Sample records for microanalysis public domain


    Monica Adriana LUPAȘCU


    This study tries to highlight the necessity of an awareness of the right of access to the public domain, particularly using the example of works whose protection period has expired, as well as the ones which the law considers to be excluded from protection. Such works are used not only by large libraries from around the world, but also by rights holders, via different means of use, including incorporations into original works or adaptations. However, the reuse that follows these uses often on...

  2. Advanced Microanalysis Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Microanalysis Facility fully integrates capabilities for chemical and structural analysis of electronic materials and devices for the U.S. Army and DoD....

  3. Advanced Microanalysis Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Microanalysis Facility fully integrates capabilities for chemical and structural analysis of electronic materials and devices for the U.S. Army and DoD....

  4. Cultural Heritage and the Public Domain

    Bas Savenije


    by providing their resources on the Internet” (Berlin Declaration 2003. Therefore, in the spirit of the Berlin Declaration, the ARL encourages its members’ libraries to grant all non-commercial users “a free, irrevocable, worldwide, right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship”. And: “If fees are to be assessed for the use of digitised public domain works, those fees should only apply to commercial uses” (ARL Principles July 2010. In our view, cultural heritage institutions should make public domain material digitised with public funding as widely available as possible for access and reuse. The public sector has the primary responsibility to fund digitisation. The involvement of private partners, however, is encouraged by ARL as well as the Comité des Sages. Private funding for digitisation is a complement to the necessary public investment, especially in times of economic crisis, but should not be seen as a substitute for public funding. As we can see from these reports there are a number of arguments in favour of digitisation and also of providing maximum accessibility to the digitised cultural heritage. In this paper we will investigate the legal aspects of digitisation of cultural heritage, especially public domain material. On the basis of these we will make an inventory of policy considerations regarding reuse. Furthermore, we will describe the conclusions the National Library of the Netherlands (hereafter: KB has formulated and the arguments that support these. In this context we will review public-private partnerships and also the policy of the KB. We will conclude with recommendations for cultural heritage institutions concerning a reuse policy for digitised public domain material.

  5. Preserving the positive functions of the public domain in science

    Pamela Samuelson


    Full Text Available Science has advanced in part because data and scientific methodologies have traditionally not been subject to intellectual property protection. In recent years, intellectual property has played a greater role in scientific work. While intellectual property rights may have a positive role to play in some fields of science, so does the public domain. This paper will discuss some of the positive functions of the public domain and ways in which certain legal developments may negatively impact the public domain. It suggests some steps that scientists can take to preserve the positive functions of the public domain for science.

  6. Microanalysis of Solar Cells

    Kazmerski, Lawrence L.


    Applications of complementary surface analysis techniques (AES, SIMS, XPS) to solar cell device problems are discussed. Several examples of device interface and grain boundary problems are presented. Silicon, gallium arsenide and indium phosphide based devices are reviewed. Results of compositional and chemical analysis are correlated directly with EBIC measurements performed in-situ on identical sample areas. Those are, in turn, correlated with resulting photovoltaic device performance. The importance of microanalysis to the solution of critical device problems in the photovoltaics technology is emphasized.

  7. The Definition, Dimensions, and Domain of Public Relations.

    Hutton, James G.


    Discusses how the field of public relations has left itself vulnerable to other fields that are making inroads into public relations' traditional domain, and to critics who are filling in their own definitions of public relations. Proposes a definition and a three-dimensional framework to compare competing philosophies of public relations and to…

  8. Development and Initial Validation of Public Domain Basic Interest Markers

    Liao, Hsin-Ya; Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Rounds, James


    Goldberg (Goldberg, L. R. (1999). "A broad-bandwidth, public-domain, personality inventory measuring the lower-level facets of several five-factor models." In: I. Mervielde, I. Deary, F. De Fruyt, & F. Ostendorf (Eds.), "Personality psychology in Europe" (Vol. 7, pp. 7-28). Tilburg, The Netherlands: Tilburg University Press) has argued that the…

  9. Copyright and the Value of the Public Domain

    Erickson, Kristofer; Heald, Paul; Homberg, Fabian; Kretschmer, Martin; Mendis, Dinusha


    This research report documents the results of a year-long knowledge exchange initiative undertaken between the Intellectual Property Office, researchers at the University of Glasgow CREATe Centre, and more than two dozen UK businesses and innovators, to explore how value is generated from the public domain. The study was supported by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) and the Intellectual Property Office (IPO). The core research team consisted of Dr. Kristofer Erickson (Lord Kelv...

  10. Agents unleashed a public domain look at agent technology

    Wayner, Peter


    Agents Unleashed: A Public Domain Look at Agent Technology covers details of building a secure agent realm. The book discusses the technology for creating seamlessly integrated networks that allow programs to move from machine to machine without leaving a trail of havoc; as well as the technical details of how an agent will move through the network, prove its identity, and execute its code without endangering the host. The text also describes the organization of the host's work processing an agent; error messages, bad agent expulsion, and errors in XLISP-agents; and the simulators of errors, f

  11. Public-domain software for root image analysis

    Mirian Cristina Gomes Costa


    Full Text Available In the search for high efficiency in root studies, computational systems have been developed to analyze digital images. ImageJ and Safira are public-domain systems that may be used for image analysis of washed roots. However, differences in root properties measured using ImageJ and Safira are supposed. This study compared values of root length and surface area obtained with public-domain systems with values obtained by a reference method. Root samples were collected in a banana plantation in an area of a shallower Typic Carbonatic Haplic Cambisol (CXk, and an area of a deeper Typic Haplic Ta Eutrophic Cambisol (CXve, at six depths in five replications. Root images were digitized and the systems ImageJ and Safira used to determine root length and surface area. The line-intersect method modified by Tennant was used as reference; values of root length and surface area measured with the different systems were analyzed by Pearson's correlation coefficient and compared by the confidence interval and t-test. Both systems ImageJ and Safira had positive correlation coefficients with the reference method for root length and surface area data in CXk and CXve. The correlation coefficient ranged from 0.54 to 0.80, with lowest value observed for ImageJ in the measurement of surface area of roots sampled in CXve. The IC (95 % revealed that root length measurements with Safira did not differ from that with the reference method in CXk (-77.3 to 244.0 mm. Regarding surface area measurements, Safira did not differ from the reference method for samples collected in CXk (-530.6 to 565.8 mm² as well as in CXve (-4231 to 612.1 mm². However, measurements with ImageJ were different from those obtained by the reference method, underestimating length and surface area in samples collected in CXk and CXve. Both ImageJ and Safira allow an identification of increases or decreases in root length and surface area. However, Safira results for root length and surface area are

  12. Assessment of current cybersecurity practices in the public domain : cyber indications and warnings domain.

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Keliiaa, Curtis M.


    This report assesses current public domain cyber security practices with respect to cyber indications and warnings. It describes cybersecurity industry and government activities, including cybersecurity tools, methods, practices, and international and government-wide initiatives known to be impacting current practice. Of particular note are the U.S. Government's Trusted Internet Connection (TIC) and 'Einstein' programs, which are serving to consolidate the Government's internet access points and to provide some capability to monitor and mitigate cyber attacks. Next, this report catalogs activities undertaken by various industry and government entities. In addition, it assesses the benchmarks of HPC capability and other HPC attributes that may lend themselves to assist in the solution of this problem. This report draws few conclusions, as it is intended to assess current practice in preparation for future work, however, no explicit references to HPC usage for the purpose of analyzing cyber infrastructure in near-real-time were found in the current practice. This report and a related SAND2010-4766 National Cyber Defense High Performance Computing and Analysis: Concepts, Planning and Roadmap report are intended to provoke discussion throughout a broad audience about developing a cohesive HPC centric solution to wide-area cybersecurity problems.

  13. An outlook on the nature of mental creations after belonging to public domain

    Pedjman Mohammadi


    Full Text Available The public domain of copyright which considers the end of protection period, attempts to cause balance among the rights of authors, society and third parties. So at the end of financial rights of author’s protection period the possibility of free utilization of these literary works will be possible. But in this situation one of the controversial difficulties is the nature of these kinds of literary works which, according to some scholars, after belonging to public domain, they will change in to the Allowable. To approve their idea, they focus on common features existing in these literary works(works relating to public domain and the Allowable. On the other hand it is believed that literary works after belonging to public domain essentially works after belonging to public domain essentially due to lacking of scarcity element are not considered property at all.

  14. The Use and Abuse of Research in the Public Domain

    Reid, Alan


    In Australia, education think tanks have become increasingly influential in policy circles through "reports" to government, and in public debate through the mainstream media. Invariably think-tanks draw on educational research to lend authority and legitimacy to their work. This is desirable if the research deepens understandings about…

  15. Suburban development – a search for public domains in Danish suburban neighbourhoods

    Melgaard, Bente; Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    , potentials for bridge-building across the enclaves of the suburb are looked for through a combined architectural-anthropological mapping of public spaces in a specific suburb in Denmark, the analyses being carried out in the light of Hajer & Reijndorp’s definition of public domains and the term exchange....... The results so far show that suburban spaces with a potential for creating bridge-building across the segregated enclaves do exist but that, among other things, focus on spatial design is needed before actual public domains creating the basis for exchange are achieved....

  16. Materialities of Law: Celebrity Production and the Public Domain

    Esther Milne


    Full Text Available Celebrity production and consumption are powerful socio-economic forces. The celebrity functions as a significant economic resource for the commercial sector and plays a fundamental symbolic role within culture by providing a shared ‘vocabulary’ through which to understand contemporary social relations. A pivotal element of this allure is the process by which the celebrity figure is able to forge an intimate link with its audience, often producing public expressions of profound compassion, respect or revulsion. This process, however, is complicated by emerging participatory media forms whose impact is experienced as new conditions of possibility for celebrity production and consumption. As Marshall argues, video mash-ups of celebrity interviews, such as those of Christian Bale or Tom Cruise, are dramatically changing the relation between celebrity and audience (Marshall, 2006: 640. Meanings produced by these audience remixes challenge the extent to which a celebrity might control her image. So is the celebrity personality, therefore, a public or private commodity? Who owns the celebrity image within remix culture? Although the celebrity figure has been thoroughly researched in relation to its patterns of consumption; semiotic power; and industry construction; less attention has been focused on the forms of celebrity governance enabled by legislative and case law settings. How might the law deal with the significant economic and cultural power exercised within celebrity culture?

  17. Elemental microanalysis in ecophysiology using ion microbeam

    Przybylowicz, W.J. E-mail:; Mesjasz-Przybylowicz, J.; Migula, P.; Turnau, K.; Nakonieczny, M.; Augustyniak, M.; Glowacka, E


    A few recent applications of elemental microanalysis based on proton beam in ecophysiology and ecotoxicology are shown. They are related to biofiltering capabilities of mycorrhiza (symbiosis between fungi and plant roots) and to plant-insect herbivore interactions. The reported results were obtained at iThemba LABS, South Africa. PIXE and BS techniques were simultaneously used. True elemental maps were generated using a VMS version and PC version of GeoPIXE (GeoPIXE I and II). Further analysis was performed using PIXE and BS spectra extracted from list-mode data and corresponding to specific organs of an insect or a plant.

  18. Safety features in nuclear power plants to eliminate the need of emergency planning in public domain

    P K Vijayan; M T Kamble; A K Nayak; K K Vaze; R K Sinha


    Following the Fukushima accident, the safety features of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) are being re-examined worldwide including India to demonstrate capabilities to cope with severe accidents. In order to restore public confidence and support for nuclear power, it is felt necessary to design future NPPs with near zero impact outside the plant boundary and thus enabling elimination of emergency planning in public domain. Authors have identified a set of safety features which are needed to be incorporated in advanced reactors to achieve this goal. These features enabling prevention, termination, mitigation and containment of radioactivity for beyond design basis accidents arising from extreme natural events are essential for achieving the goal of elimination of emergency planning in public domain. Inherent safety characteristics, passive and engineered safety features to achieve these functions are discussed in this paper. Present trends and future developments in this direction are also described briefly.

  19. 37 CFR 201.26 - Recordation of documents pertaining to computer shareware and donation of public domain computer...


    ... pertaining to computer shareware and donation of public domain computer software. 201.26 Section 201.26... GENERAL PROVISIONS § 201.26 Recordation of documents pertaining to computer shareware and donation of public domain computer software. (a) General. This section prescribes the procedures for submission of...

  20. 32 CFR 644.24 - Acquisition by Transfer from other Government Departments or Agencies (except Public Domain).


    ... Departments or Agencies (except Public Domain). 644.24 Section 644.24 National Defense Department of Defense... Departments or Agencies (except Public Domain). When a requirement develops for the acquisition of Government... of existing improvements, the estimated cost of the proposed construction, attitude of the...

  1. Towards development of a high quality public domain global roads database

    Andrew Nelson


    Full Text Available There is clear demand for a global spatial public domain roads data set with improved geographic and temporal coverage, consistent coding of road types, and clear documentation of sources. The currently best available global public domain product covers only one-quarter to one-third of the existing road networks, and this varies considerably by region. Applications for such a data set span multiple sectors and would be particularly valuable for the international economic development, disaster relief, and biodiversity conservation communities, not to mention national and regional agencies and organizations around the world. The building blocks for such a global product are available for many countries and regions, yet thus far there has been neither strategy nor leadership for developing it. This paper evaluates the best available public domain and commercial data sets, assesses the gaps in global coverage, and proposes a number of strategies for filling them. It also identifies stakeholder organizations with an interest in such a data set that might either provide leadership or funding for its development. It closes with a proposed set of actions to begin the process.

  2. Standardless quantification methods in electron probe microanalysis

    Trincavelli, Jorge, E-mail: [Facultad de Matemática, Astronomía y Física, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Instituto de Física Enrique Gaviola, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina, Medina Allende s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Limandri, Silvina, E-mail: [Facultad de Matemática, Astronomía y Física, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Instituto de Física Enrique Gaviola, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina, Medina Allende s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Córdoba (Argentina); Bonetto, Rita, E-mail: [Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Ciencias Aplicadas Dr. Jorge Ronco, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, de la Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Calle 47 N° 257, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)


    The elemental composition of a solid sample can be determined by electron probe microanalysis with or without the use of standards. The standardless algorithms are quite faster than the methods that require standards; they are useful when a suitable set of standards is not available or for rough samples, and also they help to solve the problem of current variation, for example, in equipments with cold field emission gun. Due to significant advances in the accuracy achieved during the last years, product of the successive efforts made to improve the description of generation, absorption and detection of X-rays, the standardless methods have increasingly become an interesting option for the user. Nevertheless, up to now, algorithms that use standards are still more precise than standardless methods. It is important to remark, that care must be taken with results provided by standardless methods that normalize the calculated concentration values to 100%, unless an estimate of the errors is reported. In this work, a comprehensive discussion of the key features of the main standardless quantification methods, as well as the level of accuracy achieved by them is presented. - Highlights: • Standardless methods are a good alternative when no suitable standards are available. • Their accuracy reaches 10% for 95% of the analyses when traces are excluded. • Some of them are suitable for the analysis of rough samples.

  3. Molecular scaffold analysis of natural products databases in the public domain.

    Yongye, Austin B; Waddell, Jacob; Medina-Franco, José L


    Natural products represent important sources of bioactive compounds in drug discovery efforts. In this work, we compiled five natural products databases available in the public domain and performed a comprehensive chemoinformatic analysis focused on the content and diversity of the scaffolds with an overview of the diversity based on molecular fingerprints. The natural products databases were compared with each other and with a set of molecules obtained from in-house combinatorial libraries, and with a general screening commercial library. It was found that publicly available natural products databases have different scaffold diversity. In contrast to the common concept that larger libraries have the largest scaffold diversity, the largest natural products collection analyzed in this work was not the most diverse. The general screening library showed, overall, the highest scaffold diversity. However, considering the most frequent scaffolds, the general reference library was the least diverse. In general, natural products databases in the public domain showed low molecule overlap. In addition to benzene and acyclic compounds, flavones, coumarins, and flavanones were identified as the most frequent molecular scaffolds across the different natural products collections. The results of this work have direct implications in the computational and experimental screening of natural product databases for drug discovery.

  4. Daas: A Web-based System for User-specific Dietary Analysis and Advice for the Public Healthcare Domain

    Deirdre Nugent; Kudakwashe Dube; Wu Bing


    This paper presents a Dietary Analysis and Advice System (DAAS), a web-based system for providing, within the public healthcare domain, user-specific diet advice based on a preliminary analysis of current diet or eating habits and lifestyle, using knowledge from domain expertise and experts' interpretation of national dietary guidelines.

  5. Open access high throughput drug discovery in the public domain: a Mount Everest in the making.

    Roy, Anuradha; McDonald, Peter R; Sittampalam, Sitta; Chaguturu, Rathnam


    High throughput screening (HTS) facilitates screening large numbers of compounds against a biochemical target of interest using validated biological or biophysical assays. In recent years, a significant number of drugs in clinical trails originated from HTS campaigns, validating HTS as a bona fide mechanism for hit finding. In the current drug discovery landscape, the pharmaceutical industry is embracing open innovation strategies with academia to maximize their research capabilities and to feed their drug discovery pipeline. The goals of academic research have therefore expanded from target identification and validation to probe discovery, chemical genomics, and compound library screening. This trend is reflected in the emergence of HTS centers in the public domain over the past decade, ranging in size from modestly equipped academic screening centers to well endowed Molecular Libraries Probe Centers Network (MLPCN) centers funded by the NIH Roadmap initiative. These centers facilitate a comprehensive approach to probe discovery in academia and utilize both classical and cutting-edge assay technologies for executing primary and secondary screening campaigns. The various facets of academic HTS centers as well as their implications on technology transfer and drug discovery are discussed, and a roadmap for successful drug discovery in the public domain is presented. New lead discovery against therapeutic targets, especially those involving the rare and neglected diseases, is indeed a Mount Everestonian size task, and requires diligent implementation of pharmaceutical industry's best practices for a successful outcome.

  6. The Creative Commons. A Third Way between Public Domain and Community ?

    Clément Bert-Erboul


    Full Text Available How have the Creative Commons’ ownership rules used by free websites like Wikipedia or Flickr and in 3D printer projects or in alternative kitchen gardens, been develo­ped? Internet users and technological experimentation communities rely heavily on these free tools, but the ideologies of the public domain and online communities that allowed their birth often remain obscure. In this article we used American legal doctri­ne, the scientific literature and specialized press archives. From these sources we analyzed the links between Copyright reforms and the institutionalization of the activity of free software developers, at the origin of Creative Commons licenses. The case of intangible goods property applied to tangibles goods shows how the community members and institutions legitimize their IT practices by means of several producers of norms, such as States or communities.

  7. Systematic analysis of public domain compound potency data identifies selective molecular scaffolds across druggable target families.

    Hu, Ye; Wassermann, Anne Mai; Lounkine, Eugen; Bajorath, Jürgen


    Molecular scaffolds that yield target family-selective compounds are of high interest in pharmaceutical research. There continues to be considerable debate in the field as to whether chemotypes with a priori selectivity for given target families and/or targets exist and how they might be identified. What do currently available data tell us? We present a systematic and comprehensive selectivity-centric analysis of public domain target-ligand interactions. More than 200 molecular scaffolds are identified in currently available active compounds that are selective for established target families. A subset of these scaffolds is found to produce compounds with high selectivity for individual targets among closely related ones. These scaffolds are currently underrepresented in approved drugs.

  8. The international river interface cooperative: Public domain flow and morphodynamics software for education and applications

    Nelson, Jonathan M.; Shimizu, Yasuyuki; Abe, Takaaki; Asahi, Kazutake; Gamou, Mineyuki; Inoue, Takuya; Iwasaki, Toshiki; Kakinuma, Takaharu; Kawamura, Satomi; Kimura, Ichiro; Kyuka, Tomoko; McDonald, Richard R.; Nabi, Mohamed; Nakatsugawa, Makoto; Simões, Francisco R.; Takebayashi, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yasunori


    This paper describes a new, public-domain interface for modeling flow, sediment transport and morphodynamics in rivers and other geophysical flows. The interface is named after the International River Interface Cooperative (iRIC), the group that constructed the interface and many of the current solvers included in iRIC. The interface is entirely free to any user and currently houses thirteen models ranging from simple one-dimensional models through three-dimensional large-eddy simulation models. Solvers are only loosely coupled to the interface so it is straightforward to modify existing solvers or to introduce other solvers into the system. Six of the most widely-used solvers are described in detail including example calculations to serve as an aid for users choosing what approach might be most appropriate for their own applications. The example calculations range from practical computations of bed evolution in natural rivers to highly detailed predictions of the development of small-scale bedforms on an initially flat bed. The remaining solvers are also briefly described. Although the focus of most solvers is coupled flow and morphodynamics, several of the solvers are also specifically aimed at providing flood inundation predictions over large spatial domains. Potential users can download the application, solvers, manuals, and educational materials including detailed tutorials at The iRIC development group encourages scientists and engineers to use the tool and to consider adding their own methods to the iRIC suite of tools.

  9. The international river interface cooperative: Public domain flow and morphodynamics software for education and applications

    Nelson, Jonathan M.; Shimizu, Yasuyuki; Abe, Takaaki; Asahi, Kazutake; Gamou, Mineyuki; Inoue, Takuya; Iwasaki, Toshiki; Kakinuma, Takaharu; Kawamura, Satomi; Kimura, Ichiro; Kyuka, Tomoko; McDonald, Richard R.; Nabi, Mohamed; Nakatsugawa, Makoto; Simoes, Francisco J.; Takebayashi, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yasunori


    This paper describes a new, public-domain interface for modeling flow, sediment transport and morphodynamics in rivers and other geophysical flows. The interface is named after the International River Interface Cooperative (iRIC), the group that constructed the interface and many of the current solvers included in iRIC. The interface is entirely free to any user and currently houses thirteen models ranging from simple one-dimensional models through three-dimensional large-eddy simulation models. Solvers are only loosely coupled to the interface so it is straightforward to modify existing solvers or to introduce other solvers into the system. Six of the most widely-used solvers are described in detail including example calculations to serve as an aid for users choosing what approach might be most appropriate for their own applications. The example calculations range from practical computations of bed evolution in natural rivers to highly detailed predictions of the development of small-scale bedforms on an initially flat bed. The remaining solvers are also briefly described. Although the focus of most solvers is coupled flow and morphodynamics, several of the solvers are also specifically aimed at providing flood inundation predictions over large spatial domains. Potential users can download the application, solvers, manuals, and educational materials including detailed tutorials at The iRIC development group encourages scientists and engineers to use the tool and to consider adding their own methods to the iRIC suite of tools.

  10. Fast resolution of the neutron diffusion equation through public domain Ode codes

    Garcia, V.M.; Vidal, V.; Garayoa, J. [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Departamento de Sistemas Informaticos, Valencia (Spain); Verdu, G. [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, Valencia (Spain); Gomez, R. [I.E.S. de Tavernes Blanques, Valencia (Spain)


    The time-dependent neutron diffusion equation is a partial differential equation with source terms. The resolution method usually includes discretizing the spatial domain, obtaining a large system of linear, stiff ordinary differential equations (ODEs), whose resolution is computationally very expensive. Some standard techniques use a fixed time step to solve the ODE system. This can result in errors (if the time step is too large) or in long computing times (if the time step is too little). To speed up the resolution method, two well-known public domain codes have been selected: DASPK and FCVODE that are powerful codes for the resolution of large systems of stiff ODEs. These codes can estimate the error after each time step, and, depending on this estimation can decide which is the new time step and, possibly, which is the integration method to be used in the next step. With these mechanisms, it is possible to keep the overall error below the chosen tolerances, and, when the system behaves smoothly, to take large time steps increasing the execution speed. In this paper we address the use of the public domain codes DASPK and FCVODE for the resolution of the time-dependent neutron diffusion equation. The efficiency of these codes depends largely on the preconditioning of the big systems of linear equations that must be solved. Several pre-conditioners have been programmed and tested; it was found that the multigrid method is the best of the pre-conditioners tested. Also, it has been found that DASPK has performed better than FCVODE, being more robust for our problem.We can conclude that the use of specialized codes for solving large systems of ODEs can reduce drastically the computational work needed for the solution; and combining them with appropriate pre-conditioners, the reduction can be still more important. It has other crucial advantages, since it allows the user to specify the allowed error, which cannot be done in fixed step implementations; this, of course

  11. Assessing water availability over peninsular Malaysia using public domain satellite data products

    Ali, M. I.; Hashim, M.; Zin, H. S. M.


    Water availability monitoring is an essential task for water resource sustainability and security. In this paper, the assessment of satellite remote sensing technique for determining water availability is reported. The water-balance analysis is used to compute the spatio-temporal water availability with main inputs; the precipitation and actual evapotranspiration rate (AET), both fully derived from public-domain satellite products of Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) and MODIS, respectively. Both these satellite products were first subjected to calibration to suit corresponding selected local precipitation and AET samples. Multi-temporal data sets acquired 2000-2010 were used in this study. The results of study, indicated strong agreement of monthly water availability with the basin flow rate (r2 = 0.5, p < 0.001). Similar agreements were also noted between the estimated annual average water availability with the in-situ measurement. It is therefore concluded that the method devised in this study provide a new alternative for water availability mapping over large area, hence offers the only timely and cost-effective method apart from providing comprehensive spatio-temporal patterns, crucial in water resource planning to ensure water security.

  12. Public domain small-area cancer incidence data for New York State, 2005-2009

    Francis P. Boscoe


    Full Text Available There has long been a demand for cancer incidence data at a fine geographic resolution for use in etiologic hypothesis generation and testing, methodological evaluation and teaching. In this paper we describe a public domain dataset containing data for 23 anatomic sites of cancer diagnosed in New York State, USA between 2005 and 2009 at the census block group level. The dataset includes 524,503 tumours distributed across 13,823 block groups with an average population of about 1400. In addition, the data have been linked with race/ethnicity and with socioeconomic indicators such as income, educational attainment and language proficiency. We demonstrate the application of the dataset by confirming two well-established relationships: that between breast cancer and median household income and that between stomach cancer and Asian race. We foresee that this dataset will serve as the basis for a wide range of spatial analyses and as a benchmark for evaluating spatial methods in the future.

  13. Preserving Madagascar's Natural Heritage: The Importance of Keeping the Island's Vertebrate Fossils in the Public Domain

    Karen E. Samonds


    Full Text Available The origin of Madagascar’s highly endemic vertebrate fauna remains one of the great unsolved mysteries of natural history. From what landmasses did the basal stocks of this unique and imbalanced fauna come? When and how did the ancestral populations arrive on the island? How rapidly did they diversify, and why? The most direct means of addressing these questions, and other enigmas concerning the evolutionary and biogeographic history of Madagascar’s vertebrate fauna, is through discovery of fossils from a sequence of well-dated geological horizons. Many fossils relevant to these queries have been discovered by paleontologists in recent years ... but many more are being lost to commercial enterprises, both foreign and domestic, that have little or no regard for the scientific significance of fossils. The objectives of this essay are to 1 provide an overview of Madagascar’s vertebrate fossil record and its importance, 2 raise awareness concerning the illegal collection, exportation, and sale of vertebrate fossils, and 3 stress the importance of keeping vertebrate fossils from the island in the public domain. In light of these issues, we underscore the necessity for development of adequate repositories and support infrastructure in Madagascar to safeguard and display the country’s vertebrate fossil collections; doing so would ensure the preservation and appreciation of Madagascar’s rich natural heritage for future generations of scientists and Malagasy citizens alike.

  14. A simple technique for morphological measurement of cerebral arterial circle variations using public domain software (Osiris).

    Ansari, Saeed; Dadmehr, Majid; Eftekhar, Behzad; McConnell, Douglas J; Ganji, Sarah; Azari, Hassan; Kamali-Ardakani, Shahab; Hoh, Brian L; Mocco, J


    This article describes a straightforward method to measure the dimensions and identify morphological variations in the cerebral arterial circle using the general-purpose software program Osiris. This user-friendly and portable program displays, manipulates, and analyzes medical digital images, and it has the capability to determine morphometric properties of selected blood vessels (or other anatomical structures) in humans and animals. To ascertain morphometric variations in the cerebral arterial circle, 132 brains of recently deceased fetuses, infants, and adults were dissected. The dissection procedure was first digitized, and then the dimensions were measured with Osiris software. Measurements of each vessel's length and external diameters were used to identify and classify morphological variations in the cerebral arterial circle. The most commonly observed anatomical variations were uni- and bilateral hypoplasia of the posterior communicating artery. This study demonstrates that public domain software can be used to measure and classify cerebral arterial circle vessels. This method could be extended to examine other anatomical regions or to study other animals. Additionally, knowledge of variations within the circle could be applied clinically to enhance diagnostic and treatment specificity.

  15. Developing a personal computer-based data visualization system using public domain software

    Chen, Philip C.


    The current research will investigate the possibility of developing a computing-visualization system using a public domain software system built on a personal computer. Visualization Toolkit (VTK) is available on UNIX and PC platforms. VTK uses C++ to build an executable. It has abundant programming classes/objects that are contained in the system library. Users can also develop their own classes/objects in addition to those existing in the class library. Users can develop applications with any of the C++, Tcl/Tk, and JAVA environments. The present research will show how a data visualization system can be developed with VTK running on a personal computer. The topics will include: execution efficiency; visual object quality; availability of the user interface design; and exploring the feasibility of the VTK-based World Wide Web data visualization system. The present research will feature a case study showing how to use VTK to visualize meteorological data with techniques including, iso-surface, volume rendering, vector display, and composite analysis. The study also shows how the VTK outline, axes, and two-dimensional annotation text and title are enhancing the data presentation. The present research will also demonstrate how VTK works in an internet environment while accessing an executable with a JAVA application programing in a webpage.

  16. Microanalysis in Music Therapy: Introduction and Theoretical basis


    video and audio materials, interviewing, and monitoring the client's heart rate, and also give examples of the practical application of microanalysis from their clinical experience, including work with clients who have psychiatric illness, autism and other conditions. Microanalyses in Music Therapy......In the context of music therapy, microanalysis is the detailed analysis of that short period of time during a music therapy session during which some kind of significant change takes place. These moments are crucial to the therapeutic process, and there is increasing interest amongst music...... therapists in understanding how they come about and whether there are ways of initiating them. The contributors to this groundbreaking book look at methods of micro process analyses used in a variety of music therapy contexts, both clinical and research-based. They outline their methods, which include using...

  17. The public understanding of nanotechnology in the food domain: the hidden role of views on science, technology, and nature.

    Vandermoere, Frederic; Blanchemanche, Sandrine; Bieberstein, Andrea; Marette, Stephan; Roosen, Jutta


    In spite of great expectations about the potential of nanotechnology, this study shows that people are rather ambiguous and pessimistic about nanotechnology applications in the food domain. Our findings are drawn from a survey of public perceptions about nanotechnology food and nanotechnology food packaging (N = 752). Multinomial logistic regression analyses further reveal that knowledge about food risks and nanotechnology significantly influences people's views about nanotechnology food packaging. However, knowledge variables were unrelated to support for nanofood, suggesting that an increase in people's knowledge might not be sufficient to bridge the gap between the excitement some business leaders in the food sector have and the restraint of the public. Additionally, opposition to nanofood was not related to the use of heuristics but to trust in governmental agencies. Furthermore, the results indicate that public perceptions of nanoscience in the food domain significantly relate to views on science, technology, and nature.

  18. Mineralization of human premolar occlusal fissures: a quantitative histochemical microanalysis

    Campos, Antonio; Rodriguez, I. A.; Sanchez-Quevedo, M.C.; García, J. M.; Nieto-Albano, O.H.; Gómez de Ferraris, M. E.


    The mechanisms of cariogenesis in occlusal fissures remain elusive because of limited information about fissure structure and wall mineralization. The purpose of the present study was to determine the correlation between morphological patterns in occlusal fissures in human premolars and quantitative histochemical patterns of mineralization in the walls of these formations. We used scanning electron microscopy and quantitative X-ray microanalysis with the peak-t...

  19. Implications of Polishing Techniques in Quantitative X-Ray Microanalysis

    Rémond, Guy; Nockolds, Clive; Phillips, Matthew; Roques-Carmes, Claude


    Specimen preparation using abrasives results in surface and subsurface mechanical (stresses, strains), geometrical (roughness), chemical (contaminants, reaction products) and physical modifications (structure, texture, lattice defects). The mechanisms involved in polishing with abrasives are presented to illustrate the effects of surface topography, surface and subsurface composition and induced lattice defects on the accuracy of quantitative x-ray microanalysis of mineral materials with the electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA). PMID:27446758

  20. 版权法上的公共领域研究%On public domain in copyright law



    Public domain is a core rule of copyright law, under which various creative materials are available for an author to use without charge or liability for infringement, hence ensuring the effective implementation of copyright law.Public domain is characterized by openness, public ownership, irrevocability and formality. Based on the premise that the author's work will not be interfered, public domain ultimately aims at the enlargement of its own universe and prosperity of the culture of human society. Its introduction into copyright law satisfies both historical and logical demands. Without its acknowledgement,copyright cannot be justified. In that sense, public domain and copyright can be deemed as twins. Public domain is not only an existing institution, but also an ideological tendency or a methodology. It has evaluative and inspective values towards copyright. It is an important precondition of copy-rights, and what is more, an important measure for controlling the expansion and realizing the purpose of copyright.%公共领域是版权法的核心,它是保证作者有效运用各种创作素材从而使版权的其余部分得以良好运转的工具.公共领域具有开放性、有主性、不可撤销性和程序性等特征,它以保证作者的创作为前提,却最终以自身的不断扩大和人类社会的文化繁衍为依归.公共领域在版权法上的生成既是历史的,更是逻辑的.没有公共领域的被承认,也就没有版权的正当性可言,因此公共领域和版权实际上一同诞生.公共领域不仅是一种制度存在物,它更是一种思想倾向和方法论,公共领域对版权具有评价和检视功能,它既是版权运行的重要前提,又是控制版权扩张和实现版权目的的重要手段.

  1. Transmission electron microscopy physics of image formation and microanalysis

    Reimer, Ludwig


    "Transmission Electron Microscopy" presents the theory of image and contrastformation, and the analytical modes in transmission electron microscopy Theprinciples of particle and wave optics of electrons are described Electron-specimen interactions are discussed for evaluating the theory of scattering and phase contrast Also analysed are the kinetical and dynamical theories of electron diffraction and their applications for crystal-structure determination and imaging of lattices and their defects X-ray microanalysis and electron energy-loss spectroscopy are treated as analytical methods The third edition includes a brief discussionof Schottky emission guns, some clarification of minor details, and references to the recent literature

  2. Transmission electron microscopy physics of image formation and microanalysis

    Reimer, Ludwig


    The aim of this book is to present the theory of image and contrast formation and the analytical modes in transmission electron microscopy The principles of particle and wave optics of electrons are described Electron-specimen interactions are discussed for evaluating the theory of scattering and phase contrast Also discussed are the kinematical and dynamical theories of electron diffraction and their applications for crystal structure determination and imaging of lattice defects X-ray microanalysis and energy-loss spectroscopy are treated as analytical methods The second edition includes discussion of recent progress, especially in the areas of energy-loss spectroscopy, crystal-lattice imaging and reflection electron microscopy

  3. Mineralization of human aortas with coarctation: quantitative electron probe microanalysis

    Krefting, E.R.; Roehrig, T.; Broecker, W.; Anyanwu, E.; Schlake, W.; Dittrich, H.; Hoehling, H.J.


    Aortas with coarctation (isthmus stenosis) are obviously an ideal model to investigate pressure dependent changes of the aorta, as one can compare the proximal region (high pressure) with the distal region (low pressure). 7 aortas of patients aged from 2 months to 54 years were investigated. The concentrations of Na, Mg, P, S, C1, K, and Ca were determined by electronprobe microanalysis. Ca and P are constituent parts of the developing mineral and are mainly discussed. The Ca/P ratio (by weight) is about 0.3 in the unmineralized and about 2 in the mineralized tissue. Mineralization is demonstrated by a parallel increase of Ca, P, and the Ca/P ratio. Enrichments of Ca and P are found above all in a subintimal band. Usually they occur proximally and distally, but are much more pronounced proximally. Even in the aorta of a 2 month old infant enrichments were found proximally, but not distally. Thus mineral deposits occur very early in regions of hypertension. The differences between the proximal and distal region may demonstrate the influence of blood pressure on vascular mineralization. The mineralization starts in small compartments, which increase in size and number in the process of mineralization. Mineralized regions could often be localized by cathodoluminescence. But to demonstrate and localize the initial mineral deposits and to quantify element contents, electronprobe microanalysis became indispensable.

  4. Domain of the Gods: Do traditional beliefs hinder public acceptance of the human role in climate change?

    Donner, S.


    Public acceptance of new scientific discoveries like natural selection, plate tectonics, or the human role in climate change naturally lags behind the pace of the discoveries. In the case of climate change, unease or outright rejection of the scientific evidence for the role of human activity in climate change has been a hindrance to mitigation and adaptation efforts. This skepticism is normally attributed to everything from the quality of science education, to disinformation campaigns by representatives of the coal and gas industry, to individual resistance to behavioral change, to the nature of the modern information culture. This skepticism of scientific evidence for climate change, though often inspired by politics, economics and the particular dynamics of climate change, may actually be rooted in ancient beliefs that the climate is beyond the influence of humans. In this presentation, I will outline how the notion that humans control or influence the weather runs contrary to thousands of years of belief in a separation between the earth - the domain of man - and sky - the domain of the gods. Evidence from religious history, traditional villages in the Pacific (Fjij and Kiribati) and from public discourse in North America all indicates that the millennia-old belief in an earth-sky separation hinders people's acceptance that human activity is affecting the climate. The human role in climate change therefore represents a substantial paradigm shift, similar to the role of natural selection in human evolution. These deep roots of climate change skepticism must be factored into public climate change education efforts.

  5. The Maritime Public Domain - concept and implementation in diferent national legal systems.

    Marco Gameiro Antunes


    The paper will also describe how the ownership (public vs. private of coastal and estuarine margins is seen in some legal systems, considering the contribution of MPD to the protection of estuarine water and to the biodiversity resources.

  6. 32 CFR 705.35 - Armed Forces participation in events in the public domain.


    ... Department of Defense to ensure compliance with public law, to assure equitable distribution of resources to... primary attraction. (4) Armed Forces participation is authorized in a fund-raising event only when the...

  7. Production of radioactive phantoms using a standard inkjet printer and the public domain multi-printing code GENIA.

    Scafè, R; Auer, P; Bennati, P; La Porta, L; Pisacane, F; Cinti, M N; Pellegrini, R; De Vincentis, G; Conte, G; Pani, R


    The public domain code GENIA, based on multi-printing method for producing surface sources with appropriate radioactivity, is described. The conventional technique, running on standard inkjet printer with radio-marked ink filling, is improved by repeating elementary printing commands in the same band. Well outlined sources with adjustable radioactivity can be obtained without refilling. The intrinsic limitation of printable radioactivity, depending on the value available at nozzles at printing time, was overcome. In addition the method permits the accurate calibration of the amount of activity released onto the paper.

  8. Citing National Publications as a metrics for localization of Science: A Study on Scholar Journals of Social Science Domain in Iran from 2002 to 2010

    Mohammad Tavakolizadeh-Ravari


    Conclusion: Based on this metric, the tendency toward the use of national publications in the social science domain is constant despite the number of scientific productions is growing in Iran. This means that the Iranian social science domain not only doesn’t tend to the science localization but its use of foreign science is growing in the span of time as well.

  9. Changing Perceptions of Homesteading as a Policy of Public Domain Disposal

    Edwards, Richard


    The inspiring story of homesteaders claiming free land and realizing their dreams became one of the enduring narratives of American history. But scholars who have studied homesteading have often been much more ambivalent, even harshly negative, about how successful it was in practice. While the public often views our history differently from…

  10. 2nd International Multidisciplinary Microscopy and Microanalysis Congress

    Oral, Ahmet; Ozer, Mehmet


    The 2nd International Multidisciplinary Microscopy and Microanalysis Congress & Exhibition (InterM 2014) was held on 16–19 October 2014 in Oludeniz, Fethiye/ Mugla, Turkey. The aim of the congress was to gather scientists from various branches and discuss the latest improvements in the field of microscopy. The focus of the congress has been widened in an "interdisciplinary" manner, so as to allow all scientists working on several related subjects to participate and present their work. These proceedings include 33 peer-reviewed technical papers, submitted by leading academic and research institutions from over 17 countries and representing some of the most cutting-edge research available. The papers were presented at the congress in the following sessions: ·         Applications of Microscopy in the Physical Sciences ·         Applications of Microscopy in the Biological Sciences.

  11. Standardless quantification by parameter optimization in electron probe microanalysis

    Limandri, Silvina P. [Instituto de Fisica Enrique Gaviola (IFEG), CONICET (Argentina); Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Medina Allende s/n, (5016) Cordoba (Argentina); Bonetto, Rita D. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ciencias Aplicadas Dr. Jorge Ronco (CINDECA), CONICET, 47 Street 257, (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 1 and 47 Streets (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Josa, Victor Galvan; Carreras, Alejo C. [Instituto de Fisica Enrique Gaviola (IFEG), CONICET (Argentina); Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Medina Allende s/n, (5016) Cordoba (Argentina); Trincavelli, Jorge C., E-mail: [Instituto de Fisica Enrique Gaviola (IFEG), CONICET (Argentina); Facultad de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Medina Allende s/n, (5016) Cordoba (Argentina)


    A method for standardless quantification by parameter optimization in electron probe microanalysis is presented. The method consists in minimizing the quadratic differences between an experimental spectrum and an analytical function proposed to describe it, by optimizing the parameters involved in the analytical prediction. This algorithm, implemented in the software POEMA (Parameter Optimization in Electron Probe Microanalysis), allows the determination of the elemental concentrations, along with their uncertainties. The method was tested in a set of 159 elemental constituents corresponding to 36 spectra of standards (mostly minerals) that include trace elements. The results were compared with those obtained with the commercial software GENESIS Spectrum Registered-Sign for standardless quantification. The quantifications performed with the method proposed here are better in the 74% of the cases studied. In addition, the performance of the method proposed is compared with the first principles standardless analysis procedure DTSA for a different data set, which excludes trace elements. The relative deviations with respect to the nominal concentrations are lower than 0.04, 0.08 and 0.35 for the 66% of the cases for POEMA, GENESIS and DTSA, respectively. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method for standardless quantification in EPMA is presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It gives better results than the commercial software GENESIS Spectrum. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It gives better results than the software DTSA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It allows the determination of the conductive coating thickness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It gives an estimation for the concentration uncertainties.

  12. 41 CFR 102-75.100 - When an agency holds land withdrawn or reserved from the public domain and determines that it no...


    ... land withdrawn or reserved from the public domain and determines that it no longer needs this land, what must it do? 102-75.100 Section 102-75.100 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... it no longer needs this land, what must it do? An agency holding unneeded land withdrawn or...

  13. Asthma in Urban Children: Epidemiology, Environmental Risk Factors, and the Public Health Domain.

    Milligan, Ki Lee; Matsui, Elizabeth; Sharma, Hemant


    Asthma is the most commonly reported chronic condition of childhood in developed countries, with 6.5 million children affected in the USA. A disparate burden of childhood asthma is seen among socioeconomically disadvantaged youth, often concentrated in urban areas with high poverty rates. Host factors that predispose a child to asthma include atopy, male gender, parental history of asthma, and also race, ethnicity, and genetic and epigenetic susceptibilities. Environmental factors, such as improved hygiene, ambient air pollution, and early life exposures to microbes and aeroallergens, also influence the development of asthma. With greater than 90% of time spent indoors, home exposures (such as cockroach, rodent, and indoor air pollution) are highly relevant for urban asthma. Morbidity reduction may require focused public health initiatives for environmental intervention in high priority risk groups and the addition of immune modulatory agents in children with poorly controlled disease.

  14. A high-order public domain code for direct numerical simulations of turbulent combustion

    Babkovskaia, N; Brandenburg, A


    A high-order scheme for direct numerical simulations of turbulent combustion is discussed. Its implementation in the massively parallel and publicly available Pencil Code is validated with the focus on hydrogen combustion. Ignition delay times (0D) and laminar flame velocities (1D) are calculated and compared with results from the commercially available Chemkin code. The scheme is verified to be fifth order in space. Upon doubling the resolution, a 32-fold increase in the accuracy of the flame front is demonstrated. Finally, also turbulent and spherical flame front velocities are calculated and the implementation of the non-reflecting so-called Navier-Stokes Characteristic Boundary Condition is validated in all three directions.

  15. Bismuth(V) oxide and silver bismuthate as oxidizing agents for gas-chromatographic elemental microanalysis

    Shvykin, A.Y.; Platonov, V.V.; Proskuryakov, V.P.; Chilachava, K.B.; Khmarin, E.M.; Kovtun, I.V. [Tolstoy State Pedag University, Tula (Russian Federation)


    Bismuth(V) oxide, silver bismuthate, and a mixture of bismuth(V) oxide with fine silver powder were studied as oxidizing additives in gas-chromatographic elemental microanalysis of readily combustible organic substances and coal.

  16. Development of mooring-anchor program in public domain for coupling with floater program for FOWTs (Floating Offshore Wind Turbines)

    Kim, MooHyun [American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), Houston, TX (United States)


    This report presents the development of offshore anchor data sets which are intended to be used to develop a database that allows preliminary selection and sizing of anchors for the conceptual design of floating offshore wind turbines (FOWTs). The study is part of a project entitled “Development of Mooring-Anchor Program in Public Domain for Coupling with Floater Program for FOWTs (Floating Offshore Wind Turbines)”, under the direction of Dr. Moo-Hyun Kim at the Texas A&M University and with the sponsorship from the US Department of Energy (Contract No. DE-EE0005479, CFDA # 81.087 for DE-FOA-0000415, Topic Area 1.3: Subsurface Mooring and Anchoring Dynamics Models).

  17. Spatial Resolution and Detectability Limits in Thin-Film X-Ray Microanalysis

    Goldstein, J. I.; Lyman, C. E.; Zhang, Jing


    The major advantages of performing x-ray microanalysis in the analytical electron microscope (AEM) are the high compositional spatial resolution and the elemental analysis sensitivity. Unfortunately, there is usually a trade-off between these two advantages. This paper discusses the factors involved in the optimization of both spatial resolution and sensitivity during x-ray microanalysis and shows the results of such optimization experiments for several AEM instruments.



    In production of soft capsules, natural and semi-synthetic vegetative analogues for pharmaceutical gelatin are used. This work is devoted to defining elemental composition of vegetative analogs for pharmaceutical gelatin using the electron probe microanalysis method. The electron probe microanalysis is one of the most popular methods of quantitative and semi-quantitative nondestructive elemental analysis. Spectrometric profiles are described for defining the composition of carboxymethylcellul...

  19. Open window: when easily identifiable genomes and traits are in the public domain.

    Misha Angrist

    Full Text Available "One can't be of an enquiring and experimental nature, and still be very sensible."--Charles Fort. As the costs of personal genetic testing "self-quantification" fall, publicly accessible databases housing people's genotypic and phenotypic information are gradually increasing in number and scope. The latest entrant is openSNP, which allows participants to upload their personal genetic/genomic and self-reported phenotypic data. I believe the emergence of such open repositories of human biological data is a natural reflection of inquisitive and digitally literate people's desires to make genomic and phenotypic information more easily available to a community beyond the research establishment. Such unfettered databases hold the promise of contributing mightily to science, science education and medicine. That said, in an age of increasingly widespread governmental and corporate surveillance, we would do well to be mindful that genomic DNA is uniquely identifying. Participants in open biological databases are engaged in a real-time experiment whose outcome is unknown.

  20. Evolution of Industry Knowledge in the Public Domain: Prior Art Searching for Software Patents

    Jinseok Park


    Full Text Available Searching prior art is a key part of the patent application and examination processes. A comprehensive prior art search gives the inventor ideas as to how he can improve or circumvent existing technology by providing up to date knowledge on the state of the art. It also enables the patent applicant to minimise the likelihood of an objection from the patent office. This article explores the characteristics of prior art associated with software patents, dealing with difficulties in searching prior art due to the lack of resources, and considers public contribution to the formation of prior art databases. It addresses the evolution of electronic prior art in line with technological development, and discusses laws and practices in the EPO, USPTO, and the JPO in relation to the validity of prior art resources on the Internet. This article also investigates the main features of searching sources and tools in the three patent offices as well as non-patent literature databases. Based on the analysis of various searching databases, it provides some strategies of efficient prior art searching that should be considered for software-related inventions.

  1. Monitoring Urban Tree Cover Using Object-Based Image Analysis and Public Domain Remotely Sensed Data

    Meghan Halabisky


    Full Text Available Urban forest ecosystems provide a range of social and ecological services, but due to the heterogeneity of these canopies their spatial extent is difficult to quantify and monitor. Traditional per-pixel classification methods have been used to map urban canopies, however, such techniques are not generally appropriate for assessing these highly variable landscapes. Landsat imagery has historically been used for per-pixel driven land use/land cover (LULC classifications, but the spatial resolution limits our ability to map small urban features. In such cases, hyperspatial resolution imagery such as aerial or satellite imagery with a resolution of 1 meter or below is preferred. Object-based image analysis (OBIA allows for use of additional variables such as texture, shape, context, and other cognitive information provided by the image analyst to segment and classify image features, and thus, improve classifications. As part of this research we created LULC classifications for a pilot study area in Seattle, WA, USA, using OBIA techniques and freely available public aerial photography. We analyzed the differences in accuracies which can be achieved with OBIA using multispectral and true-color imagery. We also compared our results to a satellite based OBIA LULC and discussed the implications of per-pixel driven vs. OBIA-driven field sampling campaigns. We demonstrated that the OBIA approach can generate good and repeatable LULC classifications suitable for tree cover assessment in urban areas. Another important finding is that spectral content appeared to be more important than spatial detail of hyperspatial data when it comes to an OBIA-driven LULC.

  2. Improved electron probe microanalysis of trace elements in quartz

    Donovan, John J.; Lowers, Heather; Rusk, Brian G.


    Quartz occurs in a wide range of geologic environments throughout the Earth's crust. The concentration and distribution of trace elements in quartz provide information such as temperature and other physical conditions of formation. Trace element analyses with modern electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA) instruments can achieve 99% confidence detection of ~100 ppm with fairly minimal effort for many elements in samples of low to moderate average atomic number such as many common oxides and silicates. However, trace element measurements below 100 ppm in many materials are limited, not only by the precision of the background measurement, but also by the accuracy with which background levels are determined. A new "blank" correction algorithm has been developed and tested on both Cameca and JEOL instruments, which applies a quantitative correction to the emitted X-ray intensities during the iteration of the sample matrix correction based on a zero level (or known trace) abundance calibration standard. This iterated blank correction, when combined with improved background fit models, and an "aggregate" intensity calculation utilizing multiple spectrometer intensities in software for greater geometric efficiency, yields a detection limit of 2 to 3 ppm for Ti and 6 to 7 ppm for Al in quartz at 99% t-test confidence with similar levels for absolute accuracy.

