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Sample records for microalgal culture collection

  1. Microalgal Culture Collection Transfers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Milford Microalgal culture Collection holds over 200 live cultures representing 13 classes of of algae. The cultures are maintained in three different growing...

  2. Microalgal Mass Culture Room Harvest Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The microalgal mass culture room, housed at the NOAA Fisheries' Milford CT laboratory, provides research grade microalgae (phytoplankton) to in-house and...

  3. Microalgal Mass Culture Data from Greenhouse Tanks

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data is collected during experiments growing marine microalgae, on a pilot scale, to improve culture methods and yield. Cultures are typically 450 liters in...

  4. Irradiance optimization of outdoor microalgal cultures using solar tracked photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindersin, Stefan; Leupold, Marco; Kerner, Martin; Hanelt, Dieter

    2013-03-01

    Photosynthetic activity and temperature regulation of microalgal cultures (Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus) under different irradiances controlled by a solar tracker and different cell densities were studied in outdoor flat panel photobioreactors. An automated process control unit regulated light and temperature as well as pH value and nutrient concentration in the culture medium. CO2 was supplied using flue gas from an attached combined block heat and power station. Photosynthetic activity was determined by pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry. Compared to the horizontal irradiance of 55 mol photons m(-2) d(-1) on a clear day, the solar tracked photobioreactors enabled a decrease and increase in the overall light absorption from 19 mol photons m(-2) d(-1) (by rotation out of direct irradiance) to 79 mol photons m(-2) d(-1) (following the position of the sun). At biomass concentrations below 1.1 g cell dry weight (CDW) L(-1), photoinhibition of about 35 % occurred at irradiances of ≥1,000 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) photosynthetic active radiation (PAR). Using solar tracked photobioreactors, photoinhibition can be reduced and at optimum biomass concentration (≥2.3 g CDW L(-1)), the culture was irradiated up to 2,000 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) to overcome light limitation with biomass yields of 0.7 g CDW mol photons(-1) and high photosynthetic activities indicated by an effective quantum yield of 0.68 and a maximum quantum yield of 0.80 (F v/F m). Overheating due to high irradiance was avoided by turning the PBR out of the sun or using a cooling system, which maintained the temperature close to the species-specific temperature optima.

  5. Culture collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David

    2012-01-01

    Culture collections no matter their size, form, or institutional objectives play a role in underpinning microbiology, supplying the resources for study, innovation, and discovery. Their basic roles include providing a mechanism for ex situ conservation of organisms; they are repositories for strains subject to publication, taking in safe, confidential, and patent deposits from researchers. They supply strains for use; therefore, the microorganisms provided must be authentic and preserved well, and any associated information must be valid and sufficient to facilitate the confirmation of their identity and to facilitate their use. The organisms must be collected in compliance with international conventions, international and national legislation and distributed to users indicating clearly the terms and conditions under which they are received and can be used. Collections are harmonizing approaches and characterizing strains to meet user needs. No one single collection can carry out this task alone, and therefore, it is important that output and strategy are coordinated to ensure culture collections deliver the basic resources and services microbiological innovation requires. This chapter describes the types of collection and how they can implement quality management systems and operate to deliver their basic functions. The links to information sources given not only provide support for the practitioners within collections but also provide guidance to users on accessing the huge resource available and how they can help ensure microbiology has the resources and a solid platform for future development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of the nutritional status of semi-continuous microalgal cultures on the productivity and biochemical composition of Brachionus plicatilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Martiña; Seixas, Pedro; Coutinho, Paula; Fábregas, Jaime; Otero, Ana

    2011-12-01

    The rotifer Brachionus plicatilis was cultured using the microalga Isochrysis aff. galbana clone T-ISO as feed. T-ISO was cultured semi-continuously with daily renewal rates of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% of the volume of cultures. The increase of renewal rate led to increasing nutrient and light availability in microalgal cultures, which caused differences in the biochemical composition of microalgal biomass. Growth rate, individual dry weight, organic content, and biomass productivity of rotifer cultures increased in response to higher growth rate in T-ISO cultures. Rotifer growth rate showed a strong negative correlation (R² = 0.90) with the C/N ratio of microalgal biomass. Rotifer dry weight was also affected by nutrient availability of T-ISO cultures, increasing up to 50% from nutrient-limited to nutrient-sufficient conditions. Consequently, biomass productivity of rotifer cultures increased more than twofold with the increase of renewal rate of T-ISO cultures. Rotifer organic content underwent the same trend of total dry weight. Maximum content of polyunsaturated fatty acids was reached in rotifers fed T-ISO from the renewal rate of 40%, with percentages of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6ω-3, DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5ω-3, EPA) of 11% and 5% of total fatty acids, respectively. Selecting the most appropriate conditions for microalgal culture can therefore enhance the nutritive quality of microalgal biomass, resulting in a better performance of filter feeders and their nutrient content, and may constitute a useful tool to improve the rearing of fish larvae and other aquaculture organisms that require live feed in some or all the stages of their life cycle.

  7. Collection and Characterization of Saline Microalgae From South Florida: Final Report, May 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, R. D.; Ryther, J. H.; Pendoley, P. D.; Jensen, P. R.; Blakeslee, M.

    1986-05-01

    In 1983, SERI initiated a microalgal species acquisition program to provide strains to be used in the development of microalgal culture technology for the production of fuels (Raymond 1984). From previous collection efforts (Barclay 1984, Tadros 1984) it was determined that desirous species should grow rapidly under fluctuating culture conditions and be capable of producing large concentrations of lipid.

  8. Microalgal cultivation with biogas slurry for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liandong; Yan, Cheng; Li, Zhaohua

    2016-11-01

    Microalgal growth requires a substantial amount of chemical fertilizers. An alternative to the utilization of fertilizer is to apply biogas slurry produced through anaerobic digestion to cultivate microalgae for the production of biofuels. Plenty of studies have suggested that anaerobic digestate containing high nutrient contents is a potentially feasible nutrient source to culture microalgae. However, current literature indicates a lack of review available regarding microalgal cultivation with biogas slurry for the production of biofuels. To help fill this gap, this review highlights the integration of digestate nutrient management with microalgal production. It first unveils the current status of microalgal production, providing basic background to the topic. Subsequently, microalgal cultivation technologies using biogas slurry are discussed in detail. A scale-up scheme for simultaneous biogas upgrade and digestate application through microalgal cultivation is then proposed. Afterwards, several uncertainties that might affect this practice are explored. Finally, concluding remarks are put forward. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Consolidated bioprocessing of microalgal biomass to carboxylates by a mixed culture of cow rumen bacteria using anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baisuo; Liu, Jie; Frear, Craig; Holtzapple, Mark; Chen, Shulin

    2016-12-01

    This study employed mixed-culture consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) to digest microalgal biomass in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR). The primary objectives are to evaluate the impact of hydraulic residence time (HRT) on the productivity of carboxylic acids and to characterize the bacterial community. HRT affects the production rate and patterns of carboxylic acids. For the 5-L laboratory-scale fermentation, a 12-day HRT was selected because it offered the highest productivity of carboxylic acids and it synthesized longer chains. The variability of the bacterial community increased with longer HRT (R 2 =0.85). In the 5-L laboratory-scale fermentor, the most common phyla were Firmicutes (58.3%), Bacteroidetes (27.4%), and Proteobacteria (11.9%). The dominant bacterial classes were Clostridia (29.8%), Bacteroidia (27.4%), Tissierella (26.2%), and Betaproteobacteria (8.9%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Physico-chemical and biotic factors influencing microalgal seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical and biotic factors influencing microalgal seed culture propagation for inoculation of a ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... used to inoculate an open raceway pond for large scale biomass production for biodiesel production.

  11. Modeling of microalgal metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kliphuis, A.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Microalgae are a potential source for a wide range of products, such as carotenoids, lipids, hydrogen, protein and starch, which are of interest for food, feed and biofuel applications. Maximization of microalgal product and biomass productivity in (large-scale) outdoor photobioreactors is important

  12. Microalgal cultivation and utilization in sustainable energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakaniemi, A.-M.

    2012-07-01

    Microalgae are a promising feedstock for biofuel and bioenergy production due to their high photosynthetic efficiencies, high growth rates and no need for external organic carbon supply. However, microalgal biomass cultivation for energy production purposes is still rare in commercial scale. Further research and development is needed to make microalgal derived energy sustainable and economically competitive. This work investigated cultivation of fresh water microalga Chlorella vulgaris and marine microalga Dunaliella tertiolecta and their utilization in production of hydrogen, methane, electricity, butanol and bio-oil after bulk harvesting the biomass. Growth of the two microalgae was studied in five different photobioreactor (PBR) configurations especially concentrating on the quantification and characterization of heterotrophic bacteria in non-axenic microalgal cultivations and microalgal utilization of different nitrogen sources. Anaerobic cultures used for the energy conversion processes were enriched from a mesophilic municipal sewage digester separately for production of H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and electricity from the two microalgal species. After culture enrichment, energy conversion yields of microalgal biomass to the different energy carriers were compared. In summary, this study demonstrated that both C. vulgaris and D. tertiolecta can be used for production of Hv(2), CHv(4), electricity, butanol and lipids. Based on this study C. vulgaris is more suitable for bioenergy production than D. tertiolecta. Depending on cellular lipid content, lipid utilization for bio-oil production and anaerobic digestion were the most potent means of converting C. vulgaris biomass to energy. The study also revealed diverse microbial communities in non-axenic microalgal photobioreactor cultures and in anaerobic consortia converting microalgal biomass to energy carriers

  13. Microalgae Culture Collection: 1984-1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-09-01

    The Microalgae Culture Collection at the Solar Energy Research Institute has been established for the maintenance and distribution of strains that have been characterized for biomass fuel applications.

  14. Microalgae culture collection, 1986-1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barclay, W.; Johansen, J.; Chelf, P.; Nagle, N.; Roessler, P.; Lemke, P.

    1986-12-01

    The SERI Microalgae Culture Collection provides a repository for strains identified or developed for mass culture biomass production and makes these strains readily available to the research community. The strains in the collection have been selected for their potential in biomass fuel applications, and many produce significant quantities of cellular storage lipids. All of the newly added strains have been recently isolated by SERI and its subcontractors in organized screening programs. Many have been tested in outdoor mass culture systems, and several have demonstrated excellent performance as biomass producers. The strains added to the collection this year have been isolated from inland saline waters and marine waters. We believe that the strains in this collection can provide a source of extremely useful organisms, both for laboratory experimentation and for mass culture research. Most of the strains are currently nonaxenic. Again this year, cultures will be shipped free of charge to interested researchers. An important function of the culture collection catalog, in addition to listing the available strains, is to provide culture and performance data for each of the organisms. By collecting a summary of the requirements and characteristics of these organisms, we hope to allow requestors of cultures to begin productive research with a minimum of preliminary work on culture techniques.

  15. Identification of an industrial microalgal strain for starch production in biorefinery context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gifuni, Imma; Olivieri, Giuseppe; Pollio, Antonino; Marzocchella, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    The recent trends in microalgal cultures are focused on the biorefinery of the biomass components. Some of them are not completely valorised, for example starch. Since there is a wide market for starch products in food and non-food industries, the exploitation of microalgal starch fractions could

  16. Microalgal biofilms for wastewater treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelee, N.C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to explore the possibilities of using microalgal biofilms for the treatment of municipal wastewater, with a focus on the post-treatment of municipal wastewater effluent. The potential of microalgal biofilms for wastewater treatment was first investigated using a

  17. The United States Culture Collection Network (USCCN): Enhancing Microbial Genomics Research through Living Microbe Culture Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Hess, Matthias; Bennett, A. Rick; Ryan, Matthew; Kang, Seogchan; Nobles, David; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Inderbitzin, Patrik; Sitepu, Irnayuli R.; Torok, Tamas; Brown, Daniel R.; Cho, Juliana; Wertz, John E.; Mukherjee, Supratim; Cady, Sherry L.

    2015-01-01

    The mission of the United States Culture Collection Network (USCCN; http://usccn.org) is “to facilitate the safe and responsible utilization of microbial resources for research, education, industry, medicine, and agriculture for the betterment of human kind.” Microbial culture collections are a key component of life science research, biotechnology, and emerging global biobased economies. Representatives and users of several microbial culture collections from the United States and Europe gathered at the University of California, Davis, to discuss how collections of microorganisms can better serve users and stakeholders and to showcase existing resources available in public culture collections. PMID:26092453

  18. Microalgae Culture Collection, 1985-1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The SERI Microalgae Culture Collection was established in support of the US Department of Energy's Biofuels Program to provide a repository for strains identified or developed for mass culture biomass production and to make these strains readily available to the research community. The strains in the collection have been selected for their potential in biomass fuel applications, and many produce significant quantities of cellular storage lipids. The Culture Collection Catalog lists 20 strains of ten species. Many have been tested in outdoor mass culture systems, and several have demonstrated excellent performance as biomass producers, with yields of up to 40 grams of organic matter per square meter per day. The majority of strains added to the collection this year have been isolated from inland saline waters, although marine species are included as well. We believe that the strains in this collection can provide a source of extremely useful organisms, both for laboratory experimentation and for mass culture research. 98 refs., 31 figs., 52 tabs.

  19. Dependence of carbon dioxide concentration on microalgal carbon dioxide fixation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Yeoung Sang; Park, Song Moon [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Environmental Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea); Bolesky, Bohumil [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University (Canada)

    1999-10-01

    Batch cultivation of chlorella vulgaris was carried out under various CO{sub 2} concentrations in order to understand and describe mathematically the CO{sub 2} inhibition of microalgal CO{sub 2} fixation. The volumetric CO{sub 2} transfer coefficient from mixture gas to culture medium was estimated from the volumetric O{sub 2} transfer coefficient obtained experimentally. Using this transfer coefficient and aquatic equilibrium relationship between dissolved inorganic carbons, the behavior of dissolved CO{sub 2} was calculated during microalgal culture. When air containing 0.035%(v/v) CO{sub 2} was supplied into microalgal culture, the fixation rate was limited by CO{sub 2} transfer rate. However, the limitation was disappeared by supplying mixture gas containing above 2%(v/v) CO{sub 2} and the dissolved CO{sub 2} concentration was maintained at the saturated value. In the range of CO{sub 2} partial pressure in the flue gases from thermal power sations and steel-making plants, the microalgal CO{sub 2} fixation rate was inhibited. The CO{sub 2} fixation rate was successfully formulated by a new empirical equation as a function of dissolved CO{sub 2} concentration, which could be useful for modeling and simulating the performance of photobioreaction with enriched CO{sub 2}. Also, it was found that the CO{sub 2} inhibition of microalgal CO{sub 2} fixation was reversible and that microalgal CO{sub 2} fixation process could be stable against a shock of unusually high CO{sub 2} concentration. 29 refs., 8 figs.

  20. Microalgal distribution, diversity and photo-physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microalgal distribution, diversity and photo-physiological performance across five ... D'Esny (MAPD), the sandy beach of Blue Bay (SBBB) and the estuarine area of Le ... Microalgal density in the water column (micro-phytoplankton) was highest in ... Diatom was the most abundant microalgal group, followed by dinoflagellate ...

  1. Biodiesel production by microalgal biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, GuanHua [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, China University of Mining and Technology (China); Chen, Feng [School of Biological Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); College of Light Industry and Food Sciences, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Wei, Dong; Zhang, XueWu; Chen, Gu [College of Light Industry and Food Sciences, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China)

    2010-01-15

    Biodiesel has received much attention in recent years. Although numerous reports are available on the production of biodiesel from vegetable oils of terraneous oil-plants, such as soybean, sunflower and palm oils, the production of biodiesel from microalgae is a newly emerging field. Microalgal biotechnology appears to possess high potential for biodiesel production because a significant increase in lipid content of microalgae is now possible through heterotrophic cultivation and genetic engineering approaches. This paper provides an overview of the technologies in the production of biodiesel from microalgae, including the various modes of cultivation for the production of oil-rich microalgal biomass, as well as the subsequent downstream processing for biodiesel production. The advances and prospects of using microalgal biotechnology for biodiesel production are discussed. (author)

  2. Microbial culture collection for enhancement of microbial biotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong Bor Chyan; Pauline Liew Woan Ying; Goh Chee Meng; Mat Rasol Awang

    2007-01-01

    A bacterial culture collection was established in Agrotechnology and Biosciences Division since 2004. The culture collection was named MINT Bacterial Culture Collection (MBCC). The main objective is to preserve the indigenous bacterial cultures isolated from various environments. Later, the collection was extended to commercially available plasmids, recombinant clones and selected PCR products. This paper describes the importance of culture collection, the experience and the difficulties encountered. (Author)

  3. Pilot-scale continuous recycling of growth medium for the mass culture of a halotolerant Tetraselmis sp. in raceway ponds under increasing salinity: a novel protocol for commercial microalgal biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fon Sing, S; Isdepsky, A; Borowitzka, M A; Lewis, D M

    2014-06-01

    The opportunity to recycle microalgal culture medium for further cultivation is often hampered by salinity increases from evaporation and fouling by dissolved and particulate matter. In this study, the impact of culture re-use after electro-flocculation of seawater-based medium on growth and biomass productivity of the halotolerant green algal strain Tetraselmis sp., MUR 233, was investigated in pilot-scale open raceway ponds over 5months. Despite a salinity increase from 5.5% to 12% (w/v) NaCl, Tetraselmis MUR 233 grown on naturally DOC-enriched recycled medium produced 48-160% more ash free dry weight (AFDW) biomass daily per unit pond area than when grown on non-recycled medium. A peak productivity of 37.5±3.1gAFDWm(-2)d(-1) was reached in the recycled medium upon transition from ∼14% to ∼7% NaCl. The combination of high biomass-yielding mixotrophic growth under high salinity has been proven to be a successful sustainable cultivation strategy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Microalgal Cultivation in Secondary Effluent: Recent Developments and Future Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junping Lv

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Eutrophication of water catchments and the greenhouse effect are major challenges in developing the global economy in the near future. Secondary effluents, containing high amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus, need further treatment before being discharged into receiving water bodies. At the same time, new environmentally friendly energy sources need to be developed. Integrating microalgal cultivation for the production of biodiesel feedstock with the treatment of secondary effluent is one way of addressing both issues. This article provides a comprehensive review of the latest progress in microalgal cultivation in secondary effluent to remove pollutants and accumulate lipids. Researchers have discovered that microalgae remove nitrogen and phosphorus effectively from secondary effluent, accumulating biomass and lipids in the process. Immobilization of appropriate microalgae, and establishing a consortium of microalgae and/or bacteria, were both found to be feasible ways to enhance pollutant removal and lipid production. Demonstrations of pilot-scale microalgal cultures in secondary effluent have also taken place. However there is still much work to be done in improving pollutants removal, biomass production, and lipid accumulation in secondary effluent. This includes screening microalgae, constructing the consortium, making use of flue gas and nitrogen, developing technologies related to microalgal harvesting, and using lipid-extracted algal residues (LEA.

  5. International Marine Biotechnology Culture Collection (IMBCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaborsky, O.R.; Baker, K. [Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this project is to establish a premier culture collection of tropical marine microorganisms able to generate hydrogen from water or organic substances. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic microorganisms will serve as the biological reservoir or {open_quotes}library{close_quotes} for other DOE Hydrogen Program contractors, the biohydrogen research community and industry. This project consists of several tasks: (a) transfer of the Mitsui-Miami strains to Hawaii`s International Marine Biotechnology Culture Collection (IMBCC) housed at the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI); (b) maintain and distribute Mitsui-Miami strains; (c) characterize key strains by traditional and advanced biotechnological techniques; (d) expand Hawaii`s IMBCC; and (e) establish and operate an information resource (database). The project was initiated only late in the summer of 1995 but progress has been made on all tasks. Of the 161 cyanobacterial strains imported, 147 survived storage and importation and 145 are viable. with most exhibiting growth. Of the 406 strains of other photosynthetic bacteria imported, 392 survived storage and importation and 353 are viable, with many exhibiting growth. This project is linked to cooperative efforts being supported by the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) through its Marine Biotechnology Institute (MBI) and Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth (RITE).

  6. Microalgal symbiosis in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carla A; Reis, Alberto

    2014-07-01

    This review provides an analysis of recent published work on interactions between microorganisms, especially the ones involving mainly nutrient exchanges and at least with one microalga species. Examples of microbial partners are given, with a remark to the potential application of cultures of an autotroph and a heterotroph, which grow simultaneously, taking advantage of the complementary metabolisms. These are particularly interesting, either due to economic or sustainable aspects, and some applications have already reached the commercial stage of development. The added advantages of these symbiotic cultures are biomass, lipid, and other products productivity enhancement a better utilization of resources and the reduction or even elimination of process residues (including carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases) to conduct an increasingly greener biotechnology. Among the several symbiotic partners referred, the microalgae and yeast cultures are the most used. The interaction between these two microorganisms shows how to enhance the lipid production for biodiesel purposes compared with separated (stand-alone) cultures.

  7. An experimental investigation of microalgal dewatering efficiency of belt filter system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Sandip

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the microalgal dewatering efficiency of a belt filter system for feed concentrations below 10 g dry wt./L. A prototype belt filtration system designed for 50 g dry wt./L microalgal feed concentration was used for this investigation. The highest concentration of microalgal suspension available for testing on the prototype belt filtration system was 6 g dry wt./L obtained from biomass settling tanks at the Lawrence, Kansas domestic wastewater treatment plant. For preparation of feed suspension with concentrations below 10 g dry wt./L, microalgal cultivation was followed by flocculation. A mixed laboratory culture of freshwater species dominated by three eukaryotic green microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus sp., and Kirchneriella sp. was cultivated in wastewater effluent. This was followed by flocculation which resulted in a microalgal feed suspension concentration of 4 g dry wt./L. Belt dewatering tests were conducted on microalgal suspensions with feed concentrations of 4 g dry wt./L and 6 g dry wt./L. The maximum microalgal recovery with the belt dewatering system was 46% from the 4 g dry wt./L, and 84% from the 6 g dry wt./L suspensions respectively. The results of this study indicate that microalgal suspension concentrations as low as 6 g dry wt./L can be recovered with a belt filter system improving the overall dewatering efficiency of the system.

  8. The effect of light supply on microalgal growth, CO2 uptake and nutrient removal from wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonçalves, A.L.; Simões, M.; Pires, J.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of irradiance and light:dark ratio on microalgal growth was analysed. • Microalgal growth, CO 2 capture, nitrogen and phosphorus uptake were evaluated. • Higher irradiances and light periods supported higher growth and CO 2 uptake rates. • All the studied microalgal strains have shown high nitrogen removal efficiencies. • The highest phosphorus removal efficiency was 67.6%. - Abstract: Microalgal based biofuels have been reported as an attractive alternative for fossil fuels, since they constitute a renewable energy source that reduces greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. However, producing biofuels from microalgae is still not economically viable. Therefore, the integration of biofuel production with other microalgal applications, such as CO 2 capture and nutrient removal from wastewaters, would reduce the microalgal production costs (and the environmental impact of cultures), increasing the economic viability of the whole process. Additionally, producing biofuels from microalgae strongly depends on microalgal strain and culture conditions. This study evaluates the effect of culture conditions, namely light irradiance (36, 60, 120 and 180 μE m −2 s −1 ) and light:dark ratio (10:14, 14:10 and 24:0), on microalgal growth, atmospheric CO 2 uptake and nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorous) removal from culture medium. Four different microalgal strains, Chlorella vulgaris, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Synechocystis salina and Microcystis aeruginosa, were studied to ascertain the most advantageous regarding the referred applications. This study has shown that higher light irradiance values and light periods resulted in higher specific growth rates and CO 2 uptake rates. C. vulgaris presented the highest specific growth rate and CO 2 uptake rate: 1.190 ± 0.041 d −1 and 0.471 ± 0.047 g CO2 L −1 d −1 , respectively. All the strains have shown high nitrogen removal efficiencies, reaching 100% removal percentages in

  9. The population abundance, distribution pattern and culture studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-18

    Aug 18, 2009 ... The population abundance, distribution pattern and culture studies of ... plankton species belong mainly to the nanoplankton and microplankton ... Algal samples were collected from the shore using microalgal net cone shaped of .... species diversity of Porto Novo, Tamil Nadu and De et al. (1994) in the ...

  10. Microalgal biomass production and on-site bioremediation of carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide from flue gas using Chlorella sp. cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Sheng-Yi; Kao, Chien-Ya; Huang, Tzu-Ting; Lin, Chia-Jung; Ong, Seow-Chin; Chen, Chun-Da; Chang, Jo-Shu; Lin, Chih-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    The growth and on-site bioremediation potential of an isolated thermal- and CO₂-tolerant mutant strain, Chlorella sp. MTF-7, were investigated. The Chlorella sp. MTF-7 cultures were directly aerated with the flue gas generated from coke oven of a steel plant. The biomass concentration, growth rate and lipid content of Chlorella sp. MTF-7 cultured in an outdoor 50-L photobioreactor for 6 days was 2.87 g L⁻¹ (with an initial culture biomass concentration of 0.75 g L⁻¹), 0.52 g L⁻¹ d⁻¹ and 25.2%, respectively. By the operation with intermittent flue gas aeration in a double-set photobioreactor system, average efficiency of CO₂ removal from the flue gas could reach to 60%, and NO and SO₂ removal efficiency was maintained at approximately 70% and 50%, respectively. Our results demonstrate that flue gas from coke oven could be directly introduced into Chlorella sp. MTF-7 cultures to potentially produce algal biomass and efficiently capture CO₂, NO and SO₂ from flue gas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Classical Pop: Documenting Popular Musical Culture in Library Audio Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarakan, Sheldon Lewis

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the library's role in developing a classical pop collection (defined as that music which is best representative of an era, event, or recognizable cultural trend). Popular culture, establishing the collection, funding, and archives are highlighted. A 230-item discography, addresses of five record companies, and 14 references are appended.…

  12. 75 FR 42818 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Collection of Safety Culture Data for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Collection of Safety Culture Data for Program Evaluation AGENCY... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Collection of Safety Culture Data for Program Evaluation. Type of Request... data on the nation's transportation system is an important component of BTS' responsibility to the...

  13. Biomass and Neutral Lipid Production in Geothermal Microalgal Consortia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bywaters, Kathryn F.; Fritsen, Christian H.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, technologies have been developed that offer the possibility of using algal biomass as feedstocks to energy producing systems – in addition to oil-derived fuels (Bird et al., 2011, 2012). Growing native mixed microalgal consortia for biomass in association with geothermal resources has the potential to mitigate negative impacts of seasonally low temperatures on biomass production systems as well as mitigate some of the challenges associated with growing unialgal strains. We assessed community composition, growth rates, biomass, and neutral lipid production of microalgal consortia obtained from geothermal hot springs in the Great Basin/Nevada area that were cultured under different thermal and light conditions. Biomass production rates ranged from 39.0 to 344.1 mg C L−1 day−1. The neutral lipid production in these consortia with and without shifts to lower temperatures and additions of bicarbonate (both environmental parameters that have been shown to enhance neutral lipid production) ranged from 0 to 38.74 mg free fatty acids (FFA) and triacylglycerols (TAG) L−1 day−1; the upper value was approximately 6% of the biomass produced. The higher lipid values were most likely due to the presence of Achnanthidium sp. Palmitic and stearic acids were the dominant free fatty acids. The S/U ratio (the saturated to unsaturated FA ratio) decreased for cultures shifted from their original temperature to 15°C. Biomass production was within the upper limits of those reported for individual strains, and production of neutral lipids was increased with secondary treatment. All results demonstrate a potential of culturing and manipulating resultant microalgal consortia for biomass-based energy production and perhaps even for biofuels. PMID:25763368

  14. Biomass and Neutral Lipid Production in Geothermal Microalgal Consortia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Faye Bywaters

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, technologies have been developed that offer the possibility of using algal biomass as feedstocks to energy producing systems- in addition to oil-derived fuels (Bird et al., 2011;Bird et al., 2012. Growing native mixed microalgal consortia for biomass in association with geothermal resources has the potential to mitigate negative impacts of seasonally low temperatures on biomass production systems as well as mitigate some of the challenges associated with growing unialgal strains. We assessed community composition, growth rates, biomass and neutral lipid production of microalgal consortia obtained from geothermal hot springs in the Great Basin/Nevada area that were cultured under different thermal and light conditions. Biomass production rates ranged from 368 to 3246 mg C L-1 d-1. The neutral lipid production in these consortia with and without shifts to lower temperatures and additions of bicarbonate (both environmental parameters that have been shown to enhance neutral lipid production ranged from zero to 38.74 mg free fatty acids and triacylglycerols L-1 d-1, the upper value was approximately 6% of the biomass produced. The higher lipid values were most likely due to the presence of Achnanthidium sp. Palmitic and stearic acids were the dominant free fatty acids. The S/U ratio (the saturated to unsaturated FA ratio decreased for cultures shifted from their original temperature to 15°C. Biomass production was within the upper limits of those reported for individual strains, and production of neutral lipids was increased with secondary treatment – all results demonstrate a potential of culturing and manipulating resultant microalgal consortia for biomass-based energy production and perhaps even for biofuels.

  15. Data management and database structure at the ARS Culture Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The organization and management of collection data for the 96,000 strains held in the ARS Culture Collection has been an ongoing process. Originally, the records for the four separate collections were maintained by individual curators in notebooks and/or card files and subsequently on the National C...

  16. Microalgal production - A close look at the economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norsker, N.H.; Barbosa, M.J.; Vermuë, M.H.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, microalgal biofuel production is being investigated. It is strongly debated which type of production technology is the most adequate. Microalgal biomass production costs were calculated for 3 different micro algal production systems operating at commercial scale today: open ponds,

  17. Visualising Cultures: The "European Picture Book Collection" Moves "Down Under"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Penni; Daly, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The potential for picture books in national collections to act as mirrors reflecting the reader's cultural identity, is widely accepted. This paper shows that the books in a New Zealand Picture Book Collection can also become windows into unfamiliar worlds for non-New Zealand readers, giving them the opportunity to learn more about a context in…

  18. Molecular characterization of some lignicolous species from fungal culture collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stević Nevena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Culture collections of microorganisms, including fungi, are strain deposits recognised as Biological Resource Centers (BRCs with a great importance in science, industry and education. Their objective is to preserve the purity, viability and genomic integrity of every single strain as a member of such collection. Since improvement of molecular methods nowadays brought many novel approaches in manipulation with strains of microorganisms, they can also be useful for characterization of existing stored strains. ITS1 region in nuclear DNA is preferred barcoding marker for taxon identification, which can be explained by its great inter-species variability. This paper presents results from analysing ITS1 region sequences (17 obtained from fungal DNA of culture collection of autochthonous, lignicolous genera Piptoporus, Pleurotus, Ganoderma and Schizophyllum cultured on malt agar plates for 14 days at 25°C. BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool was used for comparison with online databases, while alignment of sequences was made with MEGA 5.10 software. Morphological determination of species or genus was confirmed for 13 cultures, while the others were disproved. The resulting alignment indicated small intra-species variability of ITS1 region and pointed to it as an ideal marker for verification of fungal culture collections' authenticity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III43002 and by the Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development, Vojvodina, Serbia APV 114-4513592/2013-03: Molecular and phenotypic diversity of taxa of economical and epidemiological importance, and endangered and endemic species in Europe

  19. Microalgal toxin(s): characteristics and importance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prokaryotic and eukaryotic microalgae produce a wide array of compounds with biological activities. These include antibiotics, algicides, toxins, pharmaceutically active compounds and plant growth regulators. Toxic microalgae, in this sense, are common only among the cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. The microalgal ...

  20. Towards microalgal triglycerides in the commodity markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benvenuti, Giulia; Ruiz, Jesús; Lamers, Packo P.; Bosma, Rouke; Wijffels, René H.; Barbosa, Maria J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Microalgal triglycerides (TAGs) hold great promise as sustainable feedstock for commodity industries. However, to determine research priorities and support business decisions, solid techno-economic studies are essential. Here, we present a techno-economic analysis of two-step TAG

  1. The ARS Culture Collection and Developments in Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ARS Culture Collection (NRRL) has played a prominent role in the development of biotechnology since its founding in 1940 when the Northern Regional Research Laboratory opened. Early discoveries included selection of production strains for penicillin, dextran blood extender, xanthan gum and the v...

  2. Digital Collections, Digital Libraries & the Digitization of Cultural Heritage Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Clifford

    2002-01-01

    Discusses digital collections and digital libraries. Topics include broadband availability; digital rights protection; content, both non-profit and commercial; digitization of cultural content; sustainability; metadata harvesting protocol; infrastructure; authorship; linking multiple resources; data mining; digitization of reference works;…

  3. An Information System for European culture collections: the way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaregola, Serge; Vasilenko, Alexander; Romano, Paolo; Robert, Vincent; Ozerskaya, Svetlana; Kopf, Anna; Glöckner, Frank O; Smith, David

    2016-01-01

    Culture collections contain indispensable information about the microorganisms preserved in their repositories, such as taxonomical descriptions, origins, physiological and biochemical characteristics, bibliographic references, etc. However, information currently accessible in databases rarely adheres to common standard protocols. The resultant heterogeneity between culture collections, in terms of both content and format, notably hampers microorganism-based research and development (R&D). The optimized exploitation of these resources thus requires standardized, and simplified, access to the associated information. To this end, and in the interest of supporting R&D in the fields of agriculture, health and biotechnology, a pan-European distributed research infrastructure, MIRRI, including over 40 public culture collections and research institutes from 19 European countries, was established. A prime objective of MIRRI is to unite and provide universal access to the fragmented, and untapped, resources, information and expertise available in European public collections of microorganisms; a key component of which is to develop a dynamic Information System. For the first time, both culture collection curators as well as their users have been consulted and their feedback, concerning the needs and requirements for collection databases and data accessibility, utilised. Users primarily noted that databases were not interoperable, thus rendering a global search of multiple databases impossible. Unreliable or out-of-date and, in particular, non-homogenous, taxonomic information was also considered to be a major obstacle to searching microbial data efficiently. Moreover, complex searches are rarely possible in online databases thus limiting the extent of search queries. Curators also consider that overall harmonization-including Standard Operating Procedures, data structure, and software tools-is necessary to facilitate their work and to make high-quality data easily accessible

  4. Similarity microalgal epiphyte composition on seagrass of Enhalus acoroides and Thalasia hemprichii from different waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartati, R.; Zainuri, M.; Ambariyanto, A.; Widianingsih; Trianto, A.; Mahendrajaya, R. T.

    2018-03-01

    The epiphytes are all autotrophic organisms that are permanently attached to rhizomes, roots, and leaves of seagrasses. The epiphyte is an important primary producer for the seagrass ecosystem and contributes significantly to the food chain. This study aims to identify the composition of microepiphyte algae on Enhalus acoroides and Thalassia hemprichii and their similarity levels of both compositions. The 20 leaves samples of E. acoroides and T. hemprichii were observed. The epiphytic microalgae which found on the surface of the seagrass leaves were scrapped, collected in a bottle sample, and fixed with 70 % alcohol and identified into genera. The relation of epiphytic microalgal genera to the location and species of seagrass was analyzed using similarity analysis. The Chrysophyta, Cyanophyta, and Chlorophyta epiphytic microalgal were found. There were similarity variations of the microalgal epiphyte in seagrass of E. acoroides and T. hemprichii and seagrass habitat sites. Morphology and seagrass life affects the abundance and diversity of the epiphytic microalgal attached to the seagrass and it may be associated with the epiphytic lifetime in the seagrass.

  5. Role of collective self-esteem on youth violence in a collective culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Lena L; Chang, Weining C

    2009-02-01

    Youth violence involvement has always been the focus of significant research attention. However, as most of the studies on youth violence have been conducted in Western cultures, little is known about the antecedents of violence in the Asian context. Researchers have suggested that collectivism might be the reason for the lower violent crime rates in Asia. Nevertheless, the present study proposes an alternative approach to the collectivistic orientation and violence relationship: The possibility that allocentrism (collectivist tendency at the individual difference level) might shape the meaning of and the attitudes towards violence; thus not all aspects of a collectivist culture serve as deterrents for violence. Instead of viewing it as a random individual act, violence in a collective cultural context could be seen, under certain circumstances, as a social obligation to one's in-group (especially when one's in-group is supportive of violence) and as an internalization of the norms and values of the culture. Thus, the present study investigates the relationship between allocentrism and its relation to violence in a highly collectivist Asian culture, Singapore. We further hypothesized that collective self-esteem might serve as the mediator between allocentrism and the values of violence. Using a sample of 149 incarcerated Singaporean male adolescents, results support the proposed theoretical model whereby collective self-esteem was found to mediate between allocentrism and the culture's norms and attitudes of violence, which eventually lead to physical violence behaviours.

  6. Microalgal bioremediation : Current practices and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    BISWAJIT RATH

    2011-01-01

    During last two decades, extensive attention has been paid on the management of environmental pollution caused by hazardous materials. A number of methods has been developed for removal of such substances like precipitation, evaporation, ion-exchange etc. However these methods have several disadvantages. This review highlights the alternative biological agent abundantly present in nature i.e Microalgae as a potential sink for removal of such toxic substances from the surrounding. Microalgal b...

  7. Composition and Quantitation of Microalgal Lipids by ERETIC 1H NMR Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Fontana

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate characterization of biomass constituents is a crucial aspect of research in the biotechnological application of natural products. Here we report an efficient, fast and reproducible method for the identification and quantitation of fatty acids and complex lipids (triacylglycerols, glycolipids, phospholipids in microalgae under investigation for the development of functional health products (probiotics, food ingredients, drugs, etc. or third generation biofuels. The procedure consists of extraction of the biological matrix by modified Folch method and direct analysis of the resulting material by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR. The protocol uses a reference electronic signal as external standard (ERETIC method and allows assessment of total lipid content, saturation degree and class distribution in both high throughput screening of algal collection and metabolic analysis during genetic or culturing studies. As proof of concept, the methodology was applied to the analysis of three microalgal species (Thalassiosira weissflogii, Cyclotella cryptica and Nannochloropsis salina which drastically differ for the qualitative and quantitative composition of their fatty acid-based lipids.

