork in two industrial design departments and two design companies, we explore the role of spatial arrangements for supporting creative design practices within different design studios. From our results, we show that designers explicitly make use of the

  7. Robotic Design Choice Overview using Co-simulation and Design Space Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Martin Peter; Larsen, Peter Gorm; Nyholm Jørgensen, Rasmus


    . Simulations are used to evaluate the robot model output response in relation to operational demands. An example of a load carrying challenge in relation to the feeding robot is presented and a design space is defined with candidate solutions in both the mechanical and software domains. Simulation results......Rapid robotic system development has created a demand for multi-disciplinary methods and tools to explore and compare design alternatives. In this paper, we present a collaborative modelling technique that combines discrete-event models of controller software with continuous-time models of physical...... robot components. The proposed co-modelling method utilises Vienna Development Method (VDM) and Matlab for discrete-event modelling and 20-sim for continuous-time modelling. The model-based development of a mobile robot mink feeding system is used to illustrate the collaborative modelling method...

  8. Applications of scenarios in early embedded system design space exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stralen, P.


    One of the challenges during embedded system design is the application driven design. Due to the application driven design, the objectives that are steering the design of an embedded system are mainly based on the needs of the application(s). Examples of embedded system objectives are performance,

  9. Comparative Ergonomic Evaluation of Spacesuit and Space Vehicle Design (United States)

    England, Scott; Cowley, Matthew; Benson, Elizabeth; Harvill, Lauren; Blackledge, Christopher; Perez, Esau; Rajulu, Sudhakar


    With the advent of the latest human spaceflight objectives, a series of prototype architectures for a new launch and reentry spacesuit that would be suited to the new mission goals. Four prototype suits were evaluated to compare their performance and enable the selection of the preferred suit components and designs. A consolidated approach to testing was taken: concurrently collecting suit mobility data, seat-suit-vehicle interface clearances, and qualitative assessments of suit performance within the volume of a Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle mockup. It was necessary to maintain high fidelity in a mockup and use advanced motion-capture technologies in order to achieve the objectives of the study. These seemingly mutually exclusive goals were accommodated with the construction of an optically transparent and fully adjustable frame mockup. The construction of the mockup was such that it could be dimensionally validated rapidly with the motioncapture system. This paper describes the method used to create a space vehicle mockup compatible with use of an optical motion-capture system, the consolidated approach for evaluating spacesuits in action, and a way to use the complex data set resulting from a limited number of test subjects to generate hardware requirements for an entire population. Kinematics, hardware clearance, anthropometry (suited and unsuited), and subjective feedback data were recorded on 15 unsuited and 5 suited subjects. Unsuited subjects were selected chiefly based on their anthropometry in an attempt to find subjects who fell within predefined criteria for medium male, large male, and small female subjects. The suited subjects were selected as a subset of the unsuited medium male subjects and were tested in both unpressurized and pressurized conditions. The prototype spacesuits were each fabricated in a single size to accommodate an approximately average-sized male, so select findings from the suit testing were systematically extrapolated to the extremes

  10. Structural Design and Analysis of a Rigidizable Space Shuttle Experiment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library



    .... Once in space, the experiment will inflate and rigidize three composite structures and perform a vibration analysis on each by exciting the tubes using piezoelectric patches and collecting data via an accelerometer...

  11. Enhanced surrogate models for statistical design exploiting space mapping technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziel, Slawek; Bandler, John W.; Mohamed, Achmed S.


    We present advances in microwave and RF device modeling exploiting Space Mapping (SM) technology. We propose new SM modeling formulations utilizing input mappings, output mappings, frequency scaling and quadratic approximations. Our aim is to enhance circuit models for statistical analysis...

  12. Feel the Fear: Learning Graphic Design in Affective Places and Online Spaces (United States)

    Nottingham, Anitra


    This article explores the idea of pedagogic affect in both onsite and online graphic design learning spaces, and speculates on the role that this affect plays in the formation of the design student. I argue that embodied design knowledge is built by interactions with design professionals, activities that mimic the daily work of designers, and…

  13. Very Small Satellite Design for Space Sensor Networks (United States)


    Literature Review 25 Clyde Space Power Pumpkin Computer Microhard Comm SSTL GPS User Payload Pumpkin Structure Figure 2-10. CUTE-I CubeSat [69...Structure Pumpkin [244] Skeletonized 155 $1,350* $810* EPS Clyde Space [245] CubeSat EPS 310 $25,240* $19,252* DH Pumpkin [244] FM430 90 $1,200* $720...satellite miniaturisation since 1993 and probably before. Furthermore, the term itself has been diluted from the pure literal form, eventually

  14. Lessons learned from the design of chemical space networks and opportunities for new applications. (United States)

    Vogt, Martin; Stumpfe, Dagmar; Maggiora, Gerald M; Bajorath, Jürgen


    The concept of chemical space is of fundamental relevance in chemical informatics and computer-aided drug discovery. In a series of articles published in the Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design, principles of chemical space design were evaluated, molecular networks proposed as an alternative to conventional coordinate-based chemical reference spaces, and different types of chemical space networks (CSNs) constructed and analyzed. Central to the generation of CSNs was the way in which molecular similarity relationships were assessed and a primary focal point was the network-based representation of biologically relevant chemical space. The design and comparison of CSNs based upon alternative similarity measures can be viewed as an evolutionary path with interesting lessons learned along the way. CSN design has matured to the point that such chemical space representations can be used in practice. In this contribution, highlights from the sequence of CSN design efforts are discussed in context, providing a perspective for future practical applications.

  15. Lessons learned from the design of chemical space networks and opportunities for new applications (United States)

    Vogt, Martin; Stumpfe, Dagmar; Maggiora, Gerald M.; Bajorath, Jürgen


    The concept of chemical space is of fundamental relevance in chemical informatics and computer-aided drug discovery. In a series of articles published in the Journal of Computer- Aided Molecular Design, principles of chemical space design were evaluated, molecular networks proposed as an alternative to conventional coordinate-based chemical reference spaces, and different types of chemical space networks (CSNs) constructed and analyzed. Central to the generation of CSNs was the way in which molecular similarity relationships were assessed and a primary focal point was the network-based representation of biologically relevant chemical space. The design and comparison of CSNs based upon alternative similarity measures can be viewed as an evolutionary path with interesting lessons learned along the way. CSN design has matured to the point that such chemical space representations can be used in practice. In this contribution, highlights from the sequence of CSN design efforts are discussed in context, providing a perspective for future practical applications.

  16. Dimensions of design space: a decision-theoretic approach to optimal research design. (United States)

    Conti, Stefano; Claxton, Karl


    Bayesian decision theory can be used not only to establish the optimal sample size and its allocation in a single clinical study but also to identify an optimal portfolio of research combining different types of study design. Within a single study, the highest societal payoff to proposed research is achieved when its sample sizes and allocation between available treatment options are chosen to maximize the expected net benefit of sampling (ENBS). Where a number of different types of study informing different parameters in the decision problem could be conducted, the simultaneous estimation of ENBS across all dimensions of the design space is required to identify the optimal sample sizes and allocations within such a research portfolio. This is illustrated through a simple example of a decision model of zanamivir for the treatment of influenza. The possible study designs include: 1) a single trial of all the parameters, 2) a clinical trial providing evidence only on clinical endpoints, 3) an epidemiological study of natural history of disease, and 4) a survey of quality of life. The possible combinations, samples sizes, and allocation between trial arms are evaluated over a range of cost-effectiveness thresholds. The computational challenges are addressed by implementing optimization algorithms to search the ENBS surface more efficiently over such large dimensions.

  17. Using computer graphics to design Space Station Freedom viewing (United States)

    Goldsberry, Betty S.; Lippert, Buddy O.; Mckee, Sandra D.; Lewis, James L., Jr.; Mount, Francis E.


    Viewing requirements were identified early in the Space Station Freedom program for both direct viewing via windows and indirect viewing via cameras and closed-circuit television (CCTV). These requirements reside in NASA Program Definition and Requirements Document (PDRD), Section 3: Space Station Systems Requirements. Currently, analyses are addressing the feasibility of direct and indirect viewing. The goal of these analyses is to determine the optimum locations for the windows, cameras, and CCTV's in order to meet established requirements, to adequately support space station assembly, and to operate on-board equipment. PLAID, a three-dimensional computer graphics program developed at NASA JSC, was selected for use as the major tool in these analyses. PLAID provides the capability to simulate the assembly of the station as well as to examine operations as the station evolves. This program has been used successfully as a tool to analyze general viewing conditions for many Space Shuttle elements and can be used for virtually all Space Station components. Additionally, PLAID provides the ability to integrate an anthropometric scale-modeled human (representing a crew member) with interior and exterior architecture.

  18. Creative environments for design education and practice : A typology of creative spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoring, K.C.; Desmet, P.M.A.; Badke-Schaub, P.G.


    This article presents a typology of creative spaces that is relevant to facilitating creative working and learning processes for designers. Drawing on qualitative user research with cultural probes in a design thinking institution, this typology identifies five different types of creative spaces

  19. The Cube and the Poppy Flower: Participatory Approaches for Designing Technology-Enhanced Learning Spaces (United States)

    Casanova, Diogo; Mitchell, Paul


    This paper presents an alternative method for learning space design that is driven by user input. An exploratory study was undertaken at an English university with the aim of redesigning technology-enhanced learning spaces. Two provocative concepts were presented through participatory design workshops during which students and teachers reflected…

  20. Designing and Securing an Event Processing System for Smart Spaces (United States)

    Li, Zang


    Smart spaces, or smart environments, represent the next evolutionary development in buildings, banking, homes, hospitals, transportation systems, industries, cities, and government automation. By riding the tide of sensor and event processing technologies, the smart environment captures and processes information about its surroundings as well as…

  1. Provoking Performing Objects: Expanding the Design Space for Soft Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bewley, Harvey; Vallgårda, Anna


    Soft robots are typically developed with specific functions in mind. What we propose here is to shift focus to their aesthetic and performative qualities as means to open up a larger space of potential expressions and tacit abilities of these animated artefacts. Basically, to focus on the aesthetic...

  2. Dual keel Space Station payload pointing system design and analysis feasibility study (United States)

    Smagala, Tom; Class, Brian F.; Bauer, Frank H.; Lebair, Deborah A.


    A Space Station attached Payload Pointing System (PPS) has been designed and analyzed. The PPS is responsible for maintaining fixed payload pointing in the presence of disturbance applied to the Space Station. The payload considered in this analysis is the Solar Optical Telescope. System performance is evaluated via digital time simulations by applying various disturbance forces to the Space Station. The PPS meets the Space Station articulated pointing requirement for all disturbances except Shuttle docking and some centrifuge cases.

  3. The Design Process and User Focused Digital Spaces


    Keating, Elaine M.


    This thesis presents a qualitative inquiry into how the graphic design process is being reconfigured within the new digital media landscape. The literature review looks at the historical relationship between graphic design and technology from the invention of the printing press to the personal computer and reviews how this relationship is again affected by the emergence of the computer as a medium for communication. The products of digital design are no longer static and fixed but are dynamic...

  4. Research on the Design of Public Space Environment for Aging Society (United States)

    Fang, Gu; Soo, Kim Chul


    This paper studies the living space environment suitable for the elderly, because the elderly and the disabled have become increasingly prominent social problems. Through the discussion of the humanistic environment design method of the elderly and the disabled, the paper puts forward a new environment design which has the traditional characteristics and adapts to the new society to care for the elderly (the disabled).By studying and analyzing the background of social aging, the theory of public space environment design and the needs of the elderly, it is pointed out that the design of public space environment in the aged society needs to be implemented in detail design. The number of elderly people in public space will increase, give full attention to the public space outdoor environment quality, for the elderly to provide a variety of environmental facilities have long-term significance.

  5. Assessment of vertebral microarchitecture in overt and mild Cushing's syndrome using trabecular bone score. (United States)

    Vinolas, Helene; Grouthier, Virginie; Mehsen-Cetre, Nadia; Boisson, Amandine; Winzenrieth, Renaud; Schaeverbeke, Thierry; Mesguich, Charles; Bordenave, Laurence; Tabarin, Antoine


    Osteoporotic fractures associated with Cushing's syndrome (CS) may occur despite normal bone mineral density (BMD). Few studies have described alterations in vertebral microarchitecture in glucocorticoid-treated patients and during CS. Trabecular bone score (TBS) estimates trabecular microarchitecture from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry acquisitions. Our aim was to compare vertebral BMD and TBS in patients with overt CS and mild autonomous cortisol secretion (MACE), and following cure of overt CS. University Hospital. Monocentric retrospective cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of consecutive patients. A total of 110 patients were studied: 53 patients had CS (35, 11 and 7 patients with Cushing's disease, bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia and ectopic ACTH secretion respectively); 39 patients had MACE (10 patients with a late post-operative recurrence of Cushing's disease and 29 patients with adrenal incidentalomas); 18 patients with non-secreting adrenal incidentalomas. 14 patients with overt CS were followed for up to 2 years after cure. Vertebral osteoporosis at BMD and degraded microarchitecture at TBS were found in 24% and 43% of patients with CS, respectively (P < .03). As compared to patients with nonsecreting incidentalomas, patients with MACE had significantly decreased TBS (P < .04) but not BMD. Overt fragility fractures tended to be associated with low TBS (P = .07) but not with low BMD. TBS, but not BMD values, decreased with the intensity of hypercortisolism independently of its aetiology (P < .01). Following remission of CS, TBS improved more markedly and rapidly than BMD (10% vs 3%, respectively; P < .02). Trabecular bone score may be a promising, noninvasive, widely available and inexpensive complementary tool for the routine assessment of the impact of CS and MACE on bone in clinical practice. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The Design Space of the Embryonic Cell Cycle Oscillator. (United States)

    Mattingly, Henry H; Sheintuch, Moshe; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y


    One of the main tasks in the analysis of models of biomolecular networks is to characterize the domain of the parameter space that corresponds to a specific behavior. Given the large number of parameters in most models, this is no trivial task. We use a model of the embryonic cell cycle to illustrate the approaches that can be used to characterize the domain of parameter space corresponding to limit cycle oscillations, a regime that coordinates periodic entry into and exit from mitosis. Our approach relies on geometric construction of bifurcation sets, numerical continuation, and random sampling of parameters. We delineate the multidimensional oscillatory domain and use it to quantify the robustness of periodic trajectories. Although some of our techniques explore the specific features of the chosen system, the general approach can be extended to other models of the cell cycle engine and other biomolecular networks. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Biodigester Feasibility and Design for Space and Earth Project (United States)

    Terrier, Douglas; Clayton, Ronald; Shutts, Stacy (Principal Investigator); Bacon, John; Ewert, Michael; Paul, Thomas


    Biodigesters harness and utilize byproducts, and are a valuable technology for waste conversion and advanced exploration closed loops targets (6.1.a-E), including that of human waste. On Mars and at JSC, this could lead to growing food and to more sustainable uses of waste. It is critical to understand biogas generation rates, odor management of the effluent, and nutrient viability. Improved efficiency and reliance on this renewable energy source can become feasible for deep space missions.

  8. Use of probabilistic design methods for NASA applications. [to be used in design phase of Space Transportation Main Engine (United States)

    Safie, Fayssal M.


    This paper presents a reliability evaluation process designed to improve the reliability of advanced launch systems. The work performed includes the development of a reliability prediction methodology to be used in the design phase of the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME). This includes prediction techniques which use historical data bases as well as deterministic and probabilistic engineering models for predicting design reliability. In summary, this paper describes a probabilistic design approach for the next-generation liquid rocket engine, the STME.

  9. Visceral Adipose Tissue Is Associated With Bone Microarchitecture in the Framingham Osteoporosis Study. (United States)

    Liu, Ching-Ti; Broe, Kerry E; Zhou, Yanhua; Boyd, Steven K; Cupples, L Adrienne; Hannan, Marian T; Lim, Elise; McLean, Robert R; Samelson, Elizabeth J; Bouxsein, Mary L; Kiel, Douglas P


    Obesity has been traditionally considered to protect the skeleton against osteoporosis and fracture. Recently, body fat, specifically visceral adipose tissue (VAT), has been associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk for some types of fractures. We studied VAT and bone microarchitecture in 710 participants (58% women, age 61.3 ± 7.7 years) from the Framingham Offspring cohort to determine whether cortical and trabecular BMD and microarchitecture differ according to the amount of VAT. VAT was measured from CT imaging of the abdomen. Cortical and trabecular BMD and microarchitecture were measured at the distal tibia and radius using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT). We focused on 10 bone parameters: cortical BMD (Ct.BMD), cortical tissue mineral density (Ct.TMD), cortical porosity (Ct.Po), cortical thickness (Ct.Th), cortical bone area fraction (Ct.A/Tt.A), trabecular density (Tb.BMD), trabecular number (Tb.N), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), total area (Tt.Ar), and failure load (FL) from micro-finite element analysis. We assessed the association between sex-specific quartiles of VAT and BMD, microarchitecture, and strength in all participants and stratified by sex. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and in women, menopausal status, then repeated adjusting for body mass index (BMI) or weight. At the radius and tibia, Ct.Th, Ct.A/Tt.A, Tb.BMD, Tb.N, and FL were positively associated with VAT (all p-trend <0.05), but no other associations were statistically significant except for higher levels of cortical porosity with higher VAT in the radius. Most of these associations were only observed in women, and were no longer significant when adjusting for BMI or weight. Higher amounts of VAT are associated with greater BMD and better microstructure of the peripheral skeleton despite some suggestions of significant deleterious changes in cortical measures in the non-weight bearing radius. Associations were

  10. [Establishment of design space for production process of traditional Chinese medicine preparation]. (United States)

    Xu, Bing; Shi, Xin-Yuan; Qiao, Yan-Jiang; Wu, Zhi-Sheng; Lin, Zhao-Zhou


    The philosophy of quality by design (QbD) is now leading the changes in the drug manufacturing mode from the conventional test-based approach to the science and risk based approach focusing on the detailed research and understanding of the production process. Along with the constant deepening of the understanding of the manufacturing process, the design space will be determined, and the emphasis of quality control will be shifted from the quality standards to the design space. Therefore, the establishment of the design space is core step in the implementation of QbD, and it is of great importance to study the methods for building the design space. This essay proposes the concept of design space for the production process of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparations, gives a systematic introduction of the concept of the design space, analyzes the feasibility and significance to build the design space in the production process of traditional Chinese medicine preparations, and proposes study approaches on the basis of examples that comply with the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine preparations, as well as future study orientations.

  11. GPS Space Service Volume: Ensuring Consistent Utility Across GPS Design Builds for Space Users (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Parker, Joel Jefferson Konkl; Valdez, Jennifer Ellen


    GPS availability and signal strength originally specified for users on or near surface of Earth with transmitted power levels specified at edge-of-Earth, 14.3 degrees. Prior to the SSV specification, on-orbit performance of GPS varied from block build to block build (IIA, IIRM, IIF) due to antenna gain and beam width variances. Unstable on-orbit performance results in significant risk to space users. Side-lobe signals, although not specified, were expected to significantly boost GPS signal availability for users above the constellation. During GPS III Phase A, NASA noted significant discrepancies in power levels specified in GPS III specification documents, and measured on-orbit performance. To stabilize the signal for high altitude space users, NASA DoD team in 2003-2005 led the creation of new Space Service Volume (SSV) definition and specifications.

  12. Precision multiloop (PM Design with space closing circles for lingual orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mugdha P Mankar


    Full Text Available The proficiency of ancient orthodontics has been benefitted colossally and is being continually promoted over the present, by use of multiple loop wires designed for correction of dentoalveolar malocclusions. The presented discussion provides an insight into a simple, frictionless biomechanical concept of anterior space closure in lingual orthodontics by means of precision multiloop design with incorporated space closing circles. A multiple loop wire design has been demonstrated where the entire interbracket distance is used as loop area.

  13. Precision multiloop (PM Design) with space closing circles for lingual orthodontics


    Mugdha P Mankar; Achint Chachada; Harish Atram; Avanti Kulkarni


    The proficiency of ancient orthodontics has been benefitted colossally and is being continually promoted over the present, by use of multiple loop wires designed for correction of dentoalveolar malocclusions. The presented discussion provides an insight into a simple, frictionless biomechanical concept of anterior space closure in lingual orthodontics by means of precision multiloop design with incorporated space closing circles. A multiple loop wire design has been demonstrated where the ent...

  14. Adaptations in the Microarchitecture and Load Distribution of Maternal Cortical and Trabecular Bone in Response to Multiple Reproductive Cycles in Rats (United States)

    de Bakker, Chantal M. J.; Altman-Singles, Allison R.; Li, Yihan; Tseng, Wei-Ju; Li, Connie; Liu, X. Sherry


    Pregnancy, lactation, and weaning result in dramatic changes in maternal calcium metabolism. In particular, the increased calcium demand during lactation causes a substantial degree of maternal bone loss. This reproductive bone loss has been suggested to be largely reversible, as multiple clinical studies have found that parity and lactation history have no adverse effect on post-menopausal fracture risk. However, the precise effects of pregnancy, lactation, and post-weaning recovery on maternal bone structure are not well understood. Our study aimed to address this question by longitudinally tracking changes in trabecular and cortical bone microarchitecture at the proximal tibia in rats throughout three cycles of pregnancy, lactation, and post-weaning using in vivo μCT. We found that the trabecular thickness underwent a reversible deterioration during pregnancy and lactation, which was fully recovered after weaning, while other parameters of trabecular microarchitecture (including trabecular number, spacing, connectivity density, and structure model index) underwent a more permanent deterioration which recovered minimally. Thus, pregnancy and lactation resulted in both transient and long-lasting alterations in trabecular microstructure. In the meantime, multiple reproductive cycles appeared to improve the robustness of cortical bone (resulting in an elevated cortical area and polar moment of inertia), as well as increase the proportion of the total load carried by the cortical bone at the proximal tibia. Taken together, changes in the cortical and trabecular compartments suggest that while rat tibial trabecular bone appears to be highly involved in maintaining calcium homeostasis during female reproduction, cortical bone adapts to increase its load-bearing capacity, allowing the overall mechanical function of the tibia to be maintained. PMID:28109138


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe; Brodersen, Søsser


    of diverse actors in what we term prototyping spaces. In these prototyping spaces, prototypes play an important role in visualising controversies, enabling matters of concern to be negotiated, and making knowledge transparent throughout the design process. Based on a case study of a pilot program to make...... of temporary prototyping spaces, which are to be staged and facilitated to allow various actors to negotiate matters of concern. Designers then translate the resulting knowledge and insights into pro-totypes for use in subsequent spaces and eventually into an actor-network com-prising the final solution....

  16. Tradespace investigation of strategic design factors for large space telescopes (United States)

    Karlow, Brandon; Jewison, Christopher; Sternberg, David; Hall, Sherrie; Golkar, Alessandro


    Future large telescope arrays require careful balancing of satisfaction across the stakeholders' community. Development programs usually cannot afford to explicitly address all stakeholder tradeoffs during the conceptual design stage, but rather confine the analysis to performance, cost, and schedule discussions, treating policy and budget as constraints defining the envelope of the investigation. Thus, it is of interest to develop an integrated stakeholder analysis approach to explicitly address the impact of all stakeholder interactions on the design of large telescope arrays to address future science and exploration needs. This paper offers a quantitative approach for modeling some of the stakeholder influences relevant to large telescope array designs-the linkages between a given mission and the wider NASA community. The main goal of the analysis is to explore the tradespace of large telescope designs and understand the effects of different design decisions in the stakeholders' network. Proposed architectures that offer benefits to existing constellations of systems, institutions, and mission plans are expected to yield political and engineering benefits for NASA stakeholders' wider objectives. If such synergistic architectures are privileged in subsequent analysis, regions of the tradespace that better meet the needs of the wider NASA community can be selected for further development.

  17. Unified Simulation and Analysis Framework for Deep Space Navigation Design (United States)

    Anzalone, Evan; Chuang, Jason; Olsen, Carrie


    As the technology that enables advanced deep space autonomous navigation continues to develop and the requirements for such capability continues to grow, there is a clear need for a modular expandable simulation framework. This tool's purpose is to address multiple measurement and information sources in order to capture system capability. This is needed to analyze the capability of competing navigation systems as well as to develop system requirements, in order to determine its effect on the sizing of the integrated vehicle. The development for such a framework is built upon Model-Based Systems Engineering techniques to capture the architecture of the navigation system and possible state measurements and observations to feed into the simulation implementation structure. These models also allow a common environment for the capture of an increasingly complex operational architecture, involving multiple spacecraft, ground stations, and communication networks. In order to address these architectural developments, a framework of agent-based modules is implemented to capture the independent operations of individual spacecraft as well as the network interactions amongst spacecraft. This paper describes the development of this framework, and the modeling processes used to capture a deep space navigation system. Additionally, a sample implementation describing a concept of network-based navigation utilizing digitally transmitted data packets is described in detail. This developed package shows the capability of the modeling framework, including its modularity, analysis capabilities, and its unification back to the overall system requirements and definition.

  18. Thermal-hydraulics for space power, propulsion, and thermal management system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krotiuk, W.J.


    The present volume discusses thermal-hydraulic aspects of current space projects, Space Station thermal management systems, the thermal design of the Space Station Free-Flying Platforms, the SP-100 Space Reactor Power System, advanced multi-MW space nuclear power concepts, chemical and electric propulsion systems, and such aspects of the Space Station two-phase thermal management system as its mechanical pumped loop and its capillary pumped loop's supporting technology. Also discussed are the startup thaw concept for the SP-100 Space Reactor Power System, calculational methods and experimental data for microgravity conditions, an isothermal gas-liquid flow at reduced gravity, low-gravity flow boiling, computations of Space Shuttle high pressure cryogenic turbopump ball bearing two-phase coolant flow, and reduced-gravity condensation

  19. Analysis and design of ion thruster for large space systems (United States)

    Poeschel, R. L.; Kami, S.


    Design analyses showed that an ion thruster of approximately 50 cm in diameter will be required to produce a thrust of 0.5 N using xenon or argon as propellants, and operating the thruster at a specific impulse of 3530 sec or 6076 sec respectively. A multipole magnetic confinement discharge chamber was specified.

  20. Design and Test Space Exploration of Transport-Triggered Architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zivkovic, V.; Tangelder, R.J.W.T.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.


    This paper describes a new approach in the high level design and test of transport-triggered architectures (TTA), a special type of application specific instruction processors (ASIP). The proposed method introduces the test as an additional constraint, besides throughput and circuit area. The

  1. A home away from home. [life support system design for Space Station (United States)

    Powell, L. E.; Hager, R. W.; Mccown, J. W.


    The role of the NASA-Marshall center in the development of the Space Station is discussed. The tasks of the center include the development of the life-support system; the design of the common module, which will form the basis for all pressurized Space Station modules; the design and outfit of a common module for the Material and Technology Laboratory (MTL) and logistics use; accommodations for operations of the Orbit Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) and the Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV); and the Space Station propulsion system. A description of functions and design is given for each system, with particular emphasis on the goals of safety, efficiency, automation, and cost effectiveness.

  2. A novel double fine guide sensor design on space telescope (United States)

    Zhang, Xu-xu; Yin, Da-yi


    To get high precision attitude for space telescope, a double marginal FOV (field of view) FGS (Fine Guide Sensor) is proposed. It is composed of two large area APS CMOS sensors and both share the same lens in main light of sight. More star vectors can be get by two FGS and be used for high precision attitude determination. To improve star identification speed, the vector cross product in inter-star angles for small marginal FOV different from traditional way is elaborated and parallel processing method is applied to pyramid algorithm. The star vectors from two sensors are then used to attitude fusion with traditional QUEST algorithm. The simulation results show that the system can get high accuracy three axis attitudes and the scheme is feasibility.

  3. Radiation shielding design for the VISTA space craft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahyn, S.; Pahyn, H.M. [Gazi Univ., Teknik Eoitim Fakultesi, Ankara (Turkey)


    An innovative concept for the direct utilisation of fusion energy with laser ignited (D,T) capsules for propulsion is presented with the so called VISTA (Vehicle for Interplanetary Space Transport Applications) concept. VISTA's overall geometry is that of a 50 degrees-half-angle cone to avoid massive radioactive shielding. The 50 degrees-half-angle maximizes the jet efficiency, and is determined by selecting the optimum pellet firing position along the axis of the cone with respect to the plane of the magnet coil. The pellet firing position is in the vacuum. By a total fusion power production of 17 500 MW with a repetition rate of 5 Hz and 3 500 MJ per shot, the propulsion power in form of charged particles has been calculated as {approx} 7 000 MW, making {approx} 40 % of the total fusion power. About 60 % of the fusion energy is carried by the leaking neutrons out of the pellet. Most of them (96 %) escape into vacuum without striking the space ship. Only 4 % enter the frozen hydrogen exhaust cone (about 50 gr.). Total peak nuclear heat generation in the coils is calculated as 4.7 mW/cm{sup 3}. The peak neutron heating is 1.9 mW/cm{sup 3} and the peak {gamma}-ray heating density is 2.8 mW/cm{sup 3}. However, volume averaged nuclear heat generation in the coils is much lower. It is calculated as 0.18, 0.48 and 0.66 mW/cm{sup 3} for neutron, {gamma}-ray and total nuclear heating, respectively. Net shielding mass is found as 170 ton, making < 3 % of the vehicle mass. (authors)

  4. Radiation shielding design for the VISTA space craft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahyn, S.; Pahyn, H.M.


    An innovative concept for the direct utilisation of fusion energy with laser ignited (D,T) capsules for propulsion is presented with the so called VISTA (Vehicle for Interplanetary Space Transport Applications) concept. VISTA's overall geometry is that of a 50 degrees-half-angle cone to avoid massive radioactive shielding. The 50 degrees-half-angle maximizes the jet efficiency, and is determined by selecting the optimum pellet firing position along the axis of the cone with respect to the plane of the magnet coil. The pellet firing position is in the vacuum. By a total fusion power production of 17 500 MW with a repetition rate of 5 Hz and 3 500 MJ per shot, the propulsion power in form of charged particles has been calculated as ∼ 7 000 MW, making ∼ 40 % of the total fusion power. About 60 % of the fusion energy is carried by the leaking neutrons out of the pellet. Most of them (96 %) escape into vacuum without striking the space ship. Only 4 % enter the frozen hydrogen exhaust cone (about 50 gr.). Total peak nuclear heat generation in the coils is calculated as 4.7 mW/cm 3 . The peak neutron heating is 1.9 mW/cm 3 and the peak γ-ray heating density is 2.8 mW/cm 3 . However, volume averaged nuclear heat generation in the coils is much lower. It is calculated as 0.18, 0.48 and 0.66 mW/cm 3 for neutron, γ-ray and total nuclear heating, respectively. Net shielding mass is found as 170 ton, making < 3 % of the vehicle mass. (authors)

  5. Microarchitecture Parameters Describe Bone Structure and Its Strength Better Than BMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Topoliński


    Full Text Available Introduction and Hypothesis. Some papers have shown that bone mineral density (BMD may not be accurate in predicting fracture risk. Recently microarchitecture parameters have been reported to give information on bone characteristics. The aim of this study was to find out if the values of volume, fractal dimension, and bone mineral density are correlated with bone strength. Methods. Forty-two human bone samples harvested during total hip replacement surgery were cut to cylindrical samples. The geometrical mesh of layers of bone mass obtained from microCT investigation and the volumes of each layer and fractal dimension were calculated. The finite element method was applied to calculate the compression force F causing ε=0.8% strain. Results. There were stronger correlations for microarchitecture parameters with strength than those for bone mineral density. The values of determination coefficient R2 for mean volume and force were 0.88 and 0.90 for mean fractal dimension and force, while for BMD and force the value was 0.53. The samples with bigger mean bone volume of layers and bigger mean fractal dimension of layers (more complex structure presented higher strength. Conclusion. The volumetric and fractal dimension parameters better describe bone structure and strength than BMD.

  6. Effects of Nrf2 Deficiency on Bone Microarchitecture in an Experimental Model of Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Ibáñez


    Full Text Available Objective. Redox imbalance contributes to bone fragility. We have evaluated the in vivo role of nuclear factor erythroid derived 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2, an important regulator of cellular responses to oxidative stress, in bone metabolism using a model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Methods. Ovariectomy was performed in both wild-type and mice deficient in Nrf2 (Nrf2−/−. Bone microarchitecture was analyzed by μCT. Serum markers of bone metabolism were also measured. Reactive oxygen species production was determined using dihydrorhodamine 123. Results. Sham-operated or ovariectomized Nrf2−/− mice exhibit a loss in trabecular bone mineral density in femur, accompanied by a reduction in cortical area in vertebrae. Nrf2 deficiency tended to increase osteoblastic markers and significantly enhanced osteoclastic markers in sham-operated animals indicating an increased bone turnover with a main effect on bone resorption. We have also shown an increased production of oxidative stress in bone marrow-derived cells from sham-operated or ovariectomized Nrf2−/− mice and a higher responsiveness of bone marrow-derived cells to osteoclastogenic stimuli in vitro. Conclusion. We have demonstrated in vivo a key role of Nrf2 in the maintenance of bone microarchitecture.