  3. Diamond exploration and mantle structure imaging using PIXE microanalysis

    Ryan, C.G.; Griffin, W.L.; Win, T.T. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience


    Geochemical methods of diamond exploration rely on recognizing indicator minerals that formed in the earth`s upper mantle, within the diamond stability field, and were entrained in rapidly rising volatile-rich magmas and emplaced in or on the crust. Diamond is only stable at high pressure. Therefore, diamond exploration commonly targets prospects containing high pressure minerals, such as low-Ca, high-Cr (`G10`) garnets and high-Cr chromites, similar to inclusions in diamonds. However, this procedure can be ambiguous; some barren pipes contain abundant `G10` garnets. while such garnets are extremely rare in the Argyle pipe, the world`s largest diamond producer. Similarly, high-Cr chromites are shed by a wide variety of barren rock types. PIXE microanalysis of trace elements in concentrate garnets and chromites from kimberlites and other volcanic rocks helps to remove the ambiguities by pinning down the source temperature (T), pressure (P) and local (paleo)geotherm (P-T relation), which permits the rich store of trace element information in these minerals, reflecting rock chemistry and metasomatic processes, to be placed in a stratigraphic context. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Correlated Microanalysis of Cometary Organic Grains Returned by Stardust

    DeGregorio, B. T.; Stroud, R. M.; Nittler, L. R.; Cody, G. D,; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.


    Preliminary examination (PE) of samples returned from Comet 81P/Wild 2 by the NASA Stardust mission revealed a wide variety of carbonaceous samples [e.g. 1]. Carbonaceous matter is present as inclusions, rinds, and films in polyminerallic terminal particles [2-4], as carbon-rich particles along track walls [2, 5, 6], and as organic matter in aerogel around tracks [7, 8]. The organic chemistry of these samples ranges from purely aliphatic hydrocarbons to highly-aromatic material, often modified by various organic functional groups [2, 4, 5, 9-11]. Difficulty arises when interpreting the genesis of these carbonaceous samples, since contaminants could be introduced from the spacecraft [12], aerogel [1, 8], or during sample preparation. In addition, hypervelocity capture into aerogel may have heated cometary material in excess of 1000 C, which could have significantly altered the structure and chemistry of carbonaceous matter. Fortunately, much of this contamination or alteration can be identified through correlated microanalysis with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning-transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM), and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS).

  5. Use of media and public-domain Internet sources for detection and assessment of plant health threats

    David M. Hartley


    Full Text Available Event-based biosurveillance is a recognized approach to early warning and situational awareness of emerging health threats. In this study, we build upon previous human and animal health work to develop a new approach to plant pest and pathogen surveillance. We show that monitoring public domain electronic media for indications and warning of epidemics and associated social disruption can provide information about the emergence and progression of plant pest infestation or disease outbreak. The approach is illustrated using a case study, which describes a plant pest and pathogen epidemic in China and Vietnam from February 2006 to December 2007, and the role of ducks in contributing to zoonotic virus spread in birds and humans. This approach could be used as a complementary method to traditional plant pest and pathogen surveillance to aid global and national plant protection officials and political leaders in early detection and timely response to significant biological threats to plant health, economic vitality, and social stability. This study documents the inter-relatedness of health in human, animal, and plant populations and emphasizes the importance of plant health surveillance.

  6. How Large Is the "Public Domain"? A Comparative Analysis of Ringer's 1961 Copyright Renewal Study and HathiTrust CRMS Data

    Wilkin, John P.


    The 1961 Copyright Office study on renewals, authored by Barbara Ringer, has cast an outsized influence on discussions of the U.S. 1923-1963 public domain. As more concrete data emerge from initiatives such as the large-scale determination process in the Copyright Review Management System (CRMS) project, questions are raised about the reliability…

  7. Estimating and modelling bias of the hierarchical partitioning public-domain software: implications in environmental management and conservation.

    Pedro P Olea

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hierarchical partitioning (HP is an analytical method of multiple regression that identifies the most likely causal factors while alleviating multicollinearity problems. Its use is increasing in ecology and conservation by its usefulness for complementing multiple regression analysis. A public-domain software "hier.part package" has been developed for running HP in R software. Its authors highlight a "minor rounding error" for hierarchies constructed from >9 variables, however potential bias by using this module has not yet been examined. Knowing this bias is pivotal because, for example, the ranking obtained in HP is being used as a criterion for establishing priorities of conservation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using numerical simulations and two real examples, we assessed the robustness of this HP module in relation to the order the variables have in the analysis. Results indicated a considerable effect of the variable order on the amount of independent variance explained by predictors for models with >9 explanatory variables. For these models the nominal ranking of importance of the predictors changed with variable order, i.e. predictors declared important by its contribution in explaining the response variable frequently changed to be either most or less important with other variable orders. The probability of changing position of a variable was best explained by the difference in independent explanatory power between that variable and the previous one in the nominal ranking of importance. The lesser is this difference, the more likely is the change of position. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HP should be applied with caution when more than 9 explanatory variables are used to know ranking of covariate importance. The explained variance is not a useful parameter to use in models with more than 9 independent variables. The inconsistency in the results obtained by HP should be considered in future studies as well as in those

  8. Domains of quality of life: results of a three-stage Delphi consensus procedure among patients, family of patients, clinicians, scientists and the general public.

    Pietersma, Suzanne; de Vries, Marieke; van den Akker-van Marle, M Elske


    Our key objective is to identify the core domains of health-related quality of life (QoL). Health-related QoL utility scales are commonly used in economic evaluations to assess the effectiveness of health-care interventions. However, health-care interventions are likely to affect QoL in a broader sense than is quantifiable with traditional scales. Therefore, measures need to go beyond these scales. Unfortunately, there is no consensus in the scientific literature on the essential domains of QoL. We conducted a three-stage online Delphi consensus procedure to identify the key domains of health-related QoL. Five stakeholder groups (i.e., patients, family of patients, clinicians, scientists and general public) were asked, on three consecutive occasions, what they perceive as the most important domains of health-related QoL. An analysis of existing (health-related) QoL and well-being measurements formed the basis of the Delphi-procedure. In total, 42 domains of QoL were judged, covering physical, mental and social aspects. All participants rated 'self-acceptance', 'self-esteem' and 'good social contacts' as essential. Strikingly, mental and social domains are perceived as more essential than physical domains across stakeholders groups. In traditionally used health-related QoL utility measures, physical domains like 'mobility' are prominently present. The Delphi-procedure shows that health-related QoL (utility) scales need to put sufficient emphasis on mental and social domains to capture aspects of QoL that are essential to people.

  9. Scanning electron microscopy and electron probe X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EPMA) of pink teeth

    Ikeda, N.; Watanabe, G.; Harada, A.; Suzuki, T.


    Samples of postmortem pink teeth were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and electron probe X-ray microanalysis. Fracture surfaces of the dentin in pink teeth were noticeably rough and revealed many more smaller dentinal tubules than those of the control white teeth. Electron probe X-ray microanalysis showed that the pink teeth contained iron which seemed to be derived from blood hemoglobin. The present study confirms that under the same circumstance red coloration of teeth may occur more easily in the teeth in which the dentin is less compact and contains more dentinal tubules.

  10. Microanalysis of vitrous char and associated polymers: reference and ancient assemblages

    Allue, E.; Bonnamy, S.; Courty, M. M.; Gispert I Guirado, F.


    Formation of vitrous char that occur in ancient charcoal assemblages have remained unsolved. Laboratory experiments refuted vitrification to resulting from high temperature charring of green or resinous wood. This puzzling problem has been refreshed by showing the association to the charcoal and vitrous char of plastics that were originally supposed to only be produced by petroleum industry. Extraction of similar polymers within geological glassy products from cosmic airbursts has suggested impact processes to possibly forming the carbonaceous polymorphs. The pulverisation at the ground in the Angles village (French Eastern Pyrenees) following the 2011 August 2nd high altitude meteor explosion of exotic debris with vitrous char and polymers, just alike the puzzling ones of the geological and archaeological records, has provided potential reference materials. We present here their microanalysis by Environmental SEM with EDS, Raman micro-spectrometry and FTIR, XRD, TEM, ICP-MS and isotope analyses. The characterization helps elucidating how the carbonaceous polymorphs formed by transient heating and transient high pressure of atmospheric aerosols. Under TEM the vesicular, dense, vitrous char show high structural organization with a dense pattern of nano-sized graphitized domains, metals and mineral inclusions. The coupled Raman-ESEM has allowed identifying a complex pattern at micro scales of ordered "D" peak at 1320-1350 cm-1 and the graphitic, ordered peak at 1576-1590 cm-1, in association to amorphous and poorly graphitic ordered carbon. The later occurs within plant cells that have been extracted from the dense vitrous char by performing controlled combustion under nitrogen up to 1000°C. In contrast, the brittle, vesicular vitrous char and the polymers encountered at the rear of the pulverised airburst debris reveal to be formed of agglutinated micro spherules of amorphous carbon with rare crystallized carbon nano-domains and scattered mineral inclusions. They

  11. Combining Public Domain and Professional Panoramic Imagery for the Accurate and Dense 3d Reconstruction of the Destroyed Bel Temple in Palmyra

    Wahbeh, W.; Nebiker, S.; Fangi, G.


    This paper exploits the potential of dense multi-image 3d reconstruction of destroyed cultural heritage monuments by either using public domain touristic imagery only or by combining the public domain imagery with professional panoramic imagery. The focus of our work is placed on the reconstruction of the temple of Bel, one of the Syrian heritage monuments, which was destroyed in September 2015 by the so called "Islamic State". The great temple of Bel is considered as one of the most important religious buildings of the 1st century AD in the East with a unique design. The investigations and the reconstruction were carried out using two types of imagery. The first are freely available generic touristic photos collected from the web. The second are panoramic images captured in 2010 for documenting those monuments. In the paper we present a 3d reconstruction workflow for both types of imagery using state-of-the art dense image matching software, addressing the non-trivial challenges of combining uncalibrated public domain imagery with panoramic images with very wide base-lines. We subsequently investigate the aspects of accuracy and completeness obtainable from the public domain touristic images alone and from the combination with spherical panoramas. We furthermore discuss the challenges of co-registering the weakly connected 3d point cloud fragments resulting from the limited coverage of the touristic photos. We then describe an approach using spherical photogrammetry as a virtual topographic survey allowing the co-registration of a detailed and accurate single 3d model of the temple interior and exterior.

  12. Use of X-ray microanalysis for study of cation distribution in potassium deficient pumpkin roots

    Natalia Burmistrova


    Full Text Available Ice slices of root tissues were investigated by X-ray microanalysis. It is shown that the cytoplasm of the meristematic and differentiated cells of potassium dificiest roots maintains a high potassium level. The vacuoles of various root cells loose more K and accumulate more Na and Mg than does the cytoplasm.

  13. Measurement of Mg Content in Zn1-xMgxO Films by Electron Probe Microanalysis

    YAN Feng-Ping; JIAN Shui-Sheng; WANG Lin; Kenichi OGATA; Kazuto KOIKE; Shigehiko SASA; Masatake INOUE; Mitsuaki YANO


    @@ Zn1-xMgxO films are grown on A-sapphire substrates by molecular beam epitaxy, and Mg content in the Zn1-xMgx O films is measured by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) when the acceleration voltage, the emis-sion current, and the magnification are set to be 1kV, 30μA and 1000, respectively.

  14. Improved vacuum evaporation unit for beryllium coating for biological X-ray microanalysis.

    Marshall, A T; Carde, D; Kent, M


    An improved vacuum evaporator is described for coating frozen-hydrated biological samples with beryllium for X-ray microanalysis. The evaporator permits repeated coatings without bringing the main chamber to atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. The use of a glass sleeve in the evaporation chamber facilitates cleaning.

  15. Integrating NASA's Land Analysis System (LAS) image processing software with an appropriate Geographic Information System (GIS): A review of candidates in the public domain

    Rochon, Gilbert L.


    A user requirements analysis (URA) was undertaken to determine and appropriate public domain Geographic Information System (GIS) software package for potential integration with NASA's LAS (Land Analysis System) 5.0 image processing system. The necessity for a public domain system was underscored due to the perceived need for source code access and flexibility in tailoring the GIS system to the needs of a heterogenous group of end-users, and to specific constraints imposed by LAS and its user interface, Transportable Applications Executive (TAE). Subsequently, a review was conducted of a variety of public domain GIS candidates, including GRASS 3.0, MOSS, IEMIS, and two university-based packages, IDRISI and KBGIS. The review method was a modified version of the GIS evaluation process, development by the Federal Interagency Coordinating Committee on Digital Cartography. One IEMIS-derivative product, the ALBE (AirLand Battlefield Environment) GIS, emerged as the most promising candidate for integration with LAS. IEMIS (Integrated Emergency Management Information System) was developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). ALBE GIS is currently under development at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under contract with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Engineering Topographic Laboratory (ETL). Accordingly, recommendations are offered with respect to a potential LAS/ALBE GIS linkage and with respect to further system enhancements, including coordination with the development of the Spatial Analysis and Modeling System (SAMS) GIS in Goddard's IDM (Intelligent Data Management) developments in Goddard's National Space Science Data Center.

  16. Investigation of soil mineral component in the Baikal Region by X-ray electron probe microanalysis

    Belozerova, Olga Uu., E-mail: obel@igc.irk.r [Vinogradov Institute of Geochemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Favorky St., 1 A, 664033 Irkutsk (Russian Federation)


    The procedure of X-ray electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) has been developed for the investigation of soil mineral component. In terms of reproducibility and accuracy, the suggested EPMA procedure satisfies the requirements of analysis of the second category. The phase and chemical composition of soil mineral component were investigated by X-ray electron probe microanalysis with the aim of environmental pollution estimation in Lake Baikal Region. The investigations of soil mineral component by EPMA from regions with various man-caused loading degrees allow identification of basic pollution sources and their influence on the environment and estimation of anthropogenic accumulation in clear background regions and regions with high man-caused loading degree.

  17. [Progress in the application of laser ablation ICP-MS to surface microanalysis in material science].

    Zhang, Yong; Jia, Yun-hai; Chen, Ji-wen; Shen, Xue-jing; Liu, Ying; Zhao, Leiz; Li, Dong-ling; Hang, Peng-cheng; Zhao, Zhen; Fan, Wan-lun; Wang, Hai-zhou


    In the present paper, apparatus and theory of surface analysis is introduced, and the progress in the application of laser ablation ICP-MS to microanalysis in ferrous, nonferrous and semiconductor field is reviewed in detail. Compared with traditional surface analytical tools, such as SEM/EDS (scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrum), EPMA (electron probe microanalysis analysis), AES (auger energy spectrum), etc. the advantage is little or no sample preparation, adjustable spatial resolution according to analytical demand, multi-element analysis and high sensitivity. It is now a powerful complementary method to traditional surface analytical tool. With the development of LA-ICP-MS technology maturing, more and more analytical workers will use this powerful tool in the future, and LA-ICP-MS will be a super star in elemental analysis field just like LIBS (Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy).

  18. Characterization of PEM fuel cell membrane-electrode-assemblies by electrochemical methods and microanalysis

    Borup, R.L.; Vanderborgh, N.E.


    Hydrogen adsorption/desorption and CO oxidation are used to evaluate the active Pt surface area of fuel cell membrane electrode assemblies. The membrane electrode assemblies are evaluated for useful catalyst life and are examined for relative CO and CO{sub 2} tolerance. The electrochemical measurements combined with microanalysis of membrane electrode assemblies, including SEM and EDS allow a greater understanding and optimization of process variables.

  19. Biological X-ray Microanalysis: The Past, Present Practices, and Future Prospects.

    Echlin, Patrick


    Abrief description is given of the events surrounding the development of biological X-ray microanalysis during the last 30 years, with particular emphasis on the contribution made by research workers in Cambridge, UK. There then follows a broad review of some applications of biological X-ray microanalysis. A more detailed consideration is given to the main thrust of current procedures and applications that are, for convenience, considered as four different kinds of samples. Thin frozen dried sections which are analyzed at ambient temperatures in a transmission electron microscope (TEM); semithin frozen dried sections which are analyzed at low temperature in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM); thick frozen hydrated sections which are analyzed at low temperature in a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and bulk samples which are analyzed at low temperature in the same type of instrument. A brief outline is given of the advantages and disadvantages of performing low-voltage, low-temperature X-ray microanalysis on frozen hydrated bulk biological material. The article concludes with a consideration of alternative approaches to in situ analysis using either high-energy beams or visible and near-visible photons.

  20. Assessment of metal contaminants in non-small cell lung cancer by EDX microanalysis

    M. Scimeca


    Full Text Available Human cardio-respiratory diseases are strongly correlated to concentrations of atmospheric elements. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals is strictly monitored, because of its possible toxic effects. In this work, we utilized the EDX microanalysis in order to identify the potential heavy metal accumulation in the lung tissue.  To this aim, we enrolled 45 human lung biopsies: 15 non-small cell lung cancers, 15 lung benign lesions and 15 control biopsies. Lung samples were both paraffin embedded for light microscopy study and eponepoxid embedded for transmission electron microscopy. EDX microanalysis was performed on 100 nm thick unstained ultrathin-sections placed on specific copper grids. Our results demonstrated that the EDX technology was particularly efficient in the study of elemental composition of lung tissues, where we found heavy metals, such as Cobalt (Co, Chromium (Cr, Manganese (Mn and Lead (Pb. Furthermore, in malignant lesions we demonstrated the presence of multiple bio-accumulated elements. In fact, a high rate of lung cancers was associated with the presence of 3 or more bio-accumulated elements compared to benign lesions and control tissue (91.7%, 0%, 8.3%, respectively. The environmental impact on pulmonary carcinogenesis could be better clarified by demonstrating the presence of polluting agents in lung tissues. The application of EDX microanalysis on biological tissuescould shed new light in the study of the possible bioaccumulation of polluting agents in different human organs and systems.

  1. 报刊公共领域与邹韬奋%The public domain of newspaper and journal and Zou Taofen



      众所周知,邹韬奋是我国卓越的新闻记者、出版家,更是一名进步爱国的政论家。他主编的《生活》周刊、《大众生活》和《全民抗战》刊物,由于其客观的立场、报刊的公共性和其注重与读者平等的讨论,构成了报刊公共领域。作为这一公共领域中的发言人角色,邹韬奋积极发表新闻评论,设立读者信箱和小言论等精品栏目,与读者和同仁进行交流。这些编辑出版活动充分展现了邹韬奋在报刊公共空间中的舆论引导作用。%  As we all know, Zou Tao-fen is an excellent journalist, publishing house, was a progressive patriotic political commentators. He published in life magazine, the public and the National Journal of the war, due to its objective of publicity and its focus on position, press and reader discussions on an equal footing, forming the newspaper of the public domain. Role as spokesman in this public area, Zou Tao-fen news positive comments, set up reader mail and small boutique, such as columns, communicate with colleagues and readers. These activities have fully demonstrated Zou taofen's editing and publishing in the newspaper public opinion to guide the role of the public space.

  2. Development of a quantification method for x-ray microanalysis with an electron microscope

    Horny, Paula

    The overview of the history of quantitative x-ray microanalysis shows the efficiency of the use of standards to achieve the most reliable quantification. State-of-the-art cold field emission gun scanning electron microscopes offer excellent resolution but lack a sufficient level of beam current stability essential for reliable quantitative microanalysis. The purpose of this work is to develop a new method for quantitative x-ray microanalysis adapted to unstable beam current conditions. In the Cliff and Lorimer method, which was developed for the analytical transmission electron microscope, the composition was calculated from the ratio of the characteristic x-ray intensities of two elements in the same spectrum. In this work, this ratio method is applied to bulk specimens in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). In order to reduce the amplitude of error propagation, the proposed ratio for SEM quantitative microanalysis is the intensity of a x-ray divided by the sum of intensities of one or more characteristic lines of each of tire elements found in the specimen. Moreover, the calculated x-ray intensities are corrected for the effects of absorption, fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields, and other physical factors normally considered in microbeam analysis. Uncertainties in physical parameters and models, clue to the lack of exhaustive measurements as well as their scattering, revealed by a disaggrement between the measured and calculated ratios, are minimized by the use of a calibration factor inserted into the ratio. This calibration factor is determined using a standard for a given element. It can be used as often as needed and allows for the correction of uncertainties in the x-ray detector efficiency. In order to quantify the specimen, the measured experimental ratio is compared to a simulated ratio with the appropriate calibration factor. The composition is interpolated from the theoretical ratio curves. Two methods of calculation of emitted x-ray intensity are

  3. The sailor, the turtle and the jungle man - striking the balance between protection and public domain in fictional character merchandising

    Preiss LL.M., Sven


    What is it that ‘Popeye the Sailor’, the ‘Teenage Mutant Hero Turtles’ and ‘Tarzan’ have in common? Besides being well-known fictitious characters, each of them is overwhelmingly successful in terms of entertainment (for the public) and revenue (for the industry behind it). They exemplify the possibility of the fictional characters’ owners not only using them for their basic purpose, i.e. in books, comics, movies, broadcasts, etc., but also of secondary exploitation of the characters’ gained ...

  4. An assessment of mercury in estuarine sediment and tissue in Southern New Jersey using public domain data

    Ng, Kara; Szabo, Zoltan; Reilly, Pamela A.; Barringer, Julia; Smalling, Kelly L.


    Mercury (Hg) is considered a contaminant of global concern for coastal environments due to its toxicity, widespread occurrence in sediment, and bioaccumulation in tissue. Coastal New Jersey, USA, is characterized by shallow bays and wetlands that provide critical habitat for wildlife but share space with expanding urban landscapes. This study was designed as an assessment of the magnitude and distribution of Hg in coastal New Jersey sediments and critical species using publicly available data to highlight potential data gaps. Mercury concentrations in estuary sediments can exceed 2 μg/g and correlate with concentrations of other metals. Based on existing data, the concentrations of Hg in mussels in southern New Jersey are comparable to those observed in other urbanized Atlantic Coast estuaries. Lack of methylmercury data for sediments, other media, and tissues are data gaps needing to be filled for a clearer understanding of the impacts of Hg inputs to the ecosystem.

  5. Electron probe microanalysis of fluorine in polluted needle sections of Abies alba

    Garrec, J.P.; Lhoste, A.M.


    After fumigation with hydrogen fluoride, sections of needles of Abies alba were studied by electron probe microanalysis. The levels of fluoride vary in different tissues: most fluoride was found in the spongy mesophyll and the palisade tissues as a function of the distance from the cells of entry and the paths of translocation of fluoride. These results support the view that the differential responses of various tissues of a leaf to fumigation with HF depend on the localization of the tissues rather than on a specific response by a particular tissue to fluoride. 15 references, 6 figures.

  6. Structural and elemental X-ray microanalysis with synchrotron radiation in confocal geometry

    Sosa, Carlos M. [IFEG-CONICET, (X5016LAE) Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba (Argentina); Sánchez, H. Jorge [IFEG-CONICET, (X5016LAE) Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba (Argentina); FAMAF, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, (X5016LAE) Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba (Argentina); Pérez, Carlos A. [Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron – LNLS, POB 6192, 13084-971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Perez, Roberto D., E-mail: [IFEG-CONICET, (X5016LAE) Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba (Argentina); FAMAF, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, (X5016LAE) Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba (Argentina)


    A spectrometer for 3D structural and multielemental X-ray microanalysis with synchrotron radiation is presented in this work. It is based on the combination of the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and diffraction with polycapillary optics. The 3D spatial resolution was achieved by the superposition of the foci of two lenses arranged in confocal geometry. The parameters that affect the performance of the spectrometer were study in detail giving rise to a simplified calibration method for depth profile analysis. Two specific examples were included to illustrate the use of the spectrometer in order to identify their possible application fields.

  7. Laboratory astrophysics and microanalysis with NTD-germanium-based X-ray microcalorimeters

    Silver, E.; Schnopper, H.; Bandler, S.; Murray, S.; Madden, N.; Landis, D.; Beeman, J.; Haller, E.; Barbera, M.; Tucker, G.; Gillaspy, J.; Takacs, E.; Porto, J


    With the ability to create cosmic plasma conditions in the laboratory it is possible to investigate the dependencies of key diagnostic X-ray lines on density, temperature, and excitation conditions that exist in astrophysical sources with X-ray optics and a high-resolution X-ray microcalorimeter. The same instrumentation can be coupled to scanning electron microscopes or X-ray fluorescence probes to analyze the elemental and chemical composition of electronic, biological, geological and particulate materials. We describe how our microcalorimeter and X-ray optics provide significantly improved capabilities for laboratory astrophysics and microanalysis.

  8. Microanalysis on the Hydrogen Ion Irradiated 50 wt pct TiC-C Films

    Hui JIANG; Yaoguang LIU; Ningkang HUANG


    The 50 wt pct TiC-C films were prepared on stainless steel substrates by using a technique of ion beam mixing.These films were irradiated by hydrogen ion beam with a dose of 1×1018 ions/cm2 and an energy of 5 keV.Microanalysis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) were used to analyze the films before and after hydrogen ion irradiation and to study the mechanism of hydrogen resistance.

  9. Domains and domain loss

    Haberland, Hartmut


    The domain concept, originally suggested by Schmidt-Rohr in the 1930’s (as credited in Fishman’s writings in the 1970s), was an attempt to sort out different areas of language use in multilingual societies, which are relevant for language choice. In Fishman’s version, domains were considered...... not described in terms of domains, and recent research e.g. about the multilingual communities in the Danish-German border area seems to confirm this....

  10. Application possibilities of several modern methods of microscopy and microanalysis in forensic science field

    Kotrly, Marek; Turkova, Ivana


    The methods of optical and electron microscopy and microanalysis are the linchpin of forensic inorganic analysis. However, their capacity is limited as for the exact identification of pigments and colour layers, and therefore it is essential that they be complemented by other methods of phase microanalysis - powder X-ray microdiffraction (micro pXRD) and FTIR in transmission mode. The classic way of sample division for different methods is not suitable with regard to the inhomogeneity of the sequence of strata. That is why a method was tested that would allow performance of optical microscopy, SEM/EDS(WDS), micro pXRD and FTIR in a nondestructive manner, from an identical spot of a single fragment. The solution can be polished sections - embedded samples and microtome sections. Conductive zerobackground single-crystal silicon plates were developed and tested for sample fixation in SEM, micro pXRD and transmission FTIR. Methods using a focused ion beam - FIB have recently gained importance in the field of electron microscopy. In the forensic sphere they can be employed in examinations of metal materials, technical analyses of documents, post-blast and gunshot residues.

  11. Evaluation of X-ray microanalysis for characterization of dental enamel.

    Melin, Lisa; Norén, Jörgen G; Taube, Fabian; Cornell, David H


    Elemental analysis of dental hard tissues is of importance. The aim of this study is to evaluate X-ray microanalysis (XRMA) of bovine enamel in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with different coatings. The buccal surface of bovine incisors was polished flat, one-third was coated with carbon, one-third with gold, leaving one-third uncoated for XRMA in an SEM equipped with an energy-dispersive microanalysis system. The elements oxygen, sodium, magnesium, phosphorous, chlorine, potassium, and calcium were analyzed using their respective characteristic K X-ray series. Comparisons were made with analyses of glass produced by fusion of the bovine enamel, showing that oxygen analyses using the K X-ray series are reliable and preferable to calculating oxygen by stoichiometry for natural enamel. For the gold-coated and uncoated analyses, carbon was also measured using the K X-ray series. Small area Analyses in small areas (80 × 80 μm) in variable pressure-SEM mode with low vacuum (20 Pa), without any coating, midway between 40 μm wide gold lines 140 μm apart to avoid build-up of electrostatic charge is the preferred method, especially if carbon is included in the analysis. The analyses of bovine enamel are sufficiently reproducible to be regarded as quantitative for all elements except carbon.

  12. Practical applications of energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis in diagnostic oral pathology

    Daley, T.D.; Gibson, D. (Univ. of Western Ontario, London (Canada))


    Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis is a powerful tool that can reveal the presence and relative quantities of elements in minute particles in biologic materials. Although this technique has been used in some aspects of dental research, it has rarely been applied to diagnostic oral pathology. The purpose of this paper is to inform practicing dentists and oral specialists about the diagnostic potential of this procedure by presenting three case reports. The first case involved the identification of flakes of a metallic material claimed by a 14-year-old girl to appear periodically between her mandibular molars. In the second case, a periodontist was spared a lawsuit when a freely mobile mass in the antrum of his patient was found to be a calcium-phosphorus compound not related to the periodontal packing that had been used. The third case involved the differential diagnosis of amalgam tattoo and graphite tattoo in a pigmented lesion of the hard palate mucosa. The results of the analyses were significant and indicate a role for this technique in the assessment of selected cases. Potential for wider use of energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis in diagnostic oral pathology exists as research progresses.

  13. Microanalysis on selected video clips with focus on communicative response in music therapy

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner


    This chapter describes a five-step procedure for video analysis where the topic of investigation is the communicative response of clients in music therapy. In this microanalysis procedure only very short video clips are used, and in order to select these clips an overview of each music therapy se...... picture of what happens in the therapy, so that other professionals, peers, or the therapist him/herself is able to form an understanding of the therapeutic processes, and the clinician is able to document changes or responses.......This chapter describes a five-step procedure for video analysis where the topic of investigation is the communicative response of clients in music therapy. In this microanalysis procedure only very short video clips are used, and in order to select these clips an overview of each music therapy...... player. They are based on individual music therapy work with a population who are difficult to engage in joint activities and who show little response (e.g. persons suffering from severe dementia). The video analysis tools might be relevant to other groups of clients where it is important to form a clear...

  14. Current limitations of SNP data from the public domain for studies of complex disorders: a test for ten candidate genes for obesity and osteoporosis

    Xiao Peng


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public SNP databases are frequently used to choose SNPs for candidate genes in the association and linkage studies of complex disorders. However, their utility for such studies of diseases with ethnic-dependent background has never been evaluated. Results To estimate the accuracy and completeness of SNP public databases, we analyzed the allele frequencies of 41 SNPs in 10 candidate genes for obesity and/or osteoporosis in a large American-Caucasian sample (1,873 individuals from 405 nuclear families by PCR-invader assay. We compared our results with those from the databases and other published studies. Of the 41 SNPs, 8 were monomorphic in our sample. Twelve were reported for the first time for Caucasians and the other 29 SNPs in our sample essentially confirmed the respective allele frequencies for Caucasians in the databases and previous studies. The comparison of our data with other ethnic groups showed significant differentiation between the three major world ethnic groups at some SNPs (Caucasians and Africans differed at 3 of the 18 shared SNPs, and Caucasians and Asians differed at 13 of the 22 shared SNPs. This genetic differentiation may have an important implication for studying the well-known ethnic differences in the prevalence of obesity and osteoporosis, and complex disorders in general. Conclusion A comparative analysis of the SNP data of the candidate genes obtained in the present study, as well as those retrieved from the public domain, suggests that the databases may currently have serious limitations for studying complex disorders with an ethnic-dependent background due to the incomplete and uneven representation of the candidate SNPs in the databases for the major ethnic groups. This conclusion attests to the imperative necessity of large-scale and accurate characterization of these SNPs in different ethnic groups.

  15. Establishing the Public Sphere and Abolishing the Private Domain:The Rise of a Doctrine and Its Social Significance in the Spring and Autumn Period

    Liu Zehua


    The dominant views regarding the concepts of "the public"(gong)and"the private"(si) took shape in the Spring and Autumn period and matured in the succeeding years of the Warring States period.This paper is an attempt to trace both the growth of the vocabulary containing "gong"and "si"and the development of philosophical views regarding issues that center on the relation between the individual and the larger social/communal/political body,of which that individual is a member;it also touches on issues related to the proper handling of public afrairs and the relation between state,sovereign,and the individual.The era is often characterized as"The Contention of the Hundred Schools of Thought,"notwithstanding it ended with but one view that is universally accepted by thinkers of diverse persuasion,namely,si is the source of all social evil and.therefore,should be condemned.This is the doctrine known as ligong miesi(abolishing si so gong may be established),which contributed to the orthodox for that era and the millennium to come.By extolling gong and condemning painted a portrait of the Pair as two irreconcilable nomas or forces in social and political life;it provided a iustification for the then emerging new social arrangement and Ways of distribution of power and resources.and it also led to acute conflicts between the sovereign andthe state,the ruledandthe ruler,the stateandthe subject,as well as the public sphere and the private domain.

  16. Microanalysis on selected video clips with focus on communicative response in music therapy

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner


    session is obtained with the help of a session-graph that is a systematic way of collecting video observations from one music therapy session and combining the data in one figure. The systematic procedures do not demand sophisticated computer equipment; only standard programmes such as Excel and a media......This chapter describes a five-step procedure for video analysis where the topic of investigation is the communicative response of clients in music therapy. In this microanalysis procedure only very short video clips are used, and in order to select these clips an overview of each music therapy...... player. They are based on individual music therapy work with a population who are difficult to engage in joint activities and who show little response (e.g. persons suffering from severe dementia). The video analysis tools might be relevant to other groups of clients where it is important to form a clear...

  17. Nuclear microanalysis of the human amnion: A study of ionic cellular exchanges

    Razafindrabe, L.; Moretto, Ph.; Llabador, Y.; Simonoff, M.; Bara, M.; Guiet-Bara, A.


    The epithelial cells of the human amniotic membrane have been extensively studied by electrophysiologists with the aim of elucidating the mechanisms of transmembrane ionic transfers. In order to provide complementary information about this model, nuclear microanalysis was performed using the CENBG ion microbeam. Quantitative mapping of the human amnion was carried out and the distributions of most mono- and divalent ions involved in cellular pathways (Na +, Mg 2+, Cl -, Ca 2+) were determined. The ionic cellular content was also compared, before and after incubation in a Hanks' physiological fluid and the resultant ions transfers were determined. The aim of this paper is to expose the advances of this experimental model, more particularly after the development of simulation programs which improved the accuracy of PIXE analysis in the measurement of low energy X-rays emitters. Statistically significant results can now be extracted and can be explained taking into account the results of previous electrophysiological experiments.

  18. Cadmium toxicity to the cornea of pregnant rats: Electron microscopy and x-ray microanalysis

    Yoshizuka, M.; McCarthy, K.J.; Kaye, G.I.; Fujimoto, S. (Univ. of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, Kitakyushu (Japan))


    Cadmium toxicity to the cornea of pregnant rats was studied using the electron microscope and x-ray microanalyzer. In in-vivo experiments, severe corneal edema occurred in pregnant dams that received intraperitoneal injections of cadmium sulphate for 4 days during gestation, but not in nonpregnant rats. Prominent swelling of mitochondria and the occurrence of intra- and intercellular vacuoles in the corneal endothelium were observed only in pregnant dams. In in-vitro experiments, electron-dense deposits consisting of cadmium-oxine complexes were preferentially found in swollen mitochondria of the endothelial cells. Cadmium peaks were obtained from these deposits with x-ray microanalysis. These data suggest that the corneal edema observed after administration of cadmium may imply the disturbance of pump function and barrier function of the corneal endothelium due to the primary toxic effects of this metal on mitochondria.

  19. Applications of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis in inner ear pathology

    Anniko, M.; Lim, D.J.; Sobin, A.; Wroblewski, R.


    Surface pathology of inner ear structures so far described in detail concern cochlear and vestibular hair cells and the stria vascularis. In man, surgical intervention into the inner ear is very uncommon and when performed is in general with the primary objective of destroying the diseased peripheral end organs. The vast majority of inner ear tissue available for use with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is therefore obtained from animals. The present paper reviews the progression of surface pathology caused by aminoglycoside antibiotics, acoustic overstimulation and in a guinea pig strain with genetic inner ear disease. The primary site of onset of surface pathology differs, depending on the underlying cause. Advanced surface pathology shows a similar type of morphological degeneration independent of cause. The combination of SEM and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (XRMA) of inner ear pathology has as yet been reported in only three studies, all concerning inner ear fluids or otoconia.

  20. Milli-PIXE of coexisting cooperite and braggite - a comparison with electron probe microanalysis

    Franklyn, C.B. E-mail:; Merkle, R.K.W


    Cooperite and braggite from the Merensky Reef were analyzed by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and milli-PIXE to obtain information on the partitioning of minor and trace elements between the two phases. Limitations of the electron microprobe at low concentrations excluded, in most cases, determination of elements such as Cu, Fe and Rh. First results from the PIXE analyses show that the sensitivity to trace elements has not improved. A striking difference between the techniques was the observation of a higher Pd to Pt ratio in PIXE analyses, as well as higher concentrations of Fe than previously observed. The information obtained from this study emphasizes the problem of comparing analytical results which were obtained by different micro-analytical techniques and constitutes an important step to fingerprinting these economically important minerals in platinum ores.

  1. Clinical applications of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis in dermatology

    Forslind, B.


    Scanning electron microscopy is frequently applied to dermatological problems, as is evident from a review of the recent literature. In this paper, preparation methods and new techniques allowing experimental studies on the integumentary system are emphasized. Quantitative analysis in the electron microscope by use of energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) has become an important accessory technique. EDX can, for instance, be used to study problems involving physiological changes induced in skin by agents causing contact reactions. Recently, it has been shown that treatment with DNCB, chromate and nickel causes changes in elemental distribution in guinea-pig skin. In addition, elemental uptake in the integumentary system and in pathological inclusions in skin can be analyzed.

  2. 网络微博中公共领域与私人领域的融合%The Fusion of the Public Domain and Private Sphere in Network Micro Blog



    It is clarified that based on the public domain and the private sphere,the paper chooses the micro blog as a starting point,takes examples from sociological theory such as discursive power,social role,and opinion leaders,the fusion tendency of the public domain-private sector in the network——the public domain personal and private sector public is clarified.And it is analyzed that based on reality,the effect is brought to the society by fusion of the public or private field.%把微博作为切入点,借鉴话语权、社会角色、意见领袖等社会学理论阐释了网络中公共领域和私人领域融合的趋势——公共领域私人化与私人领域公共化。并且立足现实,分析了公私领域融合给社会带来的现实影响。

  3. Replacing the wild type loxP site in BACs from the public domain with lox66 using a lox66 transposon

    Stennett Naima


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromatin adjoining the site of integration of a transgene affects expression and renders comparisons of closely related transgenes, such as those derived from a BAC deletion series retrofitted with enhancer-traps, unreliable. Gene targeting to a pre-determined site on the chromosome is likely to alleviate the problem. Findings A general procedure to replace the loxP site located at one end of genomic DNA inserts in BACs with lox66 is described. Truncating insert DNA from the loxP end with a Tn10 transposon carrying a lox66 site simultaneously substitutes the loxP with a lox66 sequence. The replacement occurs with high stringency, and the procedure should be applicable to all BACs in the public domain. Cre recombination of loxP with lox66 or lox71 was found to be as efficient as another loxP site during phage P1 transduction of small plasmids containing those sites. However the end-deletion of insert DNA in BACs using a lox66 transposon occurred at no more than 20% the efficiency observed with a loxP transposon. Differences in the ability of Cre protein available at different stages of the P1 life cycle to recombine identical versus non-identical lox-sites is likely responsible for this discrepancy. A possible mechanism to explain these findings is discussed. Conclusions The loxP/lox66 replacement procedure should allow targeting BACs to a pre-positioned lox71 site in zebrafish chromosomes; a system where homologous recombination-mediated "knock-in" technology is unavailable.

  4. Backscattered electron imaging and windowless energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis: a new technique for gallstone analysis

    Kaufman, H.S.; Lillemoe, K.D.; Magnuson, T.H.; Frasca, P.; Pitt, H.A. (Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (USA))


    Scanning electron microscopy with or without conventional energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis is currently used to identify gallstone microstructure and inorganic composition. Organic calcium salts are among many biliary constituents thought to have a role in gallstone nidation and growth. However, current analytical techniques which identify these salts are destructive and compromise gallstone microstructural data. We have developed a new technique for gallstone analysis which provides simultaneous structural and compositional identification of calcium salts within gallstones. Backscattered electron imaging is used to localize calcium within cholesterol at minimum concentrations of 0.01%. Windowless energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis produces elemental spectra of gallstone calcium salts which are qualitatively and quantitatively different. These combined techniques provide simultaneous structural and compositional information obtained from intact gallstone cross-sections and have been used to identify calcium salts in gallstones obtained at cholecystectomy from 106 patients.

  5. Trace element associations with Fe- and Mn-oxides in soil nodules: Comparison of selective dissolution with electron probe microanalysis

    Neaman, Alexander [Area de Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Agronomia, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Casilla 4-D, Quillota (Chile); Centro Regional de Estudios en Alimentos Saludables, Region de Valparaiso (Chile)], E-mail:; Martinez, Carmen Enid [Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Trolard, Fabienne; Bourrie, Guilhem [INRA, UR 1119, Geochimie des Sols et des Eaux, BP 80, 13545 Aix-en-Provence cedex 04 (France)


    Selective dissolution methods have been largely used to get insight on trace element association with solid phases. Modern instrumental techniques offer many tools to test the validity of selective dissolution methods and should be systematically used to this end. The association of trace elements with Fe- and Mn-oxides in soil nodules has been studied here by electron probe microanalysis. The results were compared with findings from an earlier study on selective dissolution of the same nodules by hydroxylamine hydrochloride, acidified hydrogen peroxide, and Na-citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite. Electron probe microanalysis results were consistent with previous findings using selective dissolution and showed that P, As and Cr were mainly present in Fe-oxides, while Co was mainly associated with Mn-oxide phases. These results support the applicability of the studied selective dissolution methods for fractionation of trace elements in soils and sediments containing appreciable amounts of Fe and Mn-oxide phases.

  6. X-ray microanalysis in cryosections of natively frozen Paramecium caudatum with regard to ion distribution in ciliates

    Schmitz, M.; Meyer, R.; Zierold, K.


    Cells of Paramecium caudatum were shock-frozen without pretreatment for cryoultramicrotomy and freeze-dried for subsequent X-ray microanalysis. Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, and Ca were detected in different amounts in several subcellular compartments. In particular, calcium was localized below the cell surface (pellicle). Trichocysts were found to contain significant amounts of Na in their base but not in the tip. Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca were found in electron dense deposits within the lumen of the contractile vacuole. A small K concentration was found in the cytoplasm and in the mitochondria. X-ray microanalysis of the element distribution in different subcellular compartments provides information for the understanding of cellular functions such as exocytosis, locomotion, and ion regulation.

  7. Domain analysis

    Hjørland, Birger


    The domain-analytic approach to knowledge organization (KO) (and to the broader field of library and information science, LIS) is outlined. The article reviews the discussions and proposals on the definition of domains, and provides an example of a domain-analytic study in the field of art studie....... Varieties of domain analysis as well as criticism and controversies are presented and discussed....

  8. A combination of a SEM technique and X-ray microanalysis for studying the spore germination process of Clostridium tyrobutyricum.

    Bassi, Daniela; Cappa, Fabrizio; Cocconcelli, Pier Sandro


    Clostridium tyrobutyricum is an anaerobic bacterium responsible for late blowing defects during cheese ripening and it is of scientific interest for biological hydrogen production. A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coating technique and X-ray microanalysis were developed to analyze the architecture and chemical composition of spores upon germination in response to environmental changes. In addition, we investigated the effects of different compounds on this process. Agents and environmental conditions inducing germination were characterized monitoring changes in optical density (OD). Among all tested conditions, the greatest drop in OD(625) (57.4%) was obtained when spores were incubated in l-alanine/l-lactate buffer, pH 4.6. In addition, a carbon-coating SEM technique and X-ray microanalysis were used to observe the architecture of spores and to examine calcium dipicolinate release. Conditions inducing C. tyrobutyricum spore germination were identified and SEM X-ray microanalysis clearly distinguished germinating from dormant spores. We confirmed that calcium dipicolinate release is one of the first events occurring. These microscopy methods could be considered sensitive tools for evaluating morphological and chemical changes in spores of C. tyrobutyricum during the initial phase of germination. Information gathered from this work may provide new data for further research on germination.

  9. Quantification of ionic transport within thermally-activated batteries using electron probe micro-analysis

    Humplik, Thomas; Stirrup, Emily K.; Grillet, Anne M.; Grant, Richard P.; Allen, Ashley N.; Wesolowski, Daniel E.; Roberts, Christine C.


    The transient transport of electrolytes in thermally-activated batteries is studied using electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA), demonstrating the robust capability of EPMA as a useful tool for studying and quantifying mass transport within porous materials, particularly in difficult environments where classical flow measurements are challenging. By tracking the mobility of bromine and potassium ions from the electrolyte stored within the separator into the lithium silicon anode and iron disulfide cathode, we are able to quantify the transport mechanisms and physical properties of the electrodes including permeability and tortuosity. Due to the micron to submicron scale porous structure of the initially dry anode, a fast capillary pressure driven flow is observed into the anode from which we are able to set a lower bound on the permeability of 10-1 mDarcy. The transport into the cathode is diffusion-limited because the cathode originally contained some electrolyte before activation. Using a transient one-dimensional diffusion model, we estimate the tortuosity of the cathode electrode to be 2.8 ± 0.8.

  10. Electron probe X-ray microanalysis of boar and inobuta testes after the Fukushima accident

    Yamashiro, Hideaki; Abe, Yasuyuki; Hayashi, Gohei; Urushihara, Yusuke; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Jin; Kino, Yasuyuki; Fukuda, Tomokazu; Tong, Bin; Takino, Sachio; Sugano, Yukou; Sugimura, Satoshi; Yamada, Takahisa; Isogai, Emiko; Fukumoto, Manabu


    We aimed to investigate the effect of chronic radiation exposure associated with the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident on the testes of boar and inobuta (a hybrid of Sus scrofa and Sus scrofa domestica). This study examined the contamination levels of radioactive caesium (Cs), especially 134Cs and 137Cs, in the testis of both boar and inobuta during 2012, after the Fukushima accident. Morphological analysis and electron-probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) were also undertaken on the testes. The 134Cs and 137Cs levels were 6430 ± 23 and 6820 ± 32 Bq/kg in the boar testes, and 755 ± 13 and 747 ± 17 Bq/kg in the inobuta testes, respectively. The internal and external exposure of total 134Cs and 137Cs in the boar testes were 47.1 mGy and 176.2 mGy, respectively, whereas in the inobuta testes, these levels were 6.09 mGy and 59.8 mGy, respectively. Defective spermatogenesis was not detected by the histochemical analysis of radiation-exposed testes for either animal. In neither animal were Cs molecules detected, using EPMA. In conclusion, we showed that adverse radiation-induced effects were not detected in the examined boar and inobuta testes following the chronic radiation exposure associated with the FNPP accident. PMID:26825300

  11. Gold nephropathy. Ultrastructural, fluorescent, and energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis study

    Ainsworth, S.K.; Swain, R.P.; Watabe, N.; Brackett, N.C. Jr.; Pilia, P.; Hennigar, G.R.


    The nephrotic syndrome developed in a patient receiving therapy with gold for rheumatoid arthritis. The results of a histopathological examination of the renal biopsy specimen were unremarkable. Immunofluorescent studies showed deposits of immunoglobulins and C3 in a granular pattern in the glomerular basement membranes. Ultrastructurally, the discrete osmiophilic immune complexes were epimembranous. By x-ray microanalysis, gold that was complexed with sulfur was present in proximal tubular cytoplasmic vacuoles and nuclei. Gold and sulfur could not be demonstrated in glomerular epimembranous deposits. The results of these studies suggest that immune complex deposition does not involve gold and sulfur acting as haptens. Gold-salt therapy may result in damage to proximal tubules that leak renal tubular antigens, which in turn complex with autoantibody and produce an autoimmune membranous nephropathy. The evidence for this mechanism is not convincing. Although the data indicate an immune-complex cause for gold-salt nephropathy, the incident antigen (or antigens) and mechanism of action remain unidentified.

  12. Cadmium toxicity in perinatal rat hepatocytes: Electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis, and morphometric analysis

    Kawahara, A.; Yoshizuka, M.; Hirano, T.; Ohsato, K.; Fujimoto, S. (Univ. of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu (Japan))


    Effects of cadmium on the fetal and postnatal rat hepatocytes were studied with an electron microscope and an X-ray microanalyzer. Pregnant and lactating Wistar rat dams at 15 and 21 days of pregnancy and at 3 days after delivery received intraperitoneal injections of cadmium sulfate (1 mg/kg body weight) for 3 days. On the day following the last injection, the livers were isolated from the fetal and suckling rats and provided for electron microscopy. The livers from the untreated fetal and newborn rats served as control. Large bile canaliculi, which were formed by five or more hepatocytes, were frequently observed in the cadmium-treated perinatal rat livers. The intercellular space between each adjacent hepatocyte was widened. By X-ray microanalysis, cadmium peaks were preferentially detected out from intramitochondrial granules of the cadmium-treated hepatocytes. By morphometric analysis, the increase both in the mitochondria volume and in the number of intramitochondrial granules was evident in the cadmium-treated hepatocytes when compared to those of control. These data suggest the preferential accumulation of cadmium in mitochondria of the hepatocytes interferes with the morphogenesis of the perinatal rat liver.

  13. Identification of inorganic dust particles in bronchoalveolar lavage macrophages by energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis.

    Johnson, N F; Haslam, P L; Dewar, A; Newman-Taylor, A J; Turner-Warwick, M


    This study shows that energy dispersive x-ray microprobe analysis to identify and quantify intracellular particles in macrophages obtained by the minimally invasive method of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) can detect inorganic dust exposures of many different kinds. Bronchoalveolar lavage macrophages from 22 patients have been examined. Twelve patients had occupational exposure to asbestos, talc, silica, hard metal or printing ink, while 10 had no known history of dust exposure. X-ray microprobe analysis identified particles which related to the known exposures, superimposed on a background of other particles related to smoking (kaolinite and mica) or to the general environment (silicon, titanium, and iron). The particle identification provided useful objective confirmation of the known exposures, except for silica, which could not be distinguished from the general background levels. X-ray microanalysis using BAL macrophages can be helpful for clarification of mixed dust exposures, to identify particles when light microscopy indicates retained dust in patients with no known history of exposure, and to monitor retained particles after removal from exposure.