  8. Biotechnological Screening of Microalgal and Cyanobacterial Strains for Biogas Production and Antibacterial and Antifungal Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opayi Mudimu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae and cyanobacteria represent a valuable natural resource for the generation of a large variety of chemical substances that are of interest for medical research, can be used as additives in cosmetics and food production, or as an energy source in biogas plants. The variety of potential agents and the use of microalgae and cyanobacteria biomass for the production of these substances are little investigated and not exploited for the market. Due to the enormous biodiversity of microalgae and cyanobacteria, they hold great promise for novel products. In this study, we investigated a large number of microalgal and cyanobacterial strains from the Culture Collection of Algae at Göttingen University (SAG with regard to their biomass and biogas production, as well antibacterial and antifungal effects. Our results demonstrated that microalgae and cyanobacteria are able to generate a large number of economically-interesting substances in different quantities dependent on strain type. The distribution and quantity of some of these components were found to reflect phylogenetic relationships at the level of classes. In addition, between closely related species and even among multiple isolates of the same species, the productivity may be rather variable.

  9. Microalgal lipids biochemistry and biotechnological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellou, Stamatia; Baeshen, Mohammed N; Elazzazy, Ahmed M; Aggeli, Dimitra; Sayegh, Fotoon; Aggelis, George

    2014-12-01

    In the last few years, there has been an intense interest in using microalgal lipids in food, chemical and pharmaceutical industries and cosmetology, while a noteworthy research has been performed focusing on all aspects of microalgal lipid production. This includes basic research on the pathways of solar energy conversion and on lipid biosynthesis and catabolism, and applied research dealing with the various biological and technical bottlenecks of the lipid production process. In here, we review the current knowledge in microalgal lipids with respect to their metabolism and various biotechnological applications, and we discuss potential future perspectives. The committing step in fatty acid biosynthesis is the carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to form malonyl-CoA that is then introduced in the fatty acid synthesis cycle leading to the formation of palmitic and stearic acids. Oleic acid may also be synthesized after stearic acid desaturation while further conversions of the fatty acids (i.e. desaturations, elongations) occur after their esterification with structural lipids of both plastids and the endoplasmic reticulum. The aliphatic chains are also used as building blocks for structuring storage acylglycerols via the Kennedy pathway. Current research, aiming to enhance lipogenesis in the microalgal cell, is focusing on over-expressing key-enzymes involved in the earlier steps of the pathway of fatty acid synthesis. A complementary plan would be the repression of lipid catabolism by down-regulating acylglycerol hydrolysis and/or β-oxidation. The tendency of oleaginous microalgae to synthesize, apart from lipids, significant amounts of other energy-rich compounds such as sugars, in processes competitive to lipogenesis, deserves attention since the lipid yield may be considerably increased by blocking competitive metabolic pathways. The majority of microalgal production occurs in outdoor cultivation and for this reason biotechnological applications face some difficulties

  10. Aerobic treatment of swine manure to enhance anaerobic digestion and microalgal cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekoe, Dominic; Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Bo; Scott Todd, Matthew; Shahbazi, Abolghasem

    2018-02-01

    Aerobic treatment of swine manure was coupled with anaerobic digestion and microalgal cultivation. A 14-day aerobic treatment reduced the total solid content of swine manure by >15%. Ammonia and carbon dioxide were stripped by the air supplied, and this off-gas was further used to aerate the culture of Chlorella vulgaris. The microalgal growth rates in Bristol medium and the wastewater with the off-gas increased from 0.08 to 0.22 g/L/d and from 0.15 to 0.24 g/L/d, respectively. Meanwhile, the aerobically treated swine manure showed a higher methane yield during anaerobic digestion. The experimental results were used to establish a demonstration unit consisting of a 100 L composter, a 200 L anaerobic digester, a 60 L tubular photobioreactor, and a 300 L micro-open raceway pond.

  11. Spectroscopic analyses of chemical adaptation processes within microalgal biomass in response to changing environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, Frank, E-mail: fvogt@utk.edu; White, Lauren

    2015-03-31

    Highlights: • Microalgae transform large quantities of inorganics into biomass. • Microalgae interact with their growing environment and adapt their chemical composition. • Sequestration capabilities are dependent on cells’ chemical environments. • We develop a chemometric hard-modeling to describe these chemical adaptation dynamics. • This methodology will enable studies of microalgal compound sequestration. - Abstract: Via photosynthesis, marine phytoplankton transforms large quantities of inorganic compounds into biomass. This has considerable environmental impacts as microalgae contribute for instance to counter-balancing anthropogenic releases of the greenhouse gas CO{sub 2}. On the other hand, high concentrations of nitrogen compounds in an ecosystem can lead to harmful algae blooms. In previous investigations it was found that the chemical composition of microalgal biomass is strongly dependent on the nutrient availability. Therefore, it is expected that algae’s sequestration capabilities and productivity are also determined by the cells’ chemical environments. For investigating this hypothesis, novel analytical methodologies are required which are capable of monitoring live cells exposed to chemically shifting environments followed by chemometric modeling of their chemical adaptation dynamics. FTIR-ATR experiments have been developed for acquiring spectroscopic time series of live Dunaliella parva cultures adapting to different nutrient situations. Comparing experimental data from acclimated cultures to those exposed to a chemically shifted nutrient situation reveals insights in which analyte groups participate in modifications of microalgal biomass and on what time scales. For a chemometric description of these processes, a data model has been deduced which explains the chemical adaptation dynamics explicitly rather than empirically. First results show that this approach is feasible and derives information about the chemical biomass

  12. Spectroscopic analyses of chemical adaptation processes within microalgal biomass in response to changing environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, Frank; White, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Microalgae transform large quantities of inorganics into biomass. • Microalgae interact with their growing environment and adapt their chemical composition. • Sequestration capabilities are dependent on cells’ chemical environments. • We develop a chemometric hard-modeling to describe these chemical adaptation dynamics. • This methodology will enable studies of microalgal compound sequestration. - Abstract: Via photosynthesis, marine phytoplankton transforms large quantities of inorganic compounds into biomass. This has considerable environmental impacts as microalgae contribute for instance to counter-balancing anthropogenic releases of the greenhouse gas CO 2 . On the other hand, high concentrations of nitrogen compounds in an ecosystem can lead to harmful algae blooms. In previous investigations it was found that the chemical composition of microalgal biomass is strongly dependent on the nutrient availability. Therefore, it is expected that algae’s sequestration capabilities and productivity are also determined by the cells’ chemical environments. For investigating this hypothesis, novel analytical methodologies are required which are capable of monitoring live cells exposed to chemically shifting environments followed by chemometric modeling of their chemical adaptation dynamics. FTIR-ATR experiments have been developed for acquiring spectroscopic time series of live Dunaliella parva cultures adapting to different nutrient situations. Comparing experimental data from acclimated cultures to those exposed to a chemically shifted nutrient situation reveals insights in which analyte groups participate in modifications of microalgal biomass and on what time scales. For a chemometric description of these processes, a data model has been deduced which explains the chemical adaptation dynamics explicitly rather than empirically. First results show that this approach is feasible and derives information about the chemical biomass adaptations

  13. Topological defects control collective dynamics in neural progenitor cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Kyogo; Kageyama, Ryoichiro; Sano, Masaki

    2017-04-01

    Cultured stem cells have become a standard platform not only for regenerative medicine and developmental biology but also for biophysical studies. Yet, the characterization of cultured stem cells at the level of morphology and of the macroscopic patterns resulting from cell-to-cell interactions remains largely qualitative. Here we report on the collective dynamics of cultured murine neural progenitor cells (NPCs), which are multipotent stem cells that give rise to cells in the central nervous system. At low densities, NPCs moved randomly in an amoeba-like fashion. However, NPCs at high density elongated and aligned their shapes with one another, gliding at relatively high velocities. Although the direction of motion of individual cells reversed stochastically along the axes of alignment, the cells were capable of forming an aligned pattern up to length scales similar to that of the migratory stream observed in the adult brain. The two-dimensional order of alignment within the culture showed a liquid-crystalline pattern containing interspersed topological defects with winding numbers of +1/2 and -1/2 (half-integer due to the nematic feature that arises from the head-tail symmetry of cell-to-cell interaction). We identified rapid cell accumulation at +1/2 defects and the formation of three-dimensional mounds. Imaging at the single-cell level around the defects allowed us to quantify the velocity field and the evolving cell density; cells not only concentrate at +1/2 defects, but also escape from -1/2 defects. We propose a generic mechanism for the instability in cell density around the defects that arises from the interplay between the anisotropic friction and the active force field.

  14. Progress and Challenges in Microalgal Biodiesel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Nirupama; Bagchi, Sourav K.; Koley, Shankha; Singh, Akhilesh K.

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed a tremendous impetus on biofuel research due to the irreversible diminution of fossil fuel reserves for enormous demands of transportation vis-a-vis escalating emissions of green house gasses (GHGs) into the atmosphere. With an imperative need of CO2 reduction and considering the declining status of crude oil, governments in various countries have not only diverted substantial funds for biofuel projects but also have introduced incentives to vendors that produce biofuels. Currently, biodiesel production from microalgal biomass has drawn an immense importance with the potential to exclude high-quality agricultural land use and food safe-keeping issues. Moreover, microalgae can grow in seawater or wastewater and microalgal oil can exceed 50–60% (dry cell weight) as compared with some best agricultural oil crops of only 5–10% oil content. Globally, microalgae are the highest biomass producers and neutral lipid accumulators contending any other terrestrial oil crops. However, there remain many hurdles in each and every step, starting from strain selection and lipid accumulation/yield, algae mass cultivation followed by the downstream processes such as harvesting, drying, oil extraction, and biodiesel conversion (transesterification), and overall, the cost of production. Isolation and screening of oleaginous microalgae is one pivotal important upstream factor which should be addressed according to the need of freshwater or marine algae with a consideration that wild-type indigenous isolate can be the best suited for the laboratory to large scale exploitation. Nowadays, a large number of literature on microalgal biodiesel production are available, but none of those illustrate a detailed step-wise description with the pros and cons of the upstream and downstream processes of biodiesel production from microalgae. Specifically, harvesting and drying constitute more than 50% of the total production costs; however, there are quite a less

  15. 75 FR 11988 - Notice of Request for Approval To Collect New Information: Collection of Safety Culture Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ..., information about changes to the safety culture of the affected workplaces will be used as one of several data...: RITA-2008-0002] Notice of Request for Approval To Collect New Information: Collection of Safety Culture.... mail to Federal offices in Washington, DC, we recommend that persons consider an alternative method...

  16. Microalgal cell disruption via ultrasonic nozzle spraying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M; Yuan, W

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the effect of operating parameters, including ultrasound amplitude, spraying pressure, nozzle orifice diameter, and initial cell concentration on microalgal cell disruption and lipid extraction in an ultrasonic nozzle spraying system (UNSS). Two algal species including Scenedesmus dimorphus and Nannochloropsis oculata were evaluated. Experimental results demonstrated that the UNSS was effective in the disruption of microalgal cells indicated by significant changes in cell concentration and Nile red-stained lipid fluorescence density between all treatments and the control. It was found that increasing ultrasound amplitude generally enhanced cell disruption and lipid recovery although excessive input energy was not necessary for best results. The effect of spraying pressure and nozzle orifice diameter on cell disruption and lipid recovery was believed to be dependent on the competition between ultrasound-induced cavitation and spraying-generated shear forces. Optimal cell disruption was not always achieved at the highest spraying pressure or biggest nozzle orifice diameter; instead, they appeared at moderate levels depending on the algal strain and specific settings. Increasing initial algal cell concentration significantly reduced cell disruption efficiency. In all UNSS treatments, the effectiveness of cell disruption and lipid recovery was found to be dependent on the algal species treated.

  17. Cell disruption and lipid extraction for microalgal biorefineries: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Youn; Cho, Jun Muk; Chang, Yong Keun; Oh, You-Kwan

    2017-11-01

    The microalgae-based biorefinement process has attracted much attention from academic and industrial researchers attracted to its biofuel, food and nutraceutical applications. In this paper, recent developments in cell-disruption and lipid-extraction methods, focusing on four biotechnologically important microalgal species (namely, Chlamydomonas, Haematococcus, Chlorella, and Nannochloropsis spp.), are reviewed. The structural diversity and rigidity of microalgal cell walls complicate the development of efficient downstream processing methods for cell-disruption and subsequent recovery of intracellular lipid and pigment components. Various mechanical, chemical and biological cell-disruption methods are discussed in detail and compared based on microalgal species and status (wet/dried), scale, energy consumption, efficiency, solvent extraction, and synergistic combinations. The challenges and prospects of the downstream processes for the future development of eco-friendly and economical microalgal biorefineries also are outlined herein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Abiotic characteristics and microalgal dynamics in South Africa's largest estuarine lake during a wet to dry transitional phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Monique; Adams, Janine B.; Bate, Guy C.; Bornman, Thomas G.

    2017-11-01

    The summer of 2012/2013 signified the end of the dry phase in the St Lucia estuarine system that lasted for over a decade. The increased rainfall coupled with the partial re-connection of the Mfolozi River to the estuarine system shifted St Lucia to a new limnetic state. With the increased availability of habitat due to the higher water level, it was expected that microalgal biomass and abundance would rapidly increase through recruitment from refuge areas i.e. South Lake and new introductions. Microalgal and physico-chemical data were collected at three sites within the Mfolozi/Msunduzi River and at 23 sites within the St Lucia estuarine system between June 2014 and February 2015. Results from this study indicated low biomass for both phytoplankton (<5 μg l-1) and microphytobenthos (<60 mg m-2) because of local and external drivers. These included limited nutrient and light availability, variable water residence times, biomass dilution and heterogeneity of the sediment. The high spatio-temporal variability limits the effectiveness of using the microalgal communities to detect change in the estuarine lake. In addition, significant intrasystem differences were observed between the three main lake basins and Narrows, due to the influence of the freshwater input from the Mfolozi River. This study provides insight into the spatio-temporal variability of physico-chemical conditions and microalgal communities during the 2014-2015 limnetic state.

  19. Digital Extension of Music Memory Music as a Collective Cultural Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrije Buzarovski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Artistic works represent a very important part of collective cultural memory. Every artistic work, by definition, can confirm its existence only through the presence in collective cultural memory. The migration from author’s individual memory to common collective cultural memory forms the cultural heritage. This equally applies to tangible and intangible cultural artifacts. Being part of collective cultural memory, music reflects the spatial (geographic and temporal (historic dimensions of this memory. Until the appearance of written signs (scores music was preserved only through collective cultural memory. Scores have facilitated further distribution of music artifacts. The appearance of different means for audio, and later audio/video recordings have greatly improved the distribution of music. The transition from analog to digital recording and carriers has been a revolutionary step which substantially extended the chances for the survival of music artifacts in collective memory.

  20. 76 FR 33395 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collections: ECA Sports & Culture Evaluation Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... Information Collection: Sports & Culture Evaluation, Sports Envoys Survey. OMB Control Number: None. Type of... Evaluation, Sports Surveys. OMB Control Number: None. Type of Request: New Collection. Originating Office...: Sports & Culture Evaluation, Kennedy Center (KC) Cultural Visitors Survey. OMB Control Number: None. Type...

  1. Energy aspects of microalgal biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Martinez-Guerra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Algal biodiesel production will play a significant role in sustaining future transportation fuel supplies. A large number of researchers around the world are investigating into making this process sustainable by increasing the energy gains and by optimizing resource-utilization efficiencies. Although, research is being pursued aggressively in all aspects of algal biodiesel production from microalgal cell cultivation, cell harvesting, and extraction and transesterification steps to the final product separation and purification, there is a large disparity in the data presented in recent reports making it difficult to assess the real potential of microalgae as a future energy source. This article discusses some of the key issues in energy consumption in the process of algal biodiesel production and identifies the areas for improvement to make this process energy-positive and sustainable.

  2. 76 FR 16030 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... and Cultural Affairs, Office of Policy and Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture... collection clearance will allow ECA/P/V as part of their larger Sports and Culture Evaluation to conduct a... of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Office of Policy and Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports...

  3. 76 FR 16032 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... Cultural Affairs, Office of Policy and Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation IWP... collection clearance will allow ECA/P/V as part of their larger Sports and Culture Evaluation to conduct a... of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Office of Policy and Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports...

  4. Towards microalgal triglycerides in the commodity markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenuti, Giulia; Ruiz, Jesús; Lamers, Packo P; Bosma, Rouke; Wijffels, René H; Barbosa, Maria J

    2017-01-01

    Microalgal triglycerides (TAGs) hold great promise as sustainable feedstock for commodity industries. However, to determine research priorities and support business decisions, solid techno-economic studies are essential. Here, we present a techno-economic analysis of two-step TAG production (growth reactors are operated in continuous mode such that multiple batch-operated stress reactors are inoculated and harvested sequentially) for a 100-ha plant in southern Spain using vertically stacked tubular photobioreactors. The base case is established with outdoor pilot-scale data and based on current process technology. For the base case, production costs of 6.7 € per kg of biomass containing 24% TAG (w/w) were found. Several scenarios with reduced production costs were then presented based on the latest biological and technological advances. For instance, much effort should focus on increasing the photosynthetic efficiency during the stress and growth phases, as this is the most influential parameter on production costs (30 and 14% cost reduction from base case). Next, biological and technological solutions should be implemented for a reduction in cooling requirements (10 and 4.5% cost reduction from base case when active cooling is avoided and cooling setpoint is increased, respectively). When implementing all the suggested improvements, production costs can be decreased to 3.3 € per kg of biomass containing 60% TAG (w/w) within the next 8 years. With our techno-economic analysis, we indicated a roadmap for a substantial cost reduction. However, microalgal TAGs are not yet cost efficient when compared to their present market value. Cost-competiveness strictly relies on the valorization of the whole biomass components and on cheaper PBR designs (e.g. plastic film flat panels). In particular, further research should focus on the development and commercialization of PBRs where active cooling is avoided and stable operating temperatures are maintained by the water

  5. Aggregate formation affects ultrasonic disruption of microalgal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Lee, Duu-Jong; Lai, Juin-Yih

    2015-12-01

    Ultrasonication is a cell disruption process of low energy efficiency. This study dosed K(+), Ca(2+) and Al(3+) to Chlorella vulgaris cultured in Bold's Basal Medium at 25°C and measured the degree of cell disruption under ultrasonication. Adding these metal ions yielded less negatively charged surfaces of cells, while with the latter two ions large and compact cell aggregates were formed. The degree of cell disruption followed: control=K(+)>Ca(2+)>Al(3+) samples. Surface charges of cells and microbubbles have minimal effects on the microbubble number in the proximity of the microalgal cells. Conversely, cell aggregates with large size and compact interior resist cell disruption under ultrasonication. Staining tests revealed high diffusional resistance of stains over the aggregate interior. Microbubbles may not be effective generated and collapsed inside the compact aggregates, hence leading to low cell disruption efficiencies. Effective coagulation/flocculation in cell harvesting may lead to adverse effect on subsequent cell disruption efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Modelling growth of, and removal of Zn and Hg by a wild microalgal consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Cristina M.; Brandao, Teresa R.S.; Castro, Paula M.L. [Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Porto (Portugal). CBQF/Escola Superior de Biotecnologia; Malcata, F. Xavier [ISMAI - Instituto Superior da Maia, Avioso S. Pedro (Portugal); CIMAR/CIIMAR - Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Porto (Portugal)

    2012-04-15

    Microorganisms isolated from sites contaminated with heavy metals usually possess a higher removal capacity than strains from regular cultures. Heavy metal-containing soil samples from an industrial dumpsite in Northern Portugal were accordingly collected; following enrichment under metal stress, a consortium of wild microalgae was obtained. Their ability to grow in the presence of, and their capacity to recover heavy metals was comprehensively studied; the datasets thus generated were fitted to by a combined model of biomass growth and metal uptake, derived from first principles. After exposure to 15 and 25 mg/L Zn{sup 2+} for 6 days, the microalgal consortium reached similar, or higher cell density than the control; however, under 50 and 65 mg/L Zn{sup 2+}, 71% to 84% inhibition was observed. Growth in the presence of Hg{sup 2+} was significantly inhibited, even at a concentration as low as 25 {mu}g/L, and 90% inhibition was observed above 100 {mu}g/L. The maximum amount of Zn{sup 2+} removed was 21.3 mg/L, upon exposure to 25 mg/L for 6 day, whereas the maximum removal of Hg{sup 2+} was 335 {mu}g/L, upon 6 day in the presence of 350 {mu}g/L. The aforementioned mechanistic model was built upon Monod assumptions (including heavy metal inhibition), coupled with Leudeking-Piret relationships between the rates of biomass growth and metal removal. The overall fits were good under all experimental conditions tested, thus conveying a useful tool for rational optimisation of microalga-mediated bioremediation. (orig.)

  7. Cultural dimensions, collective values and their importance for institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klasing, Mariko J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper critically assesses the role of culture in determining the quality of institutions. Employing various measures of cultural differences, I find that only differences related to the degree of individualism in society and the extent to which inequality in the distribution of power is

  8. A simple, reproducible and sensitive spectrophotometric method to estimate microalgal lipids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Yimin [ChELSI Institute, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Vaidyanathan, Seetharaman, E-mail: s.vaidyanathan@sheffield.ac.uk [ChELSI Institute, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FAs released from lipids form complex with Cu-TEA in chloroform. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The FA-Cu-TEA complex gives strong absorbance at 260 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The absorbance is sensitive and independent of C-atom number in the FAs (10-18). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microalgal lipid extract and pure FA (such as C16) can both be used as standards. - Abstract: Quantification of total lipids is a necessity for any study of lipid production by microalgae, especially given the current interest in microalgal carbon capture and biofuels. In this study, we employed a simple yet sensitive method to indirectly measure the lipids in microalgae by measuring the fatty acids (FA) after saponification. The fatty acids were reacted with triethanolamine-copper salts (TEA-Cu) and the ternary TEA-Cu-FA complex was detected at 260 nm using a UV-visible spectrometer without any colour developer. The results showed that this method could be used to analyse low levels of lipids in the range of nano-moles from as little as 1 mL of microalgal culture. Furthermore, the structure of the TEA-Cu-FA complex and related reaction process are proposed to better understand this assay. There is no special instrument required and the method is very reproducible. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of UV absorbance of copper salts with FA as a method to estimate lipids in algal cultures. It will pave the way for a more convenient assay of lipids in microalgae and can readily be expanded for estimating lipids in other biological systems.

  9. A simple, reproducible and sensitive spectrophotometric method to estimate microalgal lipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yimin; Vaidyanathan, Seetharaman

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► FAs released from lipids form complex with Cu–TEA in chloroform. ► The FA–Cu–TEA complex gives strong absorbance at 260 nm. ► The absorbance is sensitive and independent of C-atom number in the FAs (10–18). ► Microalgal lipid extract and pure FA (such as C16) can both be used as standards. - Abstract: Quantification of total lipids is a necessity for any study of lipid production by microalgae, especially given the current interest in microalgal carbon capture and biofuels. In this study, we employed a simple yet sensitive method to indirectly measure the lipids in microalgae by measuring the fatty acids (FA) after saponification. The fatty acids were reacted with triethanolamine–copper salts (TEA–Cu) and the ternary TEA–Cu–FA complex was detected at 260 nm using a UV–visible spectrometer without any colour developer. The results showed that this method could be used to analyse low levels of lipids in the range of nano-moles from as little as 1 mL of microalgal culture. Furthermore, the structure of the TEA–Cu–FA complex and related reaction process are proposed to better understand this assay. There is no special instrument required and the method is very reproducible. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of UV absorbance of copper salts with FA as a method to estimate lipids in algal cultures. It will pave the way for a more convenient assay of lipids in microalgae and can readily be expanded for estimating lipids in other biological systems.

  10. Cultural Characteristics of Shimizuomyces paradoxus Collected from Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, Gi-Ho; Shrestha, Bhushan; Park, Ki-Byung; Sung, Jae-Mo

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the cultural characteristics of Shimizuomyces paradoxus in different nutritional and environmental conditions. The highest mycelial growth was observed in Schizophyllum (mushroom) genetics complete medium plus yeast extract agar medium, and the optimal temperature and pH were 25? and pH 8.0, respectively. The optimal carbon and nitrogen sources were 1% dextrose and 1% peptone in agar. However, in liquid culture the highest dry mycelium weight was found for the potato d...

  11. 77 FR 74048 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Connecting Collections...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... determine that the object to be included in the exhibition ``Connecting Collections: Collecting Connections... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8112] Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Connecting Collections: Collecting Connections. 50 Years of Pre-Columbian Art at Dumbarton Oaks...

  12. Growth and metabolic characteristics of oleaginous microalgal isolates from Nilgiri biosphere Reserve of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavel, Kalaiselvi; Radha Krishnan, Preethi; Nagaiah, Srimeena; Kuppusamy, Senthil; Chinnasamy, Senthil; Rajadorai, Jude Sudhagar; Nellaiappan Olaganathan, Gopal; Dananjeyan, Balachandar

    2018-01-03

    Renewable energy for sustainable development is a subject of a worldwide debate since continuous utilization of non-renewable energy sources has a drastic impact on the environment and economy; a search for alternative energy resources is indispensable. Microalgae are promising and potential alternate energy resources for biodiesel production. Thus, our efforts were focused on surveying the natural diversity of microalgae for the production of biodiesel. The present study aimed at identification, isolation, and characterization of oleaginous microalgae from shola forests of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve (NBR), the biodiversity hot spot of India, where the microalgal diversity has not yet been systematically investigated. Overall the higher biomass yield, higher lipid accumulation and thermotolerance observed in the isolated microalgal strains have been found to be the desirable traits for the efficient biodiesel production. Species composition and diversity analysis yielded ten potential microalgal isolates belonging to Chlorophyceae and Cyanophyceae classes. The chlorophytes exhibited higher growth rate, maximum biomass yield, and higher lipid accumulation than Cyanophyceae. Among the chlorophytes, the best performing strains were identified and represented by Acutodesmus dissociatus (TGA1), Chlorella sp. (TGA2), Chlamydomonadales sp. (TGA3) and Hindakia tetrachotoma (PGA1). The Chlamydomonadales sp. recorded with the highest growth rate, lipid accumulation and biomass yield of 0.28 ± 0.03 day -1 (μ exp ), 29.7 ± 0.69% and 134.17 ± 16.87 mg L -1  day -1 , respectively. It was also found to grow well at various temperatures, viz., 25 °C, 35 °C, and 45 °C, indicating its suitability for open pond cultivation. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis of stationary phase cultures of selected four algal strains by tandem mass spectrograph showed C16:0, C18:1 and C18:3 as dominant fatty acids suitable for biodiesel production. All the three

  13. Governance, collective bargaining and peace culture in labour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This struggle by the labour unions to improve on the unfair policies and working conditions has generated severe threat in maintaining peace culture in labour relations. It has adversely been affecting the growth of national economy in relation to global economic change. This situation has created almost total failure on the ...

  14. Microalgal production--a close look at the economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsker, Niels-Henrik; Barbosa, Maria J; Vermuë, Marian H; Wijffels, René H

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, microalgal biofuel production is being investigated. It is strongly debated which type of production technology is the most adequate. Microalgal biomass production costs were calculated for 3 different micro algal production systems operating at commercial scale today: open ponds, horizontal tubular photobioreactors and flat panel photobioreactors. For the 3 systems, resulting biomass production costs including dewatering, were 4.95, 4.15 and 5.96 € per kg, respectively. The important cost factors are irradiation conditions, mixing, photosynthetic efficiency of systems, medium- and carbon dioxide costs. Optimizing production with respect to these factors, a price of € 0.68 per kg resulted. At this cost level microalgae become a promising feedstock for biodiesel and bulk chemicals. Photobioreactors may become attractive for microalgal biofuel production. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Perspectives of microalgal biofuels as a renewable source of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiran, Bala; Kumar, Ritunesh; Deshmukh, Devendra

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Microalgae offer solution of wastewater treatment, CO 2 sequestration, and energy crises. • Microalgal biofuel is renewable, nontoxic and environmentally friendly option. • Integration of wastewater treatment with biofuels production has made them more cost effective. • This article details out the potential production process and benefits of microalgal biofuels. - Abstract: Excessive use of fossil fuels to satisfy our rapidly increasing energy demand has created severe environmental problems, such as air pollution, acid rain and global warming. Biofuels are a potential alternative to fossil fuels. First- and second-generation biofuels face criticism due to food security and biodiversity issues. Third-generation biofuels, based on microalgae, seem to be a plausible solution to the current energy crisis, as their oil-producing capability is many times higher than that of various oil crops. Microalgae are the fastest-growing plants and can serve as a sustainable energy source for the production of biodiesel and several other biofuels by conversion of sunlight into chemical energy. Biofuels produced from microalgae are renewable, non-toxic, biodegradable and environment friendly. Microalgae can be grown in open pond systems or closed photobioreactors. Microalgal biofuels are a potential means to keep the development of human activities in synchronization with the environment. The integration of wastewater treatment with biofuel production using microalgae has made microalgal biofuels more attractive and cost effective. A biorefinery approach can also be used to improve the economics of biofuel production, in which all components of microalgal biomass (i.e., proteins, lipids and carbohydrates) are used to produce useful products. The integration of various processes for maximum economic and environmental benefits minimizes the amount of waste produced and the pollution level. This paper presents an overview of various aspects associated with

  16. Superstructure optimization of biodiesel production from microalgal biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Lee, Jay H.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we propose a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model for superstructure based optimization of biodiesel production from microalgal biomass. The proposed superstructure includes a number of major processing steps for the production of biodiesel from microalgal biomass...... for the production of biodiesel from microalgae. The proposed methodology is tested by implementing on a specific case study. The MINLP model is implemented and solved in GAMS using a database built in Excel. The results from the optimization are analyzed and their significances are discussed....

  17. Corporate culture and the culture of the labor collective: the methodology of distinguishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Dmytrenko

    2014-07-01

    The author points out the content and characteristics of corporate culture and the culture of the staff. The culture of the staff in the Late Modern constellations as well as corporate culture has both similarities and differences. Their common features are due to the influence of mass culture, subculture of the information society, organizational culture. Their differences are primarily of historical and anthropological nature. Corporate culture is defined as the essence of material, spiritual and social values created by the employees of the companies in the course of their activities and which reflect the uniqueness and individuality of this company. The author grounds the statement about the importance of working out methodological criteria for their differentiation.

  18. Modeling the transformation of atmospheric CO2 into microalgal biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammed Fahad; Vogt, Frank

    2017-10-23

    Marine phytoplankton acts as a considerable sink of atmospheric CO 2 as it sequesters large quantities of this greenhouse gas for biomass production. To assess microalgae's counterbalancing of global warming, the quantities of CO 2 they fix need to be determined. For this task, it is mandatory to understand which environmental and physiological parameters govern this transformation from atmospheric CO 2 to microalgal biomass. However, experimental analyses are challenging as it has been found that the chemical environment has a major impact on the physiological properties of the microalgae cells (diameter typ. 5-20 μm). Moreover, the cells can only chemically interact with their immediate vicinity and thus compound sequestration needs to be studied on a microscopic spatial scale. Due to these reasons, computer simulations are a more promising approach than the experimental studies. Modeling software has been developed that describes the dissolution of atmospheric CO 2 into oceans followed by the formation of HCO 3 - which is then transported to individual microalgae cells. The second portion of this model describes the competition of different cell species for this HCO 3 - , a nutrient, as well as its uptake and utilization for cell production. Two microalgae species, i.e. Dunaliella salina and Nannochloropsis oculata, were cultured individually and in a competition situation under different atmospheric CO 2 conditions. It is shown that this novel model's predictions of biomass production are in very good agreement with the experimental flow cytometry results. After model validation, it has been applied to long-term prediction of phytoplankton generation. These investigations were motivated by the question whether or not cell production slows down as cultures grow. This is of relevance as a reduced cell production rate means that the increase in a culture's CO 2 -sinking capacity slows down as well. One implication resulting from this is that an increase in

  19. Nostalgia, irony and collectivity in late-modern culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiermer, Bjørn; Carlsen, Hjalmar Bang

    2017-01-01

    The paper seeks to promote a sociological understanding of the current wave of nostalgic expressions haunting late-modern Western culture and to re-evaluate the predominantly negative assessment of nostalgia. Filling two gaps in the existing research on nostalgia, the authors wish (1) to reintegr...... to ritual, we seek to erect a theoretical framework apt for articulating mediated forms of nostalgic ritual. Fourth, we use our theoretical framework to analyse a well-known instance of nostalgic ritual in Scandinavia: The Disney Christmas Show....

  20. Microalgal Species Selection for Biodiesel Production Based on Fuel Properties Derived from Fatty Acid Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nurun Nabi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Physical and chemical properties of biodiesel are influenced by structural features of the fatty acids, such as chain length, degree of unsaturation and branching of the carbon chain. This study investigated if microalgal fatty acid profiles are suitable for biodiesel characterization and species selection through Preference Ranking Organisation Method for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE and Graphical Analysis for Interactive Assistance (GAIA analysis. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME profiles were used to calculate the likely key chemical and physical properties of the biodiesel [cetane number (CN, iodine value (IV, cold filter plugging point, density, kinematic viscosity, higher heating value] of nine microalgal species (this study and twelve species from the literature, selected for their suitability for cultivation in subtropical climates. An equal-parameter weighted (PROMETHEE-GAIA ranked Nannochloropsis oculata, Extubocellulus sp. and Biddulphia sp. highest; the only species meeting the EN14214 and ASTM D6751-02 biodiesel standards, except for the double bond limit in the EN14214. Chlorella vulgaris outranked N. oculata when the twelve microalgae were included. Culture growth phase (stationary and, to a lesser extent, nutrient provision affected CN and IV values of N. oculata due to lower eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA contents. Application of a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA weighting to saturation led to a lower ranking of species exceeding the double bond EN14214 thresholds. In summary, CN, IV, C18:3 and double bond limits were the strongest drivers in equal biodiesel parameter-weighted PROMETHEE analysis.

  1. Cultural Characteristics of Ophiocordyceps heteropoda Collected from Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, Gi-Ho; Shrestha, Bhushan; Han, Sang-Kuk; Sung, Jae-Mo

    2011-01-01

    Isolates of Ophiocordyceps heteropoda (Kobayasi) collected from Mt. Halla on Jeju-do, Korea were tested for mycelial growth on different agar media and in the presence of different carbon and nitrogen sources. Similarly, isolates were also incubated at different temperatures as well as under continuous light and dark conditions. Growth was better on Hamada agar, basal medium, and malt-yeast agar, but poor on Czapek-Dox agar. Different carbon sources such as dextrin, saccharose, starch, lactos...

  2. Effect of nitrogen regime on microalgal lipid production during mixotrophic growth with glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjape, Kiran; Leite, Gustavo B; Hallenbeck, Patrick C

    2016-08-01

    Mixotrophic growth of microalgae to boost lipid production is currently under active investigation. Such a process could be of practical importance if a cheap source of organic carbon, such as waste glycerol from biodiesel production, could be used. Several previous studies have already demonstrated that this carbon source can be used by different indigenous strains of microalgae. In this study it is shown that different nitrogen limitation strategies can be applied to further increase lipid production during growth with glycerol. In one strategy, cultures were grown in nitrogen replete medium and then resuspended in nitrogen free medium. In a second strategy, cultures were grown with different initial concentrations of nitrate. Lipid production by the two microalgal strains used, Chlorella sorokiniana (PCH02) and Chlorella vulgaris (PCH05), was shown to be boosted by strategies of nitrogen limitation, but they responded differently to how nitrogen limitation was imposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Applicability of Baumrind's Parent Typology to Collective Cultures: Analysis of Cultural Explanations of Parent Socialization Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkhabi, Nadia

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews studies that have examined whether Baumrind's parenting styles are related to child outcomes similarly in cultures where independence is said to be emphasized versus cultures where interdependence is said to be emphasized. I present evidence showing that Baumrind's parenting styles have similar function in both collectivist…

  4. On the use of selective environments in microalgal cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, P.R.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with selective environments in microalgal cultivation. As explained in Chapter 1 microalgae have changed the course of life on Earth dramatically by performing oxygenic photosynthesis. In oxygenic photosynthesis electrons from water are used to reduce carbon dioxide to

  5. Regulations for marine microalgal toxins: Towards harmonization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The World Trade Organization and the General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade encourage the harmonization of regulations on food safety requirements. The current policy on trade liberalization of seafood is presented, together with a review of the regulations for marine microalgal toxins. Activities on harmonization of ...

  6. Bottoms Up! Secrets to Overcoming Cultural Barriers for Data Collection in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phi, Giang

    2018-01-01

    Qualitative data collection in remote areas of Asia can be rather challenging, especially when the researchers come from very different cultural backgrounds to the participants and the research topics centre on sensitive issues such as poverty....

  7. Equality bias impairs collective decision-making across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodi, Ali; Bang, Dan; Olsen, Karsten; Zhao, Yuanyuan Aimee; Shi, Zhenhao; Broberg, Kristina; Safavi, Shervin; Han, Shihui; Nili Ahmadabadi, Majid; Frith, Chris D; Roepstorff, Andreas; Rees, Geraint; Bahrami, Bahador

    2015-03-24

    We tend to think that everyone deserves an equal say in a debate. This seemingly innocuous assumption can be damaging when we make decisions together as part of a group. To make optimal decisions, group members should weight their differing opinions according to how competent they are relative to one another; whenever they differ in competence, an equal weighting is suboptimal. Here, we asked how people deal with individual differences in competence in the context of a collective perceptual decision-making task. We developed a metric for estimating how participants weight their partner's opinion relative to their own and compared this weighting to an optimal benchmark. Replicated across three countries (Denmark, Iran, and China), we show that participants assigned nearly equal weights to each other's opinions regardless of true differences in their competence-even when informed by explicit feedback about their competence gap or under monetary incentives to maximize collective accuracy. This equality bias, whereby people behave as if they are as good or as bad as their partner, is particularly costly for a group when a competence gap separates its members.