  7. Exploiting Domain Knowledge in System-level MPSoC Design Space Exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, M.; Pimentel, A.D.


    System-level design space exploration (DSE), which is performed early in the design process, is of eminent importance to the design of complex multi-processor embedded multimedia systems. During system-level DSE, system parameters like, e.g., the number and type of processors, and the mapping of

  8. Interleaving methods for hybrid system-level MPSoC design space exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piscitelli, R.; Pimentel, A.D.; McAllister, J.; Bhattacharyya, S.


    System-level design space exploration (DSE), which is performed early in the design process, is of eminent importance to the design of complex multi-processor embedded system architectures. During system-level DSE, system parameters like, e.g., the number and type of processors, the type and size of

  9. Pruning techniques for multi-objective system-level design space exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piscitelli, R.


    System-level design space exploration (DSE), which is performed early in the design process, is of eminent importance to the design of complex multi-processor embedded system architectures. During system-level DSE, system parameters like, e.g., the number and type of processors, the type and size of

  10. Exploring Open-Ended Design Space of Mechatronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Zhun; Wang, J.; Goodman, E.


    To realize design automation of mechatronic systems, there are two major issues to be dealt with: open-topology generation of mechatronic systems and simulation or analysis of those models. For the first issue, we exploit the strong topology exploration capability of genetic programming to create...... and evolve structures representing mechatronic systems. With the help of ERCs (ephemeral random constants) in genetic programming, we can also evolve the sizing of mechatronic system components along with the structures. The second issue, simulation and analysis of those system models, is made more complex...... when they represent mixed-energy-domain systems. We take advantage of bond graphs as a tool for multi- or mixed-domain modeling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Because there are many considerations in mechatronic system design that are not completely captured by a bond graph, we would like...

  11. Public open space, physical activity, urban design and public health: Concepts, methods and research agenda. (United States)

    Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Mavoa, Suzanne; Villanueva, Karen; Sugiyama, Takemi; Badland, Hannah; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Owen, Neville; Giles-Corti, Billie


    Public open spaces such as parks and green spaces are key built environment elements within neighbourhoods for encouraging a variety of physical activity behaviours. Over the past decade, there has been a burgeoning number of active living research studies examining the influence of public open space on physical activity. However, the evidence shows mixed associations between different aspects of public open space (e.g., proximity, size, quality) and physical activity. These inconsistencies hinder the development of specific evidence-based guidelines for urban designers and policy-makers for (re)designing public open space to encourage physical activity. This paper aims to move this research agenda forward, by identifying key conceptual and methodological issues that may contribute to inconsistencies in research examining relations between public open space and physical activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Negative extensibility metamaterials: Occurrence and design-space topology (United States)

    Karpov, Eduard G.; Danso, Larry A.; Klein, John T.


    A negative extensibility material structure pulls back and contracts when the external tensile load reaches a certain critical level. In this paper, we reveal basic mathematical features of the nonlinear strain energy function responsible for this unusual mechanical property. A systematic discussion leads to a comprehensive phase diagram in terms of design parameters for a simple unit cell structure that provides a panoramic view of all possible nonlinear mechanical behaviors. A negative extensibility region clearly is identified in the diagram. The sought property is seen to be rare, occurring only for a very narrow range of the design parameters. Nonetheless, due to the simplicity of the studied structure we suggest that the negative extensibility should be a more common phenomenon than previously thought. It can appear in simple bistable cells made of only several linearly elastic links, although at some peculiar combinations of their properties. These bistable unit cells can be used to design periodic mechanical metamaterials whose examples are shown as well as innovative architectural metastructures.

  13. Reclaiming public space: designing for public interaction with private devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Hansen, Thomas Riisgaard; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas


    . In this paper we explore the implications of interacting in public space and how technology can be rethought to not only act as personal devices, but be the tool to reclaim the right and possibility to interact in public spaces. We introduce information exchange, social support and regulation as three central......Public spaces are changing from being ungoverned places for interaction to be more formalized, controlled, less interactive, and designed places aimed at fulfilling a purpose. Simultaneously, new personal mobile technology aims at providing private individual spaces in the public domain...... aspects for reclaiming public space. The PhotoSwapper application is presented as an example of a system designed to integrate pervasive technology in a public setting. The system is strongly inspired by the activities at a traditional market place. Based on the design of the application we discuss four...

  14. Space Based Radar-System Architecture Design and Optimization for a Space Based Replacement to AWACS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wickert, Douglas


    Through a process of system architecture design, system cost modeling, and system architecture optimization, we assess the feasibility of performing the next generation Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS...

  15. Tourism, technology and narratives: Reflections for the design of tourist spaces


    de Villasante García, Rafael; Casellas Oriol, Sílvia


    We characterize tourism essentially as a phenomenon of communication between architecture, a territory, a space and its visitors. The design of tourist spaces has evolved over time, according to the technologies used to build them. The emergence of new technologies enables new interactions with our environment and a constant connection with sources of information, in addition to geo-location and augmented reality. These are technologies that are re-configuring the tourist space and, therefore...

  16. "Space and Consequences": The Influence of the Roundtable Classroom Design on Student Dialogue (United States)

    Parsons, Caroline S.


    This study sought to explore how the design of both physical and virtual learning spaces influence student dialogue in a modern university. Qualitative analysis of the learning spaces in an undergraduate liberal arts program was conducted. Interview and focus group data from students and faculty, in addition to classroom observations, resulted in…

  17. Mapping the Hot Spots: A Zoning Approach to Space Analysis and Design (United States)

    Bunnell, Adam; Carpenter, Russell; Hensley, Emily; Strong, Kelsey; Williams, ReBecca; Winter, Rachel


    This article examines a preliminary approach to space design developed and implemented in Eastern Kentucky University's Noel Studio for Academic Creativity. The approach discussed here is entitled "hot spots," which has allowed the research team to observe trends in space usage and composing activities among students. This approach has…

  18. Space station system analysis study. Part 3: Documentation. Volume 2: Technical report. [structural design and construction (United States)


    An analysis of construction operation is presented as well as power system sizing requirements. Mission hardware requirements are reviewed in detail. Space construction base and design configurations are also examined.

  19. Numerical design of electron guns and space charge limited transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.


    This paper describes the capabilities and limitations of computer programs used to design electron guns and similarly space-charge limited transport systems. Examples of computer generated plots from several different types of gun problems are included

  20. Design, Participation, and Social Change: What Design in Grassroots Spaces Can Teach Learning Scientists (United States)

    Zavala, Miguel


    While a science of design (and theory of learning) is certainly useful in design-based research, a participatory design research framework presents an opening for learning scientists to rethink design and learning as processes. Grounded in the autoethnographic investigation of a grassroots organization's design of a local campaign, the author…

  1. Interactive computer graphics and its role in control system design of large space structures (United States)

    Reddy, A. S. S. R.


    This paper attempts to show the relevance of interactive computer graphics in the design of control systems to maintain attitude and shape of large space structures to accomplish the required mission objectives. The typical phases of control system design, starting from the physical model such as modeling the dynamics, modal analysis, and control system design methodology are reviewed and the need of the interactive computer graphics is demonstrated. Typical constituent parts of large space structures such as free-free beams and free-free plates are used to demonstrate the complexity of the control system design and the effectiveness of the interactive computer graphics.

  2. Designing Public Space for Mobility: Contestation, Negotiation and Experiment at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolaeva, Anna


    The paper investigates airport design, using the example of Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, from the point of view of managers, architects and designers. It is argued that existing accounts of the airport as a space of transit as well as a place for shopping and entertainment have underrated the comp......The paper investigates airport design, using the example of Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, from the point of view of managers, architects and designers. It is argued that existing accounts of the airport as a space of transit as well as a place for shopping and entertainment have underrated...

  3. Greenhouse Module for Space System: A Lunar Greenhouse Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeidler Conrad


    Full Text Available In the next 10 to 20 years humankind will return to the Moon and/or travel to Mars. It is likely that astronauts will eventually build permanent settlements there, as a base for long-term crew tended research tasks. It is obvious that the crew of such settlements will need food to survive. With current mission architectures the provision of food for longduration missions away from Earth requires a significant number of resupply flights. Furthermore, it would be infeasible to provide the crew with continuous access to fresh produce, specifically crops with high water content such as tomatoes and peppers, on account of their limited shelf life. A greenhouse as an integrated part of a planetary surface base would be one solution to solve this challenge for long-duration missions. Astronauts could grow their own fresh fruit and vegetables in-situ to be more independent from supply from Earth. This paper presents the results of the design project for such a greenhouse, which was carried out by DLR and its partners within the framework of the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA program. The consortium performed an extensive system analysis followed by a definition of system and subsystem requirements for greenhouse modules. Over 270 requirements were defined in this process. Afterwards the consortium performed an in-depth analysis of illumination strategies, potential growth accommodations and shapes for the external structure. Five different options for the outer shape were investigated, each of them with a set of possible internal configurations. Using the Analytical Hierarchy Process, the different concept options were evaluated and ranked against each other. The design option with the highest ranking was an inflatable outer structure with a rigid inner core, in which the subsystems are mounted. The inflatable shell is wrapped around the core during launch and transit to the lunar surface. The paper provides an overview of the

  4. Transceiver design for MSD indoor free-space laser links (United States)

    Jivkova, S.; Hristov, Boian A.


    In Multi-Spot Diffusing (MSD) configuration, the communication channel can be considered virtually ideal at data rates of hundreds of Mbps. Thus, the main concern is power efficiency. We propose transceiver optical designs that allow for a reconfigurable transmitter output and independent communication channels. Transmitter employs multiple light sources that can be turned on and off independently. This way, optical signal is provided only where it is needed, which optimizes power usage. Receiver utilizes an imaging optical system and segmented photodetector, thus performing direction diversity reception. We show that when maximum ratio combining is employed for the electric signals processing and power efficient modulation schemes like L-PPM are used significant power savings can be obtained.

  5. A procedure for the evaluation of 2D radiographic texture analysis to assess 3D bone micro-architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostol, L.; Peyrin, F.; Yot, S.; Basset, O.; Odet, Ch.; Apostal, L.; Peyrin, F.; Boller, E.; Tabary, J.; Dinten, J.M.; Boudousq, V.; Kotzki, P.O.


    Although the diagnosis of osteoporosis is mainly based on Dual X-ray Absorptiometry, it has been shown that trabecular bone micro-architecture is also an important factor in regards of fracture risk, which can be efficiently assessed in vitro using three-dimensional x-ray microtomography (μCT). In vivo, techniques based on high-resolution x-ray radiography associated to texture analysis have been proposed to investigate bone micro-architecture, but their relevance for giving pertinent 3D information is unclear. The purpose of this work was to develop a method for evaluating the relationships between 3D micro-architecture and 2D texture parameters, and optimizing the conditions for radiographic imaging. Bone sample images taken from cortical to cortical were acquired using 3D-synchrotron x-ray μCT at the ESRF. The 3D digital images were further used for two purposes: 1) quantification of three-dimensional bone micro-architecture, 2) simulation of realistic x-ray radiographs under different acquisition conditions. Texture analysis was then applied to these 2D radiographs using a large variety of methods (co-occurrence, spectrum, fractal...). First results of the statistical analysis between 2D and 3D parameters allowed identifying the most relevant 2D texture parameters. (authors)

  6. MRI of the hip at 7T: feasibility of bone microarchitecture, high-resolution cartilage, and clinical imaging. (United States)

    Chang, Gregory; Deniz, Cem M; Honig, Stephen; Egol, Kenneth; Regatte, Ravinder R; Zhu, Yudong; Sodickson, Daniel K; Brown, Ryan


    To demonstrate the feasibility of performing bone microarchitecture, high-resolution cartilage, and clinical imaging of the hip at 7T. This study had Institutional Review Board approval. Using an 8-channel coil constructed in-house, we imaged the hips of 15 subjects on a 7T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. We applied: 1) a T1-weighted 3D fast low angle shot (3D FLASH) sequence (0.23 × 0.23 × 1-1.5 mm(3) ) for bone microarchitecture imaging; 2) T1-weighted 3D FLASH (water excitation) and volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) sequences (0.23 × 0.23 × 1.5 mm(3) ) with saturation or inversion recovery-based fat suppression for cartilage imaging; 3) 2D intermediate-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) sequences without and with fat saturation (0.27 × 0.27 × 2 mm) for clinical imaging. Bone microarchitecture images allowed visualization of individual trabeculae within the proximal femur. Cartilage was well visualized and fat was well suppressed on FLASH and VIBE sequences. FSE sequences allowed visualization of cartilage, the labrum (including cartilage and labral pathology), joint capsule, and tendons. This is the first study to demonstrate the feasibility of performing a clinically comprehensive hip MRI protocol at 7T, including high-resolution imaging of bone microarchitecture and cartilage, as well as clinical imaging. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Bone geometry, volumetric density, microarchitecture, and estimated bone strength assessed by HR-pQCT in Klinefelter syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanbhogue, Vikram V; Hansen, Stinus; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye


    Although the expected skeletal manifestations of testosterone deficiency in Klinefelter's syndrome (KS) are osteopenia and osteoporosis, the structural basis for this is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), microarchitecture...

  8. Applying design principles to fusion reactor configurations for propulsion in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, S.A.; Deveny, M.E.; Schulze, N.R.


    The application of fusion power to space propulsion requires rethinking the engineering-design solution to controlled-fusion energy. Whereas the unit cost of electricity (COE) drives the engineering-design solution for utility-based fusion reactor configurations; initial mass to low earth orbit (IMLEO), specific jet power (kW(thrust)/kg(engine)), and reusability drive the engineering-design solution for successful application of fusion power to space propulsion. Three design principles (DP's) were applied to adapt and optimize three candidate-terrestrial-fusion-reactor configurations for propulsion in space. The three design principles are: provide maximum direct access to space for waste radiation, operate components as passive radiators to minimize cooling-system mass, and optimize the plasma fuel, fuel mix, and temperature for best specific jet power. The three candidate terrestrial fusion reactor configurations are: the thermal barrier tandem mirror (TBTM), field reversed mirror (FRM), and levitated dipole field (LDF). The resulting three candidate space fusion propulsion systems have their IMLEO minimized and their specific jet power and reusability maximized. A preliminary rating of these configurations was performed, and it was concluded that the leading engineering-design solution to space fusion propulsion is a modified TBTM that we call the Mirror Fusion Propulsion System (MFPS)

  9. Thermal Control Subsystem Design for the Avionics of a Space Station Payload (United States)

    Moran, Matthew E.


    A case study of the thermal control subsystem development for a space based payload is presented from the concept stage through preliminary design. This payload, the Space Acceleration Measurement System 2 (SAMS-2), will measure the acceleration environment at select locations within the International Space Station. Its thermal control subsystem must maintain component temperatures within an acceptable range over a 10 year life span, while restricting accessible surfaces to touch temperature limits and insuring fail safe conditions in the event of loss of cooling. In addition to these primary design objectives, system level requirements and constraints are imposed on the payload, many of which are driven by multidisciplinary issues. Blending these issues into the overall system design required concurrent design sessions with the project team, iterative conceptual design layouts, thermal analysis and modeling, and hardware testing. Multiple tradeoff studies were also performed to investigate the many options which surfaced during the development cycle.

  10. Robotic influence in the conceptual design of mechanical systems in space and vice versa - A survey (United States)

    Sanger, George F.


    A survey of methods using robotic devices to construct structural elements in space is presented. Two approaches to robotic construction are considered: one in which the structural elements are designed using conventional aerospace techniques which tend to constrain the function aspects of robotics and one in which the structural elements are designed from the conceptual stage with built-in robotic features. Examples are presented of structural building concepts using robotics, including the construction of the SP-100 nuclear reactor power system, a multimirror large aperture IR space telescope concept, retrieval and repair in space, and the Flight Telerobotic Servicer.

  11. CERN Linac4 - The Space Charge Challenge Design and Commission

    CERN Document Server

    Hein, Lutz Matthias; Holzer, Bernhard

    In the first phase of the upgrade program of the CERN accelerator complex the proton injector Linac2 will be replaced by a new, normal-conducting $H^-$ ion Linac, Linac4, allowing a significant increase of the proton flux intensity along the downstream accelerator complex. In the design of Linac4 three beam transport sections are implemented to match the beam between the different accelerator elements and to model the longitudinal pulse structure. These three beam transport sections, which are the most critical locations in terms of beam quality preservation, are in the focus of this thesis. During the work of this thesis the low energy beam transport (LEBT), which is required to match the source beam to the radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), has been commissioned and its beam dynamics re-constructed. The measurement campaign used to re-construct the LEBT beam dynamics was performed with the aim to prepare the RFQ commissioning and to maximise the LEBT performance. Downstream of the Linac4 accelerator the beam...

  12. Phase 1 space fission propulsion system design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houts, Mike; Van Dyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Pedersen, Kevin; Martin, James; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Hrbud, Ivana; Carter, Robert


    Fission technology can enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. If fission propulsion systems are to be developed to their full potential; however, near-term customers must be identified and initial fission systems successfully developed, launched, and operated. Studies conducted in fiscal year 2001 (IISTP, 2001) show that fission electric propulsion (FEP) systems operating at 80 kWe or above could enhance or enable numerous robotic outer solar system missions of interest. At these power levels it is possible to develop safe, affordable systems that meet mission performance requirements. In selecting the system design to pursue, seven evaluation criteria were identified: safety, reliability, testability, specific mass, cost, schedule, and programmatic risk. A top-level comparison of three potential concepts was performed: an SP-100 based pumped liquid lithium system, a direct gas cooled system, and a heatpipe cooled system. For power levels up to at least 500 kWt (enabling electric power levels of 125-175 kWe, given 25-35% power conversion efficiency) the heatpipe system has advantages related to several criteria and is competitive with respect to all. Hardware-based research and development has further increased confidence in the heatpipe approach. Successful development and utilization of a 'Phase 1' fission electric propulsion system will enable advanced Phase 2 and Phase 3 systems capable of providing rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system

  13. Modeling in the quality by design environment: Regulatory requirements and recommendations for design space and control strategy appointment. (United States)

    Djuris, Jelena; Djuric, Zorica


    Mathematical models can be used as an integral part of the quality by design (QbD) concept throughout the product lifecycle for variety of purposes, including appointment of the design space and control strategy, continual improvement and risk assessment. Examples of different mathematical modeling techniques (mechanistic, empirical and hybrid) in the pharmaceutical development and process monitoring or control are provided in the presented review. In the QbD context, mathematical models are predominantly used to support design space and/or control strategies. Considering their impact to the final product quality, models can be divided into the following categories: high, medium and low impact models. Although there are regulatory guidelines on the topic of modeling applications, review of QbD-based submission containing modeling elements revealed concerns regarding the scale-dependency of design spaces and verification of models predictions at commercial scale of manufacturing, especially regarding real-time release (RTR) models. Authors provide critical overview on the good modeling practices and introduce concepts of multiple-unit, adaptive and dynamic design space, multivariate specifications and methods for process uncertainty analysis. RTR specification with mathematical model and different approaches to multivariate statistical process control supporting process analytical technologies are also presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic and environmental variances of bone microarchitecture and bone remodeling markers: a twin study. (United States)

    Bjørnerem, Åshild; Bui, Minh; Wang, Xiaofang; Ghasem-Zadeh, Ali; Hopper, John L; Zebaze, Roger; Seeman, Ego


    All genetic and environmental factors contributing to differences in bone structure between individuals mediate their effects through the final common cellular pathway of bone modeling and remodeling. We hypothesized that genetic factors account for most of the population variance of cortical and trabecular microstructure, in particular intracortical porosity and medullary size - void volumes (porosity), which establish the internal bone surface areas or interfaces upon which modeling and remodeling deposit or remove bone to configure bone microarchitecture. Microarchitecture of the distal tibia and distal radius and remodeling markers were measured for 95 monozygotic (MZ) and 66 dizygotic (DZ) white female twin pairs aged 40 to 61 years. Images obtained using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography were analyzed using StrAx1.0, a nonthreshold-based software that quantifies cortical matrix and porosity. Genetic and environmental components of variance were estimated under the assumptions of the classic twin model. The data were consistent with the proportion of variance accounted for by genetic factors being: 72% to 81% (standard errors ∼18%) for the distal tibial total, cortical, and medullary cross-sectional area (CSA); 67% and 61% for total cortical porosity, before and after adjusting for total CSA, respectively; 51% for trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD; all p accounted for 47% to 68% of the variance (all p ≤ 0.001). Cross-twin cross-trait correlations between tibial cortical porosity and medullary CSA were higher for MZ (rMZ  = 0.49) than DZ (rDZ  = 0.27) pairs before (p = 0.024), but not after (p = 0.258), adjusting for total CSA. For the remodeling markers, the data were consistent with genetic factors accounting for 55% to 62% of the variance. We infer that middle-aged women differ in their bone microarchitecture and remodeling markers more because of differences in their genetic factors than

  15. Defects in cortical microarchitecture among African-American women with type 2 diabetes. (United States)

    Yu, E W; Putman, M S; Derrico, N; Abrishamanian-Garcia, G; Finkelstein, J S; Bouxsein, M L


    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) have increased fracture risk. We found that African-American women with DM2 have increased cortical porosity and lower cortical bone density at the radius than non-diabetic controls. These cortical deficits are associated with hyperglycemia and may contribute to skeletal fragility associated with DM2. Fracture risk is increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) despite normal areal bone mineral density (aBMD). DM2 is more common in African-Americans than in Caucasians. It is not known whether African-American women with DM2 have deficits in bone microstructure. We measured aBMD at the spine and hip by DXA, and volumetric BMD (vBMD) and microarchitecture at the distal radius and tibia by HR-pQCT in 22 DM2 and 78 non-diabetic African-American women participating in the Study of Women Across the Nation (SWAN). We also measured fasting glucose and HOMA-IR. Age, weight, and aBMD at all sites were similar in both groups. At the radius, cortical porosity was 26% greater, while cortical vBMD and tissue mineral density were lower in women with DM2 than in controls. There were no differences in radius total vBMD or trabecular vBMD between groups. Despite inferior cortical bone properties at the radius, FEA-estimated failure load was similar between groups. Tibia vBMD and microarchitecture were also similar between groups. There were no significant associations between cortical parameters and duration of DM2 or HOMA-IR. However, among women with DM2, higher fasting glucose levels were associated with lower cortical vBMD (r=-0.54, p=0.018). DM2 and higher fasting glucose are associated with unfavorable cortical bone microarchitecture at the distal radius in African-American women. These structural deficits may contribute to the increased fracture risk among women with DM2. Further, our results suggest that hyperglycemia may be involved in mechanisms of skeletal fragility associated with DM2.

  16. Design and evaluation of materials for space reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavassoli, A.A.; Vrillon, B.; Robert, G.


    The French programme envisages a 20 kWe reactor, project ERATO, with three technological options. The first option is a sodium cooled reactor, derived from the fast breeder reactor technology, (upper core outlet temperature of 700 0 C). The second option is based on the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor technology (outlet temperature range 700 0 C-900 0 C). The third option is the reference solution, lithium cooled and UN fuelled fast spectrum reactor, (outlet temperature as high as 1200 0 C). The choice is essentially dominated by material considerations, and more specifically by the problems related to the compatibility with the cooling medium and to the high temperature creep resistance. For the first system limited work will be needed as the technology used is well experimented and there is a wealth of information on the austenitic stainless steel Type 316L-SPH. For the second system, most of the work has been concentrated on characterization of existing commercial alloys. This has included the preselection and the testing of a number of superalloys irradiated or not. The results obtained from high temperature tensile and creep tests have allowed selection of Haynes 230 as the primary candidate material and have also permitted calculation of allowable design stresses for this alloy. For the very high temperature system the French R and D programme has focused on Mo-Re alloys. The results obtained to this date from microstructural examinations and mechanical tests performed on different alloy compositions have allowed selection of Mo-25%Re for future optimization work. They have also shown the need for evaluation of creep properties at low stresses where microstructural instabilities are likely to occur as a result of long exposure to high temperature

  17. Design for unusual environment (space). Complementary use of modelling and testing phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambiaghi, Danilo; Cambiaghi, Andrea


    Designing for space requires a great imagination effort from the designer. He must perceive that the stresses experimented by the facilities he is designing will be quite different in space (during the mission), in launch phase and on ground (before launch handling phase), and he must design for all such environmental conditions. Furthermore he must design for mechanical and thermal environment, which often lead to conflicting needs. Virtual models may help very much in balancing the conflicting requirements, but models must be validated to be reliable. Test phase help validating the models, but may overstress the items. The aim of the designer is to reach an efficient and safe design through a balanced use of creativity, modelling and testing

  18. Design and implementation of an inter-agency, multi-mission space flight operations network interface (United States)

    Byrne, R.; Scharf, M.; Doan, D.; Liu, J.; Willems, A.


    An advanced network interface was designed and implemented by a team from the Jet Propulsion Lab with support from the European Space Operations Center. This poster shows the requirements for the interface, the design, the topology, the testing and lessons learned from the whole implementation.

  19. NASA: A generic infrastructure for system-level MP-SoC design space exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jia, Z.J.; Pimentel, A.D.; Thompson, M.; Bautista, T.; Núñez, A.


    System-level simulation and design space exploration (DSE) are key ingredients for the design of multiprocessor system-on-chip (MP-SoC) based embedded systems. The efforts in this area, however, typically use ad-hoc software infrastructures to facilitate and support the system-level DSE experiments.

  20. Requirements for high level models supporting design space exploration in model-based systems engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, Steven; Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten


    Most formal models are used in detailed design and focus on a single domain. Few effective approaches exist that can effectively tie these lower level models to a high level system model during design space exploration. This complicates the validation of high level system requirements during

  1. Learning Theory Expertise in the Design of Learning Spaces: Who Needs a Seat at the Table? (United States)

    Rook, Michael M.; Choi, Koun; McDonald, Scott P.


    This study highlights the impact of including stakeholders with expertise in learning theory in a learning space design process. We present the decision-making process during the design of the Krause Innovation Studio on the campus of the Pennsylvania State University to draw a distinction between the architect and faculty member's decision-making…

  2. Functional requirements for design of the Space Ultrareliable Modular Computer (SUMC) system simulator (United States)

    Curran, R. T.; Hornfeck, W. A.


    The functional requirements for the design of an interpretive simulator for the space ultrareliable modular computer (SUMC) are presented. A review of applicable existing computer simulations is included along with constraints on the SUMC simulator functional design. Input requirements, output requirements, and language requirements for the simulator are discussed in terms of a SUMC configuration which may vary according to the application.

  3. Performance/price estimates for cortex-scale hardware: a design space exploration. (United States)

    Zaveri, Mazad S; Hammerstrom, Dan


    In this paper, we revisit the concept of virtualization. Virtualization is useful for understanding and investigating the performance/price and other trade-offs related to the hardware design space. Moreover, it is perhaps the most important aspect of a hardware design space exploration. Such a design space exploration is a necessary part of the study of hardware architectures for large-scale computational models for intelligent computing, including AI, Bayesian, bio-inspired and neural models. A methodical exploration is needed to identify potentially interesting regions in the design space, and to assess the relative performance/price points of these implementations. As an example, in this paper we investigate the performance/price of (digital and mixed-signal) CMOS and hypothetical CMOL (nanogrid) technology based hardware implementations of human cortex-scale spiking neural systems. Through this analysis, and the resulting performance/price points, we demonstrate, in general, the importance of virtualization, and of doing these kinds of design space explorations. The specific results suggest that hybrid nanotechnology such as CMOL is a promising candidate to implement very large-scale spiking neural systems, providing a more efficient utilization of the density and storage benefits of emerging nano-scale technologies. In general, we believe that the study of such hypothetical designs/architectures will guide the neuromorphic hardware community towards building large-scale systems, and help guide research trends in intelligent computing, and computer engineering. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effects of glucocorticoid on microarchitecture, collagen, mineral and mechanical properties of sheep femur cortical bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Danielsen, Carl C; Overgaard, Søren


    The effects of glucocorticoid on microarchitecture, collagen, mineral and mechanical properties of sheep femur cortical bone – Validation of large animal model for tissue engineering and biomaterial research Ming Ding,1* Carl Christian Danielsen,2 Søren Overgaard1 1Orthopaedic Research Laboratory......, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Odense University Hospital, Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense C, Denmark 2Department of Connective Tissue Biology, Institute of Anatomy, University of Aarhus, Aarhus C, Denmark Osteopenia in sheep has been successfully induced...... by glucocorticoid treatment and the changes in properties of cancellous bone were comparable with those observed in humans after long-term glucocorticoid treatment. However, the influence on cortical bone has not been thoroughly elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the influence of glucocorticoid on sheep...

  5. X-ray vector radiography for bone micro-architecture diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malecki, Andreas; Potdevin, Guillaume; Biernath, Thomas; Bech, Martin; Pfeiffer, Franz [Department of Physics and Institute of Medical Engineering, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany)


    The non-invasive estimation of fracture risk in osteoporosis remains a challenge in the clinical routine and is mainly based on an assessment of bone density by dual X-ray absorption (DXA). Although bone micro-architecture is known to play an important role for bone fragility, its visualisation implies an imaging resolution better than 100 {mu}m, which limits the field of view and increases the necessary radiation dose. Here we describe a new method, X-ray Vector Radiography (XVR), based on X-ray scattering rather than absorption as contrast source, which yields information about the local orientation and degree of anisotropy of the bone micro-structure. This information is highly relevant for osteoporosis diagnostic. We demonstrate the feasibility by showing first experimental X-ray Vector Radiographies of human vertebra bone samples, yielding information on the trabecular structure.

  6. Spacecraft Conceptual Design for the 8-Meter Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST) (United States)

    Hopkins, Randall C.; Capizzo, Peter; Fincher, Sharon; Hornsby, Linda S.; Jones, David


    The Advanced Concepts Office at Marshall Space Flight Center completed a brief spacecraft design study for the 8-meter monolithic Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST-8m). This spacecraft concept provides all power, communication, telemetry, avionics, guidance and control, and thermal control for the observatory, and inserts the observatory into a halo orbit about the second Sun-Earth Lagrange point. The multidisciplinary design team created a simple spacecraft design that enables component and science instrument servicing, employs articulating solar panels for help with momentum management, and provides precise pointing control while at the same time fast slewing for the observatory.

  7. Effect of swimming exercise on three-dimensional trabecular bone microarchitecture in ovariectomized rats. (United States)

    Ju, Yong-In; Sone, Teruki; Ohnaru, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Kensuke; Fukunaga, Masao


    Swimming is generally considered ineffective for increasing bone mass in humans, at least compared with weight-bearing sports. However, swimming exercise has sometimes been shown to have a strong positive effect on bone mass in small animals. This study investigated the effects of swimming on bone mass, strength, and microarchitecture in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. OVX or sham operations were performed on 18-wk-old female Fisher 344 rats. Rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham sedentary (Sham-CON), sham swimming exercised (Sham-SWI), OVX sedentary (OVX-CON), and OVX swimming exercised (OVX-SWI). Rats in exercise groups performed swimming in a water bath for 60 min/day, 5 days/wk, for 12 wk. Bone mineral density (BMD) in right femurs was analyzed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Three-dimensional trabecular architecture at the distal femoral metaphysis was analyzed using microcomputed tomography (μCT). Geometrical properties of diaphyseal cortical bone were evaluated in the midfemoral region using μCT. The biomechanical properties of femurs were analyzed using three-point bending. Femoral BMD was significantly decreased following ovariectomy. This change was suppressed by swimming. Trabecular bone thickness, number, and connectivity were decreased by ovariectomy, whereas structure model index (i.e., ratio of rod-like to plate-like trabeculae) increased. These changes were also suppressed by swimming exercise. Femurs displayed greater cortical width and maximum load in SWI groups than in CON groups. Together, these results demonstrate that swimming exercise drastically alleviated both OVX-induced decreases in bone mass and mechanical strength and the deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture in rat models of osteoporosis. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. In Vivo Changes in Lamina Cribrosa Microarchitecture and Optic Nerve Head Structure in Early Experimental Glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M Ivers

    Full Text Available The lamina cribrosa likely plays an important role in retinal ganglion cell axon injury in glaucoma. We sought to (1 better understand optic nerve head (ONH structure and anterior lamina cribrosa surface (ALCS microarchitecture between fellow eyes of living, normal non-human primates and (2 characterize the time-course of in vivo structural changes in the ONH, ALCS microarchitecture, and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT in non-human primate eyes with early experimental glaucoma (EG. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT images of the ONH were acquired cross-sectionally in six bilaterally normal rhesus monkeys, and before and approximately every two weeks after inducing unilateral EG in seven rhesus monkeys. ONH parameters and RNFLT were quantified from segmented SDOCT images. Mean ALCS pore area, elongation and nearest neighbor distance (NND were quantified globally, in sectors and regionally from adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope images. In bilaterally normal monkeys, ONH parameters were similar between fellow eyes with few inter-eye differences in ALCS pore parameters. In EG monkeys, an increase in mean ALCS Depth (ALCSD was the first structural change measured in 6 of 7 EG eyes. A decrease in mean minimum rim width (MRW simultaneously accompanied this early change in 4 of 6 EG eyes and was the first structural change in the 7th EG eye. Mean ALCS pore parameters were among the first or second changes measured in 4 EG eyes. Mean ALCS pore area and NND increased in superotemporal and temporal sectors and in central and peripheral regions at the first time-point of change in ALCS pore geometry. RNFLT and/or mean ALCS radius of curvature were typically the last parameters to initially change. Survival analyses found mean ALCSD was the only parameter to significantly show an initial change prior to the first measured loss in RNFLT across EG eyes.