  14. Strontium and bromide as tracers in X-ray microanalysis of biological tissue

    Wroblewski, J.; Sagstroem, S.M.; Mulders, H.; Roomans, G.M. (Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden))


    Since energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis cannot distinguish between isotopes of the same element, alternative methods have to be used to get information similar to that obtained in experiments with radioactive tracers. In the present study, strontium was used as a tracer for calcium, and bromide as a tracer for chloride. Rats were injected with strontium chloride in vivo, and the uptake of strontium in the acinar cells of the submandibular gland was studied. Eventually a Sr/Ca ratio of 0.3 was reached. In some animals, secretion of mucus had been elicited by stimulation with isoproterenol 4 h prior to injection of strontium chloride. Exchange of calcium for strontium was enhanced by prior injection with isoproterenol. In a second experiment, rats were injected with sodium bromide, and the uptake of bromide by the submandibular acinar cells was followed in time, both in pilocarpine-stimulated and unstimulated glands. Under the experimental conditions, bromide was rapidly taken up by the cells, and the cellular Br/Cl ratio was close to that found in serum. Submandibular glands take up Br somewhat faster than other tissues (liver, heart muscle, skeletal muscle). The uptake of Br in pancreatic acinar cells was studied in vitro. These experiments showed a 1:1 ratio (molar) exchange of Cl for Br.

  15. Spatial resolution of electron probe X-ray microanalysis on sections of organic (biological) material

    Krefting, E.-R.; Felsmann, M.; Recker, A.; Feja, B.; Hoehling, H.J.; Reichelt, R. [Institut fuer Medizinische Physik und Biophysik, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet, Robert-Koch-Str. 31, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Reimer, L. [Physikalisches Institut, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet, Wilhelm-Klm-Str. 10, 48149 Muenster (Germany)


    A locally enhanced element concentration influences the result of an X-ray microanalysis at a neighbouring position. This influence was investigated for the first time systematically in organic (biological) material using sections of epoxy resin (thickness 0.5-2.5 {mu}m) containing a layer of pure gold. Wavelength and energy dispersive spectrometers were applied to analyse the X-rays generated by 15-35 keV electrons. Characteristic X-rays could be detected up to distances of several {mu}m from the gold layer. For example, for a 2.4 {mu}m thick section and 35 keV electrons the measured apparent gold concentration was above 0.1% (weight% per dry mass) at a distance of 10 {mu}m. Thus, the lateral resolution may be not better than a multiple of the section thickness. The apparent gold concentration at a given distance is proportional to the specimen thickness and increases with increasing electron energy. Monte Carlo simulations confirm the experimental results. The influence of a local enrichment depends on the particular specimen properties (e.g. thickness, density, mean atomic number), the electron energy, and the geometry of the detector with respect to the specimen. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  16. Electron microscopy and microanalysis of steel weld joints after long time exposures at high temperatures

    Jandová, D.; Kasl, J.; Rek, A.


    The structural changes of three trial weld joints of creep resistant modified 9Cr-1Mo steels and low alloyed chromium steel after post-weld heat treatment and long-term creep tests were investigated. Smooth cross-weld specimens ruptured in different zones of the weld joints as a result of different structural changes taking place during creep exposures. The microstructure of the weld joint is heterogeneous and consequently microstructural development can be different in the weld metal, the heat affected zone, and the base material. Precipitation reactions, nucleation and growth of some particles and dissolution of others, affect the strengthening of the matrix, recovery at high temperatures, and the resulting creep resistance. Therefore, a detailed study of secondary phase's development in individual zones of weld joints can elucidate mechanism of cracks propagation in specific regions and the causes of creep failure. Type I and II fractures in the weld metal and Type IV fractures in the fine prior austenite grain heat affected zones occurred after creep tests at temperatures ranging from 525 to 625 °C and under stresses from 40 to 240 MPa. An extended metallographic study of the weld joints was carried out using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive and wave-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Carbon extraction replicas and thin foils were prepared from individual weld joint regions and quantitative evaluation of dislocation substructure and particles of secondary phases has been performed.

  17. Micro-analysis of Water-tree in XLPE by Synchrotron Radiation

    Yamazaki, Takanori; Abe, Junichi; Watanabe, Kiyoshi; Hirai, Yasuharu

    X-ray micro-analysis of insulating material for XLPE cable was investigated to elucidate the influence of ion to water-tree extension. We analyzed the water-trees by applying a fluorescence scanning x-ray microscope at the beam-line BL16XU in SPring-8. Focused x-ray beam sizes at sample position are about 1μm at 9˜10keV. Then we confirmed the diffusion of the ion in water-tree. The ion diffused toward the electric field. Then the situation of the diffusion of the ion from metal particle was different entirely from the case of electrolyte. And X-ray diffraction was measured by adjusting the beam size to 100×100μm. The diffraction peak of the water-tree region was broadcloth in comparison with a normal region. It was confirmed that the crystal is disordered and that the degree of crystallinity of the BTT region is decreased. It was guessed that the ionized materials in under water were diffused widely by electrophoresis and that the diffusion of the ions promotes the growth of the water-tree.

  18. Microanalysis and preliminary pharmacokinetic studies of a sulfated polysaccharide from Laminaria japonica

    Zhang, Wenjing; Sun, Delin; Zhao, Xia; Jin, Weihua; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Quanbin


    A rapid, sensitive and reproducible high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with post-column fluorescence derivatization has been developed to determine the amount of low-molecular-weight sulfated polysaccharide (GFS) in vivo. The metabolism of GFS has been shown to fit a two component model following its administration by intravenous injection, and its pharmacokinetic parameters were determined to be as follows: half-time of distribution phase ( t 1/2α)=11.24±2.93 min, half-time of elimination phase ( t 1/2β)=98.20±25.78 min, maximum concentration ( C max)=110.53 μg/mL and peak time ( T max)=5 min. The pharmacokinetic behavior of GFS was also investigated following intragastric administration. However, the concentration of GFS found in serum was too low for detection, and GFS could only be detected for up to 2 h after intragastric administration (200 mg/kg body weight). Thus, the bioavailability of GFS was low following intragastric administration because of the metabolism of GFS. In conclusion, HPLC with postcolumn derivatization could be used for quantitative microanalysis and pharmacokinetic studies to determine the presence of polysaccharides in the serum following intravenous injection.

  19. Microanalysis characterization of bioactive protein-bound polysaccharides produced by Amanita ponderosa cultures.

    Salvador, Cátia; Martins, M Rosário; Caldeira, A Teresa


    Different compounds of edible mushrooms are responsible for their bioactivity. The ability to synthesize polysaccharides, namely protein-polysaccharide (PPS) complexes, is related to the antioxidant capacity of these compounds and present great interest in preventing a number of diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular and auto-immune diseases, and accelerated aging. Amanita ponderosa are wild edible mushrooms that grow in Mediterranean "montado" areas [Portuguese name given to cork oak (Quercus suber) and holm oak (Quercus ilex) forests]. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of PPS complexes obtained from A. ponderosa cultures using a new microanalytical approach to quickly and easily monitor the production process. Microanalysis using Fourier-transform infrared using attenuated total reflection and Raman spectroscopy of PPS samples showed spectra compatible with identification of this type of compound in culture extracts. PPS separated by size-exclusion chromatography showed seven main complexes. Molecular weights of the main PPS complexes isolated from cultures ranged between 1.5 and 20 kDa and did not present toxicity against Artemia salina, demonstrating the potential of A. ponderosa as a source of biologically active compounds with nutraceutical value. Application of this microanalytical approach to monitoring the production of PPS compounds can be successfully applied in biotechnological processes.

  20. Electron-Excited X-Ray Microanalysis at Low Beam Energy: Almost Always an Adventure!

    Newbury, Dale E; Ritchie, Nicholas W M


    Scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectrometry has been applied to the analysis of various materials at low-incident beam energies, E 0≤5 keV, using peak fitting and following the measured standards/matrix corrections protocol embedded in the National Institute of Standards and Technology Desktop Spectrum Analyzer-II analytical software engine. Low beam energy analysis provides improved spatial resolution laterally and in-depth. The lower beam energy restricts the atomic shells that can be ionized, reducing the number of X-ray peak families available to the analyst. At E 0=5 keV, all elements of the periodic table except H and He can be measured. As the beam energy is reduced below 5 keV, elements become inaccessible due to lack of excitation of useful characteristic X-ray peaks. The shallow sampling depth of low beam energy microanalysis makes the technique more sensitive to surface compositional modification due to formation of oxides and other reaction layers. Accurate and precise analysis is possible with the use of appropriate standards and by accumulating high count spectra of unknowns and standards (>1 million counts integrated from 0.1 keV to E 0).

  1. La apropiación del dominio público y las posibilidades de acceso a los bienes culturales | The appropriation of the public domain and the possibilities of access to cultural goods

    Joan Ramos Toledano


    Full Text Available Resumen: Las normas de propiedad intelectual y copyright prevén un periodo de protección otorgando unos derechos económicos exclusivos y temporales. Pasado un plazo determinado, las obras protegidas entran en lo que se denomina dominio público. Éste suele ser considerado como el momento en el que los bienes culturales pasan a estar bajo el dominio y control de la sociedad en conjunto. El presente trabajo pretende argumentar que, dado nuestro actual sistema económico, en realidad el dominio público funciona más como una posibilidad de negocio para determinadas empresas que como una verdadera opción para que el público pueda acceder a las obras. Abstract: The legislation of continental intellectual property and copyright provide for a period of protection granting exclusive and temporary economic rights. After a certain period, protected works enter into what is called the public domain. This is often considered as the moment in which the cultural goods come under the control and domain of society as a whole. The present paper pretends to argue that, given our current economic system, the public domain actually functions more as a business opportunity for certain companies than as a real option for the public to access artistic and intellectual works.  

  2. X-ray microanalysis of rotavirus-infected mouse intestine: A new concept of diarrhoeal secretion

    Spencer, A.J.; Osborne, M.P.; Haddon, S.J.; Collins, J.; Starkey, W.G.; Candy, D.C.; Stephen, J. (Univ. of Birmingham (England))


    Neonatal mice were infected at 7 days of age with rotavirus (epizootic diarrhea of infant mice (EDIM) virus) and killed at 24-h intervals postinfection (PI). Cytoplasmic concentrations of Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, and Ca intestinal epithelial cells from infected and age-matched control animals were measured by x-ray microanalysis. In villus tip cells, Ca concentration increased at 24-96 h PI; Na concentration increased at 24-72 h PI; Ca and Na concentrations were near normal by 168 h PI. K concentration decreased 24-72 h PI, and Cl concentration decreased 48-96 h PI. In crypt cells, changes were observed without a discernible pattern: at 96 h PI, Na, Mg, S, and Cl concentrations increased and K concentration decreased; at 120 h PI, the concentrations of all elements except Na and Ca increased. In villus base cells, the mean concentrations of all elements except Ca peaked at 48-72 h PI and at 120 h PI. Na and Cl concentrations increased dramatically in some cells from 48 h PI onward. All the above concentration values were obtained from freeze-dried specimens and expressed in millimoles per kilogram of dry weight. Conversion of a limited number of data, pertaining to villus base cells, from dry weight to wet weight was possible. This conversion revealed that villus base cells in infected animals were more hydrated than corresponding cells from control animals. Also, the Na and Cl concentrations in mmol/kg H2O were significantly higher in villus base cells from infected animals than in those from corresponding controls: 137 +/- 7 versus 38 +/- 4 (Na) and 121 +/- 5 versus 89 +/- 6 (Cl). Wet weight concentrations of other elements were either the same (Mg) or lower (P, S, and K) after infection with virus.

  3. [Application of elemental microanalysis for estimation of osteoinduction and osteoconduction of hydroxyapatite bone implants].

    Dawidowicz, Aleksander; Pielka, Stanisław; Paluch, Danuta; Kuryszko, Jan; Staniszewska-Kuś, Jolanta; Solski, Leszek


    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) ceramics based on calcium phosphates, chemical compounds being natural constructive element of bones is now regarded to be one of better implantation materials in osseous surgery and stomatology. HAp is poorly soluble and slowly resorbing in tissues material. Easiness of connecting of hydroxyapatite ceramics with other materials creates possibilities to produce new composites of chemical compounds containing calcium and easier resorbing. An important and till now not fully known problem is influence of hydrodroxyapatite grafts on the processes leading to production of calcium and phosphorus ions responsive for mineralization of bone tissue around the graft. Proliferation of osteoblasts and rate of osseous trabeculas production depends, among others, concentration of calcium and phosphorus ions. The main target of this study was the comparative analysis of the bone mineralisation rate after implantation of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and composites hydroxyapatite + beta tricalcium phosphate (HAp + TCP) and hydroxyapatite + calcium hydrosulfate (HAp + gypsum), on the basis of elemental microanalysis. Implantation studies were carried out on 24 rabbits. Sections were carried out 5, 9, 11 and 14 weeks after implantation of the tested materials. The carried out punctual analysis of the occurring elements and their topographic location (mapping) in bones after implantation showed essential differences among the tested grafts. Those differences were most significant after 5 and 14 weeks and depended on the rate of the tested materials resorption. On the basis of conducted macroscopic evaluation and scanning microscope assessment we can stated that the composite of HAp+TCP showed the best osteocunductive properties, while the best osteoinductive influence was shown by the composite HAp + gypsum.

  4. A useful and non-invasive microanalysis method for dental restoration materials

    Hosoki, M., E-mail: [Department of Fixed Prosthodontics, Institute of Health Biosciences, University of Tokushima Graduate School, 3-18-15 Kuramoto-cho, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan); Satsuma, T.; Nishigawa, K.; Takeuchi, H. [General Dentistry, Tokushima University Hospital, 3-18-15 Kuramoto-cho, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan); Asaoka, K. [Department of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Institute of Health Biosciences, University of Tokushima Graduate School, 3-18-15 Kuramoto-cho, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This method for the microanalysis of dental alloys is beneficial for patients with allergies to dental materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This metal sample is easy to mail it for inspection at specialist institutes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This method can be also be used in general dental clinics. - Abstract: The elemental analysis of intraoral dental restorations provides considerable information for the treatment of dental metal allergy. Elemental analyses require specific instruments and complicated procedures, so this examination is not commonly carried out in private dental clinics. We describe a novel, simple and useful micro-analytical method for dental metal restorations. Micro metal dust was obtained by polishing the surface of restorative metal material with an unused silicone point (SUPER-SNAP). The metal dust on the silicone point was then rubbed onto adhesive tape, and this tape was covered with polyethylene film. The amount of metal dust material was <20 {mu}g. An energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer was used to carry out the elementary analysis of the metal dust on the polyethylene film. Three types of dental metal alloy materials of known components were examined. The results of elementary analyses were compared with the specifications provided by the manufacturer. The same procedure was carried out for three dental metal restorations of an adult female volunteer in vivo. The results of elemental analyses for five alloy materials exactly matched the product specification. Three metal samples obtained from intraoral restoration were also available for elemental analyses. The distinct advantage of this method is that it enables sample extraction without an invasive effect for the restoration. The metal sample is in a polyethylene film, so it is easy to mail it for inspection at specialist institutes yet it can be also be used in general dental clinics.

  5. Calibration Issues and Operating System Requirements for Electron-Probe Microanalysis

    Carpenter, P.


    Instrument purchase requirements and dialogue with manufacturers have established hardware parameters for alignment, stability, and reproducibility, which have helped improve the precision and accuracy of electron microprobe analysis (EPMA). The development of correction algorithms and the accurate solution to quantitative analysis problems requires the minimization of systematic errors and relies on internally consistent data sets. Improved hardware and computer systems have resulted in better automation of vacuum systems, stage and wavelength-dispersive spectrometer (WDS) mechanisms, and x-ray detector systems which have improved instrument stability and precision. Improved software now allows extended automated runs involving diverse setups and better integrates digital imaging and quantitative analysis. However, instrumental performance is not regularly maintained, as WDS are aligned and calibrated during installation but few laboratories appear to check and maintain this calibration. In particular, detector deadtime (DT) data is typically assumed rather than measured, due primarily to the difficulty and inconvenience of the measurement process. This is a source of fundamental systematic error in many microprobe laboratories and is unknown to the analyst, as the magnitude of DT correction is not listed in output by microprobe operating systems. The analyst must remain vigilant to deviations in instrumental alignment and calibration, and microprobe system software must conveniently verify the necessary parameters. Microanalysis of mission critical materials requires an ongoing demonstration of instrumental calibration. Possible approaches to improvements in instrument calibration, quality control, and accuracy will be discussed. Development of a set of core requirements based on discussions with users, researchers, and manufacturers can yield documents that improve and unify the methods by which instruments can be calibrated. These results can be used to

  6. Domains of quality of life: Results of a three-stage Delphi consensus-procedure amongst patients, family of patients, clinicians, scientists and the general public

    Pietersma, S.; de Vries, M.; Akker van den, M.E.


    Purpose Our key objective is to identify the core domains of health-related quality of life (QoL). Health-related QoL utility scales are commonly used in economic evaluations to assess the effectiveness of health-care interventions. However, health-care interventions are likely to affect QoL in a

  7. [Results of an investigation of enamel fragments from Benvenuto Cellini's "Saliera" using energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX)].

    Ditrich, Hans


    A blackmail letter was submitted in the context of the theft of Cellini's salt cellar (Saliera) from the Museum of Fine Arts in Vienna. Dark blue enamel fragments were included in this letter as a proof of authenticity. The comparison of this material with enamel believed to originate from the original artwork, using microspectrography and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) in the scanning electron microscope showed similar elemental composition. Accordingly, the further investigations could concentrate on this blackmail attempt in spite of numerous other confession letters received.

  8. Three stages of copper accumulation in hepatocellular lysosomes: X-ray microanalysis of copper-loaded golden hamsters.

    Yagi, A.; Hayashi, H; Higuchi, T.; Hishida, N.; Sakamoto, N.


    Male golden hamsters were loaded with copper by supplying them for up to 12 weeks with drinking water containing 0.5% cupric acetate. The copper feeding increased hepatic copper to widely varying levels. Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis could always identify a copper-sulphur complex in the hepatocyte lysosomes of copper-loaded hamsters and the X-ray intensity of copper was found to be a reliable parameter to measure in-situ copper accumulation. Combining this parameter with the copper bi...

  9. Opening of energy markets: consequences on the missions of public utility and of security of supplies in the domain of electric power and gas; Ouverture des marches energetiques: consequences sur les missions de service public et de securite d'approvisionnement pour l'electricite et le gaz



    This conference was jointly organized by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the French ministry of economy, finances, and industry (general direction of energy and raw materials, DGEMP). It was organized in 6 sessions dealing with: 1 - the public utility in the domain of energy: definition of the public utility missions, experience feedback about liberalized markets, public utility obligation and pricing regulation; 2 - the new US energy policy and the lessons learnt from the California crisis; 3 - the security of electric power supplies: concepts of security of supplies, opinion of operators, security of power supplies versus liberalization and investments; 4 - security of gas supplies: markets liberalization and investments, long-term contracts and security of supplies; 5 - debate: how to integrate the objectives of public utility and of security of supplies in a competing market; 6 - conclusions. This document brings together the available talks and transparencies presented at the conference. (J.S.)

  10. Magnetic domain structure in nanocrystalline Ni-Zn-Co spinel ferrite thin films using off-axis electron holography

    Zhang, D.; Ray, N. M.; Petuskey, W. T.; Smith, D. J.; McCartney, M. R.


    We report a study of the magnetic domain structure of nanocrystalline thin films of nickel-zinc ferrite. The ferrite films were synthesized using aqueous spin-spray coating at low temperature (˜90 °C) and showed high complex permeability in the GHz range. Electron microscopy and microanalysis revealed that the films consisted of columnar grains with uniform chemical composition. Off-axis electron holography combined with magnetic force microscopy indicated a multi-grain domain structure with in-plane magnetization. The correlation between the magnetic domain morphology and crystal structure is briefly discussed.

  11. Measurement of total calcium in neurons by electron probe X-ray microanalysis.

    Pivovarova, Natalia B; Andrews, S Brian


    In this article the tools, techniques, and instruments appropriate for quantitative measurements of intracellular elemental content using the technique known as electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) are described. Intramitochondrial calcium is a particular focus because of the critical role that mitochondrial calcium overload plays in neurodegenerative diseases. The method is based on the analysis of X-rays generated in an electron microscope (EM) by interaction of an electron beam with the specimen. In order to maintain the native distribution of diffusible elements in electron microscopy specimens, EPMA requires "cryofixation" of tissue followed by the preparation of ultrathin cryosections. Rapid freezing of cultured cells or organotypic slice cultures is carried out by plunge freezing in liquid ethane or by slam freezing against a cold metal block, respectively. Cryosections nominally 80 nm thick are cut dry with a diamond knife at ca. -160 °C, mounted on carbon/pioloform-coated copper grids, and cryotransferred into a cryo-EM using a specialized cryospecimen holder. After visual survey and location mapping at ≤-160 °C and low electron dose, frozen-hydrated cryosections are freeze-dried at -100 °C for ~30 min. Organelle-level images of dried cryosections are recorded, also at low dose, by means of a slow-scan CCD camera and subcellular regions of interest selected for analysis. X-rays emitted from ROIs by a stationary, focused, high-intensity electron probe are collected by an energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometer, processed by associated electronics, and presented as an X-ray spectrum, that is, a plot of X-ray intensity vs. energy. Additional software facilitates: 1) identification of elemental components by their "characteristic" peak energies and fingerprint; and 2) quantitative analysis by extraction of peak areas/background. This paper concludes with two examples that illustrate typical EPMA applications, one in which mitochondrial calcium analysis

  12. Public-key Encryption Based on Extending Discrete Chebyshev Polynomials' Definition Domain to Real Number%基于实数域扩散离散Chebyshev多项式的公钥加密算法

    陈宇; 韦鹏程


    将Chebyshev多项式与模运算相结合,对其定义在实数域上进行了扩展,经过理论验证和数据分析,总结出实数域多项式应用于公钥密码的一些性质.利用RSA公钥算法和EIGamal公钥算法的算法结构,提出基于有限域离散Chebyshev多项式的公钥密码算法.该算法结构类似于RSA算法,其安全性基于大数因式分解的难度或者与El-Gamal的离散对数难度相当,能够抵抗对于RSA的选择密文攻击,并且易于软件实现.%By combining Chebyshev polynomials with modulus compute,extending Chebyshev polynomials' definition domain to real number, some conclusions were drawn by theoretic verification and data analysis. Making use of the framework of the traditional public-key algorithm RSA and ElGamal, proposed a chaotic public-key encryption algorithm based on extending discrete Chebyshev polynomials' definition domain to Real number. Its security is based on the intractability of the integer factorization problem as RSA,and it is able to resist the chosen cipher-text attack against RSA and easy to be implemented.

  13. Predictors of Biased Self-perception in Individuals with High Social Anxiety: The Effect of Self-consciousness in the Private and Public Self Domains.

    Nordahl, Henrik; Plummer, Alice; Wells, Adrian


    "Biased self-perception," the tendency to perceive one's social performance as more negative than observers do, is characteristic of socially anxious individuals. Self-attention processes are hypothesised to underlie biased self-perception, however, different models emphasise different aspects of self-attention, with attention to the public aspects of the self being prominent. The current study aimed to investigate the relative contribution of two types of dispositional self-attention; public- and private self-consciousness to biased self-perception in a high (n = 48) versus a low (n = 48) social anxiety group undergoing an interaction task. The main finding was that private self-consciousness explained substantial and unique variance in biased negative self-perception in individuals with high social anxiety, while public self-consciousness did not. This relationship was independent of increments in state anxiety. Private self-consciousness appeared to have a specific association with bias related to overestimation of negative social performance rather than underestimation of positive social performance. The implication of this finding is that current treatment models of Social anxiety disorder might include broader aspects of self-focused attention, especially in the context of formulating self-evaluation biases.

  14. Predictors of Biased Self-perception in Individuals with High Social Anxiety: The Effect of Self-consciousness in the Private and Public Self Domains

    Henrik Nordahl


    Full Text Available “Biased self-perception,” the tendency to perceive one’s social performance as more negative than observers do, is characteristic of socially anxious individuals. Self-attention processes are hypothesised to underlie biased self-perception, however, different models emphasise different aspects of self-attention, with attention to the public aspects of the self being prominent. The current study aimed to investigate the relative contribution of two types of dispositional self-attention; public- and private self-consciousness to biased self-perception in a high (n = 48 versus a low (n = 48 social anxiety group undergoing an interaction task. The main finding was that private self-consciousness explained substantial and unique variance in biased negative self-perception in individuals with high social anxiety, while public self-consciousness did not. This relationship was independent of increments in state anxiety. Private self-consciousness appeared to have a specific association with bias related to overestimation of negative social performance rather than underestimation of positive social performance. The implication of this finding is that current treatment models of Social anxiety disorder might include broader aspects of self-focused attention, especially in the context of formulating self-evaluation biases.

  15. Network Hatred:Obstruction and Decomposition of Order Construction in Virtual Public Domain%网络怨恨:虚拟公共领域秩序建构的梗阻与消解


    网络怨恨既是一种情感体验,也是一种生存状态。越来越多的虚拟社会现象表明,网络怨恨已经出现了一定程度上的弥散,虚拟公共领域秩序建构因而面临着无法回避的现实梗阻。网络怨恨导致无直接利益冲突的网络暴力频现,基于网络民粹主义的阶层对抗遭遇激化,同时网络空间出现颠覆性的价值位移。究其根源,网络怨恨与网络世界的平等理念、现代社会的竞争意识和难以克服的现实困境密切相关。需要通过提升虚拟公共领域的公共理性,适度满足网络怨恨的宣泄需求,构建包容性发展的网络监督体系,纠正虚拟公共领域中的价值位移等途径,才能真正消解网络怨恨,实现虚拟公共领域的秩序化运行。%Network hatred is not only an emotional experience , but also a living state.It is suggested by more and more virtual social phenomenon that network hatred has been dispersing in the new public domain and has become virtual social emotions in the keynote.Thus, order construction in the virtual public domain has been ex-posed to practical obstructions which cannot be evaded.As a result of network hatred , network violence , which has no direct conflict of interests , frequently shows up , and network populism-based hierarchical confrontation is triggered , and concurrently , subversive value displacement shows up in network space.Tracing to the source , network hatred is closely related to the equality philosophy of network world , the sense of competition in the modern society and the insurmountable practical difficulties.Only by such channels as improving public reason of the virtual public domain , moderately satisfying the needs for unbosoming network hatred , constructing net-work supervision system under inclusive development and correcting value displacement in the virtual public do -main, can network hatred be truly decomposed and regularized operation of the

  16. L'apprentissage des langues médiatisé par les technologies (ALMT – Étude d'un domaine de recherche émergent à travers les publications de la revue Alsic Technology-mediated language learning: an emergent research domain under study through the review of a French scientific journal's publications

    Nicolas Guichon


    Full Text Available Dans cette étude, il est postulé que l'apprentissage des langues médiatisé par les technologies (ALMT est un domaine de recherche qui s'intéresse au développement et à l'intégration des technologies dans l'enseignement-apprentissage d'une langue. Ce domaine étant émergent, la présente recherche vise tout d'abord à comprendre comment s'est formée la communauté de chercheurs autour de cet objet. Puis, à travers l'analyse critique de 79 articles publiés dans la revue en ligne francophone Alsic entre 1998 et 2010, la présente contribution s'emploie à définir les contours épistémologiques de ce domaine en étudiant les moyens de production de connaissance.In this study, it is postulated that technology mediated language learning is a research domain that focuses on the design and integration of technologies for language learning and teaching. Because this domain is emergent, the present study first aims at understanding how a community of researchers has developed around this object. Then, thanks to the critical analysis of 79 articles published in Alsic, a French-speaking online journal, the present article endeavours to define the epistemological contours of this research domain by studying the means employed to produce knowledge.

  17. PREFACE: 22nd International Congress on X-Ray Optics and Microanalysis

    Falkenberg, Gerald; Schroer, Christian G.


    ICXOM22 The 22nd edition of the International Congress on X-ray Optics and Microanalysis (ICXOM 22) was held from 2-6 September 2013, in Hamburg, Germany. The congress was organized by scientists from DESY in collaboration with TU Dresden and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, who also formed the scientific advisory board. The congress was hosted in the historical lecture hall building of the University of Hamburg located in the city center. ICXOM22 was attended by about 210 registered participants, including 67 students, and was open for listeners. The attendance was split between 26 countries (Germany 120, rest of Europe 57, America 20, Asia 8, Australia 6). The ICXOM series is a forum for the discussion of new developments in instrumentation, methods and applications in the fields of micro- and nano-analysis by means of X-ray beams. Following the trend of the last 10 years, the conference focusses more and more on synchrotron radiation rather than X-ray laboratory sources. Besides micro-beam X-ray fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy, different methods based on diffraction and full-field imaging were covered. Newly introduced to the ICXOM series was scanning coherent X-ray diffraction imaging, which was shown to evolve into a mature method for the imaging of nanostructures, defects and strain fields. New developments on fast X-ray detectors were discussed (Lambda, Maia) and advances in X-ray optics — like the generation of a sub 5nm point focus by Multilayer Zone plates — were presented. Talks on micro- and nano-analysis applications were distributed in special sessions on bio-imaging, Earth and environmental sciences, and Cultural heritage. The congress featured nine keynote and ten plenary talks, 56 talks in 14 parallel sessions and about 120 posters in three afternoon sessions. Seventeen commercial exhibitors exposed related X-ray instrumentation products, and two luncheon seminars on detector electronics were given. This allowed us to keep the student

  18. Effects of Citral on Aspergillus flavus Spores by Quasi-elastic Light Scattering and Multiplex Microanalysis Techniques

    Man LUO; Li-Ke JIANG; Yao-Xiong HUANG; Ming XIAO; Bo LI; Guo-Lin ZOU


    Citral refined from Litsea cubeba oil has been found to have a strong influence on fungi,especially Aspergillus flavus. Multiplex microanalysis and quasi-elastic light scattering techniques were applied to study the effects of citral on Aspergillus flavus spores from the levels of membrane, organelle and intracellular macromolecule. It was found that citral injured the wall and the membrane of A. flavus spore,resulting in decrease of its elasticity. After entering the cell, citral not only influenced the genetic expression of mitochondrion reduplication and its morphology, but also changed the aggregation of protein-like macromolecules. As a result, cells, organelles and macromolecules lost their normal structures and functions,eventually leading to the loss of germination ability of A. flavus spores. Since Litsea cubeba oil as food additive and antifungal agent is safe and less poisonous, it is important to elucidate the inhibitory mechanisms of Litsea cubeba oil on the germination ability ofA. flavus spore.

  19. Impacts on the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2: Microanalysis and Recognition of Micrometeoroid Compositions

    Kearsley, A. T.; Ross, D. K.; Anz-Meador, P.; Liou, J. C.; Opiela, J.; Grime, G. W.; Webb, R. P.; Jeynes, C.; Palitsin, V. V.; Colaux, J. L.; hide


    Postflight surveys of the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) on the Hubble Space Telescope have located hundreds of features on the 2.2 by 0.8 m curved plate, evidence of hypervelocity impact by small particles during 16 years of exposure to space in low Earth orbit (LEO). The radiator has a 100 - 200 micron surface layer of white paint, overlying 4 mm thick Al alloy, which was not fully penetrated by any impact. Over 460 WFPC2 samples were extracted by coring at JSC. About half were sent to NHM in a collaborative program with NASA, ESA and IBC. The structural and compositional heterogeneity at micrometer scale required microanalysis by electron and ion beam microscopes to determine the nature of the impactors (artificial orbital debris, or natural micrometeoroids, MM). Examples of MM impacts are described elsewhere. Here we describe the development of novel electron beam analysis protocols, required to recognize the subtle traces of MM residues.

  20. KAMUTHE video microanalysis system for use in Brazil: translation, cross-cultural adaptation and evidence of validity and reliability

    Gustavo Schulz Gattino


    Full Text Available Background KAMUTHE is a video microanalysis system which observes preverbal communication within the music therapy setting. This system is indicated for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD or multiple disabilities. The purpose of this study was to translate, adapt to Brazilian Portuguese language and analyze some psychometric properties (reliability and validity evidence of KAMUTHE administration in Brazil for individuals with ASD. Participants and procedure Translation, back translation, analysis by judges, and pilot application were performed to obtain evidence of content and face validity. The second part of this study was to administer KAMUTHE in 39 consecutive children with ASD. An individual session of improvisational music therapy was applied to assess the different behaviors included in KAMUTHE. The intra-rater reliability, concurrent validity and convergent validity were analyzed. Results Translation and cross-cultural adaptation were followed and some cultural adaptations were needed. Inter-rater reliability was very good (ICCs 0.95-0.99 for the three child’s behaviors analyzed. Criteria validity with a moderate negative association was found (r = –.38, p = .017 comparing the behavior “Gazes at therapist” and the level of ASD along with the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS. Convergent validity was established between the behavior “Gazes at therapist” and the two nonlinguistic communication scales (social interaction and interests of the Children’s Communication Checklist (CCC with a moderate correlation (r = –.43, p = .005. Conclusions The administration of the KAMUTHE video microanalysis system showed positive results in children with ASD. Further studies are needed to improve the reliability and validity of the instrument in Brazil.

  1. Microstructure and microanalysis (SEM/EDX determination of glasses from Mallorca and Menorca caves

    Rincón, Jesús María


    Full Text Available In recent years a field of research of growing interest has been the application of physico-chemical characterization methods on modern materials to the study of ancient materials found by the archaeologists. This new field on Materials Science is known as Archaeometry. Many questions about the origin and manufacture of ancient glasses can be solved by using the same methods of analysis and microstructure characterization applied normally to special and advanced glasses. The islands of Mallorca and Menorca, located in the Balearic archipelago in the Mediterranean sea, has long been a crossing place of cultures. Transparent, opal and coloured glasses have been found in various archaeological investigations carried out in these islands. In order to know the composition and microstructure of some of these glasses, an archaeometric study has been carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX, differential thermal analysis (DTA, and hot stage optical microscopy (HSM methods. The SEM/EDX average microanalysis results show that these glasses are deficient in sodium and highly enriched in Al2O3 and Fe2O3, their composition being in the range: 0.5-1.5 K2O, 8-10 CaO, 6-8 Al2O3, 6-8 Fe2O3, 74-76 SiO2 (wt%. Some of these glasses also contain high percentages of lead. Small quantities of TiO2, CuO and SO3 (0.5 % have also been detected. Surface decoration and blue colour are other features of these ancient glasses, the surface of which, depicted by SEM, is highly altered with flaked and corroded microstructures.

    En los últimos años la aplicación de los métodos físicoquímicos de caracterización de materiales modernos al estudio de materiales antiguos es un campo de investigación de creciente interés para

  2. Trusted Domain

    Hjorth, Theis Solberg; Torbensen, Rune


    that enables secure end-to-end communication with home automation devices, and it supports device revocations as well as a structure of intersecting sets of nodes for scalability. Devices in the Trusted Domain are registered in a list that is distributed using a robust epidemic protocol optimized...

  3. Domain crossing

    Schraefel, M. C.; Rouncefield, Mark; Kellogg, Wendy


    In CSCW, how much do we need to know about another domain/culture before we observe, intersect and intervene with designs. What optimally would that other culture need to know about us? Is this a “how long is a piece of string” question, or an inquiry where we can consider a variety of contexts a...

  4. Mapping Knowledge Domain on Subject Headings of Public Sentiment Research Based on Multi-dimensional Scaling%基于多维尺度分析的舆情研究主题词知识图谱

    孙艳; 田丽梅


    为了对舆情的研究现状进行客观梳理,总结研究文献内在的联系和科学结构,文中选取近5年来中国知网收录的“中文核心期刊”和“CSSCI”相关研究文献展开研究。首先,进行前期数据准备,包括准备的步骤与方法及其相关的数学模型;然后,将相异系数矩阵输入到SPSS中进行多维尺度分析并绘制知识图谱;最后,从维度定义和空间分布特点两个方面对知识图谱进行分析。结果表明,当前舆情研究主要集中于4个方向,舆情直接相关研究是重点与热点,媒体相关的研究领域也较活跃,但一些细分的研究方向成果比较分散。%In order to conduct objective comb for the current situation of public sentiment research and summarize the intrinsic links and science structure of researched literatures,it researches on"Chinese Core Journals" and"CSSCI" relevant research literatures included in CNKI in the past five years in this paper. First,preliminary data should be prepared,comprising the steps and methods of preparation and associated mathematical model. Then,the dissimilarity coefficient matrix is input into SPSS software to carry on multi dimensional scaling and draw mapping knowledge domain. Finally,mapping knowledge domain must be analyzed from two aspects of dimension definition and spatial distribution. The results show that the current public sentiment research has focused on four directions,and direct relevant re-search of public sentiment is the focus and hotspot,and media-related field of study is more active,but some results of research direction of segmentation are more dispersed.

  5. Localization of Hg and Pb in the palps, the digestive gland and the gills in Mytilus galloprovincialis (L.) using autometallography and X-ray microanalysis

    Dimitriadis, V.K.; Domouhtsidou, G.P.; Raftopoulou, E


    Palps are introduced as a new metal-storing organ in Mytilus galloprovincialis. - The intracellular localization of heavy metals using autometallography (AMG) and X-ray microanalysis was studied in the palps, the digestive gland and the gills of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis, after an experimental exposure to 0.1 mg l{sup -1} of Hg and 0.1 mg l{sup -1} of Pb, for 30 and 60 days. In the examined tissues, autometallographical black silver deposits (BSD) were localized mainly in the residual bodies and heterolysosomes of the digestive cells, as well as in the dense bodies of the epithelial cells. Metal deposition after Hg exposure was much more abundant compared to Pb exposure. Using X-ray microanalysis, Hg was traced on the BSD in all examined tissues, while Pb was not traced in these deposits. The results are discussed in comparison to previous results on long-term exposure to the same metals; in addition, the palps are introduced as a new metal storing organ and, finally, the use of X-ray microanalysis under a scanning electron microscope in order to enhance the specificity of AMG is suggested.

  6. A chemical signal possibly related to physiology in fossil cells detected by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis.

    Wang, X


    Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXMA) is a widely used tool employed to detect elemental composition and its spatial distribution in a sample without causing damage. Charcoalified cytoplasm is a new type of fossil material that came to people's attention only recently. In this paper, EDXMA is used for the first time to detect the spatial elemental distribution in charcoalified cytoplasm of two fossil plants that are more than 100 million years old. The results demonstrate certain elemental distribution patterns within charcoalified cytoplasm and the surrounding cell walls. Based on the results from cytological studies of extant material, the heterogeneous spatial elemental distribution within the charcoalified cytoplasm has the potential to be related to the maturation of cells, the presence of certain organelles, and the physiology of these organelles. This is the first chemical signal detected in cytoplasm residue that can possibly be related to plant physiology. This paves the way for further research on fossil cytoplasm, which will better our understanding on the physiology of fossil plants.

  7. Processes modulating calcium distribution in citrus leaves. An investigation using x-ray microanalysis with strontium as a tracer.

    Storey, Richard; Leigh, Roger A


    Citrus leaves accumulate large amounts of calcium that must be compartmented effectively to prevent stomatal closure by extracellular Ca2+ and interference with Ca(2+)-based cell signaling pathways. Using x-ray microanalysis, the distribution of calcium between vacuoles in different cell types of leaves of rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush.) was investigated. Calcium was accumulated principally in palisade, spongy mesophyll, and crystal-containing idioblast cells. It was low in epidermal and bundle sheath cells. Potassium showed the reverse distribution. Rubidium and strontium were used as tracers to examine the pathways by which potassium and calcium reached these cells. Comparisons of strontium and calcium distribution indicated that strontium is a good tracer for calcium, but rubidium did not mirror the potassium distribution pattern. The amount of strontium accumulated was highest in palisade cells, lowest in bundle sheath and epidermal cells, and intermediate in the spongy mesophyll. Accumulation of strontium in palisade and spongy mesophyll was accompanied by loss of potassium from these cells and its accumulation in the bundle sheath. Strontium moved apoplastically from the xylem to all cell types, and manipulation of water loss from the adaxial leaf surface suggested that diffusion is responsible for strontium movement to this side of the leaf. The results highlight the importance of palisade and spongy mesophyll as repositories for calcium and suggest that calcium distribution between different cell types is the result of differential rates of uptake. This tracer technique can provide important information about the ion uptake and accumulation properties of cells in intact leaves.

  8. A microanalysis of the clarity of information in physicians' and patients' discussions of treatment plans with and without language barriers.

    Gerwing, Jennifer; Indseth, Thor; Gulbrandsen, Pål


    Physicians and patients discuss treatment plans. If tasks within plans are not described adequately, patients cannot adhere. We evaluated task descriptions, testing whether patient engagement and language barriers affected task clarity. We sampled 12 videotaped hospital interactions from a corpus of 497: two encounters each from six hospital physicians, interacting with one native-speaking and one non-native-speaking patient. We used microanalysis of face-to-face dialogue to assess whether the physicians and patients achieved a complete, clear description of each task's three core information elements (who should do what and when). We conducted detailed analysis on 78 of the 90 tasks. Core information elements were complete in 62 (0.79) and clear in 37 (0.47). Language barriers had no effect on task clarity. When native-speaking patients were engaged, tasks were clearer (p<0.05). Although non-native-speaking patients were significantly more engaged (p<0.01), their engagement had no effect. Physicians may be pursuing patients' agreement, motivation, and commitment at the expense of working with the patient to be clear about what needs to be done. Physicians need to improve how clearly they present basic task information. Previous research demonstrated that even a short course can significantly improve the clarity of instructions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Genomics and X-ray microanalysis indicate that Ca2+ and thiols mediate the aggregation and adhesion of Xylella fastidiosa

    Leite B.


    Full Text Available The availability of the genome sequence of the bacterial plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa, the causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis, is accelerating important investigations concerning its pathogenicity. Plant vessel occlusion is critical for symptom development. The objective of the present study was to search for information that would help to explain the adhesion of X. fastidiosa cells to the xylem. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that adhesion may occur without the fastidium gum, an exopolysaccharide produced by X. fastidiosa, and X-ray microanalysis demonstrated the presence of elemental sulfur both in cells grown in vitro and in cells found inside plant vessels, indicating that the sulfur signal is generated by the pathogen surface. Calcium and magnesium peaks were detected in association with sulfur in occluded vessels. We propose an explanation for the adhesion and aggregation process. Thiol groups, maintained by the enzyme peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase, could be active on the surface of the bacteria and appear to promote cell-cell aggregation by forming disulfide bonds with thiol groups on the surface of adjacent cells. The enzyme methionine sulfoxide reductase has been shown to be an auxiliary component in the adhesiveness of some human pathogens. The negative charge conferred by the ionized thiol group could of itself constitute a mechanism of adhesion by allowing the formation of divalent cation bridges between the negatively charged bacteria and predominantly negatively charged xylem walls.

  10. Evaluation of the viability of cultured corneal endothelial cells by quantitative electron probe X-ray microanalysis.

    Alaminos, M; Sanchez-Quevedo, M C; Muñoz-Avila, J I; García, J M; Crespo, P V; González-Andrades, M; Campos, A


    Construction of artificial organs and tissues by tissue engineering is strongly dependent on the availability of viable cells. For that reason, the viability and the physiological status of cells kept in culture must be evaluated before the cells can be used for clinical purposes. In this work, we determined the viability of isolated rabbit corneal endothelial cells by trypan blue staining and quantitative electron probe X-ray microanalysis. Our results showed that the ionic content of potassium in cultured corneal endothelial cells tended to rise initially, but significantly decreased in cells in the fifth (and final) subculture, especially in comparison to cells in the fourth subculture (P subculture than in the fourth subculture (P subculture (P = 0.031). These data imply a remarkable decrease in the K/Na ratio from the fourth to the fifth subculture. Our microanalytical results, along with the morphological differences between cells in the last two subcultures, are compatible with an early phase of the preapoptotic process in the fifth subculture, and suggest that cells of the first four subcultures would be better candidates for tissue engineering.

  11. Cathodoluminescence, laser ablasion inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, electron probe microanalysis and electron paramagnetic resonance analyses of natural sphalerite

    Karakus, M.; Hagni, R.D.; Koenig, A.; Ciftc, E.


    Natural sphalerite associated with copper, silver, lead-zinc, tin and tungsten deposits from various world-famous mineral deposits have been studied by cathodoluminescence (CL), laser ablasion inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to determine the relationship between trace element type and content and the CL properties of sphalerite. In general, sphalerite produces a spectrum of CL colour under electron bombardment that includes deep blue, turquoise, lime green, yellow-orange, orange-red and dull dark red depending on the type and concentration of trace quantities of activator ions. Sphalerite from most deposits shows a bright yellow-orange CL colour with ??max centred at 585 nm due to Mn2+ ion, and the intensity of CL is strongly dependent primarily on Fe2+ concentration. The blue emission band with ??max centred at 470-490 nm correlates with Ga and Ag at the Tsumeb, Horn Silver, Balmat and Kankoy mines. Colloform sphalerite from older well-known European lead-zinc deposits and late Cretaceous Kuroko-type VMS deposits of Turkey shows intense yellowish CL colour and their CL spectra are characterised by extremely broad emission bands ranging from 450 to 750 nm. These samples are characterised by low Mn (behaviour of sphalerite serves to characterise ore types and help detect technologically important trace elements.

  12. Use of the cerium chloride technique and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis in plant peroxisome identification

    Kausch, A.P.; Wagner, B.L.; Horner, H.T. (Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames (USA))


    Glycolate oxidase activity is demonstrated cytochemically with the CeCl/sub 3/ technique in leaf peroxisomes of Nicotiana tabacum, Glycine max, Psychotria punctata and in unspecialized peroxisomes of Yucca torreyi roots. Reaction product deposition occurs throughout peroxisomal matrices, whereas nucleoid inclusion bodies, occurring in all four species, are cytochemically unreactive. We observed reactive and nonreactive microbodies within individual cells in these four plants despite prolonged incubation times and increased CeCl/sub 3/ concentration. These results may reflect differences in glycolate oxidase content or peroxisomal differentiation within individual cells of a given tissue. We demonstrate substrate-independent cerium deposits in cell walls, cytoplasmic hoop-shaped structures and chloroplast thylakoids at extended incubation times or increased CeCl/sub 3/ concentration, perhaps indicating the presence of endogenous H/sub 2/O/sub 2/. Elemental spectral analysis of electron-dense deposits with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis using a STEM detects peaks generated from the L-series of cerium. SEM X-ray mapping for the Lsub(..cap alpha..1) peak of cerium verifies peroxisomal localization of reaction product in thin sections.

  13. The block cipher NSABC (public domain)

    Nguyenova-Stepanikova, Alice


    We introduce NSABC/w -- Nice-Structured Algebraic Block Cipher using w-bit word arithmetic, a 4w-bit analogous of Skipjack [NSA98] with 5w-bit key. The Skipjack's internal 4-round Feistel structure is replaced with a w-bit, 2-round cascade of a binary operation (x,z)\\mapsto(x\\boxdot z)\\lll(w/2) that permutes a text word x under control of a key word z. The operation \\boxdot, similarly to the multiplication in IDEA [LM91, LMM91], bases on an algebraic group over w-bit words, so it is also capable of decrypting by means of the inverse element of z in the group. The cipher utilizes a secret 4w-bit tweak -- an easily changeable parameter with unique value for each block encrypted under the same key [LRW02] -- that is derived from the block index and an additional 4w -bit key. A software implementation for w=64 takes circa 9 clock cycles per byte on x86-64 processors.

  14. 22 CFR 120.11 - Public domain.


    .... Government and specific access and dissemination controls protecting information resulting from the research... published information; (3) Through second class mailing privileges granted by the U.S. Government; (4) At.... Government access and dissemination controls. University research will not be considered fundamental...

  15. .Gov Domains API

    General Services Administration — This dataset offers the list of all .gov domains, including state, local, and tribal .gov domains. It does not include .mil domains, or other federal domains outside...

  16. Blue light-dependent changes in loosely bound calcium in Arabidopsis mesophyll cells: an X-ray microanalysis study.

    Łabuz, Justyna; Samardakiewicz, Sławomir; Hermanowicz, Paweł; Wyroba, Elżbieta; Pilarska, Maria; Gabryś, Halina


    Calcium is involved in the signal transduction pathway from phototropins, the blue light photoreceptor kinases which mediate chloroplast movements. The chloroplast accumulation response in low light is controlled by both phot1 and phot2, while only phot2 is involved in avoidance movement induced by strong light. Phototropins elevate cytosolic Ca(2+) after activation by blue light. In higher plants, both types of chloroplast responses depend on Ca(2+), and internal calcium stores seem to be crucial for these processes. Yet, the calcium signatures generated after the perception of blue light by phototropins are not well understood. To characterize the localization of calcium in Arabidopsis mesophyll cells, loosely bound (exchangeable) Ca(2+) was precipitated with potassium pyroantimonate and analyzed by transmission electron microscopy followed by energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. In dark-adapted wild-type Arabidopsis leaves, calcium precipitates were observed at the cell wall, where they formed spherical structures. After strong blue light irradiation, calcium at the apoplast prevailed, and bigger, multilayer precipitates were found. Spherical calcium precipitates were also detected at the tonoplast. After red light treatment as a control, the precipitates at the cell wall were smaller and less numerous. In the phot2 and phot1phot2 mutants, calcium patterns were different from those of wild-type plants. In both mutants, no elevation of calcium after blue light treatment was observed at the cell periphery (including the cell wall and a fragment of cytoplasm). This result confirms the involvement of phototropin2 in the regulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis in mesophyll cells.

  17. Electrophoretically mediated microanalysis for characterization of the enantioselective CYP3A4 catalyzed N-demethylation of ketamine.

    Ying Kwan, Hiu; Thormann, Wolfgang


    Execution of an enzymatic reaction performed in a capillary with subsequent electrophoretic analysis of the formed products is referred to as electrophoretically mediated microanalysis (EMMA). An EMMA method was developed to investigate the stereoselectivity of the CYP3A4-mediated N-demethylation of ketamine. Ketamine was incubated in a 50 μm id bare fused-silica capillary together with human CYP3A4 Supersomes using a 100 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) at 37°C. A plug containing racemic ketamine and the NADPH regenerating system including all required cofactors for the enzymatic reaction was injected, followed by a plug of the metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4 (500 nM). These two plugs were bracketed by plugs of incubation buffer to ensure proper conditions for the enzymatic reaction. The rest of the capillary was filled with a pH 2.5 running buffer comprising 50 mM Tris, phosphoric acid, and 2% w/v of highly sulfated γ-cyclodextrin. Mixing of reaction plugs was enhanced via application of -10 kV for 10 s. After an incubation of 8 min at 37°C without power application (zero-potential amplification), the capillary was cooled to 25°C within 3 min followed by application of -10 kV for the separation and detection of the formed enantiomers of norketamine. Norketamine formation rates were fitted to the Michaelis-Menten model and the elucidated values for V(max) and K(m) were found to be comparable to those obtained from the off-line assay of a previous study.