  8. Digital Forensics and Born-Digital Content in Cultural Heritage Collections. CLIR Publication No. 149

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschenbaum, Matthew G.; Ovenden, Richard; Redwine, Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is twofold: first, to introduce the field of digital forensics to professionals in the cultural heritage sector; and second, to explore some particular points of convergence between the interests of those charged with collecting and maintaining born-digital cultural heritage materials and those charged with collecting…

  9. Collective Pedagogical Teacher Culture and Mathematics Achievement: Differences by Race, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Stephanie; Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin; Stearns, Elizabeth; Banerjee, Neena; Bottia, Martha Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Scholars have not adequately assessed how organizational cultures in schools differentially influence students' mathematics achievement by race and socioeconomic status (SES). We focus on what we term "collective pedagogical teacher culture", highlighting the role of professional communities and teacher collaboration in influencing…

  10. Acting and Collecting: Imagining Asia through material culture and musical theatre

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Thorley

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the link between Asian-inspired material culture and musical theatre through the collections of Anglo-Australian performer Herbert Browne (1895-1975). Brown played lead roles in 1920s Australian musical theatre productions of The Mikado and Chu Chin Chow and re-lived his connection with oriental theatre by collecting and responding to objects performatively in the Chinoiserie room of his Melbourne home. Oriental musical theatre blended exotic cultures and locales in visual...

  11. Qualitative Analysis of Microbial Dynamics during Anaerobic Digestion of Microalgal Biomass in a UASB Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Doloman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion (AD is a microbiologically coordinated process with dynamic relationships between bacterial players. Current understanding of dynamic changes in the bacterial composition during the AD process is incomplete. The objective of this research was to assess changes in bacterial community composition that coordinates with anaerobic codigestion of microalgal biomass cultivated on municipal wastewater. An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor was used to achieve high rates of microalgae decomposition and biogas production. Samples of the sludge were collected throughout AD and extracted DNA was subjected to next-generation sequencing using methanogen mcrA gene specific and universal bacterial primers. Analysis of the data revealed that samples taken at different stages of AD had varying bacterial composition. A group consisting of Bacteroidales, Pseudomonadales, and Enterobacteriales was identified to be putatively responsible for the hydrolysis of microalgal biomass. The methanogenesis phase was dominated by Methanosarcina mazei. Results of observed changes in the composition of microbial communities during AD can be used as a road map to stimulate key bacterial species identified at each phase of AD to increase yield of biogas and rate of substrate decomposition. This research demonstrates a successful exploitation of methane production from microalgae without any biomass pretreatment.

  12. Qualitative Analysis of Microbial Dynamics during Anaerobic Digestion of Microalgal Biomass in a UASB Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doloman, Anna; Soboh, Yousef; Walters, Andrew J.; Sims, Ronald C.

    2017-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a microbiologically coordinated process with dynamic relationships between bacterial players. Current understanding of dynamic changes in the bacterial composition during the AD process is incomplete. The objective of this research was to assess changes in bacterial community composition that coordinates with anaerobic codigestion of microalgal biomass cultivated on municipal wastewater. An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor was used to achieve high rates of microalgae decomposition and biogas production. Samples of the sludge were collected throughout AD and extracted DNA was subjected to next-generation sequencing using methanogen mcrA gene specific and universal bacterial primers. Analysis of the data revealed that samples taken at different stages of AD had varying bacterial composition. A group consisting of Bacteroidales, Pseudomonadales, and Enterobacteriales was identified to be putatively responsible for the hydrolysis of microalgal biomass. The methanogenesis phase was dominated by Methanosarcina mazei. Results of observed changes in the composition of microbial communities during AD can be used as a road map to stimulate key bacterial species identified at each phase of AD to increase yield of biogas and rate of substrate decomposition. This research demonstrates a successful exploitation of methane production from microalgae without any biomass pretreatment. PMID:29259629

  13. Microbial culture collections as pillars for promoting fungal diversity, conservation and exploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sette, Lara Durães; Pagnocca, Fernando Carlos; Rodrigues, André

    2013-11-01

    Fungi are a diverse group of organisms with an overall global number of 1.5M up to 3.3M species on Earth. Besides their ecological roles as decomposers, fungi are important in several aspects of applied research. Here, we review how culture collections may promote the knowledge on diversity, conservation and biotechnological exploitation of fungi. The impact of fungi diversity on biotechnological studies is discussed. We point out the major roles of microbial repositories, including fungal preservation, prospecting, identification, authentication and supply. A survey on the World Data Center for Microorganisms (WDCM) powered by the World Federation for Culture Collections and on the Genetic Heritage Management Council (CGEN) database revealed that 46 Brazilian culture collections registered in these databases are dedicate to preserving fungi. Most of these culture collections are located in the Southeast of Brazil. This scenario also demonstrates that Brazil has many collections focused on fungal strains, but the lack of up-to-date information in WDCM as well as of a solid national platform for culture collections registration do not allow accurate assessment of fungal preservation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Chinese-Indonesian collections in the National Museum of World Cultures, the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Brinkgreve

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Among the more than 130,000 objects from Indonesia in the Dutch National Museum of World Cultures, many once belonged to or were used by the Chinese population of Indonesia. In this article, the authors provide an overview of these collections by presenting their collecting histories from the earliest acquisitions to the most recent collections and by highlighting a number of objects, which in their materials, techniques, motifs, colours or function show a combination of elements from both Chinese and Indonesian cultures. The authors pay particular attention to objects which play a role in the Chinese-Indonesian wedding ceremony.

  15. Maximizing Light Utilization Efficiency and Hydrogen Production in Microalgal Cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melis, Anastasios [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-12-31

    The project addressed the following technical barrier from the Biological Hydrogen Production section of the Fuel Cell Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan: Low Sunlight Utilization Efficiency in Photobiological Hydrogen Production is due to a Large Photosystem Chlorophyll Antenna Size in Photosynthetic Microorganisms (Barrier AN: Light Utilization Efficiency).

  16. Carbon Dioxide Sequestering Using Microalgal Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel J. Stepan; Richard E. Shockey; Thomas A. Moe; Ryan Dorn

    2002-02-01

    This project evaluated key design criteria, the technical feasibility, and the preliminary economic viability of a CO{sub 2}-sequestering system integrated with a coal-fired power plant based on microalgae biofixation. A review of relevant literature was conducted, and a bench-scale algal-based sequestration system was constructed and operated to verify algal growth capabilities using a simulated flue gas stream. The bench-scale system was a 20-gallon glass aquarium with a 16-gallon operating volume and was direct-sparged with a simulated flue gas. The flue gas composition was based on flue gas analyses for a 550-MW Coal Creek Power Station boiler in Underwood, North Dakota, which averaged 12.1% CO{sub 2}, 5.5% O{sub 2}, 423 ppm SO{sub 2}, 124 ppm NO{sub x}, and an estimated 50 mg/m{sup 3} fly ash loading. The algae were grown in Bold's basal growth medium. Lighting was provided using a two-tube fluorescent ''grow-light'' bulb fixture mounted directly above the tank. Algal growth appeared to be inhibited in the presence of SO{sub 2} using mixed cultures of green and blue-green cultures of algae. Samples of Monoraphidium strain MONOR02 and Nannochloropsis NANNO02 algal samples were obtained from the University of Hawaii Culture Collection. These samples did not exhibit inhibited growth in the presence of all the simulated flue gas constituents, but growth rates were somewhat lower than those expected, based on the review of literature. Samples of harvested algae were analyzed for protein, lipid, and carbohydrate content. A lipid content of 26% appeared to be fairly normal for algae, and it did not appear that large amounts of nitrogen were being fixed and promoting growth, nor were the algae starved for nitrogen. Proteins made up 41% of the total mass, and carbohydrates were assumed to be 33% (by difference). A preliminary economic analysis showed the costs of an integrated system based on microalgae biofixation to sequester 25% of the CO

  17. Modelling of green microalgal growth and algal storage processes using wastewater resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wágner, Dorottya Sarolta; Plósz, Benedek G.; Valverde Pérez, Borja

    2017-01-01

    Recent research focuses on the recovery of nutrients, water and energy from wastewater. Microalgal cultivation on wastewater resources is considered as a more sustainable means to produce fertilizers or biofuels. Innovative systems that incorporate microalgal cultivation into conventional wastewa...... have been developed according to the activated sludge modelling (ASM) framework to facilitate the integration with existing modelling frameworks in water treatment. This chapter presents in detail the recently developed ASM-A biokinetic green microalgal process model. The model includes...

  18. Effectiveness of a Novel Specimen Collection System in Reducing Blood Culture Contamination Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Mary; Bogar, Catherine; Plante, Jessica; Rasmussen, Kristen; Winters, Sharon

    2018-04-20

    False-positive blood-culture results due to skin contamination of samples remain a persistent problem for health care providers. Our health system recognized that our rates of contamination across the 4 emergency department campuses were above the national average. A unique specimen collection system was implemented throughout the 4 emergency departments and became the mandatory way to collect adult blood cultures. The microbiology laboratory reported contamination rates weekly to manage potential problems; 7 months of data are presented here. There was an 82.8% reduction in false positives with the unique specimen collection system compared with the standard method (chi-squared test with Yates correction, 2-tailed, P = 0.0001). Based on the historical 3.52% rate of blood-culture contamination for our health facilities, 2.92 false positives were prevented for every 100 blood cultures drawn, resulting from adoption of the unique specimen collection system as the standard of care. This unique collection system can reduce the risk of blood culture contamination significantly and is designed to augment, rather than replace, the standard phlebotomy protocol already in use in most health care settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Microalgal Cultivation in Treating Liquid Digestate from Biogas Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ao; Murphy, Jerry D

    2016-04-01

    Biogas production via anaerobic digestion (AD) has rapidly developed in recent years. In addition to biogas, digestate is an important byproduct. Liquid digestate is the major fraction of digestate and may contain high levels of ammonia nitrogen. Traditional processing technologies (such as land application) require significant energy inputs and raise environmental risks (such as eutrophication). Alternatively, microalgae can efficiently remove the nutrients from digestate while producing high-value biomass that can be used for the production of biochemicals and biofuels. Both inorganic and organic carbon sources derived from biogas production can significantly improve microalgal production. Land requirement for microalgal cultivation is estimated as 3% of traditional direct land application of digestate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Large-scale biodiesel production using flue gas from coal-fired power plants with Nannochloropsis microalgal biomass in open raceway ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Baohua; Sun, Faqiang; Yang, Miao; Lu, Lin; Yang, Guanpin; Pan, Kehou

    2014-12-01

    The potential use of microalgal biomass as a biofuel source has raised broad interest. Highly effective and economically feasible biomass generating techniques are essential to realize such potential. Flue gas from coal-fired power plants may serve as an inexpensive carbon source for microalgal culture, and it may also facilitate improvement of the environment once the gas is fixed in biomass. In this study, three strains of the genus Nannochloropsis (4-38, KA2 and 75B1) survived this type of culture and bloomed using flue gas from coal-fired power plants in 8000-L open raceway ponds. Lower temperatures and solar irradiation reduced the biomass yield and lipid productivities of these strains. Strain 4-38 performed better than the other two as it contained higher amounts of triacylglycerols and fatty acids, which are used for biodiesel production. Further optimization of the application of flue gas to microalgal culture should be undertaken. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A novel microalgal system for energy production with nitrogen cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minowa, T.; Sawayama, S. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    A microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, could grow in the recovered solution from the low temperature catalytic gasification of itself, by which methane rich fuel gas was obtained. All nitrogen in the microalga was converted to ammonia during the gasification, and the recovered solution, in which ammonia was dissolved, could be used as nitrogen nutrient. The result of the energy evaluation indicated that the novel microalgal system for energy production with nitrogen cycling could be created. 9 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. Producing health, producing safety. Developing a collective safety culture in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Adelaide

    2009-01-01

    This research thesis aims at a better understanding of safety management in radiotherapy and at proposing improvements for patient safety through the development of a collective safety culture. A first part presents the current context in France and abroad, addresses the transposition of other safety methods to the medical domain, and discusses the peculiarities of radiotherapy in terms of risks and the existing quality-assurance approaches. The second part presents the theoretical framework by commenting the intellectual evolution with respect to system safety and the emergence of the concept of safety culture, and by presenting the labour collective aspects and their relationship with system safety. The author then comments the variety of safety cultures among the different professions present in radiotherapy, highlights the importance of the collective dimension in correcting discrepancies at the end of the treatment process, and highlights how physicians take their colleagues work into account. Recommendations are made to improve patient safety in radiotherapy

  3. Kinetics of Chlorella protothecoides microalgal oil using base catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to continuous diminishing of fossil fuel resources and emission of greenhouse gases, the search for alternative fuels such as biodiesel and bioethanol has become inevitable. Biodiesel, also known as fatty acid methyl or ethyl ester, has emerged as a substitute for diesel because of similar fuel properties. Presently, biodiesel is produced from edible, non-edible and microalgal oil. Chlorella protothecoides (lipid content 14.6–57.8% is being investigated as the potential microalgae species owing to high oil content, less land area required for cultivation and faster growth rate. The present investigation shows the results of the kinetics of transesterification of C. protothecoides microalgal oil carried out at optimum conditions of catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, molar ratio and reaction time. The percentage of methyl ester yield is the only parameter chosen to carry out the optimum parameter and the kinetics of transesterification. The reaction rate constant was to be 0.0618 min−1. Furthermore, microalgal biodiesel is characterized for physico-chemical properties that are found to meet American (ASTM D6751 and Indian (IS 15607 standards, especially in cold flow properties and stability of conventional biodiesel.

  4. Do plastic particles affect microalgal photosynthesis and growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjollema, Sascha B; Redondo-Hasselerharm, Paula; Leslie, Heather A; Kraak, Michiel H S; Vethaak, A Dick

    2016-01-01

    The unbridled increase in plastic pollution of the world's oceans raises concerns about potential effects these materials may have on microalgae, which are primary producers at the basis of the food chain and a major global source of oxygen. Our current understanding about the potential modes and mechanisms of toxic action that plastic particles exert on microalgae is extremely limited. How effects might vary with particle size and the physico-chemical properties of the specific plastic material in question are equally unelucidated, but may hold clues to how toxicity, if observed, is exerted. In this study we selected polystyrene particles, both negatively charged and uncharged, and three different sizes (0.05, 0.5 and 6μm) for testing the effects of size and material properties. Microalgae were exposed to different polystyrene particle sizes and surface charges for 72h. Effects on microalgal photosynthesis and growth were determined by pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry and flow cytometry, respectively. None of the treatments tested in these experiments had an effect on microalgal photosynthesis. Microalgal growth was negatively affected (up to 45%) by uncharged polystyrene particles, but only at high concentrations (250mg/L). Additionally, these adverse effects were demonstrated to increase with decreasing particle size. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Physiology limits commercially viable photoautotrophic production of microalgal biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Philip; Flynn, Kevin J

    2017-01-01

    Algal biofuels have been offered as an alternative to fossil fuels, based on claims that microalgae can provide a highly productive source of compounds as feedstocks for sustainable transport fuels. Life cycle analyses identify algal productivity as a critical factor affecting commercial and environmental viability. Here, we use mechanistic modelling of the biological processes driving microalgal growth to explore optimal production scenarios in an industrial setting, enabling us to quantify limits to algal biofuels potential. We demonstrate how physiological and operational trade-offs combine to restrict the potential for solar-powered algal-biodiesel production in open ponds to a ceiling of ca. 8000 L ha -1 year -1 . For industrial-scale operations, practical considerations limit production to ca. 6000 L ha -1 year -1 . According to published economic models and life cycle analyses, such production rates cannot support long-term viable commercialisation of solar-powered cultivation of natural microalgae strains exclusively as feedstock for biofuels. The commercial viability of microalgal biofuels depends critically upon limitations in microalgal physiology (primarily in rates of C-fixation); we discuss the scope for addressing this bottleneck concluding that even deployment of genetically modified microalgae with radically enhanced characteristics would leave a very significant logistical if not financial burden.

  6. Application of MALDI-TOF MS for requalification of a Candida clinical isolates culture collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Lima-Neto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial culture collections underpin biotechnology applications and are important resources for clinical microbiology by supplying reference strains and/or performing microbial identifications as a service. Proteomic profiles by MALDI-TOF MS have been used for Candida spp. identification in clinical laboratories and demonstrated to be a fast and reliable technique for the routine identification of pathogenic yeasts. The main aim of this study was to apply MALDI-TOF MS combined with classical phenotypic and molecular approaches to identify Candida clinical isolates preserved from 1 up to 52 years in a Brazilian culture collection and assess its value for the identification of yeasts preserved in this type of collections. Forty Candida spp. clinical isolates were identified by morphological and biochemical analyses. Identifications were also performed by the new proteomic approach based on MALDI-TOF MS. Results demonstrated 15% discordance when compared with morphological and biochemical analyses. Discordant isolates were analysed by ITS sequencing, which confirmed the MALDI-TOF MS identifications and these strains were renamed in the culture collection catalogue. In conclusion, proteomic profiles by MALDI-TOF MS represents a rapid and reliable method for identifying clinical Candida species preserved in culture collections and may present clear benefits when compared with the performance of existing daily routine methods applied at health centres and hospitals.

  7. Reconciling long-term cultural diversity and short-term collective social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valori, Luca; Picciolo, Francesco; Allansdottir, Agnes; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2012-01-24

    An outstanding open problem is whether collective social phenomena occurring over short timescales can systematically reduce cultural heterogeneity in the long run, and whether offline and online human interactions contribute differently to the process. Theoretical models suggest that short-term collective behavior and long-term cultural diversity are mutually excluding, since they require very different levels of social influence. The latter jointly depends on two factors: the topology of the underlying social network and the overlap between individuals in multidimensional cultural space. However, while the empirical properties of social networks are intensively studied, little is known about the large-scale organization of real societies in cultural space, so that random input specifications are necessarily used in models. Here we use a large dataset to perform a high-dimensional analysis of the scientific beliefs of thousands of Europeans. We find that interopinion correlations determine a nontrivial ultrametric hierarchy of individuals in cultural space. When empirical data are used as inputs in models, ultrametricity has strong and counterintuitive effects. On short timescales, it facilitates a symmetry-breaking phase transition triggering coordinated social behavior. On long timescales, it suppresses cultural convergence by restricting it within disjoint groups. Moreover, ultrametricity implies that these results are surprisingly robust to modifications of the dynamical rules considered. Thus the empirical distribution of individuals in cultural space appears to systematically optimize the coexistence of short-term collective behavior and long-term cultural diversity, which can be realized simultaneously for the same moderate level of mutual influence in a diverse range of online and offline settings.

  8. [Neuroscience and collective memory: memory schemas linking brain, societies and cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Nicolas; Gagnepain, Pierre; Peschanski, Denis; Eustache, Francis

    2015-01-01

    During the last two decades, the effect of intersubjective relationships on cognition has been an emerging topic in cognitive neurosciences leading through a so-called "social turn" to the formation of new domains integrating society and cultures to this research area. Such inquiry has been recently extended to collective memory studies. Collective memory refers to shared representations that are constitutive of the identity of a group and distributed among all its members connected by a common history. After briefly describing those evolutions in the study of human brain and behaviors, we review recent researches that have brought together cognitive psychology, neuroscience and social sciences into collective memory studies. Using the reemerging concept of memory schema, we propose a theoretical framework allowing to account for collective memories formation with a specific focus on the encoding process of historical events. We suggest that (1) if the concept of schema has been mainly used to describe rather passive framework of knowledge, such structure may also be implied in more active fashions in the understanding of significant collective events. And, (2) if some schema researches have restricted themselves to the individual level of inquiry, we describe a strong coherence between memory and cultural frameworks. Integrating the neural basis and properties of memory schema to collective memory studies may pave the way toward a better understanding of the reciprocal interaction between individual memories and cultural resources such as media or education. © Société de Biologie, 2016.

  9. The impact of culture collections on molecular identification, taxonomy, and solving real problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among the fungi, Fusarium has stood out as a major focus for culture collection resource development over the last century. This has facilitated unprecedented molecular taxonomic advancements, which in turn has led to problem solving in plant pathology, mycotoxicology, medical mycology, and basic re...

  10. Culture collection of fungi (CCF) in Prague – original isolates accessed during 2003-05

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubátová, A.; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 5 (2006), s. 1-15 ISSN 0862-5158 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/02/1206 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : ccf * culture collection * microscopic fungi Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  11. Teachers' Collective Efficacy, Job Satisfaction, and Job Stress in Cross-Cultural Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Robert M.; Usher, Ellen L.; Bong, Mimi

    2010-01-01

    This study examines how teachers' collective efficacy (TCE), job stress, and the cultural dimension of collectivism are associated with job satisfaction for 500 teachers from Canada, Korea (South Korea or Republic of Korea), and the United States. Multigroup path analysis revealed that TCE predicted job satisfaction across settings. Job stress was…

  12. Digital Collections, Digital Libraries and the Digitization of Cultural Heritage Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Clifford

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the development of digital collections and digital libraries. Topics include digitization of cultural heritage information; broadband issues; lack of compelling content; training issues; types of materials being digitized; sustainability; digital preservation; infrastructure; digital images; data mining; and future possibilities for…

  13. Language model: Extension to solve inconsistency, incompleteness, and short query in cultural heritage collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kian Lam; Lim, Chen Kim

    2017-10-01

    With the explosive growth of online information such as email messages, news articles, and scientific literature, many institutions and museums are converting their cultural collections from physical data to digital format. However, this conversion resulted in the issues of inconsistency and incompleteness. Besides, the usage of inaccurate keywords also resulted in short query problem. Most of the time, the inconsistency and incompleteness are caused by the aggregation fault in annotating a document itself while the short query problem is caused by naive user who has prior knowledge and experience in cultural heritage domain. In this paper, we presented an approach to solve the problem of inconsistency, incompleteness and short query by incorporating the Term Similarity Matrix into the Language Model. Our approach is tested on the Cultural Heritage in CLEF (CHiC) collection which consists of short queries and documents. The results show that the proposed approach is effective and has improved the accuracy in retrieval time.

  14. Awe, the diminished self, and collective engagement: Universals and cultural variations in the small self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Maruskin, Laura A; Chen, Serena; Gordon, Amie M; Stellar, Jennifer E; McNeil, Galen D; Peng, Kaiping; Keltner, Dacher

    2017-08-01

    Awe has been theorized as a collective emotion, one that enables individuals to integrate into social collectives. In keeping with this theorizing, we propose that awe diminishes the sense of self and shifts attention away from individual interests and concerns. In testing this hypothesis across 6 studies (N = 2137), we first validate pictorial and verbal measures of the small self; we then document that daily, in vivo, and lab experiences of awe, but not other positive emotions, diminish the sense of the self. These findings were observed across collectivist and individualistic cultures, but also varied across cultures in magnitude and content. Evidence from the last 2 studies showed that the influence of awe upon the small self accounted for increases in collective engagement, fitting with claims that awe promotes integration into social groups. Discussion focused on how the small self might mediate the effects of awe on collective cognition and behavior, the need to study more negatively valenced varieties of awe, and other potential cultural variations of the small self. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Acting and Collecting: Imagining Asia through material culture and musical theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Thorley

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the link between Asian-inspired material culture and musical theatre through the collections of Anglo-Australian performer Herbert Browne (1895-1975. Brown played lead roles in 1920s Australian musical theatre productions of The Mikado and Chu Chin Chow and re-lived his connection with oriental theatre by collecting and responding to objects performatively in the Chinoiserie room of his Melbourne home. Oriental musical theatre blended exotic cultures and locales in visually spectacular productions which bore little resemblance to reality. The taste for escapist fiction in the theatre took place against a backdrop of museum collecting which aimed to reproduce authentic Asian and Other cultures. In this paper, I draw on French philosopher Merleau-Ponty’s observations on the relationship between thought and the body’s interaction with space to interpret the influence of Browne’s theatricality on collecting choices. From this perspective, objects materialize particular understandings of the world which originate in the body and the body’s performative engagement with space.

  16. [Trends of microalgal biotechnology: a view from bibliometrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoqiu; Wu, Yinsong; Yan, Jinding; Song, Haigang; Fan, Jianhua; Li, Yuanguang

    2015-10-01

    Microalgae is a single-cell organism with the characteristics of high light energy utilization rate, fast growth rate, high-value bioactive components and high energy material content. Therefore, microalgae has broad application prospects in food, feed, bioenergy, carbon sequestration, wastewater treatment and other fields. In this article, the microalgae biotechnology development in recent years were fully consulted, through analysis from the literature and patent. The progress of microalgal biotechnology at home and abroad is compared and discussed. Furthermore, the project layout, important achievements and development bottlenecks of microalgae biotechnology in our country were also summarized. At last, future development directions of microalgae biotechnology were discussed.

  17. Collective animal navigation and migratory culture: from theoretical models to empirical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Anthony I.

    2018-01-01

    Animals often travel in groups, and their navigational decisions can be influenced by social interactions. Both theory and empirical observations suggest that such collective navigation can result in individuals improving their ability to find their way and could be one of the key benefits of sociality for these species. Here, we provide an overview of the potential mechanisms underlying collective navigation, review the known, and supposed, empirical evidence for such behaviour and highlight interesting directions for future research. We further explore how both social and collective learning during group navigation could lead to the accumulation of knowledge at the population level, resulting in the emergence of migratory culture. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Collective movement ecology’. PMID:29581394

  18. Fluoranthene induced changes in photosynthetic pigments, biochemical compounds and enzymatic activities in two microalgal species: Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck and Desmodesmus subspicatus Chodat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miral Patel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The photosynthetic pigments, biochemical and enzymatic activities in two freshwater microalgal species, Chlorella vulgaris and Desmodesmus subspicatus at different fluoranthene concentrations were compared with the control conditions. During 16-days of incubation period when treated with fluoranthene, both microalgal species exhibited variable amount of photosynthetic pigment, biochemical compounds and enzymatic activities. The addition of fluoranthene at concentrations ranged from 1.5 mg l-1; to 10 mg l-1; to microalgal cultures led to changes in all different metabolites but the patterns varied from species to species. Among the two species tested, pigment, biochemical and enzymatic contents were remarkably declined from 7 % to 95% in C. vulgaris. Moreover, all metabolites in D. subspicatus also diminishing significantly by 3% to 88% of fluoranthene doses (10ppm. These results suggest that fluoranthene-induced changes of pigments, biochemical and enzymatic variations in test microalgae, D. subspicatus and C. vulgaris, might reveal its resistance and ability to metabolize PAHs. At the same time, the PAH impact changes on different metabolic activities were higher at 12 and 16 days than at 4 and 8 days in treated microalgae. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i1.9941 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(1 2014: 41-55

  19. FY1995 microalgal biotechnology for recycling of pollutants; 1995 nendo tayona sorui kino wo kiban to suru seibutsuken busshitsu junkangta sogo saishigenka gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The objectives are 1) development of biological processes needed for the treatment of pollutants and the conversion of resulting biomass to value added products such as energy and fine chemicals, and 2) development of techniques for monitoring of both biological and chemical hazards associated with process operation. We developed a microalgal system for simultaneous removal of CO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} from flue gas, as well as an electro-osmotic method for recovery of microalgal cells. A strategy for effective culturing of photoautotrophic cells in photobioreactors was also proposed. We utilized waste algal biomass to produce biosurfactants, and studied about structure-function relationship of lipopeptide biosurfactants. As an energy product, H{sub 2} was produced via lactic acid fermentation of algal biomass. Physiology of marine phytoplankton was also studied in relation to the future mass production of microalgal biomass. A rapid monitoring of microbial populations was possible by using fluorescent probes. An enzyme immunosorbent assay system specific to fish metallothionein was established for the assessment of aquatic environmental pollution. Human herpesvirus latent infection was effectively applied to biological assay of environmental hygiene. (NEDO)

  20. High-throughput, label-free, single-cell, microalgal lipid screening by machine-learning-equipped optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baoshan; Lei, Cheng; Kobayashi, Hirofumi; Ito, Takuro; Yalikun, Yaxiaer; Jiang, Yiyue; Tanaka, Yo; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Goda, Keisuke

    2017-05-01

    The development of reliable, sustainable, and economical sources of alternative fuels to petroleum is required to tackle the global energy crisis. One such alternative is microalgal biofuel, which is expected to play a key role in reducing the detrimental effects of global warming as microalgae absorb atmospheric CO 2 via photosynthesis. Unfortunately, conventional analytical methods only provide population-averaged lipid amounts and fail to characterize a diverse population of microalgal cells with single-cell resolution in a non-invasive and interference-free manner. Here high-throughput label-free single-cell screening of lipid-producing microalgal cells with optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscopy was demonstrated. In particular, Euglena gracilis, an attractive microalgal species that produces wax esters (suitable for biodiesel and aviation fuel after refinement), within lipid droplets was investigated. The optofluidic time-stretch quantitative phase microscope is based on an integration of a hydrodynamic-focusing microfluidic chip, an optical time-stretch quantitative phase microscope, and a digital image processor equipped with machine learning. As a result, it provides both the opacity and phase maps of every single cell at a high throughput of 10,000 cells/s, enabling accurate cell classification without the need for fluorescent staining. Specifically, the dataset was used to characterize heterogeneous populations of E. gracilis cells under two different culture conditions (nitrogen-sufficient and nitrogen-deficient) and achieve the cell classification with an error rate of only 2.15%. The method holds promise as an effective analytical tool for microalgae-based biofuel production. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  1. A Cultural Psychological Analysis of Collective Memory as Mediated Action: Constructions of Indian History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahana Mukherjee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research applies a cultural psychological perspective on collective memory as mediated action to examine how constructions of a national past serve as tools that both reflect and shape national identity concerns. We employ a situation-sampling method to investigate collective memory in a series of studies concerning intergroup relations in the Indian context. In Study 1, participants (N = 55 generated three historical events that they considered important/relevant for Indian history. In Study 2, participants (N = 95 rated the importance and relevance of these events in a within-participant design. Illuminating the psychological constitution of cultural reality, frequency of recall (Study 1 and ratings of importance/relevance (Study 2 were greater for nation-glorifying events celebrating ingroup triumph than for typically silenced, critical events acknowledging ingroup wrongdoing. Moreover, these patterns were stronger among participants who scored higher in national identification. In Studies 3 (N = 65 and 4 (N = 160, we exposed participants to different categories of events in a between-participants design. Illuminating the cultural constitution of psychological experience, participants exposed to typically silenced, critical events reported lower national identification and greater perception of injustice against marginalized groups than did participants exposed to nation-glorifying events. Together, results illuminate a conception of collective memory as mediated action. Producers invest memory products with an identity-interested charge that directs subsequent intergroup relations toward identity-consistent ends.

  2. Characterization of bacteriophages infecting clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa stored in a culture collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C.S. Zanetti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Some clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa stored in our culture collection did not grow or grew poorly and showed lysis on the culture plates when removed from the collection and inoculated on MacConkey agar. One hypothesis was that bacteriophages had infected and killed those clinical isolates. To check the best storage conditions to maintain viable P. aeruginosa for a longer time, clinical isolates were stored at various temperatures and were grown monthly. We investigated the presence of phage in 10 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa stored in our culture collection. Four strains of P. aeruginosa were infected by phages that were characterized by electron microscopy and isolated to assess their ability to infect. The best condition to maintain the viability of the strains during storage was in water at room temperature. Three Siphoviridae and two Myoviridae phages were visualized and characterized by morphology. We confirmed the presence of bacteriophages infecting clinical isolates, and their ability to infect and lyse alternative hosts. Strain PAO1, however, did not show lysis to any phage. Mucoid and multidrug resistant strains of P. aeruginosa showed lysis to 50% of the phages tested.

  3. Light requirements in microalgal photobioreactors. An overview of biophotonic aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Ana P. [Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Porto (Portugal). CBQF/Escola Superior de Biotecnologia; Silva, Susana O. [Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Porto (Portugal). CBQF/Escola Superior de Biotecnologia; INESC Porto, Porto (Portugal); Baptista, Jose M. [INESC Porto, Porto (Portugal); Universidade da Madeira, Funchal (Portugal). Centro de Competencia de Ciencias Exactas e de Engenharia; Malcata, F. Xavier [ISMAI - Instituto Superior da Maia, Avioso S. Pedro (Portugal); Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras (Portugal). Inst. de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica

    2011-03-15

    In order to enhance microalgal growth in photobioreactors (PBRs), light requirement is one of the most important parameters to be addressed; light should indeed be provided at the appropriate intensity, duration, and wavelength. Excessive intensity may lead to photo-oxidation and -inhibition, whereas low light levels will become growth-limiting. The constraint of light saturation may be overcome via either of two approaches: increasing photosynthetic efficiency by genetic engineering, aimed at changing the chlorophyll antenna size; or increasing flux tolerance, via tailoring the photonic spectrum, coupled with its intensity and temporal characteristics. These approaches will allow an increased control over the illumination features, leading to maximization of microalgal biomass and metabolite productivity. This minireview briefly introduces the nature of light, and describes its harvesting and transformation by microalgae, as well as its metabolic effects under excessively low or high supply. Optimization of the photosynthetic efficiency is discussed under the two approaches referred to above; the selection of light sources, coupled with recent improvements in light handling by PBRs, are chronologically reviewed and critically compared. (orig.)

  4. Thermochemical conversion of microalgal biomass into biofuels: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Lin, Bo-Jhih; Huang, Ming-Yueh; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-05-01

    Following first-generation and second-generation biofuels produced from food and non-food crops, respectively, algal biomass has become an important feedstock for the production of third-generation biofuels. Microalgal biomass is characterized by rapid growth and high carbon fixing efficiency when they grow. On account of potential of mass production and greenhouse gas uptake, microalgae are promising feedstocks for biofuels development. Thermochemical conversion is an effective process for biofuel production from biomass. The technology mainly includes torrefaction, liquefaction, pyrolysis, and gasification. Through these conversion technologies, solid, liquid, and gaseous biofuels are produced from microalgae for heat and power generation. The liquid bio-oils can further be upgraded for chemicals, while the synthesis gas can be synthesized into liquid fuels. This paper aims to provide a state-of-the-art review of the thermochemical conversion technologies of microalgal biomass into fuels. Detailed conversion processes and their outcome are also addressed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Microalgal biomass pretreatment for bioethanol production: a review

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    Jesús Velazquez-Lucio

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels derived from microalgae biomass have received a great deal of attention owing to their high potentials as sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels. Microalgae have a high capacity of CO2 fixation and depending on their growth conditions, they can accumulate different quantities of lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. Microalgal biomass can, therefore, represent a rich source of fermentable sugars for third generation bioethanol production. The utilization of microalgal carbohydrates for bioethanol production follows three main stages: i pretreatment, ii saccharification, and iii fermentation. One of the most important stages is the pretreatment, which is carried out to increase the accessibility to intracellular sugars, and thus plays an important role in improving the overall efficiency of the bioethanol production process. Diverse types of pretreatments are currently used including chemical, thermal, mechanical, biological, and their combinations, which can promote cell disruption, facilitate extraction, and result in the modification the structure of carbohydrates as well as the production of fermentable sugars. In this review, the different pretreatments used on microalgae biomass for bioethanol production are presented and discussed. Moreover, the methods used for starch and total carbohydrates quantification in microalgae biomass are also briefly presented and compared.

  6. Metabolic engineering of microalgal based biofuel production: prospects and challenges

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    Chiranjib eBanerjee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The current scenario in renewable energy is focused on development of alternate and sustainable energy sources, amongst which microalgae stands as one of the promising feedstock for biofuel production. It is well known that microalgae generate much larger amounts of biofuels in a shorter time than other sources based on plant seeds. However, the greatest challenge in a transition to algae-based biofuel production is the various other complications involved in microalgal cultivation, its harvesting, concentration, drying and lipid extraction. Several green microalgae accumulate lipids, especially triacylglycerols (TAGs, which are main precursors in the production of lipid. The various aspects on metabolic pathway analysis of an oleaginous microalgae i.e. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii have elucidated some novel metabolically important genes and this enhances the lipid production in this microalgae. Adding to it, various other aspects in metabolic engineering using OptFlux and effectual bioprocess design also gives an interactive snapshot of enhancing lipid production which ultimately improvises the oil yield. This article reviews the current status of microalgal based technologies for biofuel production, bioreactor process design, flux analysis and it also provides various strategies to increase lipids accumulation via metabolic engineering.

  7. Applications of Microalgal Biotechnology for Disease Control in Aquaculture

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    Patai Charoonnart

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture industries, and in particular the farming of fish and crustaceans, are major contributors to the economy of many countries and an increasingly important component in global food supply. However, the severe impact of aquatic microbial diseases on production performance remains a challenge to these industries. This article considers the potential applications of microalgal technology in the control of such diseases. At the simplest level, microalgae offer health-promoting benefits as a nutritional supplement in feed meal because of their digestibility and high content of proteins, lipids and essential nutrients. Furthermore, some microalgal species possess natural anti-microbial compounds or contain biomolecules that can serve as immunostimulants. In addition, emerging genetic engineering technologies in microalgae offer the possibility of producing ‘functional feed additives’ in which novel and specific bioactives, such as fish growth hormones, anti-bacterials, subunit vaccines, and virus-targeted interfering RNAs, are components of the algal supplement. The evaluation of such technologies for farm applications is an important step in the future development of sustainable aquaculture.

  8. Adsorptive removal of cesium using bio fuel extraction microalgal waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Katsutoshi, E-mail: inoue@elechem.chem.saga-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University, Honjo 1, Saga 840-8502 (Japan); Gurung, Manju [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University, Honjo 1, Saga 840-8502 (Japan); Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL, Canada A1B 3X5 (Canada); Adhikari, Birendra Babu; Alam, Shafiq [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL, Canada A1B 3X5 (Canada); Kawakita, Hidetaka; Ohto, Keisuke [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Saga University, Honjo 1, Saga 840-8502 (Japan); Kurata, Minoru [Research Laboratories, DENSO CORPORATION, Minamiyama 500-1, Komenoki, Nisshin, Aichi 470-0111 (Japan); Atsumi, Kinya [New Business Promotion Dept., DENSO CORPORATION, Showa-cho 1-1, Kariya, Aichi 448-8661 (Japan)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • A novel biosorbent was prepared from the microalgal waste after biofuel extraction. • Higher selectivity and adsorption efficiency of the adsorbent for Cs{sup +} over Na{sup +} ions from aqueous solutions. • Potential candidate and eco-friendly alternative to the commercial resins such as zeolite. - Abstract: An adsorption gel was prepared from microalgal waste after extracting biodiesel oil by a simple chemical treatment of crosslinking using concentrated sulfuric acid. The adsorbent exhibited notably high selectivity and adsorption capacity towards Cs{sup +} over Na{sup +} from aqueous solutions, within the pH range of slightly acidic to neutral. The adsorption followed Langmuir isotherm and the maximum adsorption capacity of the gel for Cs{sup +} calculated from Langmuir model was found to be 1.36 mol kg{sup −1}. Trace concentration of Cs{sup +} ions present in aqueous streams was successfully separated from Na{sup +} ions using a column packed with the adsorbent at pH 6.5. The adsorption capacity of the gel towards Cs{sup +} in column operation was 0.13 mol kg{sup −1}. Although the adsorbed Cs{sup +} ions were easily eluted using 1 M hydrochloric acid solution, simple incineration is proposed as an alternative for the treatment of adsorbent loaded with radioactive Cs{sup +} ions due to the combustible characteristics of this adsorbent.