  9. Bone Density, Microarchitecture, and Tissue Quality Long-term After Kidney Transplant. (United States)

    Pérez-Sáez, María José; Herrera, Sabina; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Nogués, Xavier; Vera, María; Redondo-Pachón, Dolores; Mir, Marisa; Güerri, Roberto; Crespo, Marta; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Pascual, Julio


    Bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry is used to assess bone health in kidney transplant recipients (KTR). Trabecular bone score and in vivo microindentation are novel techniques that directly measure trabecular microarchitecture and mechanical properties of bone at a tissue level and independently predict fracture risk. We tested the bone status of long-term KTR using all 3 techniques. Cross-sectional study including 40 KTR with more than 10 years of follow-up and 94 healthy nontransplanted subjects as controls. Bone mineral density was measured at lumbar spine and the hip. Trabecular bone score was measured by specific software on the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans of lumbar spine in 39 KTR and 77 controls. Microindentation was performed at the anterior tibial face with a reference-point indenter device. Bone measurements were standardized as percentage of a reference value, expressed as bone material strength index (BMSi) units. Multivariable (age, sex, and body mass index-adjusted) linear regression models were fitted to study the association between KTR and BMD/BMSi/trabecular bone score. Bone mineral density was lower at lumbar spine (0.925 ± 0.15 vs 0.982 ± 0.14; P = 0.025), total hip (0.792 ± 0.14 vs 0.902 ± 0.13; P bone score was borderline lower (1.21 ± 0.14 vs 1.3 ± 0.15; adjusted P = 0.072) in KTR. Despite persistent decrease in BMD, trabecular microarchitecture and tissue quality remain normal in long-term KTR, suggesting important recovery of bone health.

  10. Liposomal Encapsulation for Systemic Delivery of Propranolol via Transdermal Iontophoresis Improves Bone Microarchitecture in Ovariectomized Rats. (United States)

    Teong, Benjamin; Kuo, Shyh Ming; Tsai, Wei-Hsin; Ho, Mei-Ling; Chen, Chung-Hwan; Huang, Han Hsiang


    The stimulatory effects of liposomal propranolol (PRP) on proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblastic cells suggested that the prepared liposomes-encapsulated PRP exerts anabolic effects on bone in vivo. Iontophoresis provides merits such as sustained release of drugs and circumvention of first pass metabolism. This study further investigated and evaluated the anti-osteoporotic effects of liposomal PRP in ovariectomized (OVX) rats via iontophoresis. Rats subjected to OVX were administered with pure or liposomal PRP via iontophoresis or subcutaneous injection twice a week for 12 weeks. Changes in the microarchitecture at the proximal tibia and the fourth lumbar spine were assessed between pure or liposomal PRP treated and non-treated groups using micro-computed tomography. Administration of liposomal PRP at low dose (0.05 mg/kg) via iontophoresis over 2-fold elevated ratio between bone volume and total tissue volume (BV/TV) in proximal tibia to 9.0% whereas treatment with liposomal PRP at low and high (0.5 mg/kg) doses via subcutaneous injection resulted in smaller increases in BV/TV. Significant improvement of BV/TV and bone mineral density (BMD) was also found in the fourth lumbar spine when low-dose liposomal PRP was iontophoretically administered. Iontophoretic low-dose liposomal PRP also elevated trabecular numbers in tibia and trabecular thickness in spine. Enhancement of bone microarchitecture volumes has highlighted that liposomal formulation with transdermal iontophoresis is promising for PRP treatment at the lower dose and with longer duration than its clinical therapeutic range and duration to exhibit optimal effects against bone loss in vivo.

  11. Timing of growth hormone treatment affects trabecular bone microarchitecture and mineralization in growth hormone deficient mice. (United States)

    Kristensen, Erika; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Morck, Douglas W; Boyd, Steven K


    Growth hormone (GH) is essential in the development of bone mass, and a growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in childhood is frequently treated with daily injections of GH. It is not clear what effect GHD and its treatment has on bone. It was hypothesized that GHD would result in impaired microarchitecture, and an early onset of treatment would result in a better recovery than late onset. Growth hormone deficient homozygous (lit/lit) mice of both sexes were divided into two treatment groups receiving daily injections of GH, starting at an early (21 days of age) or a late time point (35 days of age, corresponding to the end of puberty). A group of heterozygous mice with normal levels of growth hormone served as controls. In vivo micro-computed tomography scans of the fourth lumbar vertebra were obtained at five time points between 21 and 60 days of age, and trabecular morphology and volumetric BMD were analyzed to determine the effects of GH on bone microarchitecture. Early GH treatment led to significant improvements in bone volume ratio (p=0.006), tissue mineral density (p=0.005), and structure model index (p=0.004) by the study endpoint (day 60), with no detected change in trabecular thickness. Trabecular number increased and trabecular separation decreased in GHD mice regardless of treatment compared to heterozygous mice. This suggests fundamental differences in the structure of trabecular bone in GHD and GH treated mice, reflected by an increased number of thinner trabeculae in these mice compared to heterozygous controls. There were no significant differences between the late treatment group and GHD mice except for connectivity density. Taken together, these results indicate that bone responds to GH treatment initiated before puberty but not to treatment commencing post-puberty, and that GH treatment does not rescue the structure of trabecular bone to that of heterozygous controls. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Designing future dark energy space missions. II. Photometric redshift of space weak lensing optimized surveys (United States)

    Jouvel, S.; Kneib, J.-P.; Bernstein, G.; Ilbert, O.; Jelinsky, P.; Milliard, B.; Ealet, A.; Schimd, C.; Dahlen, T.; Arnouts, S.


    scale of 0.15'', we found that a homogeneous survey reaching a survey population of IAB = 25.6 (10σ) with a sky coverage of ~11 000 deg2 maximizes the weak lensing FoM. The effective number density of galaxies used for WL is then ~45 gal/arcmin2, which is at least a factor of two higher than ground-based surveys. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a full account of the observational strategy is required to properly optimize the instrument parameters and maximize the FoM of the future weak-lensing space dark energy mission.

  13. PC Software graphics tool for conceptual design of space/planetary electrical power systems (United States)

    Truong, Long V.


    This paper describes the Decision Support System (DSS), a personal computer software graphics tool for designing conceptual space and/or planetary electrical power systems. By using the DSS, users can obtain desirable system design and operating parameters, such as system weight, electrical distribution efficiency, and bus power. With this tool, a large-scale specific power system was designed in a matter of days. It is an excellent tool to help designers make tradeoffs between system components, hardware architectures, and operation parameters in the early stages of the design cycle. The DSS is a user-friendly, menu-driven tool with online help and a custom graphical user interface. An example design and results are illustrated for a typical space power system with multiple types of power sources, frequencies, energy storage systems, and loads.

  14. Designed Natural Spaces: Informal Gardens Are Perceived to Be More Restorative than Formal Gardens. (United States)

    Twedt, Elyssa; Rainey, Reuben M; Proffitt, Dennis R


    Experimental research shows that there are perceived and actual benefits to spending time in natural spaces compared to urban spaces, such as reduced cognitive fatigue, improved mood, and reduced stress. Whereas past research has focused primarily on distinguishing between distinct categories of spaces (i.e., nature vs. urban), less is known about variability in perceived restorative potential of environments within a particular category of outdoor spaces, such as gardens. Conceptually, gardens are often considered to be restorative spaces and to contain an abundance of natural elements, though there is great variability in how gardens are designed that might impact their restorative potential. One common practice for classifying gardens is along a spectrum ranging from "formal or geometric" to "informal or naturalistic," which often corresponds to the degree to which built or natural elements are present, respectively. In the current study, we tested whether participants use design informality as a cue to predict perceived restorative potential of different gardens. Participants viewed a set of gardens and rated each on design informality, perceived restorative potential, naturalness, and visual appeal. Participants perceived informal gardens to have greater restorative potential than formal gardens. In addition, gardens that were more visually appealing and more natural-looking were perceived to have greater restorative potential than less visually appealing and less natural gardens. These perceptions and precedents are highly relevant for the design of gardens and other similar green spaces intended to provide relief from stress and to foster cognitive restoration.

  15. Designed natural spaces: Informal gardens are perceived to be more restorative than formal gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyssa eTwedt


    Full Text Available Experimental research shows that there are perceived and actual benefits to spending time in natural spaces compared to urban spaces such as reduced cognitive fatigue, improved mood, and reduced stress. Whereas past research has focused primarily on distinguishing between distinct categories of spaces (i.e., nature versus urban, less is known about variability in perceived restorative potential of environments within a particular category of outdoor spaces, such as gardens. Conceptually, gardens are often considered to be restorative spaces and to contain an abundance of natural elements, though there is great variability in how gardens are designed that might impact their restorative potential. One common practice for classifying gardens is along a spectrum ranging from formal or geometric to informal or naturalistic, which often corresponds to the degree to which built or natural elements are present, respectively. In the current study, we tested whether participants use design informality as a cue to predict perceived restorative potential of different gardens. Participants viewed a set of gardens and rated each on design informality, perceived restorative potential, naturalness, and visual appeal. Participants perceived informal gardens to have greater restorative potential than formal gardens. In addition, gardens that were more visually appealing and more natural-looking were perceived to have greater restorative potential than less visually appealing and less natural gardens. These perceptions and precedents are highly relevant for the design of gardens and other similar green spaces intended to provide relief from stress and to foster cognitive restoration.

  16. Modulator Dynamics Shape the Design Space for Stepwise-Elution Simulated Moving Bed Chromatographic Separations. (United States)

    Wayne, Chris J; Velayudhan, Ajoy


    For proteins and other biological macromolecules, SMB chromatography is best operated non-isocratically. However, traditional modes of non-isocratic SMB operation generate significant mobile-phase modulator dynamics. The mechanisms by which these modulator dynamics affect a separation's success, and thus frame the design space, have yet to be explained quantitatively. Here, the dynamics of the modulator (e.g., salts in ion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography) are explicitly accounted for. This leads to the elucidation of two new design constraints, presented as dimensionless numbers, which quantify the effects of the modulator phenomena and thus predict the success of a non-isocratic SMB separation. Consequently, these two new design constraints re-define the SMB design space. Computational and experimental studies at the boundaries of this design space corroborate the theoretical predictions. The design of efficient and robust operating conditions through use of the new design space is also demonstrated. © 2018 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Design studio as a life space in architectural education: privacy requirements


    Demirbaş, Özgen Osman


    Ankara : The Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and the Institute of Fine Arts of Bilkent Univ., 1997. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1997. Includes bibliographical refences. There is a very important relationship between the educational outcomes and the architectural design of educational facilities. The most commonly used space in an architectural education is the design studio. Therefore, it is claimed that there should be a living process in a ...

  18. Requirements for High Level Models Supporting Design Space Exploration in Model-based Systems Engineering


    Haveman, Steven P.; Bonnema, G. Maarten


    Most formal models are used in detailed design and focus on a single domain. Few effective approaches exist that can effectively tie these lower level models to a high level system model during design space exploration. This complicates the validation of high level system requirements during detailed design. In this paper, we define requirements for a high level model that is firstly driven by key systems engineering challenges present in industry and secondly connects to several formal and d...

  19. Conceptual Kinematic Design and Performance Evaluation of a Chameleon-Like Service Robot for Space Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ceccarelli


    Full Text Available In this paper a conceptual kinematic design of a chameleon-like robot with proper mobility capacity is presented for service applications in space stations as result of design considerations with biomimetic inspiration by looking at chameleons. Requirements and characteristics are discussed with the aim to identify design problems and operation features. A study of feasibility is described through performance evaluation by using simulations for a basic operation characterization.

  20. Advanced Space Vehicle Design Taking into Account Multidisciplinary Couplings and Mixed Epistemic/Aleatory Uncertainties


    Balesdent , Mathieu; Brevault , Loïc; Price , Nathaniel; Defoort , Sébastien; Le Riche , Rodolphe; Kim , Nam-Ho; Haftka , Raphael T.; Bérend , Nicolas


    International audience; Space vehicle design is a complex process involving numerous disciplines such as aerodynamics, structure, propulsion and trajectory. These disciplines are tightly coupled and may involve antagonistic objectives that require the use of specific methodologies in order to assess trade-offs between the disciplines and to obtain the global optimal configuration. Generally, there are two ways to handle the system design. On the one hand, the design may be considered from a d...

  1. Design space development for the extraction process of Danhong injection using a Monte Carlo simulation method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingchu Gong

    Full Text Available A design space approach was applied to optimize the extraction process of Danhong injection. Dry matter yield and the yields of five active ingredients were selected as process critical quality attributes (CQAs. Extraction number, extraction time, and the mass ratio of water and material (W/M ratio were selected as critical process parameters (CPPs. Quadratic models between CPPs and CQAs were developed with determination coefficients higher than 0.94. Active ingredient yields and dry matter yield increased as the extraction number increased. Monte-Carlo simulation with models established using a stepwise regression method was applied to calculate the probability-based design space. Step length showed little effect on the calculation results. Higher simulation number led to results with lower dispersion. Data generated in a Monte Carlo simulation following a normal distribution led to a design space with a smaller size. An optimized calculation condition was obtained with 10,000 simulation times, 0.01 calculation step length, a significance level value of 0.35 for adding or removing terms in a stepwise regression, and a normal distribution for data generation. The design space with a probability higher than 0.95 to attain the CQA criteria was calculated and verified successfully. Normal operating ranges of 8.2-10 g/g of W/M ratio, 1.25-1.63 h of extraction time, and two extractions were recommended. The optimized calculation conditions can conveniently be used in design space development for other pharmaceutical processes.

  2. The Techniques of Participatory Design for Inclusive Public Space Provision in Kampung Kota of Surakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.H Kusumaningdyah


    Full Text Available The technique of participatory design is essential for the future development knowledge of architecture to inform the improvement of architectural education and practice in Asia. Therefore to provide of inclusive public spaces for the community, this research article presents a field study of the usage of community participation design method in design and planning to provide inclusive public spaces within the kampung (settlements in Surakarta, Indonesia. Surakarta has a problem to provide inclusive public space for its dense organic-informal kampung’s for the vulnerable populations such as children. Multi dimensional complexities of the kampung’s often challenge the notion of public space provision. Community participation approach arises as one of the preferred alternative methods to solve the problems with its basic community-based foundation. This research chose Sangkrah and Gandekan sub-districts as research locations both of the areas represent kampung’s characteristics and inhabited by many children population. Steps toward the goal of the study are; (1 field observation of the implementation of a community participation design through participatory place making project, and (2 examining typology assessment perspective, and (3 clarify participation techniques. This research used: (1 descriptive analysis for the project implementation, and (2 qualitative analysis for examining community’s perspectives. Through this multi-perspective analysis, this research presents the an alternative framework for implementing techniques community participation methods in design and planning to provide inclusive public spaces especially for children in Indonesia and other developing countries.

  3. Spaceborne computer executive routine functional design specification. Volume 2: Computer executive design for space station/base (United States)

    Kennedy, J. R.; Fitzpatrick, W. S.


    The computer executive functional system design concepts derived from study of the Space Station/Base are presented. Information Management System hardware configuration as directly influencing the executive design is reviewed. The hardware configuration and generic executive design requirements are considered in detail in a previous report (System Configuration and Executive Requirements Specifications for Reusable Shuttle and Space Station/Base, 9/25/70). This report defines basic system primitives and delineates processes and process control. Supervisor states are considered for describing basic multiprogramming and multiprocessing systems. A high-level computer executive including control of scheduling, allocation of resources, system interactions, and real-time supervisory functions is defined. The description is oriented to provide a baseline for a functional simulation of the computer executive system.

  4. Designing meaningful educational spaces for the development of competencies in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny Otálora Sevilla


    Full Text Available A meaningful educational space is a learning environment that promotes and strengthens the development of social and cognitive competencies in children. This article offers conceptual and methodological elements from Educational Psychology that facilitates the design of significant educational spaces for the development of child competencies, both in and out of school. On the one hand, the learning environment is defined as a dynamic and complex space of construction of knowledge. On the other it takes into account some considerations about child development which help set five criteria to characterize learning environments as meaningful educational spaces: They are structured, intensive, extensive, generative and interactive situations. Each of these criteria is illustrated through learning environments designed by educators in Colombia, based on the use of cultural practices inherent their communities of origin. Cultural practices were found to be relevant to the development of their children’s competencies.

  5. From 2001 to 1994: Political environment and the design of NASA's Space Station system (United States)

    Fries, Sylvia Doughty


    The U.S. civilian space station, a hope of numerous NASA engineers since before the agency was founded in 1958 and promoted by NASA as the country's 'next logical step' into space, provides an excellent case study of the way public-sector research and development agencies continuously redefine new technologies in the absence of the market discipline that governs private-sector technological development. The number of space station design studies conducted since 1959, both internally by NASA or contracted by the agency to the aerospace industry, easily exceeds a hundred. Because of this, three clearly distinguishable examples are selected from the almost thirty-year history of space station design in NASA. Together these examples illustrate the difficulty of defining a new technological system in the public sector as that system becomes increasingly subject, for its development, to the vagaries of federal research and development politics.

  6. Negotiating and Designing Public Space. Experiences with a new M.Sc. in Urban Design Program in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Tieben


    Full Text Available This contribution reflects on first experiences made with a newly launched Master of Science in Urban Design program at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. As an important part of this program, students have to develop their design proposal in response to feedback of different stakeholders and community members. Thus the program responds to the growing aspiration of Hong Kong’s citizens to shape the urban development of their city and a lack of a meaningful participation process in the region. With its high density, protected country parks, efficient public transport and large scale housing program, generally, Hong Kong offers important lessons for contemporary urbanism. However, since the end of the British colonial rule and in face of increasing property prices, pollution and the disappearance of local heritage, intensive debates started about the regions future. Another central point of the recent discussion in Hong Kong – and key theme of the new urban design program - is the demand for the rights and qualities of public space. The paper presents the set-up of the design studio, which was closely linked to a course on “urban processes”. During the semester, students had to organize community forums and street exhibitions in a specific district, invite stakeholders and residents and discuss with them their ideas. Their projects, then, had to respond on the various feedbacks and integrate them in their design and policy proposals. The text reflects on the student projects and the lessons learned in the process. It addresses general questions such as the challenges in communicating with a diverse community (e.g. language barriers and culturally different ideas of public space. It addresses the question of the intended and unintended effects of a participatory design studio in the community, and possible follow-ups. And it reflects on the general role of design and designers in shaping community spaces.

  7. Life support and internal thermal control system design for the Space Station Freedom (United States)

    Humphries, R.; Mitchell, K.; Reuter, J.; Carrasquillo, R.; Beverly, B.


    A Review of the Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) as well as the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) design, including recent changes resulting from an activity to restructure the program, is provided. The development state of the original Space Station Freedom ECLSS through the restructured configuration is considered and the selection of regenerative subsystems for oxygen and water reclamation is addressed. A survey of the present ground development and verification program is given.

  8. Space architecture education for engineers and architects designing and planning beyond earth

    CERN Document Server

    Häuplik-Meusburger, Sandra


    This book considers two key educational tools for future generations of professionals with a space architecture background in the 21st century: (1) introducing the discipline of space architecture into the space system engineering curricula; and (2) developing space architecture as a distinct, complete training curriculum.  Professionals educated this way will help shift focus from solely engineering-driven transportation systems and “sortie” missions towards permanent off-world human presence. The architectural training teaches young professionals to operate at all scales from the “overall picture” down to the smallest details, to provide directive intention–not just analysis–to design opportunities, to address the relationship between human behavior and the built environment, and to interact with many diverse fields and disciplines throughout the project lifecycle. This book will benefit individuals and organizations responsible for planning transportation and habitat systems in space, while a...

  9. Lost in space: design of experiments and scientific exploration in a Hogarth Universe. (United States)

    Lendrem, Dennis W; Lendrem, B Clare; Woods, David; Rowland-Jones, Ruth; Burke, Matthew; Chatfield, Marion; Isaacs, John D; Owen, Martin R


    A Hogarth, or 'wicked', universe is an irregular environment generating data to support erroneous beliefs. Here, we argue that development scientists often work in such a universe. We demonstrate that exploring these multidimensional spaces using small experiments guided by scientific intuition alone, gives rise to an illusion of validity and a misplaced confidence in that scientific intuition. By contrast, design of experiments (DOE) permits the efficient mapping of such complex, multidimensional spaces. We describe simulation tools that enable research scientists to explore these spaces in relative safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. On designing low pressure loss working spaces for a planar Stirling micromachine (United States)

    Hachey, M.-A.; Léveillé, É.; Fréchette, L. G.; Formosa, F.


    In this paper, research was undertaken with the objective to design low pressure loss working spaces for a Stirling cycle micro heat engine operating from low temperature waste heat. This planar free-piston heat engine is anticipated to operate at the kHz level with mm3 displacement. Given the resonant nature of the free-piston configuration, the complexity of its working gas’ flow geometry and its projected high operating frequency, flow analysis is relatively complex. Design considerations were thus based on fast prototyping and experimentation. Results show that geometrical features, such as a sharp 90° corner between the regenerator and working spaces, are strong contributors to pressure losses. This research culminated into a promising revised working space configuration for engine start-up, as it considerably reduced total pressure losses, more than 80% at Re = 700, from the original design.

  11. Value-centric design architecture based on analysis of space system characteristics (United States)

    Xu, Q.; Hollingsworth, P.; Smith, K.


    Emerging design concepts such as miniaturisation, modularity, and standardisation, have contributed to the rapid development of small and inexpensive platforms, particularly cubesats. This has been stimulating an upcoming revolution in space design and development, leading satellites into the era of "smaller, faster, and cheaper". However, the current requirement-centric design philosophy, focused on bespoke monolithic systems, along with the associated development and production process does not inherently fit with the innovative modular, standardised, and mass-produced technologies. This paper presents a new categorisation, characterisation, and value-centric design architecture to address this need for both traditional and novel system designs. Based on the categorisation of system configurations, a characterisation of space systems, comprised of duplication, fractionation, and derivation, is proposed to capture the overall system configuration characteristics and promote potential hybrid designs. Complying with the definitions of the system characterisation, mathematical mapping relations between the system characterisation and the system properties are described to establish the mathematical foundation of the proposed value-centric design methodology. To illustrate the methodology, subsystem reliability relationships are therefore analysed to explore potential system configurations in the design space. The results of the applications of system characteristic analysis clearly show that the effects of different configuration characteristics on the system properties can be effectively analysed and evaluated, enabling the optimization of system configurations.

  12. Application of the Quality by Design Approach to the Freezing Step of Freeze-Drying: Building the Design Space. (United States)

    Arsiccio, Andrea; Pisano, Roberto


    The present work shows a rational method for the development of the freezing step of a freeze-drying cycle. The current approach to the selection of freezing conditions is still empirical and nonsystematic, thus resulting in poor robustness of control strategy. The final aim of this work is to fill this gap, describing a rational procedure, based on mathematical modeling, for properly choosing the freezing conditions. Mechanistic models are used for the prediction of temperature profiles during freezing and dimension of ice crystals being formed. Mathematical description of the drying phase of freeze-drying is also coupled with the results obtained by freezing models, thus providing a comprehensive characterization of the lyophilization process. In this framework, deep understanding of the phenomena involved is required, and according to the Quality by Design approach, this knowledge can be used to build the design space. The step-by-step procedure for building the design space for freezing is thus described, and examples of applications are provided. The calculated design space is validated upon experimental data, and we show that it allows easy control of the freezing process and fast selection of appropriate operating conditions. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Psychosocially Supportive Design: The Case for Greater Attention to Social Space Within the Pediatric Hospital. (United States)

    McLaughlan, Rebecca


    Models of patient and family-centered care advocate catering to psychosocial needs when designing healthcare facilities yet there is little evidence available to determine how the built environment can cater to psychosocial needs. This article highlights the obstacles to overcoming this knowledge deficit in the pursuit of evidence-based guidelines to inform social provisions within the pediatric hospital setting. It will propose a working definition for psychosocial space and identify new research directions to enhance understandings of the relationship between social space and well-being. While traditional multibed ward configurations afforded opportunities for peer support relationships to develop, both for patients and caregivers, the contemporary preference for single-occupancy rooms intensifies the need to critically examine social spaces within the pediatric hospital. Research suggests a correlation between social support and well-being. This article reviews the research underpinning contemporary understandings of this relationship; it positions literature from sociology, environmental psychology, and evidence-based design to highlight the limitations of this knowledge and identify where additional research is required to inform evidence-based design guidelines for psychosocially supportive spaces within pediatric healthcare settings. Evidence regarding the therapeutic value of social support within the pediatric hospital is not sufficiently sophisticated or conclusive to inform guidelines for the provision of social space with pediatric hospitals. There is an urgent need for targeted research to inform evidence-based design guidelines; this will demand a broad disciplinary approach.

  14. Unitals and ovals of symmetric block designs in LDPC and space-time coding (United States)

    Andriamanalimanana, Bruno R.


    An approach to the design of LDPC (low density parity check) error-correction and space-time modulation codes involves starting with known mathematical and combinatorial structures, and deriving code properties from structure properties. This paper reports on an investigation of unital and oval configurations within generic symmetric combinatorial designs, not just classical projective planes, as the underlying structure for classes of space-time LDPC outer codes. Of particular interest are the encoding and iterative (sum-product) decoding gains that these codes may provide. Various small-length cases have been numerically implemented in Java and Matlab for a number of channel models.

  15. Mechanical and thermal design of an experiment aboard the space shuttle: the Spacelab spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, J.


    The spectrometer designed by ONERA and IASB (Belgium Space Aeronomy Institute) to measure atmospheric trace constituents was flown aboard Spacelab 1 during the 9 th mission of the American Space Shuttle from November 28 to December 8, 1983. After a brief summary of the history of the project related to Spacelab, the mechanical and thermal design of the spectrometer is described. Some methods, calculations and characteristic tests are detailed as examples. The behaviour of the experiment during the mission and the results of the post-flight tests are shortly analyzed in order to prepare the qualification for a reflight [fr

  16. Overlapping and permeability: Research on the pattern hierarchy of communication space and design strategy based on environmental behavior (United States)

    Leilei, Sun; Liang, Zhang; Bing, Chen; Hong, Xi


    This thesis is to analyze the basic pattern hierarchy of communication space by using the theory of environmental psychology and behavior combined with relevant principles in architecture, to evaluate the design and improvement of communication space in specific meaning, and to bring new observation ideas and innovation in design methods to the system of space, environment and behavior.

  17. Expert-guided evolutionary algorithm for layout design of complex space stations (United States)

    Qian, Zhiqin; Bi, Zhuming; Cao, Qun; Ju, Weiguo; Teng, Hongfei; Zheng, Yang; Zheng, Siyu


    The layout of a space station should be designed in such a way that different equipment and instruments are placed for the station as a whole to achieve the best overall performance. The station layout design is a typical nondeterministic polynomial problem. In particular, how to manage the design complexity to achieve an acceptable solution within a reasonable timeframe poses a great challenge. In this article, a new evolutionary algorithm has been proposed to meet such a challenge. It is called as the expert-guided evolutionary algorithm with a tree-like structure decomposition (EGEA-TSD). Two innovations in EGEA-TSD are (i) to deal with the design complexity, the entire design space is divided into subspaces with a tree-like structure; it reduces the computation and facilitates experts' involvement in the solving process. (ii) A human-intervention interface is developed to allow experts' involvement in avoiding local optimums and accelerating convergence. To validate the proposed algorithm, the layout design of one-space station is formulated as a multi-disciplinary design problem, the developed algorithm is programmed and executed, and the result is compared with those from other two algorithms; it has illustrated the superior performance of the proposed EGEA-TSD.

  18. Design and implementation of space physics multi-model application integration based on web (United States)

    Jiang, Wenping; Zou, Ziming

    independent modules according to different business needs is applied to solve the problem of the independence of the physical space between multiple models. The classic MVC(Model View Controller) software design pattern is concerned to build the architecture of space physics multi-model application integrated system. The JSP+servlet+javabean technology is used to integrate the web application programs of space physics multi-model. It solves the problem of multi-user requesting the same job of model computing and effectively balances each server computing tasks. In addition, we also complete follow tasks: establishing standard graphical user interface based on Java Applet application program; Designing the interface between model computing and model computing results visualization; Realizing three-dimensional network visualization without plug-ins; Using Java3D technology to achieve a three-dimensional network scene interaction; Improved ability to interact with web pages and dynamic execution capabilities, including rendering three-dimensional graphics, fonts and color control. Through the design and implementation of the SPMAIS based on Web, we provide an online computing and application runtime environment of space physics multi-model. The practical application improves that researchers could be benefit from our system in space physics research and engineering applications.

  19. A Declarative Design Approach to Modeling Traditional and Non-Traditional Space Systems (United States)

    Hoag, Lucy M.

    The space system design process is known to be laborious, complex, and computationally demanding. It is highly multi-disciplinary, involving several interdependent subsystems that must be both highly optimized and reliable due to the high cost of launch. Satellites must also be capable of operating in harsh and unpredictable environments, so integrating high-fidelity analysis is important. To address each of these concerns, a holistic design approach is necessary. However, while the sophistication of space systems has evolved significantly in the last 60 years, improvements in the design process have been comparatively stagnant. Space systems continue to be designed using a procedural, subsystem-by-subsystem approach. This method is inadequate since it generally requires extensive iteration and limited or heuristic-based search, which can be slow, labor-intensive, and inaccurate. The use of a declarative design approach can potentially address these inadequacies. In the declarative programming style, the focus of a problem is placed on what the objective is, and not necessarily how it should be achieved. In the context of design, this entails knowledge expressed as a declaration of statements that are true about the desired artifact instead of explicit instructions on how to implement it. A well-known technique is through constraint-based reasoning, where a design problem is represented as a network of rules and constraints that are reasoned across by a solver to dynamically discover the optimal candidate(s). This enables implicit instantiation of the tradespace and allows for automatic generation of all feasible design candidates. As such, this approach also appears to be well-suited to modeling adaptable space systems, which generally have large tradespaces and possess configurations that are not well-known a priori. This research applied a declarative design approach to holistic satellite design and to tradespace exploration for adaptable space systems. The

  20. Assessing Collagen and Elastin Pressure-Dependent Microarchitectures in Live, Human Resistance Arteries by Label-Free Fluorescence Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Maria; Thorsted, Bjarne; Brewer, Jonathan R.


    The pathogenic contribution of resistance artery remodeling is documented in essential hypertension, diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Investigations and development of microstructurally motivated mathematical models for understanding the mechanical properties of human resistance arteries...... in health and disease have the potential to aid understanding how disease and medical treatments affect the human microcirculation. To develop these mathematical models, it is essential to decipher the relationship between the mechanical and microarchitectural properties of the microvascular wall....... In this work, we describe an ex vivo method for passive mechanical testing and simultaneous label-free three-dimensional imaging of the microarchitecture of elastin and collagen in the arterial wall of isolated human resistance arteries. The imaging protocol can be applied to resistance arteries of any species...

  1. Exploring Interaction Space as Abstraction Mechanism for Task-Based User Interface Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C. M.; Overgaard, M.; Pedersen, M. B.


    Designing a user interface is often a complex undertaking. Model-based user interface design is an approach where models and mappings between them form the basis for creating and specifying the design of a user interface. Such models usually include descriptions of the tasks of the prospective user......, but there is considerable variation in the other models that are employed. This paper explores the extent to which the notion of interaction space is useful as an abstraction mechanism to reduce the complexity of creating and specifying a user interface design. We present how we designed a specific user interface through...... mechanism that can help user interface designers exploit object-oriented analysis results and reduce the complexity of designing a user interface....

  2. Concepts and embodiment design of a reentry recumbent seating system for the NASA Space Shuttle (United States)

    Mcmillan, Scott; Looby, Brent; Devany, Chris; Chudej, Chris; Brooks, Barry


    This report deals with the generation of a recumbent seating system which will be used by NASA to shuttle astronauts from the Russian space station Mir. We begin by examining the necessity for designing a special couch for the returning astronauts. Next, we discuss the operating conditions and constraints of the recumbent seating system and provide a detailed function structure. After working through the conceptual design process, we came up with ten alternative designs which are presented in the appendices. These designs were evaluated and weighted to systematically determine the best choice for embodiment design. A detailed discussion of all components of the selected system follows with design calculations for the seat presented in the appendices. The report concludes with an evaluation of the resulting design and recommendations for further development.