  18. Alternative matrix formers for nanosuspension solidification: Dissolution performance and X-ray microanalysis as an evaluation tool for powder dispersion.

    Van Eerdenbrugh, Bernard; Froyen, Ludo; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Martens, Johan A; Augustijns, Patrick; Van Den Mooter, Guy


    Four alternative matrix formers [Avicel PH101, Fujicalin (CaHPO(4)), Aerosil 200 (SiO(2)) and Inutec SP1] were evaluated for their capability in preserving rapid dissolution after spray-drying of nanosuspensions. Model drug compounds selected were cinnarizine (CIN), itraconazole (ITR) and phenylbutazone (PHB) as they showed a decrease in dissolution rate upon spray-drying in the absence of additional matrix formers, yielding release values after 5min of dissolution (release(5min)) of 57.7+/-1.0% (CIN), 56.3+/-3.8% (ITR) and 67.4+/-1.3% (PHB). Compared to the situation without matrix former inclusion, the performance of Avicel PH101 was good for CIN (release(5min)=90.9+/-7.7%), intermediate for PHB (release(5min)=81.0+/-6.4%) and poor for ITR (release(5min)=42.1+/-4.2%). For Fujicalin, intermediate (PHB: release(5min)=87.7+/-3.0%) or poor (CIN: release(5min)=66.1+/-3.4%; ITR: release(5min)=55.9+/-5.2%) performance was seen. Results for Aerosil 200 were good for all compounds (CIN: release(5min)=91.5+/-2.5%; ITR: release(5min)=83.8+/-3.4%; PHB: release(5min)=95.5+/-2.4%), indicating that the large specific surface area was in this case translated into good matrix forming capabilities. Finally, the best results were obtained for Inutec SP1 (CIN: release(5min)=88.7+/-1.2%; ITR: release(5min)=93.4+/-2.4%; PHB: release(5min)=101.3+/-4.9%). Except for Avicel PH101, Cl-maps from X-ray microanalysis of the itraconazole powders supported the hypothesis that better dispersion of drug in the powders results in faster dissolution.

  19. Music therapy microanalysis of parent-infant interaction in a three-month-old infant later diagnosed with autism

    Ferdinando Suvini


    Full Text Available Background Infant research literature has described for a long time the main aspects of parentese (motherese and fatherese referring to musicality and specifically to musical language. It is believed that there is a deep analogy between the vital affects experienced by the child during interaction with the parent and the type of parentese that is a direct representation of them. Disruption of parentese has been described in early autism. The aim of this paper was to achieve a better understanding of this disruptive process. Participants and procedure Sequences of parent-infant interaction extracted from one home movie of a child later diagnosed with autism were analyzed in a micro-musical way in order to create a musical score that allows the description of parent-infant interaction in a new way (considering form, pulse, rhythm, melody, timbre and silence. Results Musical microanalysis is able to highlight features not brought out by other kinds of analysis. The first fragment is dominated by the anxiety of the mother, who attempts to stimulate the unresponsive infant. In the second fragment there is a change in musicality parallel to changes in the relationship: the mother participates in and coordinates the infant’s experience through rhythm, prosody and musical dynamics. This change persists in the third fragment. Conclusions Musical transcription of parent-infant interactions has allowed us to highlight changes occurring in a short time during early interactions and to get a closer view of the disruptive process created by autism. This kind of research represents a potential shift in autism research, by focusing on dynamic parent-infant interactions instead of single behaviors of the child or of the parent. The usefulness of Stern’s concept of intersubjective communion is discussed.

  20. 批判与再筑:公私二元性别规范的省思——以兰西·弗雷泽公共领域观为视角%Critique and Re -building. Reflections on the Public-Private Duality of Gender Norms--- From the Perspective of the Public Domain Concept of Lancey Fraser



    公共领域和私人领域的二元划分,作为哈贝马斯的理想图景,发挥其重要的理论建构作用,在学界引起广泛影响,同时也引起了持久的争论,并且受到多方的质疑和挑战。其中,女性主义对公共领域概念进行了颠覆性的改造。女性主义对此问题的关注,主要集中在女性与社会关系、女性的社会地位等方面,以社会性别的分析视角反思单一的总括性公共领域构想,女性作为弱势群体的作用长期被忽略了。公共领域既是形成话语意见的场所,也是形成社会身份的场所。由于在历史发展过程中,女性始终处于一种无语的状态,女性的话题一直被遮蔽在权力关系之外,即使自由主义时期,家务劳动的价值没有得到确认和展开。性别偏置的问题没有得到根本性改观,基于公共领域意志所形成的性别规范和性别制度必然呈现男权主义的特征。因此,公私二元的理论修正,对于性别平等这一价值和原则而言,是重要的理论支点。%The dual division of public and private spheres, as Habermas's ideal picture, played an important role in the theoretical construction and caused widespread impacts in the academic community and a long debate, which were questioned and challenged by the parties. Among them, the concept of feminism car- ried out disruptive transformation to the concept of the public domain. Attention of feminism focuses mainly on women and social relations and women's social status. Reflecting on a single, overarching public sphere concept by gender analysis perspective we find the role of women as vulnerable groups have long been ignored. The public sphere is not only the place to form the words and views, but also the place to form the social identity. In the course of historical development women are always in a state of loss of speech, and the topic of women has been obscured in power relations~ even if in the liberal period, the val- ue of

  1. Publicity and public relations

    Fosha, Charles E.


    This paper addresses approaches to using publicity and public relations to meet the goals of the NASA Space Grant College. Methods universities and colleges can use to publicize space activities are presented.

  2. Preparation and certification of the Polish reference material Virginia Tobacco Leaves (CTA-VTL-2) for inorganic trace analysis including microanalysis

    Dybczynski, R.; Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Samczynski, Z.; Szopa, Z.


    A new Polish certified reference material Virginia Tobacco Leaves (CTA-VTL-2) for inorganic trace analysis including microanalysis has been prepared. Certification of the candidate reference material was based on the world-wide interlaboratory comparison in which 60 laboratories from 18 countries, participated using various analytical methods and techniques. Data evaluation performed by means of the new multifunctional software package -SSQC. Recommended values were assigned for 33 and `information` values for 10 elements, respectively. The validity of `certified` values was confirmed for several elements using `very accurate` methods developed in this Laboratory. (author). 47 refs, 28 figs, 12 tabs.

  3. Ubiquitin domain proteins in disease

    Klausen, Louise Kjær; Schulze, Andrea; Seeger, Michael


    The human genome encodes several ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain proteins (UDPs). Members of this protein family are involved in a variety of cellular functions and many are connected to the ubiquitin proteasome system, an essential pathway for protein degradation in eukaryotic cells. Despite their s...... and cancer. Publication history: Republished from Current BioData's Targeted Proteins database (TPdb; human genome encodes several ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain proteins (UDPs). Members of this protein family are involved in a variety of cellular functions and many are connected to the ubiquitin proteasome system, an essential pathway for protein degradation in eukaryotic cells. Despite...

  4. A typology of public engagement mechanisms

    Rowe, G.; Frewer, L.J.


    Imprecise definition of key terms in the "public participation" domain have hindered the conduct of good research and militated against the development and implementation of effective participation practices. In this article, we define key concepts in the domain: public communication, public consult

  5. Public Education, Public Good.

    Tomlinson, John


    Criticizes policies which would damage or destroy a public education system. Examines the relationship between government-provided education and democracy. Concludes that privatization of public education would emphasize self-interest and selfishness, further jeopardizing the altruism and civic mindedness necessary for the public good. (JDH)

  6. Interaction Design for Public Spaces

    Kortbek, Karen Johanne


    In this abstract I describe the doctorial research project "Interaction Design for Public Spaces". The objective of the project is to explore and design interaction contexts in culture related public spaces such as museums, experience centres and festivals. As a perspective on this domain, I...... will help interaction designers when designing for bodily movement, and communicating and staging interactive content in public spaces....

  7. Protein domain prediction

    Ingolfsson, Helgi; Yona, Golan


    Domains are considered to be the building blocks of protein structures. A protein can contain a single domain or multiple domains, each one typically associated with a specific function. The combination of domains determines the function of the protein, its subcellular localization and the interacti

  8. Isotopic microanalysis sheds light on the magmatic endmembers feeding volcanic eruptions: The Astroni 6 case study (Campi Flegrei, Italy)

    Arienzo, I.; D'Antonio, M.; Di Renzo, V.; Tonarini, S.; Minolfi, G.; Orsi, G.; Carandente, A.; Belviso, P.; Civetta, L.


    Sr-isotopic microanalysis has been performed on selected minerals from the Campi Flegrei caldera, together with Sr and Nd isotopic ratio determinations on bulk mineral and glass fractions. The aim was a better characterization of the chemically homogeneous, but isotopically distinct magmatic components which fed volcanic eruptions of the caldera over the past 5 ka, in order to enhance our knowledge about one of the most dangerous volcanoes on Earth. Information on the involved magmatic endmembers, unobtainable by analyzing the isotopic composition of whole rock samples and bulk mineral fractions, has been acquired through high-precision determination of 87Sr/86Sr on single crystals and microdrilled mineral powders. We focused our investigations on the products emplaced during the Astroni 6 eruption (4.23 cal ka BP), assumed representative of the expected event in case of renewed volcanic activity in the Campi Flegrei caldera. Data on single crystals and microdrilled mineral powders have been compared with Sr and Nd isotopic compositions of bulk mineral fractions from products emplaced during the whole Astroni activity, which included seven distinct eruptions. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios of single crystals and microdrilled mineral powders are in the 0.7060 to 0.7076 range, much wider than that of bulk mineral fractions, which range from 0.7066 to 0.7076. Moreover, the Sr isotopic ratios are inversely correlated to 143Nd/144Nd. The new data allow us to better define the magmatic endmembers involved in mingling/mixing processes that occurred prior to/during the Astroni activity. One magmatic endmember, characterized by average 87Sr/86Sr ratio of ~ 0.70750, was quite common in the past 15 ka activity of the Campi Flegrei caldera; the other, as evidenced by the isotopic composition of single feldspar and clinopyroxene crystals, is less enriched in radiogenic Sr (87Sr/86Sr ~ 0.70724). The latter is interpreted to represent a new magmatic component that entered the Campi Flegrei

  9. Membrane binding domains

    Hurley, James H.


    Eukaryotic signaling and trafficking proteins are rich in modular domains that bind cell membranes. These binding events are tightly regulated in space and time. The structural, biochemical, and biophysical mechanisms for targeting have been worked out for many families of membrane binding domains. This review takes a comparative view of seven major classes of membrane binding domains, the C1, C2, PH, FYVE, PX, ENTH, and BAR domains. These domains use a combination of specific headgroup inter...

  10. Stratification of Teachers' Status and the Basis for the Organizational System: A Microanalysis of the Institutional Dynamics of the Examination-Oriented Educational System at the Secondary School Level

    Binli, Chen


    This article is a study of secondary schools in W. County from the perspective of the stratification of teachers' status. It provides a microanalysis of the institutional dynamics of the examination-oriented educational system. In an effort to increase the matriculation rate of the students, the body of teachers has become stratified through…

  11. Public Speech.

    Green, Thomas F.


    Discusses the importance of public speech in society, noting the power of public speech to create a world and a public. The paper offers a theory of public speech, identifies types of public speech, and types of public speech fallacies. Two ways of speaking of the public and of public life are distinguished. (SM)

  12. Comparative studies of elemental composition on ejaculated fowl, bull, rat, dog and boar spermatozoa by electron probe X-ray microanalysis.

    Ashizawa, K; Ozawa, Y; Okauchi, K


    1. Comparative analyses of the concentrations of bulk and trace elements on the head, midpiece and tail regions of the ejaculated fowl, bull, rat, dog and boar spermatozoa were performed using X-ray microanalysis with scanning electron microscopy. 2. Although the pattern of distribution of elements on the surface of the three different subcellular regions was, in general, similar among all the species, there were substantial shifts in absolute concentrations. 3. Concentration of magnesium on the dog spermatozoa was significantly higher (about 2 times) than those of the other species. 4. Zinc, copper, iron and manganese concentrations were higher on fowl spermatozoa compared with those of the other species studied. 5. The Na-to-K ratios on the midpiece ranged from 1.46 (rat) to 2.26 (dog).

  13. Chemical State Mapping of Degraded B4C Control Rod Investigated with Soft X-ray Emission Spectrometer in Electron Probe Micro-analysis

    Kasada, R.; Ha, Y.; Higuchi, T.; Sakamoto, K.


    B4C is widely used as control rods in light water reactors, such as the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, because it shows excellent neutron absorption and has a high melting point. However, B4C can melt at lower temperatures owing to eutectic interactions with stainless steel and can even evaporate by reacting with high-temperature steam under severe accident conditions. To reduce the risk of recriticality, a precise understanding of the location and chemical state of B in the melt core is necessary. Here we show that a novel soft X-ray emission spectrometer in electron probe microanalysis can help to obtain a chemical state map of B in a modeled control rod after a high-temperature steam oxidation test.

  14. Perfecting a method of micro-analysis of water and acetic acid in a cocoa bean in the course of drying: applying to determine transportation coefficients

    Nganhou, J.; Njomo, D.; Bénet, J. C.; Augier, F.; Berthomieu, G.


    This article is about the study of the diffusion of water and acetic acid in a grain of cocoa in course of drying. The authors present a method of microanalysis which enables the analysis of each little slice of the grain : a precise measurement of each slice is realised in view of the analysis from the centre to the surface of the grain with the aid of a cutting apparatus, designed and realised to this effect. At each instant of the drying process, the profiles of water and acetic acid contents are then determined. A one dimensional diffusion model enables a shell by shell evaluation of the diffusion of water and acid in the cocoa grain. The results obtained show an augmentation of transport coefficients in course of drying. We however observe a decrease of the diffusion coefficient of water to the low moisture content : what makes us think of the appearance of crusting phenomenon.

  15. Examination of chemical elements partitioning between the γ and γ′ phases in CMSX-4 superalloy using EDS microanalysis and electron tomography

    Kruk Adam


    Full Text Available In the present study, the partition of chemical elements between γ and γ′ phases in CMSX-4 was investigated using EDS microanalysis and electron tomography (FIB-SEM and STEM-EDS methods. The investigation has been performed for the superalloy after standard heat treatment and the ex-service CMSX-4 turbine blade after operation for 12 700 hours and 200 starts in industrial gas turbine. The results have shown that Co, Cr and Re partition to the γ matrix, Ni and W are present in both γ and γ′ phases, while Al, Ti and Ta strongly partition to the γ′ phase. The results show the abilities of new analytical electron microscopy and electron tomography methods to characterize the microstructure and chemical composition of single crystal superalloys at the nanoscale.

  16. Domains via Graphs

    ZHANG Guoqiang; CHEN Yixiang


    This paper provides a concrete and simple introduction to two pillars of domain theory: (1) solving recursive domain equations, and (2) universal and saturated domains. Our exposition combines Larsen and Winskel's idea on solving domain equations using information systems with Girard's idea of stable domain theory in the form of coherence spaces, or graphs.Detailed constructions are given for universal and even homogeneous objects in two categories of graphs: one representing binary complete, prime algebraic domains with complete primes covering the bottom; the other representing ω-algebraic, prime algebraic lattices. The backand-forth argument in model theory helps to enlighten the constructions.

  17. Domains of laminin

    Engvall, E; Wewer, U M


    Extracellular matrix molecules are often very large and made up of several independent domains, frequently with autonomous activities. Laminin is no exception. A number of globular and rod-like domains can be identified in laminin and its isoforms by sequence analysis as well as by electron...... microscopy. Here we present the structure-function relations in laminins by examination of their individual domains. This approach to viewing laminin is based on recent results from several laboratories. First, some mutations in laminin genes that cause disease have affected single laminin domains, and some...... laminin isoforms lack particular domains. These mutants and isoforms are informative with regard to the activities of the mutated and missing domains. These mutants and isoforms are informative with regard to the activities of the mutated and missing domains. Second, laminin-like domains have now been...

  18. Public Values

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.


    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest......This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....

  19. An Empirical Research on Periodic Fluctuation of Public Opinion on Microblogging and Other Domains%微博舆情跨域周期波动实证研究



    Combining the period of microblogging public opinion and the period of objective factors triggering the microblogging events, this paper conducts a cross-field research on periodic fluctuation of online and offline. The paper puts forward a complete set of research ideas and research methods, and conducts an empirical research to test the feasibility of the ideas, taking the haze event on microblogging as an example. The conclusion implies the interactive rules between the periods of microblogging public opinion and objective factors, and proposes a microblogging public opinion forecasting model. The study deepens the theory of periodic microblogging public opinion, and provides a new way for the early warning of microblogging public opinion, and the paper has significant values in both theoretical and practical aspects.%以生命周期理论为基础,将微博舆情周期与触发事件客观因素周期相联系,进行线上线下的跨域周期波动研究,提出一整套研究思路和研究方法,并以微博雾霾事件为例进行实证分析,考察了思路的可行性,实证结论揭示了微博雾霾舆情周期与客观因素周期之间的互动规律,提出微博舆情预测模型。深化了微博舆情周期理论,并为微博舆情预警提供了新思路,在理论性和实用性方面都具有重要价值。

  20. Análisis de dominio de la revista mexicana Investigación Bibliotecológica Domain analysis by the mexican publication Investigación Bibliotecológica

    Félix de Moya-Anegón


    Full Text Available El análisis de dominio esta compuesto por un conjunto de metodologías que permiten delinear la estructura de relaciones existente en una determinada disciplina. El objetivo del presente trabajo es brindar un análisis de dominio de la disciplina Bibliotecología y Documentación (ByD en México. Para ello se analizará la bibliografía citaa por la revista Investigación Bibliotecológica (IB. Entre los elementos a analizar se encuentran: producción, autoría, coautoría, fuentes citadas y cocitación de revistas.The domain analysis involved a set of methods that show the structure of relations in a specific discipline. The aim of this paper is to provide the domain analysis of Library and Information Science (LIS in México. For that purpose, the bibliography of the Investigación Bibliotecológica (IB journal is analized. We analize the production, autorship, co-autorship, quoted sources, and joint quotation of journals.

  1. Translation domains in multiferroics

    Meier, D; Leo, N; Jungk, T.; Soergel, E.; Becker, P.; Bohaty, L.; Fiebig, M.


    Translation domains differing in the phase but not in the orientation of the corresponding order parameter are resolved in two types of multiferroics. Hexagonal (h-) YMnO$_3$ is a split-order-parameter multiferroic in which commensurate ferroelectric translation domains are resolved by piezoresponse force microscopy whereas MnWO$_4$ is a joint-order-parameter multiferroic in which incommensurate magnetic translation domains are observed by optical second harmonic generation. The pronounced ma...

  2. Frustratingly Easy Domain Adaptation

    Daumé, Hal


    We describe an approach to domain adaptation that is appropriate exactly in the case when one has enough ``target'' data to do slightly better than just using only ``source'' data. Our approach is incredibly simple, easy to implement as a preprocessing step (10 lines of Perl!) and outperforms state-of-the-art approaches on a range of datasets. Moreover, it is trivially extended to a multi-domain adaptation problem, where one has data from a variety of different domains.

  3. Staggered domain wall fermions

    Hoelbling, Christian


    We construct domain wall fermions with a staggered kernel and investigate their spectral and chiral properties numerically in the Schwinger model. In some relevant cases we see an improvement of chirality by more than an order of magnitude as compared to usual domain wall fermions. Moreover, we present first results for four-dimensional quantum chromodynamics, where we also observe significant reductions of chiral symmetry violations for staggered domain wall fermions.

  4. Pragmatic circuits frequency domain

    Eccles, William


    Pragmatic Circuits: Frequency Domain goes through the Laplace transform to get from the time domain to topics that include the s-plane, Bode diagrams, and the sinusoidal steady state. This second of three volumes ends with a-c power, which, although it is just a special case of the sinusoidal steady state, is an important topic with unique techniques and terminology. Pragmatic Circuits: Frequency Domain is focused on the frequency domain. In other words, time will no longer be the independent variable in our analysis. The two other volumes in the Pragmatic Circuits series include titles on DC

  5. Visualizing domain wall and reverse domain superconductivity.

    Iavarone, M; Moore, S A; Fedor, J; Ciocys, S T; Karapetrov, G; Pearson, J; Novosad, V; Bader, S D


    In magnetically coupled, planar ferromagnet-superconductor (F/S) hybrid structures, magnetic domain walls can be used to spatially confine the superconductivity. In contrast to a superconductor in a uniform applied magnetic field, the nucleation of the superconducting order parameter in F/S structures is governed by the inhomogeneous magnetic field distribution. The interplay between the superconductivity localized at the domain walls and far from the walls leads to effects such as re-entrant superconductivity and reverse domain superconductivity with the critical temperature depending upon the location. Here we use scanning tunnelling spectroscopy to directly image the nucleation of superconductivity at the domain wall in F/S structures realized with Co-Pd multilayers and Pb thin films. Our results demonstrate that such F/S structures are attractive model systems that offer the possibility to control the strength and the location of the superconducting nucleus by applying an external magnetic field, potentially useful to guide vortices for computing application.

  6. The enterprise engineering domain

    De Vries, M


    Full Text Available representation of the EE domain within the emerging EE discipline. We used a questionnaire to gather the views of EE and enterprise architecture (EA) researchers and practitioners on the EE domain. The main contributions of this article include: (1...

  7. Domain wall filters

    Bär, O; Neuberger, H; Witzel, O; Baer, Oliver; Narayanan, Rajamani; Neuberger, Herbert; Witzel, Oliver


    We propose using the extra dimension separating the domain walls carrying lattice quarks of opposite handedness to gradually filter out the ultraviolet fluctuations of the gauge fields that are felt by the fermionic excitations living in the bulk. This generalization of the homogeneous domain wall construction has some theoretical features that seem nontrivial.

  8. Domain Walls on Singularities

    Halyo, Edi


    We describe domain walls that live on $A_2$ and $A_3$ singularities. The walls are BPS if the singularity is resolved and non--BPS if it is deformed and fibered. We show that these domain walls may interpolate between vacua that support monopoles and/or vortices.

  9. Domains of Learning.

    Gagne, Robert M.

    In planning educational research, recognition needs to be made of five domains of learning: (1) motor skills, (2) verbal information, (3) intellectual skills, (4) cognitive strategies, and (5) attitudes. In being cognizant of these domains, the researcher is able to distinguish the parts of a content area which are subject to different…

  10. A Domain Analysis Bibliography


    Bauhaus , a prototype CASE workstation for D-SAPS development. [ARAN88A] Guillermo F. Arango. Domain Engineering for Software Reuse. PhD thesis...34 VITA90B: Domain Analysis within the ISEC Rapid Center 48 CMU/SEI-90-SR-3 Appendix III Alphabetical by Organization/Project BAUHAUS * ALLE87A

  11. Quantitative energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis for single-particle analysis and its application for characterizing atmospheric aerosol particles

    Shila Maskey; Chul-Un Ro


    An energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis (ED-EPMA) technique using an energy-dispersive X-ray detector with an ultra-thin window, designated as low-Z particle EPMA, has been developed. The low-Z particle EPMA allows the quantitative determination of concentrations of low-Z elements such as C, N and O, as well as higher-Z elements that can be analysed by conventional ED-EPMA. The quantitative determination of low-Z elements (using full Monte Carlo simulations, from the electron impact to the X-ray detection) in individual particles has improved the applicability of single-particle analysis, especially in atmospheric environmental aerosol research; many environmentally important atmospheric particles, e.g. sulphates, nitrates, ammonium and carbonaceous particles, contain low-Z elements. To demonstrate its practical applicability, the application of the low-Z particle EPMA for the characterization of Asian Dust, urban and subway aerosol particles is shown herein. In addition, it is demonstrated that the Monte Carlo calculation can also be applied in a quantitative single-particle analysis using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), showing that the technique is useful and reliable for the characterization of submicron aerosol particles

  12. Chemometric classification of gunshot residues based on energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis and inductively coupled plasma analysis with mass-spectrometric detection

    Steffen, S. [Bundeskriminalamt (BKA), Forensic Science Institute KT23, Thaerstr. 11, D - 65193 Wiesbaden (Germany); Otto, M. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (TU BAF), Institute for Analytical Chemistry, Leipziger Str. 29, D - 09599 Freiberg (Germany)], E-mail:; Niewoehner, L.; Barth, M. [Bundeskriminalamt (BKA), Forensic Science Institute KT23, Thaerstr. 11, D - 65193 Wiesbaden (Germany); Brozek-Mucha, Z. [Instytut Ekspertyz Sadowych (IES), Westerplatte St. 9, PL - 31-033 Krakow (Poland); Biegstraaten, J. [Nederlands Forensisch Instituut (NFI), Fysische Technologie, Laan van Ypenburg 6, NL-2497 GB Den Haag (Netherlands); Horvath, R. [Kriminalisticky a Expertizny Ustav (KEU PZ), Institute of Forensic Science, Sklabinska 1, SK - 812 72 Bratislava (Slovakia)


    A gunshot residue sample that was collected from an object or a suspected person is automatically searched for gunshot residue relevant particles. Particle data (such as size, morphology, position on the sample for manual relocation, etc.) as well as the corresponding X-ray spectra and images are stored. According to these data, particles are classified by the analysis-software into different groups: 'gunshot residue characteristic', 'consistent with gunshot residue' and environmental particles, respectively. Potential gunshot residue particles are manually checked and - if necessary - confirmed by the operating forensic scientist. As there are continuing developments on the ammunition market worldwide, it becomes more and more difficult to assign a detected particle to a particular ammunition brand. As well, the differentiation towards environmental particles similar to gunshot residue is getting more complex. To keep external conditions unchanged, gunshot residue particles were collected using a specially designed shooting device for the test shots revealing defined shooting distances between the weapon's muzzle and the target. The data obtained as X-ray spectra of a number of particles (3000 per ammunition brand) were reduced by Fast Fourier Transformation and subjected to a chemometric evaluation by means of regularized discriminant analysis. In addition to the scanning electron microscopy in combination with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis results, isotope ratio measurements based on inductively coupled plasma analysis with mass-spectrometric detection were carried out to provide a supplementary feature for an even lower risk of misclassification.

  13. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis studies of early dental calculus on resin plates exposed to human oral cavities.

    Kodaka, T; Ohohara, Y; Debari, K


    Dental calculus formed after 10 days on resin plates, applied to the lingual sides of the mandibular gingival regions in eight human subjects, was investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). The mineral deposits were mainly divided into three types: A, B, and C. The type A deposits showing an average Ca/P molar ratio of 1.42 were densely packed with fine needle-shaped crystals formed by the intra- and extra-cellular calcification. The type A deposits, probably composed of Ca-deficient apatites and the transitional forms between apatite and octacalcium phosphate (OCP), were observed in all subjects. The type B deposits showing an average Ca/P molar ratio of 0.96 were aggregated with polygonal column, triangular plate-shaped, and rhombohedral crystals. These crystals identified as brushite (CaHPO4-2H2O:dicalcium phosphate dihydrate: DCPD) were found in four subjects. Platelet-shaped crystals of the type C deposits were observed in three subjects. Their Ca/P molar ratio of 1.26 and the crystal shape were similar to those of OCP. Whitlockite crystals were not found although Mg-containing hexagonal disk-like crystals were observed in two subjects.

  14. Measurement of the composition of noble-metal particles in high-burnup CANDU fuel by wavelength dispersive X-ray microanalysis

    Hocking, W.H.; Szostak, F.J


    An investigation of the composition of the metallic inclusions in CANDU fuel, which contain Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh and Pd, has been conducted as a function of burnup by wavelength dispersive X-ray (WDX) microanalysis. Quantitative measurements were performed on micrometer sized particles embedded in thin sections of fuel using elemental standards and the ZAF method. Because the fission yields of the noble metals change with burnup, as a consequence of a shift from almost entirely {sup 235}U fission to mainly {sup 239}Pu fission, their inventories were calculated from the fuel power histories using the WIMS-Origin code for comparison with experiment. Contrary to expectations that the oxygen potential would be buffered by progressive Mo oxidation, little evidence was obtained for reduced incorporation of Mo in the noble-metal particles at high burnup. These surprising results are discussed with respect to the oxygen balance in irradiated CANDU fuels and the likely intrinsic and extrinsic sinks for excess oxygen. (author)

  15. Investigation of Optically Modified YBa2Cu3O7–x Films by Means of X-ray Microanalysis Technique

    Artūras JUKNA


    Full Text Available This work reports on investigation of remnant oxygen content in optically-modified regions of 0.3-mm-thick YBa2Cu3O7–x films, patterned by a laser-writing technique in an inert ambient gas atmosphere at room temperature. A laser-treated region of weak superconductivity with dimensions depending on the size of a laser spot, laser power, and initial content of oxygen is characterized by a lower oxygen content, weaker critical magnetic field, and suppressed both the superconducting critical temperature and the critical current density, as compared to the laser untreated regions. Optically induced (cw-laser, 532-nm-wavelength heating strongly affects a non-uniform distribution of remnant oxygen content in the film, depending both on the optical power and beam’s scanning velocity. A level of oxygen depletion and the size of the oxygen-deficient region have been directly estimated from scanning-electron-microscope spectra with the X-ray microanalysis technique. The results of our measurements were compared with results extracted from electric measurements, assuming a correlation between the remnant oxygen content and the electric transport properties of oxygen-deficient YBa2Cu3O7–x films. DOI:

  16. Electron probe microanalysis of a METAPHIX UPuZr metallic alloy fuel irradiated to 7.0 at.% burn-up

    Brémier, S.; Inagaki, K.; Capriotti, L.; Poeml, P.; Ogata, T.; Ohta, H.; Rondinella, V. V.


    The METAPHIX project is a collaboration between CRIEPI and JRC-ITU investigating safety and performance of a closed fuel cycle option based on fast reactor metal alloy fuels containing Minor Actinides (MA). The aim of the project is to investigate the behaviour of this type of fuel and demonstrate the transmutation of MA under irradiation. A UPuZr metallic fuel sample irradiated to a burn-up of 7 at.% was examined by electron probe microanalysis. The fuel sample was extensively characterised qualitatively and quantitatively using elemental X-ray imaging and point analysis techniques. The analyses reveal a significant redistribution of the fuel components along the fuel radius highlighting a nearly complete depletion of Zr in the central part of the fuel. Numerous rare earth and fission products secondary phases are present in various compositions. Fuel cladding chemical interaction was observed with creation of a number of intermediary layers affecting a cladding depth of 15-20 μm and migration of cladding elements to the fuel.

  17. An expert system for chemical speciation of individual particles using low-Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis data.

    Ro, Chul-Un; Kim, HyeKyeong; Van Grieken, René


    An electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) technique, using an energy-dispersive X-ray detector with an ultrathin window, designated a low-Z particle EPMA, has been developed. The low-Z particle EPMA allows the quantitative determination of concentrations of low-Z elements, such as C, N, and O, as well as chemical elements that can be analyzed by conventional energy-dispersive EPMA, in individual particles. Since a data set is usually composed of data for several thousands of particles in order to make environmentally meaningful observations of real atmospheric aerosol samples, the development of a method that fully extracts chemical information contained in the low-Z particle EPMA data is important. An expert system that can rapidly and reliably perform chemical speciation from the low-Z particle EPMA data is presented. This expert system tries to mimic the logic used by experts and is implemented by applying macroprogramming available in MS Excel software. Its feasibility is confirmed by applying the expert system to data for various types of standard particles and a real atmospheric aerosol sample. By applying the expert system, the time necessary for chemical speciation becomes shortened very much and detailed information on particle data can be saved and extracted later if more information is needed for further analysis.

  18. Performing elemental microanalysis with high accuracy and high precision by scanning electron microscopy/silicon drift detector energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM/SDD-EDS).

    Newbury, Dale E; Ritchie, Nicholas W M

    Electron-excited X-ray microanalysis performed in the scanning electron microscope with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) is a core technique for characterization of the microstructure of materials. The recent advances in EDS performance with the silicon drift detector (SDD) enable accuracy and precision equivalent to that of the high spectral resolution wavelength-dispersive spectrometer employed on the electron probe microanalyzer platform. SDD-EDS throughput, resolution, and stability provide practical operating conditions for measurement of high-count spectra that form the basis for peak fitting procedures that recover the characteristic peak intensities even for elemental combination where severe peak overlaps occur, such PbS, MoS2, BaTiO3, SrWO4, and WSi2. Accurate analyses are also demonstrated for interferences involving large concentration ratios: a major constituent on a minor constituent (Ba at 0.4299 mass fraction on Ti at 0.0180) and a major constituent on a trace constituent (Ba at 0.2194 on Ce at 0.00407; Si at 0.1145 on Ta at 0.0041). Accurate analyses of low atomic number elements, C, N, O, and F, are demonstrated. Measurement of trace constituents with limits of detection below 0.001 mass fraction (1000 ppm) is possible within a practical measurement time of 500 s.

  19. Alloying elemental change of SS-316 and Al-5754 during laser welding using real time laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) accompanied by EDX and PIXE microanalysis

    Jandaghi, M.; Parvin, P.; Torkamany, M. J.; Sabbaghzadeh, J.

    Experimental studies of pulsed laser welding of stainless steel 316 in keyhole mode was done to examine a vaporization model based on the kinetic theory of gases and the thermodynamic laws. A long pulsed Nd:YAG laser with variable duration of 1-12 ms and 9-17 Gw/cm2 was employed. The undesirable loss of volatile elements affects on the weld metal compositions and the alloy properties. The model predicts that the loss of alloying elements strongly takes place at higher peak powers and longer pulse durations. On the other hand, the model shows the rapid migration of Mn and Cr based on the pressure and concentration gradients from the molten pool. Accordingly, the concentrations of iron, chromium, nickel and manganese were determined in the weld pool by means of the energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX) and proton induced X ray characteristics (PIXE) microanalysis. The change of weld metal composition of aluminium alloy 5754 in keyhole mode laser welding, was investigated using the model and was supported by the successive measurements. The model predicts that the concentration of magnesium in the weld metal decreases, while the aluminium concentration increases. Moreover, the real time concentrations of aluminium and magnesium elements in the weld metal were determined by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) at different conditions. We conclude that variation of the Al to Mg concentration ratio is negligible with various laser power densities while it is strongly correlated to the pulse duration.

  20. Rigorous quantitative elemental microanalysis by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS) with spectrum processing by NIST DTSA-II

    Newbury, Dale E.; Ritchie, Nicholas W. M.


    Quantitative electron-excited x-ray microanalysis by scanning electron microscopy/silicon drift detector energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (SEM/SDD-EDS) is capable of achieving high accuracy and high precision equivalent to that of the high spectral resolution wavelength dispersive x-ray spectrometer even when severe peak interference occurs. The throughput of the SDD-EDS enables high count spectra to be measured that are stable in calibration and resolution (peak shape) across the full deadtime range. With this high spectral stability, multiple linear least squares peak fitting is successful for separating overlapping peaks and spectral background. Careful specimen preparation is necessary to remove topography on unknowns and standards. The standards-based matrix correction procedure embedded in the NIST DTSA-II software engine returns quantitative results supported by a complete error budget, including estimates of the uncertainties from measurement statistics and from the physical basis of the matrix corrections. NIST DTSA-II is available free for Java-platforms at:

  1. Attenuated total reflectance FT-IR imaging and quantitative energy dispersive-electron probe X-ray microanalysis techniques for single particle analysis of atmospheric aerosol particles.

    Ryu, JiYeon; Ro, Chul-Un


    This work demonstrates the practical applicability of the combined use of attenuated total reflectance (ATR) FT-IR imaging and low-Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) techniques for the characterization of individual aerosol particles. These two single particle analytical techniques provide complementary information on the physicochemical characteristics of the same individual particles, that is, the low-Z particle EPMA for the information on the morphology and elemental concentration and the ATR-FT-IR imaging on the functional group, molecular species, and crystal structure. It was confirmed that the ATR-FT-IR imaging technique can provide sufficient FT-IR absorption signals to perform molecular speciation of individual particles of micrometer size when applied to artificially generated aerosol particles such as ascorbic acid and NaNO(3) aerosols. An exemplar indoor atmospheric aerosol sample was investigated to demonstrate the practical feasibility of the combined application of ATR-FT-IR imaging and low-Z particle EPMA techniques for the characterization of individual airborne particles.

  2. X-Ray Microanalysis Investigation of the Changes in Na, K, and Hemoglobin Concentration in Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Red Blood Cells

    Mauritz, Jakob M.A.; Seear, Rachel; Esposito, Alessandro; Kaminski, Clemens F.; Skepper, Jeremy N.; Warley, Alice; Lew, Virgilio L.; Tiffert, Teresa


    Plasmodium falciparum is responsible for severe malaria. During the ∼48 h duration of its asexual reproduction cycle in human red blood cells, the parasite causes profound alterations in the homeostasis of the host red cell, with reversal of the normal Na and K gradients across the host cell membrane, and a drastic fall in hemoglobin content. A question critical to our understanding of how the host cell retains its integrity for the duration of the cycle had been previously addressed by modeling the homeostasis of infected cells. The model predicted a critical contribution of excess hemoglobin consumption to cell integrity (the colloidosmotic hypothesis). Here we tested this prediction with the use of electron-probe x-ray microanalysis to measure the stage-related changes in Na, K, and Fe contents in single infected red cells and in uninfected controls. The results document a decrease in Fe signal with increased Na/K ratio. Interpreted in terms of concentrations, the results point to a sustained fall in host cell hemoglobin concentration with parasite maturation, supporting a colloidosmotic role of excess hemoglobin digestion. The results also provide, for the first time to our knowledge, comprehensive maps of the elemental distributions of Na, K, and Fe in falciparum-infected red blood cells. PMID:21402025

  3. On the Origins of Disorganized Attachment and Internal Working Models: Paper II. An Empirical Microanalysis of 4-Month Mother-Infant Interaction.

    Beebe, Beatrice; Lachmann, Frank; Markese, Sara; Buck, Karen A; Bahrick, Lorraine E; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Andrews, Howard; Feldstein, Stanley; Jaffe, Joseph


    A microanalysis of 4-month mother-infant face-to-face communication predicted 12-month infant disorganized (vs. secure) attachment outcomes in an urban community sample. We documented a dyadic systems view of the roles of both partners, the roles of both self- and interactive contingency, and the importance of attention, orientation and touch, and as well as facial and vocal affect, in the co-construction of attachment disorganization. The analysis of different communication modalities identified striking intrapersonal and interpersonal intermodal discordance or conflict, in the context of intensely distressed infants, as the central feature of future disorganized dyads at 4 months. Lowered maternal contingent coordination, and failures of maternal affective correspondence, constituted maternal emotional withdrawal from distressed infants. This maternal withdrawal compromises infant interactive agency and emotional coherence. We characterize of the nature of emerging internal working models of future disorganized infants as follows: Future disorganized infants represent states of not being sensed and known by their mothers, particularly in moments of distress; they represent confusion about both their own and their mothers' basic emotional organization, and about their mothers' response to their distress. This internal working model sets a trajectory in development which may disturb the fundamental integration of the person. The remarkable specificity of our findings has the potential to lead to more finely-focused clinical interventions.

  4. Investigation of synthesized Be-bearing silicate glass as laboratory reference sample at X-ray electron probe microanalysis of silicates

    Belozerova, Olga Yu.; Mikhailov, Mikhail A.; Demina, Tamara V.


    The article discusses estimates of the stability and homogeneity in Be-Mg-Al-silicate glass produced by the authors and its applicability as a laboratory reference sample for X-ray electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) of Be-bearing silicate matters: crystals and quenching melt (glasses), silicates and oxides. The results were obtained using Superprobe-733 and Superprobe JXA-8200 (JEOL Ltd, Japan) devices. The sample homogeneity was studied on macro (10-100 μm) and micro (1-10 μm) levels and was evaluated by the scheme of dispersion analysis. The applicability of Be-bearing silicate glass as a reference sample for Mg, Al, Si determinations was tested on the international certified reference glasses and laboratory reference samples of minerals with a known composition. The obtained experimental metrological characteristics correspond to the "applied geochemistry" type of analysis (second category) and suggest that Be-bearing silicate glass is appropriate as a laboratory reference sample for EPMA of Be-bearing silicate matters, silicates and oxides. Using Be-Mg-Al-silicate glass as a reference sample we obtained satisfactory data on the composition of both some minerals including cordierite and beryllium cordierite, beryllium indialite, beryl and metastable phases (chrysoberyl, compounds with structure of β-quartz and petalite).

  5. Essential Heavy Metals in Renal Tumor Tissue and Its Possible Relation to Carcinogenesis: Applying the Scanning Electron Microscopy Coupled with X-Ray Microanalysis Technique

    Tânia Nogueira


    Full Text Available Background: Metals such as copper and zinc are crucial in several vital functions in the human body; the absence of these metals can cause serious illness. When in excess, however, they can have toxic effects which may be associated with carcinogenesis, as is described in the literature. Thus, it is important to realize that without these essential metals in their due proportion, the human body could not maintain its proper metabolic function. Methods: The main goal of this paper was to compare qualitatively and semi-quantitatively the amount of both copper and zinc present in the tumor tissue (tissue from patients who had undergone partial or radical nephrectomy and in the control tissue (which was adjacent to the tumor tissue. This study was carried out using Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with X-Ray Microanalysis (SEM-XRM. Results: There is a different concentration of copper and zinc in the samples of tumor tissue and controls that were studied. Conclusion: This work complements previously published results about the presence of metals in the human body and their probable influence on carcinogenesis.

  6. Public lighting.

    Schreuder, D.A.


    The function of public lighting and the relationship between public lighting and accidents are considered briefly as aspects of effective countermeasures. Research needs and recent developments in installation and operational described. Public lighting is an efficient accident countermeasure, but

  7. Public Broadcasting.

    Shooshan, Harry M.; Arnheim, Louise

    This paper, the second in a series exploring future options for public policy in the communications and information arenas, examines some of the issues underlying public broadcasting, primarily public television. It advances two reasons why quality local public television programming is scarce: funds for the original production of programming have…

  8. Domain-Specific Multimodeling

    Hessellund, Anders

    Enterprise systems are complex artifacts. They are hard to build, manage, understand, and evolve. Existing software development paradigms fail to properly address challenges such as system size, domain complexity, and software evolution when development is scaled to enterprise systems. We propose...... domain-specific multimodeling as a development paradigm to tackle these challenges in a language-oriented manner. The different concerns of a system are conceptually separated and made explicit as independent domain-specific languages. This approach increases productivity and quality by raising...... the overall level of abstraction. It does, however, also introduce a new problem of coordinating multiple different languages in a single system. We call this problem the coordination problem. In this thesis, we present the coordination method for domain-specific multimodeling that explicitly targets...

  9. Conserved Domain Database (CDD)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CDD is a protein annotation resource that consists of a collection of well-annotated multiple sequence alignment models for ancient domains and full-length proteins.

  10. Strongly Semicontinuous Domains and Semi-FS Domains

    Qingyu He


    Full Text Available We are mainly concerned with some special kinds of semicontinuous domains and relationships between them. New concepts of strongly semicontinuous domains, meet semicontinuous domains and semi-FS domains are introduced. It is shown that a dcpo L is strongly semicontinuous if and only if L is semicontinuous and meet semicontinuous. It is proved that semi-FS domains are strongly semicontinuous. Some interpolation properties of semiway-below relations in (strongly semicontinuous bc-domains are given. In terms of these properties, it is proved that strongly semicontinuous bc-domains, in particular strongly semicontinuous lattices, are all semi-FS domains.

  11. Ion distribution measured by electron probe X-ray microanalysis in apoplastic and symplastic pathways in root cells in sunflower plants grown in saline medium

    Reza Ebrahimi; S C Bhatla


    Little is known about how salinity affects ions distribution in root apoplast and symplast. Using x-ray microanalysis, ions distribution and the relative contribution of apoplastic and symplastic pathways for delivery of ions to root xylem were studied in sunflower plants exposed to moderate salinity (EC=6). Cortical cells provided a considerably extended Na+ and Cl− storage facility. Their contents are greater in cytoplasm (root symplast) as compared to those in intercellular spaces (root apoplast). Hence, in this level of salinity, salt damage in sunflower is not dehydration due to extracellular accumulation of sodium and chloride ions, as suggested in the Oertli hypothesis. On the other hand, reduction in calcium content due to salinity in intercellular space is less than reduction in the cytoplasm of cortical cells. It seems that sodium inhibits the radial movement of calcium in symplastic pathway more than in the apoplastic pathway. The cell wall seems to have an important role in providing calcium for the apoplastic pathway. Redistribution of calcium from the cell wall to intercellular space is because of its tendency towards xylem through the apoplastic pathway. This might be a strategy to enhance loading of calcium to xylem elements and to reduce calcium deficiency in young leaves under salinity. This phenomenon may be able to increase salt tolerance in sunflower plants. Supplemental calcium has been found to be effective in reducing radial transport of Na+ across the root cells and their loading into the xylem, but not sodium absorption. Supplemental calcium enhanced Ca2+ uptake and influx into roots and transport to stele.

  12. X-ray micro-analysis of the mineralization patterns in developing enamel in hamster tooth germs exposed to fluoride in vitro during the secretory phase of amelogenesis

    Lyaruu, D.M.; Blijleven, N.; Hoeben-Schornagel, K.; Bronckers, A.L.; Woeltgens, J.H.


    The developing enamel from three-day-old hamster first maxillary (M1) molar tooth germs exposed to fluoride (F-) in vitro was analyzed for its mineral content by means of the energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis technique. The aim of this study was to obtain semi-quantitative data on the F(-)-induced hypermineralization patterns in the enamel and to confirm that the increase in electron density observed in micrographs of F(-)-treated enamel is indeed due to an increase in mineral content in the fluorotic enamel. The tooth germs were explanted during the early stages of secretory amelogenesis and initially cultured for 24 hr in the presence of 10 ppm F- in the culture medium. The germs were then cultured for another 24 hr without F-. In order to compare the ultrastructural results directly with the microprobe data, we used the same specimens for both investigations. The net calcium counts (measurement minus background counts) in the analyses were used as a measure of the mineral content in the enamel. The aprismatic pre-exposure enamel, deposited in vivo before the onset of culture, was the most hypermineralized region in the fluorotic enamel, i.e., it contained the highest amount of calcium measured. The degree of the F(-)-induced hypermineralization gradually decreased (but was not abolished) in the more mature regions of the enamel. The unmineralized enamel matrix secreted during the initial F- treatment in vitro mineralized during the subsequent culture without F-. The calcium content in this enamel layer was in the same order of magnitude as that recorded for the newly deposited enamel in control tooth germs cultured without F-.

  13. Cell viability evaluation of transdifferentiated endothelial-like cells by quantitative electron-probe X-ray microanalysis for tissue engineering.

    Vico, Manuel; Rodríguez-Morata, Alejandro; Garzón, Ingrid; Campos, Fernando; Jaimes-Parra, Boris; Pérez-Köhler, Barbara; Buján, Julia; Alaminos, Miguel; Sánchez-Quevedo, M Carmen


    Development of an efficient vascular substitute by tissue engineering is strongly dependent on endothelial cell viability. The aim of this study was to evaluate cell viability of transdifferentiated endothelial-like cells (Tr-ELC) by using for the first time electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPXMA), not only to accurately analyze cell viability by quantifying the intracellular ionic concentrations, but also to establish their possible use in vascular tissue engineering protocols. Human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly stem cells (HWJSC) and endothelial cells from the human umbilical vein (HUVEC) were isolated and cultured. Transdifferentiation from HWJSC to the endothelial phenotype was induced. EPXMA was carried out to analyze HUVEC, HWJSC and Tr-ELC cells by using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an EDAX DX-4 microanalytical system and a solid-state backscattered electron detector. To determine total ion content, the peak-to-local-background (P/B) ratio method was used with reference to standards composed of dextran containing known amounts of inorganic salts. Our results revealed a high K/Na ratio in Tr-ELC (9.41), in association with the maintenance of the intracellular levels of chlorine, phosphorous and magnesium and an increase of calcium (p=0.031) and sulfur (p=0.022) as compared to HWJSC. Calcium levels were similar for HUVEC and Tr-ELC. These results ensure that transdifferentiated cells are highly viable and resemble the phenotypic and microanalytical profile of endothelial cells. Tr-ELC induced from HWJSC may fulfill the requirements for use in tissue engineering protocols applied to the vascular system at the viability and microanalytical levels.

  14. Ion distribution measured by electron probe X-ray microanalysis in apoplastic and symplastic pathways in root cells in sunflower plants grown in saline medium.

    Ebrahimi, Reza; Bhatla, S C


    Little is known about how salinity affects ions distribution in root apoplast and symplast. Using x-ray microanalysis, ions distribution and the relative contribution of apoplastic and symplastic pathways for delivery of ions to root xylem were studied in sunflower plants exposed to moderate salinity (EC=6). Cortical cells provided a considerably extended Na(+) and Cl(-) storage facility. Their contents are greater in cytoplasm (root symplast) as compared to those in intercellular spaces (root apoplast). Hence, in this level of salinity, salt damage in sunflower is not dehydration due to extracellular accumulation of sodium and chloride ions, as suggested in the Oertli hypothesis. On the other hand, reduction in calcium content due to salinity in intercellular space is less than reduction in the cytoplasm of cortical cells. It seems that sodium inhibits the radial movement of calcium in symplastic pathway more than in the apoplastic pathway. The cell wall seems to have an important role in providing calcium for the apoplastic pathway. Redistribution of calcium from the cell wall to intercellular space is because of its tendency towards xylem through the apoplastic pathway. This might be a strategy to enhance loading of calcium to xylem elements and to reduce calcium deficiency in young leaves under salinity. This phenomenon may be able to increase salt tolerance in sunflower plants. Supplemental calcium has been found to be effective in reducing radial transport of Na(+) across the root cells and their loading into the xylem, but not sodium absorption. Supplemental calcium enhanced Ca(2+) uptake and influx into roots and transport to stele.