  9. Energy analysis and environmental impacts of microalgal biodiesel in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Yanfen; Huang Zehao; Ma Xiaoqian

    2012-01-01

    The entire life cycle of biodiesel produced by microalgal biomasses was evaluated using the method of life cycle assessment (LCA) to identify and quantify the fossil energy requirements and environmental impact loading of the system. The life cycle considers microalgae cultivation, harvesting, drying, oil extraction, anaerobic digestion, oil transportation, esterification, biodiesel transportation and biodiesel combustion. The investigation results show that the fossil energy requirement for the biodiesel production is 0.74 MJ/MJ biodiesel, indicating that 1 MJ of biodiesel requires an input of 0.74 MJ of fossil energy. Accordingly, biodiesel production is feasible as an energy producing process. The environmental impact loading of microalgal biodiesel is 3.69 PET 2010 (Person Equivalents, Targeted, in 2010) and the GWP is 0.16 kg CO 2-eq /MJ biodiesel. The effects of photochemical ozone formation were greatest among all calculated categorization impacts. The fossil energy requirement and GWP in this operation were found to be particularly sensitive to oil content, drying rate and esterification rate. Overall, the results presented herein indicate that the cultivation of microalgae has the potential to produce an environmentally sustainable feedstock for the production of biodiesel. - Highlights: ► Do energy analysis and environmental impacts of algal biodiesel in China. ► GWP and energy consumption are sensitive to lipid content and drying rate. ► Fossil energy consumption for algal biodiesel is 0.74 MJ/MJ. ► Microalgae are an environmentally sustainable feedstock for biodiesel production.

  10. An integrated microalgal growth model and its application to optimize the biomass production of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 in open pond under the nutrient level of domestic secondary effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yin-Hu; Li, Xin; Yu, Yin; Hu, Hong-Ying; Zhang, Tian-Yuan; Li, Feng-Min

    2013-09-01

    Microalgal growth is the key to the coupled system of wastewater treatment and microalgal biomass production. In this study, Monod model, Droop model and Steele model were incorporated to obtain an integrated growth model describing the combined effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and light intensity on the growth rate of Scenedesmus sp. LX1. The model parameters were obtained via fitting experimental data to these classical models. Furthermore, the biomass production of Scenedesmus sp. LX1 in open pond under nutrient level of secondary effluent was analyzed based on the integrated model, predicting a maximal microalgal biomass production rate about 20 g m(-2) d(-1). In order to optimize the biomass production of open pond the microalgal biomass concentration, light intensity on the surface of open pond, total depth of culture medium and hydraulic retention time should be 500 g m(-3), 16,000 lx, 0.2 m and 5.2 d in the conditions of this study, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fatty acids composition of 10 microalgal species

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    Thidarat Noiraksar

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids composition of 10 species of microalgae was determined at the exponential phase and the stationary phase. The microalgae consist of two species of diatoms, Bacillariophyceae, (Nitzschia cf. ovalis, Thalassiosira sp. five species of green microalgae, Prasinophyceae (Tetraselmis sp. and Chlorophyceae, (Dictyosphaerium pulchellum, Stichococcus sp., Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus falcatus and three species of blue green microalgae, Cyanophyceae (Anacystis sp., Synechococcus sp., Synechocystis sp..Medium for culture diatoms and green microalgae was F/2, and BG-11 media was used for Cyanophyceae. The microalgae were cultured beneath light intensity 143 μEm-2s-1, light: dark illustration 12:12 hrs., temperature 28ºC, and salinities 8-30 psu. The microalgae were harvested for analyzing fatty acid by centrivugal machine at 3500 rpm. for 5 min. at temperature 20ºC and stored at -80ºC prior to analysis.Fatty acids composition of microalgae differed from species to species. The majority fatty acids composition of diatoms at the exponential phase and the stationary phase were C16:1n-7 (17.12-31.47% and 28.22-42.02%, C16:0 (13.25-19.61% and 18.83-20.67%, C20:5 n-3 (16.65-26.67% and 11.32-23.68% respectively. The principle fatty acids composition of green microalgae, Prasinophyceae, Tetraselmis sp. were C18:3n-3 (16.17-16.67%, C16:0 (15.33-17.45%, C18:1n-9 (12.25-15.43%, C18:2n-6 (9.66-19.97%. The fatty acids composition of green microalgae, Chlorophyceae, were C18:3 n-3 (20.02-26.49% and 15.35- 30.63%, C16:0 (5.76-17.61% and 11.41-20.03%, C18:2n-6 (4.67-17.54% and 7.48-20.61% respectively. The major amounts of fatty acids content of blue green microalgae were C16:1n-7 (9.28-34.91% and 34.48- 35.04%, C14:0 (13.34-25.96% and 26.69-28.24%, C16:0 (5.89-29.15% and 5.70-16.81% except for Anacystis sp.which had a high amount of C18:3 n-3 (23.18-27.98% but low amount of C14:0 (3.66-4.98%.Bacillariophyceae contained the highest amount of highly unsaturated

  12. Connecting Local Cultural Heritage Collections with ICT: the Case of ZBORZBIRK

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    Špela Ledinek Lozej

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPurpose: The article discusses the digitisation and inventory of 34 local cultural heritage collections in the border region between the Alps and the Karst, and the establishment of a network of owners, guardians of collections and professionals from the field of museology, ethnology, digital humanities and informatics.Methodology/approach: In the framework of the project “ZBORZBIRK – Cultural heritage between the Alps and the Karst” 34 collections of cultural heritage of different type and contents, until then inaccessible to the general public and experts, were catalogued, contextualised and presented to the general and expert public in different media and on the project website.Results: A unified repository with metadata on objects (units was established containing also digital photographs and scans of images and textual objects (digital objects. There are 4583 units and 5190 digital objects in the repository. It is designed for researchers, experts and students from the fields of ethnology, cultural anthropology, history, linguistics as well for the general public, and above all to achieve greater recognisability of the region.Research limitation: The research and the results were limited by the material itself, i.e. the collections included into the project, as well as by different aspirations of collectors and various levels of specialised skills of registrars and recorders who documented and digitised the units and entered the data in the metadata database. The project addresses a wide scope of potential users thus the implementation of different solutions gave rise to the conflict of interests among target groups. The question was whether it should serve as a virtual museum or as a research archival repository. More attention was focused on archival and research standards than on presentation technologies.Originality/practical implications: The project ZBORZBIRK is one of the first projects in the Italian and Slovenian

  13. Application of Fungicides and Microalgal Phenolic Extracts for the Direct Control of Fumonisin Contamination in Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglioni, Priscila Tessmer; Blandino, Massimo; Scarpino, Valentina; Giordano, Debora; Testa, Giulio; Badiale-Furlong, Eliana

    2018-05-16

    Fungicides and, for the first time, microalgal phenolic extracts (MPE) from Spirulina sp. and Nannochloropsis sp. were applied on maize culture media under field conditions to evaluate their ability to minimize Fusarium species development and fumonisin production. An in vitro assay against F. verticillioides was carried out using maize grains as the culture medium. An open-field experiment was carried out in Northwest Italy under natural infection conditions. The compared treatments were factorial combinations of two insecticide treatments (an untreated control and pyrethroid, used against European Corn Borer), four antifungal treatments (an untreated control, MPE from Spirulina sp., MPE from Nannochloropsis sp., and a synthetic fungicide), and two timings of the application of the antifungal compounds (at maize flowering and at the milk stage). The MPE compounds were capable of inhibiting fumonisin production in vitro more efficiently than tebuconazole. Insecticide application reduced the infection by Fusarium species and subsequent fumonisin contamination. However, fumonisins in maize fields were not significantly controlled by either fungicide or MPE application.

  14. Co-cultivation of fungal and microalgal cells as an efficient system for harvesting microalgal cells, lipid production and wastewater treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Digby Wrede

    Full Text Available The challenges which the large scale microalgal industry is facing are associated with the high cost of key operations such as harvesting, nutrient supply and oil extraction. The high-energy input for harvesting makes current commercial microalgal biodiesel production economically unfeasible and can account for up to 50% of the total cost of biofuel production. Co-cultivation of fungal and microalgal cells is getting increasing attention because of high efficiency of bio-flocculation of microalgal cells with no requirement for added chemicals and low energy inputs. Moreover, some fungal and microalgal strains are well known for their exceptional ability to purify wastewater, generating biomass that represents a renewable and sustainable feedstock for biofuel production. We have screened the flocculation efficiency of the filamentous fungus A. fumigatus against 11 microalgae representing freshwater, marine, small (5 µm, large (over 300 µm, heterotrophic, photoautotrophic, motile and non-motile strains. Some of the strains are commercially used for biofuel production. Lipid production and composition were analysed in fungal-algal pellets grown on media containing alternative carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus sources contained in wheat straw and swine wastewater, respectively. Co-cultivation of algae and A. fumigatus cells showed additive and synergistic effects on biomass production, lipid yield and wastewater bioremediation efficiency. Analysis of fungal-algal pellet's fatty acids composition suggested that it can be tailored and optimised through co-cultivating different algae and fungi without the need for genetic modification.

  15. Co-cultivation of fungal and microalgal cells as an efficient system for harvesting microalgal cells, lipid production and wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrede, Digby; Taha, Mohamed; Miranda, Ana F; Kadali, Krishna; Stevenson, Trevor; Ball, Andrew S; Mouradov, Aidyn

    2014-01-01

    The challenges which the large scale microalgal industry is facing are associated with the high cost of key operations such as harvesting, nutrient supply and oil extraction. The high-energy input for harvesting makes current commercial microalgal biodiesel production economically unfeasible and can account for up to 50% of the total cost of biofuel production. Co-cultivation of fungal and microalgal cells is getting increasing attention because of high efficiency of bio-flocculation of microalgal cells with no requirement for added chemicals and low energy inputs. Moreover, some fungal and microalgal strains are well known for their exceptional ability to purify wastewater, generating biomass that represents a renewable and sustainable feedstock for biofuel production. We have screened the flocculation efficiency of the filamentous fungus A. fumigatus against 11 microalgae representing freshwater, marine, small (5 µm), large (over 300 µm), heterotrophic, photoautotrophic, motile and non-motile strains. Some of the strains are commercially used for biofuel production. Lipid production and composition were analysed in fungal-algal pellets grown on media containing alternative carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus sources contained in wheat straw and swine wastewater, respectively. Co-cultivation of algae and A. fumigatus cells showed additive and synergistic effects on biomass production, lipid yield and wastewater bioremediation efficiency. Analysis of fungal-algal pellet's fatty acids composition suggested that it can be tailored and optimised through co-cultivating different algae and fungi without the need for genetic modification.

  16. Third-generation biofuels: current and future research on microalgal lipid biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Beisson Yonghua

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available One pressing issue faced by modern societies is to develop renewable energy for transportation. Microalgal biomass offers an attractive solution due to its high (annual surface biomass productivity, efficient conversion of solar energy into chemical energy and the ability to grow on non-agricultural land. Despite these considerable advantages, microalgal biofuels are not yet commercially sustainable. Major challenges lie in improving both cultivation technologies and microalgal strains. A microalgal crop species is yet to emerge. In this review, we focus on researches aiming at understanding and harnessing lipid metabolism in microalgae in view of producing lipid-based biofuels such as biodiesel. Current biotechnological challenges and key progresses made in the development of algal models, genetic tools and lipid metabolic engineering strategies are reviewed. Possible future research directions to increase oil yields in microalgae are also highlighted.

  17. Resource Assessment for Microalgal/Emergent Aquatic Biomass Systems in the Arid Southwest: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigon, B. W.; Arthur, M. F.; Taft, L. G.; Wagner, C. K.; Lipinsky, E. S.; Litchfield, J. H.; McCandlish, C. D.; Clark, R.

    1982-12-23

    This research project has been designed to facilitate the eventual selection of biomass production systems using aquatic species (microalgal and emergent aquatic plant species (MEAP) which effectively exploit the potentially available resources of the Southwest.

  18. Web-based experiments for the study of collective social dynamics in cultural markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salganik, Matthew J; Watts, Duncan J

    2009-07-01

    Social scientists are often interested in understanding how the dynamics of social systems are driven by the behavior of individuals that make up those systems. However, this process is hindered by the difficulty of experimentally studying how individual behavioral tendencies lead to collective social dynamics in large groups of people interacting over time. In this study, we investigate the role of social influence, a process well studied at the individual level, on the puzzling nature of success for cultural products such as books, movies, and music. Using a "multiple-worlds" experimental design, we are able to isolate the causal effect of an individual-level mechanism on collective social outcomes. We employ this design in a Web-based experiment in which 2,930 participants listened to, rated, and downloaded 48 songs by up-and-coming bands. Surprisingly, despite relatively large differences in the demographics, behavior, and preferences of participants, the experimental results at both the individual and collective levels were similar to those found in Salganik, Dodds, and Watts (2006). Further, by comparing results from two distinct pools of participants, we are able to gain new insights into the role of individual behavior on collective outcomes. We conclude with a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of Web-based experiments to address questions of collective social dynamics. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  19. Kinetics of inorganic carbon utilization by microalgal biofilm in a flat plate photoreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Y.H.; Leu, J.Y.; Lan, C.R.; Lin, P.H.P.; Chang, F.L. [Development Center for Biotechnology, Taipei (Taiwan). Dept. for Environmental Program

    2003-11-01

    A kinetic model was developed to describe inorganic carbon utilization by microalgae biofilm in a flat plate photoreactor. The model incorporates the fundamental mechanisms of diffusive mass transport and biological reaction of inorganic carbon by microalgal biofilm. An advanced numerical technique, the orthogonal collocation method and Gear's method, was employed to solve this kinetic model. The model solutions included the concentration profiles of inorganic carbon in the microalgal biofilm, the growths of suspended microalgae and microalgal biofilm, the effluent concentrations of inorganic carbon, and the flux of inorganic carbon from bulk liquid into biofilm. The batch kinetic test was independently conducted to determine biokinetic parameters used in the microalgal biofilm model simulation while initial thickness of microalgal biofilm were assumed. A laboratory-scale flat plate photoreactor with a high recycle flow rate was set up and conducted to verify the model. The volume of photoreactor is 60 l which yields a hydraulic retention time of 1.67 days. The model-generated inorganic carbon and the suspended microalgae concentration curves agreed well with those obtained in the laboratory-scale test. The fixation efficiencies of HCO{sub 3}{sup -} and CO{sub 2} are 98.5% and 90% at a steady-state condition, respectively. The concentration of suspended microalgal cell reached up to 12 mg/l at a maximum growth rate while the thickness of microalgal biofilm was estimated to be 104 pm at a steady-state condition. The approaches of experiments and model simulation presented in this study could be employed for the design of a flat plate photoreactor to treat CO{sub 2} by microalgal biofilm in a fossil-fuel power plant.

  20. Development of an attached microalgal growth system for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael B; Wen, Zhiyou

    2010-01-01

    Algal biofuel production has gained a renewed interest in recent years but is still not economically feasible due to several limitations related to algal culture. The objective of this study is to explore a novel attached culture system for growing the alga Chlorella sp. as biodiesel feedstock, with dairy manure wastewater being used as growth medium. Among supporting materials tested for algal attachment, polystyrene foam led to a firm attachment, high biomass yield (25.65 g/m(2), dry basis), and high fatty acid yield (2.31 g/m(2)). The biomass attached on the supporting material surface was harvested by scraping; the residual colonies left on the surface served as inoculum for regrowth. The algae regrowth on the colony-established surface resulted in a higher biomass yield than that from the initial growth on fresh surface due to the downtime saved for initial algal attachment. The 10-day regrowth culture resulted in a high biodiesel production potential with a fatty acid methyl esters yield of 2.59 g/m(2) and a productivity of 0.26 g/m(-2) day(-1). The attached algal culture also removed 61-79% total nitrogen and 62-93% total phosphorus from dairy manure wastewater, depending on different culture conditions. The biomass harvested from the attached growth system (through scraping) had a water content of 93.75%, similar to that harvested from suspended culture system (through centrifugation). Collectively, the attached algal culture system with polystyrene foam as a supporting material demonstrated a good performance in terms of biomass yield, biodiesel production potential, ease to harvest biomass, and physical robustness for reuse.

  1. Chemicals to enhance microalgal growth and accumulation of high-value bioproducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinheng eYu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic microalgae have attracted significant attention as they can serve as important sources for cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical products, industrial materials and even biofuel biodiesels. However, current productivity of microalga-based processes is still very low, which has restricted their scale-up application. In addition to various efforts in strain improvement and cultivation optimization, it was proposed that the productivity of microalga-based processes can also be increased using various chemicals to trigger or enhance cell growth and accumulation of bioproducts. Herein, we summarized recent progresses in applying chemical triggers or enhancers to improve cell growth and accumulation of bioproducts in algal cultures. Based on their enhancing mechanisms, these chemicals can be classified into four categories:chemicals regulating biosynthetic pathways, chemicals inducing oxidative stress responses, phytohormones and analogues regulating multiple aspects of microalgal metabolism, and chemicals directly as metabolic precursors. Taken together, the early researches demonstrated that the use of chemical stimulants could be a very effective and economical way to improve cell growth and accumulation of high-value bioproducts in large-scale cultivation of microalgae.

  2. Combination of image descriptors for the exploration of cultural photographic collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Neelanjan; Gouet-Brunet, Valérie; Bloch, Gabriel; Besson, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    The rapid growth of image digitization and collections in recent years makes it challenging and burdensome to organize, categorize, and retrieve similar images from voluminous collections. Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) is immensely convenient in this context. A considerable number of local feature detectors and descriptors are present in the literature of CBIR. We propose a model to anticipate the best feature combinations for image retrieval-related applications. Several spatial complementarity criteria of local feature detectors are analyzed and then engaged in a regression framework to find the optimal combination of detectors for a given dataset and are better adapted for each given image; the proposed model is also useful to optimally fix some other parameters, such as the k in k-nearest neighbor retrieval. Three public datasets of various contents and sizes are employed to evaluate the proposal, which is legitimized by improving the quality of retrieval notably facing classical approaches. Finally, the proposed image search engine is applied to the cultural photographic collections of a French museum, where it demonstrates its added value for the exploration and promotion of these contents at different levels from their archiving up to their exhibition in or ex situ.

  3. Dynamic collection and analysis of volatile organic compounds from the headspace of cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranska, A; Smolinska, A; Boots, A W; Dallinga, J W; van Schooten, F J

    2015-10-15

    Exhaled breath has proven to be a valuable source of information about human bodies. Subtle differences between volatile organic compounds (VOCs) formed endogenously can be detected and become a base for a potential monitoring tool for health and disease. Until now, there has been a lack of biological and mechanistic knowledge of the processes involved in the production of relevant VOCs. Among the possible sources of health-related and disease-related VOCs are microorganisms found in the respiratory tract and in the gut. Other VOCs in the body are produced by cells that are influenced by the disease, for instance, due to metabolic disorders and/or inflammation. To gain insight into the in vivo production of VOCs by human cells and thus the exhaled breath composition, in vitro experiments involving relevant cells should be studied because they may provide valuable information on the production of VOCs by the affected cells. To this aim we developed and validated a system for dynamically (continuously) collecting headspace air in vitro using a Caco-2 cell line. The system allows the application of different cell lines as well as different experimental setups, including varying exposure times and treatment options while preserving cell viability. Significant correlation (p  ⩽  0.0001) between collection outputs within each studied group confirmed high reproducibility of the collection system. An example of such an application is presented here. We studied the influence of oxidative stress on the VOC composition of the headspace air of Caco-2 cells. By comparing the VOC composition of air flushed through empty culture flasks (n  =  35), flasks with culture medium (n  =  35), flasks with medium and cells (n  =  20), flasks with medium and an oxidative stressor (H2O2) (n  =  20), and flasks with medium, stressor, and cells (n  =  20), we were able to separate the effects from the stressor on the cells from all other

  4. Reducing unnecessary culturing: a systems approach to evaluating urine culture ordering and collection practices among nurses in two acute care settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Redwood

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inappropriate ordering and acquisition of urine cultures leads to unnecessary treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB. Treatment of ASB contributes to antimicrobial resistance particularly among hospital-acquired organisms. Our objective was to investigate urine culture ordering and collection practices among nurses to identify key system-level and human factor barriers and facilitators that affect optimal ordering and collection practices. Methods We conducted two focus groups, one with ED nurses and the other with ICU nurses. Questions were developed using the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS framework. We used iterative categorization (directed content analysis followed by summative content analysis to code and analyze the data both deductively (using SEIPS domains and inductively (emerging themes. Results Factors affecting optimal urine ordering and collection included barriers at the person, process, and task levels. For ED nurses, barriers included patient factors, physician communication, reflex culture protocols, the electronic health record, urinary symptoms, and ED throughput. For ICU nurses, barriers included physician notification of urinalysis results, personal protective equipment, collection technique, patient body habitus, and Foley catheter issues. Conclusions We identified multiple potential process barriers to nurse adherence with evidence-based recommendations for ordering and collecting urine cultures in the ICU and ED. A systems approach to identifying barriers and facilitators can be useful to design interventions for improving urine ordering and collection practices.

  5. dEMBF: A Comprehensive Database of Enzymes of Microalgal Biofuel Feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Namrata; Panda, Prasanna Kumar; Parida, Bikram Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae have attracted wide attention as one of the most versatile renewable feedstocks for production of biofuel. To develop genetically engineered high lipid yielding algal strains, a thorough understanding of the lipid biosynthetic pathway and the underpinning enzymes is essential. In this work, we have systematically mined the genomes of fifteen diverse algal species belonging to Chlorophyta, Heterokontophyta, Rhodophyta, and Haptophyta, to identify and annotate the putative enzymes of lipid metabolic pathway. Consequently, we have also developed a database, dEMBF (Database of Enzymes of Microalgal Biofuel Feedstock), which catalogues the complete list of identified enzymes along with their computed annotation details including length, hydrophobicity, amino acid composition, subcellular location, gene ontology, KEGG pathway, orthologous group, Pfam domain, intron-exon organization, transmembrane topology, and secondary/tertiary structural data. Furthermore, to facilitate functional and evolutionary study of these enzymes, a collection of built-in applications for BLAST search, motif identification, sequence and phylogenetic analysis have been seamlessly integrated into the database. dEMBF is the first database that brings together all enzymes responsible for lipid synthesis from available algal genomes, and provides an integrative platform for enzyme inquiry and analysis. This database will be extremely useful for algal biofuel research. It can be accessed at http://bbprof.immt.res.in/embf.

  6. Comparison of Uriswab to alternative methods for urine culture collection and transport: confirmation of standard culture methodology for investigation of urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Robert P; Turnbull, Lee-Ann; Gauchier-Pitts, Kaylee; Bennett, Tracy; Dyrland, Debbie; Blonski, Susan

    2016-08-01

    The ability to isolate and identify causative agents of urinary tract infections relies primarily on the quality of the urine sample that is submitted to the microbiology. The most important factors are the method of collection, the maintenance of viability of the potential pathogens during transport, and standardization of the culturing of the urine sample. This report is a composite of several investigations comparing collection and transport on urine culture paddles, with a preservative urine sponge (Uriswab), and a comparison of Uriswab with the BD preservative transport tube as methods of preservation of urinary pathogens. Primary studies showed that Uriswab maintained significantly more urinary pathogens than the urine culture paddle with fewer mixed or contaminated cultures. The two preservative transport systems were comparable for maintenance of viability of the pathogens, but there were fewer mixed cultures when samples were collected with Uriswab. This study confirms the importance of a standard volume of 1 μL of urine for culture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. ARTEFACT MOBILE DATA MODEL TO SUPPORT CULTURAL HERITAGE DATA COLLECTION AND INTERPRETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. S. Mohamed-Ghouse

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the limitation of existing data structures in mobile mapping applications to support archaeologists to manage the artefact (any object made or modified by a human culture, and later recovered by an archaeological endeavor details excavated at a cultural heritage site. Current limitations of data structure in the mobile mapping application allow archeologist to record only one artefact per test pit location. In reality, more than one artefact can be excavated from the same test pit location. A spatial data model called Artefact Mobile Data Model (AMDM was developed applying existing Relational Data Base Management System (RDBMS technique to overcome the limitation. The data model was implemented in a mobile database environment called SprintDB Pro which was in turn connected to ArcPad 7.1 mobile mapping application through Open Data Base Connectivity (ODBC. In addition, the design of a user friendly application built on top of AMDM to interpret and record the technology associated with each artefact excavated in the field is also discussed in the paper. In summary, the paper discusses the design and implementation of a data model to facilitate the collection of artefacts in the field using integrated mobile mapping and database approach.

  8. Crowdfunding and Cultural Industry: The new relations between production and consumption based on the culture of participation and collective funding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Amália Dalpizol Valiati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The configuration of a new standard of consumption and cultural production based on the participation of consumers through the Internet has become a feature of modern society (Jenkins, 2009; Shirky, 2011. Based on this premise, we intend to analyze the process of crowd funding, in which a mass of staff is united in the realization of cultural projects and to create a unique product, under the bias of the culturological theory. This work is also raising questions as to the timeliness of the concept of cultural industry in the face of new practices allowed by digital networks and a potential democratization, focusing the brazilian website Catarse.

  9. Role of granular activated carbon in the microalgal cultivation from bacteria contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Zhi-Yi; Li, Jing-Ya; Xiong, Zhao-Zhao; Cheng, Li-Hua; Xu, Xin-Hua

    2018-01-01

    Microalgal wastewater treatment has been considered as one of the most promising measures to treat nitrogen and phosphorus in the municipal wastewater. While the municipal wastewater provides sufficient nitrogen and phosphorus for microalgal growth, the microalgae still faces serious biological contamination caused by bacteria in wastewater. In this study, the commercial granular activated carbon (GAC) was added into the simulated municipal wastewater to avoid the influence of bacteria on the growth of microalgae. The extracellular organic matter (EOM) in microalgal broth was then characterized to enlighten the role of GAC in reducing the bioavailability of EOM. The results showed that the GAC addition could increase the dry weight of microalgae from 0.06mgL -1 to 0.46mgL -1 under the condition of bacterial inoculation. The GAC could mitigate bacterial contamination mainly due to its adsorption of both bacteria and EOM that might contain algicidal extracellular substances. Moreover, compared to the control group, the GAC addition could mitigate the microalgal lysis caused by bacteria and thus greatly reduce the bioavailability of EOM from 2.80mgL -1 to 0.61mgL -1 , which was beneficial for the improvement of biostability and reuse of effluent after the microalgal harvesting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nutrient removal and biomass production: advances in microalgal biotechnology for wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abinandan, Sudharsanam; Subashchandrabose, Suresh R; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2018-05-17

    Owing to certain drawbacks, such as energy-intensive operations in conventional modes of wastewater treatment (WWT), there has been an extensive search for alternative strategies in treatment technology. Biological modes for treating wastewaters are one of the finest technologies in terms of economy and efficiency. An integrated biological approach with chemical flocculation is being conventionally practiced in several-sewage and effluent treatment plants around the world. Overwhelming responsiveness to treat wastewaters especially by using microalgae is due to their simplest photosynthetic mechanism and ease of acclimation to various habitats. Microalgal technology, also known as phycoremediation, has been in use for WWT since 1950s. Various strategies for the cultivation of microalgae in WWT systems are evolving faster. However, the availability of innovative approaches for maximizing the treatment efficiency, coupled with biomass productivity, remains the major bottleneck for commercialization of microalgal technology. Investment costs and invasive parameters also delimit the use of microalgae in WWT. This review critically discusses the merits and demerits of microalgal cultivation strategies recently developed for maximum pollutant removal as well as biomass productivity. Also, the potential of algal biofilm technology in pollutant removal, and harvesting the microalgal biomass using different techniques have been highlighted. Finally, an economic assessment of the currently available methods has been made to validate microalgal cultivation in wastewater at the commercial level.

  11. 76 FR 16029 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... Cultural Affairs, Office of Policy and Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation Envoys... larger Sports and Culture Evaluation to conduct a survey of the envoys who participated in the Sports... of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Office of Policy and Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports...

  12. 76 FR 16031 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... & Culture Evaluation Sports Surveys, OMB Control Number 1405-xxxx ACTION: Notice of request for public... Cultural Affairs, Office of Policy and Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation Sports... Sports and Culture Evaluation to conduct a survey of exchange participants who participated in either the...

  13. 76 FR 16033 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... Cultural Affairs, Office of Policy and Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation BTL... larger Sports and Culture Evaluation to conduct a survey of exchange participants who participated in the... of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Office of Policy and Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports...

  14. Effect of microalgal treatments on pesticides in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultberg, Malin; Bodin, Hristina; Ardal, Embla; Asp, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris on a wide range of different pesticides in water was studied. Treatments included short-term exposure (1 h) to living and dead microalgal biomass and long-term exposure (4 days) to actively growing microalgae. The initial pesticide concentration was 63.5 ± 3.9 µg L(-1). There was no significant overall reduction of pesticides after short-term exposure. A significant reduction of the total amount of pesticides was achieved after the long-term exposure to growing microalgae (final concentration 29.7 ± 1.0 µg L(-1)) compared with the long-term control (37.0 ± 1.2 µg L(-1)). The concentrations of 10 pesticides out of 38 tested were significantly lowered in the long-term algal treatment. A high impact of abiotic factors such as sunlight and aeration for pesticide reduction was observed when the initial control (63.5 ± 3.9 µg L(-1)) and the long-term control (37.0 ± 1.2 µg L(-1)) were compared. The results suggest that water treatment using microalgae, natural inhabitants of polluted surface waters, could be further explored not only for removal of inorganic nutrients but also for removal of organic pollutants in water.

  15. Nanocellulose size regulates microalgal flocculation and lipid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sun Il; Min, Seul Ki; Shin, Hwa Sung

    2016-01-01

    Harvesting of microalgae is a cost-consuming step for biodiesel production. Cellulose has recently been studied as a biocompatible and inexpensive flocculant for harvesting microalgae via surface modifications such as cation-modifications. In this study, we demonstrated that cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) played a role as a microalgal flocculant via its network geometry without cation modification. Sulfur acid-treated tunicate CNF flocculated microalgae, but cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) did not. In addition, desulfurization did not significantly influence the flocculation efficiency of CNF. This mechanism is likely related to encapsulation of microalgae by nanofibrous structure formation, which is derived from nanofibrils entanglement and intra-hydrogen bonding. Moreover, flocculated microalgae were subject to mechanical stress resulting in changes in metabolism induced by calcium ion influx, leading to upregulated lipid synthesis. CNF do not require surface modifications such as cation modified CNC and flocculation is derived from network geometry related to nanocellulose size; accordingly, CNF is one of the least expensive cellulose-based flocculants ever identified. If this flocculant is applied to the biodiesel process, it could decrease the cost of harvest, which is one of the most expensive steps, while increasing lipid production. PMID:27796311

  16. Toxicity of the pharmaceutical clotrimazole to marine microalgal communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porsbring, Tobias; Blanck, Hans; Tjellstroem, Henrik; Backhaus, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Clotrimazole belongs to the group of 14α-demethylase inhibiting fungicides. It is widely used in human and veterinary medicine and has been identified as a priority pollutant for the marine environment. However, the toxicity of clotrimazole to marine primary producers is largely unknown. We therefore sampled natural microalgal communities (periphyton) and exposed them to concentration series of clotrimazole over 4 days. 50 pmol/L clotrimazole caused a concentration-dependent accumulation of C14α-methylated sterol precursors, which coincided with a decrease in algal-specific C14-desmethyl sterols. This indicates an inhibition of algal 14α-demethylases already at environmental concentrations. A clotrimazole concentration of 500 pmol/L reduced total sterol content to 64% of control level. Community chlorophyll a content was affected by clotrimazole in a bi-phasic manner with first reductions becoming visible at 500 pmol/L, along with indications of an altered cycling of photoprotective xanthophyll pigments. Concentrations of 10-100 nmol/L and higher caused large reductions in community growth, and changed community pigment profiles in a concentration-dependent monotonous manner. The study further indicated that diatoms use obtusifoliol as a natural substrate for 14α-demethylase, just as higher plants do but also utilize norlanosterol

  17. Treatment of cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater and the reuse of sludge for biodiesel production by microalgal heterotrophic bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Manzoni Maroneze

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Microalgal heterotrophic bioreactors are a potential technological development that can convert organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorus of wastewaters into a biomass suitable for energy production. The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of microalgal heterotrophic bioreactors in the secondary treatment of cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater and the reuse of microalgal sludge for biodiesel production. The experiments were performed in a bubble column bioreactor using the microalgae Phormidium sp. Heterotrophic microalgal bioreactors removed 90 % of the chemical oxygen demand, 57 % of total nitrogen and 52 % of total phosphorus. Substantial microalgal sludge is produced in the process (substrate yield coefficient of 0.43 mg sludge mg chemical oxygen demand−¹, resulting in a biomass with high potential for producing biodiesel (ester content of more than 99 %, cetane number of 55, iodine value of 73.5 g iodine 100 g−¹, unsaturation degree of ~75 % and a cold filter plugging point of 5 ºC.

  18. Nifedipine-activated Ca(2+) permeability in newborn rat cortical collecting duct cells in primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, L; Bidet, M; Martial, S; Sanchez, E; Melendez, E; Tauc, M; Poujeol, C; Martin, D; Namorado, M D; Reyes, J L; Poujeol, P

    2001-05-01

    To characterize Ca(2+) transport in newborn rat cortical collecting duct (CCD) cells, we used nifedipine, which in adult rat distal tubules inhibits the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) increase in response to hormonal activation. We found that the dihydropyridine (DHP) nifedipine (20 microM) produced an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) from 87.6 +/- 3.3 nM to 389.9 +/- 29.0 nM in 65% of the cells. Similar effects of other DHP (BAY K 8644, isradipine) were also observed. Conversely, DHPs did not induce any increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in cells obtained from proximal convoluted tubule. In CCD cells, neither verapamil nor diltiazem induced any rise in [Ca(2+)](i). Experiments in the presence of EGTA showed that external Ca(2+) was required for the nifedipine effect, while lanthanum (20 microM), gadolinium (100 microM), and diltiazem (20 microM) inhibited the effect. Experiments done in the presence of valinomycin resulted in the same nifedipine effect, showing that K(+) channels were not involved in the nifedipine-induced [Ca(2+)](i) rise. H(2)O(2) also triggered [Ca(2+)](i) rise. However, nifedipine-induced [Ca(2+)](i) increase was not affected by protamine. In conclusion, the present results indicate that 1) primary cultures of cells from terminal nephron of newborn rats are a useful tool for investigating Ca(2+) transport mechanisms during growth, and 2) newborn rat CCD cells in primary culture exhibit a new apical nifedipine-activated Ca(2+) channel of capacitive type (either transient receptor potential or leak channel).

  19. The Odyssey of the Ancestral Escherich Strain through Culture Collections: an Example of Allopatric Diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desroches, M; Royer, G; Roche, D; Mercier-Darty, M; Vallenet, D; Médigue, C; Bastard, K; Rodriguez, C; Clermont, O; Denamur, E; Decousser, J-W

    2018-01-01

    More than a century ago, Theodor Escherich isolated the bacterium that was to become Escherichia coli , one of the most studied organisms. Not long after, the strain began an odyssey and landed in many laboratories across the world. As laboratory culture conditions could be responsible for major changes in bacterial strains, we conducted a genome analysis of isolates of this emblematic strain from different culture collections (England, France, the United States, Germany). Strikingly, many discrepancies between the isolates were observed, as revealed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), the presence of virulence-associated genes, core genome MLST, and single nucleotide polymorphism/indel analyses. These differences are correlated with the phylogeographic history of the strain and were due to an unprecedented number of mutations in coding DNA repair functions such as mismatch repair (MutL) and oxidized guanine nucleotide pool cleaning (MutT), conferring a specific mutational spectrum and leading to a mutator phenotype. The mutator phenotype was probably acquired during subculturing and corresponded to second-order selection. Furthermore, all of the isolates exhibited hypersusceptibility to antibiotics due to mutations in efflux pump- and porin-encoding genes, as well as a specific mutation in the sigma factor-encoding gene rpoS . These defects reflect a self-preservation and nutritional competence tradeoff allowing survival under the starvation conditions imposed by storage. From a clinical point of view, dealing with such mutator strains can lead microbiologists to draw false conclusions about isolate relatedness and may impact therapeutic effectiveness. IMPORTANCE Mutator phenotypes have been described in laboratory-evolved bacteria, as well as in natural isolates. Several genes can be impacted, each of them being associated with a typical mutational spectrum. By studying one of the oldest strains available, the ancestral Escherich strain, we were able to

  20. Study on chromosome aberrations test determinated by micro-whole blood culture in vacuum blood collection tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Zhihong; Han Fang'an; Ge Qinjuan; Wu Xiao; Chen Juan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To develop an easier and efficient method of culturing the chromosome and analyzing the aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes. Methods: Micro whole was cultured for 54 hours in home-made vacuum blood collection tube, and then collection, slice-making, microscopy detection for the chromosome aberrations was done. The difference of the results was analysed by comparing with the common method. Results: For 60 radiologists and 30 contrasts, the chromosome aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes were examed by this system, the lymphocytes and chromosome were clear and alive and easier to analyse. Compared with the common method, there was no significantly difference between the two analyzing results. Conclusion: The chromosome aberrations test by micro whole blood culture in vacuum blood collection tube is easier and efficient, and is worthy of being widely popularized. (authors)

  1. Optimal processing pathway for the production of biodiesel from microalgal biomass: A superstructure based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Lee, Jay H.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we propose a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model for superstructure based optimization of biodiesel production from microalgal biomass. The proposed superstructure includes a number of major processing steps for the production of biodiesel from microalgal biomass......, such as the harvesting of microalgal biomass, pretreatments including drying and cell disruption of harvested biomass, lipid extraction, transesterification, and post-transesterfication purification. The proposed model is used to find the optimal processing pathway among the large number of potential pathways that exist...... for the production of biodiesel from microalgae. The proposed methodology is tested by implementing on a specific case with different choices of objective functions. The MINLP model is implemented and solved in GAMS using a database built in Excel. The results from the optimization are analyzed...