  3. Distributed Space Mission Design for Earth Observation Using Model-Based Performance Evaluation (United States)

    Nag, Sreeja; LeMoigne-Stewart, Jacqueline; Cervantes, Ben; DeWeck, Oliver


    Distributed Space Missions (DSMs) are gaining momentum in their application to earth observation missions owing to their unique ability to increase observation sampling in multiple dimensions. DSM design is a complex problem with many design variables, multiple objectives determining performance and cost and emergent, often unexpected, behaviors. There are very few open-access tools available to explore the tradespace of variables, minimize cost and maximize performance for pre-defined science goals, and therefore select the most optimal design. This paper presents a software tool that can multiple DSM architectures based on pre-defined design variable ranges and size those architectures in terms of predefined science and cost metrics. The tool will help a user select Pareto optimal DSM designs based on design of experiments techniques. The tool will be applied to some earth observation examples to demonstrate its applicability in making some key decisions between different performance metrics and cost metrics early in the design lifecycle.

  4. Scalable and near-optimal design space exploration for embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kritikakou, Angeliki; Goutis, Costas


    This book describes scalable and near-optimal, processor-level design space exploration (DSE) methodologies.  The authors present design methodologies for data storage and processing in real-time, cost-sensitive data-dominated embedded systems.  Readers will be enabled to reduce time-to-market, while satisfying system requirements for performance, area, and energy consumption, thereby minimizing the overall cost of the final design.   • Describes design space exploration (DSE) methodologies for data storage and processing in embedded systems, which achieve near-optimal solutions with scalable exploration time; • Presents a set of principles and the processes which support the development of the proposed scalable and near-optimal methodologies; • Enables readers to apply scalable and near-optimal methodologies to the intra-signal in-place optimization step for both regular and irregular memory accesses.

  5. Low Carbon Design Research on the Space Layout Types of Office Buildings (United States)

    Xia, Bing


    It is beneficial to find out the relationship of the spatial layout and low-carbon design in order to reduce buildings’ carbon emissions in the conceptual design phase. This paper analyzes and compares shape coefficient values, annual energy consumption and lighting performance of office buildings of different space layout types in Shanghai. Based on morphological characteristics of different types, the study also analyzes and presents low-carbon design strategies for each single type. This study assumes that architects should conduct passive and active design according to the specific building space layout, so that to make best use of the advantages and bypassing the disadvantages, in order to maximally reduce buildings’ carbon emissions.

  6. Mechanical design of a low concentration ratio solar array for a space station application (United States)

    Biss, M. S.; Hsu, L.


    This paper describes a preliminary study and conceptual design of a low concentration ratio solar array for a space station application with approximately a 100 kW power requirement. The baseline design calls for a multiple series of inverted, truncated, pyramidal optical elements with a geometric concentration ratio (GCR) of 6. It also calls for low life cycle cost, simple on-orbit maintainability, 1984 technology readiness date, and gallium arsenide (GaAs) of silicon (Si) solar cell interchangeability. Due to the large area needed to produce the amount of power required for the baseline space station, a symmetrical wing design, making maximum use of the commonality of parts approach, was taken. This paper will describe the mechanical and structural design of a mass-producible solar array that is very easy to tailor to the needs of the individual user requirement.

  7. A Human Centred Interior Design of a Habitat Module for the International Space Station (United States)

    Burattini, C.

    Since the very beginning of Space exploration, the interiors of a space habitat had to meet technological and functional requirements. Space habitats have now to meet completely different requirements related to comfort or at least to liveable environments. In order to reduce psychological drawbacks afflicting the crew during long periods of isolation in an extreme environment, one of the most important criteria is to assure high habitability levels. As a result of the Transhab project cancellation, the International Space Station (ISS) is actually made up of several research laboratories, but it has only one module for housing. This is suitable for short-term missions; middle ­ long stays require new solutions in terms of public and private spaces, as well as personal compartments. A design concept of a module appositely fit for living during middle-long stays aims to provide ISS with a place capable to satisfy habitability requirements. This paper reviews existing Space habitats and crew needs in a confined and extreme environment. The paper then describes the design of a new and human centred approach to habitation module typologies.

  8. Multi-Dielectric Brownian Dynamics and Design-Space-Exploration Studies of Permeation in Ion Channels. (United States)

    Siksik, May; Krishnamurthy, Vikram


    This paper proposes a multi-dielectric Brownian dynamics simulation framework for design-space-exploration (DSE) studies of ion-channel permeation. The goal of such DSE studies is to estimate the channel modeling-parameters that minimize the mean-squared error between the simulated and expected "permeation characteristics." To address this computational challenge, we use a methodology based on statistical inference that utilizes the knowledge of channel structure to prune the design space. We demonstrate the proposed framework and DSE methodology using a case study based on the KcsA ion channel, in which the design space is successfully reduced from a 6-D space to a 2-D space. Our results show that the channel dielectric map computed using the framework matches with that computed directly using molecular dynamics with an error of 7%. Finally, the scalability and resolution of the model used are explored, and it is shown that the memory requirements needed for DSE remain constant as the number of parameters (degree of heterogeneity) increases.

  9. A new design and rationale for 3D orthogonally oversampled k-space trajectories. (United States)

    Pipe, James G; Zwart, Nicholas R; Aboussouan, Eric A; Robison, Ryan K; Devaraj, Ajit; Johnson, Kenneth O


    A novel center-out 3D trajectory for sampling magnetic resonance data is presented. The trajectory set is based on a single Fermat spiral waveform, which is substantially undersampled in the center of k-space. Multiple trajectories are combined in a "stacked cone" configuration to give very uniform sampling throughout a "hub," which is very efficient in terms of gradient performance and uniform trajectory spacing. The fermat looped, orthogonally encoded trajectories (FLORET) design produces less gradient-efficient trajectories near the poles, so multiple orthogonal hub designs are shown. These multihub designs oversample k-space twice with orthogonal trajectories, which gives unique properties but also doubles the minimum scan time for critical sampling of k-space. The trajectory is shown to be much more efficient than the conventional stack of cones trajectory, and has nearly the same signal-to-noise ratio efficiency (but twice the minimum scan time) as a stack of spirals trajectory. As a center-out trajectory, it provides a shorter minimum echo time than stack of spirals, and its spherical k-space coverage can dramatically reduce Gibbs ringing. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Using the whole-building design approach to incorporate daylighting into a retail space: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayter, S.; Torcellini, P.; Eastment, M.; Judkoff, R.


    This paper focuses on implementation of daylighting into the Bighorn Center, a collection of home improvement retail spaces in Silverthorne, Colorado, which were constructed in three phases. Daylighting was an integral part of the design of the Phase 3 building. Energy consultants optimized the daylighting design through detailed modeling using an hourly building energy simulation tool. Energy consultants also used this tool to address the building owner's concerns related to customer comfort and increased product sales.

  11. Using Micro-CT Derived Bone Microarchitecture to Analyze Bone Stiffness - A Case Study on Osteoporosis Rat Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuchin eWu


    Full Text Available Micro-computed tomography images can be used to quantitatively represent bone geometry through a range of computed attenuation-based parameters. Nonetheless, those parameters remain indirect indices of bone micro-architectural strength and require further computational tools to interpret bone structural stiffness and potential for mechanical failure. Finite element analysis (FEA can be applied to measure trabecular bone stiffness and potentially predict the location of structural failure in preclinical animal models of osteoporosis, although that procedure from image segmentation of micro-CT derived bone geometry to FEA is often challenging and computationally expensive, resulting in failure of the model to build. Notably, the selection of resolution and threshold for bone segmentation are key steps that greatly affect computational complexity and validity. In the following study, we evaluated an approach whereby Micro-CT derived greyscale attenuation and segmentation data guided the selection of trabecular bone for analysis by FEA. We further correlated those FEA results to both two and three dimensional bone microarchitecture from sham and ovariectomized (OVX rats (n=10/group. A virtual cylinder of vertebral trabecular bone 40% in length from the caudal side was selected for FEA because micro-CT based image analysis indicated the largest differences in microarchitecture between the two groups resided there. Bone stiffness was calculated using FEA and statistically correlated with the three dimensional values of bone volume/tissue volume, bone mineral density, fractal dimension, trabecular separation and trabecular bone pattern factor. Our method simplified the process for the assessment of trabecular bone stiffness by FEA from Micro-CT images and highlighted the importance of bone microarchitecture in conferring significantly increased bone quality capable of resisting failure due to increased mechanical loading.

  12. Microarchitecture, but Not Bone Mechanical Properties, Is Rescued with Growth Hormone Treatment in a Mouse Model of Growth Hormone Deficiency


    Kristensen, Erika; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Morck, Douglas W.; Boyd, Steven K.


    Growth hormone (GH) deficiency is related to an increased fracture risk although it is not clear if this is due to compromised bone quality or a small bone size. We investigated the relationship between bone macrostructure, microarchitecture and mechanical properties in a GH-deficient (GHD) mouse model undergoing GH treatment commencing at an early (prepubertal) or late (postpubertal) time point. Microcomputed tomography images of the femur and L4 vertebra were obtained to quantify macrostruc...

  13. The design and testing of interactive hospital spaces to meet the needs of waiting children. (United States)

    Biddiss, Elaine; McPherson, Amy; Shea, Geoffrey; McKeever, Patricia


    To design an innovative interactive media display in a pediatric hospital clinic waiting space that addresses the growing demand for accessible, contact-surface-free options for play. In healthcare settings, waiting can be anxiety provoking for children and their accompanying family members. Opportunities for positive distraction have been shown to reduce waiting anxiety, leading to positive health outcomes. An interactive media display, ScreenPlay, was created and evaluated using a participatory design approach and a combination of techniques including quality function deployment and mixed data elicitation methods (questionnaires, focus groups, and observations). The user and organizational design requirements were established and used to review contemporary strategies for positive distraction in healthcare waiting spaces and to conceptualize and test ScreenPlay. Ten staff members, 11 children/youths, and 6 parents participated in the design and evaluation of ScreenPlay. ScreenPlay provided a positive, engaging experience without the use of contact surfaces through which infections can be spread. It was accessible to children, youth, and adults of all motor abilities. All participants strongly agreed that the interactive media display would improve the healthcare waiting experience. ScreenPlay is an interactive display that is the result of a successful model for the design of healthcare waiting spaces that is collaborative, interdisciplinary, and responsive to the needs of its community. Design process, healing environments, hospital, interdisciplinary, pediatric.

  14. Mapping the Pareto optimal design space for a functionally deimmunized biotherapeutic candidate. (United States)

    Salvat, Regina S; Parker, Andrew S; Choi, Yoonjoo; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris; Griswold, Karl E


    The immunogenicity of biotherapeutics can bottleneck development pipelines and poses a barrier to widespread clinical application. As a result, there is a growing need for improved deimmunization technologies. We have recently described algorithms that simultaneously optimize proteins for both reduced T cell epitope content and high-level function. In silico analysis of this dual objective design space reveals that there is no single global optimum with respect to protein deimmunization. Instead, mutagenic epitope deletion yields a spectrum of designs that exhibit tradeoffs between immunogenic potential and molecular function. The leading edge of this design space is the Pareto frontier, i.e. the undominated variants for which no other single design exhibits better performance in both criteria. Here, the Pareto frontier of a therapeutic enzyme has been designed, constructed, and evaluated experimentally. Various measures of protein performance were found to map a functional sequence space that correlated well with computational predictions. These results represent the first systematic and rigorous assessment of the functional penalty that must be paid for pursuing progressively more deimmunized biotherapeutic candidates. Given this capacity to rapidly assess and design for tradeoffs between protein immunogenicity and functionality, these algorithms may prove useful in augmenting, accelerating, and de-risking experimental deimmunization efforts.

  15. Optimized Design of Spacing in Pulsed Neutron Gamma Density Logging While Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Feng;HAN Zhong-yue;WU He;HAN Fei


    Full Text Available Radioactive source, used in traditional density logging, has great impact on the environment, while the pulsed neutron source applied in the logging tool is more safety and greener. In our country, the pulsed neutron-gamma density logging technology is still in the stage of development. Optimizing the parameters of neutron-gamma density instrument is essential to improve the measuring accuracy. This paper mainly studied the effects of spacing to typical neutron-gamma density logging tool which included one D-T neutron generator and two gamma scintillation detectors. The optimization of spacing were based on measuring sensitivity and counting statistic. The short spacing from 25 to 35 cm and long spacing from 60 to 65 cm were selected as the optimal position for near and far detector respectively. The result can provide theoretical support for design and manufacture of the instrument.

  16. The Retail Chain Design for Perishable Food: The Case of Price Strategy and Shelf Space Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Xiao


    Full Text Available Managing perishable food in a retail store is quite difficult because of the product’s short lifetime and deterioration. Many elements, such as price, shelf space allocation, and quality, which can affect the consumption rate, should be taken into account when the perishable food retail chain is designed. The modern tracking technologies provide good opportunities to improve the management of the perishable food retail chain. In this research, we develop a mathematical model for a single-item retail chain and determine the pricing strategy, shelf space allocation, and order quantity to maximize the retailer’s total profit with the application of tracking technologies. Then the single-item retail chain is extended into a multi-item one with a shelf space capacity and a simple algorithm is developed to find the optimal allocation of shelf space among these items. Finally, numerical experiments and real-life examples are conducted to illustrate the proposed models.

  17. Space Shuttle Orbiter - Leading edge structural design/analysis and material allowables (United States)

    Johnson, D. W.; Curry, D. M.; Kelly, R. E.


    Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC), a structural composite whose development was targeted for the high temperature reentry environments of reusable space vehicles, has successfully demonstrated that capability on the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Unique mechanical properties, particularly at elevated temperatures up to 3000 F, make this material ideally suited for the 'hot' regions of multimission space vehicles. Design allowable characterization testing, full-scale development and qualification testing, and structural analysis techniques will be presented herein that briefly chart the history of the RCC material from infancy to eventual multimission certification for the Orbiter. Included are discussions pertaining to the development of the design allowable data base, manipulation of the test data into usable forms, and the analytical verification process.

  18. The daylighting dashboard - A simulation-based design analysis for daylit spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhart, Christoph F. [Harvard University, Graduate School of Design, 48 Quincy Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wienold, Jan [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Heidenhofstrasse 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany)


    This paper presents a vision of how state-of-the-art computer-based analysis techniques can be effectively used during the design of daylit spaces. Following a review of recent advances in dynamic daylight computation capabilities, climate-based daylighting metrics, occupant behavior and glare analysis, a fully integrated design analysis method is introduced that simultaneously considers annual daylight availability, visual comfort and energy use: Annual daylight glare probability profiles are combined with an occupant behavior model in order to determine annual shading profiles and visual comfort conditions throughout a space. The shading profiles are then used to calculate daylight autonomy plots, energy loads, operational energy costs and green house gas emissions. The paper then shows how simulation results for a sidelit space can be visually presented to simulation non-experts using the concept of a daylighting dashboard. The paper ends with a discussion of how the daylighting dashboard could be practically implemented using technologies that are available today. (author)

  19. Move the Neighborhood: study design of a community-based participatory public open space intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Winge, Laura; Carroll, Sidse

    evaluation will be used to gain knowledge of the intervention processes. DISCUSSION: The study presents new methods and approaches in the field of public open space interventions through interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory co-design approach and combination of measurements. Using both effect......BACKGROUND: A limited amount of research has examined the effect of changing public open spaces on active living. This abstract presents the study protocol of an intervention study designed in an interdisciplinary collaboration built on principles of Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR...... and process evaluations the study will provide unique insights in the role and importance of the interdisciplinary collaboration, participatory processes, tailoring changes in public open space to local needs and wishes. These results can be used to guide urban renewal projects in deprived neighbourhoods...

  20. Development of a Plastic Melt Waste Compactor for Space Missions Experiments and Prototype Design (United States)

    Pace, Gregory; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Pisharody, Suresh; Fisher, John


    This paper describes development at NASA Ames Research Center of a heat melt compactor that can be used on both near term and far term missions. Experiments have been performed to characterize the behavior of composite wastes that are representative of the types of wastes produced on current and previous space missions such as International Space Station, Space Shuttle, MIR and Skylab. Experiments were conducted to characterize the volume reduction, bonding, encapsulation and biological stability of the waste composite and also to investigate other key design issues such as plastic extrusion, noxious off-gassing and removal of the of the plastic waste product from the processor. The experiments provided the data needed to design a prototype plastic melt waste processor, a description of which is included in the paper.

  1. Enlightenment of Qilou Street Space Intelligence to Pedestrian System Design in Commercial District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jing


    Full Text Available Aiming at those generally existing problems in urban commercial pedestrian districts, through the design methods of extracting separation of man from vehicle in traditional Qilou pedestrian street space, continuous pedestrian space with shelter, and the behavior paths with combination of commercial activities, this thesis sets about from the behaviors of pedestrians in walking state, and finds that the traditional Qilou pedestrian street space can satisfy pedestrians’ physiological and psychological demands in shopping better. At the same time, combining current urban commercial districts developing demands, and the successful experience from traditional Qilou, this thesis also proposes relevant improvement measures. The improvements in design means are expected to improve pedestrian environment for, and achieve the commercial values of these districts, as well as the win-win of environment improvement and commercial activity development.

  2. Designing key-dependent chaotic S-box with larger key space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Ruming; Yuan Jian; Wang Jian; Shan Xiuming; Wang Xiqin


    The construction of cryptographically strong substitution boxes (S-boxes) is an important concern in designing secure cryptosystems. The key-dependent S-boxes designed using chaotic maps have received increasing attention in recent years. However, the key space of such S-boxes does not seem to be sufficiently large due to the limited parameter range of discretized chaotic maps. In this paper, we propose a new key-dependent S-box based on the iteration of continuous chaotic maps. We explore the continuous-valued state space of chaotic systems, and devise the discrete mapping between the input and the output of the S-box. A key-dependent S-box is constructed with the logistic map in this paper. We show that its key space could be much larger than the current key-dependent chaotic S-boxes.

  3. Designing for Motivation: Design-Considerations for Spaced-Repetition-Based Learning Games on Mobile Devices (United States)

    Schimanke, Florian; Mertens, Robert; Vornberger, Oliver


    Learning games are an ideal vessel for many kinds of learning content. Playful interaction with the subject matter makes the human mind more receptive and thus learning itself more effective. Well designed games also come with an addictive game-play that makes users want to play the game over and over. This is intended in fun games but it can be…

  4. Towards a Rigorous Formulation of the Space Mapping Technique for Engineering Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziel, Slawek; Bandler, John W.; Madsen, Kaj


    This paper deals with the Space Mapping (SM) approach to engineering design optimization. We attempt here a theoretical justification of methods that have already proven efficient in solving practical problems, especially in the RF and microwave area. A formal definition of optimization algorithm...

  5. Using an Outdoor Learning Space to Teach Sustainability and Material Processes in HE Product Design (United States)

    Firth, Richard; Stoltenberg, Einar; Jennings, Trent


    This "case study" of two jewellery workshops, used outdoor learning spaces to explore both its impact on learning outcomes and to introduce some key principles of sustainable working methodologies and practices. Using the beach as the classroom, academics and students from a Norwegian and Scottish (HE) product design exchange programme…

  6. Architectural Design Space Exploration of an FPGA-based Compressed Sampling Engine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Sayed, Mohammad; Koch, Peter; Le Moullec, Yannick


    We present the architectural design space exploration of a compressed sampling engine for use in a wireless heart-rate monitoring system. We show how parallelism affects execution time at the register transfer level. Furthermore, two example solutions (modified semi-parallel and full...

  7. I-space: Designing for and with Citizens with Special Needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik; Tellerup, Susanne; Jensen Bryderup, Karin

    This paper presents I-Space. The purpose of this project is to improve the wellbeing and life quality of mentally impaired citizens through the development of new technologies, which could enhance learning and motivation. The project is used as reference to a discussion on structures within design...... and innovation processes for citizens with special needs....

  8. Evaluating a Safe Space Training for School Counselors and Trainees Using a Randomized Control Group Design (United States)

    Byrd, Rebekah; Hays, Danica G.


    School counselors need to advocate and act as an ally for all students. Safe Space, a training designed to facilitate competency for working with and serving LGBTQ youth (i.e., LGBTQ competency), has received increased attention in the field of school counseling. However, limited empirical support exists for training interventions such as Safe…

  9. JEM-EUSO Design for Accommodation on the SpaceX Dragon Spacecraft (United States)

    Christl, Mark


    The JEM-EUSO mission has been planned for launch on JAXA's H2 Launch Vehicle. Recently, the SpaceX Dragon spacecraft has emerged as an alternative payload carrier for JEM-EUSO. This paper will discuss a concept for the re-design of JEM-EUSO so that it can be launched on Dragon.

  10. Multigrid Algorithms for the Fast Calculation of Space-Charge Effects in Accelerator Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pöplau, G.; Rienen, van U.; Geer, van der S.B.; Loos, de M.J.


    Numerical prediction of charged particle dynamics in accelerators is essential for the design and understanding of these machines. Methods to calculate the self-fields of the bunch, the so-called space-charge forces, become increasingly important as the demand for high-quality bunches increases. We

  11. Small-Scale Design Experiments as Working Space for Larger Mobile Communication Challenges (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah; Stuedahl, Dagny


    In this paper, a design experiment using Instagram as a cultural probe is submitted as a method for analyzing the challenges that arise when considering the implementation of social media within a distributed communication space. It outlines how small, iterative investigations can reveal deeper research questions relevant to the education of…

  12. Design and Implementation of a Space Environment Simulation Toolbox for Small Satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amini, Rouzbeh; Larsen, Jesper A.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    This paper presents a developed toolbox for space environment model in SIMULINK that facilitates development and design of Attitude Determination and Control Systems (ADCS) for a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) spacecraft. The toolbox includes, among others, models of orbit propagators, disturbances, Earth...

  13. Modic (endplate) changes in the lumbar spine: bone micro-architecture and remodelling. (United States)

    Perilli, Egon; Parkinson, Ian H; Truong, Le-Hoa; Chong, Kuan C; Fazzalari, Nicola L; Osti, Orso L


    In the literature, inter-vertebral MRI signal intensity changes (Modic changes) were associated with corresponding histological observations on endplate biopsies. However, tissue-level studies were limited. No quantitative histomorphometric study on bone biopsies has yet been conducted for Modic changes. The aim of this study was to characterise the bone micro-architectural parameters and bone remodelling indices associated with Modic changes. Forty patients suffering from disabling low back pain, undergoing elective spinal surgery, and exhibiting Modic changes on MRI (Modic 1, n = 9; Modic 2, n = 25; Modic 3, n = 6), had a transpedicular vertebral body biopsy taken of subchondral bone. Biopsies were first examined by micro-CT, for 3D morphometric analysis of bone volume fraction (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular separation, trabecular number, and structure model index. Then, samples underwent histological analysis, for determination of bone remodelling indices: osteoid surface to bone surface ratio (OS/BS), eroded surface to bone surface (ES/BS) and osteoid surface to eroded surface ratio (OS/ES). Micro-CT analysis revealed significantly higher BV/TV (up to 70% increase, p < 0.01) and Tb.Th (up to +57%, p < 0.01) in Modic 3 biopsies, compared to Modic 1 and 2. Histological analysis showed significantly lower OS/BS in Modic 2 biopsies (more than 28% decrease, p < 0.05) compared to 1 and 3. ES/BS progressively decreased from Modic 1 to 2 to 3, whereas OS/ES progressively increased with significantly higher values in Modic 3 (up to 159% increase, p < 0.05) than in Modic 1 and 2. Significant differences were found in bone micro-architectural parameters and remodelling indices among Modic types. Modic 1 biopsies had evidence of highest bone turnover, possibly due to an inflammatory process; Modic 2 biopsies were consistent with a reduced bone formation/remodelling stage; Modic 3 biopsies suggested a more stable sclerotic phase, with significantly

  14. Design and implementation of fast bipolar clock drivers for CCD imaging systems in space applications (United States)

    Jayarajan, Jayesh; Kumar, Nishant; Verma, Amarnath; Thaker, Ramkrishna


    Drive electronics for generating fast, bipolar clocks, which can drive capacitive loads of the order of 5-10nF are indispensable for present day Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs). Design of these high speed bipolar clocks is challenging because of the capacitive loads that have to be driven and a strict constraint on the rise and fall times. Designing drive electronics circuits for space applications becomes even more challenging due to limited number of available discrete devices, which can survive in the harsh radiation prone space environment. This paper presents the design, simulations and test results of a set of such high speed, bipolar clock drivers. The design has been tested under a thermal cycle of -15 deg C to +55 deg C under vacuum conditions and has been designed using radiation hardened components. The test results show that the design meets the stringent rise/fall time requirements of 50+/-10ns for Multiple Vertical CCD (VCCD) clocks and 20+/-5ns for Horizontal CCD (HCCD) clocks with sufficient design margins across full temperature range, with a pixel readout rate of 6.6MHz. The full design has been realized in flexi-rigid PCB with package volume of 140x160x50 mm3.

  15. Manchester Coding Option for SpaceWire: Providing Choices for System Level Design (United States)

    Rakow, Glenn; Kisin, Alex


    This paper proposes an optional coding scheme for SpaceWire in lieu of the current Data Strobe scheme for three reasons. First reason is to provide a straightforward method for electrical isolation of the interface; secondly to provide ability to reduce the mass and bend radius of the SpaceWire cable; and thirdly to provide a means for a common physical layer over which multiple spacecraft onboard data link protocols could operate for a wide range of data rates. The intent is to accomplish these goals without significant change to existing SpaceWire design investments. The ability to optionally use Manchester coding in place of the current Data Strobe coding provides the ability to DC balanced the signal transitions unlike the SpaceWire Data Strobe coding; and therefore the ability to isolate the electrical interface without concern. Additionally, because the Manchester code has the clock and data encoded on the same signal, the number of wires of the existing SpaceWire cable could be optionally reduced by 50. This reduction could be an important consideration for many users of SpaceWire as indicated by the already existing effort underway by the SpaceWire working group to reduce the cable mass and bend radius by elimination of shields. However, reducing the signal count by half would provide even greater gains. It is proposed to restrict the data rate for the optional Manchester coding to a fixed data rate of 10 Megabits per second (Mbps) in order to make the necessary changes simple and still able to run in current radiation tolerant Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). Even with this constraint, 10 Mbps will meet many applications where SpaceWire is used. These include command and control applications and many instruments applications with have moderate data rate. For most NASA flight implementations, SpaceWire designs are in rad-tolerant FPGAs, and the desire to preserve the heritage design investment is important for cost and risk considerations. The


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. AL RIZA


    Full Text Available This paper presents a sizing optimization methodology of panel and battery capacity in a standalone photovoltaic system with lighting load. Performance of the system is identified by performing Loss of Power Supply Probability (LPSP calculation. Input data used for the calculation is the daily weather data and system components parameters. Capital Cost and Life Cycle Cost (LCC is calculated as optimization parameters. Design space for optimum system configuration is identified based on a given LPSP value, Capital Cost and Life Cycle Cost. Excess energy value is used as an over-design indicator in the design space. An economic analysis, including cost of the energy and payback period, for selected configurations are also studied.

  17. Application of Recommended Design Practices for Conceptual Nuclear Fusion Space Propulsion Systems (United States)

    Williams, Craig H.


    An AIAA Special Project Report was recently produced by AIAA's Nuclear and Future Flight Propulsion Technical Committee and is currently in peer review. The Report provides recommended design practices for conceptual engineering studies of nuclear fusion space propulsion systems. Discussion and recommendations are made on key topics including design reference missions, degree of technological extrapolation and concomitant risk, thoroughness in calculating mass properties (nominal mass properties, weight-growth contingency and propellant margins, and specific impulse), and thoroughness in calculating power generation and usage (power-flow, power contingencies, specific power). The report represents a general consensus of the nuclear fusion space propulsion system conceptual design community and proposes 15 recommendations. This paper expands on the Report by providing specific examples illustrating how to apply each of the recommendations.

  18. The HAL 9000 Space Operating System Real-Time Planning Engine Design and Operations Requirements (United States)

    Stetson, Howard; Watson, Michael D.; Shaughnessy, Ray


    In support of future deep space manned missions, an autonomous/automated vehicle, providing crew autonomy and an autonomous response planning system, will be required due to the light time delays in communication. Vehicle capabilities as a whole must provide for tactical response to vehicle system failures and space environmental effects induced failures, for risk mitigation of permanent loss of communication with Earth, and for assured crew return capabilities. The complexity of human rated space systems and the limited crew sizes and crew skills mix drive the need for a robust autonomous capability on-board the vehicle. The HAL 9000 Space Operating System[2] designed for such missions and space craft includes the first distributed real-time planning / re-planning system. This paper will detail the software architecture of the multiple planning engine system, and the interface design for plan changes, approval and implementation that is performed autonomously. Operations scenarios will be defined for analysis of the planning engines operations and its requirements for nominal / off nominal activities. An assessment of the distributed realtime re-planning system, in the defined operations environment, will be provided as well as findings as it pertains to the vehicle, crew, and mission control requirements needed for implementation.

  19. Design of chemical space networks using a Tanimoto similarity variant based upon maximum common substructures. (United States)

    Zhang, Bijun; Vogt, Martin; Maggiora, Gerald M; Bajorath, Jürgen


    Chemical space networks (CSNs) have recently been introduced as an alternative to other coordinate-free and coordinate-based chemical space representations. In CSNs, nodes represent compounds and edges pairwise similarity relationships. In addition, nodes are annotated with compound property information such as biological activity. CSNs have been applied to view biologically relevant chemical space in comparison to random chemical space samples and found to display well-resolved topologies at low edge density levels. The way in which molecular similarity relationships are assessed is an important determinant of CSN topology. Previous CSN versions were based on numerical similarity functions or the assessment of substructure-based similarity. Herein, we report a new CSN design that is based upon combined numerical and substructure similarity evaluation. This has been facilitated by calculating numerical similarity values on the basis of maximum common substructures (MCSs) of compounds, leading to the introduction of MCS-based CSNs (MCS-CSNs). This CSN design combines advantages of continuous numerical similarity functions with a robust and chemically intuitive substructure-based assessment. Compared to earlier version of CSNs, MCS-CSNs are characterized by a further improved organization of local compound communities as exemplified by the delineation of drug-like subspaces in regions of biologically relevant chemical space.

  20. Expanding the Design Space: Forging the Transition from 3D Printing to Additive Manufacturing (United States)

    Amend, Matthew

    The synergy of Additive Manufacturing and Computational Geometry has the potential to radically expand the "design space" of solutions available to designers. Additive Manufacturing (AM) is capable of fabricating objects that are highly complex both in geometry and material properties. However, the introduction of any new technology can have a disruptive effect on established design practices and organizations. Before "Design for Additive Manufacturing" (DFAM) is a commonplace means of producing objects employed in "real world" products, appropriate design knowledge must be sufficiently integrated within industry. First, materials suited to additive manufacturing methods must be developed to satisfy existing industry standards and specifications, or new standards must be developed. Second, a new class of design representation (CAD) tools will need to be developed. Third, designers and design organizations will need to develop strategies for employing such tools. This thesis describes three DFAM exercises intended to demonstrate the potential for innovative design when using advanced additive materials, tools, and printers. These design exercises included 1) a light-weight composite layup mold developed with topology optimization, 2) a low-pressure fluid duct enhanced with an external lattice structure, and 3) an airline seat tray designed using a non-uniform lattice structure optimized with topology optimization.

  1. An Engineering Design Reference Mission for a Future Large-Aperture UVOIR Space Observatory (United States)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Clampin, Mark; Crooke, Julie A.; Redding, David; Rioux, Norman; Stahl, H. Philip


    From the 2010 NRC Decadal Survey and the NASA Thirty-Year Roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions, to the recent AURA report, From Cosmic Birth to Living Earths, multiple community assessments have recommended development of a large-aperture UVOIR space observatory capable of achieving a broad range of compelling scientific goals. Of these priority science goals, the most technically challenging is the search for spectroscopic biomarkers in the atmospheres of exoplanets in the solar neighborhood. Here we present an engineering design reference mission (EDRM) for the Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST), which was conceived from the start as capable of breakthrough science paired with an emphasis on cost control and cost effectiveness. An EDRM allows the engineering design trade space to be explored in depth to determine what are the most demanding requirements and where there are opportunities for margin against requirements. Our joint NASA GSFC/JPL/MSFC/STScI study team has used community-provided science goals to derive mission needs, requirements, and candidate mission architectures for a future large-aperture, non-cryogenic UVOIR space observatory. The ATLAST observatory is designed to operate at a Sun-Earth L2 orbit, which provides a stable thermal environment and excellent field of regard. Our reference designs have emphasized a serviceable 36-segment 9.2 m aperture telescope that stows within a five-meter diameter launch vehicle fairing. As part of our cost-management effort, this particular reference mission builds upon the engineering design for JWST. Moreover, it is scalable to a variety of launch vehicle fairings. Performance needs developed under the study are traceable to a variety of additional reference designs, including options for a monolithic primary mirror.

  2. An Artificial-Gravity Space-Settlement Ground-Analogue Design Concept (United States)

    Dorais, Gregory A.