  15. Domains in Ferroelectric Nanostructures

    Gregg, Marty


    Ferroelectric materials have great potential in influencing the future of small scale electronics. At a basic level, this is because ferroelectric surfaces are charged, and so interact strongly with charge-carrying metals and semiconductors - the building blocks for all electronic systems. Since the electrical polarity of the ferroelectric can be reversed, surfaces can both attract and repel charges in nearby materials, and can thereby exert complete control over both charge distribution and movement. It should be no surprise, therefore, that microelectronics industries have already looked very seriously at harnessing ferroelectric materials in a variety of applications, from solid state memory chips (FeRAMs) to field effect transistors (FeFETs). In all such applications, switching the direction of the polarity of the ferroelectric is a key aspect of functional behavior. The mechanism for switching involves the field-induced nucleation and growth of domains. Domain coarsening, through domain wall propagation, eventually causes the entire ferroelectric to switch its polar direction. It is thus the existence and behavior of domains that determine the switching response, and ultimately the performance of the ferroelectric device. A major issue, associated with the integration of ferroelectrics into microelectronic devices, has been that the fundamental properties associated with ferroelectrics, when in bulk form, appear to change quite dramatically and unpredictably when at the nanoscale: new modes of behaviour, and different functional characteristics from those seen in bulk appear. For domains, in particular, the proximity of surfaces and boundaries have a dramatic effect: surface tension and depolarizing fields both serve to increase the equilibrium density of domains, such that minor changes in scale or morphology can have major ramifications for domain redistribution. Given the importance of domains in dictating the overall switching characteristics of a device

  16. Just how versatile are domains?

    Bornberg-Bauer Erich


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Creating new protein domain arrangements is a frequent mechanism of evolutionary innovation. While some domains always form the same combinations, others form many different arrangements. This ability, which is often referred to as versatility or promiscuity of domains, its a random evolutionary model in which a domain's promiscuity is based on its relative frequency of domains. Results We show that there is a clear relationship across genomes between the promiscuity of a given domain and its frequency. However, the strength of this relationship differs for different domains. We thus redefine domain promiscuity by defining a new index, DV I ("domain versatility index", which eliminates the effect of domain frequency. We explore links between a domain's versatility, when unlinked from abundance, and its biological properties. Conclusion Our results indicate that domains occurring as single domain proteins and domains appearing frequently at protein termini have a higher DV I. This is consistent with previous observations that the evolution of domain re-arrangements is primarily driven by fusion of pre-existing arrangements and single domains as well as loss of domains at protein termini. Furthermore, we studied the link between domain age, defined as the first appearance of a domain in the species tree, and the DV I. Contrary to previous studies based on domain promiscuity, it seems as if the DV I is age independent. Finally, we find that contrary to previously reported findings, versatility is lower in Eukaryotes. In summary, our measure of domain versatility indicates that a random attachment process is sufficient to explain the observed distribution of domain arrangements and that several views on domain promiscuity need to be revised.

  17. Public Schools

    Department of Homeland Security — This Public Schools feature dataset is composed of all Public elementary and secondary education in the United States as defined by the Common Core of Data, National...

  18. Axion domain wall baryogenesis

    Daido, Ryuji; Kitajima, Naoya [Department of Physics, Tohoku University,Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Takahashi, Fuminobu [Department of Physics, Tohoku University,Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Kavli IPMU, TODIAS, University of Tokyo,Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan)


    We propose a new scenario of baryogenesis, in which annihilation of axion domain walls generates a sizable baryon asymmetry. Successful baryogenesis is possible for a wide range of the axion mass and decay constant, m≃10{sup 8}–10{sup 13} GeV and f≃10{sup 13}–10{sup 16} GeV. Baryonic isocurvature perturbations are significantly suppressed in our model, in contrast to various spontaneous baryogenesis scenarios in the slow-roll regime. In particular, the axion domain wall baryogenesis is consistent with high-scale inflation which generates a large tensor-to-scalar ratio within the reach of future CMB B-mode experiments. We also discuss the gravitational waves produced by the domain wall annihilation and its implications for the future gravitational wave experiments.

  19. Public lighting.


    Visual perception is very important for road users and in the dark it can be facilitated by public lighting. Public lighting has a mostly positive road safety effect. Installing public lighting on roads that were previously unlit generally results in fewer and less serious crashes. This effect seems

  20. Withdrawal of Public Lands for Wildlife Purposes

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A recent BLM survey has determined that the 45.33-acre Pig Island, located in St. Joseph Bay, Gulf County, Florida, is public domain. The island has an unusual...

  1. Introduction to the Paradigm Struggle in Public Relations.

    Botan, Carl


    Describes the ongoing state of change in the domain of public relations, with special attention to model shifts. Defines model struggles and discusses the emergence of international public relations along with other recent trends. (HB)

  2. 41 CFR 102-173.10 - What is the authority or jurisdiction of the Internet GOV Domain?


    ... jurisdiction of the Internet GOV Domain? 102-173.10 Section 102-173.10 Public Contracts and Property Management... TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN General § 102-173.10 What is the authority or jurisdiction of the Internet GOV Domain? Jurisdiction of the Internet GOV (dot-gov) domain was delegated to the General...

  3. On Binding Domains

    Everaert, M.B.H.


    In this paper I want to explore reasons for replacing Binding Theory based on the anaphor-pronoun dichotomy by a Binding Theory allowing more domains restricting/defining anaphoric dependencies. This will, thus, have consequences for the partitioning of anaphoric elements, presupposing more types of

  4. Cellulose binding domain proteins

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc; Doi, Roy


    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  5. Domain: Labour market

    Oude Mulders, J.; Wadensjö, E.; Hasselhorn, H.M.; Apt, W.

    This domain chapter is dedicated to summarize research on the effects of labour market contextual factors on labour market participation of older workers (aged 50+) and identify research gaps. While employment participation and the timing of (early) retirement is often modelled as an individual

  6. Normed Domains of Holomorphy

    Steven G. Krantz


    Full Text Available We treat the classical concept of domain of holomorphy in ℂn when the holomorphic functions considered are restricted to lie in some Banach space. Positive and negative results are presented. A new view of the case n=1 is considered.

  7. Domain: Labour market

    Oude Mulders, J.; Wadensjö, E.; Hasselhorn, H.M.; Apt, W.


    This domain chapter is dedicated to summarize research on the effects of labour market contextual factors on labour market participation of older workers (aged 50+) and identify research gaps. While employment participation and the timing of (early) retirement is often modelled as an individual deci

  8. 41 CFR 102-173.5 - What is Internet GOV Domain?


    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is Internet GOV... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TELECOMMUNICATIONS 173-INTERNET GOV DOMAIN General § 102-173.5 What is Internet GOV Domain? Internet GOV Domain refers to the Internet...

  9. Depth:Illustrate Arts Management and Its Incubation Education From the Theoretical Domain of Public Virtue%纵深:从文化公德自律理论阈阐释艺术管理及其孵化教育

    孙海垠; 唐小恒; 武定宇


    文化公德自律是艺术管理纵深的文化自律概念,选择托克维尔文化公德自律主题来阐释艺术管理及教育谋划,可助推文化公德自律介入艺术管理的运营和高等孵化教育的实际应用。托克维尔文化公德自律理论的平等不是经济意义上的均平,而是指身份的平等、权利的平等、机会的平等,是艺术运营触及艺术价值核心的重要环节;文化公德自律通过对自利的规范和引导,保存了艺术群体对自由主义的热爱;通过对艺术运营环节的规范和约束,使其价值链条更为宽广,既可以承载本位的利益,又可以容纳彼此的利益;既可以承载艺术经纪利益,又可以容纳公共利益。文化公德自律理论阈相关概念的辨析对于"艺术经济建设"及学科内的高等孵化教育具有现实指导意义。%Public virtue is a background concept of arts management.Using the theme of Tocqueville public virtue to illustrate arts management and educational planning may promote the application of public virtue in the operation of arts management and the incubation education of higher education.The equality in Tocqueville public virtue theory is not the egalitarianism in an economic sense,but the equality in identity,equality in rights and equality in opportunities and is an important link in which arts operation touches the core of artistic value.Through self-interested regulation and guidance,public virtue preserves the love of artists for liberalism.Through regulation and restriction on the links of arts operation,its value chain becomes even broader and may not only carry its own interests but also include others',and may not only carry art broker's interests but also include public interests.The differentiation and analysis of related concepts in the theoretical domain of public virtue plays a realistic role in guiding "artistic economic construction" and higher incubation education in the discipline.

  10. Composition, size distribution, optical properties and radiative effects of re-suspended local mineral dust of Rome area by individual-particle microanalysis and radiative transfer modelling

    A. Pietrodangelo


    Full Text Available New information on the PM10 mineral dust from site-specific (Rome area, Latium outcropped rocks, and on the microphysics, optical properties and radiative effects of mineral dust at local level were gained in this work. A multi-disciplinary approach was used, based on individual-particle scanning electron microscopy with X-ray energy-dispersive microanalysis (SEM XEDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis of dust, size distribution of mineral particles, and radiative transfer modelling (RTM.The mineral composition of Rome lithogenic PM10 varies between an end-member dominated by silicate minerals and one exclusively composed of calcite. The first is obtained from volcanic lithotypes, the second from travertine or limestones; lithogenic PM10 with intermediate composition derives mainly from siliciclastic rocks or marlstones of Rome area. Size and mineral species of PM10 particles of silicate-dominated dust types are tuned mainly by weathering and, to lesser extent, by debris formation or crystallization; chemical precipitation of CaCO3 plays a major role in calcite-dominated types. These differences are evidenced by the diversity of volume distributions, within either dust types, or mineral species. Further differences are observed between volume distributions of calcite from travertine (natural source and from road dust (anthropic source, specifically on the width, shape and enrichment of the fine fraction (unimodal at 5 μm a.d. for travertine, bimodal at 3.8 and 1.8 μm a.d. for road dust. Log-normal probability density functions of volcanics and travertine dusts affect differently the single scattering albedo (SSA and the asymmetry parameter (g in the VISible and Near Infrared (NIR regions, depending also on the absorbing/non-absorbing character of volcanics and travertine, respectively. The downward component of the BOA solar irradiance simulated by RTM for a volcanics-rich or travertine-rich atmosphere shows that volcanics contribution to the

  11. Composition, size distribution, optical properties and radiative effects of re-suspended local mineral dust of Rome area by individual-particle microanalysis and radiative transfer modelling

    Pietrodangelo, A.; Salzano, R.; Bassani, C.; Pareti, S.; Perrino, C.


    New information on the PM10 mineral dust from site-specific (Rome area, Latium) outcropped rocks, and on the microphysics, optical properties and radiative effects of mineral dust at local level were gained in this work. A multi-disciplinary approach was used, based on individual-particle scanning electron microscopy with X-ray energy-dispersive microanalysis (SEM XEDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of dust, size distribution of mineral particles, and radiative transfer modelling (RTM).The mineral composition of Rome lithogenic PM10 varies between an end-member dominated by silicate minerals and one exclusively composed of calcite. The first is obtained from volcanic lithotypes, the second from travertine or limestones; lithogenic PM10 with intermediate composition derives mainly from siliciclastic rocks or marlstones of Rome area. Size and mineral species of PM10 particles of silicate-dominated dust types are tuned mainly by weathering and, to lesser extent, by debris formation or crystallization; chemical precipitation of CaCO3 plays a major role in calcite-dominated types. These differences are evidenced by the diversity of volume distributions, within either dust types, or mineral species. Further differences are observed between volume distributions of calcite from travertine (natural source) and from road dust (anthropic source), specifically on the width, shape and enrichment of the fine fraction (unimodal at 5 μm a.d. for travertine, bimodal at 3.8 and 1.8 μm a.d. for road dust). Log-normal probability density functions of volcanics and travertine dusts affect differently the single scattering albedo (SSA) and the asymmetry parameter (g) in the VISible and Near Infrared (NIR) regions, depending also on the absorbing/non-absorbing character of volcanics and travertine, respectively. The downward component of the BOA solar irradiance simulated by RTM for a volcanics-rich or travertine-rich atmosphere shows that volcanics contribution to the solar

  12. MKED1: A new titanite standard for in situ microanalysis of trace elements, Sm-Nd isotopes, and U-Pb geochronology

    Spandler, C.; Hammerli, J.; Hilbert-Wolf, H.; Sha, P.; Hu, Y.; Roberts, E.; Schmitz, M. D.


    Titanite has great potential as a petrogenetic indicator and mineral geochronometer as it can host high trace element concentrations and it occurs in a wide range of rock types. Here, we describe a potential new titanite standard for calibration of the chemical and isotopic composition of titanite of varying age and origin. Through comprehensive bulk analysis of mm-size crystal fragments and in-situ microanalysis, we show that the titanite, labeled MKED1, is largely free of inclusions and is homogenous at the level of analytical precision for major element, U-Pb isotope and Sm-Nd isotope composition. Some minor zoning in trace element composition is recognized using backscatter electron imaging, although the trace element concentrations of each of these zones are also very homogenous. MKED1 has high contents of REE, Th, U, and radiogenic Pb, but very low levels of common Pb. U-Pb isotope data (ID-TIMS and LA-ICP-MS) show MKED1 to be concordant with an age of ca. 1518 Ma. Cross calibration with other titanite standards demonstrates that MKED1 can be used as a primary standard for determining U-Pb ages of titanite ranging in age from Precambrian to Neogene. We also show that MKED1 is suitable as a Sm-Nd isotope standard due to its high REE concentrations and homogenous 147Sm/144Nd and 143Nd/144Nd content. We suggest MKED1 can be employed as a trace element, U-Pb isotope and Sm-Nd isotope standard for in situ or bulk analytical methods, including techniques that allow simultaneous collection of multiple elemental and/or isotopic data sets in situ. We present two case studies to demonstrate the potential of titanite analysis for resolving geological problems: The first examines the genesis of Cu-REE skarn mineralization from the Mt Isa Inlier, Australia, and the second study investigates the timing and origin of volcanism and sedimentation in the Western Branch of the East African Rift.

  13. Characterisation by X-ray microanalysis of metal granules in the mucus trails of Littorina littorea (Gastropoda) along a putative pollution gradient.

    Reboreda, R; Davies, Mark S


    Metal-containing granules in the mucus trails of the marine gastropod Littorina littorea from nine sites in north-east England were analysed for elemental composition by X-ray microanalysis and characterised relative to a putative gradient of pollution. Overall granule density varied significantly between sites, means of 6.5-17.0 per field of view (2688 microm2). Most granules found (64%) were poly-metal of a wide variety of compositions, but could be classified as Si+X, Mg+X, S+X, Na+X, P+Ca, P+Al, where X indicates any other combination of elements. Si+Al+X accounted for 61% of the poly-metal granules found and was considered to be contamination from the beach substratum. In single-metal granule form only Ca, Si, Fe, Ti, Al and Na were found. The most common single-metal granule at each site was of Ca, except at two sites, where the most common single-metal granule was of Si. The densities of these granule types varied between sites but differences were found to be significant only in the case of Si granules. Across all sites, single-metal granules of Si (mean = 2.49 microm +/- 1.44 SD, n = 141) and Ca (2.22 microm +/- 1.08 SD, n = 147) were significantly larger than granules of Fe (1.74 microm +/- 0.95 SD, n = 63) and Ti (1.24 microm +/- 0.52 SD, n = 18). The range of sizes was large: Ca (0.5-6 microm), Si (0.5-10 microm), Fe (0.3-4.1 microm), Ti (0.5-2.5 microm). Between the sites there were significant differences in the size of Fe and Si granules but not Ca or Ti granules. Despite these variations in granule type and size, there was no evidence of a relationship with pollution and consequently a detoxifying function of the mucus trail in metal polluted environments is not apparent.

  14. Time Domain Induced Polarization

    Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest


    Time-domain-induced polarization has significantly broadened its field of reference during the last decade, from mineral exploration to environmental geophysics, e.g., for clay and peat identification and landfill characterization. Though, insufficient modeling tools have hitherto limited the use...... of time-domaininduced polarization for wider purposes. For these reasons, a new forward code and inversion algorithm have been developed using the full-time decay of the induced polarization response, together with an accurate description of the transmitter waveform and of the receiver transfer function......%. Furthermore, the presence of low-pass filters in time-domain-induced polarization instruments affects the early times of the acquired decays (typically up to 100 ms) and has to be modeled in the forward response to avoid significant loss of resolution. The developed forward code has been implemented in a 1D...

  15. Comments on FAO's Achievements toward a Public Domain in Plant ...


    constraints [such as property rights] required for markets, and where they. 2 M. Strathern (2006) ... proprietary right by private entities that deny farmers their access to plant ... operation on Environment and Development. London: ..... ineffective.

  16. An Exploration of Policy Making in Public and Organisational Domains



    This article critically analyses the interplay between policy at institutional level and policy at national level. It also examines the policy-making process by using examples from literature and identifies consultation as a more organic way of policy-making.

  17. Error analysis of a public domain pronunciation dictionary

    Martirosian, O


    Full Text Available The authors explore pattern recognition techniques for verifying the correctness of a pronunciation lexicon, focusing on techniques that require limited human interaction. They evaluate the British English Example Pronunciation (BEEP) dictionary [1...

  18. A Survey of Public Domain Software for Microcomputers.


    LANGUAGES AND COMPILERS’ 2.1 FORTH. ...................... 2-2 2.2 LADYBUG . ..................... 2-3 2.3 SMALL C.......................2-3 *CHAPTER 3...supEjL GRAPH 3. .................. 3-4 CHAPTER 4 GRAPHICS SOFTWARE 4.1 LADYBUG . ..................... 4-2 4.2 PCPG .. ...................... 4-3 4.3...LANGUAGES AND COMPILERS Page 2-3 LADYBUG 23 September 1985 2.2 LADYBUG NAME: LADYBUG LADYBUG is a

  19. Remotely Piloted Aircraft and War in the Public Relations Domain


    underhanded or de- ceitful. This article concerns itself with the genus of information, within which propaganda is a species, and therefore addresses all in...nature a PR endeavor. US Army Field Manual 7-98, Op- erations in a Low Intensity Conflict, cautions that a terrorist organiza- tion’s acts of violence ...Strikes Degrade Al Qaeda? Evidence from Propaganda Output,” Terrorism and Political Violence 25, no. 2 (10 January 2013): 314, http

  20. Microanalysis of Deformation of Soil


    load: image analysis. European Train- ing "ourse on Soil Micromorphology , pp.19-33. Winand Staring Centrum. Wageningen. Tovey, N.K. 1991a...Vicrofabric of soils under load: image analysis. International Training Course on Soil Micromorphology , pp.14 3 -157. Agricultural University, Wageningen...mineralogy and microfabric of soiikls and sediments. Proc. 9 Interna- tional Meeting on Soil Micromorphology , Townsville, Australia. In press. Tovey

  1. Comparison of the domain and frequency domain state feedbacks

    Zhang, S.Y.


    In this paper, we present explicitly the equivalence of the time domain and frequency domain state feedbacks, as well as the dynamic state feedback and a modified frequency domain state feedback, from the closed-loop transfer function point of view. The difference of the two approaches is also shown.

  2. Perceptions of Trust in Public Examinations

    Simpson, Lucy; Baird, Jo-Anne


    Over recent years, the credibility of public examinations in England has increasingly come to the fore. Government agencies have invested time and money into researching public perceptions of the reliability and validity of examinations. Whilst such research overlaps into the conceptual domain of trust, trust in examinations remains an elusive…

  3. Public knowledge and public trust.

    Cunningham-Burley, Sarah


    As health care applications derived from human genetics research are likely to move increasingly from 'clinic to community', there is growing interest not just in how patients understand and take up health-related genetic information but also in the views of the wider population, as well as a range of professional groups. In this paper, issues relating public knowledge and public trust are raised and discussed in an attempt to move forward debates about public involvement in genomic research and the role of sociologists within interdisciplinary teams. As the field of public understanding of science has developed, we have seen a shift from a focus on the lack of scientific literacy as problem to a recognition of the range of different knowledges that people have and use as they confront science and technology in their everyday lives. As a mood for dialogue pervades many institutions in their relations with 'publics', attention must now be paid to the way in which knowledge and expertise is expressed, heard and acted upon in dialogic encounters. There is increasing concern about public trust in science and calls to increase public confidence, particularly through more open engagement with a range of publics. However, lack of trust or loss of confidence may be constructed as problems rather than reflecting empirical reality, where more complex relationships and attitudes prevail. Lack of trust is often privatized, deeply rooted in lived experience and routinely managed. Trust relations are generally characterized by ambivalence, uncertainty and risk, and are always provisional. Drawing on selected literature and empirical research to review and illustrate this field, this paper argues that scepticism or ambivalence on the part of publics are not necessarily problems to be overcome in the interest of scientific progress, but rather should be mobilized to enhance open and public debates about the nature and direction of genomics research, medicine, and the related

  4. Domains of Disoriented Chiral Condensate

    Amado, R D; Lu, Yang


    The probability distribution of neutral pion fraction from independent domains of disoriented chiral condensate is characterized. The signal for the condensate is clear for a small number of domains but is greatly reduced for more than three.

  5. Summarization by domain ontology navigation

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik


    of the subject. In between these two extremes, conceptual summaries encompass selected concepts derived using background knowledge. We address in this paper an approach where conceptual summaries are provided through a conceptualization as given by an ontology. The ontology guiding the summarization can...... be a simple taxonomy or a generative domain ontology. A domain ontology can be provided by a preanalysis of a domain corpus and can be used to condense improved summaries that better reflects the conceptualization of a given domain....

  6. Genome cartography through domain annotation.

    Ponting, C P; Dickens, N J


    The evolutionary history of eukaryotic proteins involves rapid sequence divergence, addition and deletion of domains, and fusion and fission of genes. Although the protein repertoires of distantly related species differ greatly, their domain repertoires do not. To account for the great diversity of domain contexts and an unexpected paucity of ortholog conservation, we must categorize the coding regions of completely sequenced genomes into domain families, as well as protein families.

  7. Ligand binding by PDZ domains

    Celestine N. Chi; Bach, Anders; Stromgaard, Kristian; Gianni, Stefano; Jemth, Per


    The postsynaptic density protein-95/disks large/zonula occludens-1 (PDZ) protein domain family is one of the most common proteinprotein interaction modules in mammalian cells, with paralogs present in several hundred human proteins. PDZ domains are found in most cell types, but neuronal proteins, for example, are particularly rich in these domains. The general function of PDZ domains is to bring proteins together within the appropriate cellular compartment, thereby facilitating scaffolding, s...

  8. A role for chromatin topology in imprinted domain regulation.

    MacDonald, William A; Sachani, Saqib S; White, Carlee R; Mann, Mellissa R W


    Recently, many advancements in genome-wide chromatin topology and nuclear architecture have unveiled the complex and hidden world of the nucleus, where chromatin is organized into discrete neighbourhoods with coordinated gene expression. This includes the active and inactive X chromosomes. Using X chromosome inactivation as a working model, we utilized publicly available datasets together with a literature review to gain insight into topologically associated domains, lamin-associated domains, nucleolar-associating domains, scaffold/matrix attachment regions, and nucleoporin-associated chromatin and their role in regulating monoallelic expression. Furthermore, we comprehensively review for the first time the role of chromatin topology and nuclear architecture in the regulation of genomic imprinting. We propose that chromatin topology and nuclear architecture are important regulatory mechanisms for directing gene expression within imprinted domains. Furthermore, we predict that dynamic changes in chromatin topology and nuclear architecture play roles in tissue-specific imprint domain regulation during early development and differentiation.

  9. Public opinion on public services

    Evelien Eggink; Debbie Verbeek-Oudijk; Evert Pommer


    Original titel: Burgers over de kwaliteit van publieke diensten Most citizens come into contact with public services, for example as a patient, as a student or pupil, as a passenger on public transport or as a museum visitor. More and more importance is being attached to the quality of those service

  10. Chaotic domains: A numerical investigation

    Cross, M. C.; Meiron, D.; Tu, Yuhai


    We study the chaotic domain state in rotating convection using a model equation that allows for a continuous range of roll orientations as in the experimental system. Methods are developed for extracting the domain configuration from the resulting patterns that should be applicable to a wide range of domain states. Comparison with the truncated three mode amplitude equation description is made.

  11. Gershgorin domains for partitioned matrices

    Sluis, A. van der


    Inclusion domains for the eigenvalues of a partitioned matrix are specified in terms of perturbations of its diagonal blocks. The size of such perturbations is measured using the Kantorovitch-Robert-Deutsch vectorial norms. The inclusion domains obtained thereby are compared with inclusion domains o

  12. Feature-level domain adaptation

    Kouw, Wouter M.; Van Der Maaten, Laurens J P; Krijthe, Jesse H.


    Domain adaptation is the supervised learning setting in which the training and test data are sampled from different distributions: training data is sampled from a source domain, whilst test data is sampled from a target domain. This paper proposes and studies an approach, called feature...

  13. Classification of Noncommutative Domain Algebras

    Arias, Alvaro


    Noncommutative domain algebras are noncommutative analogues of the algebras of holomorphic functions on domains of $\\C^n$ defined by holomorphic polynomials, and they generalize the noncommutative Hardy algebras. We present here a complete classification of these algebras based upon techniques inspired by multivariate complex analysis, and more specifically the classification of domains in hermitian spaces up to biholomorphic equivalence.

  14. The Legal Regime of the Right to Administrate Public Property

    Vasilica Negruţ


    Full Text Available The traditional institutions for administrative law, public property and the public domain have been the subject of numerous specialized papers from the interwar period. After 1990, the two institutions were discussed in light of the new legislative rules. Within this article we propose to analyze, based on the distinction between the notions of public property and public domain, the legal regime of the right to administrate assets of public property. Is this a real right appropriate for public property or just a simple competence of administration and management of public domain assets? Analyzing and comparing the opinions, the arguments expressed by specialists and the current legislation in this area, we conclude that the administrative right is a real right suitable for public property.

  15. Characterization of size-resolved urban haze particles collected in summer and winter at Taiyuan City, China using quantitative electron probe X-ray microanalysis

    Geng, Hong; Jin, Chun-Song; Zhang, Dong-Peng; Wang, Shu-Rong; Xu, Xiao-Tian; Wang, Xu-Ran; Zhang, Yuan; Wu, Li; Ro, Chul-Un


    The aim of the study is to characterize the size-resolved urban haze particles and investigate their modification in morphology and composition in summer and winter using the semi-quantitative electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) based on both scanning and transmission electron microscopies equipped with ultrathin-window energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers (SEM-EDX and TEM-EDX). The haze and non-haze particles were collected through a seven-stage May cascade impactor on Dec. 29-30, 2009 and Jan. 8-9 and July 11-14, 2010 in Taiyuan, a typical inland city in the North China Plain. Approximately 3752 atmospheric particles in the size ranges of 4-2 μm, 2-1 μm, 1-0.5 μm, and 0.5-0.25 μm in aerodynamic diameter were measured and identified according to their secondary electron or TEM images and elemental atomic concentrations calculated through a Monte Carlo simulation program. Results show that on the haze days many reacted or aged mineral dust particles were encountered, in which the sulfate-containing ones outnumbered the nitrate-containing ones in the winter samples while it was on the contrary in the summer samples, suggesting different haze formation and evolution mechanisms in summer and winter. Furthermore, in the haze events (especially in summer), many CNOS-rich particles, likely mixtures of water-soluble organic carbon with (NH4)2SO4 or NH4HSO4, were observed not only in the submicron but also in the super-micron fractions. The simultaneous observation of the fresh and aged CNOS-rich particles in the same SEM or TEM images implied that the status and components of secondary particles were complicated and changeable. The significant increase of both elemental concentration ratios of [N]/[S] and [C]/[S] in the aged ones compared to the fresh ones indicated that NH4NO3 and secondary organic matter were likely absorbed onto (NH4)2SO4 or NH4HSO4 particles and mixed with them. K-rich, Fe-rich, and heavy metal-containing particles in TEM-EDX measurement

  16. Space Domain Awareness for Manned GEO Servicing

    Blake, T.


    The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is embarking on a joint program to service spacecraft in Geosynchronous (GEO) Orbit. This ambitious program, known as R5 (Rendezvous, Refuel, Refurbish, Repair, and Reposition), will develop the technologies required to extend the life of billions of dollars of invested in building, launching and operating GEO spacecraft. Inherent in the R5 program, is the need for high quality awareness of the space domain at GEO. Servicing non-operational spacecraft in GEO will require enhanced debris detect/track and space weather monitoring for crew safety, as well as high resolution characterization of the spacecraft to understand the status of the spacecraft to manifest the repair mission. This paper will briefly describe the GEO space domain sensor and data processing requirements to support the R5 program and outline DARPA’s program plans to develop these capabilities. Distribution Statement A (Approved for Public Release, Distribution Unlimited). DISTAR case 15410.

  17. Public Sociology

    What is the role of sociology in society? How can - and should - sociology contribute with insights relevant and useful to the outside world? Is sociology attuned to accommodate the demands of the wider public and of surrounding society? Who benefits from the knowledge produced and provided...... by sociology? What are the social implications and cultural effects of the knowledge sociology provides and creates? All of these questions, and many others, concern and centre on sociology's relationship to the surrounding society, in short to the ‘public'. All of these questions - and many others...... irrelevance and introversion and the Charybdis of public relevancy and extroversion. But what does it mean to be a ‘public sociologist' in contemporary society and are there really any other ways of doing sociology? What are the requirements of sociologists in a social world increasingly informed and shaped...

  18. Miscellaneous Publications

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Late 19th century Weather Bureau publications and Congressional reports pertaining to weather. Set of Weather Bureau Snowfall Bulletins for Rocky Mountain states...

  19. Public Airports

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a vector point digital data structure that contains the locations of General Public Use Airports in the State of New Mexico. It only contains those...

  20. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Asa K Björklund


    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  1. Metaphors, domains and embodiment

    M.E. Botha


    Full Text Available Investigations of metaphorical meaning constitution and meaning (in- variance have revealed the significance of semantic and semiotic domains and the contexts within which they function as basis for the grounding of metaphorical meaning. In this article some of the current views concerning the grounding of metaphorical meaning in experience and embodiment are explored. My provisional agreement with Lakoff, Johnson and others about the “conceptual” nature of metaphor rests on an important caveat, viz. that this bodily based conceptual structure which lies at the basis of linguistic articulations of metaphor, is grounded in a deeper ontic structure of the world and of human experience. It is the “metaphorical” (actually “analogical” ontological structure of this grounding that is of interest for the line of argumentation followed in this article. Because Johnson, Lakoff and other’s proposal to ground metaphorical meaning in embodiment and neural processes is open to being construed as subjectivist and materialist, I shall attempt to articulate the contours of an alternative theory of conceptual metaphor, meaning and embodiment which counteracts these possibilities. This theory grounds metaphorical meaning and meaning change in an ontological and anthropological framework which recognises the presence and conditioning functioning of radially ordered structures for reality. These categorisations in which humankind, human knowledge and reality participate, condition and constrain (ground analogical and metaphorical meaning transfer, cross-domain mappings, and blends in cognition and in language, provide the basis for the analogical concepts found in these disciplines.

  2. Public meetings

    Staff Association


    Do you have questions about the elections to the Staff Council, 2017 MERIT exercise, EVE and School, LD to IC exercise, CHIS, the Pension Fund… Come get informed and ask your questions at our public meetings. These public meetings are also an opportunity to get the more information on current issues. Benefit from this occasion to get the latest news and to discuss with the representatives of the statutory body that is the Staff Association!

  3. Ligand binding by PDZ domains

    Chi, Celestine N.; Bach, Anders; Strømgaard, Kristian


    The postsynaptic density protein-95/disks large/zonula occludens-1 (PDZ) protein domain family is one of the most common protein-protein interaction modules in mammalian cells, with paralogs present in several hundred human proteins. PDZ domains are found in most cell types, but neuronal proteins......, for example, are particularly rich in these domains. The general function of PDZ domains is to bring proteins together within the appropriate cellular compartment, thereby facilitating scaffolding, signaling, and trafficking events. The many functions of PDZ domains under normal physiological as well...

  4. The framing of scientific domains

    Dam Christensen, Hans


    Purpose: By using the UNISIST models this article argues for the necessity of domain analysis in order to qualify scientific information seeking. The models better understanding of communication processes in a scientific domain and embraces the point that domains are always both unstable over time...... and changeable according to the specific perspective. This understanding is even more important today as numerous digitally generated information tools as well as collaborative and interdisciplinary research are blurring the domain borders. Nevertheless, researchers navigate “intuitively” in “their” specific...... as according to the agents that are charting them. As such, power in a Foucauldian sense is unavoidable in outlining a domain. Originality/value 1. The UNISIST models are applied to the domain of art history; and 2. the article discusses the instability of a scientific domain as well as, at the same time...

  5. The framing of scientific domains

    Dam Christensen, Hans


    Purpose: By using the UNISIST models this article argues for the necessity of domain analysis in order to qualify scientific information seeking. The models better understanding of communication processes in a scientific domain and embraces the point that domains are always both unstable over time...... as according to the agents that are charting them. As such, power in a Foucauldian sense is unavoidable in outlining a domain. Originality/value 1. The UNISIST models are applied to the domain of art history; and 2. the article discusses the instability of a scientific domain as well as, at the same time......, the significance of framing a domain; an implication which is often neglected in scientific information seeking....

  6. Framing Effects: Dynamics and Task Domains



    The author examines the mechanisms and dynamics of framing effects in risky choices across three distinct task domains (i.e., life-death, public property, and personal money). The choice outcomes of the problems presented in each of the three task domains had a binary structure of a sure thing vs a gamble of equal expected value; the outcomes differed in their framing conditions and the expected values, raging from 6000, 600, 60, to 6, numerically. It was hypothesized that subjects would become more risk seeking, if the sure outcome was below their aspiration level (the minimum requirement). As predicted, more subjects preferred the gamble when facing the life-death choice problems than facing the counterpart problems presented in the other two task domains. Subjects' risk preference varied categorically along the group size dimension in the life-death domain but changed more linearly over the expected value dimension in the monetary domain. Framing effects were observed in 7 of 13 pairs of problems, showing a positive frame-risk aversion and negative frame-risk seeking relationship. In addition, two types of framing effects were theoretically defined and empirically identified. A bidirectional framing effect involves a reversal in risk preference, and occurs when a decision maker's risk preference is ambiguous or weak. Four bidirectional effects were observed; in each case a majority of subjects preferred the sure outcome under a positive frame but the gamble under a negative frame. In contrast, a unidirectional framing effect refers to a preference shift due to the framing of choice outcomes: A majority of subjects preferred one choice outcome (either the sure thing or the gamble) under both framing conditions, with positive frame augmented the preference for the sure thing and negative frame augmented the preference for the gamble. These findings revealed some dynamic regularities of framing effects and posed implications for developing predictive and testable

  7. A UML-based meta-framework for system design in public health informatics.

    Orlova, Anna O; Lehmann, Harold


    The National Agenda for Public Health Informatics calls for standards in data and knowledge representation within public health, which requires a multi-level framework that links all aspects of public health. The literature of public health informatics and public health informatics application were reviewed. A UML-based systems analysis was performed. Face validity of results was evaluated in analyzing the public health domain of lead poisoning. The core class of the UML-based system of public health is the Public Health Domain, which is associated with multiple Problems, for which Actors provide Perspectives. Actors take Actions that define, generate, utilize and/or evaluate Data Sources. The life cycle of the domain is a sequence of activities attributed to its problems that spirals through multiple iterations and realizations within a domain. The proposed Public Health Informatics Meta-Framework broadens efforts in applying informatics principles to the field of public health

  8. Protein domain organisation: adding order

    Kummerfeld Sarah K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domains are the building blocks of proteins. During evolution, they have been duplicated, fused and recombined, to produce proteins with novel structures and functions. Structural and genome-scale studies have shown that pairs or groups of domains observed together in a protein are almost always found in only one N to C terminal order and are the result of a single recombination event that has been propagated by duplication of the multi-domain unit. Previous studies of domain organisation have used graph theory to represent the co-occurrence of domains within proteins. We build on this approach by adding directionality to the graphs and connecting nodes based on their relative order in the protein. Most of the time, the linear order of domains is conserved. However, using the directed graph representation we have identified non-linear features of domain organization that are over-represented in genomes. Recognising these patterns and unravelling how they have arisen may allow us to understand the functional relationships between domains and understand how the protein repertoire has evolved. Results We identify groups of domains that are not linearly conserved, but instead have been shuffled during evolution so that they occur in multiple different orders. We consider 192 genomes across all three kingdoms of life and use domain and protein annotation to understand their functional significance. To identify these features and assess their statistical significance, we represent the linear order of domains in proteins as a directed graph and apply graph theoretical methods. We describe two higher-order patterns of domain organisation: clusters and bi-directionally associated domain pairs and explore their functional importance and phylogenetic conservation. Conclusion Taking into account the order of domains, we have derived a novel picture of global protein organization. We found that all genomes have a higher than expected

  9. IMAP refid="FN1">©©Copyright Sandia Corporation and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, April 1993.: a complete Ion Micro-Analysis Package for the nuclear microprobe

    Antolak, A. J.; Bench, G. S.; Morse, D. H.


    Microprobe techniques using scanned, focused MeV ions are routinely used in Livermore for materials characterization. Comprehensive data analysis with these techniques is accomplished with the computer software package IMAP, for Ion Micro-Analysis Package. IMAP consists of a set of command language procedures for data processing and quantitative spectral analysis. Deconvolution of the data is achieved by spawning sub-processes within IMAP which execute analysis codes for each specific microprobe technique. IMAP is structured to rapidly analyze individual spectra or multi-dimensional data blocks which classify individual events by the two scanning dimensions, the energy of the detected radiation and, when necessary, one sample rotation dimension. Several examples are presented to demonstrate the utility of the package.

  10. Going public

    Meyer, Gitte; Sandøe, Peter


    The paper addresses issues of scientific conduct regarding relations between science and the media, relations between scientists and journalists, and attitudes towards the public at large. In the large and increasing body of literature on scientific conduct and misconduct, these issues seem...... deal with ethical public relations issues, guided by a norm or maxim of openness. Drawing on and rethinking the CUDOS codification of the scientific ethos, as it was worked out by Robert K. Merton in 1942, we propose that this, which is echoed in current codifications of norms for good scientific...... conduct, contains a tacit maxim of openness which may naturally be extended to cover the public relations of science. Discussing openness as access, accountability, transparency and receptiveness, the argumentation concentrates on the possible prevention of misconduct with respect to, on the one hand...

  11. Going public

    Meyer, Gitte; Sandøe, Peter


    The paper addresses issues of scientific conduct regarding relations between science and the media, relations between scientists and journalists, and attitudes towards the public at large. In the large and increasing body of literature on scientific conduct and misconduct, these issues seem...... deal with ethical public relations issues, guided by a norm or maxim of openness. Drawing on and rethinking the CUDOS codification of the scientific ethos, as it was worked out by Robert K. Merton in 1942, we propose that this, which is echoed in current codifications of norms for good scientific...... conduct, contains a tacit maxim of openness which may naturally be extended to cover the public relations of science. Discussing openness as access, accountability, transparency and receptiveness, the argumentation concentrates on the possible prevention of misconduct with respect to, on the one hand...

  12. Public Sphere

    Trenz, Hans-Jörg


    of the collective will of the people in the act of democratic self-government. The concept of the public sphere is used across the fields of media and communication research, cultural studies and the humanities, the history of ideas, legal and constitutional studies as well as democracy studies. Historically......In modern societies, the public sphere represents the intermediary realm that supports the communication of opinions, the discovery of problems that need to be dealt with collectively, the channeling of these problems through the filter of the media and political institutions, and the realization......, public spheres have undergone structural transformations that were closely connected to the emergence of different mass media. More recently, they are subject to trends of transnationalization and digitalization in politics and society....

  13. Public Sphere

    Trenz, Hans-Jörg


    In modern societies, the public sphere represents the intermediary realm that supports the communication of opinions, the discovery of problems that need to be dealt with collectively, the channeling of these problems through the filter of the media and political institutions, and the realization......, public spheres have undergone structural transformations that were closely connected to the emergence of different mass media. More recently, they are subject to trends of transnationalization and digitalization in politics and society....... of the collective will of the people in the act of democratic self-government. The concept of the public sphere is used across the fields of media and communication research, cultural studies and the humanities, the history of ideas, legal and constitutional studies as well as democracy studies. Historically...

  14. Public Interfa(e)ces

    Cox, Geoff


    In the work of Hannah Arendt, the political realm arises out of acting together, in the sharing of speech and action. There has been much recent interest in revisiting Arendt’s ideas, in relation to a reconceptualisation of publicness. In Virno’s work, for instance, this is emphasized because...... as in speech or writing but also something that performs actions? For Kelty, again referring to Arendt, the free software movement is an example of what he calls a “recursive pubic”, to draw attention to emergent and self-organizing public actions. Moreover, publicness is constituted not simply by speaking......, writing, and protesting, but also through modification of the domain or platform through which these practices are enacted. And ordure? The quirky intervention of Dominique Laporte, in History of Shit (first published in French in 1978) verifies that modern power is founded on the aesthetics of the public...

  15. public spaces

    Elena Grigoryeva


    Full Text Available The topic of this issue is PUBLIC SPACES. It is familiar and clear to every citizen. The streets and courtyards as childhood experiences remain with us forever. And these are the places where we come with our parents at weekends, where we meet friends, where we have dates and where we already come for a walk with our children.The history of public spaces is long and captivating. It was the main city squares where the most important events took place in history. The Agoras of Ancient Greece and the Roman Forums, the squares of Vatican, Paris and London, Moscow and Saint Petersburg… Greve, Trafalgar, Senate, Palace, Red, Bolotnaya – behind every name there is life of capitals, countries and nations.Public spaces, their shapes, image and development greatly influence the perception of the city as a whole. Both visitors and inhabitants can see in public spaces not only the visage but the heart, the soul and the mind of the city.Unfortunately, sometimes we have to prove the value of public spaces and defend them from those who consider them nothing but a blank space, nobody’s land destined for barbarous development.What should happen to make citizens perceive public spaces as their own and to make authorities consider development and maintenance of squares and parks their priority task against the  background of increasing competition between cities and the fight for human capital? Lately they more often say about “a high-quality human capital”. And now, when they say “the city should be liveable” they add “for all groups of citizens, including the creative class”.

  16. Public health

    Berg, van den A.E.


    Agnes van den Berg wrote an essay about human health and nature, establishing that subject as an important policy argument in developing (urban) nature in the Netherlands. She studied the public balance of fear and fascination for nature, summarising benefits on human health. In this chapter, she ad

  17. Public Affairs.

    Snow, C. P.

    In this book effects of technological developments on world conditions are discussed on the basis of the author's public statements made between 1959-70. A total of seven pieces is presented under the headings: The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution, The Two Cultures: A Second Look, The Case of Leavis and the Serious Case, Science and…

  18. Public health

    Berg, van den A.E.


    Agnes van den Berg wrote an essay about human health and nature, establishing that subject as an important policy argument in developing (urban) nature in the Netherlands. She studied the public balance of fear and fascination for nature, summarising benefits on human health. In this chapter, she

  19. Publication Design.

    Nelson, Roy Paul

    This book is designed to solve the problem of coordinating art and typography with content in publications. Through text and illustrations, this book suggests ways to make pages and spreads in magazines, newspapers, and books attractive and readable. As a book of techniques, it is directed at potential and practicing art directors, designers, and…

  20. Publication Design.

    Nelson, Roy Paul

    This book is designed to solve the problem of coordinating art and typography with content in publications. Through text and illustrations, this book suggests ways to make pages and spreads in magazines, newspapers, and books attractive and readable. As a book of techniques, it is directed at potential and practicing art directors, designers, and…

  1. Domain imaging in FINEMET ribbons

    Silveyra, J.M., E-mail: jsilveyra@fi.uba.a [Laboratorio de Solidos Amorfos, INTECIN, Facultad de Ingenieria, UBA-CONICET, Paseo Colon 850, (C1063ACV) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vlasak, G.; Svec, P.; Janickovic, D. [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia); Cremaschi, V.J., E-mail: [Laboratorio de Solidos Amorfos, INTECIN, Facultad de Ingenieria, UBA-CONICET, Paseo Colon 850, (C1063ACV) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Member of Carrera del Investigador, CONICET (Argentina)


    The magnetization behaviour of a ferromagnetic material depends on its domain structure, which in turn is largely determined by magnetic anisotropies. In this work, domain patterns were observed by a quite forgotten but still the simplest and the cheapest technique: the Bitter method. A systematic study of the evolution of the domain structure in FINEMET ribbons after thermal annealing is presented, correlating the results with the crystalline structure, magnetostriction and coercivity measurements.

  2. Dynamical domain wall and localization

    Yuta Toyozato


    Full Text Available Based on the previous works (Toyozato et al., 2013 [24]; Higuchi and Nojiri, 2014 [25], we investigate the localization of the fields on the dynamical domain wall, where the four-dimensional FRW universe is realized on the domain wall in the five-dimensional space–time. Especially we show that the chiral spinor can localize on the domain wall, which has not been succeeded in the past works as the seminal work in George et al. (2009 [23].

  3. A Domain-Specific Programming Language for Secure Multiparty Computation

    Nielsen, Janus Dam; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff


    We present a domain-specific programming language for Secure Multiparty Computation (SMC). Information is a resource of vital importance and considerable economic value to individuals, public administration, and private companies. This means that the confidentiality of information is crucial...... application development. The language is implemented in a prototype compiler that generates Java code exploiting a distributed cryptographic runtime....

  4. Mapping the Moral Domain

    Graham, Jesse; Nosek, Brian A.; Haidt, Jonathan; Iyer, Ravi; Koleva, Spassena; Ditto, Peter H.


    The moral domain is broader than the empathy and justice concerns assessed by existing measures of moral competence, and it is not just a subset of the values assessed by value inventories. To fill the need for reliable and theoretically-grounded measurement of the full range of moral concerns, we developed the Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ) based on a theoretical model of five universally available (but variably developed) sets of moral intuitions: Harm/care, Fairness/reciprocity, Ingroup/loyalty, Authority/respect, and Purity/sanctity. We present evidence for the internal and external validity of the scale and the model, and in doing so present new findings about morality: 1. Comparative model fitting of confirmatory factor analyses provides empirical justification for a five-factor structure of moral concerns. 2. Convergent/discriminant validity evidence suggests that moral concerns predict personality features and social group attitudes not previously considered morally relevant. 3. We establish pragmatic validity of the measure in providing new knowledge and research opportunities concerning demographic and cultural differences in moral intuitions. These analyses provide evidence for the usefulness of Moral Foundations Theory in simultaneously increasing the scope and sharpening the resolution of psychological views of morality. PMID:21244182

  5. Discoidin Domain Receptor 1

    Song, Sunmi; Shackel, Nicholas A.; Wang, Xin M.; Ajami, Katerina; McCaughan, Geoffrey W.; Gorrell, Mark D.


    Discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that binds and is activated by collagens. Transcriptional profiling of cirrhosis in human liver using a DNA array and quantitative PCR detected elevated mRNA expression of DDR1 compared with that in nondiseased liver. The present study characterized DDR1 expression in cirrhotic and nondiseased human liver and examined the cellular effects of DDR1 expression. mRNA expression of all five isoforms of DDR1 was detected in human liver, whereas DDR1a demonstrated differential expression in liver with hepatitis C virus and primary biliary cirrhosis compared with nondiseased liver. In addition, immunoblot analysis detected shed fragments of DDR1 more readily in cirrhotic liver than in nondiseased liver. Inasmuch as DDR1 is subject to protease-mediated cleavage after prolonged interaction with collagen, this differential expression may indicate more intense activation of DDR1 protein in cirrhotic compared with nondiseased liver. In situ hybridization and immunofluorescence localized intense DDR1 mRNA and protein expression to epithelial cells including hepatocytes at the portal-parenchymal interface and the luminal aspect of the biliary epithelium. Overexpression of DDR1a altered hepatocyte behavior including increased adhesion and less migration on extracelular matrix substrates. DDR1a regulated extracellular expression of matrix metalloproteinases 1 and 2. These data elucidate DDR1 function pertinent to cirrhosis and indicate the importance of epithelial cell–collagen interactions in chronic liver injury. PMID:21356365

  6. Ontology development for Sufism domain

    Iqbal, Rizwan


    Domain ontology is a descriptive representation of any particular domain which in detail describes the concepts in a domain, the relationships among those concepts and organizes them in a hierarchal manner. It is also defined as a structure of knowledge, used as a means of knowledge sharing to the community. An Important aspect of using ontologies is to make information retrieval more accurate and efficient. Thousands of domain ontologies from all around the world are available online on ontology repositories. Ontology repositories like SWOOGLE currently have over 1000 ontologies covering a wide range of domains. It was found that up to date there was no ontology available covering the domain of "Sufism". This unavailability of "Sufism" domain ontology became a motivation factor for this research. This research came up with a working "Sufism" domain ontology as well a framework, design of the proposed framework focuses on the resolution to problems which were experienced while creating the "Sufism" ontology. The development and working of the "Sufism" domain ontology are covered in detail in this research. The word "Sufism" is a term which refers to Islamic mysticism. One of the reasons to choose "Sufism" for ontology creation is its global curiosity. This research has also managed to create some individuals which inherit the concepts from the "Sufism" ontology. The creation of individuals helps to demonstrate the efficient and precise retrieval of data from the "Sufism" domain ontology. The experiment of creating the "Sufism" domain ontology was carried out on a tool called Protégé. Protégé is a tool which is used for ontology creation, editing and it is open source.

  7. Domain Theory for Concurrency

    Nygaard, Mikkel

    a process is capable. HOPLA can directly encode calculi like CCS, CCS with process passing, and mobile ambients with public names, and it can be given a straightforward operational semantics supporting a standard bisimulation congruence. The denotational and operational semantics are related with simple...... and associated comonads, it highlights the role of linearity in concurrent computation. Two choices of comonad yield two expressive metalanguages for higher-order processes, both arising from canonical constructions in the model. Their denotational semantics are fully abstract with respect to contextual...... input necessary for it. Such a semantics is provided, based on event structures; it agrees with the presheaf semantics at first order and exposes the tensor operation as a simple parallel composition of event structures. The categorical model obtained from presheaves is very rich in structure and points...

  8. Public Sociology

    What is the role of sociology in society? How can - and should - sociology contribute with insights relevant and useful to the outside world? Is sociology attuned to accommodate the demands of the wider public and of surrounding society? Who benefits from the knowledge produced and provided...... by sociology? What are the social implications and cultural effects of the knowledge sociology provides and creates? All of these questions, and many others, concern and centre on sociology's relationship to the surrounding society, in short to the ‘public'. All of these questions - and many others...... - will be addressed in this book.   Sociology, as the self-proclaimed ‘the science of society', finds itself in an exceptional position within the scientific community in that it studies a universe it itself is part and parcel of. This means that sociology and sociologists are inextricably connected and linked...

  9. Scientific publication

    Getulio Teixeira Batista


    Full Text Available The necessary work for developing a scientific publication is sometimes underestimated and requires the effective participation of many players to obtain a result in good standard. Initially it depends upon the determination of the authors that decide to write the scientific article. Scientific writing is a very challenging and time consuming task, but at the same time essential for any scientist. A published scientific article is unquestionably one of the main indicators of scientific production, especially if published in a qualified scientific journal with highly qualified editorial committee and strict peer review procedure. By looking at evaluation criteria for scientific production of the several Thematic Scientific Committees of the Brazilian Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq it becomes clear publications in scientific journals that has certified quality is the most important item in the evaluation of a scientist production.