  2. The Study about the Influence of the Pop Culture for the Japanese Fashion : The Historical Materials Collection about the Connection of Japanese Fashion and Pop Cultures after World War II

    OpenAIRE

    田中, 里尚; 中村, 仁; 梅原, 宏司; 齋木, 吉隆; 古賀, 令子

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research collect and arrange documents and historical materials to determine how pop culture influenced the fashion in Japan after World War II. In 2010, we firstly collected previous fashion and popular culture studies done in foreign countries. We found many intriguing studies, but we came upon one which was particularly noteworthy. As a means of clarifying the relationship between fashion and pop culture, we collected books written by Angela McRobbie. Second, we collect...

  3. Culture, Materiality, Memory: Collective Ownership and Action In Romanian Mutual Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcis TULBURE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the tensions between collectivist and corporatist forms of ownership for Romanian mutual funds. Drawing on my research among retail investors of funds that ended up in bankruptcy throughout the postsocialist period, I document the material practices and graphic artefacts they deploy in litigation as ways to make claims and produce evidence regarding their ongoing financial involvement and the rights to compensations. I focus specifically on the files documenting their personal histories (providing moral reasons for pursuing “speculative” investments as well as those materializing the memory of their involvement with the capital market. I conclude that material practices are constitutive of vernacular forms of financial and legal knowledge. Furthermore, they engender specific types of property that serve as premises for the defense of investor rights and as grounds for emerging forms of collective action. Methodologically, the conclusion of the paper is that qualitative methods constitute alternative approaches and a valuable complement of quantitate research methods for the behaviors of mutual fund investors illustrating some of the cultural components giving specific dynamics to the popular participation to the capital market that can be subsequently quantified.

  4. 76 FR 16031 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ...: Kennedy Center (KC) Cultural Visitors Program participants conducted by ECA from 2005 through 2009... of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Office of Policy and Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation Kennedy Center Visitors Survey, OMB Control Number 1405-xxxx ACTION: Notice of request...

  5. The U.S. Culture Collection Network Responding to the Requirements of the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin McCluskey

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. Culture Collection Network held a meeting to share information about how culture collections are responding to the requirements of the recently enacted Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD. The meeting included representatives of many culture collections and other biological collections, the U.S. Department of State, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Secretariat of the CBD, interested scientific societies, and collection groups, including Scientific Collections International and the Global Genome Biodiversity Network. The participants learned about the policies of the United States and other countries regarding access to genetic resources, the definition of genetic resources, and the status of historical materials and genetic sequence information. Key topics included what constitutes access and how the CBD Access and Benefit-Sharing Clearing-House can help guide researchers through the process of obtaining Prior Informed Consent on Mutually Agreed Terms. U.S. scientists and their international collaborators are required to follow the regulations of other countries when working with microbes originally isolated outside the United States, and the local regulations required by the Nagoya Protocol vary by the country of origin of the genetic resource. Managers of diverse living collections in the United States described their holdings and their efforts to provide access to genetic resources. This meeting laid the foundation for cooperation in establishing a set of standard operating procedures for U.S. and international culture collections in response to the Nagoya Protocol.

  6. Microalgal biomass production pathways: evaluation of life cycle environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaimes, George G; Khanna, Vikas

    2013-06-20

    Microalgae are touted as an attractive alternative to traditional forms of biomass for biofuel production, due to high productivity, ability to be cultivated on marginal lands, and potential to utilize carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial flue gas. This work examines the fossil energy return on investment (EROIfossil), greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and direct Water Demands (WD) of producing dried algal biomass through the cultivation of microalgae in Open Raceway Ponds (ORP) for 21 geographic locations in the contiguous United States (U.S.). For each location, comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) is performed for multiple microalgal biomass production pathways, consisting of a combination of cultivation and harvesting options. Results indicate that the EROIfossil for microalgae biomass vary from 0.38 to 1.08 with life cycle GHG emissions of -46.2 to 48.9 (g CO2 eq/MJ-biomass) and direct WDs of 20.8 to 38.8 (Liters/MJ-biomass) over the range of scenarios analyzed. Further anaylsis reveals that the EROIfossil for production pathways is relatively location invariant, and that algae's life cycle energy balance and GHG impacts are highly dependent on cultivation and harvesting parameters. Contrarily, algae's direct water demands were found to be highly sensitive to geographic location, and thus may be a constraining factor in sustainable algal-derived biofuel production. Additionally, scenarios with promising EROIfossil and GHG emissions profiles are plagued with high technological uncertainty. Given the high variability in microalgae's energy and environmental performance, careful evaluation of the algae-to-fuel supply chain is necessary to ensure the long-term sustainability of emerging algal biofuel systems. Alternative production scenarios and technologies may have the potential to reduce the critical demands of biomass production, and should be considered to make algae a viable and more efficient biofuel alternative.

  7. Microalgal CO2 sequestering – Modeling microalgae production costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilanovic, Dragoljub; Holland, Mark; Armon, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Microalgae production costs were modeled as a function of specific expenses. ► The effects of uncontrollable expenses/factors were incorporated into the model. ► Modeled microalgae production costs were in the range $102–1503 t −1 ha −1 y −1 . - Abstract: Microalgae CO 2 sequestering facilities might become an industrial reality if microalgae biomass could be produced at cost below $500.00 t −1 . We develop a model for estimation of total production costs of microalgae as a function of known production-specific expenses, and incorporate into the model the effects of uncontrollable factors which affect known production-specific expenses. Random fluctuations were intentionally incorporated into the model, consequently into generated cost/technology scenarios, because each and every logically interconnected equipment/operation that is used in design/construction/operation/maintenance of a production process is inevitably subject to random cost/price fluctuations which can neither be eliminated nor a priori controlled. A total of 152 costs/technology scenarios were evaluated to find 44 scenarios in which predicted total production costs of microalgae (PTPCM) was in the range $200–500 t −1 ha −1 y −1 . An additional 24 scenarios were found with PTCPM in the range of $102–200 t −1 ha −1 y −1 . These findings suggest that microalgae CO 2 sequestering and the production of commercial compounds from microalgal biomass can be economically viable venture even today when microalgae production technology is still far from its optimum.

  8. Collective Cultural Memory as a TV Guide : ‘Living’ History and Nostalgia on the Digital Television Platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagedoorn, Berber

    2017-01-01

    Collective Cultural Memory as a TV Guide: “Living” History and Nostalgia on the Digital Television Platform Berber Hagedoorn University of Groningen (NL) E-mail: b.hagedoorn@rug.nl Abstract: Modern audiences engage with representations of the past in a particular way via the medium of television,

  9. Cultural Codes as Catalysts for Collective Conscientisation in Environmental Adult Education: Mr. Floatie, Tree Squatting and Save-Our-Surfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how cultural codes in environmental adult education can be used to "frame" collective identity, develop counterhegemonic ideologies, and catalyse "educative-activism" within social movements. Three diverse examples are discussed, spanning environmental movements in urban Victoria, British Columbia, Canada,…

  10. Taxonomic evaluation of unidentified Streptomyces isolates in the ARS Culture Collection (NRRL) using multi-locus sequence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ARS Culture Collection (NRRL) currently contains 7569 strains within the family Streptomycetaceae but 4368 of them have not been characterized to the species level. A gene sequence database using the Bacterial Isolate Genomic Sequence Database package (BIGSdb) (Jolley & Maiden, 2010) is availabl...

  11. Taxonomic evaluation of putative Streptomyces scabiei strains held in the ARS (NRRL) Culture Collection using multi-locus sequence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multi-locus sequence analysis has been demonstrated to be a useful tool for identification of Streptomyces species and was previously applied to phylogenetically differentiate the type strains of species pathogenic on potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.). The ARS Culture Collection (NRRL) contains 43 str...

  12. Harvesting Microalgal Biomass grown in Anaerobic Sewage Treatment Effluent by the Coagulation-Flocculation Method: Effect of pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servio Tulio Cassini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Harvesting is a critical step in microalgal biomass production process for many reasons. Among the existing techniques available for harvesting and dewatering microalgal biomass, recovery from aqueous medium by coagulation-flocculation has been the most economically viable process, althoughit is highly dependent on pH. This study aims to assess alternative coagulants compared to the standard coagulant aluminum sulfate for microalgal biomass recovery from anaerobic effluent of domestic sewage treatment. The effluent quality was also analyzed after biomass recovery. Coagulants represented by modified tannin, cationic starch and aluminum sulfate recovered more than 90% of algae biomass, at concentrations greater than 80 mg/L, in the pH range 7-10. Cationic starch promoted higher microalgal biomass recovery with a wider pH range. Powdered seeds of Moringa oleifera and Hibiscus esculentus(okra gum promoted biomass removal of 50%, only in the acidic range of pH. After sedimentation of the microalgal biomass, the effluents showed a removal of >80% for phosphorus and nitrogen values and >50% for BOD and COD when using aluminum sulfate, cationic starch and modified tannin as coagulants. Natural organic coagulants in a wide pH range can replace aluminum sulfate, a reference coagulant in microalgal biomass recovery, without decreasing microalgal biomass harvesting efficiency and the quality of the final effluent.

  13. Characterization of nutrient removal and microalgal biomass production on an industrial waste-stream by application of the deceleration-stat technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wagenen, Jonathan; Pape, Mathias Leon; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    Industrial wastewaters can serve as a nutrient and water source for microalgal production. In this study the effluent of an internal circulation (IC) reactor anaerobically treating the wastes of a biotechnology production facility were chosen as the cultivation medium for Chlorella sorokiniana...... in batch and continuous cultures. The aim was to evaluate the rates of nutrient removal and biomass production possible at various dilution rates. The results demonstrate that the industrial wastewater served as a highly effective microalgae culture medium and that dilution rate strongly influenced algae...... photon m2s-1) established the optimal dilution rates to reach volumetric productivity of 5.87 and 1.67gL-1day-1 respectively. The corresponding removal rates of nitrogen were 238 and 93mg L-1day-1 and 40 and 19mg L-1day-1 for phosphorous. The yield on photons at low light intensity was as high as had...

  14. Scenario Analysis of Nutrient Removal from Municipal Wastewater by Microalgal Biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelee, N.C.; Temmink, H.; Janssen, M.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2012-01-01

    Microalgae can be used for the treatment of municipal wastewater. The application of microalgal biofilms in wastewater treatment systems seems attractive, being able to remove nitrogen, phosphorus and COD from wastewater at a short hydraulic retention time. This study therefore investigates the area

  15. Benthic microalgal production in the Arctic: Applied methods and status of the current database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, Ronnie Nøhr; Woelfel, Jana; Karsten, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    The current database on benthic microalgal production in Arctic waters comprises 10 peer-reviewed and three unpublished studies. Here, we compile and discuss these datasets, along with the applied measurement approaches used. The latter is essential for robust comparative analysis and to clarify ...

  16. A comparative study: the impact of different lipid extraction methods on current microalgal lipid research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae cells have the potential to rapidly accumulate lipids, such as triacylglycerides that contain fatty acids important for high value fatty acids (e.g., EPA and DHA) and/or biodiesel production. However, lipid extraction methods for microalgae cells are not well established, and there is currently no standard extraction method for the determination of the fatty acid content of microalgae. This has caused a few problems in microlagal biofuel research due to the bias derived from different extraction methods. Therefore, this study used several extraction methods for fatty acid analysis on marine microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8, aiming to assess the potential impact of different extractions on current microalgal lipid research. These methods included classical Bligh & Dyer lipid extraction, two other chemical extractions using different solvents and sonication, direct saponification and supercritical CO2 extraction. Soxhlet-based extraction was used to weigh out the importance of solvent polarity in the algal oil extraction. Coupled with GC/MS, a Thermogravimetric Analyser was used to improve the quantification of microalgal lipid extractions. Among these extractions, significant differences were observed in both, extract yield and fatty acid composition. The supercritical extraction technique stood out most for effective extraction of microalgal lipids, especially for long chain unsaturated fatty acids. The results highlight the necessity for comparative analyses of microalgae fatty acids and careful choice and validation of analytical methodology in microalgal lipid research. PMID:24456581

  17. A trait based dynamic energy budget approach to explore emergent microalgal community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y.; Bouskill, N.; Karaoz, U.; Geng, H.; Lane, T.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Mayali, X.; Brodie, E.

    2015-12-01

    Microalgae play important roles in the global carbon budget. Phytoplankton, including microalgae, are responsible for around 50% of global primary production, and also hold promise as a viable renewable biofuel source. Research has been underway for decades to realize the full potential of algal biofuels at the commercial scale, however, uni-algal ponds are typically threatened by collapse due to microalgal grazing and parasite invasions. Recently, it has been proposed that functionally diverse microalgal-bacterial communities can achieve high biomass and/or lipid yields, and are more stable (less susceptible to invasion) than a monoculture. Similar positive diversity-productivity relationships have been observed in a wide range of ecosystem studies, but the purposeful maintenance of a diverse microbiome is less common in managed systems. In our work, a trait based dynamic energy budget model was developed to explore emergent microalgal community structure under various environmental (e.g. light, temperature, nutrient availability) conditions. The complex algal community can be reduced into functional groups (guilds). Each guild (algae or bacteria) is characterized by distinct physiological traits (e.g. nutrient requirement, growth rate, substrate affinity, lipid production) constrained by biochemical trade-offs. These trait values are derived from literature and information encoded in genomic data. Metabolism of the algae and the bacterial species (symbiotic or non-symbiotic) are described within a dynamic energy budget framework. The model offers a mechanistic framework to predict the optimal microalgal community assemblage towards high productivity and resistance to invasion under prevailing environmental conditions.

  18. Advances in photobioreactors for intensive microalgal production: configurations, operating strategies and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivieri, G.; Salatino, P.; Marzocchella, A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past ten years a great deal of literature has focused on the biotechnological potential of microalgal commercial applications, mainly in the field of biofuel production. However, the biofuel production is not yet competitive, mainly due to the incidence of the photobioreactor technology on

  19. Controls on microalgal community structures in cryoconite holes upon high-Arctic glaciers, Svalbard

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vonnahme, T.R.; Devetter, Miloslav; Žárský, J.D.; Šabacká, M.; Elster, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2016), s. 659-674 ISSN 1726-4170 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:67985939 Keywords : microalgal communities * cryoconite holes * high-Arctic glaciers * Svalbard Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.851, year: 2016

  20. Phosphorus removal using a microalgal biofilm in a new biofilm photobioreactor for tertiary wastewater treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sukačová, Kateřina; Trtílek, M.; Rataj, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 75, mar (2015), s. 55-63 ISSN 0043-1354 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : microalgal biofilm * phosphorus removal * wastewater treatment Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.991, year: 2015

  1. Collaboration in Visual Culture Learning Communities: Towards a Synergy of Individual and Collective Creative Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpati, Andrea; Freedman, Kerry; Castro, Juan Carlos; Kallio-Tavin, Mira; Heijnen, Emiel

    2017-01-01

    A visual culture learning community (VCLC) is an adolescent or young adult group engaged in expression and creation outside of formal institutions and without adult supervision. In the framework of an international, comparative research project executed between 2010 and 2014, members of a variety of eight self-initiated visual culture groups…

  2. Novel Concept for LSS Based on Advanced Microalgal Biotechnologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, I.; Jones, J. A.; Bayless, D.; Karakis, S.; Karpov, L.; McKay, D. S.

    2006-01-01

    One of the key issues for successful human space exploration is biomedical life support in hostile space and planetary environments that otherwise cannot sustain life. Bioregenerative life support systems (LSS) are one of the options for atmospheric regeneration. To date, no bioregenerative LSS has shown capability for 100% air regeneration. Nor have these LSS been robust enough to simultaneously provide a regenerable complete food source. In contrast to microalgae, traditional plant approaches, e.g. wheat and lettuce, are lacking essential amino acids, vitamins, and micronutrients. Moreover, the rate of photosynthesis by microalgae significantly exceeds that of high plants. Nevertheless, the employment of microalgae in LSS technology was restricted, until recently, due to high water demands. Also the per person requirement of a 40L volume of microalgae in a photobioreactor, to provide daily O2 production, made an algae-based approach less attractive. By employing a vertically stacked membrane bioreactor, coupled with a solar tracker and photon-delivery system, a lightweight air revitalization system for space based applications, with minimal water requirements, can be developed. Our preliminary estimations suggest that a membrane bioreactor, 8m3 in volume, comprised of 80m2 (twenty 2m x 2m membranes, each spaced 10 cm apart), and a total of 70L of water could produce 2.7 kg of dried microalgal biomass that would supply the energy and essential amino acid requirements, as well as producing sufficient O2 for the daily needs of a 15 member crew. Research on the biochemical content of edible blue-green alga Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis shows a wide spectrum of stable Spirulina mutants with an enhanced content of amino acids, -carotene, and phycobilliprotein c-phycocyanin. Feeding animals suffering from radiation-induced lesions, c-phycocyanin, extracted from strain 27G, led to a correction in the decrement of dehydrogenase activity and energy-rich phosphate

  3. Establishment of 3D culture and induction of osteogenic differentiation of pre-osteoblasts using wet-collected aligned scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Huifen [Hubei-MOSTKLOS & KLOBM, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Chongqing Affiliated Hospital of Stomatology, Chongqing University of Medical Sciences, Chongqing 400015 (China); Zhong, Junwen [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Xu, Fei; Song, Fangfang; Yin, Miao; Wu, Yanru; Hu, Qiyi [Hubei-MOSTKLOS & KLOBM, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Wang, Jiawei, E-mail: wangjwei@hotmail.com [Hubei-MOSTKLOS & KLOBM, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China)

    2017-02-01

    Aligned fibrous scaffolds have attracted much interest in bone tissue engineering, because they are supposed to induce osteogenic differentiation. For the first time, aligned silk fibroin nanofibres were loosely packed using a novel wet-collection electrospinning method. Moreover, three-dimensional (3D) culture of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts was established on these fibrous scaffolds. Physicochemical properties of the scaffolds and the behaviour of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts on the scaffolds were analysed and compared with scaffolds obtained using traditional method. Ethanol bath improved the uniformity and alignment of the fibres and increased the thickness and porosity of the scaffolds. Structures of the fibres were well maintained after immediate crosslinking in ethanol. Cells on the wet-collected scaffolds exhibited more ordered arrangement and elongated morphology as well as faster and deeper infiltration. The ordered infiltration resulted in the establishment of the 3D culture of cells, promoting proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of the pre-osteoblasts. Thus, the wet-collected aligned scaffolds with improved topographical and physicochemical properties presents significant potential application in bone regeneration. - Highlights: • Aligned silk fibroin nanofibres were loosely packed using a novel wet-collection electrospinning method. • Structural properties of the aligned nanofibres were improved. • Three-dimensional culture of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts was established. • The arrangement, morphology, infiltration, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of cells were enhanced.

  4. Organizational culture - a factor of potential positive influence on the collectivities of any organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona-Andreea MIHALACHE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Organizational culture is a relatively new and rapidly expanding concept, but partly invisible and therefore very difficult analyze, offering in the same time the possibility to carry out complex studies. This paper was drawn up into two different organizations - Pentalog Romania, an IT service provider, and House of Dracula Hotel, a tourist unit - and it is based on a research carried out in order to highlight the importance of organizational culture within any entity. Considered a powerful strategic tool, the organizational culture can be used for focusing companies and their staff on joint goals, for mobilizing the initiatives, ensuring loyalty and facilitating intercommunication.

  5. The culture collection and herbarium of the Center for Forest Mycology Research: A national resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Glaeser; K.K. Nakasone; D.J. Lodge; B. Ortiz-Santana; D.L. Lindner

    2013-01-01

    The Center for Forest Mycology Research (CFMR), U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Madison, WI, is home to the world's largest collection of wood-inhabiting fungi. These collections constitute a library of the fungal kingdom that is used by researchers thoughout the world. The CFMR collections have many practical uses that have improved the lives of...

  6. Metabolite Profiling of the Microalgal Diatom Chaetoceros Calcitrans and Correlation with Antioxidant and Nitric Oxide Inhibitory Activities via 1H NMR-Based Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awanis Azizan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are promising candidate resources from marine ecology for health-improving effects. Metabolite profiling of the microalgal diatom, Chaetoceros calcitrans was conducted by using robust metabolomics tools, namely 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate data analysis (MVDA. The unsupervised data analysis, using principal component analysis (PCA, resolved the five types of extracts made by solvents ranging from polar to non-polar into five different clusters. Collectively, with various extraction solvents, 11 amino acids, cholesterol, 6 fatty acids, 2 sugars, 1 osmolyte, 6 carotenoids and 2 chlorophyll pigments were identified. The fatty acids and both carotenoid pigments as well as chlorophyll, were observed in the extracts made from medium polar (acetone, chloroform and non-polar (hexane solvents. It is suggested that the compounds were the characteristic markers that influenced the separation between the clusters. Based on partial least square (PLS analysis, fucoxanthin, astaxanthin, violaxanthin, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin, and lutein displayed strong correlation to 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging and nitric oxide (NO inhibitory activity. This metabolomics study showed that solvent extractions are one of the main bottlenecks for the maximum recovery of bioactive microalgal compounds and could be a better source of natural antioxidants due to a high value of metabolites.

  7. An epidemic of collective conversion and dissociation disorder in an indigenous group of Colombia: its relation to cultural change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeros, M; Rosselli, D; Calderon, C

    1998-06-01

    We describe a collective episode of psychogenic illness in an indigenous group (Embera) of Colombia, geographically isolated from its native homeland and surrounded by non-indigenous settlers. The condition, which affected three young adult men and six adolescent women, was attributed by them to a spell (maleficio). It was designated as ataques de locura (madness attacks) according to their traditional medical system; and as a conversive disorder with dissociative features by psychiatrists. Different therapeutic approaches, including antipsychotic medication, religious healers and traditional herbal remedies were unsuccessful. Contact with shamans of the same ethnic origin, on the other hand, proved to be an effective way of dealing with the symptoms. We interpret the situation as an expression of psychosocial stress secondary to cultural change. This medical problem bears close resemblance to other specific culture-bound syndromes such as ataques de nervios or possession syndromes and gives clues to ways of dealing with psychogenic expressions of cultural stress.

  8. Comparison of Vibrio harveyi strains isolated from shrimp farms and from culture collection in terms of toxicity and antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tatsuya; Ito, Emi; Nomura, Nakao; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Matsumura, Masatoshi

    2006-05-01

    Vibrio harveyi strains isolated from shrimp farms (wild strains) were compared with those from culture collections in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and toxicity. Wild strains had higher MIC values for four antibiotics (kanamycin, carbenicillin, oxytetracycline and ampicillin) and also showed higher toxicity compared with culture collection strains. Vibrio harveyi with the lowest antibacterial resistance was chosen to test if a gradual increase in antibiotic concentration and frequent subculture would enhance its antibiotic resistance. Results showed that V. harveyi was able to develop resistance to oxytetracycline. The MIC value was 250 times higher compared with the MIC before subculturing. Moreover, the V. harveyi strain developed slightly higher toxicity. Therefore, it is possible that there is a relationship between antibiotic resistance and toxicity in V. harveyi.

  9. Occurrence and characterization of Candida nivariensis from a culture collection of Candida glabrata clinical isolates in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Sun Tee; Lotfalikhani, Azadeh; Sabet, Negar Shafiei; Ponnampalavanar, Sasheela; Sulaiman, Sofiah; Na, Shiang Ling; Ng, Kee Peng

    2014-10-01

    Candida nivariensis and C. bracarensis have been recently identified as emerging yeast pathogens which are phenotypically indistinguishable from C. glabrata. However, there is little data on the prevalence and antifungal susceptibilities of these species. This study investigated the occurrence of C. nivariensis and C. bracarensis in a culture collection of 185 C. glabrata isolates at a Malaysian teaching hospital. C. nivariensis was discriminated from C. glabrata using a PCR assay as described by Enache-Angoulvant et al. (J Clin Microbiol 49:3375-9, 2011). The identity of the isolates was confirmed by sequence analysis of the D1D2 domain and internal transcribed spacer region of the yeasts. The isolates were cultured on Chromogenic CHROMagar Candida (®) agar (Difco, USA), and their biochemical and enzymic profiles were determined. Antifungal susceptibilities of the isolates against amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin were determined using E tests. Clotrimazole MICs were determined using a microbroth dilution method. There was a low prevalence (1.1 %) of C. nivariensis in our culture collection of C. glabrata. C. nivariensis was isolated from a blood culture and vaginal swab of two patients. C. nivariensis grew as white colonies on Chromogenic agar and demonstrated few positive reactions using biochemical tests. Enzymatic profiles of the C. nivariensis isolates were similar to that of C. glabrata. The isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin. Clotrimazole resistance is suspected in one isolate. This study reports for the first time the emergence of C. nivariensis in our clinical setting.

  10. Resistance to Cultural Intervention: Formation of Inhibitory Collective and children's Self-Defensive Regulation in a Chinese School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Aruna; Li, Xiao-Wen; Zhou, Lihua; Zhang, Qian

    2017-09-01

    A sequel to the previous article "Roots of Excellence: The Releasing Effect of Individual Potentials through Educational Cultural Intervention in a Chinese School" (in press), the present study is on the unexpected reversal phenomena in the process of cultural intervention. The goal of the intervention is to construct the dynamics of Jiti (well-organized collective in Chinese) through creative activities to promote students' development. In the intervention, the releasing effect (Wu et al. 2016) emerged as well, but the teacher's concern about worsening discipline and academic performance evoked and reinforced his habitual notions and practices of education, turning the joint activities into a way of strengthening discipline. The energy that had been discharging at the beginning of the intervention was inhibited, so that many more problematic behaviors took shape. The whole class formed an inhibitory atmosphere, within which pupils formed self-defensive regulation strategies. By comparing with the productive collective in which intervention was effective and analyzing this unexpected reversal process, we can not only see pupils' self-construction status in the inhibitory culture but illuminate the formation of the teacher's resistance to educational and cultural transformation as well. Resistance is originated from teachers not being able to interpret pupils' inner developmental needs but instead anxious about the ongoing problems.

  11. Near-IR laser-triggered target cell collection using a carbon nanotube-based cell-cultured substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sada, Takao; Fujigaya, Tsuyohiko; Niidome, Yasuro; Nakazawa, Kohji; Nakashima, Naotoshi

    2011-06-28

    Unique near-IR optical properties of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNTs) are of interest in many biological applications. Here we describe the selective cell detachment and collection from an SWNT-coated cell-culture dish triggered by near-IR pulse laser irradiation. First, HeLa cells were cultured on an SWNT-coated dish prepared by a spraying of an aqueous SWNT dispersion on a glass dish. The SWNT-coated dish was found to show a good cell adhesion behavior as well as a cellular proliferation rate similar to a conventional glass dish. We discovered, by near-IR pulse laser irradiation (at the laser power over 25 mW) to the cell under optical microscopic observation, a quick single-cell detachment from the SWNT-coated surface. Shockwave generation from the irradiated SWNTs is expected to play an important role for the cell detachment. Moreover, we have succeeded in catapulting the target single cell from the cultured medium when the depth of the medium was below 150 μm and the laser power was stronger than 40 mW. The captured cell maintained its original shape. The retention of the genetic information of the cell was confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. A target single-cell collection from a culture medium under optical microscopic observation is significant in wide fields of single-cell studies in biological areas.

  12. The use of physical and virtual infrastructures for the validation of algal cryopreservation methods in international culture collections

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Day, J. G.; Lorenz, M.; Wilding, T.A.; Friedl, T.; Harding, K.; Pröschold, T.; Brennan, D.; Müller, J.; Santos, L. M. A.; Santos, M. F.; Osório, H.C.; Amaral, R.; Lukešová, Alena; Hrouzek, Pavel; Lukeš, Martin; Elster, Josef; Lukavský, Jaromír; Probert, I.; Ryan, M.J.; Benson, E. E.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 5 (2007), s. 359-376 ISSN 0143-2044 Grant - others:Evropská unie(XE) QLRT-2000-01645 (Cobra) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521; CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : cryopreservation * storage * culture collections Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.141, year: 2007

  13. Objects of utility: cultural responses to industrial collections in municipal museums 1845-1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Snape

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Between 1845 and 1914 several municipal museums in Great Britain established an industrial collection of objects relevant to local manufacture. The origins of these collections are found in the 1830s and the reform of design education. Industrial collections assigned an economic function to museums and were contested by critics who maintained that museums should be concerned primarily with fine rather than applied art. It is argued that curatorial decisions on the adoption of industrial collections can be evaluated with reference to contemporary debates on art, design education and the relative values of liberal and applied knowledge. Through case studies of the municipal museums of Birmingham and Preston, this paper assesses contrasting curatorial responses to industrial collections. Adopting Matthew Arnold’s categories of Hebraism and Hellenism as an exploratory framework, it concludes that industrial collections represented materialistic values associated with Hebraism that were directly opposed to the spiritual values associated with Hellenism.

  14. The population abundance, distribution pattern and culture studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to understand the better background information about the importance of culture condition in the optimal growth of microalgal strains, experimental setup were designed using modified Walne's and Guillard f/2 medium. Studies were also carried out to understand the relation between the growth conditions and ...

  15. A Community-Based Culture Collection for Targeting Novel Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria from the Sugarcane Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaderson Silveira Leite Armanhi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The soil-plant ecosystem harbors an immense microbial diversity that challenges investigative approaches to study traits underlying plant-microbe association. Studies solely based on culture-dependent techniques have overlooked most microbial diversity. Here we describe the concomitant use of culture-dependent and -independent techniques to target plant-beneficial microbial groups from the sugarcane microbiome. The community-based culture collection (CBC approach was used to access microbes from roots and stalks. The CBC recovered 399 unique bacteria representing 15.9% of the rhizosphere core microbiome and 61.6–65.3% of the endophytic core microbiomes of stalks. By cross-referencing the CBC (culture-dependent with the sugarcane microbiome profile (culture-independent, we designed a synthetic community comprised of naturally occurring highly abundant bacterial groups from roots and stalks, most of which has been poorly explored so far. We then used maize as a model to probe the abundance-based synthetic inoculant. We show that when inoculated in maize plants, members of the synthetic community efficiently colonize plant organs, displace the natural microbiota and dominate at 53.9% of the rhizosphere microbial abundance. As a result, inoculated plants increased biomass by 3.4-fold as compared to uninoculated plants. The results demonstrate that abundance-based synthetic inoculants can be successfully applied to recover beneficial plant microbes from plant microbiota.

  16. Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy B; Rodríguez, Melanie Domenech; Bernal, Guillermo

    2011-02-01

    This article summarizes the definitions, means, and research of adapting psychotherapy to clients' cultural backgrounds. We begin by reviewing the prevailing definitions of cultural adaptation and providing a clinical example. We present an original meta-analysis of 65 experimental and quasi-experimental studies involving 8,620 participants. The omnibus effect size of d = .46 indicates that treatments specifically adapted for clients of color were moderately more effective with that clientele than traditional treatments. The most effective treatments tended to be those with greater numbers of cultural adaptations. Mental health services targeted to a specific cultural group were several times more effective than those provided to clients from a variety of cultural backgrounds. We recommend a series of research-supported therapeutic practices that account for clients' culture, with culture-specific treatments being more effective than generally culture-sensitive treatments. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Evaluation of shiitake (Lentinula edodes) strains of the culture collection of Applied Plant Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Amsing, J.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Applied Plant Research (PPO), Mushroom Research Unit, has a unique collection of fungi that is used for research in edible mushrooms. The collection contains approximately 6600 strains representing more than 100 species. Most of the species are represented by Agaicus bisporus (button mushroom) and

  18. Ultrasonic disintegration of microalgal biomass and consequent improvement of bioaccessibility/bioavailability in microbial fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Byong-Hun; Choi, Jeong-A; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Hwang, Jae-Hoon; Abou-Shanab, Reda Ai; Dempsey, Brian A; Regan, John M; Kim, Jung Rae

    2013-01-01

    Microalgal biomass contains a high level of carbohydrates which can be biochemically converted to biofuels using state-of-the-art strategies that are almost always needed to employ a robust pretreatment on the biomass for enhanced energy production. In this study, we used an ultrasonic pretreatment to convert microalgal biomass (Scenedesmus obliquus YSW15) into feasible feedstock for microbial fermentation to produce ethanol and hydrogen. The effect of sonication condition was quantitatively evaluated with emphases on the characterization of carbohydrate components in microalgal suspension and on subsequent production of fermentative bioenergy. Scenedesmus obliquus YSW15 was isolated from the effluent of a municipal wastewater treatment plant. The sonication durations of 0, 10, 15, and 60 min were examined under different temperatures at a fixed frequency and acoustic power resulted in morphologically different states of microalgal biomass lysis. Fermentation was performed to evaluate the bioenergy production from the non-sonicated and sonicated algal biomasses after pretreatment stage under both mesophilic (35°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. A 15 min sonication treatment significantly increased the concentration of dissolved carbohydrates (0.12 g g(-1)), which resulted in an increase of hydrogen/ethanol production through microbial fermentation. The bioconvertibility of microalgal biomass sonicated for 15 min or longer was comparable to starch as a control, indicating a high feasibility of using microalgae for fermentative bioenergy production. Increasing the sonication duration resulted in increases in both algal surface hydrophilicity and electrostatic repulsion among algal debris dispersed in aqueous solution. Scanning electron microscope images supported that ruptured algal cell allowed fermentative bacteria to access the inner space of the cell, evidencing an enhanced bioaccessibility. Sonication for 15 min was the best for fermentative

  19. Banking culture and collective responsibility: A memorandum to the UK Parliamentary Commission on Banking Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Dorn (Nicholas)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBasic assumptions • There is wide interest in connecting issues of (i) occupational culture, (ii) compliance/ misconduct, (iii) remuneration and (iv) clawback (the bonus/malus debate). • Individual-focussed measures (supervision, remuneration and measures in civil or criminal law) must

  20. Bioaccumulation of 137Cs by culture collection strains of bacteria and fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipiska, M.; Rozloznik, M.; Augustin, J.

    2003-01-01

    Soil decontamination of soil contaminated by low-level activities of radionuclides, mainly by caesium-137, which come from accidental releases by maintenance of nuclear devices and by liquid wastes reprocessing, is long-term and expensive technology. Knowledge of the causations, which control the processes of bioaccumulation of radionuclides, is a necessary condition for critical assessment and successful utilization of processes of bioremediation in situ in practise. The authors present the experimentally gained quantitative values of bioaccumulation of caesium-137 from water solutions by micro organism cultures of Rhodotorula aurantiaca CCY 20-9-1, Sacharomyces cerevisiae, Rhodococcus rhodochrous ATCC 15906, Streptomyces sp. DX-IX, Coriolus versicolor CCWDF-14 and Rhizopus sp. R-18. Intensively growing cultures reach the highest values of bioaccumulation; the cultures in non-growing phase reach several orders lower values. From researched micro organisms the highest values of bioaccumulation of Cs + 5.1 pmol/g (wet weight) at initial concentration of Cs + in solution co = 1 nmol/l (without carrier) and 29.2 μmol/g (wet weight) at co = 6 mmol/l Cs + (adding of carrier CsCl) were found out at growing culture S. cerevisiae as model of eukaryotic cell after an achievement of maximal stationary grow phase. Acquired information refer to the possible role of soil micro organisms at bioaccumulation of 137 Cs in contaminated soils and their potential utilization in lowering of radioactive contamination of environment (authors)

  1. Full Spectrum Tools for Collecting, Analyzing, and Using Cultural Data in Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    self-sustaining system of relationships among social roles ( Malinowski , Radcliffe-Brown), a culturally consistent mode of thought (Nisbett) or set of...Introduction and critical Survey: Dover. Malinowski , B. (1984). Magic, Science, and Religion and Other Essays. Westport CT: Greenwood Press. Malle

  2. Harvesting Environmental Microalgal Blooms for Remediation and Resource Recovery: A Laboratory Scale Investigation with Economic and Microbial Community Impact Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagroop Pandhal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory based microflotation rig termed efficient FLOtation of Algae Technology (eFLOAT was used to optimise parameters for harvesting microalgal biomass from eutrophic water systems. This was performed for the dual objectives of remediation (nutrient removal and resource recovery. Preliminary experiments demonstrated that chitosan was more efficient than alum for flocculation of biomass and the presence of bacteria could play a positive role and reduce flocculant application rates under the natural conditions tested. Maximum biomass removal from a hyper-eutrophic water retention pond sample was achieved with 5 mg·L−1 chitosan (90% Chlorophyll a removal. Harvesting at maximum rates showed that after 10 days, the bacterial diversity is significantly increased with reduced cyanobacteria, indicating improved ecosystem functioning. The resource potential within the biomass was characterized by 9.02 μg phosphate, 0.36 mg protein, and 103.7 μg lipid per mg of biomass. Fatty acid methyl ester composition was comparable to pure cultures of microalgae, dominated by C16 and C18 chain lengths with saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Finally, the laboratory data was translated into a full-size and modular eFLOAT system, with estimated costs as a novel eco-technology for efficient algal bloom harvesting.

  3. Repeated batch cultivation of the hydrocarbon-degrading, micro-algal strain Prototheca zopfii RND16 immobilized in polyurethane foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Ryohei; Wada, Shun; Urano, Naoto

    2008-01-01

    This study reports on the stability of the cells of a heterotrophic green micro-algal strain Prototheca zopfii RND16 immobilized in polyurethane foam (PUF) cubes during degradation of mixed hydrocarbon substrate, which was composed of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in 5 successive cycles of repeated batch cultivation at 30 degrees C. Both RND16 cells and mixed hydrocarbon substrate components had been entrapped in PUF cubes through cultivation. PUF-immobilized RND16 degraded n-alkanes almost completely, whereas the strain hardly degraded PAHs in PUFs, rather they accumulated in the matrices. It is noteworthy that this result is strikingly different from that of the free-living cell culture, where RND16 reduced concentrations of both n-alkanes and PAHs. However, PAHs accumulation in the PUFs did not impair the performance of the immobilized alga to utilize n-alkanes. These results suggest that the PUFs harboring RND16 cells could be used repeatedly for selective retrieval of PAHs from oil-polluted waters after preferential biodegradation of n-alkanes by algae.