    The design concept of a modular and extensible hypergravity facility is presented. Several benefits of this facility are described including that the facility is suitable as a full-scale artificial-gravity space-settlement ground analogue for humans, animals, and plants for indefinite durations. The design is applicable as an analogue for on-orbit settlements as well as those on moons, asteroids, and Mars. The design creates an extremely long-arm centrifuge using a multi-car hypergravity vehicle travelling on one or more concentric circular tracks. This design supports the simultaneous generation of multiple-gravity levels to explore the feasibility and value of and requirements for such space-settlement designs. The design synergizes a variety of existing technologies including centrifuges, tilting trains, roller coasters, and optionally magnetic levitation. The design can be incrementally implemented such that the facility can be operational for a small fraction of the cost and time required for a full implementation. Brief concept of operation examples are also presented.

  3. The Space Technology-7 Disturbance Reduction System Precision Control Flight Validation Experiment Control System Design (United States)

    O'Donnell, James R.; Hsu, Oscar C.; Maghami, Peirman G.; Markley, F. Landis


    As originally proposed, the Space Technology-7 Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) project, managed out of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was designed to validate technologies required for future missions such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). The two technologies to be demonstrated by DRS were Gravitational Reference Sensors (GRSs) and Colloidal MicroNewton Thrusters (CMNTs). Control algorithms being designed by the Dynamic Control System (DCS) team at the Goddard Space Flight Center would control the spacecraft so that it flew about a freely-floating GRS test mass, keeping it centered within its housing. For programmatic reasons, the GRSs were descoped from DRS. The primary goals of the new mission are to validate the performance of the CMNTs and to demonstrate precise spacecraft position control. DRS will fly as a part of the European Space Agency (ESA) LISA Pathfinder (LPF) spacecraft along with a similar ESA experiment, the LISA Technology Package (LTP). With no GRS, the DCS attitude and drag-free control systems make use of the sensor being developed by ESA as a part of the LTP. The control system is designed to maintain the spacecraft s position with respect to the test mass, to within 10 nm/the square root of Hz over the DRS science frequency band of 1 to 30 mHz.

  4. Micro-architecture embedding ultra-thin interlayer to bond diamond and silicon via direct fusion (United States)

    Kim, Jong Cheol; Kim, Jongsik; Xin, Yan; Lee, Jinhyung; Kim, Young-Gyun; Subhash, Ghatu; Singh, Rajiv K.; Arjunan, Arul C.; Lee, Haigun


    The continuous demand on miniaturized electronic circuits bearing high power density illuminates the need to modify the silicon-on-insulator-based chip architecture. This is because of the low thermal conductivity of the few hundred nanometer-thick insulator present between the silicon substrate and active layers. The thick insulator is notorious for releasing the heat generated from the active layers during the operation of devices, leading to degradation in their performance and thus reducing their lifetime. To avoid the heat accumulation, we propose a method to fabricate the silicon-on-diamond (SOD) microstructure featured by an exceptionally thin silicon oxycarbide interlayer (˜3 nm). While exploiting the diamond as an insulator, we employ spark plasma sintering to render the silicon directly fused to the diamond. Notably, this process can manufacture the SOD microarchitecture via a simple/rapid way and incorporates the ultra-thin interlayer for minute thermal resistance. The method invented herein expects to minimize the thermal interfacial resistance of the devices and is thus deemed as a breakthrough appealing to the current chip industry.

  5. Exposure to Low-Dose X-Ray Radiation Alters Bone Progenitor Cells and Bone Microarchitecture. (United States)

    Lima, Florence; Swift, Joshua M; Greene, Elisabeth S; Allen, Matthew R; Cunningham, David A; Braby, Leslie A; Bloomfield, Susan A


    Exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation during medical treatment exerts well-documented deleterious effects on bone health, reducing bone density and contributing to bone growth retardation in young patients and spontaneous fracture in postmenopausal women. However, the majority of human radiation exposures occur in a much lower dose range than that used in the radiation oncology clinic. Furthermore, very few studies have examined the effects of low-dose ionizing radiation on bone integrity and results have been inconsistent. In this study, mice were irradiated with a total-body dose of 0.17, 0.5 or 1 Gy to quantify the early (day 3 postirradiation) and delayed (day 21 postirradiation) effects of radiation on bone microarchitecture and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). Female BALBc mice (4 months old) were divided into four groups: irradiated (0.17, 0.5 and 1 Gy) and sham-irradiated controls (0 Gy). Micro-computed tomography analysis of distal femur trabecular bone from animals at day 21 after exposure to 1 Gy of X-ray radiation revealed a 21% smaller bone volume (BV/TV), 22% decrease in trabecular numbers (Tb.N) and 9% greater trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) compared to sham-irradiated controls (P X-rays, whereas osteoclastogenesis was enhanced. A better understanding of the effects of radiation on osteoprogenitor cell populations could lead to more effective therapeutic interventions that protect bone integrity for individuals exposed to low-dose ionizing radiation.

  6. Food restriction causes low bone strength and microarchitectural deterioration in exercised growing male rats. (United States)

    Hattori, Satoshi; Park, Jong-Hoon; Agata, Umon; Oda, Masaya; Higano, Michito; Aikawa, Yuki; Akimoto, Takayuki; Nabekura, Yoshiharu; Yamato, Hideyuki; Ezawa, Ikuko; Omi, Naomi


    The pathogenesis of bone disorders in young male athletes has not been well understood. We hypothesized that bone fragility is caused by low energy availability, due to insufficient food intake and excessive exercise energy expenditure in young male athletes. To examine this hypothesis, we investigated the influence of food restriction on bone strength and bone morphology in exercised growing male rats, using three-point bending test, dual-energy X-ray absormetry, and micro-computed tomography. Four-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into the following groups: the control (Con) group, exercise (Ex) group, food restriction (R) group, and food restriction plus exercise (REx) group after a 1-wk acclimatization period. Thirty-percent food restriction in the R and REx groups was carried out in comparison with that in the Con group. Voluntary running exercise was performed in the Ex and REx groups. The experimental period lasted 13 wk. At the endpoint of this experiment, the bone strength of the femurs and tibial BMD in the REx group were significantly lower than those in the Con group. Moreover, trabecular bone volume and cortical bone volume in the REx group were also significantly lower than those in the Con group. These findings indicate that food restriction causes low bone strength and microarchitectural deterioration in exercised growing male rats.

  7. Diffusion aspects of designing porous growth media for earth and space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamindu, Deepagoda; Møldrup, Per; Jensen, M P


    be avoided when designing safe plant growth media for space. The CWD concept was also applied to a natural volcanic ash soil (Nishi-Tokyo, Japan), and the natural soil was found competitive or better than the tested commercial growth media. This could bear large perspectives for Martian outpost missions......Growing plants in extraterrestrial environments, for example on a space station or in a future lunar or Martian outpost, is a challenge that has attracted increasing interest over the last few decades. Most of the essential plant needs for optimal growth (air, water, and nutrient supply...

  8. Design considerations for the use of laser-plasma accelerators for advanced space radiation studies (United States)

    Königstein, T.; Karger, O.; Pretzler, G.; Rosenzweig, J. B.; Hidding, B.; Hidding


    We present design considerations for the use of laser-plasma accelerators for mimicking space radiation and testing space-grade electronics. This novel application takes advantage of the inherent ability of laser-plasma accelerators to produce particle beams with exponential energy distribution, which is a characteristic shared with the hazardous relativistic electron flux present in the radiation belts of planets such as Earth, Saturn and Jupiter. Fundamental issues regarding laser-plasma interaction parameters, beam propagation, flux development, and experimental setup are discussed.

  9. Space Nuclear Power Plant Pre-Conceptual Design Report, For Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Levine


    This letter transmits, for information, the Project Prometheus Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) Pre-Conceptual Design Report completed by the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT). This report documents the work pertaining to the Reactor Module, which includes integration of the space nuclear reactor with the reactor radiation shield, energy conversion, and instrumentation and control segments. This document also describes integration of the Reactor Module with the Heat Rejection segment, the Power Conditioning and Distribution subsystem (which comprise the SNPP), and the remainder of the Prometheus spaceship.

  10. Near Space Hypersonic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Dynamic Surface Backstepping Control Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyong YU


    Full Text Available Compared with traditional aircraft, the near space hypersonic unmanned aerial vehicle control system design must deal with the extra prominent dynamics characters, which are differ from the traditional aircrafts control system design. A new robust adaptive control design method is proposed for one hypersonic unmanned aerial vehicle (HSUAV uncertain MIMO nonaffine block control system by using multilayer neural networks, feedback linearization technology, and dynamic surface backstepping. Multilayer neural networks are used to compensate the influence from the uncertain, which designs the robust terms to solve the problem from approach error. Adaptive backstepping is adopted designed to ensure control law, the dynamic surface control strategy to eliminate “the explosion of terms” by introducing a series of first order filters to obtain the differentiation of the virtual control inputs. Finally, nonlinear six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF numerical simulation results for a HSUAV model are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Structural and mechanical design challenges of space shuttle solid rocket boosters separation and recovery subsystems (United States)

    Woodis, W. R.; Runkle, R. E.


    The design of the space shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB) subsystems for reuse posed some unique and challenging design considerations. The separation of the SRBs from the cluster (orbiter and external tank) at 150,000 ft when the orbiter engines are running at full thrust meant the two SRBs had to have positive separation forces pushing them away. At the same instant, the large attachments that had reacted launch loads of 7.5 million pounds thrust had to be servered. These design considerations dictated the design requirements for the pyrotechnics and separation rocket motors. The recovery and reuse of the two SRBs meant they had to be safely lowered to the ocean, remain afloat, and be owed back to shore. In general, both the pyrotechnic and recovery subsystems have met or exceeded design requirements. In twelve vehicles, there has only been one instance where the pyrotechnic system has failed to function properly.

  12. LQG and maximum entropy control design for the Hubble Space Telescope (United States)

    Collins, Emmanuel G., Jr.; Richter, Stephen

    Solar array vibrations are responsible for serious pointing control problems on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The original HST control law was not designed to attenuate these disturbances because they were not perceived to be a problem prior to launch. However, significant solar array vibrations do occur due to large changes in the thermal environment as the HST orbits the earth. Using classical techniques, Marshall Space Flight Center in conjunction with Lockheed Missiles and Space Company developed modified HST controllers that were able to suppress the influence of the vibrations of the solar arrays on the line-of-sight (LOS) performance. Substantial LOS improvement was observed when two of these controllers were implemented on orbit. This paper describes the development of modified HST controllers by using modern control techniques, particularly linear-quadratic-gaussian (LQG) design and Maximum Entropy robust control design, a generalization of LQG that incorporates robustness constraints with respect to modal errors. The fundamental issues are discussed candidly and controllers designed using these modern techniques are described.

  13. [Optimize dropping process of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills by using design space approach]. (United States)

    Shen, Ji-Chen; Wang, Qing-Qing; Chen, An; Pan, Fang-Lai; Gong, Xing-Chu; Qu, Hai-Bin


    In this paper, a design space approach was applied to optimize the dropping process of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills. Firstly, potential critical process parameters and potential process critical quality attributes were determined through literature research and pre-experiments. Secondly, experiments were carried out according to Box-Behnken design. Then the critical process parameters and critical quality attributes were determined based on the experimental results. Thirdly, second-order polynomial models were used to describe the quantitative relationships between critical process parameters and critical quality attributes. Finally, a probability-based design space was calculated and verified. The verification results showed that efficient production of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills can be guaranteed by operating within the design space parameters. The recommended operation ranges for the critical dropping process parameters of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills were as follows: dropping distance of 5.5-6.7 cm, and dropping speed of 59-60 drops per minute, providing a reference for industrial production of Ginkgo biloba dropping pills. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  14. A Test Methodology for Determining Space-Readiness of Xilinx SRAM-Based FPGA Designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, Heather M.; Graham, Paul S.; Morgan, Keith S.; Caffrey, Michael P.


    Using reconfigurable, static random-access memory (SRAM) based field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) for space-based computation has been an exciting area of research for the past decade. Since both the circuit and the circuit's state is stored in radiation-tolerant memory, both could be alterd by the harsh space radiation environment. Both the circuit and the circuit's state can be prote cted by triple-moduler redundancy (TMR), but applying TMR to FPGA user designs is often an error-prone process. Faulty application of TMR could cause the FPGA user circuit to output incorrect data. This paper will describe a three-tiered methodology for testing FPGA user designs for space-readiness. We will describe the standard approach to testing FPGA user designs using a particle accelerator, as well as two methods using fault injection and a modeling tool. While accelerator testing is the current 'gold standard' for pre-launch testing, we believe the use of fault injection and modeling tools allows for easy, cheap and uniform access for discovering errors early in the design process.

  15. Taking Word Clouds Apart: An Empirical Investigation of the Design Space for Keyword Summaries. (United States)

    Felix, Cristian; Franconeri, Steven; Bertini, Enrico


    In this paper we present a set of four user studies aimed at exploring the visual design space of what we call keyword summaries: lists of words with associated quantitative values used to help people derive an intuition of what information a given document collection (or part of it) may contain. We seek to systematically study how different visual representations may affect people's performance in extracting information out of keyword summaries. To this purpose, we first create a design space of possible visual representations and compare the possible solutions in this design space through a variety of representative tasks and performance metrics. Other researchers have, in the past, studied some aspects of effectiveness with word clouds, however, the existing literature is somewhat scattered and do not seem to address the problem in a sufficiently systematic and holistic manner. The results of our studies showed a strong dependency on the tasks users are performing. In this paper we present details of our methodology, the results, as well as, guidelines on how to design effective keyword summaries based in our discoveries.

  16. Enabling Fast ASIP Design Space Exploration: An FPGA-Based Runtime Reconfigurable Prototyper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Meloni


    Full Text Available Application Specific Instruction-set Processors (ASIPs expose to the designer a large number of degrees of freedom. Accurate and rapid simulation tools are needed to explore the design space. To this aim, FPGA-based emulators have recently been proposed as an alternative to pure software cycle-accurate simulator. However, the advantages of on-hardware emulation are reduced by the overhead of the RTL synthesis process that needs to be run for each configuration to be emulated. The work presented in this paper aims at mitigating this overhead, exploiting a form of software-driven platform runtime reconfiguration. We present a complete emulation toolchain that, given a set of candidate ASIP configurations, identifies and builds an overdimensioned architecture capable of being reconfigured via software at runtime, emulating all the design space points under evaluation. The approach has been validated against two different case studies, a filtering kernel and an M-JPEG encoding kernel. Moreover, the presented emulation toolchain couples FPGA emulation with activity-based physical modeling to extract area and power/energy consumption figures. We show how the adoption of the presented toolchain reduces significantly the design space exploration time, while introducing an overhead lower than 10% for the FPGA resources and lower than 0.5% in terms of operating frequency.

  17. Lubricant based determination of design space for continuously manufactured high dose paracetamol tablets. (United States)

    Taipale-Kovalainen, Krista; Karttunen, Anssi-Pekka; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Korhonen, Ossi


    The objective of this study was to devise robust and stable continuous manufacturing process settings, by exploring the design space after an investigation of the lubrication-based parameters influencing the continuous direct compression tableting of high dose paracetamol tablets. Experimental design was used to generate a structured study plan which involved 19 runs. The formulation variables studied were the type of lubricant (magnesium stearate or stearic acid) and its concentration (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%). Process variables were total production feed rate (5, 10.5 and 16kg/h), mixer speed rpm (500, 850 and 1200rpm), and mixer inlet port for lubricant (A or B). The continuous direct compression tableting line consisted of loss-in-weight feeders, a continuous mixer and a tablet press. The Quality Target Product Profile (QTPP) was defined for the final product, as the flowability of powder blends (2.5s), tablet strength (147N), dissolution in 2.5min (90%) and ejection force (425N). A design space was identified which fulfilled all the requirements of QTPP. The type and concentration of lubricant exerted the greatest influence on the design space. For example, stearic acid increased the tablet strength. Interestingly, the studied process parameters had only a very minor effect on the quality of the final product and the design space. It is concluded that the continuous direct compression tableting process itself is insensitive and can cope with changes in lubrication, whereas formulation parameters exert a major influence on the end product quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Variations on a theme: novel immersed grating based spectrometer designs for space (United States)

    Agócs, T.; Navarro, R.; Venema, L.


    We present novel immersed grating (IG) based spectrometer designs that can be used in space instrumentation. They are based on the design approach that aims to optimize the optical design using the expanded parameter space that the IG technology offers. In principle the wavefront error (WFE) of any optical system the most conveniently can be corrected in the pupil, where in the case of the IG based spectrometer, the IG itself is positioned. By modifying existing three-mirror based optical systems, which can form the main part of double pass spectrometer designs, a large portion of the WFE of the optical system can be transferred to the pupil and to the IG. In these cases the IG can compensate simple low order aberrations of the system and consequently the main benefit is that the mirrors that tend to be off-axis conical sections can be substituted by spherical mirrors. The WFE budget of such designs has only a minor contribution from the very high quality spherical mirrors and the majority of the WFE can be then allocated to the most complex part of the system, the IG. The latter can be designed so that the errors are compensated by a special grating pattern that in turn can be manufactured using the expertise and experience of the semiconductor industry.

  19. Structural Design of Glass and Ceramic Components for Space System Safety (United States)

    Bernstein, Karen S.


    Manned space flight programs will always have windows as part of the structural shell of the crew compartment. Astronauts and cosmonauts need to and enjoy looking out of the spacecraft windows at Earth, at approaching vehicles, at scientific objectives and at the stars. With few exceptions spacecraft windows have been made of glass, and the lessons learned over forty years of manned space flight have resulted in a well-defined approach for using this brittle, unforgiving material in NASA's vehicles, in windows and other structural applications. This chapter will outline the best practices that have developed at NASA for designing, verifying and accepting glass (and ceramic) windows and other components for safe and reliable use in any space system.

  20. Spherical phantom for research of radiation situation in outer space. Design-structural special features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartsev, I.S.; Eremenko, V.G.; Petrov, V.I.; Polenov, B.V.; Yudin, V.N.; Akatov, Yu.A.; Petrov, V.M.; Shurshakov, V.A.


    The design-structural features of the updated spherical phantom applied within the frameworks of the space experiment Matreshka-R at the Russian segment of International space station during ISS-8 and ISS-9 expeditions are described. The replacement of 48 polyethylene containers with TLD and STD assemblies by 16 cases installed from external side of the phantom and 4 tissue-equivalent caps of the central disk by 4 cases with detector assemblies is carried out. The updated tissue-equivalent phantom contains the active dosemeter based on 5 MOS detectors. The phantom cover is made from the non-flammable material NT-7. The basic characteristics of the flight specimen of the phantom are presented. The results of its on-Earth testing and real space flights are analyzed [ru

  1. Behavior Space Design and Expression by the Theories and Methods of Urban Design—The Yan Dao ancient town of design practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Wei


    Full Text Available In recent years, the ancient town of update and development has become a new hot spot, the study of old town renewal of concern is gradually warming. And again there are a lot of space in the middle of the old town renewal design and traditional style, space activities and use the contradiction between population, which becomes a problem urgently to be solved in design stage. The purpose of this study was to explore old town design space and behavior, traditional and modern conflict resolution methods, and to present the town development and design with a design concept. This paper’ uses three theories of urban design (The relationship between figure and ground, Contact theory and Place theory as a real-time monitoring, assessment, comparison of methods, to study Yan Dao Ancient Town, and the space for analysis. In the research, this paper based on the design theory of the three major city as a starting point, detailedly describes the different types in a certain area of difference in the behavior and the properties of space, and the ancient town of Hubei Shennongjia forest region salt path planning and design practice, the ancient town of updating the connotation of the historical context and space behavior of connection. The conclusion of this thesis put forward the method of that based on the space shape of ancient design method of its application in practice.

  2. Design and Application of an Electronic Logbook for Space System Integration and Test Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavelaars, Alicia T. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Aeronautics and Astronautics


    In the highly technological aerospace world paper is still widely used to document space system integration and test (I&T) operations. E-Logbook is a new technology designed to substitute the most commonly used paper logbooks in space system I&T, such as the connector mate/demate logbook, the flight hardware and flight software component installation logbook, the material mix record logbook and the electronic ground support equipment validation logbook. It also includes new logbook concepts, such as the shift logbook, which optimizes management oversight and the shift hand-over process, and the configuration logbook, which instantly reports on the global I&T state of the space system before major test events or project reviews. The design of E-Logbook focuses not only on a reliable and efficient relational database, but also on an ergonomic human-computer interactive (HCI) system that can help reduce human error and improve I&T management and oversight overall. E-Logbook has been used for the I&T operation of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). More than 41,000 records have been created for the different I&T logbooks, with no data having been corrupted or critically lost. 94% of the operators and 100% of the management exposed to E-Logbook prefer it to paper logbooks and recommend its use in the aerospace industry.

  3. Extending Mind and Space: Embodying the Model of Design Process in Digital Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruly Darmawan


    Full Text Available The recent electronic or digital technology has changed the life of contemporary society. From here, a new variant of cultural form is born as a consequence of the intensification of technology usage in everyday activities. This situation is then ended up with the paradigm shift of society’s perceptions, experience, and consciousness in almost all aspect of life, including the spatial discourse. The discourse of spatiality in the digital era becomes significant as it also repositions the conventional human spatial experience and consciousness in everyday life. Furthermore, this new spatial discourse may also appear as an opportunity to determine the learning space in the digital era. This paper emphasizes the topic on the information technology development and its impact on the forming of technoculture. The discussion will then be continued to the spatial discourse in digital era and its contribution in rethinking the learning space, especially the space of design process in academic. Lastly, the paper formulates the hexagonal model as the alternative of expanding the conventional space of design process and learning.

  4. Design and Application of an Electronic Logbook for Space System Integration and Test Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavelaars, Alicia T.; SLAC; Stanford U., Dept. Aeronaut. Astronaut


    In the highly technological aerospace world paper is still widely used to document space system integration and test (I and T) operations. E-Logbook is a new technology designed to substitute the most commonly used paper logbooks in space system I and T, such as the connector mate/demate logbook, the flight hardware and flight software component installation logbook, the material mix record logbook and the electronic ground support equipment validation logbook. It also includes new logbook concepts, such as the shift logbook, which optimizes management oversight and the shift hand-over process, and the configuration logbook, which instantly reports on the global I and T state of the space system before major test events or project reviews. The design of E-Logbook focuses not only on a reliable and efficient relational database, but also on an ergonomic human-computer interactive (HCI) system that can help reduce human error and improve I and T management and oversight overall. E-Logbook has been used for the I and T operation of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). More than 41,000 records have been created for the different I and T logbooks, with no data having been corrupted or critically lost. 94% of the operators and 100% of the management exposed to E-Logbook prefer it to paper logbooks and recommend its use in the aerospace industry

  5. Opto-mechanical design for transmission optics in cryogenic space instrumentation (United States)

    Kroes, Gabby; Venema, Lars; Navarro, Ramón


    NOVA is involved in the development and realization of various optical astronomical instruments for groundbased as well as space telescopes, with a focus on nearand mid-infrared instrumentation. NOVA has developed a suite of scientific instruments with cryogenic optics for the ESO VLT and VLTI instruments: VISIR, MIDI, the SPIFFI 2Kcamera for SINFONI, X-shooter and MATISSE. Other projects include the cryogenic optics for MIRI for the James Webb Space Telescope and several E-ELT instruments. Mounting optics is always a compromise between firmly fixing the optics and preventing stresses within the optics. The fixing should ensure mechanical stability and thus accurate positioning in various gravity orientations, temperature ranges, during launch, transport or earthquake. On the other hand, the fixings can induce deformations and sometimes birefringence in the optics and thus cause optical errors. Even cracking or breaking of the optics is a risk, especially when using brittle infrared optical materials at the cryogenic temperatures required in instruments for infrared astronomy, where differential expansion of various materials amounts easily to several millimeters per meter. Special kinematic mounts are therefore needed to ensure both accurate positioning and low stress. This paper concentrates on the opto-mechanical design of optics mountings, especially for large transmission optics in cryogenic circumstances in space instruments. It describes the development of temperature-invariant ("a-thermal") kinematic designs, their implementation in ground based instrumentation and ways to make them suitable for space instruments.

  6. The Role of Habitability Studies in Space Facility and Vehicle Design (United States)

    Adams, Constance M.


    This document is a viewgraph presentation which reviews the role of the space architect in designing a space vehicle with habitability as a chief concern. Habitability is composed of the qualities of the environment or system which support the crew in working and living. All the impacts from habitability are interdependent; i.e., impacts to well-being can impact performance, safety or efficiency. After reviewing the issues relating to habitability the presentation discusses the application of these issues in two case studies. The first studies the Bio-Plex Hab chamber which includes designs of the living and working areas. The second case study is the ISS-TransHab which is being studied as a prototype for Mars transit.

  7. The role of defects in the design of space elevator cable: From nanotube to megatube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugno, Nicola M. [Department of Structural Engineering and Geotechnics, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy)], E-mail:


    Researchers are claiming that the feasibility of space elevator cable is now realistic, thanks to carbon nanotube technology, proposing its realization within a decade. However, the current view of basing the design of the megacable on the theoretical strength of a single carbon nanotube is naive, as has recently been emphasized. In this paper the role of thermodynamically unavoidable atomistic defects with different size and shape is quantified on brittle fracture, fatigue and elasticity, for nanotubes and nanotube bundles. Nonasymptotic regimes, elastic plasticity, rough cracks, finite domains and size effects are also discussed. The results are compared with atomistic simulations and nanotensile tests of carbon nanotubes. Key simple formulas for the design of a flaw-tolerant space elevator megacable are reported, suggesting that it would need a taper ratio (for uniform stress) of about two orders of magnitude larger than currently proposed.

  8. Designing flexible instructional space for teaching introductory physics with emphasis on inquiry and collaborative active learning (United States)

    Bykov, Tikhon


    In recent years McMurry University's introductory physics curriculum has gone through a series of significant changes to achieve better integration of traditional course components (lecture/lab/discussion) by means of instructional design and technology. A system of flexible curriculum modules with emphasis on inquiry-based teaching and collaborative active learning has been introduced. To unify module elements, a technology suite has been used that consists of Tablet PC's and software applications including Physlets, tablet-adapted personal response system, PASCO data acquisition systems, and MS One-note collaborative writing software. Adoption of the new teaching model resulted in reevaluation of existing instructional spaces. The new teaching space will be created during the renovation of the McMurry Science Building. This space will allow for easy transitions between lecture and laboratory modes. Movable partitions will be used to accommodate student groups of different sizes. The space will be supportive of small peer-group activities with easy-to-reconfigure furniture, multiple white and black board surfaces and multiple projection screens. The new space will be highly flexible to account for different teaching functions, different teaching modes and learning styles.

  9. Status of CEA design and simulation studies of 200 KWe turboelectric space power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carre, F.; Proust, E.; Gervaise, F.; Schwartz, J.P.; Tilliette, Z.; Vrillon, B.


    This paper presents the updated design features of the reference 200 kWe turboelectric space generator studied in France, and comments some of the alternative options to be analyzed in the near future, concerning the reactor and the conversion system in particular. Also presented the major conclusions of the simulation studies, that have been performed to analyze the overall behavior of the reference generator, during the start up and the accidental transients

  10. Preliminary design work on a DSN VLBI correlator. [Deep Space Network (United States)

    Lushbaugh, W. A.; Layland, J. W.


    The Deep Space Network is in the process of fielding high-density digital instrumentation recorders for support of the Pioneer Venus 1978 entry experiment and other related tasks. It has long been obvious that these recorders would also serve well as the recording medium for very long base interferometry (VLBI) experiments with relatively weak radio sources, provided that a suitable correlation processor for these tape recordings could be established. The overall design and current status of a VLBI correlator designed to mate with these tape recorders are described.

  11. Design criteria and candidate electrical power systems for a reusable Space Shuttle booster. (United States)

    Merrifield, D. V.


    This paper presents the results of a preliminary study to establish electrical power requirements, investigate candidate power sources, and select a representative power generation concept for the NASA Space Shuttle booster stage. Design guidelines and system performance requirements are established. Candidate power sources and combinations thereof are defined and weight estimates made. The selected power source concept utilizes secondary silver-zinc batteries, engine-driven alternators with constant speed drive, and an airbreathing gas turbine. The need for cost optimization, within safety, reliability, and performance constraints, is emphasized as being the most important criteria in design of the final system.

  12. Pictorial Menus as a Wall-Space Design Strategy for Izakaya, Japanese-Style Pubs


    小島, 茂


    In izakaya, Japanese - style pubs, menus can play an important role in wall-space design and merchandising, because, unlike those of an American restaurant or bar, they are much bigger in size and hang on the wall. In general, however, they are not artistic in quality and hence do not function as an effective means of spatial design, even though they occupy much of the wall. Moreover, since they are written only in Japanese and have no pictures, the menus are not sufficient as a source of inf...

  13. Design of Compact Particle Detector System Using FPGA for Space Particle Environment Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ryu


    Full Text Available We have designed a high resolution proton and electron telescope for the detection of high energy particles, which constitute a major part of the space environment. The flux of the particles, in the satellite orbits, can vary abruptly according to the position and solar activities. In this study, a conceptual design of the detector, for adapting these variations with a high energy resolution, was made and the performance was estimated. In addition, a parallel processing algorithm was devised and embodied using FPGA for the high speed data processing, capable of detecting high flux without losing energy resolution, on board a satellite.

  14. Design of particle bed reactors for the space nuclear thermal propulsion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludewig, H.; Powell, J.R.; Todosow, M.; Maise, G.; Barletta, R.; Schweitzer, D.G.


    This paper describes the design for the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) that was considered for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) Program. The methods of analysis and their validation are outlined first. Monte Carlo methods were used for the physics analysis, several new algorithms were developed for the fluid dynamics, heat transfer and transient analysis; and commercial codes were used for the stress analysis. We carried out a critical experiment, prototypic of the PBR to validate the reactor physics; blowdown experiments with beds of prototypic dimensions were undertaken to validate the power-extraction capabilities from particle beds. In addition, materials and mechanical design concepts for the fuel elements were experimentally validated. (author)

  15. Thermohydraulic Design Analysis Modeling for Korea Advanced NUclear Thermal Engine Rocket for Space Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Seung Hyun; Choi, Jae Young; Venneria, Paolo F.; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Space exploration is a realistic and profitable goal for long-term humanity survival, although the harsh space environment imposes lots of severe challenges to space pioneers. To date, almost all space programs have relied upon Chemical Rockets (CRs) rating superior thrust level to transit from the Earth's surface to its orbit. However, CRs inherently have insurmountable barrier to carry out deep space missions beyond Earth's orbit due to its low propellant efficiency, and ensuing enormous propellant requirement and launch costs. Meanwhile, nuclear rockets typically offer at least two times the propellant efficiency of a CR and thus notably reduce the propellant demand. Particularly, a Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) is a leading candidate for near-term manned missions to Mars and beyond because it satisfies a relatively high thrust as well as a high efficiency. The superior efficiency of NTRs is due to both high energy density of nuclear fuel and the low molecular weight propellant of Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) over the chemical reaction by-products. A NTR uses thermal energy released from a nuclear fission reactor to heat the H{sub 2} propellant and then exhausted the highly heated propellant through a propelling nozzle to produce thrust. A propellant efficiency parameter of rocket engines is specific impulse (I{sub s}p) which represents the ratio of the thrust over the propellant consumption rate. If the average exhaust H{sub 2} temperature of a NTR is around 3,000 K, the I{sub s}p can be achieved as high as 1,000 s as compared with only 450 - 500 s of the best CRs. For this reason, NTRs are favored for various space applications such as orbital tugs, lunar transports, and manned missions to Mars and beyond. The best known NTR development effort was conducted from 1955 to1974 under the ROVER and NERVA programs in the USA. These programs had successfully designed and tested many different reactors and engines. After these projects, the researches on NERVA derived

  16. Lightweight structural design of a bolted case joint for the space shuttle solid rocket motor (United States)

    Dorsey, John T.; Stein, Peter A.; Bush, Harold G.


    The structural design of a bolted joint with a static face seal which can be used to join Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) case segments is given. Results from numerous finite element parametric studies indicate that the bolted joint meets the design requirement of preventing joint opening at the O-ring locations during SRM pressurization. A final design recommended for further development has the following parameters: 180 one-in.-diam. studs, stud centerline offset of 0.5 in radially inward from the shell wall center line, flange thickness of 0.75 in, bearing plate thickness of 0.25 in, studs prestressed to 70 percent of ultimate load, and the intermediate alcove. The design has a mass penalty of 1096 lbm, which is 164 lbm greater than the currently proposed capture tang redesign.

  17. Environment-behaviour studies: A synergetic bridge between designers and users of open space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Goličnik


    Full Text Available This paper critically reflects on a kind and use of knowledge about the users of urban open public spaces in urban planning and design. It shows that designers’ perceptions about usage-spatial relationships are inadequate and many times very different form the actual situations. The findings are based on results from workshops with urban landscape designers and on the basis of observation and behavioural mapping in squares and parks of city centres of two European cities, Edinburgh and Ljubljana. As the behavioural maps graphically express structural relationships between physical qualities of places and their users, they represent a useful tool for improvement of designers’ knowledge and perception about potential and actual use of a place. In this respect they represent a basis for better cooperation and synergy between users and planners or designers, as the knowledge about any possible or expected behavioural patterns in places may lead into effective and responsive design.