  10. Public opinion.

    Holden, A


    This opinion-based article aims to highlight the worrying decline in support for dental public health as a specialty. Not only is this specialty important for its role in commissioning services, it is crucial for the identification of vulnerable groups in society and ensuring dental services are acceptable and assessable for these populations. Dental public health also addresses the social determinants of health in its approach, acknowledging the impact of these in perpetuating inequalities and looking for multisectoral approaches to their management. This article also looks at the lack of appreciation for these determinants in dental foundation training and how a change in the structure of the programme could both address this and the current shortage of places.

  11. Public meetings

    Staff Association


    MARS PENSIONS CONTRACT POLICY GENERAL INFORMATION   PUBLIC MEETINGS COME AND BE INFORMED! Public meetings Monday 15 Oct. 2 pm Amphi IT, 31-3-004 Meyrin Wednesday 17 Oct. 10 am Amphi BE, 864-1-D02 Prévessin Thursday 18 Oct. 10 am Salle du Conseil/ Council Chamber 503-1-001 Meyrin Thursday 18 Oct. 2 pm Filtration Plant, 222-R-001(in English) Meyrin   Overview of the topics to be discussed Recognition of Merit – MARS Outcome of last exercise 2007 to 2012 : lessons learned Pension Fund Capital preservation policy : what is it ? Contract policy LC2IC statistics SA proposal General information CVI 2013 Voluntary programmes (PRP, SLS)  

  12. Reclaiming public space: designing for public interaction with private devices

    Eriksson, Eva; Hansen, Thomas Riisgaard; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas


    . In this paper we explore the implications of interacting in public space and how technology can be rethought to not only act as personal devices, but be the tool to reclaim the right and possibility to interact in public spaces. We introduce information exchange, social support and regulation as three central......Public spaces are changing from being ungoverned places for interaction to be more formalized, controlled, less interactive, and designed places aimed at fulfilling a purpose. Simultaneously, new personal mobile technology aims at providing private individual spaces in the public domain...... design challenges when designing for public interaction....

  13. On Probability Domains

    Frič, Roman; Papčo, Martin


    Motivated by IF-probability theory (intuitionistic fuzzy), we study n-component probability domains in which each event represents a body of competing components and the range of a state represents a simplex S n of n-tuples of possible rewards-the sum of the rewards is a number from [0,1]. For n=1 we get fuzzy events, for example a bold algebra, and the corresponding fuzzy probability theory can be developed within the category ID of D-posets (equivalently effect algebras) of fuzzy sets and sequentially continuous D-homomorphisms. For n=2 we get IF-events, i.e., pairs ( μ, ν) of fuzzy sets μ, ν∈[0,1] X such that μ( x)+ ν( x)≤1 for all x∈ X, but we order our pairs (events) coordinatewise. Hence the structure of IF-events (where ( μ 1, ν 1)≤( μ 2, ν 2) whenever μ 1≤ μ 2 and ν 2≤ ν 1) is different and, consequently, the resulting IF-probability theory models a different principle. The category ID is cogenerated by I=[0,1] (objects of ID are subobjects of powers I X ), has nice properties and basic probabilistic notions and constructions are categorical. For example, states are morphisms. We introduce the category S n D cogenerated by Sn=\\{(x1,x2,ldots ,xn)in In;sum_{i=1}nxi≤ 1\\} carrying the coordinatewise partial order, difference, and sequential convergence and we show how basic probability notions can be defined within S n D.

  14. Taxonomies of Educational Objective Domain

    Eman Ghanem Nayef; Nik Rosila Nik Yaacob; Hairul Nizam Ismail


    This paper highlights an effort to study the educational objective domain taxonomies including Bloom’s taxonomy, Lorin Anderson’s taxonomy, and Wilson’s taxonomy. In this study a comparison among these three taxonomies have been done. Results show that Bloom’s taxonomy is more suitable as an analysis tool to Educational Objective domain.

  15. How Public Is Public Administration? A Constitutional Approach of Publicness

    Ringeling, Arthur


    Both in Public Administration and in practice, there is a loss of the concept of public. A view became dominant in which markets were superior to governments and public to private. Not only did the esteem of the public sphere diminish, but also its significance in our reasoning and teaching. It became less clear what the public sphere stood for.…

  16. How Public Is Public Administration? A Constitutional Approach of Publicness

    Ringeling, Arthur


    Both in Public Administration and in practice, there is a loss of the concept of public. A view became dominant in which markets were superior to governments and public to private. Not only did the esteem of the public sphere diminish, but also its significance in our reasoning and teaching. It became less clear what the public sphere stood for.…

  17. Phase-domain photoacoustic sensing

    Gao, Fei; Zhang, Ruochong; Feng, Xiaohua; Liu, Siyu; Ding, Ran; Kishor, Rahul; Qiu, Lei; Zheng, Yuanjin


    As one of the fastest-growing imaging modalities in recent years, photoacoustic imaging has attracted tremendous research interest for various applications including anatomical, functional, and molecular imaging. The majority of the photoacoustic imaging systems are based on the time-domain pulsed photoacoustic method, which utilizes a pulsed laser source to induce a wideband photoacoustic signal, revealing optical absorption contrast. An alternative way is the frequency-domain photoacoustic method utilizing the chirping modulation of laser intensity to achieve lower system cost. In this paper, we report another way of the photoacoustic method, called phase-domain photoacoustic sensing, which explores the phase difference between two consequent intensity-modulated laser pulse induced photoacoustic measurements to reveal the optical properties. The basic principle is introduced, modeled, and experimentally validated in this paper, which opens another potential pathway to perform photoacoustic sensing and imaging, eliminating acoustic detection variations beyond the conventional time-domain and frequency-domain photoacoustic methods.

  18. Domain wall description of superconductivity

    Brito, F A; Silva, J C M


    In the present work we shall address the issue of electrical conductivity in superconductors in the perspective of superconducting domain wall solutions in the realm of field theory. We take our set up made out of a dynamical complex scalar field coupled to gauge field to be responsible for superconductivity and an extra scalar real field that plays the role of superconducting domain walls. The temperature of the system is interpreted as the parameter to move type I to type II domain walls. Alternatively, this means that the domain wall surface is suffering an acceleration as one goes from one type to another. On the other hand, changing from type I to type II state means a formation of a condensate what is in perfect sense of lowering the temperature around the superconductor. One can think of this scenario as an analog of holographic scenarios where this set up is replaced by a black hole near the domain wall.

  19. Texture of lipid bilayer domains

    Jensen, Uffe Bernchou; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Midtiby, Henrik Skov


    chains. By imaging the intensity variations as a function of the polarization angle, we map the lateral variations of the lipid tilt within domains. Results reveal that gel domains are composed of subdomains with different lipid tilt directions. We have applied a Fourier decomposition method......We investigate the texture of gel (g) domains in binary lipid membranes composed of the phospholipids DPPC and DOPC. Lateral organization of lipid bilayer membranes is a topic of fundamental and biological importance. Whereas questions related to size and composition of fluid membrane domain...... are well studied, the possibility of texture in gel domains has so far not been examined. When using polarized light for two-photon excitation of the fluorescent lipid probe Laurdan, the emission intensity is highly sensitive to the angle between the polarization and the tilt orientation of lipid acyl...

  20. Bodies in Movement in Public Space

    Smith, Shelley


    This article explores the sensorial and conceptual perception of space and time, in an urbanity defined by urban life and urban form in movement and flux. Particularly regarding what public spaces and domains can be in contemporary societies and how these can be designed and developed.......This article explores the sensorial and conceptual perception of space and time, in an urbanity defined by urban life and urban form in movement and flux. Particularly regarding what public spaces and domains can be in contemporary societies and how these can be designed and developed....

  1. Managing Public Accountability : How Public Managers Manage Public Accountability

    Schillemans, Thomas


    Accountability is of growing importance in contemporary governance. The academic literature on public accountability is fraught with concerned analyses, suggesting that accountability is a problematic issue for public managers. This article investigates how public managers experience accountability

  2. Public meetings

    Staff Association


      MARS 2015 FIVE YEARLY REVIEW CONTRACT POLICY PENSION FUND GENERAL INFORMATION   COME AND BE INFORMED! PUBLIC MEETINGS Friday 3rd October at 10 am Amphi BE, 864-1-D02 Prévessin Friday 3rd October at 2 pm Salle du Conseil / Council Chamber, 503-1-001 (in English) Meyrin Monday 6th October at 10 am Kjell Johnsen Auditorium, 30-7-018 Meyrin Monday 6th October at 2 pm Salle du Conseil / Council Chamber, 503-1-001 Meyrin  

  3. Public meetings

    Staff Association


      Public meetings : Come and talk about your future employment conditions !   The Staff Association will come and present the results of our survey on the 2015 five-yearly review. Following the survey, the topics discussed, will be contract policy, recognition of merit (MARS), working time arrangements and family policy. After each meeting and around a cup of coffee or tea you will be able to continue the discussions. Do not hesitate to join us, the five-yearly review, it is with YOU!

  4. A public world without public relations?

    Nayden, Nikolay


    The term "public relations" (PR) has long gained currency as meaning the practice of producing a positive public image. This article argues that public relations should be released from the prison of "PR" and, instead, reconceptualised as relations which define the public realm much as economic relations define the economy. From this point of view, three main levels of public relations can be distinguished: (1) relations between public institutions, (2) relations between citizens and public i...

  5. A public world without public relations?:

    Nayden, Nikolay


    The term "public relations" (PR) has long gained currency as meaning the practice of producing a positive public image. This article argues that public relations should be released from the prison of "PR" and, instead, reconceptualised as relations which define the public realm much as economic relations define the economy. From this point of view, three main levels of public relations can be distinguished: (1) relations between public institutions, (2) relations between citizens and public i...

  6. Mutation of domain III and domain VI in L gene conserved domain of Nipah virus

    Jalani, Siti Aishah; Ibrahim, Nazlina


    Nipah virus (NiV) is the etiologic agent responsible for the respiratory illness and causes fatal encephalitis in human. NiV L protein subunit is thought to be responsible for the majority of enzymatic activities involved in viral transcription and replication. The L protein which is the viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase has high sequence homology among negative sense RNA viruses. In negative stranded RNA viruses, based on sequence alignment six conserved domain (domain I-IV) have been determined. Each domain is separated on variable regions that suggest the structure to consist concatenated functional domain. To directly address the roles of domains III and VI, site-directed mutations were constructed by the substitution of bases at sequences 2497, 2500, 5528 and 5532. Each mutated L gene can be used in future studies to test the ability for expression on in vitro translation.

  7. Domain Walls in SU(5)

    Poghosian, L E; Pogosian, Levon; Vachaspati, Tanmay


    We consider the Grand Unified SU(5) model with a small or vanishing cubic term in the adjoint scalar field in the potential. This gives the model an approximate or exact Z$_2$ symmetry whose breaking leads to domain walls. The simplest domain wall has the structure of a kink across which the Higgs field changes sign ($\\Phi \\to -\\Phi$) and inside which the full SU(5) is restored. The kink is shown to be perturbatively unstable for all parameters. We then construct a domain wall solution that is lighter than the kink and show it to be perturbatively stable for a range of parameters. The symmetry in the core of this domain wall is smaller than that outside. The interactions of the domain wall with magnetic monopole is discussed and it is shown that magnetic monopoles with certain internal space orientations relative to the wall pass through the domain wall. Magnetic monopoles in other relative internal space orientations are likely to be swept away on collision with the domain walls, suggesting a scenario where ...

  8. Predicting domain-domain interaction based on domain profiles with feature selection and support vector machines

    Liao Li


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein interaction (PPI plays essential roles in cellular functions. The cost, time and other limitations associated with the current experimental methods have motivated the development of computational methods for predicting PPIs. As protein interactions generally occur via domains instead of the whole molecules, predicting domain-domain interaction (DDI is an important step toward PPI prediction. Computational methods developed so far have utilized information from various sources at different levels, from primary sequences, to molecular structures, to evolutionary profiles. Results In this paper, we propose a computational method to predict DDI using support vector machines (SVMs, based on domains represented as interaction profile hidden Markov models (ipHMM where interacting residues in domains are explicitly modeled according to the three dimensional structural information available at the Protein Data Bank (PDB. Features about the domains are extracted first as the Fisher scores derived from the ipHMM and then selected using singular value decomposition (SVD. Domain pairs are represented by concatenating their selected feature vectors, and classified by a support vector machine trained on these feature vectors. The method is tested by leave-one-out cross validation experiments with a set of interacting protein pairs adopted from the 3DID database. The prediction accuracy has shown significant improvement as compared to InterPreTS (Interaction Prediction through Tertiary Structure, an existing method for PPI prediction that also uses the sequences and complexes of known 3D structure. Conclusions We show that domain-domain interaction prediction can be significantly enhanced by exploiting information inherent in the domain profiles via feature selection based on Fisher scores, singular value decomposition and supervised learning based on support vector machines. Datasets and source code are freely available on

  9. Wavefield extrapolation in pseudodepth domain

    Ma, Xuxin


    Wavefields are commonly computed in the Cartesian coordinate frame. Its efficiency is inherently limited due to spatial oversampling in deep layers, where the velocity is high and wavelengths are long. To alleviate this computational waste due to uneven wavelength sampling, we convert the vertical axis of the conventional domain from depth to vertical time or pseudodepth. This creates a nonorthognal Riemannian coordinate system. Isotropic and anisotropic wavefields can be extrapolated in the new coordinate frame with improved efficiency and good consistency with Cartesian domain extrapolation results. Prestack depth migrations are also evaluated based on the wavefield extrapolation in the pseudodepth domain.© 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

  10. Anatomy of Mammalian Replication Domains

    Takebayashi, Shin-ichiro; Ogata, Masato; Okumura, Katsuzumi


    Genetic information is faithfully copied by DNA replication through many rounds of cell division. In mammals, DNA is replicated in Mb-sized chromosomal units called “replication domains.” While genome-wide maps in multiple cell types and disease states have uncovered both dynamic and static properties of replication domains, we are still in the process of understanding the mechanisms that give rise to these properties. A better understanding of the molecular basis of replication domain regulation will bring new insights into chromosome structure and function. PMID:28350365

  11. Quality criteria for electronic publications in medicine.

    Schulz, S; Auhuber, T; Schrader, U; Klar, R


    This paper defines "electronic publications in medicine (EPM)" as computer based training programs, databases, knowledge-based systems, multimedia applications and electronic books running on standard platforms and available by usual distribution channels. A detailed catalogue of quality criteria as a basis for development and evaluation of EPMs is presented. The necessity to raise the quality level of electronic publications is stressed considering aspects of domain knowledge, software engineering, media development, interface design and didactics.

  12. Critical SQG in bounded domains

    Constantin, Peter; Ignatova, Mihaela


    We consider the critical dissipative SQG equation in bounded domains, with the square root of the Dirichlet Laplacian dissipation. We prove global a priori interior $C^{\\alpha}$ and Lipschitz bounds for large data.

  13. Concept Convergence in Empirical Domains

    Ontañón, Santiago; Plaza, Enric

    How to achieve shared meaning is a significant issue when more than one intelligent agent is involved in the same domain. We define the task of concept convergence, by which intelligent agents can achieve a shared, agreed-upon meaning of a concept (restricted to empirical domains). For this purpose we present a framework that, integrating computational argumentation and inductive concept learning, allows a pair of agents to (1) learn a concept in an empirical domain, (2) argue about the concept's meaning, and (3) reach a shared agreed-upon concept definition. We apply this framework to marine sponges, a biological domain where the actual definitions of concepts such as orders, families and species are currently open to discussion. An experimental evaluation on marine sponges shows that concept convergence is achieved, within a reasonable number of interchanged arguments, and reaching short and accurate definitions (with respect to precision and recall).

  14. Structure of axionic domain walls

    Huang, M. C.; Sikivie, P.


    The structure of axionic domain walls is investigated using the low-energy effective theory of axions and pions. We derive the spatial dependence of the phases of the Peccei-Quinn scalar field and the QCD quark-antiquark condensates inside an axionic domain wall. Thence an accurate estimate of the wall surface energy density is obtained. The equations of motion for axions, photons, leptons, and baryons in the neighborhood of axionic domain walls are written down and estimates are given for the wall reflection and transmission coefficients of these particles. Finally, we discuss the energy dissipation by axionic domain walls oscillating in the early universe due to the reflection of particles in the primordial soup.

  15. Structure of axionic domain walls

    Huang, M.C.; Sikivie, P.


    The structure of axionic domain walls is investigated using the low-energy effective theory of axions and pions. We derive the spatial dependence of the phases of the Peccei-Quinn scalar field and the QCD quark-antiquark condensates inside an axionic domain wall. Thence an accurate estimate of the wall surface energy density is obtained. The equations of motion for axions, photons, leptons, and baryons in the neighborhood of axionic domain walls are written down and estimates are given for the wall reflection and transmission coefficients of these particles. Finally, we discuss the energy dissipation by axionic domain walls oscillating in the early universe due to the reflection of particles in the primordial soup.

  16. Toeplitz operators on connected domains

    CAO; Guangfu


    The proof of the index formula of the Toeplitz operator with a continuous symbol on the Hardy space for the unit circle in the complex plane depends on the Hopftheorem. However,the analogue result of the Hopf theorem does not hold on a general connected domain. Hence,the extension of the index formula of the Toeplitz operator on a general domain needs a method which is different from that for the case of the unit circle. In the present paper, the index formula of the Toeplitz operator with a continuous symbol on the finite complex connected domain in the complex plane is obtained, and the cohomology groups of Toeplitz algebras on general domains are discussed. In addition, the Toeplitz operators with symbols in QC are also discussed.

  17. Building Ontologies for Cross-domain Recommendation on Facial Skin Problem and Related Cosmetics

    Hla Hla Moe


    Full Text Available Nowadays, recommendation has become an everyday activity in the World Wide Web. An increasing amount of work has been published in various areas related to the recommender system. Cross-domain recommendation is an emerging research topic. This type of recommendations has barely been investigated because it is difficult to obtain public datasets with user preferences crossing different domains. To solve dataset problem, one of the solution is to create different domains. Ontology is playing increasingly important roles in many research areas such as semantics interoperability and knowledge base and creating domain. Ontology defines a common vocabulary and a shared understanding and is applied for real world applications. Ontology is a formal representation of a set of concepts within a domain and the relationships between those concepts. This paper presents an approach for building ontologies using Taxonomic conversational case-based reasoning (Taxonomic CCBR to apply cross-domain recommendation based on facial skin problems and related cosmetics. For linking cross-domain recommendation, Ford-Fulkerson algorithm is used to build the bridge of the concepts between two domain ontologies (Problems domain as the source domain and Cosmetics domain as the target domain.

  18. Expanding the landscape of chromatin modification (CM-related functional domains and genes in human.

    Shuye Pu

    Full Text Available Chromatin modification (CM plays a key role in regulating transcription, DNA replication, repair and recombination. However, our knowledge of these processes in humans remains very limited. Here we use computational approaches to study proteins and functional domains involved in CM in humans. We analyze the abundance and the pair-wise domain-domain co-occurrences of 25 well-documented CM domains in 5 model organisms: yeast, worm, fly, mouse and human. Results show that domains involved in histone methylation, DNA methylation, and histone variants are remarkably expanded in metazoan, reflecting the increased demand for cell type-specific gene regulation. We find that CM domains tend to co-occur with a limited number of partner domains and are hence not promiscuous. This property is exploited to identify 47 potentially novel CM domains, including 24 DNA-binding domains, whose role in CM has received little attention so far. Lastly, we use a consensus Machine Learning approach to predict 379 novel CM genes (coding for 329 proteins in humans based on domain compositions. Several of these predictions are supported by very recent experimental studies and others are slated for experimental verification. Identification of novel CM genes and domains in humans will aid our understanding of fundamental epigenetic processes that are important for stem cell differentiation and cancer biology. Information on all the candidate CM domains and genes reported here is publicly available.

  19. Public meeting

    HR Department


    Dear Colleagues, I am pleased to invite you to a public meeting which will be held on Thursday 11 November 2010 at 2:30 p.m., in the Main Auditorium (welcome coffee from 2 p.m.) In this meeting Sigurd Lettow, Director for Administration and General Infrastructure will present the Management’s proposals towards restoring full funding of the Pension Fund. The meeting will follow discussions which took place with the Staff Association, at the Standing Concertation Committee (CCP) of 1 November 2010 and will be held with the Members States, at the Tripartite Employment Conditions Forum (TREF) of 4 November 2010. You will be able to attend this presentation in the Main Auditorium or via the webcast. The Management will also be available to reply to your questions on this subject. Best regards, Anne-Sylvie Catherin

  20. Public meetings

    Staff Association


    MARS SURVEY 5YR 2015 GENERAL INFORMATION ELECTIONS 2013   COME AND BE INFORMED! Public meetings Tuesday 1st Oct. 10 am Amphi IT, 31-3-004 Meyrin Tuesday 1st Oct. 2 pm Council Chamber, 503-1-001 Meyrin Friday 4 Oct. 10 am Amphi BE, 864-1-D02 Prévessin Monday 7 Oct. 2 pm Council Chamber, 503-1-001 (in English) Meyrin Tuesday 8 Oct. 10 am Amphi Kjell Johnsen, 30-7-018 Meyrin   Overview of the topics to be discussed Recognition of Merit – MARS Outcome of last exercise 2007 to 2013: lessons learned Survey: five-yearly review, give us your opinion General information CVI 2014 Voluntary programmes (PRP, SLS) Elections 2013 Renewal of the Staff Council 2014 - 2015  

  1. Public Entrepreneurship

    Hjorth, Daniel


    on the entrepreneurship–society relationship. SE, as all entrepreneurship practices, operates by social and economic forces (limiting ourselves to those here), and generates social and economic outcomes (amongst others). Its second half, however, dominates the concept of SE, and our analysis seek to remedy this imbalance......In this paper we want to affirm the desiring-social-change that we find in practices presently represented by theorists and policy-makers as examples of ‘social entrepreneurship’ (SE). We do this as an attempt to intensify the presence of the social and sociality in today's discourse...... by focusing on the social productivity of entrepreneurship, on entrepreneurship desiring social change. We suggest ‘public entrepreneurship’ might grasp this as a more balanced concept that will also support a more precise analysis of the entrepreneurship–society relationship....

  2. Multi-stage evolution of xenotime-(Y) from Písek pegmatites, Czech Republic: an electron probe micro-analysis and Raman spectroscopy study

    Švecová, E.; Čopjaková, R.; Losos, Z.; Škoda, R.; Nasdala, L.; Cícha, J.


    The chemical variability, degree of radiation damage, and alteration of xenotime from the Písek granitic pegmatites (Czech Republic) were investigated by micro-chemical analysis and Raman spectroscopy. Dominant large xenotime-(Y) grains enriched in U, Th and Zr crystallized from a melt almost simultaneously with zircon, monazite and tourmaline. Xenotime is well to poorly crystalline depending on its U and Th contents. It shows complex secondary textures cutting magmatic growth zones as a result of its interaction with F,Ca,alkali-rich fluids during the hydrothermal stage of the pegmatite evolution. The magmatic xenotime underwent intense secondary alteration, from rims inwards, resulting in the formation of inclusion-rich well crystalline xenotime domains of near end-member composition. Two types of recrystallization were distinguished in relation to the type of inclusions: i) xenotime with coffinite-thorite, cheralite and monazite inclusions and ii) xenotime with zirconcheralite and zircon inclusions. Additionally, inner poorly crystalline U,Th-rich xenotime domains were locally altered, hydrated, depleted in P, Y, HREE, U, Si and radiogenic Pb, and enriched in fluid-borne cations (mainly Ca, F, Th, Zr, Fe). Interaction of radiation-damaged xenotime with hydrothermal fluids resulted in the disturbance of the U-Th-Pb system. Alteration of radiation-damaged xenotime was followed by intensive recrystallization indicating the presence of fluids >200 °C. Subsequently other types of xenotime formed as a consequence of fluid-driven alteration of magmatic monazite, and Y,REE,Ti,Nb-oxides or crystallized from hydrothermal fluids along cracks in magmatic monazite and xenotime.

  3. Silicon location through backscattered electron imaging and X-ray microanalysis in leaves of Cyperus ligularis L. and Rhynchospora aberrans C. B. Clarke (Cyperaceae) Localização de sílica por elétrons retroespalhados em folhas de Cyperus ligularis L. and Rhynchospora aberrans C. B. Clarke (Cyperaceae)

    Maria Emília Maranhão Estelita; Ana Claudia Rodrigues


    (Silicon location through backscattered electron imaging and X-ray microanalysis in leaves of Cyperus ligularis L. and Rhynchospora aberrans C. B. Clarke (Cyperaceae)). The Cyperaceae show the ability to incorporate silicon by depositing colloidal silica, which is recorded by the occurrence of projections in the form of cones, in inner tangential walls of some epidermal cells or "silica cells". Leaves of C. ligularis and R. aberrans were analyzed through the technique of electron backscatter....

  4. A segmental labeling strategy for unambiguous determination of domain-domain interactions of large multi-domain proteins

    Chen Jianglei; Wang Jianjun, E-mail: [Wayne State University, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine (United States)


    NMR structural determination of large multi-domain proteins is a challenging task due to significant spectral overlap with a particular difficulty in unambiguous identification of domain-domain interactions. Segmental labeling is a NMR strategy that allows for isotopically labeling one domain and leaves the other domain unlabeled. This significantly simplifies spectral overlaps and allows for quick identification of domain-domain interaction. Here, a novel segmental labeling strategy is presented for detection of inter-domain NOEs. To identify domain-domain interactions in human apolipoprotein E (apoE), a multi-domain, 299-residues {alpha}-helical protein, on-column expressed protein ligation was utilized to generate a segmental-labeled apoE samples in which the N-terminal (NT-) domain was {sup 2}H(99%)/{sup 15}N-labeled whereas the C-terminal (CT-) domain was either {sup 15}N- or {sup 15}N/{sup 13}C-labeled. 3-D {sup 15}N-edited NOESY spectra of these segmental-labeled apoE samples allow for direct observation of the inter-domain NOEs between the backbone amide protons of the NT-domain and the aliphatic protons of the CT-domain. This straightforward approach permits unambiguous identification of 78 inter-domain NOEs, enabling accurate definition of the relative positions of both the NT- and the CT-domains and determination of the NMR structure of apoE.

  5. 中国型含油气域——纪念翁文波《世界油田的分布规律》发表50周年%On China-Type Petroleum Domains--In memory of WENG Wenbo's Distributions of Worldwide Oil Fields on the 50th anniversary of its publication

    安作相; 马纪; 宠奇伟


    China-type petroleum domains include onshore China and adjacent belts,which is enwrapped by Asia-type petroleum domain. Such small, intensively active continental nucleus did not generate a unified platform by continental overgrowth until the end of the Paleozoic, and was separated by the subducted and closed Tethys Sea during Mesozoic and Neozoic period, resulting in the most complex tectonic features in the world. Within the petroleum domains, the hydrocarbon-bearing Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Neozoie sequences were superimposed in a basin. With an exception of the active continental margin basins, the intra-cratonic basins had disappeared, and the foreland basins and rift basins were different from others in the world, so they can be called China-type basins.

  6. Public History

    Marta Gouveia de Oliveira Rovai


    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como proposta apresentar o conceito e as práticas de História Pública como um novo posicionamento da ciência histórica em diálogo com profissionais da comunicação, no sentido de produzir e divulgar as experiências humanas. Para isso, discute-se a origem do conceito de História Pública e as diferentes formas de educação histórica que a utilização das novas tecnologias podem proporcionar (dentre elas a internet. Nesse sentido, convida-se o leitor para a reflexão sobre as possibilidades de publicização e de democratização do conhecimento histórico e da cultura, ampliando-se a oportunidade de produção, de divulgação e de acesso do público a diferentes formas experiências no tempo. O artigo também intenciona chamar atenção dos profissionais que lidam com a História e com a Comunicação para os perigos de produções exclusivamente submetidas ao mercado que transformam a popularização da História no reforço de estigmas culturais.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: História Pública; Educação histórica e Comunicação; democratização e estigmatização.     ABSTRACT This article aims to present the concept and practices of Public History as a new positioning of historical science in dialogue with communication professionals, in the sense of producing and disseminating human experiences. For this, the origin of the concept of Public History and the different forms of historical education that the use of the new technologies can provide (among them the Internet is discussed. In this sense, the reader is invited to reflect on the possibilities of publicizing and democratizing historical knowledge and culture, expanding the opportunity for production, dissemination and public access to different forms of experience in time. The article also intends to draw attention from professionals dealing with History and Communication to the dangers of exclusively commercialized productions that transform the popularization

  7. Public Sector Information and Open Government Data

    Mohammad Adly Talaat


    Full Text Available This paper tackles the distinguished case studies of some countries in the domains of Public Sector Information (PSI and Open Government Data (OGD, and demonstrates the current situation of Egypt related to them. The paper shows as well why the OGD is needed and its benefits on the political, economic, social, and international readiness axes

  8. Bodies in Movement in Public Space

    Smith, Shelley


    This article explores the sensorial and conceptual perception of space and time, in an urbanity defined by urban life and urban form in movement and flux. Particularly regarding what public spaces and domains can be in contemporary societies and how these can be designed and developed....

  9. Differentially Private Trajectory Data Publication

    Chen, Rui; Desai, Bipin C


    With the increasing prevalence of location-aware devices, trajectory data has been generated and collected in various application domains. Trajectory data carries rich information that is useful for many data analysis tasks. Yet, improper publishing and use of trajectory data could jeopardize individual privacy. However, it has been shown that existing privacy-preserving trajectory data publishing methods derived from partition-based privacy models, for example k-anonymity, are unable to provide sufficient privacy protection. In this paper, motivated by the data publishing scenario at the Societe de transport de Montreal (STM), the public transit agency in Montreal area, we study the problem of publishing trajectory data under the rigorous differential privacy model. We propose an efficient data-dependent yet differentially private sanitization algorithm, which is applicable to different types of trajectory data. The efficiency of our approach comes from adaptively narrowing down the output domain by building...

  10. Domain Decomposition Solvers for Frequency-Domain Finite Element Equations

    Copeland, Dylan


    The paper is devoted to fast iterative solvers for frequency-domain finite element equations approximating linear and nonlinear parabolic initial boundary value problems with time-harmonic excitations. Switching from the time domain to the frequency domain allows us to replace the expensive time-integration procedure by the solution of a simple linear elliptic system for the amplitudes belonging to the sine- and to the cosine-excitation or a large nonlinear elliptic system for the Fourier coefficients in the linear and nonlinear case, respectively. The fast solution of the corresponding linear and nonlinear system of finite element equations is crucial for the competitiveness of this method. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  11. Public meeting

    Staff Association


    Last Monday at 9 a.m. the Council Chamber was full, with several people standing, for the public meeting of the Staff Association. Simultaneously, many of our colleagues followed the presentations in the Amphitheatre in Prévessin. We would like to thank all of you for the interest you have shown and for your feedback. In the introduction we explained how the Staff Association represents the staff in its discussions with Management and Member States, and how the staff itself defined, by its participation in the 2013 staff survey, the priority assigned to various points related to the employment conditions. The position of the Staff Association regarding the new contract policy, to be implemented as of 31 March 2015 after approval by Council, was stated. Then, in the framework of the 2015 five-yearly review, the general approach that we would like to see for the new career structure, was explained. Concerning diversity, based on what we know about the situation in other international organiza...

  12. Z-拟代数Domain%Z-Quasialgebraic Domain

    杨金波; 罗懋康


    对一般的子集系统Z,引入Z-拟代数domain的概念,证明了Z-domain P是Z-拟代数的当且仅当P上的Z-Scott拓扑σz(P)在集包含序下是代数的超连续格,即超代数格;Z-拟代数domain P上的Z-Scott拓扑σz(P)是Sober的当且仅当空间(P,σz(P))具有弱Rudin性质.

  13. From Public Relations to Corporate Public Diplomacy

    Mogensen, Kirsten


    -win solutions supported by the general public. While existing research suggests that an important function of public relations is to create a perception of legitimacy and that the hope of economic and commercial public diplomacy is to create a perception of attractiveness among the public in foreign countries...

  14. When frames align: The interplay between PR, news media, and the public in times of crisis

    van der Meer, T.G.L.A.; Verhoeven, P.; Beentjes, H.; Vliegenthart, R.


    This study focuses on the frame-building process of organizational-crisis situations in the interplay between the domains public relations (PR), news media, and the public. The purpose of the study is to investigate whether the crisis frames of the domains align over time. To empirically analyze fra

  15. When frames align: The interplay between PR, news media, and the public in times of crisis

    van der Meer, T.G.L.A.; Verhoeven, P.; Beentjes, H.; Vliegenthart, R.


    This study focuses on the frame-building process of organizational-crisis situations in the interplay between the domains public relations (PR), news media, and the public. The purpose of the study is to investigate whether the crisis frames of the domains align over time. To empirically analyze fra

  16. Learning processes across knowledge domains

    Hall-Andersen, Lene Bjerg; Broberg, Ole


    organization, it remained discrete in 'pockets' of learning; mainly at an individual level, at project level or as domain-specific learning. Learning processes were intertwined with elements of domain-specific interests, power, managerial support, structural conditions, material and epistemic differences...... informed by selected perspectives on learning processes and boundary processes was applied on three illustrative vignettes to illuminate learning potentials and shortcomings in boundary processes. Findings - In the engineering consultancy, it was found that while learning did occur in the consultancy......Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the problematics of learning across knowledge boundaries in organizational settings. The paper specifically explores learning processes that emerge, when a new knowledge domain is introduced into an existing organizational practice...

  17. Compressed domain ECG biometric with two-lead features

    Lee, Wan-Jou; Chang, Wen-Whei


    This study presents a new method to combine ECG biometrics with data compression within a common JPEG2000 framework. We target the two-lead ECG configuration that is routinely used in long-term heart monitoring. Incorporation of compressed-domain biometric techniques enables faster person identification as it by-passes the full decompression. Experiments on public ECG databases demonstrate the validity of the proposed method for biometric identification with high accuracies on both healthy and diseased subjects.

  18. Domain similarity based orthology detection.

    Bitard-Feildel, Tristan; Kemena, Carsten; Greenwood, Jenny M; Bornberg-Bauer, Erich


    Orthologous protein detection software mostly uses pairwise comparisons of amino-acid sequences to assert whether two proteins are orthologous or not. Accordingly, when the number of sequences for comparison increases, the number of comparisons to compute grows in a quadratic order. A current challenge of bioinformatic research, especially when taking into account the increasing number of sequenced organisms available, is to make this ever-growing number of comparisons computationally feasible in a reasonable amount of time. We propose to speed up the detection of orthologous proteins by using strings of domains to characterize the proteins. We present two new protein similarity measures, a cosine and a maximal weight matching score based on domain content similarity, and new software, named porthoDom. The qualities of the cosine and the maximal weight matching similarity measures are compared against curated datasets. The measures show that domain content similarities are able to correctly group proteins into their families. Accordingly, the cosine similarity measure is used inside porthoDom, the wrapper developed for proteinortho. porthoDom makes use of domain content similarity measures to group proteins together before searching for orthologs. By using domains instead of amino acid sequences, the reduction of the search space decreases the computational complexity of an all-against-all sequence comparison. We demonstrate that representing and comparing proteins as strings of discrete domains, i.e. as a concatenation of their unique identifiers, allows a drastic simplification of search space. porthoDom has the advantage of speeding up orthology detection while maintaining a degree of accuracy similar to proteinortho. The implementation of porthoDom is released using python and C++ languages and is available under the GNU GPL licence 3 at .

  19. Domain wall description of superconductivity

    Brito, F.A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Caixa Postal 10071, 58109-970 Campina Grande, Paraíba (Brazil); Freire, M.L.F. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual da Paraíba, 58109-753 Campina Grande, Paraíba (Brazil); Mota-Silva, J.C. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Caixa Postal 10071, 58109-970 Campina Grande, Paraíba (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, 58051-970 João Pessoa, Paraíba (Brazil)


    In the present work we shall address the issue of electrical conductivity in superconductors in the perspective of superconducting domain wall solutions in the realm of field theory. We take our set up made out of a dynamical complex scalar field coupled to gauge field to be responsible for superconductivity and an extra scalar real field that plays the role of superconducting domain walls. The temperature of the system is interpreted through the fact that the soliton following accelerating orbits is a Rindler observer experiencing a thermal bath.

  20. Institutionalising of public health.

    Karkee, R


    Though public health situation in Nepal is under-developed, the public health education and workforce has not been prioritised. Nepal should institutionalise public health education by means of accrediting public health courses, registration of public health graduates in a data bank and increasing job opportunities for public health graduates in various institutions at government sector.

  1. Coproduction as a structural transformation of the public sector

    Meijer, Albert


    Purpose: Coproduction fundamentally changes the roles of citizens and governments. The purpose of this paper is to enhance the theoretical understanding of the transformative changes in the structural order of the public domain that result from the coproduction of public services.

  2. On the Definition of Public Relations: A European View.

    Vercic, Dejan; van Ruler, Betteke; Butschi, Gerhard; Flodin, Bertil


    Introduces the project on the European Public Relations Body of Knowledge (EBOK). Reviews proposals on the definition, dimensions, and domain of public relations. Confronts these with findings from EBOK. Presents ideas on how to bridge the differences. Proposes ideas for further investigation. (SG)

  3. The evolutionary history of protein domains viewed by species phylogeny

    Yang, Song; Bourne, Philip E


    .... The evolutionary history of protein domains, including the origin of protein domains, the identification of domain loss, transfer, duplication and combination with other domains to form new proteins...

  4. Inferring domain-domain interactions from protein-protein interactions with formal concept analysis.

    Susan Khor

    Full Text Available Identifying reliable domain-domain interactions will increase our ability to predict novel protein-protein interactions, to unravel interactions in protein complexes, and thus gain more information about the function and behavior of genes. One of the challenges of identifying reliable domain-domain interactions is domain promiscuity. Promiscuous domains are domains that can occur in many domain architectures and are therefore found in many proteins. This becomes a problem for a method where the score of a domain-pair is the ratio between observed and expected frequencies because the protein-protein interaction network is sparse. As such, many protein-pairs will be non-interacting and domain-pairs with promiscuous domains will be penalized. This domain promiscuity challenge to the problem of inferring reliable domain-domain interactions from protein-protein interactions has been recognized, and a number of work-arounds have been proposed. This paper reports on an application of Formal Concept Analysis to this problem. It is found that the relationship between formal concepts provides a natural way for rare domains to elevate the rank of promiscuous domain-pairs and enrich highly ranked domain-pairs with reliable domain-domain interactions. This piggybacking of promiscuous domain-pairs onto less promiscuous domain-pairs is possible only with concept lattices whose attribute-labels are not reduced and is enhanced by the presence of proteins that comprise both promiscuous and rare domains.

  5. Computations of Bergman Kernels on Hua Domains

    殷慰萍; 王安; 赵振刚; 赵晓霞; 管冰辛


    @@The Bergman kernel function plays an important ro1e in several complex variables.There exists the Bergman kernel function on any bounded domain in Cn. But we can get the Bergman kernel functions in explicit formulas for a few types of domains only,for example:the bounded homogeneous domains and the egg domain in some cases.

  6. A Method to Examine Content Domain Structures

    D'Agostino, Jerome; Karpinski, Aryn; Welsh, Megan


    After a test is developed, most content validation analyses shift from ascertaining domain definition to studying domain representation and relevance because the domain is assumed to be set once a test exists. We present an approach that allows for the examination of alternative domain structures based on extant test items. In our example based on…

  7. Categorization in the Affective Domain

    Sauciuc, Gabriela-Alina


    Data collected in Romance and Scandinavian languages (N=474) in a superordinate category name production task indicate that a multiple-strategy approach would be more suitable for accounting of categorization in the affective domain instead of a prototype approach as suggested by previous studies...

  8. Nonlinear Evolution of Ferroelectric Domains

    WeiLU; Dai-NingFANG; 等


    The nonlinear evolution of ferroelectric domains is investigated in the paper and amodel is proposed which can be applied to numerical computation.Numerical results show that the model can accurately predict some nonlinear behavior and consist with those experimental results.

  9. Overlap/Domain-wall reweighting

    Fukaya, H; Cossu, G; Hashimoto, S; Kaneko, T; Noaki, J


    We investigate the eigenvalues of nearly chiral lattice Dirac operators constructed with five-dimensional implementations. Allowing small violation of the Ginsparg-Wilson relation, the HMC simulation is made much faster while the eigenvalues are not significantly affected. We discuss the possibility of reweighting the gauge configurations generated with domain-wall fermions to those of exactly chiral lattice fermions.

  10. The Distributed-SDF Domain

    Cuadrado, Daniel Lázaro; Ravn, Anders Peter; Koch, Peter


    . Those relations are in charge of receiving the tokens and placing them at the right receiver. The same goes for the output ports. Tokens are sent over the net to the distributed processes that are expecting to receive them. The distributed-SDF domain provides certain advantages derived from its...

  11. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.


    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  12. Development in the Food Domain.

    Rozin, Paul


    Discusses problems of general interest in developmental psychology that can be successfully studied in the domain of food; these include (1) development of food likes and dislikes; (2) establishment of the edible/inedible distinction; (3) disgust and contagion; (4) transgenerational communication of preferences; and (5) transition to food…

  13. Frequency-Domain Optical Mammogram


    the tumor. * Combination of the above two points into a composite false-color breast image containing structural information (from the second...Antonangeli, A. Savoia, T. Parasassi, and N. Rosato, " Plastique : a synchrotron radiation beamline for time resolved fluorescence in the frequency domain

  14. Partial domain wall partition functions

    Foda, O


    We consider six-vertex model configurations on a rectangular lattice with n (N) horizontal (vertical) lines, and "partial domain wall boundary conditions" defined as 1. all 2n arrows on the left and right boundaries point inwards, 2. n_u (n_l) arrows on the upper (lower) boundary, such that n_u + n_l = N - n, also point inwards, 3. all remaining n+N arrows on the upper and lower boundaries point outwards, and 4. all spin configurations on the upper and lower boundaries are summed over. To generate (n-by-N) "partial domain wall configurations", one can start from A. (N-by-N) configurations with domain wall boundary conditions and delete n_u (n_l) upper (lower) horizontal lines, or B. (2n-by-N) configurations that represent the scalar product of an n-magnon Bethe eigenstate and an n-magnon generic state on an N-site spin-1/2 chain, and delete the n lines that represent the Bethe eigenstate. The corresponding "partial domain wall partition function" is computed in construction {A} ({B}) as an N-by-N (n-by-n) det...

  15. Life sciences domain analysis model.

    Freimuth, Robert R; Freund, Elaine T; Schick, Lisa; Sharma, Mukesh K; Stafford, Grace A; Suzek, Baris E; Hernandez, Joyce; Hipp, Jason; Kelley, Jenny M; Rokicki, Konrad; Pan, Sue; Buckler, Andrew; Stokes, Todd H; Fernandez, Anna; Fore, Ian; Buetow, Kenneth H; Klemm, Juli D


    Meaningful exchange of information is a fundamental challenge in collaborative biomedical research. To help address this, the authors developed the Life Sciences Domain Analysis Model (LS DAM), an information model that provides a framework for communication among domain experts and technical teams developing information systems to support biomedical research. The LS DAM is harmonized with the Biomedical Research Integrated Domain Group (BRIDG) model of protocol-driven clinical research. Together, these models can facilitate data exchange for translational research. The content of the LS DAM was driven by analysis of life sciences and translational research scenarios and the concepts in the model are derived from existing information models, reference models and data exchange formats. The model is represented in the Unified Modeling Language and uses ISO 21090 data types. The LS DAM v2.2.1 is comprised of 130 classes and covers several core areas including Experiment, Molecular Biology, Molecular Databases and Specimen. Nearly half of these classes originate from the BRIDG model, emphasizing the semantic harmonization between these models. Validation of the LS DAM against independently derived information models, research scenarios and reference databases supports its general applicability to represent life sciences research. The LS DAM provides unambiguous definitions for concepts required to describe life sciences research. The processes established to achieve consensus among domain experts will be applied in future iterations and may be broadly applicable to other standardization efforts. The LS DAM provides common semantics for life sciences research. Through harmonization with BRIDG, it promotes interoperability in translational science.

  16. Domain specific MT in use

    Offersgaard, Lene; Povlsen, Claus; Almsten, Lisbeth Kjeldgaard


    The paper focuses on domain specific use of MT with a special focus on SMT in the workflow of a Language Service Provider (LSP). We report on the feedback of post-editors using fluency/adequacy evaluation and the evaluation metric ’Usability’, understood in this context as where users on a three ...

  17. Weakly distributive domains(Ⅱ)

    JIANG Ying; ZHANG Guo-Qiang


    In our previous work(Inform.and Comput.,2005,202:87-103),we have shown that for any ω-algebraic meet-cpo D,if all higher-order stable function spaces built from D are ω-algebraic,then D is finitary.This accomplishes the first of a possible,two-step process in solving the problem raised(LNCS,1991,530:16-33;Domainsand lambda-calculi,Cambridge Univ.Press,1998)whetherthe category of stable bifinite domains of Amadio-Droste-G(o)bel(LNCS,1991,530:16-33;Theor.Comput.Sci.,1993,111:89-101)is the largest cartesian closed full subcategory within the category of ω-algebraic meet-cpos with stable functions.This paper presents the results of the second step,which is to show that for any ω-algebraic meet-cpo D satisfying axioms M and I to be contained in a cartesian closed full sub-category using ω-algebraic meet-cpos with stable functions,it must not violate M I∞.We introduce a new class of domains called weakly distributive domains and show that for these domains to be in a cartesian closed category using ω-algebraic meet-cpos,property M I must not be violated.Further,we demonstrate that principally distributive domains(those for which each principle ideal is distributive)form a proper subclass of weakly distributive domains,and Birkhoff's M3 and N5(Introduction to Lattices and order,Cambridge Univ.Press,2002)are weakly distributive(but non-distributive).Then,we establish characterization results for weakly distributive domains.We also introduce the notion of meet-generators in constructing stable functions and show that if an ω-algebraic meet-cpo D contains an infinite number of meet-generators,then[D→D]fails I.However,the original problem of Amadio and Curien remains open.

  18. Domains of Awareness in Schizophrenia

    Gilleen, J.; Greenwood, K.; David, A. S.


    Patients with schizophrenia are often characterized as lacking insight or awareness into their illness and symptoms, yet despite considerable research, we still lack a full understanding of the factors involved in causing poor awareness. Within schizophrenia, there has been shown to be a fractionation across dimensions of awareness into mental illness: of being ill, of symptoms, and of treatment compliance. Recently, attention has turned to evidence of a fractionation between awareness of illness and of cognitive impairments and functioning. The current study investigated the degree of fractionation across a broad range of domains of function in schizophrenia and how each domain may be associated with neuropsychological functioning, clinical, mood, and demographic variables. Thirty-one mostly chronic stable patients with schizophrenia completed a battery of neuropsychological tests and measures of psychopathology, including mood. Cognitive insight and awareness of illness, symptoms, memory, and behavioral functioning were also measured. Insight and awareness were assessed using a combination of semistructured interview, observer-rated, self-rated, and objective measures, and included measures of the discrepancy between carer and self-ratings of impairment. Results revealed that awareness of functioning in each domain was largely independent and that awareness in each domain was predicted by different factors. Insight into symptoms was relatively poor while insight into cognitive deficits was preserved. Relative to neuropsychological variables, cognitive insight, comprising self-certainty and self-reflexivity, was a greater predictor of awareness. In conclusion, awareness is multiply fractionated and multiply determined. Therapeutic interventions could, therefore, produce beneficial changes within specific domains of awareness. PMID:20851850

  19. Diffusion-damped domain wall dynamics

    Varga, R; Infante, G [Inst. Phys., Fac. Sci., UPJS, Park Angelinum 9, 04154 Kosice (Slovakia); Badini-Confalonieri, G A; Vazquez, M, E-mail: rvarga@upjs.s [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid (Spain)


    In the given work, the influence of diffusional damping on the domain wall dynamics of heat treated FeSiBP microwires is presented. Two regions of the domain wall dynamics have been found. At low applied fields diffusion damping prevails, keeping the domain wall velocity and mobility low. At higher fields, the diffusional effects are overcomed and domain wall velocity increases steeply and so does the domain wall mobility.

  20. Evolution studied through protein structural domains



    A protein structural domain is defined as a compact, spatially distinct part of a protein that can fold independently of neighboring sequences. Since the number of protein domains is limited, and protein domains are evolutionarily more conserved than protein sequences, protein domains play an important role in our understanding of the structure, function and evolution of proteins. As fundamental evolutionary units, protein domains are associated with a variety of evolutionary processes such a...

  1. Decomposition and Removability Properties of John Domains

    M Huang; S Ponnusamy; X Wang


    In this paper we characterize John domains in terms of John domain decomposition property. In addition, we also show that a domain in $\\mathbb{R}^n$ is a John domain if and only if $D\\backslash P$ is a John domain, where is a subset of containing finitely many points of . The best possibility and an application of the second result are also discussed.

  2. Theorising Public and Private Spheres

    Sima Remina


    Full Text Available The 19th century saw an expression of women’s ardent desire for freedom, emancipation and assertion in the public space. Women hardly managed to assert themselves at all in the public sphere, as any deviation from their traditional role was seen as unnatural. The human soul knows no gender distinctions, so we can say that women face the same desire for fulfillment as men do. Today, women are more and more encouraged to develop their skills by undertaking activities within the public space that are different from those that form part of traditional domestic chores. The woman of the 19th century felt the need to be useful to society, to make her contribution visible in a variety of domains. A woman does not have to become masculine to get power. If she is successful in any important job, this does not mean that she thinks like a man, but that she thinks like a woman. Women have broken through the walls that cut them off from public life, activity and ambition. There are no hindrances that can prevent women from taking their place in society.



    Adversaries saw the success of AirLand battle and sought ways to fracture the concept. Today, as adversaries leverage technological advances... two -dimensions that the US military is accustomed to fighting in. In accordance with the projected trends occurring in the forthcoming security...capabilities and limitations of our enemy to include the terrain that we would be contending with throughout operations. There were only two viable domains

  4. Development of information system for cadastre of public infrastructure

    Potočnik, Tomaž


    The Spatial Planning Act regulates the initiation of collecting spatial data at the national level. One of the most important records of spatial data is the Cadastre of Public Infrastructure. In the last decades, gathering data about public infrastructure was confined to its owner or manager. The information on public infrastructure was therefore hard to obtain and lacked standardization. This was causing problems, especially in the domain of spatial planning. The basic purpose of establishin...