  4. Comparison of two apheresis systems for the collection of CD14+ cells intended to be used in dendritic cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Erwin F; Berger, Thomas G; Weisbach, Volker; Zimmermann, Robert; Ringwald, Jürgen; Schuler-Thurner, Beatrice; Zingsem, Jürgen; Eckstein, Reinhold

    2003-09-01

    Monocytes collected by leukapheresis are increasingly used for dendritic cell (DC) culture in cell factories suitable for DC vaccination in cancer. Using modified MNC programs on two apheresis systems (Cobe Spectra and Fresenius AS.TEC204), leukapheresis components collected from 84 patients with metastatic malignant melanoma and from 31 healthy male donors were investigated. MNCs, monocytes, RBCs, and platelets (PLTs) in donors and components were analyzed by cell counters, WBC differential counts, and flow cytometry. In 5-L collections, Astec showed better results regarding monocyte collection rates (11.0 vs. 7.4 x 10(6)/min, p = 0.04) and efficiencies (collection efficiency, 51.9 vs. 31.9%; p Astec components contained high residual RBCs. Compared to components with low residual PLTs, high PLT concentration resulted in higher monocyte loss (48 vs. 20%, p Astec is more efficient in 5-L MNC collections compared to the Spectra. Components with high residual PLTs result in high MNC loss by purification procedures. Thus, optimizing MNC programs is essential to obtain components with high MNC yields and low residual cells as prerequisite for high DC yields.

  5. LIIS: A web-based system for culture collections and sample annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Forster

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Lab Information Indexing System (LIIS is a web-driven database application for laboratories looking to store their sample or culture metadata on a central server. The design was driven by a need to replace traditional paper storage with an easier to search format, and extend current spreadsheet storage methods. The system supports the import and export of CSV spreadsheets, and stores general metadata designed to complement the environmental packages provided by the Genomic Standards Consortium. The goals of the LIIS are to simplify the storage and archival processes and to provide an easy to access library of laboratory annotations. The program will find utility in microbial ecology laboratories or any lab that needs to annotate samples/cultures.

  6. Assessment of Environmental Stresses for Enhanced Microalgal Biofuel Production – An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Dan; He, Qingfang

    2014-01-01

    Microalgal biofuels are currently considered to be the most promising alternative to future renewable energy source. Microalgae have great potential to produce various biofuels, including biodiesel, bioethanol, biomethane, and biohydrogen. Cultivation of biofuel-producing microalgae demands favorable environmental conditions, such as suitable light, temperature, nutrients, salinity, and pH. However, these conditions are not always compatible with the conditions beneficial to biofuel production, because biofuel-related compounds (such as lipids and carbohydrates) tend to accumulate under environmental-stress conditions of light, temperature, nutrient, and salt. This paper presents a brief overview of the effects of environmental conditions on production of microalgal biomass and biofuel, with specific emphasis on how to utilize environmental stresses to improve biofuel productivity. The potential avenues of reaping the benefits of enhanced biofuel production by environmental stresses while maintaining high yields of biomass production have been discussed.

  7. Direct measurement and characterization of active photosynthesis zones inside biofuel producing and wastewater remediating microalgal biofilms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Hans C.; Kesaano, Maureen; Moll, Karen; Smith, Terence; Gerlach, Robin; Carlson, Ross; Miller, Charles D.; Peyton, Brent; Cooksey, Keith; Gardner, Robert D.; Sims, Ronald C.

    2014-03-01

    Abstract: Microalgal biofilm based technologies are of keen interest due to their high biomass concentrations and ability to utilize renewable resources, such as light and CO2. While photoautotrophic biofilms have long been used for wastewater remediation applications, biofuel production represents a relatively new and under-represented focus area. However, the direct measurement and characterization of fundamental parameters required for physiological analyses are challenging due to biofilm heterogeneity. This study evaluated oxygenic photosynthesis and biofuel precursor molecule production using a novel rotating algal biofilm reactor (RABR) operated at field- and laboratory-scales for wastewater remediation and biofuel production, respectively. Clear differences in oxygenic-photosynthesis, respiration and biofuel-precursor capacities were observed between the two systems and different conditions based on light and nitrogen availability. Nitrogen depletion was not found to have the same effect on lipid accumulation compared to prior planktonic studies. Physiological characterizations of these microalgal biofilms identify potential areas for future process optimization.

  8. Assessment of environmental stresses for enhanced microalgal biofuel production-an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan eCheng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microalgal biofuels are currently considered to be the most promising alternative to future renewable energy source. Microalgae have great potential to produce various biofuels, including biodiesel, bioethanol, biomethane, and biohydrogen. Cultivation of biofuel-producing microalgae demands favorable environmental conditions, such as suitable light, temperature, nutrients, salinity, and pH. However, these conditions are not always compatible with the conditions beneficial to biofuel production, because biofuel-related compounds (such as lipids and carbohydrates tend to accumulate under environmental-stress conditions of light, temperature, nutrient, and salt. This paper presents a brief overview of the effects of environmental conditions on production of microalgal biomass and biofuel, with specific emphasis on how to utilize environmental stresses to improve biofuel productivity. The potential avenues of reaping the benefits of enhanced biofuel production by environmental stresses while maintaining high yields of biomass production have been discussed.

  9. Utilization of Microalgal Biofractions for Bioethanol, Higher Alcohols, and Biodiesel Production: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa M. El-Dalatony

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is a crucial energy resource used for the generation of electricity and transportation fuels. Microalgae exhibit a high content of biocomponents which makes them a potential feedstock for the generation of ecofriendly biofuels. Biofuels derived from microalgae are suitable carbon-neutral replacements for petroleum. Fermentation is the major process for metabolic conversion of microalgal biocompounds into biofuels such as bioethanol and higher alcohols. In this review, we explored the use of all three major biocomponents of microalgal biomass including carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids for maximum biofuel generation. Application of several pretreatment methods for enhancement the bioavailability of substrates (simple sugar, amino acid, and fatty acid was discussed. This review goes one step further to discuss how to direct these biocomponents for the generation of various biofuels (bioethanol, higher alcohol, and biodiesel through fermentation and transesterification processes. Such an approach would result in the maximum utilization of biomasses for economically feasible biofuel production.

  10. Assessment of Environmental Stresses for Enhanced Microalgal Biofuel Production – An Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Dan, E-mail: dxcheng@ualr.edu; He, Qingfang, E-mail: dxcheng@ualr.edu [Department of Applied Science, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2014-07-07

    Microalgal biofuels are currently considered to be the most promising alternative to future renewable energy source. Microalgae have great potential to produce various biofuels, including biodiesel, bioethanol, biomethane, and biohydrogen. Cultivation of biofuel-producing microalgae demands favorable environmental conditions, such as suitable light, temperature, nutrients, salinity, and pH. However, these conditions are not always compatible with the conditions beneficial to biofuel production, because biofuel-related compounds (such as lipids and carbohydrates) tend to accumulate under environmental-stress conditions of light, temperature, nutrient, and salt. This paper presents a brief overview of the effects of environmental conditions on production of microalgal biomass and biofuel, with specific emphasis on how to utilize environmental stresses to improve biofuel productivity. The potential avenues of reaping the benefits of enhanced biofuel production by environmental stresses while maintaining high yields of biomass production have been discussed.

  11. A common basis for facilitated legitimate exchange of biological materials proposed by the European Culture Collections' Organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Fritze

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Being charged with the task of accessioning and supplying of living microbiological material, microbial culture collections are institutions that play a central role between the interests of a variety of user communities. On the one side are the providers of living microbiological material, such as individual scientists, institutions and countries of origin and on the other side are the various kinds of recipients/users of cultures of microorganisms from academia and industry. Thus, providing access to high quality biological material and scientific services while at the same time observing donor countries' rights, intellectual property rights, biosafety and biosecurity aspects poses demanding challenges. E.g. donor countries rights relate to Article 15 of the Convention on Biological Diversity: "Contracting parties …. recognize the sovereign rights of states over their natural resources …. shall facilitate access to resources … and not impose restrictions that run counter to the aims of the Convention. Access to natural resources shall be by mutually agreed terms and subject to prior informed consent ..." The use of a proposed standard contract by culture collections is discussed as a way of contractually safeguarding the existing research commons, while observing the new rights established in the Convention on Biological Diversity as well as other existing and new legislation impacting on the accessibility of living microbial material.

  12. Culture of uterine flushings, cervical mucus, and udder secretions collected post-abortion from heifers artificially exposed to Brucella abortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringfellow, D A; Scanlan, C M; Hannon, S S; Panangala, V S; Gray, B W; Galik, P A

    1983-07-01

    Uterine flushings, cervical mucus swabs and udder secretions collected at weekly intervals from five mixed breed beef cows (four Brucella abortus strain 19 vaccinates, and 1 non-vaccinate) were cultured for Brucella abortus . Prior to sampling, four of the five had aborted 7-to 8-month-old fetuses and one gave brith to a weak calf. The fetuses and/or udder secretions from the cows were culture positive for B. abortus at the time of parturition. Three of the cows developed persistent udder infections. Two of these cows were also shown to have brucellae in their cervical mucus for 10 and 20 days and in their uterine flushings for 17 and 41 days after parturition, respectively. One other cow had brucellae in the cervical mucus for 16 days and in the uterine flushings for up to 36 days post-abortion. All attempts to isolate the organism from this cow's udder secretions in culture were negative. In two cows with culture-positive uterine flushings, isolations of brucellae were made subsequent to normal postpabortion return to estrus.

  13. Microalgal cultivation for value-added products: a critical enviro-economical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Richa; Pandey, Arya; Ahmad, Shamshad; Kumar, Ashwani; Pathak, Vinayak V; Tyagi, V V

    2017-08-01

    The present review focuses on the cultivation of algal biomass for generating value-added products (VAP) and to assess their economic benefits and harmful environmental impact. Additionally, the impact of bioreactor designs on the yield of microalgal biomass for VAP is also considered. All these factors are discussed in relation to the impact of microalgae production on the bio-economy sector of commercial biotechnology.

  14. Production of Microalgal Lipids as Biodiesel Feedstock with Fixation of CO2 by Chlorella vulgaris

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao Hu; Sen-Xiang Zhang; Zhong-Hua Yang; Hao Huang; Rong Zeng

    2014-01-01

    The global warming and shortage of energy are two critical problems for human social development. CO2 mitigation and replacing conventional diesel with biodiesel are effective routes to reduce these problems. Production of microalgal lipids as biodiesel feedstock by a freshwater microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, with the ability to fixate CO2 is studied in this work. The results show that nitrogen deficiency, CO2 volume fraction and photoperiod are the key factors responsible for the lipid accum...

  15. Unexpected associated microalgal diversity in the lichen Ramalina farinacea is uncovered by pyrosequencing analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Moya

    Full Text Available The current literature reveals that the intrathalline coexistence of multiple microalgal taxa in lichens is more common than previously thought, and additional complexity is supported by the coexistence of bacteria and basidiomycete yeasts in lichen thalli. This replaces the old paradigm that lichen symbiosis occurs between a fungus and a single photobiont. The lichen Ramalina farinacea has proven to be a suitable model to study the multiplicity of microalgae in lichen thalli due to the constant coexistence of Trebouxia sp. TR9 and T. jamesii in long-distance populations. To date, studies involving phycobiont diversity within entire thalli are based on Sanger sequencing, but this method seems to underestimate the diversity. Here, we aim to analyze both the microalgal diversity and its community structure in a single thallus of the lichen R. farinacea by applying a 454 pyrosequencing approach coupled with a careful ad hoc-performed protocol for lichen sample processing prior to DNA extraction. To ascertain the reliability of the pyrosequencing results and the applied bioinformatics pipeline results, the thalli were divided into three sections (apical, middle and basal zones, and a mock community sample was used. The developed methodology allowed 40448 filtered algal reads to be obtained from a single lichen thallus, which encompassed 31 OTUs representative of different microalgae genera. In addition to corroborating the coexistence of the two Trebouxia sp. TR9 and T. jamesii taxa in the same thallus, this study showed a much higher microalgal diversity associated with the lichen. Along the thallus ramifications, we also detected variations in phycobiont distribution that might correlate with different microenvironmental conditions. These results highlight R. farinacea as a suitable material for studying microalgal diversity and further strengthen the concept of lichens as multispecies microecosystems. Future analyses will be relevant to

  16. Exploring the efficacy of wastewater-grown microalgal biomass as a biofertilizer for wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renuka, Nirmal; Prasanna, Radha; Sood, Anjuli; Ahluwalia, Amrik S; Bansal, Radhika; Babu, Santosh; Singh, Rajendra; Shivay, Yashbir S; Nain, Lata

    2016-04-01

    Microalgae possess the ability to grow and glean nutrients from wastewater; such wastewater-grown biomass can be used as a biofertilizer for crops. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate two formulations (formulation with unicellular microalgae (MC1) and formulation with filamentous microalgae (MC2); T4 and T5, respectively), prepared using wastewater-grown microalgal biomass, as a biofertilizer (after mixing with vermiculite/compost as a carrier) in wheat crop (Triticum aestivum L. HD2967) under controlled conditions. The highest values of available nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in soil and nitrogen-fixing potential were recorded in treatment T5 (75% N + full-dose PK + formulation with filamentous microalgae (MC2). Microbial biomass carbon was significantly enhanced by 31.8-67.0% in both the inoculated treatments over control (recommended dose of fertilizers), with highest values in T4 (75% N + full-dose PK + formulation with unicellular microalgae (MC1)). Both the microalgal formulations significantly increased the N, P, and K content of roots, shoots, and grains, and the highest total N content of 3.56% in grains was observed in treatment T5. At harvest stage, the treatments inoculated with microalgal formulations (T4 and T5) recorded a 7.4-33% increase in plant dry weight and up to 10% in spike weight. The values of 1000-grain weight showed an enhancement of 5.6-8.4%, compared with T1 (recommended doses of fertilizers). A positive correlation was observed between soil nutrient availability at mid crop stage and plant biometrical parameters at harvest stage. This study revealed the promise of such microalgal consortia as a biofertilizer for 25% N savings and improved yields of wheat crop.

  17. Interplay of differential cell mechanical properties, motility, and proliferation in emergent collective behavior of cell co-cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Leo; Kolbman, Dan; Wu, Mingming; Ma, Minglin; Das, Moumita

    The biophysics of cell co-cultures, i.e. binary systems of cell populations, is of great interest in many biological processes including formation of embryos, and tumor progression. During these processes, different types of cells with different physical properties are mixed with each other, with important consequences for cell-cell interaction, aggregation, and migration. The role of the differences in their physical properties in their collective behavior remains poorly understood. Furthermore, until recently most theoretical studies of collective cell migration have focused on two dimensional systems. Under physiological conditions, however, cells often have to navigate three dimensional and confined micro-environments. We study a confined, three-dimensional binary system of interacting, active, and deformable particles with different physical properties such as deformability, motility, adhesion, and division rates using Langevin Dynamics simulations. Our findings may provide insights into how the differences in and interplay between cell mechanical properties, division, and motility influence emergent collective behavior such as cell aggregation and segregation experimentally observed in co-cultures of breast cancer cells and healthy breast epithelial cells. This work was partially supported by a Cottrell College Science Award.

  18. Negative Affect during a Collective (but Not an Individual Task Is Associated with Holistic Attention in East Asian Cultural Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Tominaga

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that individuals from East Asian cultures are more likely to show holistic attention—a pattern of attention that incorporates contextual information into focal stimuli—than individuals from North American cultures. Holistic attention is also prevalent in communities that require close cooperation. However, it is not yet known how cooperation is related to holistic attention. We theorized that holistic attention increases when people experience negative affect (e.g., worry, sadness, and frustration during collective tasks (but not during individual tasks because negative affect in social contexts signals the existence of potential threats to social harmony, thus indicating a need to restore social harmony. To examine this hypothesis, an experiment was conducted in which participants performed a musical duet either with another participant (a collective task requiring cooperation, or individually with a computer (an individual task. After the musical task, the Framed Line Task (FLT was administered to examine their holistic attention. Participants also reported their emotional states both before and after the music task. Results suggested that negative affect in the collective task—but not the individual task—was positively correlated with a holistic pattern of attention. The function of negative affect in social contexts as motivation to restore relationships and how this enhances holistic attention is discussed. The moderating effect of social context on the link between negative affect and cognition is also discussed.

  19. Encapsulation of Multiple Microalgal Cells via a Combination of Biomimetic Mineralization and LbL Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjeong Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The encapsulation of living cells is appealing for its various applications to cell-based sensors, bioreactors, biocatalysts, and bioenergy. In this work, we introduce the encapsulation of multiple microalgal cells in hollow polymer shells of rhombohedral shape by the following sequential processes: embedding of microalgae in CaCO3 crystals; layer-by-layer (LbL coating of polyelectrolytes; and removal of sacrificial crystals. The microcapsule size was controlled by the alteration of CaCO3 crystal size, which is dependent on CaCl2/Na2CO3 concentration. The microalgal cells could be embedded in CaCO3 crystals by a two-step process: heterogeneous nucleation of crystal on the cell surface followed by cell embedment by the subsequent growth of crystal. The surfaces of the microalgal cells were highly favorable for the crystal growth of calcite; thus, micrometer-sized microalgae could be perfectly occluded in the calcite crystal without changing its rhombohedral shape. The surfaces of the microcapsules, moreover, could be decorated with gold nanoparticles, Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs, by which we would expect the functionalities of a light-triggered release, magnetic separation, and enhanced mechanical and electrical strength, respectively. This approach, entailing the encapsulation of microalgae in semi-permeable and hollow polymer microcapsules, has the potential for application to microbial-cell immobilization for high-biomass-concentration cultivation as well as various other bioapplications.

  20. Encapsulation of Multiple Microalgal Cells via a Combination of Biomimetic Mineralization and LbL Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjeong; Choi, Myoung Gil; Ra, Ho Won; Park, Seung Bin; Kim, Yong-Joo; Lee, Kyubock

    2018-02-13

    The encapsulation of living cells is appealing for its various applications to cell-based sensors, bioreactors, biocatalysts, and bioenergy. In this work, we introduce the encapsulation of multiple microalgal cells in hollow polymer shells of rhombohedral shape by the following sequential processes: embedding of microalgae in CaCO₃ crystals; layer-by-layer (LbL) coating of polyelectrolytes; and removal of sacrificial crystals. The microcapsule size was controlled by the alteration of CaCO₃ crystal size, which is dependent on CaCl₂/Na₂CO₃ concentration. The microalgal cells could be embedded in CaCO₃ crystals by a two-step process: heterogeneous nucleation of crystal on the cell surface followed by cell embedment by the subsequent growth of crystal. The surfaces of the microalgal cells were highly favorable for the crystal growth of calcite; thus, micrometer-sized microalgae could be perfectly occluded in the calcite crystal without changing its rhombohedral shape. The surfaces of the microcapsules, moreover, could be decorated with gold nanoparticles, Fe₃O₄ magnetic nanoparticles, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), by which we would expect the functionalities of a light-triggered release, magnetic separation, and enhanced mechanical and electrical strength, respectively. This approach, entailing the encapsulation of microalgae in semi-permeable and hollow polymer microcapsules, has the potential for application to microbial-cell immobilization for high-biomass-concentration cultivation as well as various other bioapplications.

  1. Nile Red Staining for Oil Determination in Microalgal Cells: A New Insight through Statistical Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Halim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of global warming and rapid fossil fuel depletion, microalgae emerge as promising feedstocks for sustainable biofuel production. Nile red staining acts as a rapid diagnostic tool to measure the amount of biodiesel-convertible lipid that the cells accumulate. There is a need for the development of a more uniform staining procedure. In its first phase, this study examined the dependence of microalgal Nile red fluorescence (Tetraselmis suecica in terms of its most pertinent staining variables. A quadratic surface model that successfully described the Nile red fluorescence intensity as a composite function of its variables was generated (r2=0.86. Cell concentration was shown to have a significant effect on the fluorescence intensity. Up to a certain threshold, fluorescence intensity was shown to increase with Nile red dye concentration. In its second phase, the study reviewed findings from previous Nile red studies to elucidate some of the fundamental mechanism underlying the diffusion of Nile red dye molecules into the microalgal cells and their subsequent interaction with intracellular lipids. Through the review process, we were able to develop a simple framework that provided a set of guidelines for the standardization of the Nile red staining procedure across different microalgal species.

  2. SIMULATION OF MICROALGAL GROWTH IN A CONTINUOUS PHOTOBIOREACTOR WITH SEDIMENTATION AND PARTIAL BIOMASS RECYCLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. de Farias Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Microalgae are considered as promising feedstocks for the third generation of biofuels. They are autotrophic organisms with high growth rate and can stock an enormous quantity of lipids (about 20 - 40% of their dried cellular weight. This work was aimed at studying the cultivation of Scenedesmus obliquus in a two-stage system composed of a photobioreactor and a settler to concentrate and partially recycle the biomass as a way to enhance the microalgae cellular productivity. It was attempted to specify by simulation and experimental data a relationship between the recycling rate, kinetic parameters of microalgal growth and photobioreactor operating conditions. Scenedesmus obliquus cells were cultivated in a lab-scale flat-plate reactor, homogenized by aeration, and running in continuous flow with a residence time of 1.66 day. Experimental data for the microalgal growth were used in a semi-empirical simulation model. The best results were obtained for Fw=0.2FI, when R = 1 and kd = 0 and 0.05 day-1, with the biomass production in the reactor varying between 8 g L -1 and 14 g L-1, respectively. The mathematical model fitted to the microalgal growth experimental data was appropriate for predicting the efficiency of the reactor in producing Scenedesmus obliquus cells, establishing a relation between cellular productivity and the minimum recycling rate that must be used in the system.

  3. A note on the laboratory culture of benthic foraminifera collected from nearshore region off Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Khare, N.; Koli, N.Y.

    these culture dish under the microscope one must be careful thatthe microscope light does not overheat the water and the cover should be removed from time to time to allow aeration. The sea water of the dishes was changed alternative- ly and food (diatoms... to be utilized for various experiments under phase 2. How- ever, in phase 1 we changed half of the medium on alternate days and supplied food (diatoms) weekly. While changing the medium, care was taken to maintain the salinity by adjusting the loss due...

  4. Not Just Pulp Fiction: Science Fiction Integral to U.S. Culture and LC Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric A.; Stumbaugh, Colleen R. C.

    1996-01-01

    Traces the evolution of the science fiction genre and its representation at the Library of Congress, including original paperbacks, hardcovers, television, film, and sound recordings. Highlights include science fiction "classics", the Library of Congress collection development policy, library programs, and preservation activities…

  5. Pringsheim's living legacy: CCALA, CCAP, SAG and UTEX culture collections of algae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Day, J. G.; Lukavský, Jaromír; Friedl, T.; Brand, J. J.; Campbell, CH. N.; Lorenz, M.; Elster, Josef

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 79, 1-2 (2004), s. 27-37 ISSN 0029-5035 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Keywords : cyanobacteria * algae * Pringsheim * algal collections Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.594, year: 2004

  6. Collective motion of cells mediates segregation and pattern formation in co-cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elod Méhes

    Full Text Available Pattern formation by segregation of cell types is an important process during embryonic development. We show that an experimentally yet unexplored mechanism based on collective motility of segregating cells enhances the effects of known pattern formation mechanisms such as differential adhesion, mechanochemical interactions or cell migration directed by morphogens. To study in vitro cell segregation we use time-lapse videomicroscopy and quantitative analysis of the main features of the motion of individual cells or groups. Our observations have been extensive, typically involving the investigation of the development of patterns containing up to 200,000 cells. By either comparing keratocyte types with different collective motility characteristics or increasing cells' directional persistence by the inhibition of Rac1 GTP-ase we demonstrate that enhanced collective cell motility results in faster cell segregation leading to the formation of more extensive patterns. The growth of the characteristic scale of patterns generally follows an algebraic scaling law with exponent values up to 0.74 in the presence of collective motion, compared to significantly smaller exponents in case of diffusive motion.

  7. Diversity and characterization of culturable fungi from marine sediment collected from St. Helena Bay, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mouton, M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available origins. It has not been proven whether these fungi merely survive the harsh environmental conditions presented by the ocean sediment, as opposed to playing an active role in this ecological niche. During this study, marine sediment was collected from St...

  8. Recognising Opportunities : A Case Study on Fostering a Culture of Innovation Through Individual and Collective Ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekhof, Lysanne; van Vuuren, Mark; Olckers, Chantal; van Zyl, Llewellyn; van der Vaart, Leoni

    2017-01-01

    Every innovation in organisations starts with recognising the opportunity to improve one’s way of working. Feeling psychological ownership for such innovative work behaviours can be identified for individuals (i.e. ‘this task is mine’) and collectives (i.e. ‘this task is ours’). Our question was how

  9. Utilization of distillery stillage for energy generation and concurrent production of valuable microalgal biomass in the sequence: Biogas-cogeneration-microalgae-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douskova, Irena; Doucha, Jiri; Zachleder, Vilem [Laboratory of Cell Cycles of Algae, Department of Autotrophic Microorganisms, Institute of Microbiology of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Novohradska 237, 379 81 Trebon - Opatovicky mlyn (Czech Republic); Kastanek, Frantisek; Maleterova, Ywette [Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Rozvojova 135, 16502 Prague 6 - Suchdol (Czech Republic); Kastanek, Petr [Biocen, Ltd., Ondrickova 1246/13, 13000 Praha - Zizkov (Czech Republic)

    2010-03-15

    The aim of the study was the experimental verification of a proposed novel technology of energy and materials production, consisting of the following process steps: production of biogas from agricultural waste (distillery stillage), presumed utilization of biogas for electricity and heat production (cogeneration) in association with its use as a source of carbon dioxide for microalgae cultivation. The microalgal biomass can be hereafter processed to valuable products such as food and feed supplements. A part of the process wastewater can be utilized as a nitrogen source (ammonium ions) for microalgae cultivation, so the whole process is technologically closed. The tests were performed in a pilot-scale device. Optimization of biogas production from distillery stillage is described. The growth kinetics of microalgae Chlorella sp. consuming biogas or mixture of air and carbon dioxide in the concentration range of 2-20% (v/v) (simulating a flue gas from biogas incineration) in laboratory-scale photo-bioreactors are presented. It was proven that the raw biogas (even without the removal of hydrogen sulphide) could be used as a source of carbon dioxide for growth of microalgae. The growth rate of microalgae consuming biogas was the same as the growth rate of the culture grown on a mixture of air and food-grade carbon dioxide. Using biogas as a source of carbon dioxide has two main advantages: the biomass production costs are reduced and the produced biomass does not contain harmful compounds, which can occur in flue gases. The microalgal growth in bubbled cylinders was typically linear with time. The growth rate dependence on the diameter of the photobioreactor can be correlated using an empirical formula M = 2.2 D{sup -0.8} (valid for the linear bubbling velocities in the range of w = 0.1-0.3 cm/s), where M is the growth rate in g/L/h, and D is the photobioreactor diameter in mm. Processing of the fermenter wastewater was also quantified. Particularly the removal of

  10. Utilization of distillery stillage for energy generation and concurrent production of valuable microalgal biomass in the sequence: Biogas-cogeneration-microalgae-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douskova, Irena; Kastanek, Frantisek; Maleterova, Ywette; Kastanek, Petr; Doucha, Jiri; Zachleder, Vilem

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was the experimental verification of a proposed novel technology of energy and materials production, consisting of the following process steps: production of biogas from agricultural waste (distillery stillage), presumed utilization of biogas for electricity and heat production (cogeneration) in association with its use as a source of carbon dioxide for microalgae cultivation. The microalgal biomass can be hereafter processed to valuable products such as food and feed supplements. A part of the process wastewater can be utilized as a nitrogen source (ammonium ions) for microalgae cultivation, so the whole process is technologically closed. The tests were performed in a pilot-scale device. Optimization of biogas production from distillery stillage is described. The growth kinetics of microalgae Chlorella sp. consuming biogas or mixture of air and carbon dioxide in the concentration range of 2-20% (v/v) (simulating a flue gas from biogas incineration) in laboratory-scale photo-bioreactors are presented. It was proven that the raw biogas (even without the removal of hydrogen sulphide) could be used as a source of carbon dioxide for growth of microalgae. The growth rate of microalgae consuming biogas was the same as the growth rate of the culture grown on a mixture of air and food-grade carbon dioxide. Using biogas as a source of carbon dioxide has two main advantages: the biomass production costs are reduced and the produced biomass does not contain harmful compounds, which can occur in flue gases. The microalgal growth in bubbled cylinders was typically linear with time. The growth rate dependence on the diameter of the photobioreactor can be correlated using an empirical formula M = 2.2 D -0.8 (valid for the linear bubbling velocities in the range of w = 0.1-0.3 cm/s), where M is the growth rate in g/L/h, and D is the photobioreactor diameter in mm. Processing of the fermenter wastewater was also quantified. Particularly the removal of ammonia

  11. Modeling Microalgal Biosediment Formation Based on Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogburn, Zachary L; Vogt, Frank

    2018-03-01

    With increasing amounts of anthropogenic pollutants being released into ecosystems, it becomes ever more important to understand their fate and interactions with living organisms. Microalgae play an important ecological role as they are ubiquitous in marine environments and sequester inorganic pollutants which they transform into organic biomass. Of particular interest in this study is their role as a sink for atmospheric CO 2 , a greenhouse gas, and nitrate, one cause of harmful algal blooms. Novel chemometric hard-modeling methodologies have been developed for interpreting phytoplankton's chemical and physiological adaptations to changes in their growing environment. These methodologies will facilitate investigations of environmental impacts of anthropogenic pollutants on chemical and physiological properties of marine microalgae (here: Nannochloropsis oculata). It has been demonstrated that attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy can gain insights into both and this study only focuses on the latter. From time-series of spectra, the rate of microalgal biomass settling on top of a horizontal ATR element is derived which reflects several of phytoplankton's physiological parameters such as growth rate, cell concentrations, cell size, and buoyancy. In order to assess environmental impacts on such parameters, microalgae cultures were grown under 25 different chemical scenarios covering 200-600 ppm atmospheric CO 2 and 0.35-0.75 mM dissolved NO 3 - . After recording time-series of ATR FT-IR spectra, a multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) algorithm extracted spectroscopic and time profiles from each data set. From the time profiles, it was found that in the considered concentration ranges only NO 3 - has an impact on the cells' physiological properties. In particular, the cultures' growth rate has been influenced by the ambient chemical conditions. Thus, the presented spectroscopic

  12. The CUPID (Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability) Study: Methods of Data Collection and Characteristics of Study Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggon, David; Ntani, Georgia; Palmer, Keith T.; Felli, Vanda E.; Harari, Raul; Barrero, Lope H.; Felknor, Sarah A.; Gimeno, David; Cattrell, Anna; Serra, Consol; Bonzini, Matteo; Solidaki, Eleni; Merisalu, Eda; Habib, Rima R.; Sadeghian, Farideh; Kadir, Masood; Warnakulasuriya, Sudath S. P.; Matsudaira, Ko; Nyantumbu, Busisiwe; Sim, Malcolm R.; Harcombe, Helen; Cox, Ken; Marziale, Maria H.; Sarquis, Leila M.; Harari, Florencia; Freire, Rocio; Harari, Natalia; Monroy, Magda V.; Quintana, Leonardo A.; Rojas, Marianela; Salazar Vega, Eduardo J.; Harris, E. Clare; Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Martinez, J. Miguel; Delclos, George; Benavides, Fernando G.; Carugno, Michele; Ferrario, Marco M.; Pesatori, Angela C.; Chatzi, Leda; Bitsios, Panos; Kogevinas, Manolis; Oha, Kristel; Sirk, Tuuli; Sadeghian, Ali; Peiris-John, Roshini J.; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Wickremasinghe, A. Rajitha; Yoshimura, Noriko; Kielkowski, Danuta; Kelsall, Helen L.; Hoe, Victor C. W.; Urquhart, Donna M.; Derett, Sarah; McBride, David; Gray, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Background The CUPID (Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability) study was established to explore the hypothesis that common musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and associated disability are importantly influenced by culturally determined health beliefs and expectations. This paper describes the methods of data collection and various characteristics of the study sample. Methods/Principal Findings A standardised questionnaire covering musculoskeletal symptoms, disability and potential risk factors, was used to collect information from 47 samples of nurses, office workers, and other (mostly manual) workers in 18 countries from six continents. In addition, local investigators provided data on economic aspects of employment for each occupational group. Participation exceeded 80% in 33 of the 47 occupational groups, and after pre-specified exclusions, analysis was based on 12,426 subjects (92 to 1018 per occupational group). As expected, there was high usage of computer keyboards by office workers, while nurses had the highest prevalence of heavy manual lifting in all but one country. There was substantial heterogeneity between occupational groups in economic and psychosocial aspects of work; three- to five-fold variation in awareness of someone outside work with musculoskeletal pain; and more than ten-fold variation in the prevalence of adverse health beliefs about back and arm pain, and in awareness of terms such as “repetitive strain injury” (RSI). Conclusions/Significance The large differences in psychosocial risk factors (including knowledge and beliefs about MSDs) between occupational groups should allow the study hypothesis to be addressed effectively. PMID:22792189

  13. Declining trends in alcohol consumption among Swedish youth-does the theory of collectivity of drinking cultures apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raninen, Jonas; Livingston, Michael; Leifman, Håkan

    2014-11-01

    To analyse trends in alcohol consumption among young people in Sweden between 2004 and 2012, to test whether the theory of collectivity of drinking cultures is valid for a population of young people and to investigate the impact of an increasing proportion of abstainers on the overall per capita trends. Data were drawn from an annual survey of a nationally representative sample of students in year 11 (17-18 years old). The data covered 9 years and the total sample comprised 36,141 students. Changes in the overall per capita consumption were tested using linear regression on log-transformed data, and changes in abstention rates were tested using logistic regression. The analyses were then continued by calculating average consumption in deciles. Alcohol consumption among year 11 students declined significantly among both boys and girls between 2004 and 2012. These changes were reflected at all levels of consumption, and the same results were found when abstainers were excluded from the analyses. The increasing proportion of abstainers had a minimal effect on the overall decline in consumption; rather, this was driven by a decline in consumption among the heaviest drinkers. The theory of collectivity of drinking cultures seems valid for understanding changes in alcohol consumption among Swedish year 11 students. No support was found for a polarization of alcohol consumption in this nationally representative sample. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  14. The CUPID (Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability study: methods of data collection and characteristics of study sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Coggon

    Full Text Available The CUPID (Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability study was established to explore the hypothesis that common musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs and associated disability are importantly influenced by culturally determined health beliefs and expectations. This paper describes the methods of data collection and various characteristics of the study sample.A standardised questionnaire covering musculoskeletal symptoms, disability and potential risk factors, was used to collect information from 47 samples of nurses, office workers, and other (mostly manual workers in 18 countries from six continents. In addition, local investigators provided data on economic aspects of employment for each occupational group. Participation exceeded 80% in 33 of the 47 occupational groups, and after pre-specified exclusions, analysis was based on 12,426 subjects (92 to 1018 per occupational group. As expected, there was high usage of computer keyboards by office workers, while nurses had the highest prevalence of heavy manual lifting in all but one country. There was substantial heterogeneity between occupational groups in economic and psychosocial aspects of work; three- to five-fold variation in awareness of someone outside work with musculoskeletal pain; and more than ten-fold variation in the prevalence of adverse health beliefs about back and arm pain, and in awareness of terms such as "repetitive strain injury" (RSI.The large differences in psychosocial risk factors (including knowledge and beliefs about MSDs between occupational groups should allow the study hypothesis to be addressed effectively.

  15. Microalgal carbohydrates: an overview of the factors influencing carbohydrates production, and of main bioconversion technologies for production of biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markou, Giorgos; Angelidaki, Irini; Georgakakis, Dimitris

    2012-01-01

    in research is the cultivation of microalgae for lipids production to generate biodiesel. However, there are several other biological or thermochemical conversion technologies, in which microalgal biomass could be used as substrate. However, the high protein content or the low carbohydrate content...... of the majority of the microalgal species might be a constraint for their possible use in these technologies. Moreover, in the majority of biomass conversion technologies, carbohydrates are the main substrate for production of biofuels. Nevertheless, microalgae biomass composition could be manipulated by several......Microalgal biomass seems to be a promising feedstock for biofuel generation. Microalgae have relative high photosynthetic efficiencies, high growth rates, and some species can thrive in brackish water or seawater and wastewater from the food- and agro-industrial sector. Today, the main interest...

  16. In vitro culture of oocytes and granulosa cells collected from normal, obese, emaciated and metabolically stressed ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, S K; Farman, M; Nandi, S; Mondal, S; Gupta, Psp; Kumar, V Girish

    2016-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the oocyte morphology, its fertilizing capacity and granulosa cell functions in ewes (obese, normal, metabolic stressed and emaciated). Ewes (Ovis aries) of approximately 3 years of age (Bellary breed) from a local village were screened, chosen and categorized into a) normal b) obese but not metabolically stressed, c) Emaciated but not metabolically stressed d) Metabolically stressed based on body condition scoring and blood markers. Oocytes and granulosa cells were collected from ovaries of the ewes of all categories after slaughter and were classified into good (oocytes with more than three layers of cumulus cells and homogenous ooplasm), fair (oocytes one or two layers of cumulus cells and homogenous ooplasm) and poor (denuded oocytes or with dark ooplasm). The good and fair quality oocytes were in vitro matured and cultured with fresh semen present and the fertilization, cleavage and blastocyst development were observed. The granulosa cells were cultured for evaluation of metabolic activity by use of the MTT assay, and cell viability, cell number as well as estrogen and progesterone production were assessed. It was observed that the good and fair quality oocytes had greater metabolic activity when collected from normal and obese ewes compared with those from emaciated and metabolically stressed ewes. No significant difference was observed in oocyte quality and maturation amongst the oocytes collected from normal and obese ewes. The cleavage and blastocyst production rates were different for the various body condition classifications and when ranked were: normal>obese>metabolically stressed>emaciated. Lesser metabolic activity was observed in granulosa cells obtained from ovaries of emaciated ewes. However, no changes were observed in viability and cell number of granulosa cells obtained from ewes with the different body condition categories. Estrogen and progesterone production from cultured granulosa cells were

  17. Using Co-Design to Develop a Collective Leadership Intervention for Healthcare Teams to Improve Safety Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie E. Ward

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available While co-design methods are becoming more popular in healthcare; there is a gap within the peer-reviewed literature on how to do co-design in practice. This paper addresses this gap by delineating the approach taken in the co-design of a collective leadership intervention to improve healthcare team performance and patient safety culture. Over the course of six workshops healthcare staff, patient representatives and advocates, and health systems researchers collaboratively co-designed the intervention. The inputs to the process, exercises and activities that took place during the workshops and the outputs of the workshops are described. The co-design method, while challenging at times, had many benefits including grounding the intervention in the real-world experiences of healthcare teams. Implications of the method for health systems research are discussed.