  18. A methodology for the validated design space exploration of fuel cell powered unmanned aerial vehicles (United States)

    Moffitt, Blake Almy

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are the most dynamic growth sector of the aerospace industry today. The need to provide persistent intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance for military operations is driving the planned acquisition of over 5,000 UAVs over the next five years. The most pressing need is for quiet, small UAVs with endurance beyond what is capable with advanced batteries or small internal combustion propulsion systems. Fuel cell systems demonstrate high efficiency, high specific energy, low noise, low temperature operation, modularity, and rapid refuelability making them a promising enabler of the small, quiet, and persistent UAVs that military planners are seeking. Despite the perceived benefits, the actual near-term performance of fuel cell powered UAVs is unknown. Until the auto industry began spending billions of dollars in research, fuel cell systems were too heavy for useful flight applications. However, the last decade has seen rapid development with fuel cell gravimetric and volumetric power density nearly doubling every 2--3 years. As a result, a few design studies and demonstrator aircraft have appeared, but overall the design methodology and vehicles are still in their infancy. The design of fuel cell aircraft poses many challenges. Fuel cells differ fundamentally from combustion based propulsion in how they generate power and interact with other aircraft subsystems. As a result, traditional multidisciplinary analysis (MDA) codes are inappropriate. Building new MDAs is difficult since fuel cells are rapidly changing in design, and various competitive architectures exist for balance of plant, hydrogen storage, and all electric aircraft subsystems. In addition, fuel cell design and performance data is closely protected which makes validation difficult and uncertainty significant. Finally, low specific power and high volumes compared to traditional combustion based propulsion result in more highly constrained design spaces that are

  19. Multilivel interfaces for power plant control rooms II: A preliminary design space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, K.J.


    Events that are unfamiliar to operators and that have not been anticipated by designers pose the greatest threat to system safely in nuclear power plants. The abstraction hierarchy has been proposed as a representation frame-work that can be adopted to design interfaces that support operators in dealing with these unanticipated events. It consists of a multilevel representation format that represents a plant in terms of both physical and functional constraints. In a companion article, the work that has been done on this topic in academia, industry, and research laboratories was reviewed. On the basis of the results of that review, this article proposes a preliminary design space for multilevel interfaces based on the abstraction hierarchy. This space serves several worthwhile purposes: providing a unified framework within which to compare and contrast previous and future work in this area, providing a coherent research agenda by identifying some of the dimensions that can be meaningfully manipulated and evaluated in future experiments, and finally, serving as an input design by outlining the various decisions that need to be made in developing multilevel interfaces and the different options that are currently available for each of those decisions. Consequently this article should be of interest to researchers, designers, and regulators concerned with nuclear power-plant control rooms

  20. Design strategies for the International Space University's variable gravity research facility (United States)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Davidian, Kenneth J.


    A variable gravity research facility named 'Newton' was designed by 58 students from 13 countries at the International Space University's 1989 summer session at the Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourge, France. The project was comprehensive in scope, including a political and legal foundation for international cooperation, development and financing; technical, science and engineering issues; architectural design; plausible schedules; and operations, crew issues and maintenance. Since log-term exposure to zero gravity is known to be harmful to the human body, the main goal was to design a unique variable gravity research facility which would find a practical solution to this problem, permitting a manned mission to Mars. The facility would not duplicate other space-based facilities and would provide the flexibility for examining a number of gravity levels, including lunar and Martian gravities. Major design alternatives included a truss versus a tether based system which also involved the question of docking while spinning or despinning to dock. These design issues are described. The relative advantages or disadvantages are discussed, including comments on the necessary research and technology development required for each.

  1. The Environmental Design of Working Spaces in Equatorial Highlands Zones: The Case of Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Carla Soares Gonçalves


    Full Text Available Recent empirical investigations have indicated that the majority of occupants in office buildings would appreciate contact with the external environment, especially in cities where the climate is mild for part of the year. Supported by the possibilities of adaptive thermal models, the design of naturally ventilated buildings has been elaborated since the decade of 1990s. More communal areas rather than private ones are demanded due to the importance of social interaction and knowledge transfer among employees. In this context, this paper investigates the possibility of daylight and thermal comfort in naturally ventilated working environments, located in cities of mild climatic conditions, by redefining the parameters of a façade’s design and exploring coupling strategies with the outdoors. For this purpose, the city of Bogotá (Latitude 4°7′ N, in Colombia, a place with great potential for passive strategies, is taken as the geographic context of this research, which is supported by fieldwork with occupants of 37 office buildings and analytical work. The survey revealed that being close to a window is valued by the majority. Furthermore, 50% would like to have informal areas and outdoor spaces attached to their working environments. In additithe analytical studies showed how the combination of a set of environmental design strategies, including a schedule for coupling and decoupling of indoor spaces with the outdoors and a variation of occupancy density, made thermal comfort possible in free running working spaces in Bogotá.

  2. Relationships between in vivo dynamic knee joint loading, static alignment and tibial subchondral bone microarchitecture in end-stage knee osteoarthritis. (United States)

    Roberts, B C; Solomon, L B; Mercer, G; Reynolds, K J; Thewlis, D; Perilli, E


    To study, in end-stage knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients, relationships between indices of in vivo dynamic knee joint loads obtained pre-operatively using gait analysis, static knee alignment, and the subchondral trabecular bone (STB) microarchitecture of their excised tibial plateau quantified with 3D micro-CT. Twenty-five knee OA patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty underwent pre-operative gait analysis. Mechanical axis deviation (MAD) was determined radiographically. Following surgery, excised tibial plateaus were micro-CT-scanned and STB microarchitecture analysed in four subregions (anteromedial, posteromedial, anterolateral, posterolateral). Regional differences in STB microarchitecture and relationships between joint loading and microarchitecture were examined. STB microarchitecture differed among subregions (P knee adduction moment (KAM) and internal rotation moment (|r|-range: 0.54-0.74). When controlling for walking speed, KAM and MAD, the ERM explained additional 11-30% of the variations in anteromedial BV/TV and medial-to-lateral BV/TV ratio (R 2  = 0.59, R 2  = 0.69, P knee joint loading indices in end-stage knee OA patients. Particularly, anteromedial BV/TV correlates strongest with ERM, whereas medial-to-lateral BV/TV ratio correlates strongest with indicators of medial-to-lateral joint loading (MAD, KAM) and rotational moments. However, associations with ERM should be interpreted with caution. Copyright © 2018 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Design of shipping packages to transport varying radioisotopic source materials for future space and terrestrial missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barklay, C.D.


    The exploration of space will begin with manned missions to the moon and to Mars, first for scientific discoveries, then for mining and manufacturing. Because of the great financial costs of this type of exploration, it can only be accomplished through an international team effort. This unified effort must include the design, planning and, execution phases of future space missions, extending down to such activities as isotope processing, and shipping package design, fabrication, and certification. All aspects of this effort potentially involve the use of radioisotopes in some capacity, and the transportation of these radioisotopes will be impossible without a shipping package that is certified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or the U.S. Department of Energy for domestic shipments, and the U.S. Department of Transportation or the International Atomic Energy Agency for international shipments. To remain without the international regulatory constraints, and still support the needs of new and challenging space missions conducted within ever-shrinking budgets, shipping package concepts must be innovative. A shipping package must also be versatile enough to be reconfigured to transport the varying radioisotopic source materials that may be required to support future space and terrestrial missions. One such package is the Mound USA/9516/B(U)F. Taking into consideration the potential need to transport specific types of radioisotopes, approximations of dose rates at specific distances were determined taking into account the attenuation of dose rate with distance for varying radioisotopic source materials. As a result, it has been determined that the shipping package requirements that will be demanded by future space (and terrestrial) missions can be met by making minor modifications to the USA/9516/B(U)F. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  4. Relationships between age and microarchitectural descriptors of iliac trabecular bone determined by microCT. (United States)

    Deguette, C; Ramond-Roquin, A; Rougé-Maillart, C


    Estimation of age at death is a major issue in anthropology. The main anthropological histological methods propose studying the architecture of cortical bone. In bone histomorphometry, researches on metabolic bone diseases have provided normative tables for trabecular bone volume (BV/TV) according to age and gender of individuals on trans-iliac bone biopsies. We have used microCT, a non-destructive tool for measuring bone volume and trabecular descriptors to compare the French tables to a series of forensic anthropological population and if the two iliac bones could be used interchangeably. Coxal bone of a personal forensic collection whose age and gender were known (DNA identification) were used. Bone samples, centered on the same area than bone biopsy. MicroCT (pixel size: 36μm) was used to measure BV/TV and morphometric trabecular parameters of microarchitecture. An adjusted Z-score was calculated for BV/TV to compare with normative tables and a right/left comparison of trabecular parameters was provided. Twenty-seven iliac bones, which 20 forming 10 complete pelvises, aged between 24 and 73y.o. (average of 47.7 y.o.) were used. All adjusted Z-score were within normal values. There was a strong positive correlation between right and left sides for Tb.Th, Tb.N and Tb.Sp, but an insignificant correlation was obtained for BV/TV. Normative tables between age and BV/TV are valid and therefore usable in anthropology. They may represent an alternative to determine the age at death. Nevertheless, it requires a precise technique that could be a drawback in current practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Space-based multifunctional end effector systems functional requirements and proposed designs (United States)

    Mishkin, A. H.; Jau, B. M.


    The end effector is an essential element of teleoperator and telerobot systems to be employed in space in the next decade. The report defines functional requirements for end effector systems to perform operations that are currently only feasible through Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA). Specific tasks and functions that the end effectors must be capable of performing are delineated. Required capabilities for forces and torques, clearances, compliance, and sensing are described, using current EVA requirements as guidelines where feasible. The implications of these functional requirements on the elements of potential end effector systems are discussed. The systems issues that must be considered in the design of space-based manipulator systems are identified; including impacts on subsystems tightly coupled to the end effector, i.e., control station, information processing, manipulator arm, tool and equipment stowage. Possible end effector designs are divided into three categories: single degree-of-freedom end effectors, multiple degree of freedom end effectors, and anthropomorphic hands. Specific design alternatives are suggested and analyzed within the individual categories. Two evaluations are performed: the first considers how well the individual end effectors could substitute for EVA; the second compares how manipulator systems composed of the top performers from the first evaluation would improve the space shuttle Remote Manipulator System (RMS) capabilities. The analysis concludes that the anthropomorphic hand is best-suited for EVA tasks. A left- and right-handed anthropomorphic manipulator arm configuration is suggested as appropriate to be affixed to the RMS, but could also be used as part of the Smart Front End for the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV). The technical feasibility of the anthropomorphic hand and its control are demonstrated. An evolutionary development approach is proposed and approximate scheduling provided for implementing the suggested

  6. Recent advance on design and manufacturing of composite anisogrid structures for space launchers (United States)

    Totaro, G.; De Nicola, F.


    Anisogrid composite shells have been developed and applied since the eighties by the Russian technology aiming at critical weight structures for space launchers, as interstages and cone adapters. The manufacturing process commonly applied is based on the wet filament winding. The paper concerns with some developments of design and manufacturing recently performed at the Italian Aerospace Research Center on a cylindrical structural model representative of this kind of structures. The framework of preliminary design is improved by introducing the concept of suboptimal configuration in order to match the stiffness requirement of the shell and minimise the mass, in conjunction with the typical strength constraints. The undertaken manufacturing process is based on dry robotic winding for the lattice structure and for the outer skin, with the aid of usual rubber tooling and new devices for the automated deposition strategy. Resin infusion under vacuum bag and co-cure of the system of ribs and skin is finally applied out-of-autoclave, with the aid of a heated mandrel. With such approach an interstage structural model (scale factor 1:1.5) has been designed, manufactured and tested. Design requirements and loads refer to a typical space launcher whose baseline configuration is made in aluminium. The global mechanical test of the manufactured structure has confirmed the expected high structural performance. The possibility to reach substantial weight savings in comparison with the aluminium benchmark has been fully demonstrated.

  7. Addressing Challenges to the Design & Test of Operational Lighting Environments for the International Space Station (United States)

    Clark, Toni A.


    In our day to day lives, the availability of light, with which to see our environment, is often taken for granted. The designers of land based lighting systems use sunlight and artificial light as their toolset. The availability of power, quantity of light sources, and variety of design options are often unlimited. The accessibility of most land based lighting systems makes it easy for the architect and engineer to verify and validate their design ideas. Failures with an implementation, while sometimes costly, can easily be addressed by renovation. Consider now, an architectural facility orbiting in space, 260 miles above the surface of the earth. This human rated architectural facility, the International Space Station (ISS) must maintain operations every day, including life support and appropriate human comforts without fail. The facility must also handle logistics of regular shipments of cargo, including new passengers. The ISS requires accommodations necessary for human control of machine systems. Additionally, the ISS is a research facility and supports investigations performed inside and outside its livable volume. Finally, the facility must support remote operations and observations by ground controllers. All of these architectural needs require a functional, safe, and even an aesthetic lighting environment. At Johnson Space Center, our Habitability and Human Factors team assists our diverse customers with their lighting environment challenges, via physical test and computer based analysis. Because of the complexity of ISS operational environment, our team has learned and developed processes that help ISS operate safely. Because of the dynamic exterior lighting environment, uses computational modeling to predict the lighting environment. The ISS' orbit exposes it to a sunrise every 90 minutes, causing work surfaces to quickly change from direct sunlight to earthshine to total darkness. Proper planning of vehicle approaches, robotics operations, and crewed

  8. Effect of ovariectomy on BMD, micro-architecture and biomechanics of cortical and cancellous bones in a sheep model. (United States)

    Wu, Zi-xiang; Lei, Wei; Hu, Yun-yu; Wang, Hai-qiang; Wan, Shi-yong; Ma, Zhen-sheng; Sang, Hong-xun; Fu, Suo-chao; Han, Yi-sheng


    Osteoporotic/osteopenia fractures occur most frequently in trabeculae-rich skeletal sites. The purpose of this study was to use a high-resolution micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and dual energy X-ray absorptionmeter (DEXA) to investigate the changes in micro-architecture and bone mineral density (BMD) in a sheep model resulted from ovariectomy (OVX). Biomechanical tests were performed to evaluate the strength of the trabecular bone. Twenty adult sheeps were randomly divided into three groups: sham group (n=8), group 1 (n=4) and group 2 (n=8). In groups 1 and 2, all sheep were ovariectomized (OVX); in the sham group, the ovaries were located and the oviducts were ligated. In all animals, BMD for lumbar spine was obtained during the surgical procedure. BMD at the spine, femoral neck and femoral condyle was determined 6 months (group 1) and 12 months (group 2) post-OVX. Lumbar spines and femora were obtained and underwent BMD scan, micro-CT analysis. Compressive mechanical properties were determined from biopsies of vertebral bodies and femoral condyles. BMD, micro-architectural parameters and mechanical properties of cancellous bone did not decrease significantly at 6 months post-OVX. Twelve months after OVX, BMD, micro-architectural parameters and mechanical properties decreased significantly. The results of linear regression analyses showed that trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) (r=0.945, R2=0.886) and bone volume fraction (BV/TV) (r=0.783, R2=0.586) had strong (R2>0.5) correlation to compression stress. In OVX sheep, changes in the structural parameters of trabecular bone are comparable to the human situation during osteoporosis was induced. The sheep model presented seems to meet the criteria for an osteopenia model for fracture treatment with respect to morphometric and mechanical properties. But the duration of OVX must be longer than 12 months to ensure the animal model can be established successfully.

  9. Lycopene treatment against loss of bone mass, microarchitecture and strength in relation to regulatory mechanisms in a postmenopausal osteoporosis model. (United States)

    Ardawi, Mohammed-Salleh M; Badawoud, Mohammed H; Hassan, Sherif M; Rouzi, Abdulrahim A; Ardawi, Jumanah M S; AlNosani, Nouf M; Qari, Mohammed H; Mousa, Shaker A


    Lycopene supplementation decreases oxidative stress and exhibits beneficial effects on bone health, but the mechanisms through which it alters bone metabolism in vivo remain unclear. The present study aims to evaluate the effects of lycopene treatment on postmenopausal osteoporosis. Six-month-old female Wistar rats (n=264) were sham-operated (SHAM) or ovariectomized (OVX). The SHAM group received oral vehicle only and the OVX rats were randomized into five groups receiving oral daily lycopene treatment (mg/kg body weight per day): 0 OVX (control), 15 OVX, 30 OVX, and 45 OVX, and one group receiving alendronate (ALN) (2μg/kg body weight per day), for 12weeks. Bone densitometry measurements, bone turnover markers, biomechanical testing, and histomorphometric analysis were conducted. Micro computed tomography was also used to evaluate changes in microarchitecture. Lycopene treatment suppressed the OVX-induced increase in bone turnover, as indicated by changes in biomarkers of bone metabolism: serum osteocalcin (s-OC), serum N-terminal propeptide of type 1 collagen (s-PINP), serum crosslinked carboxyterminal telopeptides (s-CTX-1), and urinary deoxypyridinoline (u-DPD). Significant improvement in OVX-induced loss of bone mass, bone strength, and microarchitectural deterioration was observed in lycopene-treated OVX animals. These effects were observed mainly at sites rich in trabecular bone, with less effect in cortical bone. Lycopene treatment down-regulated osteoclast differentiation concurrent with up-regulating osteoblast together with glutathione peroxidase (GPx) catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. These findings demonstrate that lycopene treatment in OVX rats primarily suppressed bone turnover to restore bone strength and microarchitecture. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Microarchitecture, but Not Bone Mechanical Properties, Is Rescued with Growth Hormone Treatment in a Mouse Model of Growth Hormone Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Kristensen


    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH deficiency is related to an increased fracture risk although it is not clear if this is due to compromised bone quality or a small bone size. We investigated the relationship between bone macrostructure, microarchitecture and mechanical properties in a GH-deficient (GHD mouse model undergoing GH treatment commencing at an early (prepubertal or late (postpubertal time point. Microcomputed tomography images of the femur and L4 vertebra were obtained to quantify macrostructure and vertebral trabecular microarchitecture, and mechanical properties were determined using finite element analyses. In the GHD animals, bone macrostructure was 25 to 43% smaller as compared to the GH-sufficient (GHS controls (P<0.001. GHD animals had 20% and 19% reductions in bone volume ratio (BV/TV and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th, respectively. Whole bone mechanical properties of the GHD mice were lower at the femur and vertebra (67% and 45% resp. than the GHS controls (P<0.001. Both early and late GH treatment partially recovered the bone macrostructure (15 to 32 % smaller than GHS controls and the whole bone mechanical properties (24 to 43% larger than GHD animals although there remained a sustained 27–52% net deficit compared to normal mice (P<0.05. Importantly, early treatment with GH led to a recovery of BV/TV and Tb.Th with a concomitant improvement of trabecular mechanical properties. Therefore, the results suggest that GH treatment should start early, and that measurements of microarchitecture should be considered in the management of GHD.

  11. Mitigating vestibular disturbances during space flight using virtual reality training and reentry vehicle design guidelines (United States)

    Stroud, Kenneth Joshua

    Seventy to eighty percent of astronauts reportedly exhibit undesirable vestibular disturbances during the first few days of weightlessness, including space motion sickness (SMS) and spatial disorientation (SD). SMS presents a potentially dangerous situation, both because critical piloted tasks such as docking maneuvers and emergency reentry may be compromised, and because of the potential for asphyxiation should an astronaut vomit while wearing a space suit. SD can be provocative for SMS as well as become dangerous during an emergency in which it is critical for an astronaut to move quickly through the vehicle. In the U.S. space program, medication is currently used both for prevention and treatment of SMS. However, this approach has had only moderate success, and the side effects of drowsiness and lack of concentration are undesirable. Research suggests that preflight training in virtual reality devices can simulate certain aspects of microgravity and may prove to be an effective countermeasure for SMS and SD. It was hypothesized that exposing subjects preflight to variable virtual orientations, similar to those encountered during space flight, will reduce the incidence and/or severity of SMS and SD. Results from a study conducted at the NASA Johnson Space Center as part of this research demonstrated that this type of training is effective for reducing motion sickness and improving task performance in potentially disorienting visual surroundings, thus suggesting the possibility that such training may prove an effective countermeasure for SMS, SD and related performance decrements that occur in space flight. In addition to the effects associated with weightlessness, almost all astronauts experience vestibular disturbances associated with gravity-transitions incurred during the return to Earth, which could be exacerbated if traveling in a spacecraft that is designed differently than a conventional aircraft. Therefore, for piloted descent and landing operations

  12. Preliminary neutronic design of spock reactor: A nuclear system for space power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgio, N.; Santagata, A.; Cumo, M.; Fasano, A.; Frullini, M.


    Aim of this paper is to preliminary investigates the neutronic features of an upgrade of the MAUS [1] nuclear reactor whose core will be able to supply a thermoelectric converter in order to generate 30 kW of electricity for space applications. The neutronic layout of SPOCK (Space Power Core Ka) is a compact, MOX fuelled, liquid metal cooled and totally reflected fast reactor with a control system based on neutron absorption. Spock, that during the heart and launch operation must be maintained in sub-critical state, has to start up in the outer space at 40 K temperatures with the coolant in a solid state and it will reach the operating steady condition at the maximum temperature of 1300 K with the coolant in the liquid state. The main design goal is to maintains, in the operating conditions of a typical space mission, the control of the appropriate criticality margin versus temperature and coolant physical state. For this purpose, a neutronic/thermal-hydraulic calculation chain able to assists the entire design process must be set up. As preliminary recognition, MCNPX 2.5.0 and FLUENT calculations were carried out. The emerging key features of SPOCK are: an equilateral triangular mesh of 91 cylindrical UO 2 fuel rods with a Molybdenum clad ensured by two grids of the same material, cooled by liquid Sodium and contained in an AISI 316 L vessel. The core is totally wrapped by a Beryllium reflector that hosts six absorber (B 4 C) rotating control rods. The reactor shape is cylindrical (radius = 30 cm and height = 60 cm) with a total mass of 275 kg. The excess reactivity was of 5000 PCM at 1300 K. A preliminary evaluation of the control rods worth and a power spatial distribution were also discussed. Through the definition of an ideal reference K e ff value at 300 K for the actual SPOCK configuration, a sensitivity analysis on various cross sections data and material physical properties was performed for the given mission temperature range, allowing consideration on

  13. Conceptual Design Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Tower Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, Chad


    The main objective of this work was to develop a conceptual design and engineering prototype for the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) tower structure. This thesis describes the conceptual design of a GLAST tower and the fabrication and testing of a prototype tower tray. The requirements were that the structure had to support GLAST's delicate silicon strip detector array through ground handling, launch and in orbit operations as well as provide for thermal and electrical pathways. From the desired function and the given launch vehicle for the spacecraft that carries the GLAST detector, an efficient structure was designed which met the requirements. This thesis developed in three stages: design, fabrication, and testing. During the first stage, a general set of specifications was used to develop the initial design, which was then analyzed and shown to meet or exceed the requirements. The second stage called for the fabrication of prototypes to prove manufacturability and gauge cost and time estimates for the total project. The last step called for testing the prototypes to show that they performed as the analysis had shown and prove that the design met the requirements. As a spacecraft engineering exercise, this project required formulating a solution based on engineering judgment, analyzing the solution using advanced engineering techniques, then proving the validity of the design and analysis by the manufacturing and testing of prototypes. The design described here met all the requirements set out by the needs of the experiment and operating concerns. This strawman design is not intended to be the complete or final design for the GLAST instrument structure, but instead examines some of the main challenges involved and demonstrates that there are solutions to them. The purpose of these tests was to prove that there are solutions to the basic mechanical, electrical and thermal problems presented with the GLAST project.

  14. Design and Development of a CPCI-Based Electronics Package for Space Station Experiments (United States)

    Kolacz, John S.; Clapper, Randy S.; Wade, Raymond P.


    The NASA John H. Glenn Research Center is developing a Compact-PCI (CPCI) based electronics package for controlling space experiment hardware on the International Space Station. Goals of this effort include an easily modified, modular design that allows for changes in experiment requirements. Unique aspects of the experiment package include a flexible circuit used for internal interconnections and a separate enclosure (box in a box) for controlling 1 kW of power for experiment fuel heating requirements. This electronics package was developed as part of the FEANICS (Flow Enclosure Accommodating Novel Investigations in Combustion of Solids) mini-facility which is part of the Fluids and Combustion Facility s Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR). The CIR will be the platform for future microgravity combustion experiments and will reside on the Destiny Module of the International Space Station (ISS). The FEANICS mini-facility will be the primary means for conducting solid fuel combustion experiments in the CIR on ISS. The main focus of many of these solid combustion experiments will be to conduct applied scientific investigations in fire-safety to support NASA s future space missions. A description of the electronics package and the results of functional testing are the subjects of this report. The report concludes that the use of innovative packaging methods combined with readily available COTS hardware can provide a modular electronics package which is easily modified for changing experiment requirements.

  15. An open-loop system design for deep space signal processing applications (United States)

    Tang, Jifei; Xia, Lanhua; Mahapatra, Rabi


    A novel open-loop system design with high performance is proposed for space positioning and navigation signal processing. Divided by functions, the system has four modules, bandwidth selectable data recorder, narrowband signal analyzer, time-delay difference of arrival estimator and ANFIS supplement processor. A hardware-software co-design approach is made to accelerate computing capability and improve system efficiency. Embedded with the proposed signal processing algorithms, the designed system is capable of handling tasks with high accuracy over long period of continuous measurements. The experiment results show the Doppler frequency tracking root mean square error during 3 h observation is 0.0128 Hz, while the TDOA residue analysis in correlation power spectrum is 0.1166 rad.

  16. Vinyl by design: creating interior spaces that stand the test of time. (United States)


    Managing design liability, avoiding risk and providing successful buildings are founded upon a conscious awareness of many important details. A key component of a designer's professionalism is understanding potential problems before they occur and proactively specifying the solutions to them. Familiarity with the inherent characteristics of any building material, along with the performance capabilities of specifiable products made with that material, aids in this process. Documenting the selection of a product in the project specifications should take this understanding into account. Knowing the important role of proper product installation--and, where necessary, calling upon the expertise of product manufacturers--should not be underestimated. Each part of the process has a major impact on whether the interior spaces delivered to a building owner provide lasting gratification, value, user satisfaction and recognition of the design professional's strategic importance to the project's overall success.

  17. Conceptual Design of an In-Space Cryogenic Fluid Management Facility (United States)

    Willen, G. S.; Riemer, D. H.; Hustvedt, D. C.


    The conceptual design of a Spacelab experiment to develop the technology associated with low gravity propellant management is presented. The proposed facility consisting of a supply tank, receiver tank, pressurization system, instrumentation, and supporting hardware, is described. The experimental objectives, the receiver tank to be modeled, and constraints imposed on the design by the space shuttle, Spacelab, and scaling requirements, are described. The conceptual design, including the general configurations, flow schematics, insulation systems, instrumentation requirements, and internal tank configurations for the supply tank and the receiver tank, is described. Thermal, structural, fluid, and safety and reliability aspects of the facility are analyzed. The facility development plan, including schedule and cost estimates for the facility, is presented. A program work breakdown structure and master program schedule for a seven year program are included.

  18. Design of a Mechanical NaK Pump for Fission Space Power (United States)

    Mireles, Omar R.; Bradley, David E.; Godfroy, Thomas


    Alkali liquid metal cooled fission reactor concepts are under development for spaceflight power requirements. One such concept utilizes a sodium-potassium eutectic (NaK) as the primary loop working fluid, which has specific pumping requirements. Traditionally, electromagnetic linear induction pumps have been used to provide the required flow and pressure head conditions for NaK systems but they can be limited in performance, efficiency, and number of available vendors. The objective of the project was to develop a mechanical NaK centrifugal pump that takes advantages of technology advances not available in previous liquid metal mechanical pump designs. This paper details the design, build, and performance test of a mechanical NaK pump developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The pump was designed to meet reactor cooling requirements using commercially available components modified for high temperature NaK service.

  19. User's manual for the Heat Pipe Space Radiator design and analysis Code (HEPSPARC) (United States)

    Hainley, Donald C.


    A heat pipe space radiatior code (HEPSPARC), was written for the NASA Lewis Research Center and is used for the design and analysis of a radiator that is constructed from a pumped fluid loop that transfers heat to the evaporative section of heat pipes. This manual is designed to familiarize the user with this new code and to serve as a reference for its use. This manual documents the completed work and is intended to be the first step towards verification of the HEPSPARC code. Details are furnished to provide a description of all the requirements and variables used in the design and analysis of a combined pumped loop/heat pipe radiator system. A description of the subroutines used in the program is furnished for those interested in understanding its detailed workings.

  20. International Space Station USOS Crew Quarters Ventilation and Acoustic Design Implementation (United States)

    Broyan, James Lee, Jr.


    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Operational Segment (USOS) has four permanent rack sized ISS Crew Quarters (CQ) providing a private crewmember space. The CQ uses Node 2 cabin air for ventilation/thermal cooling, as opposed to conditioned ducted air from the ISS Temperature Humidity Control System or the ISS fluid cooling loop connections. Consequently, CQ can only increase the air flow rate to reduce the temperature delta between the cabin and the CQ interior. However, increasing airflow causes increased acoustic noise so efficient airflow distribution is an important design parameter. The CQ utilized a two fan push-pull configuration to ensure fresh air at the crewmember s head position and reduce acoustic exposure. The CQ interior needs to be below Noise Curve 40 (NC-40). The CQ ventilation ducts are open to the significantly louder Node 2 cabin aisle way which required significantly acoustic mitigation controls. The design implementation of the CQ ventilation system and acoustic mitigation are very inter-related and require consideration of crew comfort balanced with use of interior habitable volume, accommodation of fan failures, and possible crew uses that impact ventilation and acoustic performance. This paper illustrates the types of model analysis, assumptions, vehicle interactions, and trade-offs required for CQ ventilation and acoustics. Additionally, on-orbit ventilation system performance and initial crew feedback is presented. This approach is applicable to any private enclosed space that the crew will occupy.

  1. Design and Development of the Space Technology 5 (ST5) Solar Arrays (United States)

    Lyons, John; Fatemi, Navid; Gamica, Robert; Sharma, Surya; Senft, Donna; Maybery, Clay


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Technology 5 (ST5) is designed to flight-test the concept of miniaturized 'small size" satellites and innovative technologies in Earth's magnetosphere. Three satellites will map the intensity and direction of the magnetic fields within the inner magnetosphere. Due to the small area available for the solar arrays, and to meet the mission power requirements, very high-efficiency multijunction solar cells were selected to power the spacecraft built by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This was done in partnership with the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL) through the Dual-Use Science and Technology (DUS&T) program. Emcore's InGaP/lnGaAs/Ge Advanced triple-junction (ATJ) solar cells, exhibiting an average air mass zero (AMO) efficiency of 28.0% (one-sun, 28 C), were used to populate the arrays. Each spacecraft employs 8 identical solar panels (total area of about 0.3 square meters), with 15 large-area solar cells per panel. The requirement for power is to support on-orbit average load of 13.5 W at 8.4 V, with plus or minus 5% off pointing. The details of the solar array design, development and qualification considerations, as well as ground electrical performance & shadowing analysis results are presented.

  2. Numerical analysis of ion wind flow using space charge for optimal design (United States)

    Ko, Han Seo; Shin, Dong Ho; Baek, Soo Hong


    Ion wind flow has been widly studied for its advantages of a micro fluidic device. However, it is very difficult to predict the performance of the ion wind flow for various conditions because of its complicated electrohydrodynamic phenomena. Thus, a reliable numerical modeling is required to design an otimal ion wind generator and calculate velocity of the ion wind for the proper performance. In this study, the numerical modeling of the ion wind has been modified and newly defined to calculate the veloctiy of the ion wind flow by combining three basic models such as electrostatics, electrodynamics and fluid dynamics. The model has included presence of initial space charges to calculate transfer energy between space charges and air gas molecules using a developed space charge correlation. The simulation has been performed for a geometry of a pin to parallel plate electrode. Finally, the results of the simulation have been compared with the experimental data for the ion wind velocity to confirm the accuracy of the modified numerical modeling and to obtain the optimal design of the ion wind generator. This work was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Korean government (MEST) (No. 2013R1A2A2A01068653).

  3. Orion: Design of a system for assured low-cost human access to space (United States)

    Elvander, Josh; Heifetz, Andy; Hunt, Teresa; Zhu, Martin


    In recent years, Congress and the American people have begun to seriously question the role and importance of future manned spaceflight. This is mainly due to two factors: a decline in technical competition caused by the collapse of communism, and the high costs associated with the Space Shuttle transportation system. With these factors in mind, the ORION system was designed to enable manned spaceflight at a low cost, while maintaining the ability to carry out diverse missions, each with a high degree of flexibility. It is capable of performing satellite servicing missions, supporting a space station via crew rotation and resupply, and delivering satellites into geosynchronous orbit. The components of the system are a primary launch module, an upper stage, and a manned spacecraft capable of dynamic reentry. For satellite servicing and space station resupply missions, the ORION system utilizes three primary modules, an upper stage, and the spacecraft, which is delivered to low earth orbit and used to rendezvous, transfer materials, and make repairs. For launching a geosynchronous satellite, one primary module and an upper stage are used to deliver the satellite, along with an apogee kick motor, into orbit. The system is designed with reusability and modularity in mind in an attempt to lower cost.