  5. 钢铁厂废旧除尘滤袋的微观结构特征及能谱分析%Microstructure features and X-ray spectroscopy microanalysis of the sewage-filtering bags in steel works

    周云; 宁寻安; 刘敬勇; 王江辉; 陈海斌; 廖希凯


    在废旧除尘滤袋中重金属总量测定方法的研究基础上,采用扫描电镜-能谱分析(SEM-EDS)对广东某钢铁厂不同工序中废旧除尘滤袋的微观结构及元素浓度进行试验研究,以确定其表面形态以及成分组成.结果表明,钢铁厂废旧除尘滤袋表面颗粒形态多样,以球形体、絮状集合体居多,含有结晶态和一些不规则的聚合体.通过扫描电镜(SEM)图像可以看出,经机械拍打后的废旧除尘滤袋上仍不同程度的附着着粉尘,并与滤袋结合紧密.根据图谱上出现的亮点,可推测其可能含有重金属等有毒有害物质.通过对废旧除尘滤袋进行能谱(EDS)分析可知,废旧除尘滤袋表面飞灰颗粒中以C、O、Fe、Si、Ca、Mg为主,并含有少量Pb、Cd、Zn、Ni等重金属.%This paper is aimed at a study of Microstructure Features and X-Ray energy-spectroscopy dispersive microanalysis of the sewage-filtering bags in steel works. We have made the above said microanalysis of five kinds of sewage-filtering bags from a steel mill in Guangdong by using an electronic scanning microscope ( ESM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The whole analysis has been done on the basis of our previous research experience for measuring and determining the total amount of heavy metals and the pfe-treatment effect of the bags. The results of our investigation indicate that the shapes of the surface particles from the filtering bags turn out to be various; most of them are spherical and flocculent in a crystallized state while some others are irregular mixtures. From their images under the ESM, it can be seen that they are remaining dusts at differr ent levels of particles after flapping pretreatment, and closely combined with the bags. This indicates that the particulate matters in the filtering bags were mainly coming from the fly-ashes attached to the outside and inside of the bags, which are actually remnants of different constituent elements of

  6. Public Relations in the Public Sector

    Valentini, Chiara


    of the Excellence Project in Public Relations and thus applies a research instrument similar to that used in other international scholarly investigations in public relations. The population comprises civil servants working in information and communication activities for Italian public administrations. Findings...... relations. Research limitations: Due to a lack of information on the exact number of public communication officers working in the Italian public administration and a too small number of respondents in one of the respondent groups, it is not possible to draw inferences or general conclusions from...... knowledge on strategic public relations and public communication by offering a specific analysis of the strategic management of information and communication programs in the Italian public administration....

  7. Public debate - radioactive wastes management; Debat public - gestion des dechets radioactifs



    Between September 2005 and January 2006 a national debate has been organized on the radioactive wastes management. This debate aimed to inform the public and to allow him to give his opinion. This document presents, the reasons of this debate, the operating, the synthesis of the results and technical documents to bring information in the domain of radioactive wastes management. (A.L.B.)

  8. A description of Echinorhynchus baeri Kostylew, 1928 (Acanthocephala: Echinorhynchidae from Salmo trutta in Turkey, with notes on synonymy, geographical origins, geological history, molecular profile, and X-ray microanalysis

    Amin Omar M.


    Full Text Available A population of Echinorhynchus baeri Kostylew, 1928 with 18–24 rows of 8–10 proboscis hooks each and long fusiform eggs measuring 95–110 × 18–22 μm collected from Salmo trutta (Salmonidae in a branch of the Murat River in Turkey is described and specimens are designated as neotype. Specimens of two similar populations of E. baeri (E. baeri Kostylew, 1928 and E. sevani Dinnik, 1932 were previously described from Salmo ischchan in Lake Sevan, Armenia. Waters of Lake Sevan and the Murat River were previously joined during the Middle Miocene-Pliocene. The two populations from Lake Sevan and ours from Turkey had identical morphology and size eggs. The proboscis armature and eggs, among other features of our Turkish specimens, proved intermediate between E. baeri and E. sevani, thus eliminating the significance of the described differences between these two species and confirming their synonymy with priority to Echinorhynchus baeri (junior synonym: Echinorhynchus sevani Dinnik, 1932. Echinorhynchus baeri is apparently a highly variable species. The two descriptions from Lake Sevan did not include features or illustrations of females, except for references to trunk and egg size but the eggs were illustrated. Complete morphometric comparisons are made and females of the Turkish material are described for the first time. DNA sequencing (mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene; nuclear 18S rRNA gene results from two available E. baeri individuals were equivocal. New features to the Acanthocephala include the presence of rootless uncalcified apical proboscis hooks studied with X-ray microanalysis.

  9. Scanning ion-selective electrode technique and X-ray microanalysis provide direct evidence of contrasting Na+ transport ability from root to shoot in salt-sensitive cucumber and salt-tolerant pumpkin under NaCl stress.

    Lei, Bo; Huang, Yuan; Sun, Jingyu; Xie, Junjun; Niu, Mengliang; Liu, Zhixiong; Fan, Molin; Bie, Zhilong


    Grafting onto salt-tolerant pumpkin rootstock can increase cucumber salt tolerance. Previous studies have suggested that this can be attributed to pumpkin roots with higher capacity to limit the transport of Na(+) to the shoot than cucumber roots. However, the mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated the transport of Na(+) in salt-tolerant pumpkin and salt-sensitive cucumber plants under high (200 mM) or moderate (90 mM) NaCl stress. Scanning ion-selective electrode technique showed that pumpkin roots exhibited a higher capacity to extrude Na(+), and a correspondingly increased H(+) influx under 200 or 90 mM NaCl stress. The 200 mM NaCl induced Na(+)/H(+) exchange in the root was inhibited by amiloride (a Na(+)/H(+) antiporter inhibitor) or vanadate [a plasma membrane (PM) H(+) -ATPase inhibitor], indicating that Na(+) exclusion in salt stressed pumpkin and cucumber roots was the result of an active Na(+)/H(+) antiporter across the PM, and the Na(+)/H(+) antiporter system in salt stressed pumpkin roots was sufficient to exclude Na(+) X-ray microanalysis showed higher Na(+) in the cortex, but lower Na(+) in the stele of pumpkin roots than that in cucumber roots under 90 mM NaCl stress, suggesting that the highly vacuolated root cortical cells of pumpkin roots could sequester more Na(+), limit the radial transport of Na(+) to the stele and thus restrict the transport of Na(+) to the shoot. These results provide direct evidence for pumpkin roots with higher capacity to limit the transport of Na(+) to the shoot than cucumber roots.

  10. Ultra-reduced phases in Apollo 16 regolith: Combined field emission electron probe microanalysis and atom probe tomography of submicron Fe-Si grains in Apollo 16 sample 61500

    Gopon, Phillip; Spicuzza, Michael J.; Kelly, Thomas F.; Reinhard, David; Prosa, Ty J.; Fournelle, John


    The lunar regolith contains a variety of chemically reduced phases of interest to planetary scientists and the most common, metallic iron, is generally ascribed to space weathering processes (Lucey et al. ). Reports of silicon metal and iron silicides, phases indicative of extremely reducing conditions, in lunar samples are rare (Anand et al. ; Spicuzza et al. ). Additional examples of Fe-silicides have been identified in a survey of particles from Apollo 16 sample 61501,22. Herein is demonstrated the utility of low keV electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), using the Fe Ll X-ray line, to analyze these submicron phases, and the necessity of accounting for carbon contamination. We document four Fe-Si and Si0 minerals in lunar regolith return material. The new Fe-Si samples have a composition close to (Fe,Ni)3Si, whereas those associated with Si0 are close to FeSi2 and Fe3Si7. Atom probe tomography of (Fe,Ni)3Si shows trace levels of C (60 ppma and nanodomains enriched in C, Ni, P, Cr, and Sr). These reduced minerals require orders of magnitude lower oxygen fugacity and more reducing conditions than required to form Fe0. Documenting the similarities and differences in these samples is important to constrain their formation processes. These phases potentially formed at high temperatures resulting from a meteorite impact. Whether carbon played a role in achieving the lower oxygen fugacities—and there is evidence of nearby carbonaceous chondritic material—it remains to be proven that carbon was the necessary component for the unique existence of these Si0 and iron silicide minerals.

  11. DIMA 3.0: Domain Interaction Map.

    Luo, Qibin; Pagel, Philipp; Vilne, Baiba; Frishman, Dmitrij


    Domain Interaction MAp (DIMA, available at is a database of predicted and known interactions between protein domains. It integrates 5807 structurally known interactions imported from the iPfam and 3did databases and 46,900 domain interactions predicted by four computational methods: domain phylogenetic profiling, domain pair exclusion algorithm correlated mutations and domain interaction prediction in a discriminative way. Additionally predictions are filtered to exclude those domain pairs that are reported as non-interacting by the Negatome database. The DIMA Web site allows to calculate domain interaction networks either for a domain of interest or for entire organisms, and to explore them interactively using the Flash-based Cytoscape Web software.

  12. Public health education in South Asia: a basis for structuring a master degree course

    Rajendra eKarkee


    Full Text Available Countries in South Asian Association for Regional Corporation (SAARC lack enough public health workforces to address their poor public health situation. Recently, there have been efforts to develop capacity building in public health in these countries by producing competent public health workforce through public health institutes and schools. Considering the wide nature of public health, the public health education and curricula should be linked with skills, knowledge and competencies needed for public health practice and professionalism. The three domains of public health practice and the ten essential public health services provide an operational framework to explore this link between public health practice and public health education. This framework incorporates five core areas of public health education. A master degree course in public health can be structured by incorporating these core areas as basic and reinforcing one of these areas as an elective followed by a dissertation work.

  13. A Domain Specific DSP Processor

    Tell, Eric


    This thesis describes the design of a domain specific DSP processor. The thesis is divided into two parts. The first part gives some theoretical background, describes the different steps of the design process (both for DSP processors in general and for this project) and motivates the design decisions made for this processor. The second part is a nearly complete design specification. The intended use of the processor is as a platform for hardware acceleration units. Support for this has howe...

  14. Balanced metrics on Hartogs domains

    Loi, Andrea


    An n-dimensional strictly pseudoconvex Hartogs domain $D_F$ can be equipped with a natural Kaehler metric g_F. In this paper we prove that if m_0g_F is balanced for a given positive integer m_0 then m_0>n and (D_F, g_F) is holomorphically isometric to an open subset of the n-dimensional complex hyperbolic space.

  15. Superconductivity in domains with corners

    Bonnaillie-Noel, Virginie; Fournais, Søren


    We study the two-dimensional Ginzburg-Landau functional in a domain with corners for exterior magnetic field strengths near the critical field where the transition from the superconducting to the normal state occurs. We discuss and clarify the definition of this field and obtain a complete...... asymptotic expansion for it in the large $\\kappa$ regime. Furthermore, we discuss nucleation of superconductivity at the boundary....

  16. Domain Relaxation in Langmuir Films

    Bernoff, Andrew J.; Alexander, James C.; Mann, Elizabeth K.; Mann, J. Adin; Zou, Lu; Wintersmith, Jacob R.


    We report on an experimental, theoretical and computational study of a molecularly thin polymer Langmuir layer domain on the surface of a subfluid. When stretched (by a transient stagnation flow), the Langmuir layer takes the form of a bola consisting of two roughly circular reservoirs connected by a thin tether. This shape relaxes to the circular minimum energy configuration. The tether is never observed to rupture, even when it is more than a hundred times as long as it is thin. We model these experiments as a free boundary problem where motion is driven by the line tension of the domain and damped by the viscosity of the subfluid. We process the digital images of the experiment to extract the domain shape, use one of these shapes as an initial condition for the numerical solution of a boundary-integral model of the underlying hydrodynamics, and compare the subsequent images of the experiment to the numerical simulation. The numerical evolutions verify that our hydrodynamical model can reproduce the observed dynamics. They also allow us to deduce the magnitude of the line tension in the system, often to within 1%.

  17. Subharmonic Fourier domain mode locking.

    Eigenwillig, Christoph M; Wieser, Wolfgang; Biedermann, Benjamin R; Huber, Robert


    We demonstrate a subharmonically Fourier domain mode-locked wavelength-swept laser source with a substantially reduced cavity fiber length. In contrast to a standard Fourier domain mode-locked configuration, light is recirculated repetitively in the delay line with the optical bandpass filter used as switch. The laser has a fundamental optical round trip frequency of 285 kHz and can be operated at integer fractions thereof (subharmonics). Sweep ranges up to 95 nm full width centred at 1317 nm are achieved at the 1/5th subharmonic. A maximum sensitivity of 116 dB and an axial resolution of 12 microm in air are measured at an average sweep power of 12 mW. A sensitivity roll-off of 11 dB over 4 mm and 25 dB over 10 mm is observed and optical coherence tomography imaging is demonstrated. Besides the advantage of a reduced fiber length, subharmonic Fourier domain mode locking (shFDML) enables simple scaling of the sweep speed by extracting light from the delay part of the resonator. A sweep rate of 570 kHz is achieved. Characteristic features of shFDML operation, such as power leakage during fly-back and cw breakthrough, are investigated.

  18. Blurring personal health and public priorities: an analysis of celebrity health narratives in the public sphere.

    Beck, Christina S; Aubuchon, Stellina M; McKenna, Timothy P; Ruhl, Stephanie; Simmons, Nathaniel


    This article explores the functions of personal celebrity health narratives in the public sphere. This study examines data about 157 celebrities, including athletes, actors, musicians, and politicians, who have shared private information regarding a personal health situation (or that of a loved one) with others in the public domain. Part of a larger project on celebrity health narratives, this article highlights three key functions that celebrity health narratives perform--education, inspiration, and activism--and discusses the implications for celebrities and for public conversations about health-related issues.

  19. Public Relations in the Public Sector

    Valentini, Chiara


    of the Excellence Project in Public Relations and thus applies a research instrument similar to that used in other international scholarly investigations in public relations. The population comprises civil servants working in information and communication activities for Italian public administrations. Findings...... relations. Research limitations: Due to a lack of information on the exact number of public communication officers working in the Italian public administration and a too small number of respondents in one of the respondent groups, it is not possible to draw inferences or general conclusions from...... the findings. The study also suffers from the limits of a quantitative research approach, which provides less elaborate accounts of public communication officers’ perceptions of the strategic role of communication in the public sector. Originality/value of paper: This study contributes to the existing...

  20. Assessing Data Quality in Emergent Domains of Earth Sciences

    Darch, P. T.; Borgman, C.


    interpret. Incentive structures, including prospects for journal publication, often favor new data over reanalyzing extant datasets. Assessing data quality in emergent domains is extremely difficult and will require adaptations in infrastructure, culture, and incentives.

  1. A protein domain interaction interface database: InterPare

    Lee Jungsul


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most proteins function by interacting with other molecules. Their interaction interfaces are highly conserved throughout evolution to avoid undesirable interactions that lead to fatal disorders in cells. Rational drug discovery includes computational methods to identify the interaction sites of lead compounds to the target molecules. Identifying and classifying protein interaction interfaces on a large scale can help researchers discover drug targets more efficiently. Description We introduce a large-scale protein domain interaction interface database called InterPare It contains both inter-chain (between chains interfaces and intra-chain (within chain interfaces. InterPare uses three methods to detect interfaces: 1 the geometric distance method for checking the distance between atoms that belong to different domains, 2 Accessible Surface Area (ASA, a method for detecting the buried region of a protein that is detached from a solvent when forming multimers or complexes, and 3 the Voronoi diagram, a computational geometry method that uses a mathematical definition of interface regions. InterPare includes visualization tools to display protein interior, surface, and interaction interfaces. It also provides statistics such as the amino acid propensities of queried protein according to its interior, surface, and interface region. The atom coordinates that belong to interface, surface, and interior regions can be downloaded from the website. Conclusion InterPare is an open and public database server for protein interaction interface information. It contains the large-scale interface data for proteins whose 3D-structures are known. As of November 2004, there were 10,583 (Geometric distance, 10,431 (ASA, and 11,010 (Voronoi diagram entries in the Protein Data Bank (PDB containing interfaces, according to the above three methods. In the case of the geometric distance method, there are 31,620 inter-chain domain-domain

  2. Public Value Dimensions

    Andersen, lotte bøgh; Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Kjeldsen, Anne-Mette


    Further integration of the public value literature with other strands of literature within Public Administration necessitates a more specific classification of public values. This paper applies a typology linked to organizational design principles, because this is useful for empirical public...... administration studies. Based on an existing typology of modes of governance, we develop a classification and test it empirically, using survey data from a study of the values of 501 public managers. We distinguish between seven value dimensions (the public at large, rule abidance, societal interests, budget...... the integration between the public value literature and other parts of the Public Administration discipline....

  3. The Quad Council practice competencies for public health nursing.

    Swider, Susan M; Krothe, Joyce; Reyes, David; Cravetz, Michelle


    This article describes the most recent efforts by the Quad Council of Public Health Nursing organizations to review and revise the competencies for PHN practice, and highlights the implications of these competencies for practice, education, and research. The Quad Council is a coalition of four nursing organizations with a focus on public health nursing and includes the Association of Community Health Nursing Educators; the Association of Public Health Nursing (known prior to July 1, 2012 as the Association of State and Territorial Directors of Nursing); the Public Health Nursing section of the American Public Health Association; and the Council on Economics and Practice of the American Nurses' Association. The Quad Council competencies are based on the Council on Linkages competencies for public health professionals and were designed to ensure that public health nursing fits in the domain of public health science and practice.

  4. The YARHG domain: an extracellular domain in search of a function.

    Penny Coggill

    Full Text Available We have identified a new bacterial protein domain that we hypothesise binds to peptidoglycan. This domain is called the YARHG domain after the most highly conserved sequence-segment. The domain is found in the extracellular space and is likely to be composed of four alpha-helices. The domain is found associated with protein kinase domains, suggesting it is associated with signalling in some bacteria. The domain is also found associated with three different families of peptidases. The large number of different domains that are found associated with YARHG suggests that it is a useful functional module that nature has recombined multiple times.

  5. Beyond cross-domain learning: Multiple-domain nonnegative matrix factorization

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan


    Traditional cross-domain learning methods transfer learning from a source domain to a target domain. In this paper, we propose the multiple-domain learning problem for several equally treated domains. The multiple-domain learning problem assumes that samples from different domains have different distributions, but share the same feature and class label spaces. Each domain could be a target domain, while also be a source domain for other domains. A novel multiple-domain representation method is proposed for the multiple-domain learning problem. This method is based on nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF), and tries to learn a basis matrix and coding vectors for samples, so that the domain distribution mismatch among different domains will be reduced under an extended variation of the maximum mean discrepancy (MMD) criterion. The novel algorithm - multiple-domain NMF (MDNMF) - was evaluated on two challenging multiple-domain learning problems - multiple user spam email detection and multiple-domain glioma diagnosis. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is experimentally verified. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bergman kernel on generalized exceptional Hua domain

    YIN; weipng(殷慰萍); ZHAO; zhengang(赵振刚)


    We have computed the Bergman kernel functions explicitly for two types of generalized exceptional Hua domains, and also studied the asymptotic behavior of the Bergman kernel function of exceptional Hua domain near boundary points, based on Appell's multivariable hypergeometric function.

  7. Configurable Monitoring for Multi-domain Networks

    Belghith, Aymen; Cousin, Bernard; Lahoud, Samer


    International audience; In this paper, we review the state-of-the-art monitoring architectures proposed for multi-domain networks. We establish the five requirements a multi-domain monitoring architecture must fulfilled. We note that these architectures do not support measurement configuration that enables the providers to perform flexible multi-domain measurements. Therefore, we propose a configurable multi-domain network monitoring architecture in order to give more flexibility in monitorin...

  8. The Bergman kernel functions on Hua domains


    We get the Bergman kernel functions in explicit formulas on four types of Hua domain.There are two key steps: First, we give the holomorphic automorphism groups of four types of Hua domain; second, we introduce the concept of semi-Reinhardt domain and give their complete orthonormal systems. Based on these two aspects we obtain the Bergman kernel function in explicit formulas on Hua domains.

  9. Emergence of novel domains in proteins

    Toll-Riera, Macarena; Albà Soler, Mar


    Background Proteins are composed of a combination of discrete, well-defined, sequence domains, associated with specific functions that have arisen at different times during evolutionary history. The emergence of novel domains is related to protein functional diversification and adaptation. But currently little is known about how novel domains arise and how they subsequently evolve. Results To gain insights into the impact of recently emerged domains in protein evolution we have identified all...

  10. Generic domain models in software engineering

    Maiden, Neil


    This paper outlines three research directions related to domain-specific software development: (1) reuse of generic models for domain-specific software development; (2) empirical evidence to determine these generic models, namely elicitation of mental knowledge schema possessed by expert software developers; and (3) exploitation of generic domain models to assist modelling of specific applications. It focuses on knowledge acquisition for domain-specific software development, with emphasis on tool support for the most important phases of software development.

  11. Defining Domain Language of Graphical User Interfaces

    Baciková, Michaela; PORUBÄN Jaroslav; Lakatos, Dominik


    Domain-specific languages are computer (programming, modeling, specification) languages devoted to solving problems in a specific domain. The least examined DSL development phases are analysis and design. Various formal methodologies exist, however domain analysis is still done informally most of the time. There are also methodologies of deriving DSLs from existing ontologies but the presumption is to have an ontology for the specific domain. We propose a solution of a user interface driven d...

  12. Defining Domain Language of Graphical User Interfaces

    Baciková, Michaela; PORUBÄN Jaroslav; Lakatos, Dominik


    Domain-specific languages are computer (programming, modeling, specification) languages devoted to solving problems in a specific domain. The least examined DSL development phases are analysis and design. Various formal methodologies exist, however domain analysis is still done informally most of the time. There are also methodologies of deriving DSLs from existing ontologies but the presumption is to have an ontology for the specific domain. We propose a solution of a user interface driven d...


    Ioan Alexandru Szabo


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of functional relations between the structure of theinternal audit and external audit in the public domain. The introduction isaddressed to international standards and regulatory framework that stipulates theneed for consolidation of the cooperation relations between the two categories ofprofessionals, namely, internal auditors and external public auditors. The authoremphasizes the importance of developing and of signing the Protocol ofcooperation and collaboration between the two audit authorities that are the Courtof Accounts and The Public Finance that support the professional partnership. Thearticle also presents the terms of the Protocol signed between external audit andinternal audit in the public sector. Finally, it is concluded that the increasing therole of internal audit in the implementation and development of management andinternal control system within public entities, is conditioned by the functionality ofthe collaboration and cooperation relationships between the two audits.

  14. Safe domain and elementary geometry

    Richard, J M


    A classical problem of mechanics involves a projectile fired from a given point with a given velocity whose direction is varied. This results in a family of trajectories whose envelope defines the border of a 'safe' domain. In the simple cases of a constant force, harmonic potential and Kepler or Coulomb motion, the trajectories are conic curves whose envelope in a plane is another conic section which can be derived either by simple calculus or by geometrical considerations. The case of harmonic forces reveals a subtle property of the maximal sum of distances within an ellipse.

  15. Wavelet transform domain communication systems

    Orr, Richard S.; Pike, Cameron; Lyall, Michael J.


    In this paper we introduce a new class of communications systems called wavelet transform domain (WTD) systems. WTD systems are transmultiplexer (TMUX) structures in which information to be communicated over a channel is encoded, via an inverse discrete wavelet transform (IDWT), as the wavelet coefficients of the transmitted signal, and extracted at the receiver by a discrete wavelet transform (DWT). WTD constructs can be used for covert, or low probability of intercept/detection (LPI/D) communications, baseband bandwidth efficient communications, or code-division multiple access (CDMA). This paper concentrates on the spread spectrum applications.

  16. Securing the Domain Name System

    Massey, Daniel; Denning, Dorothy E.


    The article of record as published may be located at The Domain Name System (DNS) is a critical part of the Internet infrastructure. Virtually every Internet application depends on some form of DNS data, yet access to and the reliability of that data aren't assured. DNS attacks and abuses, meanwhile, are increasingly common and sophisticated. Part of the problem is that security wasn't a major goal of the original DNS design. The DNS community has...

  17. Public health, public trust and lobbying.

    Wynia, Matthew K


    Each year, infection with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) leads to millions of abnormal Pap smears and thousands of cases of cervical cancer in the US. Throughout the developing world, where Pap smears are less common, HPV is a leading cause of cancer death among women. So when the international pharmaceutical giant Merck developed a vaccine that could prevent infection with several key strains of HPV, the public health community was anxious to celebrate a major advance. But then marketing and lobbying got in the way. Merck chose to pursue an aggressive lobbying campaign, trying to make its new vaccine mandatory for young girls. The campaign stoked public mistrust about how vaccines come to be mandated, and now it's not just Merck's public image that has taken a hit. The public health community has also been affected. What is the lesson to be learned from this story? Public health communication relies on public trust.

  18. A Domain Standard for Land Administration

    Lemmen, C.; Van Oosterom, P.; Van der Molen, P.


    This paper presents the design of a Domain Model for Land Administration (LA). As a result a formal International Standard is available: ISO 19152 Geographic Information – Land Administration Domain Model (LADM) (ISO, 2012). Domain specific standardisation is needed to capture the semantics of the

  19. Static domain wall in braneworld gravity

    Abdalla, M.C.B.; Carlesso, P.F. [UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Instituto de Fisica Teiorica, Rua Dr. Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271, Bloco II, Barra-Funda, Caixa Postal 70532-2, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Hoff da Silva, J.M. [UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)


    In this paper we consider a static domain wall inside a 3-brane. Different from the standard achievement obtained in General Relativity, the analysis performed here gives a consistency condition for the existence of static domain walls in a braneworld gravitational scenario. Also the behavior of the domain wall's gravitational field in the newtonian limit is shown. (orig.)

  20. On the structure of order domains

    Geil, Olav; Pellikaan, Ruud


    The notion of an order domain is generalized. The behaviour of an order domain by taking a subalgebra, the extension of scalars, and the tensor product is studied. The relation of an order domain with valuation theory, Gröbner algebras, and graded structures is given. The theory of Gröbner bases ...

  1. Pectin Homogalacturonans: Nanostructural Characterization of Methylesterified Domains

    Functionality of pectic hydrocolloids is largely dependent on the two major domains commonly found in their homogalacturonan (HG) regions, i.e., methylester protected domains (MPDs)and non methylesterified domains (NMDs). MPDs can participate in hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions but unli...

  2. Teaching-Learning in the Affective Domain

    Holt, Brett J.; Hannon, James C.


    Affect is an important domain in which children learn. The affective domain of learning in physical education focuses on feelings, values, social behavior, and attitudes as they relate to human movement. Learning in the affective domain in physical education means that students learn such concepts as sportsmanship, "fair play," respect for others,…

  3. The Private Lives of Public Officials: Can the Right of Privacy Survive the First Amendment?

    McKerns, Joseph P.

    The right of privacy versus the public's right to know as protected by the First Amendment is discussed in this paper. A formula is suggested based on Alexander Meiklejohn's interpretation that information about any individual, either a public official or a private person, would be protected as part of the public domain of knowledge if it is…

  4. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann


    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored.

  5. Dynamics of domain coverage of the protein sequence universe


    Background The currently known protein sequence space consists of millions of sequences in public databases and is rapidly expanding. Assigning sequences to families leads to a better understanding of protein function and the nature of the protein universe. However, a large portion of the current protein space remains unassigned and is referred to as its “dark matter”. Results Here we suggest that true size of “dark matter” is much larger than stated by current definitions. We propose an approach to reducing the size of “dark matter” by identifying and subtracting regions in protein sequences that are not likely to contain any domain. Conclusions Recent improvements in computational domain modeling result in a decrease, albeit slowly, in the relative size of “dark matter”; however, its absolute size increases substantially with the growth of sequence data. PMID:23157439

  6. Public private partnerships

    Miranda Sarmento, J.J.


    Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are increasing in number worldwide and are used to build and manage large public infrastructure projects. In PPPs, the private sector plays a role in developing and maintaining public infrastructure and services, which is usually a public sector responsibility. Des

  7. Public private partnerships

    Miranda Sarmento, J.J.


    Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are increasing in number worldwide and are used to build and manage large public infrastructure projects. In PPPs, the private sector plays a role in developing and maintaining public infrastructure and services, which is usually a public sector responsibility.

  8. Public Library Finance.

    Mason, Marilyn Gell

    This study reviews trends in public library finance; examines recent political, economic, and technological changes; and assesses the impact of these changes on public library services. A history of the public library in America is presented, as well as an analysis of the principles of economics and public finance which reveals that current…

  9. Public Relations and Marketing.

    Savage, Daniel D.


    Urges community colleges to adopt pro-active public relations strategies. Examines the role of the public information officer in such areas as coordination of public relations and marketing activities, relations with media, and the development of a comprehensive public relations plan. (AYC)

  10. Public private partnerships

    Miranda Sarmento, J.J.


    Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are increasing in number worldwide and are used to build and manage large public infrastructure projects. In PPPs, the private sector plays a role in developing and maintaining public infrastructure and services, which is usually a public sector responsibility. Des

  11. One Health Core Competency Domains.

    Frankson, Rebekah; Hueston, William; Christian, Kira; Olson, Debra; Lee, Mary; Valeri, Linda; Hyatt, Raymond; Annelli, Joseph; Rubin, Carol


    The emergence of complex global challenges at the convergence of human, animal, and environmental health has catalyzed a movement supporting "One Health" approaches. Despite recognition of the importance of One Health approaches to address these complex challenges, little effort has been directed at identifying the seminal knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for individuals to successfully contribute to One Health efforts. Between 2008 and 2011, three groups independently embarked on separate initiatives to identify core competencies for professionals involved with One Health approaches. Core competencies were considered critically important for guiding curriculum development and continuing professional education, as they describe the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required to be effective. A workshop was convened in 2012 to synthesize the various strands of work on One Health competencies. Despite having different mandates, participants, and approaches, all of these initiatives identified similar core competency domains: management; communication and informatics; values and ethics; leadership; teams and collaboration; roles and responsibilities; and systems thinking. These core competency domains have been used to develop new continuing professional education programs for One Health professionals and help university curricula prepare new graduates to be able to contribute more effectively to One Health approaches.

  12. One Health Core Competency Domains

    Frankson, Rebekah; Hueston, William; Christian, Kira; Olson, Debra; Lee, Mary; Valeri, Linda; Hyatt, Raymond; Annelli, Joseph; Rubin, Carol


    The emergence of complex global challenges at the convergence of human, animal, and environmental health has catalyzed a movement supporting “One Health” approaches. Despite recognition of the importance of One Health approaches to address these complex challenges, little effort has been directed at identifying the seminal knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for individuals to successfully contribute to One Health efforts. Between 2008 and 2011, three groups independently embarked on separate initiatives to identify core competencies for professionals involved with One Health approaches. Core competencies were considered critically important for guiding curriculum development and continuing professional education, as they describe the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required to be effective. A workshop was convened in 2012 to synthesize the various strands of work on One Health competencies. Despite having different mandates, participants, and approaches, all of these initiatives identified similar core competency domains: management; communication and informatics; values and ethics; leadership; teams and collaboration; roles and responsibilities; and systems thinking. These core competency domains have been used to develop new continuing professional education programs for One Health professionals and help university curricula prepare new graduates to be able to contribute more effectively to One Health approaches. PMID:27679794

  13. One Health Core Competency Domains

    Rebekah Frankson


    Full Text Available The emergence of complex global challenges at the convergence of human, animal, and environmental health has catalyzed a movement supporting ‘One Health’ approaches. Despite recognition of the importance of One Health approaches to address these complex challenges, little effort has been directed at identifying the seminal knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary for individuals to successfully contribute to One Health efforts. Between 2008 and 2011, three groups independently embarked on separate initiatives to identify core competencies for professionals involved with One Health approaches. Core competencies were considered critically important for guiding curriculum development and continuing professional education as they describe the knowledge, skills and attitudes required to be effective. A workshop was convened in 2012 to synthesize the various strands of work on One Health competencies. Despite having different mandates, participants, and approaches, all of these initiatives identified similar core competency domains: management; communication and informatics; values and ethics; leadership; teams and collaboration; roles and responsibilities; and systems thinking. These core competency domains have been used to develop new continuing professional education programs for One Health professionals and help university curricula prepare new graduates to be able to contribute more effectively to One Health approaches.

  14. Unsharp Values, Domains and Topoi

    Doering, Andreas


    The so-called topos approach provides a radical reformulation of quantum theory. Structurally, quantum theory in the topos formulation is very similar to classical physics. There is a state object, analogous to the state space of a classical system, and a quantity-value object, generalising the real numbers. Physical quantities are maps from the state object to the quantity-value object -- hence the `values' of physical quantities are not just real numbers in this formalism. Rather, they are families of real intervals, interpreted as `unsharp values'. We will motivate and explain these aspects of the topos approach and show that the structure of the quantity-value object can be analysed using tools from domain theory, a branch of order theory that originated in theoretical computer science. Moreover, the base category of the topos associated with a quantum system turns out to be a domain if the underlying von Neumann algebra is a matrix algebra. For general algebras, the base category still is a highly struct...

  15. Word Domain Disambiguation via Word Sense Disambiguation

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.


    Word subject domains have been widely used to improve the perform-ance of word sense disambiguation al-gorithms. However, comparatively little effort has been devoted so far to the disambiguation of word subject do-mains. The few existing approaches have focused on the development of al-gorithms specific to word domain dis-ambiguation. In this paper we explore an alternative approach where word domain disambiguation is achieved via word sense disambiguation. Our study shows that this approach yields very strong results, suggesting that word domain disambiguation can be ad-dressed in terms of word sense disam-biguation with no need for special purpose algorithms.

  16. Single-domain antibodies for biomedical applications.

    Krah, Simon; Schröter, Christian; Zielonka, Stefan; Empting, Martin; Valldorf, Bernhard; Kolmar, Harald


    Single-domain antibodies are the smallest antigen-binding units of antibodies, consisting either only of one variable domain or one engineered constant domain that solely facilitates target binding. This class of antibody derivatives comprises naturally occurring variable domains derived from camelids and sharks as well as engineered human variable or constant antibody domains of the heavy or light chain. Because of their high affinity and specificity as well as stability, small size and benefit of multiple re-formatting opportunities, those molecules emerged as promising candidates for biomedical applications and some of these entities have already proven to be successful in clinical development.

  17. Twitter and public health.

    Bartlett, Catherine; Wurtz, Rebecca


    Twitter can serve as a powerful communication modality to both "push" and "pull" public health data; each user is a potential public health sensor and actor. However, in 2012, only 8% of local health departments had Twitter accounts. We outline how Twitter works, describe how to access public tweets for public health surveillance purposes, review the literature on Twitter's current and potential role supporting public health's essential services, summarize Twitter's limitations, and make recommendations for health department use.

  18. Nondestructive characterization of municipal-solid-waste-contaminated surface soil by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence and low-Z (atomic number) particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis.

    Gupta, Dhrubajyoti; Ghosh, Rita; Mitra, Ajoy K; Roy, Subinit; Sarkar, Manoranjan; Chowdhury, Subhajit; Bhowmik, Asit; Mukhopadhyay, Ujjal; Maskey, Shila; Ro, Chul-Un


    The long-term environmental impact of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfilling is still under investigation due to the lack of detailed characterization studies. A MSW landfill site, popularly known as Dhapa, in the eastern fringe of the metropolis of Kolkata, India, is the subject of present study. A vast area of Dhapa, adjoining the current core MSW dump site and evolving from the raw MSW dumping in the past, is presently used for the cultivation of vegetables. The inorganic chemical characteristics of the MSW-contaminated Dhapa surface soil (covering a 2-km stretch of the area) along with a natural composite (geogenic) soil sample (from a small countryside farm), for comparison, were investigated using two complementary nondestructive analytical techniques, energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) for bulk analysis and low-Z (atomic number) particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis (low-Z particle EPMA) for single-particle analysis. The bulk concentrations of K, Rb, and Zr remain almost unchanged in all the soil samples. The Dhapa soil is found to be polluted with heavy metals such as Cu, Zn, and Pb (highly elevated) and Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Sr (moderately elevated), compared to the natural countryside soil. These high bulk concentration levels of heavy metals were compared with the Ecological Soil Screening Levels for these elements (U.S. Environment Protection Agency) to assess the potential risk on the immediate biotic environment. Low-Z particle EPMA results showed that the aluminosilicate-containing particles were the most abundant, followed by SiO2, CaCO3-containing, and carbonaceous particles in the Dhapa samples, whereas in the countryside sample only aluminosilicate-containing and SiO2 particles were observed. The mineral particles encountered in the countryside sample are solely of geogenic origin, whereas those from the Dhapa samples seem to have evolved from a mixture of raw dumped MSW, urban dust, and other contributing factors such as wind

  19. Stipular colleters in Psychotria nuda (Cham. & Schltdl. Wawra (Rubiaceae: micromorphology, anatomy and cristals microanalysis Coléteres Estipulares em Psychotria nuda (Cham. & Schltdl. Wawra (Rubiaceae: micromorfologia, anatomia e microanálise dos cristais

    Emílio de Castro Miguel


    Full Text Available Colleters are secretory structures, with a protective function, that occur in different organs and in many Angiospermae families. The aim of this work was to describe the anatomy and micromorphology of colleters present in Psychotria nuda (Cham. & Schltdl. Wawra as well as analyze the structure and composition of crystals from the central axis of the structure under study. The material was collected at the Tinguá Biological Reserve and processed according to usual techniques for light and scanning electron microscopy. The colleters are of the lachrymiform type, with an elongated central axis, formed by fundamental parenchyma, sheathed by a palisade layer, responsible for the secretion. Raphid crystals were observed in the central axis of the colleters. By X-ray microanalysis it was possible to show calcium predominance in these structures.Coléteres são estruturas secretoras, com função protetora, que podem ocorrer em diferentes órgãos e em diversas famílias de Angiospermae. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo descrever a anatomia e micromorfologia dos coléteres estipulares presentes em Psychotria nuda (Cham. & Schltdl. Wawra bem como analisar a estrutura e composição dos cristais do eixo central da estrutura em questão. O material foi coletado na Reserva Biológica de Tinguá e processado de acordo com técnicas básicas de microscopia óptica e eletrônica de varredura. Os coléteres de P. nuda são do tipo lacrimiforme, constituídos por um eixo central alongado, formado por parênquima fundamental, circundado por um estrato epidérmico em paliçada responsável pela secreção mucilaginosa. Cristais do tipo ráfide foram observados no eixo central dos coléteres. Através de microanálise de raio-X foi possível mostrar a presença predominante de cálcio nessas estruturas.

  20. Multi-domain proteins in the three kingdoms of life: orphan domains and other unassigned regions.

    Ekman, Diana; Björklund, Asa K; Frey-Skött, Johannes; Elofsson, Arne


    Comparative studies of the proteomes from different organisms have provided valuable information about protein domain distribution in the kingdoms of life. Earlier studies have been limited by the fact that only about 50% of the proteomes could be matched to a domain. Here, we have extended these studies by including less well-defined domain definitions, Pfam-B and clustered domains, MAS, in addition to Pfam-A and SCOP domains. It was found that a significant fraction of these domain families are homologous to Pfam-A or SCOP domains. Further, we show that all regions that do not match a Pfam-A or SCOP domain contain a significantly higher fraction of disordered structure. These unstructured regions may be contained within orphan domains or function as linkers between structured domains. Using several different definitions we have re-estimated the number of multi-domain proteins in different organisms and found that several methods all predict that eukaryotes have approximately 65% multi-domain proteins, while the prokaryotes consist of approximately 40% multi-domain proteins. However, these numbers are strongly dependent on the exact choice of cut-off for domains in unassigned regions. In conclusion, all eukaryotes have similar fractions of multi-domain proteins and disorder, whereas a high fraction of repeating domain is distinguished only in multicellular eukaryotes. This implies a role for repeats in cell-cell contacts while the other two features are important for intracellular functions.

  1. Interoperable domain models: The ISO land administration domain model LADM and its external classes

    Lemmen, C.H.J.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Uitermark, H.T.; Zevenbergen, J.A.; Cooper, A.K.


    This paper provides a brief overview of one of the first spatial domain standards: a standard for the domain of Land Administration (LA). This standard is in the draft stage of development now (May 2011). The development of domain standards is a logical follow up after domain-independent standards,

  2. Blocking-resistant communication through domain fronting

    Fifield David


    Full Text Available We describe “domain fronting,” a versatile censorship circumvention technique that hides the remote endpoint of a communication. Domain fronting works at the application layer, using HTTPS, to communicate with a forbidden host while appearing to communicate with some other host, permitted by the censor. The key idea is the use of different domain names at different layers of communication. One domain appears on the “outside” of an HTTPS request—in the DNS request and TLS Server Name Indication—while another domain appears on the “inside”—in the HTTP Host header, invisible to the censor under HTTPS encryption. A censor, unable to distinguish fronted and nonfronted traffic to a domain, must choose between allowing circumvention traffic and blocking the domain entirely, which results in expensive collateral damage. Domain fronting is easy to deploy and use and does not require special cooperation by network intermediaries. We identify a number of hard-to-block web services, such as content delivery networks, that support domain-fronted connections and are useful for censorship circumvention. Domain fronting, in various forms, is now a circumvention workhorse. We describe several months of deployment experience in the Tor, Lantern, and Psiphon circumvention systems, whose domain-fronting transports now connect thousands of users daily and transfer many terabytes per month.

  3. Chromatin domain boundaries: insulators and beyond

    Gong Hong WEI; De Pei LIU; Chih Chuan LIANG


    The eukaryotic genome is organized into functionally and structurally distinct domains, representing regulatory units for gene expression and chromosome behavior. DNA sequences that mark the border between adjacent domains are the insulators or boundary elements, which are required in maintenance of the function of different domains. Some insulators need others enable to play insulation activity. Chromatin domains are defined by distinct sets of post-translationally modified histones. Recent studies show that these histone modifications are also involved in establishment of sharp chromatin boundaries in order to prevent the spreading of distinct domains. Additionally, in some loci, the high-order chromatin structures for long-range looping interactions also have boundary activities, suggesting a correlation between insulators and chromatin loop domains. In this review, we will discuss recent progress in the field of chromatin domain boundaries.

  4. Reframing Public Education as a Public Good

    Froese-Germain, Bernie


    In his 1847 "Report on a System of Public Elementary Instruction for Upper Canada", Egerton Ryerson stated that public education was created in Canada to ensure that youth were prepared for their "appropriate duties and employments of life … as persons of business, and also as members of the civil community in which they live."…

  5. Public Schools and the Public Interest.

    Hess, Frederick M.


    Essay addresses three questions: What purposes should schools serve and who should determine those purposes? Who should set performance goals for schools? Does school choice comport schooling mission to serve the public interest? Argues for need to be more disciplined and explicit in determining the public interest that schools serve and how that…

  6. Laboratory Experiments in Teaching Public Economics and Policy

    Špačková Zuzana


    Full Text Available This paper deals with classroom experiments in economics, which have been derived from laboratory experiments. These experiments cover a broad range of topics, from strictly economic ones (like market games or auctions to those with overlaps to other domains such as public policy. The paper discusses different methodologies of research and classroom experiments, introduces the benefits of the latter and presents a concrete teaching experiment used in public economics courses at the Faculty of Economics and Administration of Masaryk University. Another link between economic experiments and public policy is outlined here as well, namely the importance of experimental results for public policy makers.

  7. Appeals in Special Adminisrtative Domains

    Vuk CUCIĆ


    Full Text Available This paper is preceded by another work on the administrative appeal in Serbian law, as prescribed by General Administrative Proceeding Act. It builds upon that by describing and analyzing the most often modifications made to the general regime of the administrative appeal in various policy areas. It furthermore depicts special administrative control mechanisms, different from the administrative appeal, that exist in the fields of public procurement, education and broadcasting. These two articles should conclude the normative analysis of the system of administrative appeal and its counterpart administrative recourses. Normative analysis should further allow empirical research of the efficiency thereof and enable drawing of conclusions on respective features of the appellate proceeding that provide the best results in protection of the legality and private and public interests.

  8. From networked publics to issue publics

    Birkbak, Andreas


    As an increasing part of everyday life becomes connected with the web in many areas of the globe, the question of how the web mediates political processes becomes still more urgent. Several scholars have started to address this question by thinking about the web in terms of a public space...... that the complex connectivity of the web puts user privacy at risk and enables the enclosure of public debate in virtual echo chambers. Our first argument is that these concerns are united by a set assumptions coming from liberal political philosophy that are rarely made explicit. As a second contribution......, this paper points towards an alternative way to think about publics by proposing a pragmatist reorientation of the public/private distinction in web science, away from seeing two spheres that needs to be kept separate, towards seeing the public and the private as something that is continuously connected...

  9. Psychology in the public service.

    Zimbardo, Philip G


    Philip G. Zimbardo outlines the challenges and opportunities he faces as the American Psychological Association's (APA's) 110th president. This article expands on remarks made in his introduction to Patrick H. DeLeon's presidential address at the APA's 2001 annual convention in San Francisco, California. Appearing now, mid-term in his presidency, that vision is a working blueprint of his activities and what he hopes to accomplish in his remaining tenure: enhancing psychologists' pride in psychology; developing more productive relationships with all media as gatekeepers to the public; publishing the standard high school psychology textbook; developing a compendium of all psychological research that illustrates how psychologists have made a significant difference in improving various aspects of the quality of life of individuals, groups, communities, and the United States; and encouraging greater unity of purpose and respect among psychologists across their many diverse domains and specialties.

  10. The propagation of self-control: Self-control in one domain simultaneously improves self-control in other domains.

    Tuk, Mirjam A; Zhang, Kuangjie; Sweldens, Steven


    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 144(3) of Journal of Experimental Psychology: General (see record 2015-24174-008). The affiliations for co-authors Kuangjie Zhang and Steven Sweldens were incorrect. All versions of this article have been corrected.] A rich tradition in self-control research has documented the negative consequences of exerting self-control in 1 task for self-control performance in subsequent tasks. However, there is a dearth of research examining what happens when people exert self-control in multiple domains simultaneously. The current research aims to fill this gap. We integrate predictions from the most prominent models of self-control with recent neuropsychological insights in the human inhibition system to generate the novel hypothesis that exerting effortful self-control in 1 task can simultaneously improve self-control in completely unrelated domains. An internal meta-analysis on all 18 studies we conducted shows that exerting self-control in 1 domain (i.e., controlling attention, food consumption, emotions, or thoughts) simultaneously improves self-control in a range of other domains, as demonstrated by, for example, reduced unhealthy food consumption, better Stroop task performance, and less impulsive decision making. A subset of 9 studies demonstrates the crucial nature of task timing-when the same tasks are executed sequentially, our results suggest the emergence of an ego depletion effect. We provide conservative estimates of the self-control facilitation (d = |0.22|) as well as the ego depletion effect size (d = |0.17|) free of data selection and publication biases. These results (a) shed new light on self-control theories, (b) confirm recent claims that previous estimates of the ego depletion effect size were inflated due to publication bias, and (c) provide a blueprint for how to handle the power issues and associated file drawer problems commonly encountered in multistudy research projects. (c) 2015

  11. Expert System Models in the Companies' Financial and Accounting Domain

    Mates, D; Bostan, I; Grosu, V


    The present paper is based on studying, analyzing and implementing the expert systems in the financial and accounting domain of the companies, describing the use method of the informational systems that can be used in the multi-national companies, public interest institutions, and medium and small dimension economical entities, in order to optimize the managerial decisions and render efficient the financial-accounting functionality. The purpose of this paper is aimed to identifying the economical exigencies of the entities, based on the already used accounting instruments and the management software that could consent the control of the economical processes and patrimonial assets.

  12. Reconstituting Protein Interaction Networks Using Parameter-Dependent Domain-Domain Interactions


    that approximately 80% of eukaryotic proteins and 67% of prokaryotic proteins have multiple domains [13,14]. Most annotation databases characterize...domain annotations, Domain-domain interactions, Protein-protein interaction networks Background The living cell is a dynamic, interconnected system...detailed in Methods. Here, we illustrate its application on a well- annotated single- cell organism. We created a merged set of protein-domain annotations

  13. Publication of the bulletin

    DSU Department


    The table below lists the 2008 publication dates for the paper version of the Bulletin and the corresponding deadlines for the submission of announcements. Please note that all announcements must be submitted by 12.00 midday on Tuesdays at the latest. Bulletin publication 2008 Bulletin N° 4-5 Publication: Monday 21 january Submission deadline for announcements: Tuesday 15 January Bulletin N° 6-7 Publication: Monday 4 february Submission deadline for announcements: Tuesday 29 January Bulletin N° 8-9 Publication: Monday 18 february Submission deadline for announcements: Tuesday 12 February Bulletin N° 10-11 Publication: Monday 3 march Submission deadline for announcements: Tuesday 26 February Bulletin N° 12-13 Publication: Monday 17 march Submission deadline for announcements: Tuesday 11 March Bulletin N° 14-15 Publication: Monday 31 march Submission deadline for announcements: Tuesday 25 March Bulletin N° 16-17 Publication: Monday 14 april Submission deadline for...

  14. Domain Discretization and Circle Packings

    Dias, Kealey

    A circle packing is a configuration of circles which are tangent with one another in a prescribed pattern determined by a combinatorial triangulation, where the configuration fills a planar domain or a two-dimensional surface. The vertices in the triangulation correspond to centers of circles......, and edges correspond to two circles (having centers corresponding to the endpoints of the edge) being tangent to each other. This circle packing creates a rigid structure having an underlying geometric triangulation, where the centers of circles again correspond to vertices in the triangulation......, and the edges are geodesic segments (Euclidean, hyperbolic, or spherical) connecting centers of circles that are tangent to each other. Three circles that are mutually tangent form a face of the triangulation. Since circle packing is closely related to triangulation, circle packing methods can be applied...