  18. Collective efficacy versus self-efficacy in coping responses to stressors and control: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubroeck, J; Lam, S S; Xie, J L

    2000-08-01

    This study examined how cultural differences and efficacy perceptions influence the role of job control in coping with job demands. Perceiving higher control mitigated the effects of demands on psychological health symptoms and turnover intentions only among American bank tellers reporting high job self-efficacy. Among American tellers reporting low job self-efficacy, perceived control exacerbated the effects of demands. However, in a matched Hong Kong sample, collective efficacy interacted in the same way with control and demands as job self-efficacy had in the American sample. These differences appear to be explained by the individual attributes of idiocentrism and allocentrism that are linked to the societal norms of individualism and collectivism, respectively.

  19. Effects of co-products on the life-cycle impacts of microalgal biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soratana, Kullapa; Barr, William J; Landis, Amy E

    2014-05-01

    Microalgal biodiesel production has been investigated for decades, yet it is not commercially available. Part of the problem is that the production process is energy and chemical intensive due, in part, to the high portion of microalgal biomass left as residues. This study investigated cradle-to-gate life-cycle environmental impacts from six different scenarios of microalgal biodiesel and its co-products. Ozone depletion, global warming, photochemical smog formation, acidification and eutrophication potentials were assessed using the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts (TRACI). Monte Carlo Analysis was conducted to investigate the processes with major contribution in each impact category. The market opportunity for each co-product was examined based on supply, demand and prices of the products that could potentially be substituted by the co-products. The results indicated that the scenario with the least life-cycle environmental impacts in all the five impact categories with the highest net energy ratio was the scenario utilizing a multitude of co-products including bioethanol from lipid-extracted microalgae (LEA), biomethane (to produce electricity and heat) from simultaneous saccharification-fermentation (SSF) residues, land-applied material from SSF residue anaerobic digestion (AD) solid digestate, recycling nutrients from SSF residue AD liquid digestate and CO2 recovered from SSF process contributed. Decreasing the energy consumption of the centrifuge in the land-applied material production process and increasing the lipid content of microalgae can reduce environmental footprints of the co-products. The same scenario also had the highest total income indicating their potential as co-products in the market. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Inhibitory activities of microalgal extracts against Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV antigen expression in lymphoblastoid cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Yih Yih

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory activities of microalgal extracts against the expression of three EBV antigens, latent membrane protein (LMP1, Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA1 and Z Epstein-Barr reactivation activator (ZEBRA were assessed by immunocytochemistry. The observation that the methanol extracts and their fractions from Ankistrodesmus convolutus, Synechococcus elongatus and Spirulina platensis exhibited inhibitory activity against EBV proteins in three Burkitt’s lymphoma cell lines at concentrations as low as 20 μg/ml suggests that microalgae could be a potential source of antiviral compounds against EBV.

  1. Microalgal process-monitoring based on high-selectivity spectroscopy tools: status and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podevin, Michael Paul Ambrose; Fotidis, Ioannis; Angelidaki, Irini

    2018-01-01

    microalgae production towards process automation through multivariate process control (MVPC) and software sensors trained on “big data”. The paper will also include a comprehensive overview of off-line implementations of vibrational spectroscopy in microalgal research as it pertains to spectral...... contribution of this review is to present current and prospective advances of on-line and in-line process analytical technology (PAT), with high-selectivity – the capability of monitoring several analytes simultaneously – in the interest of improving product quality, productivity, and process automation...... interpretation and process automation to aid and motivate development....

  2. Culturing Chaetoceros muelleri using simplified media with different N sources: effects on production and lipid content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reis Batista, Isabel; Garcia, Ainhoa Blanco; Dalen, Van Pim; Kamermans, Pauline; Verdegem, Marc; Smaal, Aad C.

    2015-01-01

    Land-based bivalve aquaculture depends on large-scale cultures of live microalgae for food. The intensity of large-scale microalgal production is important for cost-effectiveness. Using Walne’s medium as the control, simplified media containing nitrogen, phosphorus, silica, iron, manganese and

  3. Collective Intellectual Property in Michoacán: Negotiating Economic and Cultural Agendas in the Artisanal Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucero Ibarra Rojas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The state of Michoacán, México, has almost 50 collective trademarks registered for artisanal products, which were created by initiative of different state institutions. This article aims to understand the different influences that are mediated by law when collective forms of intellectual property are incorporated and negotiated by different institutions with different aims within the realm of the state. By looking closely at the experience in Michoacán, I argue that two economic/cultural agendas can be identified. On the one hand, there is the federal agenda that aims for a national and international projection of a Mexican product, focused on the successfully industrialized national products closely linked with México's imagery for a foreign audience. On the other hand, there are the expectations of Michoacán's local government, which are strongly related with a pluralist discourse and with the different policy approaches it inspires. Between the two, the country’s cultural agenda becomes shaped by economic concerns that are, in turn, defined by the worldviews of state institution's agents. El estado de Michoacán, México, tiene casi 50 marcas colectivas de productos artesanales, que fueron registradas por iniciativa de diferentes instituciones estatales. Este artículo busca comprender las variadas influencias que son mediadas por el derecho cuando se incorporan formas colectivas de propiedad intelectual, mediante la negociación de diferentes instituciones con diferentes objetivos dentro del ámbito estatal. A través de la experiencia de Michoacán, sostengo que se pueden identificar dos agendas económicas/culturales. Por un lado, se encuentra la agenda federal que busca una proyección nacional e internacional de un producto identificable como mexicano, enfocándose en los productos nacionales que han tenido una industrialización exitosa. Por otro lado, se encuentran las expectativas del gobierno local de Michoacán, que se

  4. Culture of the entrepreneur: collective entrepreneurial action and profile of the entrepreneur Cultura empreendedora: empreendedorismo coletivo e perfil empreendedor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Maria Schmidt

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The culture of the entrepreneur is fundamental because it represents the essence of entrepreneurial action which may be exemplified in many ways. An analysis was made of the contribution of this culture to the formation of a local productive arrangement for sustainable tourism in Nova Russia, Blumenau, S.C.. Data were obtained from the ten owner managers involved by means of a participative survey as well as meetings, visits, presentations and structured interviews. An entrepreneurial culture was identified; however it is still weak, in spite of collective entrepreneurial actions undertaken. The entrepreneurial profiles of those investigated were in an incipient stage hindering the arrangement at this time. More extensive development of the profiles would encourage progress of the arrangement and stimulate collective and timely innovations in view of continuing market developments.A cultura empreendedora é fundamental, pois representa a essência do empreendedorismo, e pode manifestar-se de várias formas. Dessa forma, o objetivo geral desta pesquisa foi analisar a contribuição dessa cultura para a formação do Arranjo Produtivo Local (APL de turismo sustentável na Nova Rússia em Blumenau - SC. O estudo foi realizado mediante pesquisa participante com os dez proprietários-dirigentes do aglomerado turístico da Nova Rússia. Os dados foram obtidos de reuniões, visitas, palestras e entrevistas estruturadas. Como principal resultado, identificou-se que existe cultura empreendedora na região, porém bem fragilizada, pois, apesar de existirem ações de empreendedorismo coletivo na Nova Rússia, o perfil empreendedor dos investigados ainda apresenta um nível bastante baixo de desenvolvimento, o que compromete o início do APL neste momento. Caso a cultura empreendedora estivesse mais caracterizada, teria influência muita positiva sobre a formação do APL, pois os empreendedores se tornariam inovadores diante das constantes evoluções do

  5. Photosynthesis monitoring to optimize growth of microalgal mass cultures: application of chlorophyll fluorescence techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malapascua, José R.F.; Jerez, Celia G.; Sergejevova, Magda; Figueroa, Felix L.; Masojídek, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2014 (2014), s. 123-140 ISSN 1864-7790 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0110; GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0059 Grant - others:ACTION(AT) CTM2011-15659-E Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : chlorophyll * biomass * photosynthesis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2014

  6. cultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Kreutz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Es un estudio cualitativo que adoptó como referencial teorico-motodológico la antropología y la etnografía. Presenta las experiencias vivenciadas por mujeres de una comunidad en el proceso salud-enfermedad, con el objetivo de comprender los determinantes sócio-culturales e históricos de las prácticas de prevención y tratamiento adoptados por el grupo cultural por medio de la entrevista semi-estructurada. Los temas que emergieron fueron: la relación entre la alimentación y lo proceso salud-enfermedad, las relaciones con el sistema de salud oficial y el proceso salud-enfermedad y lo sobrenatural. Los dados revelaron que los moradores de la comunidad investigada tienen un modo particular de explicar sus procedimientos terapéuticos. Consideramos que es papel de los profesionales de la salud en sus prácticas, la adopción de abordajes o enfoques que consideren al individuo en su dimensión sócio-cultural e histórica, considerando la enorme diversidad cultural en nuestro país.

  7. Salt Effect on the Antioxidant Activity of Red Microalgal Sulfated Polysaccharides in Soy-Bean Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariela Burg

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sulfated polysaccharides produced by microalgae, which are known to exhibit various biological activities, may potentially serve as natural antioxidant sources. To date, only a few studies have examined the antioxidant bioactivity of red microalgal polysaccharides. In this research, the effect of different salts on the antioxidant activities of two red microalgal sulfated polysaccharides derived from Porphyridium sp. and Porphyridium aerugineum were studied in a soy bean-based infant milk formula. Salt composition and concentration were both shown to affect the polysaccharides’ antioxidant activity. It can be postulated that the salt ions intefer with the polysaccharide chains’ interactions and alter their structure, leading to a new three-dimensional structure that better exposes antiooxidant sites in comparison to the polysaccharide without salt supplement. Among the cations that were studied, Ca2+ had the strongest enhancement effect on antioxidant activities of both polysaccharides. Understanding the effect of salts on polysaccharides’ stucture, in addition to furthering knowledge on polysaccharide bioactivities, may also shed light on the position of the antioxidant active sites.

  8. Salt Effect on the Antioxidant Activity of Red Microalgal Sulfated Polysaccharides in Soy-Bean Formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Ariela; Oshrat, Levy-Ontman

    2015-10-20

    Sulfated polysaccharides produced by microalgae, which are known to exhibit various biological activities, may potentially serve as natural antioxidant sources. To date, only a few studies have examined the antioxidant bioactivity of red microalgal polysaccharides. In this research, the effect of different salts on the antioxidant activities of two red microalgal sulfated polysaccharides derived from Porphyridium sp. and Porphyridium aerugineum were studied in a soy bean-based infant milk formula. Salt composition and concentration were both shown to affect the polysaccharides' antioxidant activity. It can be postulated that the salt ions intefer with the polysaccharide chains' interactions and alter their structure, leading to a new three-dimensional structure that better exposes antiooxidant sites in comparison to the polysaccharide without salt supplement. Among the cations that were studied, Ca(2+) had the strongest enhancement effect on antioxidant activities of both polysaccharides. Understanding the effect of salts on polysaccharides' stucture, in addition to furthering knowledge on polysaccharide bioactivities, may also shed light on the position of the antioxidant active sites.

  9. A Review on the Assessment of Stress conditions for Simultaneous Production of Microalgal Lipids and Carotenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amritpreet kaur Minhas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Microalgal species are potential resource of both biofuels and high-value metabolites, and their production is growth dependent. Growth parameters can be screened for the selection of novel microalgal species that produce molecules of interest. In this context our review confirms that, autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms have demonstrated a dual potential, namely the ability to produce lipids as well as value-added products (particularly carotenoids under influence of various physico-chemical stresses on microalgae. Some species of microalgae can synthesize, besides some pigments, very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VL-PUFA,>20C such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, those have significant applications in food and health. Producing value-added by-products in addition to biofuels, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME, and lipids has the potential to improve microalgae-based biorefineries by employing either the autotrophic or the heterotrophic mode, which could be an offshoot of biotechnology. The review considers the potential of microalgae to produce a range of products and indicates future directions for developing suitable criteria for choosing novel isolates through bioprospecting large gene pool of microalga obtained from various habitats and climatic conditions.

  10. A Review on the Assessment of Stress Conditions for Simultaneous Production of Microalgal Lipids and Carotenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minhas, Amritpreet K.; Hodgson, Peter; Barrow, Colin J.; Adholeya, Alok

    2016-01-01

    Microalgal species are potential resource of both biofuels and high-value metabolites, and their production is growth dependent. Growth parameters can be screened for the selection of novel microalgal species that produce molecules of interest. In this context our review confirms that, autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms have demonstrated a dual potential, namely the ability to produce lipids as well as value-added products (particularly carotenoids) under influence of various physico-chemical stresses on microalgae. Some species of microalgae can synthesize, besides some pigments, very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VL-PUFA,>20C) such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, those have significant applications in food and health. Producing value-added by-products in addition to biofuels, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), and lipids has the potential to improve microalgae-based biorefineries by employing either the autotrophic or the heterotrophic mode, which could be an offshoot of biotechnology. The review considers the potential of microalgae to produce a range of products and indicates future directions for developing suitable criteria for choosing novel isolates through bioprospecting large gene pool of microalga obtained from various habitats and climatic conditions. PMID:27199903

  11. Production of Microalgal Lipids as Biodiesel Feedstock with Fixation of CO2 by Chlorella vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The global warming and shortage of energy are two critical problems for human social development. CO2 mitigation and replacing conventional diesel with biodiesel are effective routes to reduce these problems. Production of microalgal lipids as biodiesel feedstock by a freshwater microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, with the ability to fixate CO2 is studied in this work. The results show that nitrogen deficiency, CO2 volume fraction and photoperiod are the key factors responsible for the lipid accumulation in C. vulgaris. With 5 % CO2, 0.75 g/L of NaNO3 and 18:6 h of light/dark cycle, the lipid content and overall lipid productivity reached 14.5 % and 33.2 mg/(L·day, respectively. Furthermore, we proposed a technique to enhance the microalgal lipid productivity by activating acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase with an enzyme activator. Citric acid and Mg2+ were found to be efficient enzyme activators of ACCase. With the addition of 150 mg/L of citric acid or 1.5 mmol/L of MgCl2, the lipid productivity reached 39.1 and 38.0 mg/(L·day, respectively, which was almost twofold of the control. This work shows that it is practicable to produce lipids by freshwater microalgae that can fixate CO2, and provides a potential route to solving the global warming and energy shortage problems.

  12. Microalgal-biochar immobilized complex: A novel efficient biosorbent for cadmium removal from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ying; Li, Huan; Zhu, Wenzhe; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Yuan, Wenqiao; Chen, Jianfeng; Xie, Youping

    2017-11-01

    The feasibility of the bioremediation of cadmium (Cd) using microalgal-biochar immobilized complex (MBIC) was investigated. Major operating parameters (e.g., pH, biosorbent dosage, initial Cd(II) concentration and microalgal-biochar ratio) were varied to compare the treatability of viable algae (Chlorella sp.), biochar and MBIC. The biosorption isotherms obtained by using algae or biochar were found to have satisfactory Langmuir predictions, while the best fitting adsorption isotherm model for MBIC was the Sips model. The maximum Cd(II) adsorption capacity of MBIC with a Chlorella sp.: biochar ratio of 2:3 (217.41mgg -1 ) was higher than that of Chlorella sp. (169.92mgg -1 ) or biochar (95.82mgg -1 ) alone. The pseudo-second-order model fitted the biosorption process of MBIC well (R 2 >0.999). Moreover, zeta potential, SEM and FTIR studies revealed that electrostatic attraction, ion exchange and surface complexation were the main mechanisms responsible for Cd removal when using MBIC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ecotoxicological effects of enrofloxacin and its removal by monoculture of microalgal species and their consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jiu-Qiang; Kurade, Mayur B; Jeon, Byong-Hun

    2017-07-01

    Enrofloxacin (ENR), a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, has gained big scientific concern due to its ecotoxicity on aquatic microbiota. The ecotoxicity and removal of ENR by five individual microalgae species and their consortium were studied to correlate the behavior and interaction of ENR in natural systems. The individual microalgal species (Scenedesmus obliquus, Chlamydomonas mexicana, Chlorella vulgaris, Ourococcus multisporus, Micractinium resseri) and their consortium could withstand high doses of ENR (≤1 mg L -1 ). Growth inhibition (68-81%) of the individual microalgae species and their consortium was observed in ENR (100 mg L -1 ) compared to control after 11 days of cultivation. The calculated 96 h EC 50 of ENR for individual microalgae species and microalgae consortium was 9.6-15.0 mg ENR L -1 . All the microalgae could recover from the toxicity of high concentrations of ENR during cultivation. The biochemical characteristics (total chlorophyll, carotenoid, and malondialdehyde) were significantly influenced by ENR (1-100 mg L -1 ) stress. The individual microalgae species and microalgae consortium removed 18-26% ENR at day 11. Although the microalgae consortium showed a higher sensitivity (with lower EC 50 ) toward ENR than the individual microalgae species, the removal efficiency of ENR by the constructed microalgae consortium was comparable to that of the most effective microalgal species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhanced the energy outcomes from microalgal biomass by the novel biopretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Shuai; Fan, Xiaolei; Luo, Shengjun; Katukuri, Naveen Reddy; Guo, Rongbo

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The micro-aerobic pretreatment was used to improve energy yield of Chlorella sp. • The Bacillus licheniformis was confirmed to damage the cell wall of microalgae. • Obtained energy from Chlorella sp. was improved by 12.3%. • Pretreatment time was decreased from 60 h to 24 h. • The VS degradation efficiency was increased from 75.7% to 82.1%. - Abstract: Microalgae have been considered as one of the most promising biomass for the generation of biofuels. The anaerobic digestion (AD) has been proved to be a promising technique to transfer the microalgal biomass into biofuels. Previous study demonstrated that anaerobic pretreatment of microalgae biomass by Bacillus licheniformis could improve methane production. In this study micro-aerobic bio-pretreatment of microalgal biomass by the facultative anaerobic bacteria Bacillus licheniformis was invested with different loads of oxygen supplied. The bio-hydrogen and biomethane productions were tested to calculate total energy outcomes. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) photographs suggested that the novel micro-aerobic bio-pretreatment (MBP) could effectively damage the firm cell wall of algal cells. The processing time of the novel method (24 h) was less than the previous anaerobic pretreatment (60 h). Results showed that the group with 5 mL oxygen/g VS fed had the highest total energy outcomes, which was 17.6% higher than that of the anaerobic pretreatment.

  15. Comparative assessment of various lipid extraction protocols and optimization of transesterification process for microalgal biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Shovon; Patnaik, Reeza; Singh, Amit Kumar; Mallick, Nirupama

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, using microalgae as feedstocks, is being explored as the most potent form of alternative diesel fuel for sustainable economic development. A comparative assessment of various protocols for microalgal lipid extraction was carried out using five green algae, six blue-green algae and two diatom species treated with different single and binary solvents both at room temperature and using a soxhlet. Lipid recovery was maximum with chloroform-methanol in the soxhlet extractor. Pretreatments ofbiomass, such as sonication, homogenization, bead-beating, lyophilization, autoclaving, microwave treatment and osmotic shock did not register any significant rise in lipid recovery. As lipid recovery using chloroform-methanol at room temperature demonstrated a marginally lower value than that obtained under the soxhlet extractor, on economical point of view, the former is recommended for microalgal total lipid extraction. Transesterification process enhances the quality of biodiesel. Experiments were designed to determine the effects of catalyst type and quantity, methanol to oil ratio, reaction temperature and time on the transesterification process using response surface methodology. Fatty acid methyl ester yield reached up to 91% with methanol:HCl:oil molar ratio of 82:4:1 at 65 degrees C for 6.4h reaction time. The biodiesel yield relative to the weight of the oil was found to be 69%.

  16. Microalgal process-monitoring based on high-selectivity spectroscopy tools: status and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podevin, Michael; Fotidis, Ioannis A; Angelidaki, Irini

    2018-08-01

    Microalgae are well known for their ability to accumulate lipids intracellularly, which can be used for biofuels and mitigate CO 2 emissions. However, due to economic challenges, microalgae bioprocesses have maneuvered towards the simultaneous production of food, feed, fuel, and various high-value chemicals in a biorefinery concept. On-line and in-line monitoring of macromolecules such as lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and high-value pigments will be more critical to maintain product quality and consistency for downstream processing in a biorefinery to maintain and valorize these markets. The main contribution of this review is to present current and prospective advances of on-line and in-line process analytical technology (PAT), with high-selectivity - the capability of monitoring several analytes simultaneously - in the interest of improving product quality, productivity, and process automation of a microalgal biorefinery. The high-selectivity PAT under consideration are mid-infrared (MIR), near-infrared (NIR), and Raman vibrational spectroscopies. The current review contains a critical assessment of these technologies in the context of recent advances in software and hardware in order to move microalgae production towards process automation through multivariate process control (MVPC) and software sensors trained on "big data". The paper will also include a comprehensive overview of off-line implementations of vibrational spectroscopy in microalgal research as it pertains to spectral interpretation and process automation to aid and motivate development.

  17. Reducing electrocoagulation harvesting costs for practical microalgal biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassey, Adam J; Theegala, Chandra S

    2014-01-01

    Electrocoagulation has shown potential to be a primary microalgae harvesting technique for biodiesel production. However, methods to reduce energy and electrode costs are still necessary for practical application. Electrocoagulation tests were conducted on Nannochloris sp. and Dunaliella sp. using perforated aluminium and iron electrodes under various charge densities. Aluminium electrodes were shown to be more efficient than iron electrodes when harvesting both algal species. Despite the lower harvesting efficiency, however, the iron electrodes were more energy and cost efficient. Operational costs of less than $0.03/L oil were achieved when harvesting Nannochloris sp. with iron electrodes at 35% harvest efficiency, whereas aluminium electrodes cost $0.75/L oil with 42% harvesting efficiency. Increasing the harvesting efficiencies for both aluminium and iron electrodes also increased the overall cost per litre of oil, therefore lower harvesting efficiencies with lower energy inputs was recommended. Also, increasing the culturing salinity to 2 ppt sodium chloride for freshwater Nannochloris sp. was determined practical to improve the electrocoagulation energy efficiency despite a 25% reduction in cell growth.

  18. Microalgal carbohydrates. An overview of the factors influencing carbohydrates production, and of main bioconversion technologies for production of biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markou, Giorgos; Georgakakis, Dimitris [Agricultural Univ. of Athens (Greece). Dept. of Natural Resources Management and Agricultural Engineering; Angelidaki, Irini [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Dept. of Environmental Engineering

    2012-11-15

    Microalgal biomass seems to be a promising feedstock for biofuel generation. Microalgae have relative high photosynthetic efficiencies, high growth rates, and some species can thrive in brackish water or seawater and wastewater from the food- and agro-industrial sector. Today, the main interest in research is the cultivation of microalgae for lipids production to generate biodiesel. However, there are several other biological or thermochemical conversion technologies, in which microalgal biomass could be used as substrate. However, the high protein content or the low carbohydrate content of the majority of the microalgal species might be a constraint for their possible use in these technologies. Moreover, in the majority of biomass conversion technologies, carbohydrates are the main substrate for production of biofuels. Nevertheless, microalgae biomass composition could be manipulated by several cultivation techniques, such as nutrient starvation or other stressed environmental conditions, which cause the microalgae to accumulate carbohydrates. This paper attempts to give a general overview of techniques that can be used for increasing the microalgal biomass carbohydrate content. In addition, biomass conversion technologies, related to the conversion of carbohydrates into biofuels are discussed. (orig.)

  19. Detailing the start-up and microalgal growth performance of a full-scale photobioreactor operated with bioindustrial wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podevin, Michael Paul Ambrose; Fotidis, Ioannis; De Francisci, Davide

    2017-01-01

    were tested. Bioindustrial WW medium was treated with ultrafiltration and was demonstrated to be a viable microalgal growth medium at large scale; however, further treatment is needed for the removal of fecal coliform to meet drinking water standards. The fresh water mesophilic algae Chlorella...

  20. Enzymatic transesterification of microalgal oil from Chlorella vulgaris ESP-31 for biodiesel synthesis using immobilized Burkholderia lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dang-Thuan; Yeh, Kuei-Ling; Chen, Ching-Lung; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2012-03-01

    An indigenous microalga Chlorella vulgaris ESP-31 grown in an outdoor tubular photobioreactor with CO(2) aeration obtained a high oil content of up to 63.2%. The microalgal oil was then converted to biodiesel by enzymatic transesterification using an immobilized lipase originating from Burkholderia sp. C20. The conversion of the microalgae oil to biodiesel was conducted by transesterification of the extracted microalgal oil (M-I) and by transesterification directly using disrupted microalgal biomass (M-II). The results show that M-II achieved higher biodiesel conversion (97.3 wt% oil) than M-I (72.1 wt% oil). The immobilized lipase worked well when using wet microalgal biomass (up to 71% water content) as the oil substrate. The immobilized lipase also tolerated a high methanol to oil molar ratio (>67.93) when using the M-II approach, and can be repeatedly used for six cycles (or 288 h) without significant loss of its original activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Plant pathogen culture collections: it takes a village to preserve these resources vital to the advancement of agricultural security and plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seogchan; Blair, Jaime E; Geiser, David M; Khang, Chang-Hyun; Park, Sook-Young; Gahegan, Mark; O'Donnell, Kerry; Luster, Douglas G; Kim, Seong H; Ivors, Kelly L; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Lee, Yin-Won; Grünwald, Niklaus J; Martin, Frank M; Coffey, Michael D; Veeraraghavan, Narayanan; Makalowska, Izabela

    2006-09-01

    ABSTRACT Plant pathogen culture collections are essential resources in our fight against plant disease and for connecting discoveries of the present with established knowledge of the past. However, available infrastructure in support of culture collections is in serious need of improvement, and we continually face the risk of losing many of these collections. As novel and reemerging plant pathogens threaten agriculture, their timely identification and monitoring depends on rapid access to cultures representing the known diversity of plant pathogens along with genotypic, phenotypic, and epidemiological data associated with them. Archiving such data in a format that can be easily accessed and searched is essential for rapid assessment of potential risk and can help track the change and movement of pathogens. The underexplored pathogen diversity in nature further underscores the importance of cataloguing pathogen cultures. Realizing the potential of pathogen genomics as a foundation for developing effective disease control also hinges on how effectively we use the sequenced isolate as a reference to understand the genetic and phenotypic diversity within a pathogen species. In this letter, we propose a number of measures for improving pathogen culture collections.

  2. Collective Cultural Memory as a TV Guide: “Living” History and Nostalgia on the Digital Television Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagedoorn Berber

    2017-12-01

    circulation of “living history” on the digital thematic channel – collective cultural memory hence functioning as a TV guide.

  3. Establishment of a Quality Management System Based on ISO 9001 Standard in a Public Service Fungal Culture Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Marta F.; Dias, Nicolina; Santos, Cledir; Lima, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Collaborations between different Microbiological Resource Centres (mBRCs) and ethical sourcing practices are mandatory to guarantee biodiversity conservation, successful and sustainable preservation and fair share of benefits that arise from the use of genetic resources. Since microbial Culture Collections (CCs) are now engaged in meeting high quality operational standards, they are facing the challenge of establishing quality control criteria to certify their biological materials. The authentication/certification of strains is nowadays a demand from the bioeconomy sector for the global operation of mBRCs. The achievement of consistent quality assurance and trust within the mBRCs and microbial CCs context is a dynamic and never-ending process. A good option to facilitate that process is to implement a Quality Management System (QMS) based on the ISO 9001 standard. Here, we report a detailed description of all the steps taken for the QMS implementation at the Portuguese CC of filamentous fungi: Micoteca da Universidade do Minho (MUM). Our aim is to provide guidelines for the certification of other CCs, so that they can also enhance the search and choice of the most consistent, reliable, and effective operating methods, with assured procedures and validation of preservation; and guarantee trustworthy relations with all stakeholders. PMID:27681915

  4. Establishment of a Quality Management System Based on ISO 9001 Standard in a Public Service Fungal Culture Collection

    KAUST Repository

    Simoes, Marta

    2016-06-22

    Collaborations between different Microbiological Resource Centres (mBRCs) and ethical sourcing practices are mandatory to guarantee biodiversity conservation, successful and sustainable preservation and fair share of benefits that arise from the use of genetic resources. Since microbial Culture Collections (CCs) are now engaged in meeting high quality operational standards, they are facing the challenge of establishing quality control criteria to certify their biological materials. The authentication/certification of strains is nowadays a demand from the bioeconomy sector for the global operation of mBRCs. The achievement of consistent quality assurance and trust within the mBRCs and microbial CCs context is a dynamic and never-ending process. A good option to facilitate that process is to implement a Quality Management System (QMS) based on the ISO 9001 standard. Here, we report a detailed description of all the steps taken for the QMS implementation at the Portuguese CC of filamentous fungi: Micoteca da Universidade do Minho (MUM). Our aim is to provide guidelines for the certification of other CCs, so that they can also enhance the search and choice of the most consistent, reliable, and effective operating methods, with assured procedures and validation of preservation; and guarantee trustworthy relations with all stakeholders.

  5. Establishment of a Quality Management System Based on ISO 9001 Standard in a Public Service Fungal Culture Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Marta F; Dias, Nicolina; Santos, Cledir; Lima, Nelson

    2016-06-22

    Collaborations between different Microbiological Resource Centres (mBRCs) and ethical sourcing practices are mandatory to guarantee biodiversity conservation, successful and sustainable preservation and fair share of benefits that arise from the use of genetic resources. Since microbial Culture Collections (CCs) are now engaged in meeting high quality operational standards, they are facing the challenge of establishing quality control criteria to certify their biological materials. The authentication/certification of strains is nowadays a demand from the bioeconomy sector for the global operation of mBRCs. The achievement of consistent quality assurance and trust within the mBRCs and microbial CCs context is a dynamic and never-ending process. A good option to facilitate that process is to implement a Quality Management System (QMS) based on the ISO 9001 standard. Here, we report a detailed description of all the steps taken for the QMS implementation at the Portuguese CC of filamentous fungi: Micoteca da Universidade do Minho (MUM). Our aim is to provide guidelines for the certification of other CCs, so that they can also enhance the search and choice of the most consistent, reliable, and effective operating methods, with assured procedures and validation of preservation; and guarantee trustworthy relations with all stakeholders.

  6. Early detection of protozoan grazers in algal biofuel cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, John G; Thomas, Naomi J; Achilles-Day, Undine E M; Leakey, Raymond J G

    2012-06-01

    Future micro-algal biofuels will most likely be derived from open-pond production systems. These are by definition open to "invasion" by grazers, which could devastate micro-algal mass-cultures. There is an urgent requirement for methodologies capable of early detection and control of grazers in dense algal cultures. In this study a model system employing the marine alga Nannochloropsis oculata was challenged by grazers including ciliates, amoebae and a heterotrophic dinoflagellate. A FlowCAM flow-cytometer was used to detect all grazers investigated (size range 80 μm in length) in the presence of algae. Detection limits were 1.4 × 10(8) cells ml(-1) (>0.5 g l(-1) dry wt.). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Crafts and Craft Education as Expressions of Cultural Heritage: Individual Experiences and Collective Values among an International Group of Women University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokko, Sirpa; Dillon, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores relationships between crafts, craft education and cultural heritage as reflected in the individual experiences and collective values of fifteen female university students of different nationalities. The students (all trainee teachers) were following a course in crafts and craft education as part of an International Study…

  8. On microalgal settlements and the sluggish development of marine biofouling in Port Blair waters, Andamans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eashwar, M; Nallathambi, T; Kuberaraj, K

    2008-01-01

    Settlement of microalgae was investigated on Perspex, aluminium and zinc coupons immersed in Port Blair Bay waters for over 3 months. Commencement of fouling was exceptionally slow, and few microalgae were found until 14 days. Settlement occurred thereafter, and 47 microalgal species contributed to the fouling. The dominant forms belonged to the genera Navicula and Nitzschia, whereas Coscinodiscus eccentricus, Gyrosigma balticum and Trichodesmium erythraeum also accounted for high proportions of the settlements. The dominance of Nitzschia sigma was particularly marked on zinc coupons, suggesting an ability by the organism to resist toxicity. Settlement of both centric and pennate diatoms was observed in the early and mid periods, and absolute dominance of the pennate diatoms subsequently. The fouling mass was low even after 103 days, and it is speculated that strong ultraviolet radiation might be the prime reason for the sluggish development of marine biofouling in these oceanic island waters.

  9. Reduction of environmental and energy footprint of microalgal biodiesel production through material and energy integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Raja; Viamajala, Sridhar; Gerlach, Robin

    2012-03-01

    The life cycle impacts were assessed for an integrated microalgal biodiesel production system that facilitates energy- and nutrient- recovery through anaerobic digestion, and utilizes glycerol generated within the facility for additional heterotrophic biodiesel production. Results show that when external fossil energy inputs are lowered through process integration, the energy demand, global warming potential (GWP), and process water demand decrease significantly and become less sensitive to algal lipid content. When substitution allocation is used to assign additional credit for avoidance of fossil energy use (through utilization of recycled nutrients and biogas), GWP and water demand can, in fact, increase with increase in lipid content. Relative to stand-alone algal biofuel facilities, energy demand can be lowered by 3-14 GJ per ton of biodiesel through process integration. GWP of biodiesel from the integrated system can be lowered by up to 71% compared to petroleum fuel. Evaporative water loss was the primary water demand driver. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Studies on the effects on growth and antioxidant responses of two marine microalgal species to uniconazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Xueqiao; Zheng, Kang; Wang, Lingdong; Li, Yantuan

    2014-10-01

    Uniconazole, as a plant growth retardant, can enhance stress tolerance in plants, possibly because of improved antioxidation defense mechanisms with higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) enzymes that retard lipid peroxidation and membrane deterioration. These years much attention has been focused on the responses of antioxidant system in plants to uniconazole stress, but such studies on aquatic organism are very few. Moreover, no information is available on growth and antioxidant response in marine microalgae to uniconazole. In this paper, the growth and antioxidant responses of two marine microalgal species, Platymonas helgolandica and Pavlova viridis, at six uniconazole concentrations (0-15 mg L-1) were investigated. The results demonstrated that 3 mg L-1 uniconazole could increase significantly chlorophyll a and carbohydrate contents of P. helgolandica ( P enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were enhanced remarkably at low concentrations of uniconazole. However, significant reduction of SOD and CAT activities was observed at higher concentrations of uniconazole.

  11. Three-Dimensional Simulation of Ultrasound-Induced Microalgal Cell Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M; Yuan, W; Hale, Andy

    2016-03-01

    The three-dimensional distribution (x, y, and z) of ultrasound-induced microalgal cell disruption in a sonochemical reactor was predicted by solving the Helmholtz equation using a three-dimensional acoustic module in the COMSOL Multiphysics software. The simulated local ultrasound pressure at any given location (x, y, and z) was found to correlate with cell disruption of a freshwater alga, Scenedesmus dimorphus, represented by the change of algal cell particle/debris concentration, chlorophyll-a fluorescence density (CAFD), and Nile red stained lipid fluorescence density (LFD), which was also validated by the model reaction of potassium iodide oxidation (the Weissler reaction). Furthermore, the effect of ultrasound power intensity and processing duration on algal cell disruption was examined to address the limitation of the model.

  12. Biodiesel production by direct transesterification of microalgal biomass with co-solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Ya; Zhang, Xu; Tan, Tianwei

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a direct transesterification process using 75% ethanol and co-solvent was studied to reduce the energy consumption of lipid extraction process and improve the conversion yield of the microalgae biodiesel. The addition of a certain amount of co-solvent (n-hexane is most preferable) was required for the direct transesterification of microalgae biomass. With the optimal reaction condition of n-hexane to 75% ethanol volume ratio 1:2, mixed solvent dosage 6.0mL, reaction temperature 90°C, reaction time 2.0h and catalyst volume 0.6mL, the direct transesterification process of microalgal biomass resulted in a high conversion yield up to 90.02±0.55wt.%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A novel one-stage cultivation/fermentation strategy for improved biogas production with microalgal biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Viktor; Blifernez-Klassen, Olga; Hoekzema, Yoep; Mussgnug, Jan H; Kruse, Olaf

    2015-12-10

    The use of alga biomass for biogas generation has been studied for over fifty years but until today, several distinct features, like inefficient degradation and low C/N ratios, limit the applicability of algal biomass for biogas production in larger scale. In this work we investigated a novel, one-stage combined cultivation/fermentation strategy including inherently progressing nitrogen starvation conditions to generate improved microalgal biomass substrates. For this strategy, comparable low amounts of nitrogen fertilizers were applied during cultivation and no additional enzymatic, chemical or physical pretreatments had to be performed. The results of this study demonstrate that progressing nitrogen limitation leads to continuously increasing C/N ratios of the biomass up to levels of 24-26 for all three tested alga strains (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Parachlorella kessleri and Scenedesmus obliquus). Importantly, the degradation efficiency of the algal cells increased with progressing starvation, leading to strain-specific cell disintegration efficiencies of 35%-100% during the fermentation process. Nitrogen limitation treatment resulted in a 65% increase of biogas yields for C. reinhardtii biomass (max. 698±23mL biogas g(-1) VS) when compared to replete conditions. For P. kessleri and S. obliquus, yields increased by 94% and 106% (max. 706±39mL and 586±36mL biogas g(-1) VS, respectively). From these results we conclude that this novel one-stage cultivation strategy with inherent nitrogen limitation can be used as a pretreatment for microalgal biomass generation, in order to produce accessible substrates with optimized C/N ratios for the subsequent anaerobic fermentation process, thus increasing methane production and avoiding the risk of ammonia inhibition effects within the fermenter. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of specimen collection techniques, transport media, and incubation of cultures on the detection rate of Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hulst, R. W.; Verheul, S. B.; Weel, J. F.; Gerrits, Y.; ten Kate, F. J.; Dankert, J.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1996-01-01

    Culture and histologic examination are considered "gold standard" methods for the detection of Helicobacter pylori, but discrepancies may occur with either method. Failure to detect Helicobacter pylori may be due to sampling error, inappropriate transport or culture media, or insufficient duration

  15. From hybridomas to a robust microalgal-based production platform: molecular design of a diatom secreting monoclonal antibodies directed against the Marburg virus nucleoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, Franziska; Maurer, Michael; Brockmann, Björn; Mayer, Christian; Biedenkopf, Nadine; Kelterbaum, Anne; Becker, Stephan; Maier, Uwe G

    2017-07-27

    The ideal protein expression system should provide recombinant proteins in high quality and quantity involving low production costs only. However, especially for complex therapeutic proteins like monoclonal antibodies many challenges remain to meet this goal and up to now production of monoclonal antibodies is very costly and delicate. Particularly, emerging disease outbreaks like Ebola virus in Western Africa in 2014-2016 make it necessary to reevaluate existing production platforms and develop robust and cheap alternatives that are easy to handle. In this study, we engineered the microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum to produce monoclonal IgG antibodies against the nucleoprotein of Marburg virus, a close relative of Ebola virus causing severe hemorrhagic fever with high fatality rates in humans. Sequences for both chains of a mouse IgG antibody were retrieved from a murine hybridoma cell line and implemented in the microalgal system. Fully assembled antibodies were shown to be secreted by the alga and antibodies were proven to be functional in western blot, ELISA as well as IFA studies just like the original hybridoma produced IgG. Furthermore, synthetic variants with constant regions of a rabbit IgG and human IgG with optimized codon usage were produced and characterized. This study highlights the potential of microalgae as robust and low cost expression platform for monoclonal antibodies secreting IgG antibodies directly into the culture medium. Microalgae possess rapid growth rates, need basically only water, air and sunlight for cultivation and are very easy to handle.