  4. Design of a gigawatt space solar power satellite using optical concentrator system (United States)

    Dessanti, B.; Komerath, N.; Shah, S.

    A 1-gigawatt space solar power satellite using a large array of individually pointable optical elements is identified as the key mass element of a large scale space solar power architecture using the Space Power Grid concept. The proposed satellite design enables a significant increase in specific power. Placed in sun-synchronous dynamic orbits near 2000km altitude, these satellites can maintain the constant solar view requirement of GEO-based architectures, while greatly reducing the beaming distance required, decreasing the required antenna size and in turn the overall system mass. The satellite uses an array of individually pointable optical elements (which we call a Mirasol Concentrator Array) to concentrate solar energy to an intensified feed target that feeds into the main heater of the spacecraft, similar conceptually to heliostat arrays. The spacecraft then utilizes Brayton cycle conversion to take advantage of non-linear power level scaling in order to generate high specific power values. Using phase array antennas, the power is then beamed at a millimeter wave frequency of 220GHz down to Earth. The design of the Mirasol concentrator system will be described and a detailed mass estimation of the system is developed. The technical challenges of pointing the elements and maintaining constant solar view is investigated. An end-to-end efficiency analysis is performed. Subsystem designs for the spacecraft are outlined. A detailed mass budget is refined to reflect reductions in uncertainty of the spacecraft mass, particularly in the Mirasol system. One of the key mass drivers of the spacecraft is the active thermal control system. The design of a lightweight thermal control system utilizing graphene sheets is also detailed.

  5. Behavior Space Design and Expression by the Theories and Methods of Urban Design—The Yan Dao ancient town of design practice


    Chen Wei; Wang Yinan


    In recent years, the ancient town of update and development has become a new hot spot, the study of old town renewal of concern is gradually warming. And again there are a lot of space in the middle of the old town renewal design and traditional style, space activities and use the contradiction between population, which becomes a problem urgently to be solved in design stage. The purpose of this study was to explore old town design space and behavior, traditional and modern conflict resolutio...

  6. A Year of Progress: NASA's Space Launch System Approaches Critical Design Review (United States)

    Askins, Bruce; Robinson, Kimberly


    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) made significant progress on the manufacturing floor and on the test stand in 2014 and positioned itself for a successful Critical Design Review in mid-2015. SLS, the world's only exploration-class heavy lift rocket, has the capability to dramatically increase the mass and volume of human and robotic exploration. Additionally, it will decrease overall mission risk, increase safety, and simplify ground and mission operations - all significant considerations for crewed missions and unique high-value national payloads. Development now is focused on configuration with 70 metric tons (t) of payload to low Earth orbit (LEO), more than double the payload of the retired Space Shuttle program or current operational vehicles. This "Block 1" design will launch NASA's Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on an uncrewed flight beyond the Moon and back and the first crewed flight around the Moon. The current design has a direct evolutionary path to a vehicle with a 130t lift capability that offers even more flexibility to reduce planetary trip times, simplify payload design cycles, and provide new capabilities such as planetary sample returns. Every major element of SLS has successfully completed its Critical Design Review and now has hardware in production or testing. In fact, the SLS MPCV-to-Stage-Adapter (MSA) flew successfully on the Exploration Flight Test (EFT) 1 launch of a Delta IV and Orion spacecraft in December 2014. The SLS Program is currently working toward vehicle Critical Design Review in mid-2015. This paper will discuss these and other technical and programmatic successes and challenges over the past year and provide a preview of work ahead before the first flight of this new capability.

  7. Free-piston Stirling engine conceptual design and technologies for space power, Phase 1. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penswick, L.B.; Beale, W.T.; Wood, J.G.


    As part of the SP-100 program, a phase 1 effort to design a free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) for a space dynamic power conversion system was completed. SP-100 is a combined DOD/DOE/NASA program to develop nuclear power for space. This work was completed in the initial phases of the SP-100 program prior to the power conversion concept selection for the Ground Engineering System (GES). Stirling engine technology development as a growth option for SP-100 is continuing after this phase 1 effort. Following a review of various engine concepts, a single-cylinder engine with a linear alternator was selected for the remainder of the study. The relationships of specific mass and efficiency versus temperature ratio were determined for a power output of 25 kWe. This parametric study was done for a temperature ratio range of 1.5 to 2.0 and for hot-end temperatures of 875 K and 1075 K. A conceptual design of a 1080 K FPSE with a linear alternator producing 25 kWe output was completed. This was a single-cylinder engine designed for a 62,000 hour life and a temperature ratio of 2.0. The heat transport systems were pumped liquid-metal loops on both the hot and cold ends. These specifications were selected to match the SP-100 power system designs that were being evaluated at that time. The hot end of the engine used both refractory and superalloy materials; the hot-end pressure vessel featured an insulated design that allowed use of the superalloy material. The design was supported by the hardware demonstration of two of the component concepts - the hydrodynamic gas bearing for the displacer and the dynamic balance system. The hydrodynamic gas bearing was demonstrated on a test rig. The dynamic balance system was tested on the 1 kW RE-1000 engine at NASA Lewis

  8. The European space suit, a design for productivity and crew safety (United States)

    Skoog, A. Ingemar; Berthier, S.; Ollivier, Y.

    In order to fulfil the two major mission objectives, i.e. support planned and unplanned external servicing of the COLUMBUS FFL and support the HERMES vehicle for safety critical operations and emergencies, the European Space Suit System baseline configuration incorporates a number of design features, which shall enhance the productivity and the crew safety of EVA astronauts. The work in EVA is today - and will be for several years - a manual work. Consequently, to improve productivity, the first challenge is to design a suit enclosure which minimizes movement restrictions and crew fatigue. It is covered by the "ergonomic" aspect of the suit design. Furthermore, it is also necessary to help the EVA crewmember in his work, by giving him the right information at the right time. Many solutions exist in this field of Man-Machine Interface, from a very simple system, based on cuff check lists, up to advanced systems, including Head-Up Displays. The design concept for improved productivity encompasses following features: • easy donning/doffing thru rear entry, • suit ergonomy optimisation, • display of operational information in alpha-numerical and graphical from, and • voice processing for operations and safety critical information. Concerning crew safety the major design features are: • a lower R-factor for emergency EVA operations thru incressed suit pressure, • zero prebreath conditions for normal operations, • visual and voice processing of all safety critical functions, and • an autonomous life support system to permit unrestricted operations around HERMES and the CFFL. The paper analyses crew safety and productivity criteria and describes how these features are being built into the design of the European Space Suit System.

  9. Optical design of transmitter lens for asymmetric distributed free space optical networks (United States)

    Wojtanowski, Jacek; Traczyk, Maciej


    We present a method of transmitter lens design dedicated for light distribution shaping on a curved and asymmetric target. In this context, target is understood as a surface determined by hypothetical optical detectors locations. In the proposed method, ribbon-like surfaces of arbitrary shape are considered. The designed lens has the task to transform collimated and generally non-uniform input beam into desired irradiance distribution on such irregular targets. Desired irradiance is associated with space-dependant efficiency of power flow between the source and receivers distributed on the target surface. This unconventional nonimaging task is different from most illumination or beam shaping objectives, where constant or prescribed irradiance has to be produced on a flat target screen. The discussed optical challenge comes from the applications where single transmitter cooperates with multitude of receivers located in various positions in space and oriented in various directions. The proposed approach is not limited to optical networks, but can be applied in a variety of other applications where nonconventional irradiance distribution has to be engineered. The described method of lens design is based on geometrical optics, radiometry and ray mapping philosophy. Rays are processed as a vector field, each of them carrying a certain amount of power. Having the target surface shape and orientation of receivers distribution, the rays-surface crossings map is calculated. It corresponds to the output rays vector field, which is referred to the calculated input rays spatial distribution on the designed optical surface. The application of Snell's law in a vector form allows one to obtain surface local normal vector and calculate lens profile. In the paper, we also present the case study dealing with exemplary optical network. The designed freeform lens is implemented in commercially available optical design software and irradiance three-dimensional spatial distribution is

  10. Free-piston Stirling engine conceptual design and technologies for space power, phase 1 (United States)

    Penswick, L. Barry; Beale, William T.; Wood, J. Gary


    As part of the SP-100 program, a phase 1 effort to design a free-piston Stirling engine (FPSE) for a space dynamic power conversion system was completed. SP-100 is a combined DOD/DOE/NASA program to develop nuclear power for space. This work was completed in the initial phases of the SP-100 program prior to the power conversion concept selection for the Ground Engineering System (GES). Stirling engine technology development as a growth option for SP-100 is continuing after this phase 1 effort. Following a review of various engine concepts, a single-cylinder engine with a linear alternator was selected for the remainder of the study. The relationships of specific mass and efficiency versus temperature ratio were determined for a power output of 25 kWe. This parametric study was done for a temperature ratio range of 1.5 to 2.0 and for hot-end temperatures of 875 K and 1075 K. A conceptual design of a 1080 K FPSE with a linear alternator producing 25 kWe output was completed. This was a single-cylinder engine designed for a 62,000 hour life and a temperature ratio of 2.0. The heat transport systems were pumped liquid-metal loops on both the hot and cold ends. These specifications were selected to match the SP-100 power system designs that were being evaluated at that time. The hot end of the engine used both refractory and superalloy materials; the hot-end pressure vessel featured an insulated design that allowed use of the superalloy material. The design was supported by the hardware demonstration of two of the component concepts - the hydrodynamic gas bearing for the displacer and the dynamic balance system. The hydrodynamic gas bearing was demonstrated on a test rig. The dynamic balance system was tested on the 1 kW RE-1000 engine at NASA Lewis.

  11. Design of free space optical omnidirectional transceivers for indoor applications using non-imaging optical devices (United States)

    Agrawal, Navik; Davis, Christopher C.


    Omnidirectional free space optical communication receivers can employ multiple non-imaging collectors, such as compound parabolic concentrators (CPCs), in an array-like fashion to increase the amount of possible light collection. CPCs can effectively channel light collected over a large aperture to a small area photodiode. The aperture to length ratio of such devices can increase the overall size of the transceiver unit, which may limit the practicality of such systems, especially when small size is desired. New non-imaging collector designs with smaller sizes, larger field of view (FOV), and comparable transmission curves to CPCs, offer alternative transceiver designs. This paper examines how transceiver performance is affected by the use of different non-imaging collector shapes that are designed for wide FOV with reduced efficiency compared with shapes such as the CPC that are designed for small FOV with optimal efficiency. Theoretical results provide evidence indicating that array-like transceiver designs using various non-imaging collector shapes with less efficient transmission curves, but a larger FOV will be an effective means for the design of omnidirectional optical transceiver units. The results also incorporate the effects of Fresnel loss at the collector exit aperture-photodiode interface, which is an important consideration for indoor omnidirectional FSO systems.

  12. Space Station Furnace Facility. Volume 1: Requirements definition and conceptual design study, executive summary (United States)


    The Space Station Freedom Furnace (SSFF) Study was awarded on June 2, 1989, to Teledyne Brown Engineering (TBE) to define an advanced facility for materials research in the microgravity environment of Space Station Freedom (SSF). The SSFF will be designed for research in the solidification of metals and alloys, the crystal growth of electronic and electro-optical materials, and research in glasses and ceramics. The SSFF is one of the first 'facility' class payloads planned by the Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) of the Office of Space Science and Applications of NASA Headquarters. This facility is planned for early deployment during man-tended operations of the SSF with continuing operations through the Permanently Manned Configuration (PMC). The SSFF will be built around a general 'Core' facility which provides common support functions not provided by SSF, common subsystems which are best centralized, and common subsystems which are best distributed with each experiment module. The intent of the facility approach is to reduce the overall cost associated with implementing and operating a variety of experiments. This is achieved by reducing the launch mass and simplifying the hardware development and qualification processes associated with each experiment. The Core will remain on orbit and will require only periodic maintenance and upgrading while new Furnace Modules, samples, and consumables are developed, qualified, and transported to the SSF. The SSFF Study was divided into two phases: phase 1, a definition study phase, and phase 2, a design and development phase. The definition phase 1 is addressed. Phase 1 was divided into two parts. In the first part, the basic part of the effort, covered the preliminary definition and assessment of requirements; conceptual design of the SSFF; fabrication of mockups; and the preparation for and support of the Conceptual Design Review (CoDR). The second part, the option part, covered requirements update and

  13. Particle tracking in E - φ space for synchrotron design and diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLachlan, J.A.


    The single particle equations for the longitudinal motion in a synchrotron can be faithfully represented as a one-turn mapping of a particle's phase space position relative to the synchronous particle. Applied to a distribution of particles, the mapping can be used to model the evolution of bunches to test beam manipulations or to extract the time dependence of quantities like the bunching factor, momentum spread, etc. which can be difficult to calculate. Such modelling requires rather few representative particles, permitting numerical experimentation and exploratory design trials. By modifying the mapping each turn to introduce the collective effects of the distribution, one can model such processes as phase feedback, space-charge effects, coupled bunch motion, etc. Calculations of this type offer quantitative performance predictions, aid diagnosis of existing accelerators, and contribute to the understanding of the underlying dynamics. This talk introduces the tools and some illustrations


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickler, D A


    A general treatment is presented of some of the problems in the design safety of reactors which are to be operated in space. The basic requirements of these reachigh temperatures. The usual concept of a space reactor is described briefly, and the hazards of an assumed unmanned vehicle with an enriched-U-fueled reactor are examined during its launching, orbit, and reentry. Graphs are given for the dose vs distance downwind for an excursion of 100 Mw-sec, for the activity vs time after shutdown of a reactor which has been operated for 5 yr at 100 kw(t), and for the altitude vs orbital lifetime. Apparent conflicts between the basic requirements are discussed. (D.L.C.)

  15. Space nuclear-power reactor design based on combined neutronic and thermal-fluid analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, D.R.; Gido, R.G.; Brandon, D.I.


    The design and performance analysis of a space nuclear-power system requires sophisticated analytical capabilities such as those developed during the nuclear rocket propulsion (Rover) program. In particular, optimizing the size of a space nuclear reactor for a given power level requires satisfying the conflicting requirements of nuclear criticality and heat removal. The optimization involves the determination of the coolant void (volume) fraction for which the reactor diameter is a minimum and temperature and structural limits are satisfied. A minimum exists because the critical diameter increases with increasing void fraction, whereas the reactor diameter needed to remove a specified power decreases with void fraction. The purpose of this presentation is to describe and demonstrate our analytical capability for the determination of minimum reactor size. The analysis is based on combining neutronic criticality calculations with OPTION-code thermal-fluid calculations

  16. Using CFD as Rocket Injector Design Tool: Recent Progress at Marshall Space Flight Center (United States)

    Tucker, Kevin; West, Jeff; Williams, Robert; Lin, Jeff; Rocker, Marvin; Canabal, Francisco; Robles, Bryan; Garcia, Robert; Chenoweth, James


    The choice of tools used for injector design is in a transitional phase between exclusive reliance on the empirically based correlations and extensive use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) Program goals emphasizing lower costs and increased reliability have produced a need to enable CFD as an injector design tool in a shorter time frame. This is the primary objective of the Staged Combustor Injector Technology Task currently under way at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The documentation of this effort begins with a very brief status of current injector design tools. MSFC's vision for use of CFD as a tool for combustion devices design is stated and discussed with emphasis on the injector. The concept of the Simulation Readiness Level (SRL), comprised of solution fidelity, robustness and accuracy, is introduced and discussed. This quantitative measurement is used to establish the gap between the current state of demonstrated capability and that necessary for regular use in the design process. MSFC's view of the validation process is presented and issues associated with obtaining the necessary data are noted and discussed. Three current experimental efforts aimed at generating validation data are presented. The importance of uncertainty analysis to understand the data quality is also demonstrated. First, a brief status of current injector design tools is provided as context for the current effort. Next, the MSFC vision for using CFD as an injector design tool is stated. A generic CFD-based injector design methodology is also outlined and briefly discussed. Three areas where MSFC is using injector CFD analyses for program support will be discussed. These include the Integrated Powerhead Development (IPD) engine which uses hydrogen and oxygen propellants in a full flow staged combustion (FFSC) cycle and the TR-107 and the RS84 engine both of which use RP-1 and oxygen in an ORSC cycle. Finally, an attempt is made to

  17. Preliminary Assessment of Artificial Gravity Impacts to Deep-Space Vehicle Design (United States)

    Joosten, B. Kent


    Even after more than thirty years of scientific investigation, serious concerns regarding human physiological effects of long-duration microgravity exposure remain. These include loss of bone mineral density, skeletal muscle atrophy, and orthostatic hypertension, among others. In particular, "Safe Passage: Astronaut Care for Exploration Missions," states "loss of bone density, which apparently occurs at a rate of 1% per month in microgravity, is relatively manageable on the short-duration missions of the space shuttle, but it becomes problematic on the ISS [International Space Station]. ...If this loss is not mitigated, interplanetary missions will be impossible." While extensive investigations into potential countermeasures are planned on the ISS, the delay in attaining full crew complement and onboard facilities, and the potential for extending crews tours of duty threaten the timely (definitive design requirements, especially acceptable artificial gravity levels and rotation rates, the perception of high vehicle mass and performance penalties, the incompatibility of resulting vehicle configurations with space propulsion options (i.e., aerocapture), the perception of complications associated with de-spun components such as antennae and photovoltaic arrays, and the expectation of effective crew micro-gravity countermeasures. These perception and concerns may have been overstated, or may be acceptable alternatives to countermeasures of limited efficacy. This study was undertaken as an initial step to try to understand the implications of and potential solutions to incorporating artificial gravity in the design of human deep-space exploration vehicles. Of prime interest will be the mass penalties incurred by incorporating AG, along with any mission performance degradation.

  18. Comparative study of bolt spacing formulas used in bolted joint designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzid, Abdel-Hakim


    Bolted flange joints are the most popular type of connection between pressure vessels and piping equipment. They are very attractive type of connection because they are simple to mount and offer the possibility of disassembly. However, they are very complex structures to design and analyze and often result in leakage failure. One of the raisons is the loss of tightness that results from the uneven distribution of the gasket contact stresses in the radial and circumferential direction. Many factors contribute to such a failure; bolt load non-uniformity, inadequate flange to gasket stiffness, inappropriate bolt spacing requirements or a combinations of some of these. The variation of the contact stress in the circumferential direction between any two bolts is dictated by bolt spacing. This paper is an extension of the work in which the more accurate analytical solution based on the theory of circular beams resting on a linear elastic foundation is used to validate some existing flange bolt spacing formulas and in particular the TEMA formula, Robert's formula and the one recently developed by Koves. The relationship between bolt spacing and the gasket compression modulus, flange thickness and size is deduced from an analysis that considers a maximum tolerated gasket contact stress difference obtained at the bolt and between two bolts. Comparison between these different methods is also provided. - Highlights: • Gasket stress is estimated using theory of circular beams on linear elastic foundation. • TEMA, Robert's and Koves' formulas are compared against the developed model. • A recommendation is made to use Koves' formula for design. • Use a correction factor of 1/(1-ν 2 ) to accommodate small diameter flanges

  19. Using NASA's Space Launch System to Enable Game Changing Science Mission Designs (United States)

    Creech, Stephen D.


    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center is directing efforts to build the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy-lift rocket that will help restore U.S. leadership in space by carrying the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle and other important payloads far beyond Earth orbit. Its evolvable architecture will allow NASA to begin with Moon fly-bys and then go on to transport humans or robots to distant places such as asteroids, Mars, and the outer solar system. Designed to simplify spacecraft complexity, the SLS rocket will provide improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduced mission durations. These capabilities offer attractive advantages for ambitious missions such as a Mars sample return, by reducing infrastructure requirements, cost, and schedule. For example, if an evolved expendable launch vehicle (EELV) were used for a proposed mission to investigate the Saturn system, a complicated trajectory would be required with several gravity-assist planetary fly-bys to achieve the necessary outbound velocity. The SLS rocket, using significantly higher C3 energies, can more quickly and effectively take the mission directly to its destination, reducing trip times and cost. As this paper will report, the SLS rocket will launch payloads of unprecedented mass and volume, such as monolithic telescopes and in-space infrastructure. Thanks to its ability to co-manifest large payloads, it also can accomplish complex missions in fewer launches. Future analyses will include reviews of alternate mission concepts and detailed evaluations of SLS figures of merit, helping the new rocket revolutionize science mission planning and design for years to come.

  20. Numerical study for flame deflector design of a space launch vehicle (United States)

    Oh, Hwayoung; Lee, Jungil; Um, Hyungsik; Huh, Hwanil


    A flame deflector is a structure that prevents damage to a launch vehicle and a launch pad due to exhaust plumes of a lifting-off launch vehicle. The shape of a flame deflector should be designed to restrain the discharged gas from backdraft inside the deflector and to reflect the impact to the surrounding environment and the engine characteristics of the vehicle. This study presents the five preliminary flame deflector configurations which are designed for the first-stage rocket engine of the Korea Space Launch Vehicle-II and surroundings of the Naro space center. The gas discharge patterns of the designed flame deflectors are investigated using the 3D flow field analysis by assuming that the air, in place of the exhaust gas, forms the plume. In addition, a multi-species unreacted flow model is investigated through 2D analysis of the first-stage engine of the KSLV-II. The results indicate that the closest Mach number and temperature distributions to the reacted flow model can be achieved from the 4-species unreacted flow model which employs H2O, CO2, and CO and specific heat-corrected plume.

  1. Meeting Classroom Needs: Designing Space Physics Educational Outreach for Science Education Standards (United States)

    Urquhart, M. L.; Hairston, M.


    As with all NASA missions, the Coupled Ion Neutral Dynamics Investigation (CINDI) is required to have an education and public outreach program (E/PO). Through our partnership between the University of Texas at Dallas William B. Hanson Center for Space Sciences and Department of Science/Mathematics Education, the decision was made early on to design our educational outreach around the needs of teachers. In the era of high-stakes testing and No Child Left Behind, materials that do not meet the content and process standards teachers must teach cannot be expected to be integrated into classroom instruction. Science standards, both state and National, were the fundamental drivers behind the designs of our curricular materials, professional development opportunities for teachers, our target grade levels, and even our popular informal educational resource, the "Cindi in Space" comic book. The National Science Education Standards include much more than content standards, and our E/PO program was designed with this knowledge in mind as well. In our presentation we will describe how we came to our approach for CINDI E/PO, and how we have been successful in our efforts to have CINDI materials and key concepts make the transition into middle school classrooms. We will also present on our newest materials and high school physics students and professional development for their teachers.

  2. Integration of three important urban spaces in the city of Patras. A design research on the relationship of characteristics of space and the enriched environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki Kondyli


    Full Text Available This contribution presents a design project that focuses on three important urban spaces in the city of Patras. The contribution deals with some of the fundamental problems which depict in these particular areas. Two of the most essential issues of these abandoned and isolated places are the accessibility of pedestrians and the lack of identity. A design experiment is developed, identifying disadvantages of the space and taking into consideration groups of people that are interested in an upcoming change, This experiment is based on knowledge of neuroscience about space and it deals with human’s experience and senses. It focuses on open urban spaces and the consolidation of a cultural and historical place into daily life.

  3. Practical Application of PRA as an Integrated Design Tool for Space Systems (United States)

    Kalia, Prince; Shi, Ying; Pair, Robin; Quaney, Virginia; Uhlenbrock, John


    This paper presents the application of the first comprehensive Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) during the design phase of a joint NASA/NOAA weather satellite program, Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite Series R (GOES-R). GOES-R is the next generation weather satellite primarily to help understand the weather and help save human lives. PRA has been used at NASA for Human Space Flight for many years. PRA was initially adopted and implemented in the operational phase of manned space flight programs and more recently for the next generation human space systems. Since its first use at NASA, PRA has become recognized throughout the Agency as a method of assessing complex mission risks as part of an overall approach to assuring safety and mission success throughout project lifecycles. PRA is now included as a requirement during the design phase of both NASA next generation manned space vehicles as well as for high priority robotic missions. The influence of PRA on GOES-R design and operation concepts are discussed in detail. The GOES-R PRA is unique at NASA for its early implementation. It also represents a pioneering effort to integrate risks from both Spacecraft (SC) and Ground Segment (GS) to fully assess the probability of achieving mission objectives. PRA analysts were actively involved in system engineering and design engineering to ensure that a comprehensive set of technical risks were correctly identified and properly understood from a design and operations perspective. The analysis included an assessment of SC hardware and software, SC fault management system, GS hardware and software, common cause failures, human error, natural hazards, solar weather and infrastructure (such as network and telecommunications failures, fire). PRA findings directly resulted in design changes to reduce SC risk from micro-meteoroids. PRA results also led to design changes in several SC subsystems, e.g. propulsion, guidance, navigation and control (GNC

  4. Expanding the printable design space for lithography processes utilizing a cut mask (United States)

    Wandell, Jerome; Salama, Mohamed; Wilkinson, William; Curtice, Mark; Feng, Jui-Hsuan; Gao, Shao Wen; Asthana, Abhishek


    The utilization of a cut-mask in semiconductor patterning processes has been in practice for logic devices since the inception of 32nm-node devices, notably with unidirectional gate level printing. However, the microprocessor applications where cut-mask patterning methods are used are expanding as Self-Aligned Double Patterning (SADP) processes become mainstream for 22/14nm fin diffusion, and sub-14nm metal levels. One common weakness for these types of lithography processes is that the initial pattern requiring the follow-up cut-mask typically uses an extreme off-axis imaging source such as dipole to enhance the resolution and line-width roughness (LWR) for critical dense patterns. This source condition suffers from poor process margin in the semi-dense (forbidden pitch) realm and wrong-way directional design spaces. Common pattern failures in these limited design regions include bridging and extra-printing defects that are difficult to resolve with traditional mask improvement means. This forces the device maker to limit the allowable geometries that a designer may use on a device layer. This paper will demonstrate methods to expand the usable design space on dipole-like processes such as unidirectional gate and SADP processes by utilizing the follow-up cut mask to improve the process window. Traditional mask enhancement means for improving the process window in this design realm will be compared to this new cut-mask approach. The unique advantages and disadvantages of the cut-mask solution will be discussed in contrast to those customary methods.

  5. System Design and Performance of the Two-Gyro Science Mode For the Hubble Space Telescope (United States)

    Prior, Michael; Dunham, Larry


    For fifteen years, the science mission of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) required using at least three of the six on-board rate gyros for attitude control. Failed gyros were eventually replaced through Space Shuttle Servicing Missions. The tragic loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia has resulted in the cancellation of all planned Shuttle based missions to HST. While a robotic servicing mission is currently being planned instead, controlling with alternate sensors to replace failed gyros can extend the HST science gathering until a servicing mission can be performed, and also extend science at HST s end of life. Additionally, sufficient performance may allow a permanent transition to operations with less than 3 gyros (by intentionally turning off working gyros saving them for later use) allowing for an even greater science mission extension. To meet this need, a Two Gyro Science (TGS) mode has been designed and implemented using magnetometers (Magnetic Sensing System - MSS), Fixed Head Star Trackers (FHSTs), and Fine Guidance Sensors (FGSs) to control vehicle rate about the missing gyro input axis. The development of the TGS capability is the largest re-design of HST operations undertaken, since it affects several major spacecraft subsystems, the most heavily being the Pointing Control System (PCS) and Flight Software (FSW). Additionally, and equally important, are the extensive modifications and enhancements of the Planning and Scheduling system which must now be capable of scheduling science observations while taking into account several new constraints imposed by the TGS operational modes (such as FHST availability and magnetic field geometry) that will impact science gathering efficiency and target availability. This paper discusses the systems engineering design, development, and performance of the TGS mode, now in its final stages of completion.

  6. Thermal design, analysis and comparison on three concepts of space solar power satellite (United States)

    Yang, Chen; Hou, Xinbin; Wang, Li


    Space solar power satellites (SSPS) have been widely studied as systems for collecting solar energy in space and transmitting it wirelessly to earth. A previously designed planar SSPS concept collects solar power in two huge arrays and then transmits it through one side of the power-conduction joint to the antenna. However, the system's one group of power-conduction joints may induce a single point of failure. As an SSPS concept, the module symmetrical concentrator (MSC) architecture has many advantages. This architecture can help avoid the need for a large, potentially failure-prone conductive rotating joint and limit wiring mass. However, the thermal control system has severely restricted the rapid development of MSC, especially in the sandwich module. Because of the synchronous existence of five suns concentration and solar external heat flux, the sandwich module will have a very high temperature, which will surpass the permissible temperature of the solar cells. Recently, an alternate multi-rotary joints (MR) SSPS concept was designed by the China Academy of Space Technology (CAST). This system has multiple joints to avoid the problem of a single point of failure. Meanwhile, this concept has another advantage for reducing the high power and heat removal in joints. It is well known to us that, because of the huge external flux in SSPS, the thermal management sub-system is an important component that cannot be neglected. Based on the three SSPS concepts, this study investigated the thermal design and analysis of a 1-km, gigawatt-level transmitting antenna in SSPS. This study compares the thermal management sub-systems of power-conduction joints in planar and MR SSPS. Moreover, the study considers three classic thermal control architectures of the MSC's sandwich module: tile, step, and separation. The study also presents an elaborate parameter design, analysis and discussion of step architecture. Finally, the results show the thermal characteristics of each SSPS

  7. Habitability in Advanced Space Mission Design. Part 2; Evaluation of Habitation Elements (United States)

    Adams, Constance M.; McCurdy, Matthew R.


    Habitability is a fundamental component of any long-duration human habitat. Due to the pressures on the crew and the criticality of their performance, this is particularly true of habitats or vehicles proposed for use in any human space mission of duration over 30 days. This paper, the second of three on this subject, will focus on evaluating all the vehicles currently under consideration for the Mars Design Reference Mission through application of metrics for habitability (proposed in a previous paper, see references Adams/McCurdy 1999).

  8. Design and Implementation of a Space Environment Simulation Toolbox for Small Satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amini, Rouzbeh; Larsen, Jesper A.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh


    This paper presents a developed toolbox for space environment model in SIMULINK that facilitates development and design of Attitude Determination and Control Systems (ADCS) for a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) spacecraft. The toolbox includes, among others, models of orbit propagators, disturbances, Earth...... gravity field, Earth magnetic field and eclipse. The structure and facilities within the toolbox are described and exemplified using a student satellite case (AAUSAT-II). The validity of developed models is confirmed by comparing the simulation results with the realistic data obtained from the Danish...

  9. Concept design and cluster control of advanced space connectable intelligent microsatellite (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohui; Li, Shuang; She, Yuchen


    In this note, a new type of advanced space connectable intelligent microsatellite is presented to extend the range of potential application of microsatellite and improve the efficiency of cooperation. First, the overall concept of the micro satellite cluster is described, which is characterized by autonomously connecting with each other and being able to realize relative rotation through the external interfaces. Second, the multi-satellite autonomous assembly algorithm and control algorithm of the cluster motion are developed to make the cluster system combine into a variety of configurations in order to achieve different types of functionality. Finally, the design of the satellite cluster system is proposed, and the possible applications are discussed.

  10. The Common information space of the Training and Consulting Center design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorofeeva N.S.


    Full Text Available the article describes the relevance of the research, such as the assessment of the educational and consulting services market and also the competitive environment based on the analysis of the regional innovative infrastructure. The results of the center activity design are presented, and the basis of the concept of this center functioning is TRIZ (the Theory of Invention Tasks Solving. The basic functional capabilities of the common information space (CIS are formulated and justified in this research, the CIS-structure is formed, the interfaces of the information resources in the CIS for the interaction with potential users have been developed, and data modeling has been carried out.

  11. Design and simulation of a planar micro-optic free-space receiver (United States)

    Nadler, Brett R.; Hallas, Justin M.; Karp, Jason H.; Ford, Joseph E.


    We propose a compact directional optical receiver for free-space communications, where a microlens array and micro-optic structures selectively couple light from a narrow incidence angle into a thin slab waveguide and then to an edge-mounted detector. A small lateral translation of the lenslet array controls the coupled input angle, enabling the receiver to select the transmitter source direction. We present the optical design and simulation of a 10mm x 10mm aperture receiver using a 30μm thick silicon waveguide able to couple up to 2.5Gbps modulated input to a 10mm x 30μm wide detector.

  12. Urban Space Innovation - “10+” Principles through Designing the New Image of the Existing Shopping Mall in Csepel, Hungary (United States)

    Gyergyak, Janos


    The first part of the paper is about to introduce the principles of “placemaking” as an innovation and important tool of the cities in the 21st century. The process helps designers to transform the spaces of “nobody” to a community-based space for supporting the connection among humans. The second part of the paper shows the process of the used principles by the author for designing the new image of the existing shopping mall in Csepel, Hungary. This work was selected as one of the best design ideas for renewing the existing underutilized space.

  13. Application of NASA Kennedy Space Center system assurance analysis methodology to nuclear power plant systems designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, D.W.