  15. 固定化青霉素G酰化酶活性的X射线微分析Ⅰ:捕捉剂的X射线能谱分析%Localization of activity of immobilized penicillin G acylase by X-ray microanalysis Ⅰ: Analysis of capture by EDS

    姚子华; 黄永章; 仇满德


    To localize the activity of immobilized penicillin G acylase by X-ray microanalysis, we chosen carefully reagent capturing site of enzyme activity. Wh en the substrate was hydrolyzed by immobilized penicillin G acylase,hydrolysis pr oduct reacted with capture and formed precipitation which deposited on active si te of immobilized penicillin G acylase. The interference of carrier, substrate a nd immobilized penicillin G acylase with capture was eliminated. FeCl3 was sel ec ted as capture of locating the active site of immobilized penicillin G acylase b y X-ray microanalysis.%筛选了能捕捉固定化青霉素G酰化酶活性部位的捕捉剂;底物经固定化青霉素G酰化酶 水解,捕捉剂与水解产物反应生成沉淀,沉积在固定化青霉素G酰化酶的催化活性部位。排除 了载体、底物、固定化青霉素G酰化酶对捕捉剂的干扰,FeCl3能用于固定化青霉素G酰化酶 X射线微区活性定位的捕捉剂。

  16. 微观分析法在焦点解决短期咨询会谈特征评估中的应用初探%A pilot study of microanalysis in solution-focused brief counseling characteristics evaluation

    黄玉琛; 骆宏


    Objective:To explore the microanalysis method used to evaluate the solution-focused brief coun-seling (SFBC)interview characteristics of the skilled trainees and novices.Methods:Five skilled SFBC trainees, who had learned and practiced of SFBC for not less than 5 years,and 9 SFBC novices,who had a total of learning of SFBC for no more than 3 months,were recruited.The skilled trainees'5 interview recordings and 9 interview re-cordings of the novices were collected and coded.Then the formulations and questions used in the two groups'inter-views were compared with each other,and the different nature of language (positive,negative or neutral)used by them were also analyzed.Results:The numbers of complex formulations used by skilled trainees were more than the novice's [(4.4 ±2.5)vs.(1.6 ±1.1),P <0.05].And the percentage of opening questions was significant higher than novice's [(0.83 ±0.14)vs.(0.61 ±0.18),P <0.05].The numbers of positive utterances used by the skilled trainees were much more than the novices'[(16.0 ±7.0)vs.(8.7 ±2.4),P <0.05].Conclusion:The microanaly-sis method could be effectively used to distinguish the characteristic differences between the skilled trainees and the novices in their formulations,opening questions and positive utterances,during their respective interviews.And it could be effectively used to evaluate the interview skill levels of the skilled trainees and novices.%目的:探微观分析法用于评估焦点解决短期咨询(SFBC)熟练者与初学者会谈特征的有效性。方法:选取熟练者5人(每人累计学习并实践 SFBC 的时间≥5年)和初学者9人(每人累计学习并实践 SFBC 的时间≤3个月),收集两组参加 SFBC 课程考试的会谈录音各5份和9份。对会谈录音进行编码分析,比较两组在会谈中反映和提问的使用情况及语言表达性质(积极、消极、中性)。结果:熟练组使用复杂反映的次数多于初学组[(4.4±2.5)vs.(1

  17. Unsupervised, low latency anomaly detection of algorithmically generated domain names by generative probabilistic modeling.

    Raghuram, Jayaram; Miller, David J; Kesidis, George


    We propose a method for detecting anomalous domain names, with focus on algorithmically generated domain names which are frequently associated with malicious activities such as fast flux service networks, particularly for bot networks (or botnets), malware, and phishing. Our method is based on learning a (null hypothesis) probability model based on a large set of domain names that have been white listed by some reliable authority. Since these names are mostly assigned by humans, they are pronounceable, and tend to have a distribution of characters, words, word lengths, and number of words that are typical of some language (mostly English), and often consist of words drawn from a known lexicon. On the other hand, in the present day scenario, algorithmically generated domain names typically have distributions that are quite different from that of human-created domain names. We propose a fully generative model for the probability distribution of benign (white listed) domain names which can be used in an anomaly detection setting for identifying putative algorithmically generated domain names. Unlike other methods, our approach can make detections without considering any additional (latency producing) information sources, often used to detect fast flux activity. Experiments on a publicly available, large data set of domain names associated with fast flux service networks show encouraging results, relative to several baseline methods, with higher detection rates and low false positive rates.




    High intensity synchrotron radiation produces photons with wavelengths that extend from the infrared to hard x rays with energies of hundreds of keV with uniquely high photon intensities that can be used to determine the composition and properties of materials using a variety of techniques. Most of these techniques represent extensions of earlier work performed with ordinary tube-type x-ray sources. The properties of the synchrotron source such as the continuous range of energy, high degree of photon polarization, pulsed beams, and photon flux many orders of magnitude higher than from x-ray tubes have made possible major advances in the possible chemical applications. We describe here ways that materials analyses can be made using the high intensity beams for measurements with small beam sizes and/or high detection sensitivity. The relevant characteristics of synchrotron x-ray sources are briefly summarized to give an idea of the x-ray parameters to be exploited. The experimental techniques considered include x-ray fluorescence, absorption, and diffraction. Examples of typical experimental apparatus used in these experiments are considered together with descriptions of actual applications.

  19. Microanalysis of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides

    Obel, N.; Erben, V.; Schwarz, T.; Kühnel, S.; Fodor, A.; Pauly, M.


    Oligosaccharide Mass Profiling (OLIMP) allows a fast and sensitive assessment of cell wall polymer structure when coupled with Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Time Of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The short time required for sample preparation and analysis makes possible the s

  20. Microanalysis of gene expression in cultured cells

    E. van der Veer (Eveliene)


    textabstractIn this thesis two aspects of gene expression in cultured cells have been studied: the heterogeneity in gene expression in relation with the development and application of microchemical techniques for the prenatal diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism and the possibility of inducing g

  1. Ion beam microanalysis of human hair follicles

    Kertesz, Zs. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4001 Debrecen, P.O. Box 51 (Hungary)]. E-mail:; Szikszai, Z. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4001 Debrecen, P.O. Box 51 (Hungary); Pelicon, P. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O. Box 3000, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Simcic, J. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P.O. Box 3000, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Telek, A. [Department of Physiology and Cell Physiology Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Center, Research Center for Molecular Medicine, H-4012, Debrecen, Nagyerdei krt. 98 (Hungary); Biro, T. [Department of Physiology and Cell Physiology Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Center, Research Center for Molecular Medicine, H-4012, Debrecen, Nagyerdei krt. 98 (Hungary)


    Hair follicle is an appendage organ of the skin which is of importance to the survival of mammals and still maintains significance for the human race - not just biologically, but also through cosmetic and commercial considerations. However data on composition of hair follicles are scarce and mostly limited to the hair shaft. In this study we provide detailed information on the elemental distribution in human hair follicles in different growth phases (anagen and catagen) using a scanning proton microprobe. The analysis of skin samples obtained from human adults undergoing plastic surgery and of organ-cultured human hair follicles may yield a new insight into the function, development and cyclic activity of the hair follicle.

  2. An Ethnographic Descriptive Approach to Video Microanalysis

    Holck, Ulla


    In the ethnographically informed approach to observational research one studies everyday settings, and seeks to understand actions and meanings in their social context (Silverman 1993; Wolcott 1990). This approach is a strong tool for investigating interactions of a more or less implicit characte......, illustrated by a case from my doctoral study on music therapy interactions with children with severe functional limitations, including children with autism (Holck 2002)........ Combined with video micro analysis, the ethnographic approach is, furthermore, very useful in recognising small indicators of communication and social interaction in music therapy with clients with severe communicative limitations. Especially with this client group, the method can be used to confirm...

  3. High Count Rate Electron Probe Microanalysis

    Geller, Joseph D.; Herrington, Charles


    Reducing the measurement uncertainty of quantitative analyses made using electron probe microanalyzers (EPMA) requires a careful study of the individual uncertainties from each definable step of the measurement. Those steps include measuring the incident electron beam current and voltage, knowing the angle between the electron beam and the sample (takeoff angle), collecting the emitted x rays from the sample, comparing the emitted x-ray flux to known standards (to determine the k-ratio) and transformation of the k-ratio to concentration using algorithms which includes, as a minimum, the atomic number, absorption, and fluorescence corrections. This paper discusses the collection and counting of the emitted x rays, which are diffracted into the gas flow or sealed proportional x-ray detectors. The representation of the uncertainty in the number of collected x rays collected reduces as the number of counts increase. The uncertainty of the collected signal is fully described by Poisson statistics. Increasing the number of x rays collected involves either counting longer or at a higher counting rate. Counting longer means the analysis time increases and may become excessive to get to the desired uncertainty. Instrument drift also becomes an issue. Counting at higher rates has its limitations, which are a function of the detector physics and the detecting electronics. Since the beginning of EPMA analysis, analog electronics have been used to amplify and discriminate the x-ray induced ionizations within the proportional counter. This paper will discuss the use of digital electronics for this purpose. These electronics are similar to that used for energy dispersive analysis of x rays with either Si(Li) or Ge(Li) detectors except that the shaping time constants are much smaller. PMID:27446749

  4. Uncertainty in Quantitative Electron Probe Microanalysis

    Heinrich, Kurt F. J.


    Quantitative electron probe analysis is based on models based on the physics or x-ray generation, empirically adjusted to the analyses of specimens of known composition. Their accuracy can be estimated by applying them to a set of specimens of presumably well-known composition. PMID:27446746

  5. Ion beam microanalysis of human hair follicles

    Kertész, Zs.; Szikszai, Z.; Pelicon, P.; Simčič, J.; Telek, A.; Bíró, T.


    Hair follicle is an appendage organ of the skin which is of importance to the survival of mammals and still maintains significance for the human race - not just biologically, but also through cosmetic and commercial considerations. However data on composition of hair follicles are scarce and mostly limited to the hair shaft. In this study we provide detailed information on the elemental distribution in human hair follicles in different growth phases (anagen and catagen) using a scanning proton microprobe. The analysis of skin samples obtained from human adults undergoing plastic surgery and of organ-cultured human hair follicles may yield a new insight into the function, development and cyclic activity of the hair follicle.

  6. Microanalysis of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides

    Nicolai Obel; Veronika Erben; Tatjana Schwarz; Stefan Kühne; Andrea Fodor; Markus Pauly


    Oligosaccharide Mass Profiling (OLIMP) allows a fast and sensitive assessment of cell wall polymer structure when coupled with Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Time Of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The short time required for sample preparation and analysis makes possible the study of a wide range of plant organs, revealing a high degree of heterogeneity in the substitution pattern of wall polymers such as the cross-linking glycan xyloglucan and the pectic polysaccharide homogalacturonan. The high sensitivity of MALDI-TOF allows the use of small amounts of samples, thus making it possible to investigate the wall structure of single cell types when material is collected by such methods as laser micro-dissection. As an example, the analysis of the xyloglucan structure in the leaf cell types outer epidermis layer, entire epidermis cell layer, palisade mesophyll cells, and vascular bundles were investigated. OLIMP is amenable to in situ wall analysis, where wall polymers are analyzed on unprepared plant tissue itself without first iso-lating cell walls. In addition, OLIMP enables analysis of wall polymers in Golgi-enriched fractions, the location of nascent matrix polysaccharide biosynthesis, enabling separation of the processes of wall biosynthesis versus post-deposition apo-plastic metabolism. These new tools will make possible a semi-quantitative analysis of the cell wall at an unprecedented level.

  7. An Ethnographic Descriptive Approach to Video Microanalysis

    Holck, Ulla


    In the ethnographically informed approach to observational research one studies everyday settings, and seeks to understand actions and meanings in their social context (Silverman 1993; Wolcott 1990). This approach is a strong tool for investigating interactions of a more or less implicit character...

  8. Transverse microanalysis of high energy Ion implants

    Dooley, S.P.; Jamieson, D.N.; Nugent, K.W.; Prawer, S. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics


    High energy ion implants in semiconductor materials have been analyzed by Channeling Contrast Microscopy (CCM) perpendicular to the implant direction, allowing imaging of the entire ion track. The damage produced by Channeled and Random 1.4 MeV H{sup +} implants into the edge of a <100> type IIa diamond wafer were analyzed by channeling into the face of the crystal. The results showed negligible damage in the surface region of the implants, and swelling induced misalignment at the end of range of the implants. Channeled 1.4 MeV H{sup +} implants in diamond had a range only 9% deeper than Random implants, which could be accounted for by dechanneling of the beam. The channeling of H{sup +}{sub 2} ions has been previously found to be identical to that of protons of half energy, however the current experiment has shown a 1% increase in {chi}{sub min} for H{sup +}{sub 2} in diamond compared to H{sup +} at 1,2 MeV per proton. This is due to repulsion between protons within the same channel. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Microanalysis of silicon-on-insulator materials

    Earwaker, L.G.; Briggs, M.C. (School of Physics and Space Research, Univ. of Birmingham (UK)); Farr, J.P.G. (Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials, Univ. of Birmingham (UK)); Keen, J.M. (Royal Signals and Radar Establishment, Great Malvern (UK))


    Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) material produced by the porous silicon route has been analysed using nuclear techniques in the ion microprobe at the University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Space Research. The analysis system, based on CAMAC and a 1050 Falcon LSI 11/12 microprocessor, is described and measurements are reported of early attempts to metallise masked porous silicon structures. It is found that the porous silicon has been converted to tungsten between islands and a thin skin of tungsten has been produced on the surface of the islands. Oxidation of the tungsten surface has also been observed and evidence found for some penetration of tungsten through pinholes in the protective nitride layer over the islands. (orig.).

  10. Selected DOE headquarters publications



    Selected DOE Headquarters Publications provides cumulative listings, from October 1, 1977 onward, of two groups of publications issued by headquarters organizations of the Department of Energy, and an index to their title keywords. The two groups consist of publications assigned a DOE/XXX-type report number code and headquarters contractor publications, prepared by contractors (and published by DOE) to describe research and development work they have performed for the Department. Publications such as pamphlets, fact sheets, bulletins, newsletters, and telephone directories, are omitted, as are publications issued under the DOE-tr, CONF, DOE/JPL, and DOE/NASA codes. (RWR)

  11. Depiction of global trends in publications on mobile health

    Shahla Foozonkhah


    Full Text Available Background: Variety of mobile health initiatives in different levels have been undertaken across many countries. Trends of these initiatives can be reflected in the research published in m-health domain. Aim: This paper aims to depict global trends in the published works on m-health topic. Materials and Methods: The Web of Science database was used to identify all relevant published papers on mobile health domain worldwide. The search was conducted on documents published from January 1898 to December 2014. The criteria for searching were set to be “mHealth” or “Mobile health” or “m health” or “m_health” or “m-health” in topics. Results: Findings revealed an increasing trend of citations and publications on m-health research since 2012. English was the first most predominant language of the publication. The US had the highest number of publication with 649 papers; however, the Netherlands ranked first after considering publication number in terms of countries population. “Studies in Health Technology and Informatics” was the source title with highest number of publications on mobile health topics. Conclusion: Trend of research observed in this study indicates the continuing growth is happening in mobile health domain. This may imply that the new model of health-care delivery is emerging. Further research is needed to specify directions of mobile health research. It is necessary to identify and prioritize the research gaps in this domain.

  12. CATHEDRAL: a fast and effective algorithm to predict folds and domain boundaries from multidomain protein structures.

    Oliver C Redfern


    Full Text Available We present CATHEDRAL, an iterative protocol for determining the location of previously observed protein folds in novel multidomain protein structures. CATHEDRAL builds on the features of a fast secondary-structure-based method (using graph theory to locate known folds within a multidomain context and a residue-based, double-dynamic programming algorithm, which is used to align members of the target fold groups against the query protein structure to identify the closest relative and assign domain boundaries. To increase the fidelity of the assignments, a support vector machine is used to provide an optimal scoring scheme. Once a domain is verified, it is excised, and the search protocol is repeated in an iterative fashion until all recognisable domains have been identified. We have performed an initial benchmark of CATHEDRAL against other publicly available structure comparison methods using a consensus dataset of domains derived from the CATH and SCOP domain classifications. CATHEDRAL shows superior performance in fold recognition and alignment accuracy when compared with many equivalent methods. If a novel multidomain structure contains a known fold, CATHEDRAL will locate it in 90% of cases, with <1% false positives. For nearly 80% of assigned domains in a manually validated test set, the boundaries were correctly delineated within a tolerance of ten residues. For the remaining cases, previously classified domains were very remotely related to the query chain so that embellishments to the core of the fold caused significant differences in domain sizes and manual refinement of the boundaries was necessary. To put this performance in context, a well-established sequence method based on hidden Markov models was only able to detect 65% of domains, with 33% of the subsequent boundaries assigned within ten residues. Since, on average, 50% of newly determined protein structures contain more than one domain unit, and typically 90% or more of these

  13. Integrating natural language processing and web GIS for interactive knowledge domain visualization

    Du, Fangming

    Recent years have seen a powerful shift towards data-rich environments throughout society. This has extended to a change in how the artifacts and products of scientific knowledge production can be analyzed and understood. Bottom-up approaches are on the rise that combine access to huge amounts of academic publications with advanced computer graphics and data processing tools, including natural language processing. Knowledge domain visualization is one of those multi-technology approaches, with its aim of turning domain-specific human knowledge into highly visual representations in order to better understand the structure and evolution of domain knowledge. For example, network visualizations built from co-author relations contained in academic publications can provide insight on how scholars collaborate with each other in one or multiple domains, and visualizations built from the text content of articles can help us understand the topical structure of knowledge domains. These knowledge domain visualizations need to support interactive viewing and exploration by users. Such spatialization efforts are increasingly looking to geography and GIS as a source of metaphors and practical technology solutions, even when non-georeferenced information is managed, analyzed, and visualized. When it comes to deploying spatialized representations online, web mapping and web GIS can provide practical technology solutions for interactive viewing of knowledge domain visualizations, from panning and zooming to the overlay of additional information. This thesis presents a novel combination of advanced natural language processing - in the form of topic modeling - with dimensionality reduction through self-organizing maps and the deployment of web mapping/GIS technology towards intuitive, GIS-like, exploration of a knowledge domain visualization. A complete workflow is proposed and implemented that processes any corpus of input text documents into a map form and leverages a web

  14. EuPathDomains: the divergent domain database for eukaryotic pathogens.

    Ghouila, Amel; Terrapon, Nicolas; Gascuel, Olivier; Guerfali, Fatma Z; Laouini, Dhafer; Maréchal, Eric; Bréhélin, Laurent


    Eukaryotic pathogens (e.g. Plasmodium, Leishmania, Trypanosomes, etc.) are a major source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Africa, one of the most impacted continents, they cause millions of deaths and constitute an immense economic burden. While the genome sequence of several of these organisms is now available, the biological functions of more than half of their proteins are still unknown. This is a serious issue for bringing to the foreground the expected new therapeutic targets. In this context, the identification of protein domains is a key step to improve the functional annotation of the proteins. However, several domains are missed in eukaryotic pathogens because of the high phylogenetic distance of these organisms from the classical eukaryote models. We recently proposed a method, co-occurrence domain detection (CODD), that improves the sensitivity of Pfam domain detection by exploiting the tendency of domains to appear preferentially with a few other favorite domains in a protein. In this paper, we present EuPathDomains (, an extended database of protein domains belonging to ten major eukaryotic human pathogens. EuPathDomains gathers known and new domains detected by CODD, along with the associated confidence measurements and the GO annotations that can be deduced from the new domains. This database significantly extends the Pfam domain coverage of all selected genomes, by proposing new occurrences of domains as well as new domain families that have never been reported before. For example, with a false discovery rate lower than 20%, EuPathDomains increases the number of detected domains by 13% in Toxoplasma gondii genome and up to 28% in Cryptospordium parvum, and the total number of domain families by 10% in Plasmodium falciparum and up to 16% in C. parvum genome. The database can be queried by protein names, domain identifiers, Pfam or Interpro identifiers, or organisms, and should become a valuable

  15. Protein domain boundary prediction by combining support vector machine and domain guess by size algorithm

    Dong Qiwen; Wang Xiaolong; Lin Lei


    Successful prediction of protein domain boundaries provides valuable information not only for the computational structure prediction of multi-domain proteins but also for the experimental structure determination. A novel method for domain boundary prediction has been presented, which combines the support vector machine with domain guess by size algorithm. Since the evolutional information of multiple domains can be detected by position specific score matrix, the support vector machine method is trained and tested using the values of position specific score matrix generated by PSI-BLAST. The candidate domain boundaries are selected from the output of support vector machine, and are then inputted to domain guess by size algorithm to give the final results of domain boundary prediction. The experimental results show that the combined method outperforms the individual method of both support vector machine and domain guess by size.

  16. American Public Health Association

    ... Published Books Fact Sheets Reports and Issue Briefs Advertising Public Health Buyers Guide Publications Contacts Professional Development ... Steps Challenge doubles its goal Apr 11 2017 Facebook Is your organization an APHA member? As an ...

  17. Increasing Public Expenditure

    Ammar Ben Zaed


    This article aims to analyze and interpret the phenomenon of increased public expenditures and test explanatory theories as well as to analyze Abstract the relationship between public spending and GDP...

  18. USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Publications Warehouse is a metadata clearinghouse of all USGS Series Publications produced by the bureau since 1879. It is managed and operated as part of...

  19. Lighting and public health.

    Ierland, J. van & Schreuder, D.A.


    The following topics; are discussed with respect to public health: - the effect of visible and ultraviolet radiation upon man. - vision with respect to lighting. interior lighting. - artificial lighting of work environments. - day light and windows. - recommendations for lighting. public lighting. -

  20. Group Work Publication-1991.

    Zimpfer, David G.


    Lists 21 new publications in group work, of which 9 are reviewed. Those discussed include publications on group counseling and psychotherapy, structured groups, support groups, psychodrama, and social group work. (Author/NB)

  1. Public Service Motivation

    Raluca-Marilena Mihalcioiu


    Full Text Available Public Service Motivation concept was developed in North America and focuses on specific motivations of public servants, such as employee satisfaction, organizational commitment, reward preferences, organizational and individual performance. Other types of motivation, as financial consideration, are relevant but have less important influences with regard to this kind of work outcomes. This strengthen the assertion for a diversified motivational strategy, which affect various types of motivation, while not losing sight of the public value that one organization shows and therefore valuing public service motivation as a specific contribution to work outcomes. The concept has been increasingly applied in European public administration. This paper presents Status Quo of international Public Service Motivation research and locates in them empirical evidences from contries that are already working with this concept, like Austria. It also analyses implications for central questions of public management. The main focus of this article is general appropriateness and possible applications for Romanian public management research.

  2. Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films

    Tagantsev, Alexander K; Fousek, Jan


    Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films presents experimental findings and theoretical understanding of ferroic (non-magnetic) domains developed during the past 60 years. It addresses the situation by looking specifically at bulk crystals and thin films, with a particular focus on recently-developed microelectronic applications and methods for observation of domains with techniques such as scanning force microscopy, polarized light microscopy, scanning optical microscopy, electron microscopy, and surface decorating techniques. Domains in Ferroic Crystals and Thin Films covers a large area of material properties and effects connected with static and dynamic properties of domains, which are extremely relevant to materials referred to as ferroics. In most solid state physics books, one large group of ferroics is customarily covered: those in which magnetic properties play a dominant role. Numerous books are specifically devoted to magnetic ferroics and cover a wide spectrum of magnetic domain phenomena. In co...

  3. An Evaluation of the Pedestrian Classification in a Multi-Domain Multi-Modality Setup

    Alina Miron


    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to study the problem of pedestrian classification across different light spectrum domains (visible and far-infrared (FIR and modalities (intensity, depth and motion. In recent years, there has been a number of approaches for classifying and detecting pedestrians in both FIR and visible images, but the methods are difficult to compare, because either the datasets are not publicly available or they do not offer a comparison between the two domains. Our two primary contributions are the following: (1 we propose a public dataset, named RIFIR , containing both FIR and visible images collected in an urban environment from a moving vehicle during daytime; and (2 we compare the state-of-the-art features in a multi-modality setup: intensity, depth and flow, in far-infrared over visible domains. The experiments show that features families, intensity self-similarity (ISS, local binary patterns (LBP, local gradient patterns (LGP and histogram of oriented gradients (HOG, computed from FIR and visible domains are highly complementary, but their relative performance varies across different modalities. In our experiments, the FIR domain has proven superior to the visible one for the task of pedestrian classification, but the overall best results are obtained by a multi-domain multi-modality multi-feature fusion.

  4. Developing an Ontology for Improving Question Answering in the Agricultural Domain

    Vila, Katia; Ferrández, Antonio

    Numerous resources have been developed to have a better access to scientific information in the agricultural domain. However, they are rather concerned with providing general metadata of bibliographic references, which prevents users from accessing precise agricultural information in a transparent and simple manner. To overcome this drawback, in this paper, we propose to use domain-specific resources to improve the results in the answers obtained by an Open-Domain Question Answering (QA) system, obtaining a QA system for the agricultural domain. Specifically, it has been made by (i) creating an ontology that covers concepts and relationships from journal publications of the agricultural domain, (ii) enriching this ontology with some public data sources (e.g the Agrovoc thesaurus and the WordNet lexical database) in order to be precisely used in an agricultural domain, and (iii) aligning this enriched ontology with articles from our case-study journal, i.e. the Cuban Journal of Agricultural Science. Finally, we have developed a set of experiments in order to show the usefulness of our approach.

  5. Public Values and Public Service Motivation

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Kjeldsen, Anne Mette


    The literatures on public values (PV) and public service motivation (PSM) both address whether public service delivery is driven by something more than self-interest. They have developed separately, although they can benefit from insights developed by the other, and this article discusses...... conceptual and empirical relationships between them. Based on a survey of 501 public managers, we find that PSM and PV are associated empirically, but not in a manner allowing total integration. The conceptual discussion reveals how the two concepts cannot be totally separated, as values can be motivating...... and motivation is often oriented toward something desirable (e.g., values). This suggests that neither total separation nor integration is a fruitful strategy. Given that the concepts are related, the literatures may benefit from more awareness of the conceptual overlaps and differences....

  6. Public informations guidelines



    The purpose of these Public Information Guidelines is to provide principles for the implementation of the NWPA mandate and the Mission Plan requirements for the provision of public information. These Guidelines set forth the public information policy to be followed by all Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) performance components. The OCRWM offices should observe these Guidelines in shaping and conducting public information activities.

  7. Public scientific communication: reflections on the public and its participation forms

    Peter Sekloča


    Full Text Available Scientific communication also pertains to the domain of society, where the formation of public opinion about science and technology is taking place. Concerning this process, two main points are exposed in the commentary. The first is a proposition on how the public as a social category may be conceptualized, and the second is the extent of the participation of members of the public in strengthening socialization and democratization practices in new, highly complex, contexts of scientific research. The public is conceptualized to include all citizens no matter their professional origin, including scientists, which promotes the idea of openness and equality of the public sphere where scientific issues are discussed. To be democratic in its practical-political setting, such a conception needs to deal with the problems of participation in a highly mediatized world, where not every member of the public could be included into scientific research. The author thus reflects on the mechanisms which would enable the formation of public forums where the trust of influential public actors as stakeholders of research can be tested.

  8. Spread spectrum time domain reflectometry

    Smith, Paul Samuel

    For many years, wiring has been treated as a system that could be installed and expected to work for the life of the aircraft. As aircraft age far beyond their original expected life span, this attitude is rapidly changing. Wiring problems have recently been identified as the cause of several tragic mishaps and hundreds of thousands of lost mission hours. Intermittent wiring faults have been and continue to be difficult to resolve. Test methods that pinpoint faults on the ground can miss intermittent failures. New test methods involving spread spectrum signals are investigated that could be used in flight to locate intermittent failures, including open circuits, short circuits, and arcs. Spread spectrum time domain reflectometry (SSTDR) and sequence time domain reflectometry (STDR) are analyzed in light of the signals commonly present on aircraft wiring. Pseudo noise codes used for the generation of STDR and SSTDR signals are analyzed for application in a STDR/SSTDR test system in the presence of noise. The effects of Mil-Std 1553 and white noise on the STDR and SSTDR signals are discussed analytically, through simulations, and with the use of test hardware. A test system using STDR and SSTDR is designed, built, and used to collect STDR and SSTDR test data. The data collected with the STDR/SSTDR test hardware is analyzed and compared to the theoretical results. Experimental data for open and short circuits collected using SSTDR and a curve fitting algorithm shows a maximum range estimation error of +/-0.2 ft for 75O coaxial cable up to 100ft, and +/-0.6ft for a sample 32.5ft non-controlled impedance aircraft cable. Mil-Std 1553 is specified to operate reliably with a signal-to-noise ratio of 17.5dB, and the SSTDR test system was able to locate an open circuit on a cable also carrying simulated Mil-Std 1553 data where the SSTDR signal was 50dB below the Mil-Std 1553 signal. STDR and SSTDR are shown to be effective in detecting and locating dry and wet arcs on wires.

  9. Domain-specific control of selective attention.

    Lin, Szu-Hung; Yeh, Yei-Yu


    Previous research has shown that loading information on working memory affects selective attention. However, whether the load effect on selective attention is domain-general or domain-specific remains unresolved. The domain-general effect refers to the findings that load in one content (e.g. phonological) domain in working memory influences processing in another content (e.g., visuospatial) domain. Attentional control supervises selection regardless of information domain. The domain-specific effect refers to the constraint of influence only when maintenance and processing operate in the same domain. Selective attention operates in a specific content domain. This study is designed to resolve this controversy. Across three experiments, we manipulated the type of representation maintained in working memory and the type of representation upon which the participants must exert control to resolve conflict and select a target into the focus of attention. In Experiments 1a and 1b, participants maintained digits and nonverbalized objects, respectively, in working memory while selecting a target in a letter array. In Experiment 2, we presented auditory digits with a letter flanker task to exclude the involvement of resource competition within the same input modality. In Experiments 3a and 3b, we replaced the letter flanker task with an object flanker task while manipulating the memory load on object and digit representation, respectively. The results consistently showed that memory load modulated distractibility only when the stimuli of the two tasks were represented in the same domain. The magnitude of distractor interference was larger under high load than under low load, reflecting a lower efficacy of information prioritization. When the stimuli of the two tasks were represented in different domains, memory load did not modulate distractibility. Control of processing priority in selective attention demands domain-specific resources.

  10. Using context to improve protein domain identification

    Llinás Manuel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying domains in protein sequences is an important step in protein structural and functional annotation. Existing domain recognition methods typically evaluate each domain prediction independently of the rest. However, the majority of proteins are multidomain, and pairwise domain co-occurrences are highly specific and non-transitive. Results Here, we demonstrate how to exploit domain co-occurrence to boost weak domain predictions that appear in previously observed combinations, while penalizing higher confidence domains if such combinations have never been observed. Our framework, Domain Prediction Using Context (dPUC, incorporates pairwise "context" scores between domains, along with traditional domain scores and thresholds, and improves domain prediction across a variety of organisms from bacteria to protozoa and metazoa. Among the genomes we tested, dPUC is most successful at improving predictions for the poorly-annotated malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, for which over 38% of the genome is currently unannotated. Our approach enables high-confidence annotations in this organism and the identification of orthologs to many core machinery proteins conserved in all eukaryotes, including those involved in ribosomal assembly and other RNA processing events, which surprisingly had not been previously known. Conclusions Overall, our results demonstrate that this new context-based approach will provide significant improvements in domain and function prediction, especially for poorly understood genomes for which the need for additional annotations is greatest. Source code for the algorithm is available under a GPL open source license at Pre-computed results for our test organisms and a web server are also available at that location.

  11. (Br-SCMM) Brazilian Smart City Maturity Model: A Perspective from the Health Domain.

    Afonso, Ricardo Alexandre; dos Santos Brito, Kellyton; Holanda do Nascimento, Clóvis; Campos da Costa, Luciana; Álvaro, Alexandre; Cardoso Garcia, Vinicius


    The term definition "Smart City" still allows various interpretations, and this causes some difficulty in establishing parameters to measure how smart the cities can be. This paper presents a Maturity Model that uses a set of minimum domains and indicators that aim to encourage cities of different sizes to identify their potential and improve processes and public policies.

  12. A Cross-Domain Explanation of the Metaphor "Teaching as Persuasion."

    Woods, Bradford S.; Demerath, Peter


    Examines what the metaphor "teaching as persuasion" would mean in the domains of philosophy, anthropology, and teacher education, asserting that if such a metaphor is to be widely accepted by the educational community and the public, then this discussion is necessary. The metaphor suggests that in teacher education, learning to teach…

  13. Transforming Public Space

    Navarro, Dora


    , such as municipal elections and the district's participatory budget. In addition, I show how the public uses the radio to channel their claims. I also identify the factors that prevent the radio from fully empowering the public and transforming public space into a more critical and democratic one....

  14. EIA publications directory, 1992


    This directory contains abstracts and ordering information for EIA publications. The abstracts are arranged by broad subject category such as coal, petroleum, natural gas, and electric power. A comprehensive subject index, a title index, and a report number index are included. Each entry gives the title, report number, publication frequency, date, number of pages, and ordering information. Publication began with the 1979 edition.

  15. Public Records 1995.

    Pritchard-Schoch, Teresa


    Examines developments among public record information providers, including a shift from file acquisition to entire company acquisition. Highlights include a table of remote access to public records by state; pricing information; privacy issues; and information about the three main companies offering access to public records: LEXIS, CDB Infotek,…

  16. Effective Public Management

    Bower, Joseph L.


    Argues that public management differs from private management not just in degree but in quality, so that American business is an inappropriate analogy for evaluating public management. In particular, "purpose,""organization," and "people" have different meaning and significance in public agencies and private businesses. (JG)

  17. Effective Public Management

    Bower, Joseph L.


    Argues that public management differs from private management not just in degree but in quality, so that American business is an inappropriate analogy for evaluating public management. In particular, "purpose,""organization," and "people" have different meaning and significance in public agencies and private businesses. (JG)

  18. Competency-based impact of a statewide public health leadership training program.

    Hawley, Suzanne R; St Romain, Theresa; Orr, Shirley A; Molgaard, Craig A; Kabler, Bethany S


    Previous public health leadership training research has assessed regional or national programs or evaluated program effectiveness qualitatively. Although these methods are valuable, state-level program impact has not been evaluated quantitatively. Public health core and leadership competency assessments are administered pre and post Kansas Public Health Leadership Institute training (N = 94). Wilcoxon signed rank tests note significant increases by each competency domain. Data are stratified by years of experience, level of education, and urban or rural status, and correlations calculated using Spearman's rho tests in SPSS/PC 14.0. Post training, participants improve significantly in all competency domains (p competency domains. Lower education and rural status correlate with greater improvement in certain leadership competency domains. Similar assessment methods can be used by other public health education programs to ensure that programs appropriately train specific workforce populations for national accreditation.

  19. The Corporate Governance Framework & its Application to Privatizations of Public Enterprises

    Kenourgios, Dimitris; Samitas, Aristidis; Konstantopoulos, Nikolaos


    This paper is an attempt to evaluate the application of Corporate Governance framework issue within Public domain. It is an attempt to quantify the compliance of Greek companies with international best practices.

  20. Models of education in medicine, public health, and engineering.

    Garcia, Patricia; Armstrong, Robert; Zaman, Muhammad H


    Discussion on global health in both the academic and the public domain has focused largely on research, capacity building, and service delivery. Although these efforts along with financial commitments from public and private partners have contributed to a broader appreciation and understanding of global health challenges, the reflection of global health in academic training has largely been lacking. However, integrative models are beginning to appear.

  1. Convergence of Corporate and Public Governance

    Gérard Hirigoyen


    Full Text Available By analyzing the differences between the corporate and public governance, theoretical and empirical research seems to indicate that the two domains of governance are far too different to share any common aspect. However, in this particular research, it has been argued that public governance is an application of corporate governance. Thus, the research question entails the description and analysis of this possible convergence of the two. Extensive research from literature on corporate governance has been undertaken to establish a relationship between the boards process and the roles that acts as a framework to bridge the gap separating corporate governance from public governance. Corporate governance, at a global level, exists in the for-profit as well as nonprofit organizations. Thus, the definition of this concept needs to be viewed from “an innovative” eye, considering the relationship between the process of the board and roles as characteristic of the public organization and private ones. As the private as well as public organizations are an application of corporate governance, the difference between the two gets narrowed. For the purpose of this research, the case of the French hospitals’ board has been taken into consideration. The members of the public board have been considered for the board process to perform their roles.

  2. Systematic review of public health branding.

    Evans, W Douglas; Blitstein, Jonathan; Hersey, James C; Renaud, Jeanette; Yaroch, Amy L


    Brands build relationships between consumers and products, services, or lifestyles by providing beneficial exchanges and adding value to their objects. Brands can be measured through associations that consumers hold for products and services. Public health brands are the associations that individuals hold for health behaviors, or lifestyles that embody multiple health behaviors. We systematically reviewed the literature on public health brands; developed a methodology for describing branded health messages and campaigns; and examined specific branding strategies across a range of topic areas, campaigns, and global settings. We searched the literature for published studies on public health branding available through all relevant, major online publication databases. Public health branding was operationalized as any manuscripts in the health, social science, and business literature on branding or brands in health promotion marketing. We developed formalized decision rules and applied them in identifying articles for review. We initially identified 154 articles and reviewed a final set of 37, 10 from Africa, Australia, and Europe. Branded health campaigns spanned most of the major domains of public health and numerous communication strategies and evaluation methodologies. Most studies provided clear information on planning, development, and evaluation of the branding effort, while some provided minimal information. Branded health messages typically are theory based, and there is a body of evidence on their behavior change effectiveness, especially in nutrition, tobacco control, and HIV/AIDS. More rigorous research is needed, however, on how branded health messages impact specific populations and behaviors.

  3. Multiple graph regularized protein domain ranking

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan


    Background: Protein domain ranking is a fundamental task in structural biology. Most protein domain ranking methods rely on the pairwise comparison of protein domains while neglecting the global manifold structure of the protein domain database. Recently, graph regularized ranking that exploits the global structure of the graph defined by the pairwise similarities has been proposed. However, the existing graph regularized ranking methods are very sensitive to the choice of the graph model and parameters, and this remains a difficult problem for most of the protein domain ranking methods.Results: To tackle this problem, we have developed the Multiple Graph regularized Ranking algorithm, MultiG-Rank. Instead of using a single graph to regularize the ranking scores, MultiG-Rank approximates the intrinsic manifold of protein domain distribution by combining multiple initial graphs for the regularization. Graph weights are learned with ranking scores jointly and automatically, by alternately minimizing an objective function in an iterative algorithm. Experimental results on a subset of the ASTRAL SCOP protein domain database demonstrate that MultiG-Rank achieves a better ranking performance than single graph regularized ranking methods and pairwise similarity based ranking methods.Conclusion: The problem of graph model and parameter selection in graph regularized protein domain ranking can be solved effectively by combining multiple graphs. This aspect of generalization introduces a new frontier in applying multiple graphs to solving protein domain ranking applications. 2012 Wang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  4. Introduction to the Integrated Domain Modeling Toolset

    Slihte Armands


    Full Text Available This paper describes the Integrated Domain Modeling approach and introduces the supporting toolset as a solution to the complex domain-modeling task. This approach integrates artificial intelligence (AI and system analysis by exploiting ontology, natural language processing (NLP, use cases and model-driven architecture (MDA for knowledge engineering and domain modeling. The IDM toolset provides the opportunity to automatically generate the initial AS-IS model from the formally defined domain knowledge. In this paper, we describe in detail the scope, architecture and implementation of the toolset.

  5. Transform domain steganography with blind source separation

    Jouny, Ismail


    This paper applies blind source separation or independent component analysis for images that may contain mixtures of text, audio, or other images for steganography purposes. The paper focuses on separating mixtures in the transform domain such as Fourier domain or the Wavelet domain. The study addresses the effectiveness of steganography when using linear mixtures of multimedia components and the ability of standard blind sources separation techniques to discern hidden multimedia messages. Mixing in the space, frequency, and wavelet (scale) domains is compared. Effectiveness is measured using mean square error rate between original and recovered images.

  6. Domain wall solutions with Abelian gauge fields

    Rozowsky, J S; Wali, K C


    We study kink (domain wall) solutions in a model consisting of two complex scalar fields coupled to two independent Abelian gauge fields in a Lagrangian that has $U(1)\\times U(1)$ gauge plus $\\mathbb{Z}_2$ discrete symmetry. We find consistent solutions such that while the U(1) symmetries of the fields are preserved while in their respective vacua, they are broken on the domain wall. The gauge field solutions show that the domain wall is sandwiched between domains with constant magnetic fields.

  7. Frequency domain FIR and IIR adaptive filters

    Lynn, D. W.


    A discussion of the LMS adaptive filter relating to its convergence characteristics and the problems associated with disparate eigenvalues is presented. This is used to introduce the concept of proportional convergence. An approach is used to analyze the convergence characteristics of block frequency-domain adaptive filters. This leads to a development showing how the frequency-domain FIR adaptive filter is easily modified to provide proportional convergence. These ideas are extended to a block frequency-domain IIR adaptive filter and the idea of proportional convergence is applied. Experimental results illustrating proportional convergence in both FIR and IIR frequency-domain block adaptive filters is presented.

  8. Trade name and trademark versus domain

    Jarmila Pokorná


    Full Text Available Internet domains have become an integral part of our lives, so one can easily understand that during their use, conflicts can arise, whose participants will search for rules enabling resolution of conflicts. Since the domain name is a replacement of the computer IP address, in the technical sense of the word, this does not concern for domain names a commercial name or brand, because it primarily does not belong to a person in the legal sense of the word and does not serve for its individualization. The average user regularly affiliates domain names with a person offering goods or services on the relevant Website. Domain names used by entrepreneurs in their business activity are often chosen so that the second-level domain (SLD would use words that form the trade name of corporations formed of trading companies. This fact brings domain names close to such designations that serve the individualization of persons or products, especially the trademarks and the commercial name. Domains can come into conflict with the rights to designations, especially trademarks and commercial names. Court practice is resolving these conflicts using rules for unfair competition, or rules for protection of commercial names and trademarks, but it is not ruled out that in the future, special legal regulation of domain names could be established.

  9. Definition and identification of homology domains.

    Lawrence, C B; Goldman, D A


    A method is described for identifying and evaluating regions of significant similarity between two sequences. The notion of a 'homology domain' is employed which defines the boundaries of a region of sequence homology containing no insertions or deletions. The relative significance of different potential homology domains is evaluated using a non-linear similarity score related to the probability of finding the observed level of similarity in the region by chance. The sensitivity of the method is demonstrated by simulating the evolution of homology domains and applying the method to their detection. Several examples of the use of homology domain identification are given.

  10. A Stepwise Projection Data Envelopment Analysis for Public Transport Operations in Japan


    With tightening budgets and increasingly critical reviews of public expenditure, there is a need for a careful analysis of the performance of public bodies in terms of an efficient execution of their tasks. These questions show up everywhere in the public domain, for instance, in the provision of medical facilities, the operation of postal services, or the supply of public transport. A standard tool to judge the efficiency of such agencies is Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). In the past years...

  11. Public health situation awareness: toward a semantic approach

    Mirhaji, Parsa; Richesson, Rachel L.; Turley, James P.; Zhang, Jiajie; Smith, Jack W.


    We propose a knowledge-based public health situation awareness system. The basis for this system is an explicit representation of public health situation awareness concepts and their interrelationships. This representation is based upon the users" (public health decision makers) cognitive model of the world, and optimized towards the efficacy of performance and relevance to the public health situation awareness processes and tasks. In our approach, explicit domain knowledge is the foundation for interpretation of public health data, as apposed to conventional systems where the statistical methods are the essence of the processes. Objectives: To develop a prototype knowledge-based system for public health situation awareness and to demonstrate the utility of knowledge intensive approaches in integration of heterogeneous information, eliminating the effects of incomplete and poor quality surveillance data, uncertainty in syndrome and aberration detection and visualization of complex information structures in public health surveillance settings, particularly in the context of bioterrorism (BT) preparedness. The system employs the Resource Definition Framework (RDF) and additional layers of more expressive languages to explicate the knowledge of domain experts into machine interpretable and computable problem-solving modules that can then guide users and computer systems in sifting through the most "relevant" data for syndrome and outbreak detection and investigation of root cause of the event. The Center for Biosecurity and Public Health Informatics Research is developing a prototype knowledge-based system around influenza, which has complex natural disease patterns, many public health implications, and is a potential agent for bioterrorism. The preliminary data from this effort may demonstrate superior performance in information integration, syndrome and aberration detection, information access through information visualization, and cross-domain investigation of the

  12. Optical time-domain mixer

    Valley, George C.; Sefler, George A.


    We simulate an optical time-domain mixer that can be used to make a photonic analog-to-digital converter (ADC) or a digital demodulator for high-speed optical communications signals. In the basic mixer, a high frequency RF signal modulates a repetitively chirped optical carrier; this RF/optical waveform then is dispersed in one transverse dimension, and imaged onto a 2-dimensional transparency or spatial light modulator whose pixels are modulated with randomly chosen transmission or reflection coefficients (the optical mixing matrix). Following transmission through or reflection from the mixing matrix, the optical waveform from each row of the matrix is recombined and directed to a photodiode and electronics that integrate over the repetition period of the chirped source. Finally, each of these signals is digitized by an independent ADC sampling at a rate equal to the pulse repetition rate of the chirp source. A digital replica of the input RF signal can be recovered by digital signal processing from the digital output of the ADCs and the values of the transmission or reflection coefficients of the mixing matrix. The effective sampling rate is given by the number of pixels per row of the mixing matrix times the repetition rate of the chirp source while the effective resolution is controlled by the resolution of the electronic ADCs and the distortions introduced by the optical mixing process.

  13. Direction des Publications


    These results are promising and provide a scientific validation to the massive use of this species. Thus the effect of ... domaines : pharmacie, cosmétique, agro- alimentaire… ..... nosocomiales, Thèse de doctorat biologie,. Univ Mohamed V ...

  14. Una aproximación histórica al dominio intelectual de las relaciones públicas. Tensiones paradigmáticas en su construcción disciplinar / A historical approach to the intellectual domain of public relations. Paradigmatic tensions in their disciplinary construction

    Gabriel Sadi


    Full Text Available El artículo se interesa por el desarrollo de las relaciones públicas como campo intelectual, propiciando un acercamiento de índole paradigmática a las propuestas teóricas y conceptuales predominantes en los últimos 35 años. Con tal fin, se ha indagado en artículos de publicaciones científicas y en libros de editoriales reconocidas que hayan sido editados entre 1980 y 2015, de modo tal de poner en evidencia las distintas visiones teóricas construidas en torno a la disciplina y establecer si es válido referir a la existencia de un paradigma dominante y enfoques alternativos. / This article focuses on the development of public relations as an intellectual field, promoting a paradigmatic approach to the prevailing theoretical and conceptual proposals in the past 35 years. To this end, it has explored journal articles and books from recognized editorials who have been published between 1980 and 2015, so as to highlight the different theoretical views built around discipline and establish whether it is valid to refer to the existence of a dominant paradigm and alternative approaches.

  15. Public regulators and CSR

    Buhmann, Karin


    for responsible business conduct, connecting to social expectations and bridging to public regulation. This UN guidance has had a significant bearing on how public regulators seek to influence business conduct beyond Human Rights to broader Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) concerns. Drawing on examples...... of such public regulatory governance, this article explores and explains developments towards a juridification of CSR entailing efforts by public regulators to reach beyond jurisdictional and territorial limitations of conventional public law to address adverse effects of transnational economic activity. Through...

  16. Behavioral Public Administration

    Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan; Jilke, Sebastian; Olsen, Asmus Leth


    Behavioral public administration is the analysis of public administration from the micro-level perspective of individual behavior and attitudes by drawing on insights from psychology on the behavior of individuals and groups. The authors discuss how scholars in public administration currently draw...... theories. As such, behavioral public administration complements traditional public administration. Furthermore, it could be a two-way street for psychologists who want to test the external validity of their theories in a political-administrative setting. Finally, four principles are proposed to narrow...

  17. Characterizing Class I WW domains defines key specificity determinants and generates mutant domains with novel specificities.

    Kasanov, J; Pirozzi, G; Uveges, A J; Kay, B K


    WW domains are small protein interaction modules found in a wide range of eukaryotic signaling and structural proteins. Five classes of WW domains have been annotated to date, where each class is largely defined by the type of peptide ligand selected, rather than by similarities within WW domains. Class I WW domains bind Pro-Pro-Xxx-Tyr containing ligands, and it would be of interest to determine residues within the domains that determine this specificity. Fourteen WW domains selected Leu/Pro-Pro-Xxx-Tyr containing peptides ligands via phage display and were thus designated as Class 1 WW domains. These domains include those present in human YAP (hYAP) and WWP3, as well as those found in ubiquitin protein ligases of the Nedd4 family, including mouse Nedd4 (mNedd4), WWP1, WWP2 and Rsp5. Comparing the primary structures of these WW domains highlighted a set of highly conserved residues, in addition to those originally noted to occur within WW domains. Substitutions at two of these conserved positions completely inhibited ligand binding, whereas substitution at a non-conserved position did not. Moreover, mutant WW domains containing substitutions at conserved positions bound novel peptide ligands. Class I WW domains contain a highly conserved set of residues that are important in selecting Pro-Xxx-Tyr containing peptide ligands. The presence of these residues within an uncharacterized WW domain can be used to predict its ability to bind Pro-Xxx-Tyr containing peptide ligands.

  18. The Public Interest in the Globally Sustainable Information Society: The Traditional Knowledge Debate

    Zografos, Daphne


    Society increasingly perceives information as an owned commodity. As a consequence, laws born from this conception are removing uses of information from the public domain and placing them in an enclosed domain where they are subject to an owner's exclusive control. It has been argued that this enclosure movement poses a threat to the diversity of…

  19. Training Public Health Advisors.

    Meyer, Pamela A; Brusuelas, Kristin M; Baden, Daniel J; Duncan, Heather L


    Federal public health advisors provide guidance and assistance to health departments to improve public health program work. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) prepares them with specialized training in administering public health programs. This article describes the evolving training and is based on internal CDC documents and interviews. The first federal public health advisors worked in health departments to assist with controlling syphilis after World War II. Over time, more CDC prevention programs hired them. To meet emerging needs, 3 major changes occurred: the Public Health Prevention Service, a fellowship program, in 1999; the Public Health Associate Program in 2007; and integration of those programs. Key components of the updated training are competency-based training, field experience, supervision, recruitment and retention, and stakeholder support. The enduring strength of the training has been the experience in a public health agency developing practical skills for program implementation and management.

  20. Public Computation & Boundary Play

    Sengupta, Pratim


    In this paper, we introduce 'public computation' as a genre of learning environments that can be used to radically broaden public participation in authentic, computation-enabled STEM disciplinary practices. Our paradigmatic approach utilizes open source software designed for professional scientists, engineers and digital artists, and situates them in an undiluted form, alongside live and archived expert support, in a public space. We present a case study of DigiPlay, a prototypical public computation space we designed at the University of Calgary, where users can interact directly with scientific simulations as well as the underlying open source code using an array of massive multi- touch screens. We argue that in such a space, public interactions with the code can be thought of as boundary work and play, through which public participation becomes legitimate scientific act, as the public engages in scientific creation through truly open-ended explorations with the code.