    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) entered into an agreement with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to conduct a study to demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of applying the KSC System Assurance Analysis (SAA) methodology to nuclear power plant systems designs. In joint meetings of KSC and Duke Power personnel, an agreement was made to select to CATAWBA systems, the Containment Spray System and the Residual Heat Removal System, for the analyses. Duke Power provided KSC with a full set a Final Safety Analysis Reports as well as schematics for the two systems. During Phase I of the study the reliability analyses of the SAA were performed. During Phase II the hazard analyses were performed. The final product of Phase II is a handbook for implementing the SAA methodology into nuclear power plant systems designs. The purpose of this paper is to describe the SAA methodology as it applies to nuclear power plant systems designs and to discuss the feasibility of its application. The conclusion is drawn that nuclear power plant systems and aerospace ground support systems are similar in complexity and design and share common safety and reliability goals. The SAA methodology is readily adaptable to nuclear power plant designs because of it's practical application of existing and well known safety and reliability analytical techniques tied to an effective management information system

  14. A small satellite design for deep space network testing and training (United States)

    McWilliams, Dennis; Slatton, Clint; Norman, Cassidy; Araiza, Joe; Jones, Jason; Tedesco, Mark; Wortman, Michael; Opiela, John; Lett, Pat; Clavenna, Michael


    With the continuing exploration of the Solar System and the reemphasis on Earth focused missions, the need for faster data transmission rates has grown. Ka-band could allow a higher data delivery rate over the current X-band, however the adverse effects of the Earth's atmosphere on Ka are as yet unknown. The Deep Space Network and Jet Propulsion Lab have proposed to launch a small satellite that would simultaneously transmit X and Ka signals to test the viability of switching to Ka-band. The Mockingbird Design Team at the University of Texas at Austin applied small satellite design principles to achieve this objective. The Mockingbird design, named BATSAT, incorporates simple, low-cost systems designed for university production and testing. The BATSAT satellite is a 0.64 m diameter, spherical panel led satellite, mounted with solar cells and omni-directional antennae. The antennae configuration negates the need for active attitude control or spin stabilization. The space-frame truss structure was designed for 11 g launch loads while allowing for easy construction and solar-panel mounting. The communication system transmits at 1 mW by carrying the required Ka and X-band transmitters, as well as an S band transmitter used for DSN training. The power system provides the 8.6 W maximum power requirements via silicon solar arrays and nickel-cadmium batteries. The BATSAT satellite will be lofted into an 1163 km, 70 deg orbit by the Pegasus launch system. This orbit fulfills DSN dish slew rate requirements while keeping the satellite out of the heaviest regions of the Van Allen radiation belts. Each of the three DSN stations capable of receiving Ka-band (Goldstone, Canberra, and Madrid) will have an average of 85 minutes of view-time per day over the satellites ten year design life. Mockingbird Designs hopes that its small satellite design will not only be applicable to this specific mission scenario, but that it could easily be modified for instrument capability for

  15. A small satellite design for deep space network testing and training (United States)

    Mcwilliams, Dennis; Slatton, Clint; Norman, Cassidy; Araiza, Joe; Jones, Jason; Tedesco, Mark; Wortman, Michael; Opiela, John; Lett, Pat; Clavenna, Michael


    With the continuing exploration of the Solar System and the reemphasis on Earth focused missions, the need for faster data transmission rates has grown. Ka-band could allow a higher data delivery rate over the current X-band, however the adverse effects of the Earth's atmosphere on Ka are as yet unknown. The Deep Space Network and Jet Propulsion Lab have proposed to launch a small satellite that would simultaneously transmit X and Ka signals to test the viability of switching to Ka-band. The Mockingbird Design Team at the University of Texas at Austin applied small satellite design principles to achieve this objective. The Mockingbird design, named BATSAT, incorporates simple, low-cost systems designed for university production and testing. The BATSAT satellite is a 0.64 m diameter, spherical panel led satellite, mounted with solar cells and omni-directional antennae. The antennae configuration negates the need for active attitude control or spin stabilization. The space-frame truss structure was designed for 11 g launch loads while allowing for easy construction and solar-panel mounting. The communication system transmits at 1 mW by carrying the required Ka and X-band transmitters, as well as an S band transmitter used for DSN training. The power system provides the 8.6 W maximum power requirements via silicon solar arrays and nickel-cadmium batteries. The BATSAT satellite will be lofted into an 1163 km, 70 deg orbit by the Pegasus launch system. This orbit fulfills DSN dish slew rate requirements while keeping the satellite out of the heaviest regions of the Van Allen radiation belts. Each of the three DSN stations capable of receiving Ka-band (Goldstone, Canberra, and Madrid) will have an average of 85 minutes of view-time per day over the satellites ten year design life. Mockingbird Designs hopes that its small satellite design will not only be applicable to this specific mission scenario, but that it could easily be modified for instrument capability for

  16. Kefir improves bone mass and microarchitecture in an ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. (United States)

    Chen, H-L; Tung, Y-T; Chuang, C-H; Tu, M-Y; Tsai, T-C; Chang, S-Y; Chen, C-M


    Kefir treatment in ovariectomized (OVX) rats could significantly decrease the levels of bone turnover markers and prevent OVX-induced bone loss, deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture, and biomechanical dysfunction that may be due to increase intracellular calcium uptake through the TRPV6 calcium channel. Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to an increased fracture risk. The incidence of osteoporosis increases with age and occurs most frequently in postmenopausal women due to estrogen deficiency, as the balance between bone resorption and bone formation shifts towards increased levels of bone resorption. Among various methods of prevention and treatment for osteoporosis, an increase in calcium intake is the most commonly recommended preventive measure. Kefir is a fermented milk product made with kefir grains that degrade milk proteins into various peptides with health-promoting effects, including immunomodulating-, antithrombotic-, antimicrobial-, and calcium-absorption-enhancing bioactivities. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of kefir on osteoporosis prophylaxis in an ovariectomized rat model. A total of 56 16-week-old female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into 7 experimental groups: sham (normal), OVX/Mock, OVX/1X kefir (164 mg/kg BW/day), OVX/2X kefir (328 mg/kg BW/day), OVX/4X kefir (656 mg/kg BW/day), OVX/ALN (2.5 mg/kg BW/day), and OVX/REBONE (800 mg/kg BW/day). After 12-week treatment with kefir, the bone physiology in the OVX rat model was investigated. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible transport mechanism involved in calcium absorption using the Caco-2 human cell line. A 12-week treatment with kefir on the OVX-induced osteoporosis model reduced the levels of C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (CTx), bone turnover markers, and trabecular separation (Tb. Sp.). Additionally, treatment with kefir increased

  17. A micro-architectural evaluation of osteoporotic human femoral heads to guide implant placement in proximal femoral fractures. (United States)

    Jenkins, Paul J; Ramaesh, Rishikesan; Pankaj, Pankaj; Patton, James T; Howie, Colin R; Goffin, Jérôme M; Merwe, Andrew van der; Wallace, Robert J; Porter, Daniel E; Simpson, A Hamish


    The micro-architecture of bone has been increasingly recognized as an important determinant of bone strength. Successful operative stabilization of fractures depends on bone strength. We evaluated the osseous micro-architecture and strength of the osteoporotic human femoral head. 6 femoral heads, obtained during arthroplasty surgery for femoral neck fracture, underwent micro-computed tomography (microCT) scanning at 30 μm, and bone volume ratio (BV/TV), trabecular thickness, structural model index, connection density, and degree of anisotropy for volumes of interest throughout the head were derived. A further 15 femoral heads underwent mechanical testing of compressive failure stress of cubes of trabecular bone from different regions of the head. The greatest density and trabecular thickness was found in the central core that extended from the medial calcar to the physeal scar. This region also correlated with the greatest degree of anisotropy and proportion of plate-like trabeculae. In the epiphyseal region, the trabeculae were organized radially from the physeal scar. The weakest area was found at the apex and peripheral areas of the head. The strongest region was at the center of the head. The center of the femoral head contained the strongest trabecular bone, with the thickest, most dense trabeculae. The apical region was weaker. From an anatomical and mechanical point of view, implants that achieve fixation in or below this central core may achieve the most stable fixation during fracture healing.

  18. High-Payoff Space Transportation Design Approach with a Technology Integration Strategy (United States)

    McCleskey, C. M.; Rhodes, R. E.; Chen, T.; Robinson, J.


    A general architectural design sequence is described to create a highly efficient, operable, and supportable design that achieves an affordable, repeatable, and sustainable transportation function. The paper covers the following aspects of this approach in more detail: (1) vehicle architectural concept considerations (including important strategies for greater reusability); (2) vehicle element propulsion system packaging considerations; (3) vehicle element functional definition; (4) external ground servicing and access considerations; and, (5) simplified guidance, navigation, flight control and avionics communications considerations. Additionally, a technology integration strategy is forwarded that includes: (a) ground and flight test prior to production commitments; (b) parallel stage propellant storage, such as concentric-nested tanks; (c) high thrust, LOX-rich, LOX-cooled first stage earth-to-orbit main engine; (d) non-toxic, day-of-launch-loaded propellants for upper stages and in-space propulsion; (e) electric propulsion and aero stage control.

  19. Conscious design and new technologies for the optimization of therapeutic space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Morena


    Full Text Available The project Casa pre-dimissioni is aimed at facilitating the recovery of the daily life by whom suffers of disability, adapting domestic spaces to the specific needs of use. The project was developed, under the aegis of the EU research programme DE3207 FACILE: Support tools for housing design and management, integrated with telematics system and services, devoted to disabled and elderly people (TIDE Program, European Commission DG XIII. The main aim of the project was to define and to implement systems that are integrated with information and communications technologies, and with the home-automation products and equipment designed to improve the quality of life of elderly people and of motor-disabled people (paraplegics and cognitive impaired people in their homes.

  20. Establishment of design space for high current gain in III-N hot electron transistors (United States)

    Gupta, Geetak; Ahmadi, Elaheh; Suntrup, Donald J., III; Mishra, Umesh K.


    This paper establishes the design space of III-N hot electron transistors (HETs) for high current gain by designing and fabricating HETs with scaled base thickness. The device structure consists of GaN-based emitter, base and collector regions where emitter and collector barriers are implemented using AlN and InGaN layers, respectively, as polarization-dipoles. Electrons tunnel through the AlN layer to be injected into the base at a high energy where they travel in a quasi-ballistic manner before being collected. Current gain increases from 1 to 3.5 when base thickness is reduced from 7 to 4 nm. The extracted mean free path (λ mfp) is 5.8 nm at estimated injection energy of 1.5 eV.

  1. Design of free-space optical transmission system in computer tomography equipment (United States)

    Liu, Min; Fu, Weiwei; Zhang, Tao


    Traditional computer tomography (CT) based on capacitive coupling cannot satisfy the high data rate transmission requirement. We design and experimentally demonstrate a free-space optical transmission system for CT equipment at a data rate of 10 Gb / s. Two interchangeable sections of 12 pieces of fiber with equal length is fabricated and tested by our designed laser phase distance measurement system. By locating the 12 collimators in the edge of the circle wheel evenly, the optical propagation characteristics for the 12 wired and wireless paths are similar, which can satisfy the requirement of high-speed CT transmission system. After bit error rate (BER) measurement in several conditions, the BER performances are below the value of 10 - 11, which has the potential in the future application scenario of CT equipment.

  2. Actuation and system design and evaluation OMS engine shutoff valve, Volume 1. [space shuttles (United States)

    Dunn, V. B.


    A technology program was conducted to identify and verify the optimum valve and actuation system concept for the Space Shuttle Orbit Maneuvering System engine. Of major importance to the valve and actuation system selection was the ten-year, 100-mission, 10,000-cycle life requirement, while maintaining high reliability, low leakage, and low weight. Valve and actuation system concepts were comparatively evaluated against past valve failure reports and potential failure modes due to the shuttle mission profile to aid in the selection of the most optimum concept for design, manufacture and verification testing. Two valve concepts were considered during the preliminary design stage; i.e., the moving seat and lifting ball. Two actuation systems were manufactured and tested. Test results demonstrate the viability of a lifting ball concept as well as the applicability of an ac motor actuation system to best meet the requirements of the shuttle mission.

  3. A Hybrid Optimization Framework with POD-based Order Reduction and Design-Space Evolution Scheme (United States)

    Ghoman, Satyajit S.

    The main objective of this research is to develop an innovative multi-fidelity multi-disciplinary design, analysis and optimization suite that integrates certain solution generation codes and newly developed innovative tools to improve the overall optimization process. The research performed herein is divided into two parts: (1) the development of an MDAO framework by integration of variable fidelity physics-based computational codes, and (2) enhancements to such a framework by incorporating innovative features extending its robustness. The first part of this dissertation describes the development of a conceptual Multi-Fidelity Multi-Strategy and Multi-Disciplinary Design Optimization Environment (M3 DOE), in context of aircraft wing optimization. M 3 DOE provides the user a capability to optimize configurations with a choice of (i) the level of fidelity desired, (ii) the use of a single-step or multi-step optimization strategy, and (iii) combination of a series of structural and aerodynamic analyses. The modularity of M3 DOE allows it to be a part of other inclusive optimization frameworks. The M 3 DOE is demonstrated within the context of shape and sizing optimization of the wing of a Generic Business Jet aircraft. Two different optimization objectives, viz. dry weight minimization, and cruise range maximization are studied by conducting one low-fidelity and two high-fidelity optimization runs to demonstrate the application scope of M3 DOE. The second part of this dissertation describes the development of an innovative hybrid optimization framework that extends the robustness of M 3 DOE by employing a proper orthogonal decomposition-based design-space order reduction scheme combined with the evolutionary algorithm technique. The POD method of extracting dominant modes from an ensemble of candidate configurations is used for the design-space order reduction. The snapshot of candidate population is updated iteratively using evolutionary algorithm technique of

  4. Designing new collaborative learning spaces in clinical environments: experiences from a children's hospital in Australia. (United States)

    Bines, Julie E; Jamieson, Peter


    Hospitals are complex places that provide a rich learning environment for students, staff, patients and their families, professional groups and the community. The "new" Royal Children's Hospital opened in late 2011. Its mission is focused on improving health and well-being of children and adolescents through leadership in healthcare, research and education. Addressing the need to create "responsive learning environments" aligned with the shift to student-centred pedagogy, two distinct learning environments were developed within the new Royal Children's Hospital; (i) a dedicated education precinct providing a suite of physical environments to promote a more active, collaborative and social learning experience for education and training programs conducted on the Royal Children's Hospital campus and (ii) a suite of learning spaces embedded within clinical areas so that learning becomes an integral part of the daily activities of this busy Hospital environment. The aim of this article is to present the overarching educational principles that lead the design of these learning spaces and describe the opportunities and obstacles encountered in the development of collaborative learning spaces within a large hospital development.

  5. Conceptual Design of a Condensing Heat Exchanger for Space Systems Using Porous Media (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammad M.; Khan, Lutful I.; Nayagam, Vedha; Balasubramaniam, Ramaswamy


    Condensing heat exchangers are used in many space applications in the thermal and humidity control systems. In the International Space Station (ISS), humidity control is achieved by using a water cooled fin surface over which the moist air condenses, followed by "slurper bars" that take in both the condensate and air into a rotary separator and separates the water from air. The use of a cooled porous substrate as the condensing surface provides and attractive alternative that combines both heat removal as well as liquid/gas separation into a single unit. By selecting the pore sizes of the porous substrate a gravity independent operation may also be possible with this concept. Condensation of vapor into and on the porous surface from the flowing air and the removal of condensate from the porous substrate are the critical processes involved in the proposed concept. This paper describes some preliminary results of the proposed condensate withdrawal process and discusses the on-going design and development work of a porous media based condensing heat exchanger at the NASA Glenn Research Center in collaboration with NASA Johnson Space Center.

  6. Design and Evaluation of the Terminal Area Precision Scheduling and Spacing System (United States)

    Swenson, Harry N.; Thipphavong, Jane; Sadovsky, Alex; Chen, Liang; Sullivan, Chris; Martin, Lynne


    This paper describes the design, development and results from a high fidelity human-in-the-loop simulation of an integrated set of trajectory-based automation tools providing precision scheduling, sequencing and controller merging and spacing functions. These integrated functions are combined into a system called the Terminal Area Precision Scheduling and Spacing (TAPSS) system. It is a strategic and tactical planning tool that provides Traffic Management Coordinators, En Route and Terminal Radar Approach Control air traffic controllers the ability to efficiently optimize the arrival capacity of a demand-impacted airport while simultaneously enabling fuel-efficient descent procedures. The TAPSS system consists of four-dimensional trajectory prediction, arrival runway balancing, aircraft separation constraint-based scheduling, traffic flow visualization and trajectory-based advisories to assist controllers in efficient metering, sequencing and spacing. The TAPSS system was evaluated and compared to today's ATC operation through extensive series of human-in-the-loop simulations for arrival flows into the Los Angeles International Airport. The test conditions included the variation of aircraft demand from a baseline of today's capacity constrained periods through 5%, 10% and 20% increases. Performance data were collected for engineering and human factor analysis and compared with similar operations both with and without the TAPSS system. The engineering data indicate operations with the TAPSS show up to a 10% increase in airport throughput during capacity constrained periods while maintaining fuel-efficient aircraft descent profiles from cruise to landing.

  7. Final Report for 'Design calculations for high-space-charge beam-to-RF conversion'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smithe, David N.


    Accelerator facility upgrades, new accelerator applications, and future design efforts are leading to novel klystron and IOT device concepts, including multiple beam, high-order mode operation, and new geometry configurations of old concepts. At the same time, a new simulation capability, based upon finite-difference 'cut-cell' boundaries, has emerged and is transforming the existing modeling and design capability with unparalleled realism, greater flexibility, and improved accuracy. This same new technology can also be brought to bear on a difficult-to-study aspect of the energy recovery linac (ERL), namely the accurate modeling of the exit beam, and design of the beam dump for optimum energy efficiency. We have developed new capability for design calculations and modeling of a broad class of devices which convert bunched beam kinetic energy to RF energy, including RF sources, as for example, klystrons, gyro-klystrons, IOT's, TWT's, and other devices in which space-charge effects are important. Recent advances in geometry representation now permits very accurate representation of the curved metallic surfaces common to RF sources, resulting in unprecedented simulation accuracy. In the Phase I work, we evaluated and demonstrated the capabilities of the new geometry representation technology as applied to modeling and design of output cavity components of klystron, IOT's, and energy recovery srf cavities. We identified and prioritized which aspects of the design study process to pursue and improve in Phase II. The development and use of the new accurate geometry modeling technology on RF sources for DOE accelerators will help spark a new generational modeling and design capability, free from many of the constraints and inaccuracy associated with the previous generation of 'stair-step' geometry modeling tools. This new capability is ultimately expected to impact all fields with high power RF sources, including DOE fusion research, communications, radar and other

  8. Virginia Space Grant Consortium Management of National General Aviation Design Competition (United States)


    This report summarizes the management of the National General Aviation Design Competition on behalf of NASA, the FAA and the Air Force by the Virginia Space Grant Consortium (VSGC) for the time period October 1, 2000 through September 30, 2001. This was the VSGC's seventh and final year of managing the Competition, which the Consortium originally designed, developed and implemented for NASA and the FAA. The competition is now being managed in-house by NASA. Awards to winning university teams were presented at a ceremony held at AirVenture 2001, the Experimental Aircraft Association's Annual Convention and Fly-In at Oshkosh, Wis. by NASA and FAA officials. The competition called for individuals or teams of undergraduate and graduate students from U.S. engineering schools to participate in a major national effort to rebuild the U.S. general aviation sector. Participants were challenged to meet the engineering goals of the Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiment (AGATE) project. For the purpose of the contest, general aviation aircraft are typically defined as single or twin engine (turbine or piston), single-pilot, fixed-wing aircraft for 2 - 6 passengers. The competition seeks to raise student awareness of the importance of general aviation by having students address design challenges for a small aircraft transportation system. NASA, AFRL and the FAA hope to stimulate breakthroughs in technology and their application in the general aviation marketplace. National goals for revitalizing the industry offer excellent, open-ended design challenges with real world applications for the Innovative Design Category. Both individual and team submissions were encouraged. University faculty advisors and students consistently cite the value of this kind of educational experience for their engineering students. Eight proposals were submitted for the 2001 Competition for the Innovative Design Category. Eleven faculty members and 124 students participated. Since inception

  9. An optimal design of cluster spacing intervals for staged fracturing in horizontal shale gas wells based on the optimal SRVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Ren


    Full Text Available When horizontal well staged cluster fracturing is applied in shale gas reservoirs, the cluster spacing is essential to fracturing performance. If the cluster spacing is too small, the stimulated area between major fractures will be overlapped, and the efficiency of fracturing stimulation will be decreased. If the cluster spacing is too large, the area between major fractures cannot be stimulated completely and reservoir recovery extent will be adversely impacted. At present, cluster spacing design is mainly based on the static model with the potential reservoir stimulation area as the target, and there is no cluster spacing design method in accordance with the actual fracturing process and targets dynamic stimulated reservoir volume (SRV. In this paper, a dynamic SRV calculation model for cluster fracture propagation was established by analyzing the coupling mechanisms among fracture propagation, fracturing fluid loss and stress. Then, the cluster spacing was optimized to reach the target of the optimal SRVs. This model was applied for validation on site in the Jiaoshiba shale gasfield in the Fuling area of the Sichuan Basin. The key geological engineering parameters influencing the optimal cluster spacing intervals were analyzed. The reference charts for the optimal cluster spacing design were prepared based on the geological characteristics of south and north blocks in the Jiaoshiba shale gasfield. It is concluded that the cluster spacing optimal design method proposed in this paper is of great significance in overcoming the blindness in current cluster perforation design and guiding the optimal design of volume fracturing in shale gas reservoirs. Keywords: Shale gas, Horizontal well, Staged fracturing, Cluster spacing, Reservoir, Stimulated reservoir volume (SRV, Mathematical model, Optimal method, Sichuan basin, Jiaoshiba shale gasfield

  10. Architectural design of a ground-based deep-space optical reception antenna (United States)

    Kerr, E. L.


    An architectural design of a ground-based antenna (telescope) for receiving optical communications from deep space is presented. Physical and optical parameters, and their effect on the performance and cost considerations, are described. The channel capacity of the antenna is 100 kbits/s from Saturn and 5 Mbits/s from Mars. A novel sunshade is designed to permit optical communication even when the deep-space laser source is as close to the sun as 12 deg. Inserts in the tubes of the sunshade permit operations at solar elongations as small as 6 or 3 deg. The Nd:YAG source laser and the Fraunhofer filter (a narrow-band predetection optical filter) are tuned to match the Doppler shifts of the source and background. A typical Saturn-to-earth data link can reduce its source power requirement from 8.2 W to 2 W of laser output by employing a Fraunhofer filter instead of a conventional multilayer dielectric filter.

  11. Insights into Inverse Materials Design from Phase Transitions in Shape Space (United States)

    Cersonsky, Rose; van Anders, Greg; Dodd, Paul M.; Glotzer, Sharon C.

    In designing new materials for synthesis, the inverse materials design approach posits that, given a structure, we can predict a building block optimized for self- assembly. How does that building block change as pressure is varied to maintain the same crystal structure? We address this question for entropically stabilized colloidal crystals by working in a generalized statistical thermodynamic ensemble where an alchemical potential variable is fixed and its conjugate variable, particle shape, is allowed to fluctuate. We show that there are multiple regions of shape behavior and phase transitions in shape space between these regions. Furthermore, while past literature has looked towards packing arguments for proposing shape-filling candidate building blocks for structure formation, we show that even at very high pressures, a structure will attain lowest free energy by modifying these space-filling shapes. U.S. Army Research Office under Grant Award No. W911NF-10-1-0518, Emerging Frontiers in Research and Innovation Award EFRI-1240264, National Science Foundation Grant Number ACI- 1053575, XSEDE award DMR 140129, Rackham Merit Fellowship Program.

  12. Overview of CMOS process and design options for image sensor dedicated to space applications (United States)

    Martin-Gonthier, P.; Magnan, P.; Corbiere, F.


    With the growth of huge volume markets (mobile phones, digital cameras...) CMOS technologies for image sensor improve significantly. New process flows appear in order to optimize some parameters such as quantum efficiency, dark current, and conversion gain. Space applications can of course benefit from these improvements. To illustrate this evolution, this paper reports results from three technologies that have been evaluated with test vehicles composed of several sub arrays designed with some space applications as target. These three technologies are CMOS standard, improved and sensor optimized process in 0.35μm generation. Measurements are focussed on quantum efficiency, dark current, conversion gain and noise. Other measurements such as Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) and crosstalk are depicted in [1]. A comparison between results has been done and three categories of CMOS process for image sensors have been listed. Radiation tolerance has been also studied for the CMOS improved process in the way of hardening the imager by design. Results at 4, 15, 25 and 50 krad prove a good ionizing dose radiation tolerance applying specific techniques.

  13. MAP: an iterative experimental design methodology for the optimization of catalytic search space structure modeling. (United States)

    Baumes, Laurent A


    One of the main problems in high-throughput research for materials is still the design of experiments. At early stages of discovery programs, purely exploratory methodologies coupled with fast screening tools should be employed. This should lead to opportunities to find unexpected catalytic results and identify the "groups" of catalyst outputs, providing well-defined boundaries for future optimizations. However, very few new papers deal with strategies that guide exploratory studies. Mostly, traditional designs, homogeneous covering, or simple random samplings are exploited. Typical catalytic output distributions exhibit unbalanced datasets for which an efficient learning is hardly carried out, and interesting but rare classes are usually unrecognized. Here is suggested a new iterative algorithm for the characterization of the search space structure, working independently of learning processes. It enhances recognition rates by transferring catalysts to be screened from "performance-stable" space zones to "unsteady" ones which necessitate more experiments to be well-modeled. The evaluation of new algorithm attempts through benchmarks is compulsory due to the lack of past proofs about their efficiency. The method is detailed and thoroughly tested with mathematical functions exhibiting different levels of complexity. The strategy is not only empirically evaluated, the effect or efficiency of sampling on future Machine Learning performances is also quantified. The minimum sample size required by the algorithm for being statistically discriminated from simple random sampling is investigated.

  14. Self-corrective T-loop design for differential space closure. (United States)

    Viecilli, Rodrigo F


    The current approach to measuring T-loop force systems in patients requiring differential anchorage does not consider active unit angulations and steps during space closure. The angulations and steps during movement introduced by rotation can considerably modify the force system acting on the teeth. In this study, geometric modifications were determined during controlled tipping of the 6 anterior teeth, where there was no movement of the posterior teeth, thus configuring a type A anchorage situation. An optimal beta-titanium alloy 0.017 x 0.025-in T-loop spring was designed by using a simulation performed with LOOP software (dHAL Orthodontic Software, Athens, Greece) to allow compensation for anterior unit-position effect on the final force system. The force systems produced by this T-loop spring with and without geometric correction of the brackets have significant differences that should be considered in the segmented arch approach to space closure. The effects of steps, angles, and vertical forces were combined to produce an ideal T-loop design that would provide a more determinate force system. The effects and force systems are estimates based on simplified locations of the centers of resistance, assuming relatively constant behavior of the centers of rotation. These simplifications might differ slightly from what happens in vivo. The finite element method or an accurate spring tester capable of reproducing the geometric corrections should be used to ensure a precise force system.

  15. An adaptive software defined radio design based on a standard space telecommunication radio system API (United States)

    Xiong, Wenhao; Tian, Xin; Chen, Genshe; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik


    Software defined radio (SDR) has become a popular tool for the implementation and testing for communications performance. The advantage of the SDR approach includes: a re-configurable design, adaptive response to changing conditions, efficient development, and highly versatile implementation. In order to understand the benefits of SDR, the space telecommunication radio system (STRS) was proposed by NASA Glenn research center (GRC) along with the standard application program interface (API) structure. Each component of the system uses a well-defined API to communicate with other components. The benefit of standard API is to relax the platform limitation of each component for addition options. For example, the waveform generating process can support a field programmable gate array (FPGA), personal computer (PC), or an embedded system. As long as the API defines the requirements, the generated waveform selection will work with the complete system. In this paper, we demonstrate the design and development of adaptive SDR following the STRS and standard API protocol. We introduce step by step the SDR testbed system including the controlling graphic user interface (GUI), database, GNU radio hardware control, and universal software radio peripheral (USRP) tranceiving front end. In addition, a performance evaluation in shown on the effectiveness of the SDR approach for space telecommunication.

  16. Design and performance of an integrated ground and space sensor web for monitoring active volcanoes. (United States)

    Lahusen, Richard; Song, Wenzhan; Kedar, Sharon; Shirazi, Behrooz; Chien, Steve; Doubleday, Joshua; Davies, Ashley; Webb, Frank; Dzurisin, Dan; Pallister, John


    An interdisciplinary team of computer, earth and space scientists collaborated to develop a sensor web system for rapid deployment at active volcanoes. The primary goals of this Optimized Autonomous Space In situ Sensorweb (OASIS) are to: 1) integrate complementary space and in situ (ground-based) elements into an interactive, autonomous sensor web; 2) advance sensor web power and communication resource management technology; and 3) enable scalability for seamless addition sensors and other satellites into the sensor web. This three-year project began with a rigorous multidisciplinary interchange that resulted in definition of system requirements to guide the design of the OASIS network and to achieve the stated project goals. Based on those guidelines, we have developed fully self-contained in situ nodes that integrate GPS, seismic, infrasonic and lightning (ash) detection sensors. The nodes in the wireless sensor network are linked to the ground control center through a mesh network that is highly optimized for remote geophysical monitoring. OASIS also features an autonomous bidirectional interaction between ground nodes and instruments on the EO-1 space platform through continuous analysis and messaging capabilities at the command and control center. Data from both the in situ sensors and satellite-borne hyperspectral imaging sensors stream into a common database for real-time visualization and analysis by earth scientists. We have successfully completed a field deployment of 15 nodes within the crater and on the flanks of Mount St. Helens, Washington. The demonstration that sensor web technology facilitates rapid network deployments and that we can achieve real-time continuous data acquisition. We are now optimizing component performance and improving user interaction for additional deployments at erupting volcanoes in 2010.

  17. Library as a Partner in Co-Designing Learning Spaces: A Case Study at Tampere University of Technology, Finland (United States)

    Tevaniemi, Johanna; Poutanen, Jenni; Lähdemäki, Riitta


    This article presents a case of co-designed temporary learning spaces at a Finnish academic library, together with the results of a user-survey. The experimental development of the multifunctional spaces offered an opportunity for the library to collaborate with its parent organisation thus broadening the role of the library. Hence, library can be…

  18. Robust Constrained Optimization Approach to Control Design for International Space Station Centrifuge Rotor Auto Balancing Control System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Postma, Barry D


    ...) for a centrifuge rotor to be implemented on the International Space Station. The design goal is to minimize a performance objective of the system, while guaranteeing stability and proper performance for a range of uncertain plants...

  19. VIP: A knowledge-based design aid for the engineering of space systems (United States)

    Lewis, Steven M.; Bellman, Kirstie L.


    The Vehicles Implementation Project (VIP), a knowledge-based design aid for the engineering of space systems is described. VIP combines qualitative knowledge in the form of rules, quantitative knowledge in the form of equations, and other mathematical modeling tools. The system allows users rapidly to develop and experiment with models of spacecraft system designs. As information becomes available to the system, appropriate equations are solved symbolically and the results are displayed. Users may browse through the system, observing dependencies and the effects of altering specific parameters. The system can also suggest approaches to the derivation of specific parameter values. In addition to providing a tool for the development of specific designs, VIP aims at increasing the user's understanding of the design process. Users may rapidly examine the sensitivity of a given parameter to others in the system and perform tradeoffs or optimizations of specific parameters. A second major goal of VIP is to integrate the existing corporate knowledge base of models and rules into a central, symbolic form.

  20. Classifier-guided sampling for discrete variable, discontinuous design space exploration: Convergence and computational performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backlund, Peter B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shahan, David W. [HRL Labs., LLC, Malibu, CA (United States); Seepersad, Carolyn Conner [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)


    A classifier-guided sampling (CGS) method is introduced for solving engineering design optimization problems with discrete and/or continuous variables and continuous and/or discontinuous responses. The method merges concepts from metamodel-guided sampling and population-based optimization algorithms. The CGS method uses a Bayesian network classifier for predicting the performance of new designs based on a set of known observations or training points. Unlike most metamodeling techniques, however, the classifier assigns a categorical class label to a new design, rather than predicting the resulting response in continuous space, and thereby accommodates nondifferentiable and discontinuous functions of discrete or categorical variables. The CGS method uses these classifiers to guide a population-based sampling process towards combinations of discrete and/or continuous variable values with a high probability of yielding preferred performance. Accordingly, the CGS method is appropriate for discrete/discontinuous design problems that are ill-suited for conventional metamodeling techniques and too computationally expensive to be solved by population-based algorithms alone. In addition, the rates of convergence and computational properties of the CGS method are investigated when applied to a set of discrete variable optimization problems. Results show that the CGS method significantly improves the rate of convergence towards known global optima, on average, when compared to genetic algorithms.