  16. Sequential dark-photo fermentation and autotrophic microalgal growth for high-yield and CO{sub 2}-free biohydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Yung-Chung [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701 (China); Chen, Chun-Yen [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701 (China); Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China); Lee, Chi-Mei [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung (China); Chang, Jo-Shu [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701 (China); Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China); Center for Biosciences and Biotechnology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China)

    2010-10-15

    Dark fermentation, photo fermentation, and autotrophic microalgae cultivation were integrated to establish a high-yield and CO{sub 2}-free biohydrogen production system by using different feedstock. Among the four carbon sources examined, sucrose was the most effective for the sequential dark (with Clostridium butyricum CGS5) and photo (with Rhodopseudomonas palutris WP3-5) fermentation process. The sequential dark-photo fermentation was stably operated for nearly 80 days, giving a maximum H{sub 2} yield of 11.61 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose and a H{sub 2} production rate of 673.93 ml/h/l. The biogas produced from the sequential dark-photo fermentation (containing ca. 40.0% CO{sub 2}) was directly fed into a microalga culture (Chlorella vulgaris C-C) cultivated at 30 C under 60 {mu}mol/m{sup 2}/s illumination. The CO{sub 2} produced from the fermentation processes was completely consumed during the autotrophic growth of C. vulgaris C-C, resulting in a microalgal biomass concentration of 1999 mg/l composed mainly of 48.0% protein, 23.0% carbohydrate and 12.3% lipid. (author)

  17. Soybean cyst nematode culture collections and field populations from North Carolina and Missouri reveal high incidences of infection by viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruark, Casey L; Koenning, Stephen R; Davis, Eric L; Opperman, Charles H; Lommel, Steven A; Mitchum, Melissa G; Sit, Tim L

    2017-01-01

    Five viruses were previously discovered infecting soybean cyst nematodes (SCN; Heterodera glycines) from greenhouse cultures maintained in Illinois. In this study, the five viruses [ScNV, ScPV, ScRV, ScTV, and SbCNV-5] were detected within SCN greenhouse and field populations from North Carolina (NC) and Missouri (MO). The prevalence and titers of viruses in SCN from 43 greenhouse cultures and 25 field populations were analyzed using qRT-PCR. Viral titers within SCN greenhouse cultures were similar throughout juvenile development, and the presence of viral anti-genomic RNAs within egg, second-stage juvenile (J2), and pooled J3 and J4 stages suggests active viral replication within the nematode. Viruses were found at similar or lower levels within field populations of SCN compared with greenhouse cultures of North Carolina populations. Five greenhouse cultures harbored all five known viruses whereas in most populations a mixture of fewer viruses was detected. In contrast, three greenhouse cultures of similar descent to one another did not possess any detectable viruses and primarily differed in location of the cultures (NC versus MO). Several of these SCN viruses were also detected in Heterodera trifolii (clover cyst) and Heterodera schachtii (beet cyst), but not the other cyst, root-knot, or reniform nematode species tested. Viruses were not detected within soybean host plant tissue. If nematode infection with viruses is truly more common than first considered, the potential influence on nematode biology, pathogenicity, ecology, and control warrants continued investigation.

  18. Culture, corporation and collective action: The Department of Energy's American Indian consultation program on the Nevada Test Site in political ecological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmo, David Brian

    In the western United States, Numic-speaking Indian peoples wield more power today than ever before. Following centuries of depopulation, land and resource loss, and directed change interventions aimed at assimilating them into mainstream society, they are revitalizing traditional culture and renewing their claims to lands and resources by demanding equal participation in national-level activities that affect land and resources that were once under their control. In 1994, representatives of Numic Indian tribes representing three ethnic groups involved in consultation with the U.S. Department of Energy on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) decided by consensus to "incorporate" themselves as the Consolidated Group of Tribes and Organizations (CGTO) to defend their common interests in and claims to NTS lands and resources. What caused 16 distinct, autonomous, sovereign American Indian tribal entities to incorporate themselves as a corporate organization? Using a political ecology perspective, this study examines the social, cultural and political processes operating at multiple levels of analysis and applies social and cultural theories of (1) ethnic cultural persistence, (2) the emergence and evolution of collective action groups for defending cultural interests in "common property," (3) the role of corporate and organizational structure and culture in the articulation of social relations between contending groups, and (4) the related shifts or changes in the distribution of structural power as a result of changing policy environments to a case study-based ethnographic analysis of an ongoing program of American Indian consultation.

  19. Molasses wastewater treatment and lipid production at low temperature conditions by a microalgal mutant Scenedesmus sp. Z-4

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Chao; Wen, Hanquan; Xing, Defeng; Pei, Xuanyuan; Zhu, Jiani; Ren, Nanqi; Liu, Bingfeng

    2017-01-01

    Background Simultaneous wastewater treatment and lipid production by oleaginous microalgae show great potential to alleviate energy shortage and environmental pollution, because they exhibit tremendous advantages over traditional activated sludge. Currently, most research on wastewater treatment by microalgal are carried out at optimized temperature conditions (25?35??C), but no information about simultaneous wastewater treatment and lipid production by microalgae at low temperatures has been...

  20. Simultaneous improvement in production of microalgal biodiesel and high-value alpha-linolenic acid by a single regulator acetylcholine

    OpenAIRE

    Parsaeimehr, Ali; Sun, Zhilan; Dou, Xiao; Chen, Yi-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background Photoautotrophic microalgae are a promising avenue for sustained biodiesel production, but are compromised by low yields of biomass and lipids at present. We are developing a chemical approach to improve microalgal accumulation of feedstock lipids as well as high-value alpha-linolenic acid which in turn might provide a driving force for biodiesel production. Results We demonstrate the effectiveness of the small bioactive molecule ?acetylcholine? on accumulation of biomass, total li...

  1. Biodiesel production from microalgal isolates of southern Pakistan and quantification of FAMEs by GC-MS/MS analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musharraf Syed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microalgae have attracted major interest as a sustainable source for biodiesel production on commercial scale. This paper describes the screening of six microalgal species, Scenedesmus quadricauda, Scenedesmus acuminatus, Nannochloropsis sp., Anabaena sp., Chlorella sp. and Oscillatoria sp., isolated from fresh and marine water resources of southern Pakistan for biodiesel production and the GC-MS/MS analysis of their fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs. Results Growth rate, biomass productivity and oil content of each algal species have been investigated under autotrophic condition. Biodiesel was produced from algal oil by acid catalyzed transesterification reaction and resulting fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs content was analyzed by GC/MS. Fatty acid profiling of the biodiesel, obtained from various microalgal oils showed high content of C-16:0, C-18:0, cis-Δ9C-18:1, cis-Δ11C-18:1 (except Scenedesmus quadricauda and 10-hydroxyoctadecanoic (except Scenedesmus acuminatus. Absolute amount of C-14:0, C-16:0 and C-18:0 by a validated GC-MS/MS method were found to be 1.5-1.7, 15.0-42.5 and 4.2-18.4 mg/g, respectively, in biodiesel obtained from various microalgal oils. Biodiesel was also characterized in terms of cetane number, kinematic viscosity, density and higher heating value and compared with the standard values. Conclusion Six microalgae of local origin were screened for biodiesel production. A method for absolute quantification of three important saturated fatty acid methyl esters (C-14, C-16 and C-18 by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS, using multiple reactions monitoring (MRM mode, was employed for the identification and quantification of biodiesels obtained from various microalgal oils. The results suggested that locally found microalgae can be sustainably harvested for the production of biodiesel. This offers the tremendous economic opportunity for an energy-deficient nation.

  2. Two-step microalgal biodiesel production using acidic catalyst generated from pyrolysis-derived bio-char

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Tao; Gao, Difeng; Miao, Chao; Yu, Xiaochen; Degan, Charles; Garcia-Pérez, Manuel; Rasco, Barbara; Sablani, Shyam S.; Chen, Shulin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Highly active catalyst was prepared using bio-char co-produced in Auger pyrolysis. • Catalyst inhibitors in crude oil were effectively removed by a practical refinery process. • Free fatty acids (FFA) content in refined microalgal oil was reduced to less than 0.5%. • A total fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield of 99% was obtained via a two-step process. • The inexpensive bio-char catalyst is superior to Amberlyst-15 in pre-esterification. - Abstract: An efficient process for biodiesel production from fast-refined microalgal oil was demonstrated. A low cost catalyst prepared from pyrolysis-derived bio-char, was applied in pre-esterification to reduce free fatty acid (FFA) content. Results showed that the bio-char catalyst was highly active in esterification; however, the performance of the catalyst significantly reduced when crude microalgal oil was used as feedstock. To solve the problem caused by catalyst-fouling, a fast and scalable crude oil refinery procedure was carried out to remove chlorophyll and phospholipids that might degrade the catalyst and the quality of biodiesel. The activity and reusability of bio-char catalyst were remarkably improved in the fast-refined oil. FFA content in the refined microalgal oil was reduced to less than 0.5% after pre-esterification. The bio-char catalyst could be reused for 10 cycles without dramatic loss in activity. The pre-esterification fits the first-order kinetic reaction with activation energy of 42.16 kJ/mol. The activity of bio-char catalyst was superior to commercial Amberlyst-15 under the same reaction condition. A total fatty acid methyl ester (FAME, namely biodiesel) yield of 99% was obtained following the second-step CaO-catalyzed transesterification. The cost-effective bio-char catalyst has great potential for biodiesel production using feedstocks having high FFA content.

  3. Collective action in culturally similar and dissimilar groups: An axperiment on parochialism, conditional cooperation, and their linkages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, R.; Rebers, S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the effects of ingroup favoritism and outgroup hostility ("parochialism"), as well as of conditionally cooperative strategies, in explaining contributions to experimental public goods games. The experimental conditions vary group composition along two culturally inheritable

  4. Soybean cyst nematode culture collections and field populations from North Carolina and Missouri reveal high incidences of infection by viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey L Ruark

    Full Text Available Five viruses were previously discovered infecting soybean cyst nematodes (SCN; Heterodera glycines from greenhouse cultures maintained in Illinois. In this study, the five viruses [ScNV, ScPV, ScRV, ScTV, and SbCNV-5] were detected within SCN greenhouse and field populations from North Carolina (NC and Missouri (MO. The prevalence and titers of viruses in SCN from 43 greenhouse cultures and 25 field populations were analyzed using qRT-PCR. Viral titers within SCN greenhouse cultures were similar throughout juvenile development, and the presence of viral anti-genomic RNAs within egg, second-stage juvenile (J2, and pooled J3 and J4 stages suggests active viral replication within the nematode. Viruses were found at similar or lower levels within field populations of SCN compared with greenhouse cultures of North Carolina populations. Five greenhouse cultures harbored all five known viruses whereas in most populations a mixture of fewer viruses was detected. In contrast, three greenhouse cultures of similar descent to one another did not possess any detectable viruses and primarily differed in location of the cultures (NC versus MO. Several of these SCN viruses were also detected in Heterodera trifolii (clover cyst and Heterodera schachtii (beet cyst, but not the other cyst, root-knot, or reniform nematode species tested. Viruses were not detected within soybean host plant tissue. If nematode infection with viruses is truly more common than first considered, the potential influence on nematode biology, pathogenicity, ecology, and control warrants continued investigation.

  5. Viability and molecular authentication of Coccidioides spp. isolates from the Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo culture collection, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcanti,Sarah Desirée Barbosa; Vidal,Mônica Scarpelli Martinelli; Sousa,Maria da Glória Teixeira de; Del Negro,Gilda Maria Barbaro

    2013-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is an emerging fungal disease in Brazil; adequate maintenance and authentication of Coccidioides isolates are essential for research into genetic diversity of the environmental organisms, as well as for understanding the human disease. Seventeen Coccidioides isolates maintained under mineral oil since 1975 in the Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo (IMTSP) culture collection, Brazil, were evaluated with respect to their viability, morphological characteristics and g...

  6. Multilevel participation within on-line collections of local memories as a practice of cultural citizenship : the value of local cultural heritage for societ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kreek, M.

    2011-01-01

    Collecting local memories on-line is a growing practice with participatory elements on different levels. Three levels of participation – micro, meso and macro – are introduced by describing an exemplary case: the Memory of East in Amsterdam. These levels of this particular case can be grounded in

  7. Sappinia sp. (Amoebozoa: Thecamoebida) and Rosculus sp. (SAR: Cercozoa) Isolated From King Penguin Guano Collected in the Subantarctic (South Georgia, Salisbury Plain) and their Coexistence in Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyml, Tomáš; Dyková, Iva

    2018-01-16

    Two amoeboid organisms of the genera Sappinia Dangeard, 1896 and Rosculus Hawes, 1963 were identified in a sample containing king penguin guano. This sample, collected in the Subantarctic, enlarges the list of fecal habitats known for the presence of coprophilic amoebae. The two organisms were co-isolated and subcultured for over 6 mo, with continuous efforts being invested to separate each one from the mixed culture. In the mixed culture, Rosculus cells were fast growing, tolerated changes in culturing conditions, formed cysts, and evidently were attracted by Sappinia trophozoites. The separation of the Rosculus strain was accomplished, whereas the Sappinia strain remained intermixed with inseparable Rosculus cells. Sappinia cell populations were sensitive to changes in culturing conditions; they improved with reduction of Rosculus cells in the mixed culture. Thick-walled cysts, reportedly formed by Sappinia species, were not seen. The ultrastructure of both organisms was congruent with the currently accepted generic characteristics; however, some details were remarkable at the species level. Combined with the results of phylogenetic analyses, our findings indicate that the ultrastructure of the glycocalyx and the presence/absence of the Golgi apparatus in differential diagnoses of Sappinia species require a critical re-evaluation. © 2018 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2018 International Society of Protistologists.

  8. Biilliards, rhythms, collectives - Billiards at a Danish activity center as a culturally specific form of active ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    2014-01-01

    Through an ethnographic study of older men playing billiards at an activity centre and a document study of how the concept of activity has changed during the last 60 years, this article argues that active ageing policies overlook that activities are culturally significant forms of practise situated...

  9. Collective leadership and safety cultures (Co-Lead): protocol for a mixed-methods pilot evaluation of the impact of a co-designed collective leadership intervention on team performance and safety culture in a hospital group in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Eilish; De Brún, Aoife; Ward, Marie; O'Shea, Marie; Cunningham, Una; O'Donovan, Róisín; McGinley, Sinead; Fitzsimons, John; Corrigan, Siobhán; McDonald, Nick

    2017-11-03

    There is accumulating evidence implicating the role of leadership in system failures that have resulted in a range of errors in healthcare, from misdiagnoses to failures to recognise and respond to patient deterioration. This has led to concerns about traditional hierarchical leadership structures and created an interest in the development of collective ways of working that distribute leadership roles and responsibilities across team members. Such collective leadership approaches have been associated with improved team performance and staff engagement. This research seeks to improve our understanding of collective leadership by addressing two specific issues: (1) Does collective leadership emerge organically (and in what forms) in a newly networked structure? and (2) Is it possible to design and implement collective leadership interventions that enable teams to collectively improve team performance and patient safety? The first phase will include a social network analysis, using an online survey and semistructured interviews at three time points over 12 months, to document the frequency of contact and collaboration between senior hospital management staff in a recently configured hospital group. This study will explore how the network of 11 hospitals is operating and will assess whether collective leadership emerges organically. Second, collective leadership interventions will be co-designed during a series of workshops with healthcare staff, researchers and patient representatives, and then implemented and evaluated with four healthcare teams within the hospital network. A mixed-methods evaluation will explore the impact of the intervention on team effectiveness and team performance indicators to assess whether the intervention is suitable for wider roll-out and evaluation across the hospital group. Favourable ethical opinion has been received from the University College Dublin Research Ethics Committee (HREC-LS-16-116397/LS-16-20). Results will be disseminated

  10. Anaerobic co-digestion of coffee husks and microalgal biomass after thermal hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Fabiana; Cordeiro, Paulo Henrique Miranda; Baeta, Bruno Eduardo Lobo; de Aquino, Sergio Francisco; Perez-Elvira, Sara Isabel

    2018-04-01

    Residual coffee husks after seed processing may be better profited if bioconverted into energy through anaerobic digestion. This process may be improved by implementing a pretreatment step and by co-digesting the coffee husks with a more liquid biomass. In this context, this study aimed at evaluating the anaerobic co-digestion of coffee husks with microalgal biomass. For this, both substrates were pretreated separately and in a mixture for attaining 15% of total solids (TS), which was demonstrated to be the minimum solid content for pretreatment of coffee husks. The results showed that the anaerobic co-digestion presented a synergistic effect, leading to 17% higher methane yield compared to the theoretical value of both substrates biodegraded separately. Furthermore, thermal hydrolysis pretreatment increased coffee husks anaerobic biodegradability. For co-digestion trials, the highest values were reached for pretreatment at 120 °C for 60 min, which led to 196 mLCH 4 /gVS and maximum methane production rate of 0.38 d -1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Microalgal biofactories: a promising approach towards sustainable omega-3 fatty acid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adarme-Vega T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA provide significant health benefits and this has led to an increased consumption as dietary supplements. Omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA are found in animals, transgenic plants, fungi and many microorganisms but are typically extracted from fatty fish, putting additional pressures on global fish stocks. As primary producers, many marine microalgae are rich in EPA (C20:5 and DHA (C22:6 and present a promising source of omega-3 fatty acids. Several heterotrophic microalgae have been used as biofactories for omega-3 fatty acids commercially, but a strong interest in autotrophic microalgae has emerged in recent years as microalgae are being developed as biofuel crops. This paper provides an overview of microalgal biotechnology and production platforms for the development of omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. It refers to implications in current biotechnological uses of microalgae as aquaculture feed and future biofuel crops and explores potential applications of metabolic engineering and selective breeding to accumulate large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids in autotrophic microalgae.

  12. Dynamic metabolic modeling of heterotrophic and mixotrophic microalgal growth on fermentative wastes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Baroukh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are promising microorganisms for the production of numerous molecules of interest, such as pigments, proteins or triglycerides that can be turned into biofuels. Heterotrophic or mixotrophic growth on fermentative wastes represents an interesting approach to achieving higher biomass concentrations, while reducing cost and improving the environmental footprint. Fermentative wastes generally consist of a blend of diverse molecules and it is thus crucial to understand microalgal metabolism in such conditions, where switching between substrates might occur. Metabolic modeling has proven to be an efficient tool for understanding metabolism and guiding the optimization of biomass or target molecule production. Here, we focused on the metabolism of Chlorella sorokiniana growing heterotrophically and mixotrophically on acetate and butyrate. The metabolism was represented by 172 metabolic reactions. The DRUM modeling framework with a mildly relaxed quasi-steady-state assumption was used to account for the switching between substrates and the presence of light. Nine experiments were used to calibrate the model and nine experiments for the validation. The model efficiently predicted the experimental data, including the transient behavior during heterotrophic, autotrophic, mixotrophic and diauxic growth. It shows that an accurate model of metabolism can now be constructed, even in dynamic conditions, with the presence of several carbon substrates. It also opens new perspectives for the heterotrophic and mixotrophic use of microalgae, especially for biofuel production from wastes.

  13. Use of Cellulolytic Marine Bacteria for Enzymatic Pretreatment in Microalgal Biogas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Camilo; Hidalgo, Catalina; Zapata, Manuel; Jeison, David; Riquelme, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we designed and evaluated a microalgal pretreatment method using cellulolytic bacteria that naturally degrades microalgae in their native habitat. Bacterial strains were isolated from each of two mollusk species in a medium containing 1% carboxymethyl cellulose agar. We selected nine bacterial strains that had endoglucanase activity: five strains from Mytilus chilensis, a Chilean mussel, and four strains from Mesodesma donacium, a clam found in the Southern Pacific. These strains were identified phylogenetically as belonging to the genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Chryseobacterium, and Raoultella. The cellulase-producing capacities of these strains were characterized, and the degradation of cell walls in Botryococcus braunii and Nannochloropsis gaditana was tested with “whole-cell” cellulolytic experiments. Aeromonas bivalvium MA2, Raoultella ornithinolytica MA5, and Aeromonas salmonicida MC25 degraded B. braunii, and R. ornithinolytica MC3 and MA5 degraded N. gaditana. In addition, N. gaditana was pretreated with R. ornithinolytica strains MC3 and MA5 and was then subjected to an anaerobic digestion process, which increased the yield of methane by 140.32% and 158.68%, respectively, over that from nonpretreated microalgae. Therefore, a “whole-cell” cellulolytic pretreatment can increase the performance and efficiency of biogas production. PMID:24795376

  14. A simple method for decomposition of peracetic acid in a microalgal cultivation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Min-Gyu; Lee, Hansol; Nam, Kibok; Rexroth, Sascha; Rögner, Matthias; Kwon, Jong-Hee; Yang, Ji-Won

    2015-03-01

    A cost-efficient process devoid of several washing steps was developed, which is related to direct cultivation following the decomposition of the sterilizer. Peracetic acid (PAA) is known to be an efficient antimicrobial agent due to its high oxidizing potential. Sterilization by 2 mM PAA demands at least 1 h incubation time for an effective disinfection. Direct degradation of PAA was demonstrated by utilizing components in conventional algal medium. Consequently, ferric ion and pH buffer (HEPES) showed a synergetic effect for the decomposition of PAA within 6 h. On the contrary, NaNO3, one of the main components in algal media, inhibits the decomposition of PAA. The improved growth of Chlorella vulgaris and Synechocystis PCC6803 was observed in the prepared BG11 by decomposition of PAA. This process involving sterilization and decomposition of PAA should help cost-efficient management of photobioreactors in a large scale for the production of value-added products and biofuels from microalgal biomass.

  15. Bioremoval Capacity Of Phenol By Green Micro-Algal And Fungal Species Isolated From Dry Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah T. Al-fawwaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenol is an organic hazardous pollutant that exerts toxic effects on living cells at relatively at low concentrations. Moreover accumulation of phenol exhibit toxicity towards the biotic components of the environment. Phenol bioremoval is a very useful approach to clean up the residual phenol from the environment. This study aims at isolating green microalgae and fungi from local dry environment to test their ability to remove phenol. Subsequently two green microalgal species have been isolated and identified as Desmodesmus sp. and Chlamydomonas sp.. Also two fungal species have been isolated and identified as Rhizopus sp. and Mucor sp. Phenol bioremoval capacity as well as the effects of some physicochemical factors on the bioremoval process were then studied. These factors include initial phenol concentration contact time and the synergistic effect Desmodesmus sp. and Rhizopus sp. on the bioremoval process. Both microalgae and fungi showed phenol bioremoval capacity. The highest phenol removal percentage among algae was found 75 by Desmodesmus sp. after 25 days at 25 mgL while the highest phenol removal percentage among fungi was found 86 by Rhizopus sp. after 25 days at 100 mgL. Bioremoval of phenol by the consortium Desmodesmus sp. and Rhizopus sp. was found to be 95 at the phenol concentration 25 mgL.

  16. Microalgal bioengineering for sustainable energy development: Recent transgenesis and metabolic engineering strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Chiranjib; Singh, Puneet Kumar; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2016-03-01

    Exploring the efficiency of algae to produce remarkable products can be directly benefitted by studying its mechanism at systems level. Recent advents in biotechnology like flux balance analysis (FBA), genomics and in silico proteomics minimize the wet lab exertion. It is understood that FBA predicts the metabolic products, metabolic pathways and alternative pathway to maximize the desired product, and these are key components for microalgae bio-engineering. This review encompasses recent transgenesis techniques and metabolic engineering strategies applied to different microalgae for improving different traits. Further it also throws light on RNAi and riboswitch engineering based methods which may be advantageous for high throughput microalgal research. A valid and optimally designed microalga can be developed where every engineering strategies meet each other successfully and will definitely fulfill the market needs. It is also to be noted that Omics (viz. genetic and metabolic manipulation with bioinformatics) should be integrated to develop a strain which could prove to be a futuristic solution for sustainable development for energy. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Biological Soil Crusts of Arctic Svalbard—Water Availability as Potential Controlling Factor for Microalgal Biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Borchhardt

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the biodiversity of biological soil crusts (BSCs formed by phototrophic organisms were investigated on Arctic Svalbard (Norway. These communities exert several important ecological functions and constitute a significant part of vegetation at high latitudes. Non-diatom eukaryotic microalgal species of BSCs from 20 sampling stations around Ny-Ålesund and Longyearbyen were identified by morphology using light microscopy, and the results revealed a high species richness with 102 species in total. 67 taxa belonged to Chlorophyta (31 Chlorophyceae and 36 Trebouxiophyceae, 13 species were Streptophyta (11 Klebsormidiophyceae and two Zygnematophyceae and 22 species were Ochrophyta (two Eustigmatophyceae and 20 Xanthophyceae. Surprisingly, Klebsormidium strains belonging to clade G (Streptophyta, which were so far described from Southern Africa, could be determined at 5 sampling stations. Furthermore, comparative analyses of Arctic and Antarctic BSCs were undertaken to outline differences in species composition. In addition, a pedological analysis of BSC samples included C, N, S, TP (total phosphorus, and pH measurements to investigate the influence of soil properties on species composition. No significant correlation with these chemical soil parameters was confirmed but the results indicated that pH might affect the BSCs. In addition, a statistically significant influence of precipitation on species composition was determined. Consequently, water availability was identified as one key driver for BSC biodiversity in Arctic regions.

  18. Biological Soil Crusts of Arctic Svalbard-Water Availability as Potential Controlling Factor for Microalgal Biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchhardt, Nadine; Baum, Christel; Mikhailyuk, Tatiana; Karsten, Ulf

    2017-01-01

    In the present study the biodiversity of biological soil crusts (BSCs) formed by phototrophic organisms were investigated on Arctic Svalbard (Norway). These communities exert several important ecological functions and constitute a significant part of vegetation at high latitudes. Non-diatom eukaryotic microalgal species of BSCs from 20 sampling stations around Ny-Ålesund and Longyearbyen were identified by morphology using light microscopy, and the results revealed a high species richness with 102 species in total. 67 taxa belonged to Chlorophyta (31 Chlorophyceae and 36 Trebouxiophyceae), 13 species were Streptophyta (11 Klebsormidiophyceae and two Zygnematophyceae) and 22 species were Ochrophyta (two Eustigmatophyceae and 20 Xanthophyceae). Surprisingly, Klebsormidium strains belonging to clade G (Streptophyta), which were so far described from Southern Africa, could be determined at 5 sampling stations. Furthermore, comparative analyses of Arctic and Antarctic BSCs were undertaken to outline differences in species composition. In addition, a pedological analysis of BSC samples included C, N, S, TP (total phosphorus), and pH measurements to investigate the influence of soil properties on species composition. No significant correlation with these chemical soil parameters was confirmed but the results indicated that pH might affect the BSCs. In addition, a statistically significant influence of precipitation on species composition was determined. Consequently, water availability was identified as one key driver for BSC biodiversity in Arctic regions.

  19. Hydrology Affects Environmental and Spatial Structuring of Microalgal Metacommunities in Tropical Pacific Coast Wetlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rojo

    Full Text Available The alternating climate between wet and dry periods has important effects on the hydrology and therefore on niche-based processes of water bodies in tropical areas. Additionally, assemblages of microorganism can show spatial patterns, in the form of a distance decay relationship due to their size or life form. We aimed to test spatial and environmental effects, modulated by a seasonal flooding climatic pattern, on the distribution of microalgae in 30 wetlands of a tropical dry forest region: the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Three surveys were conducted corresponding to the beginning, the highest peak, and the end of the hydrological year during the wet season, and species abundance and composition of planktonic and benthic microalgae was determined. Variation partitioning analysis (as explained by spatial distance or environmental factors was applied to each seasonal dataset by means of partial redundancy analysis. Our results show that microalgal assemblages were structured by spatial and environmental factors depending on the hydrological period of the year. At the onset of hydroperiod and during flooding, neutral effects dominated community dynamics, but niche-based local effects resulted in more structured algal communities at the final periods of desiccating water bodies. Results suggest that climate-mediated effects on hydrology can influence the relative role of spatial and environmental factors on metacommunities of microalgae. Such variability needs to be accounted in order to describe accurately community dynamics in tropical coastal wetlands.

  20. Succession and physiological health of freshwater microalgal fouling in a Tasmanian hydropower canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kathryn J; Andrewartha, Jessica M; McMinn, Andrew; Cook, Suellen S; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf M

    2010-08-01

    Freshwater microalgal biofouling in hydropower canals in Tarraleah, Tasmania, is dominated by a single diatom species, Gomphonema tarraleahae. The microfouling community is under investigation with the aim of reducing its impact on electricity generation. Species succession was investigated using removable glass slides. Fouled slides were examined microscopically and for chlorophyll a biomass. Chl a biomass increased steeply after 8 weeks (0.09-0.87 mg m(-2)), but increased much earlier on slides surrounded by a biofouled inoculum. Succession began with low profile diatoms such as Tabellaria flocculosa, progressing to stalked diatoms such as Gomphonema spp. and Cymbella aspera. Few chlorophytes and no filamentous algae were present. Pulse amplitude modulated fluorometry was used to measure the physiological health of fouling on the canal wall. Maximum quantum yield (F(v)/F(m)) measurements were consistently <0.18, indicating that the fouling mat consisted of dead or dying algae. The succession and physiological health of cells in the fouling community has broad implications for mitigation techniques used.

  1. Hydrology Affects Environmental and Spatial Structuring of Microalgal Metacommunities in Tropical Pacific Coast Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Carmen; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc; Monrós, Juan S; Armengol, Javier; Sasa, Mahmood; Bonilla, Fabián; Rueda, Ricardo; Benavent-Corai, José; Piculo, Rubén; Segura, M Matilde

    2016-01-01

    The alternating climate between wet and dry periods has important effects on the hydrology and therefore on niche-based processes of water bodies in tropical areas. Additionally, assemblages of microorganism can show spatial patterns, in the form of a distance decay relationship due to their size or life form. We aimed to test spatial and environmental effects, modulated by a seasonal flooding climatic pattern, on the distribution of microalgae in 30 wetlands of a tropical dry forest region: the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Three surveys were conducted corresponding to the beginning, the highest peak, and the end of the hydrological year during the wet season, and species abundance and composition of planktonic and benthic microalgae was determined. Variation partitioning analysis (as explained by spatial distance or environmental factors) was applied to each seasonal dataset by means of partial redundancy analysis. Our results show that microalgal assemblages were structured by spatial and environmental factors depending on the hydrological period of the year. At the onset of hydroperiod and during flooding, neutral effects dominated community dynamics, but niche-based local effects resulted in more structured algal communities at the final periods of desiccating water bodies. Results suggest that climate-mediated effects on hydrology can influence the relative role of spatial and environmental factors on metacommunities of microalgae. Such variability needs to be accounted in order to describe accurately community dynamics in tropical coastal wetlands.

  2. Modeling bubble dynamics and radical kinetics in ultrasound induced microalgal cell disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Yuan, Wenqiao

    2016-01-01

    Microalgal cell disruption induced by acoustic cavitation was simulated through solving the bubble dynamics in an acoustical field and their radial kinetics (chemical kinetics of radical species) occurring in the bubble during its oscillation, as well as calculating the bubble wall pressure at the collapse point. Modeling results indicated that increasing ultrasonic intensity led to a substantial increase in the number of bubbles formed during acoustic cavitation, however, the pressure generated when the bubbles collapsed decreased. Therefore, cumulative collapse pressure (CCP) of bubbles was used to quantify acoustic disruption of a freshwater alga, Scenedesmus dimorphus, and a marine alga, Nannochloropsis oculata and compare with experimental results. The strong correlations between CCP and the intracellular lipid fluorescence density, chlorophyll-a fluorescence density, and cell particle/debris concentration were found, which suggests that the developed models could accurately predict acoustic cell disruption, and can be utilized in the scale up and optimization of the process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of a microalgal mutant for CO_2 biofixation and biofuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Feng; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong; Mu, Ruimin; Zhang, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Combination of the isolation using 96-well microplates and traditional UV mutagenesis for screening HCT mutant. • Microalgal mutant Chlorella vulgaris SDEC-3M was screened out by modified UV mutagenesis. • SDEC-3M showed high CO_2 tolerance, high CO_2 requiring and relevant genetic stability. • LCE and carbohydrate content of SDEC-3M were significantly elevated. • SDEC-3M offers a strong candidature as CO_2 biofixation and biofuel production. - Abstract: In the present work, a Chlorella vulgaris mutant, named as SDEC-3M, was screened out through the combination of the isolation using 96-well microplates and traditional UV mutagenesis. Compared with its parent (wild type), the growth of SDEC-3M preferred higher CO_2 (15% v/v) environment to ambient air (0.038% CO_2 (v/v)), indicating that the mutant qualified with good tolerance and growth potential under high level CO_2 (high CO_2 tolerance) but was defective in directly utilizing the low level CO_2 (high CO_2 requiring). The genetic stability under ambient air and high level CO_2 was confirmed by a continuous cultivation for five generations. Higher light conversion efficiency (14.52%) and richer total carbohydrate content (42.48%) demonstrated that both solar energy and CO_2 were more effectively productively fixed into carbohydrates for bioethanol production than the parent strain. The mutant would benefit CO_2 biofixation from industrial exhaust gas to mitigate of global warming and promote biofuel production to relieve energy shortage.

  4. Cultural commons and cultural evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Bravo, Giangiacomo

    2010-01-01

    Culture evolves following a process that is akin to biological evolution, although with some significant differences. At the same time culture has often a collective good value for human groups. This paper studies culture in an evolutionary perspective, with a focus on the implications of group definition for the coexistence of different cultures. A model of cultural evolution is presented where agents interacts in an artificial environment. The belonging to a specific memetic group is a majo...

  5. Viability and molecular authentication of Coccidioides spp. isolates from the Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo culture collection, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Sarah Desirée Barbosa; Vidal, Mônica Scarpelli Martinelli; Sousa, Maria da Glória Teixeira de; Del Negro, Gilda Maria Barbaro

    2013-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is an emerging fungal disease in Brazil; adequate maintenance and authentication of Coccidioides isolates are essential for research into genetic diversity of the environmental organisms, as well as for understanding the human disease. Seventeen Coccidioides isolates maintained under mineral oil since 1975 in the Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo (IMTSP) culture collection, Brazil, were evaluated with respect to their viability, morphological characteristics and genetic features in order to authenticate these fungal cultures. Only five isolates were viable after almost 30 years, showing typical morphological characteristics, and sequencing analysis using Coi-F and Coi-R primers revealed 99% identity with Coccidioides genera. These five isolates were then preserved in liquid nitrogen and sterile water, and remained viable after two years of storage under these conditions, maintaining the same features.

  6. Viability and molecular authentication of Coccidioides spp. isolates from the Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo culture collection, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Desirée Barbosa Cavalcanti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Coccidioidomycosis is an emerging fungal disease in Brazil; adequate maintenance and authentication of Coccidioides isolates are essential for research into genetic diversity of the environmental organisms, as well as for understanding the human disease. Seventeen Coccidioides isolates maintained under mineral oil since 1975 in the Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo (IMTSP culture collection, Brazil, were evaluated with respect to their viability, morphological characteristics and genetic features in order to authenticate these fungal cultures. Only five isolates were viable after almost 30 years, showing typical morphological characteristics, and sequencing analysis using Coi-F and Coi-R primers revealed 99% identity with Coccidioides genera. These five isolates were then preserved in liquid nitrogen and sterile water, and remained viable after two years of storage under these conditions, maintaining the same features.

  7. Genes Required for Survival in Microgravity Revealed by Genome-Wide Yeast Deletion Collections Cultured during Spaceflight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey Nislow

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spaceflight is a unique environment with profound effects on biological systems including tissue redistribution and musculoskeletal stresses. However, the more subtle biological effects of spaceflight on cells and organisms are difficult to measure in a systematic, unbiased manner. Here we test the utility of the molecularly barcoded yeast deletion collection to provide a quantitative assessment of the effects of microgravity on a model organism. We developed robust hardware to screen, in parallel, the complete collection of ~4800 homozygous and ~5900 heterozygous (including ~1100 single-copy deletions of essential genes yeast deletion strains, each carrying unique DNA that acts as strain identifiers. We compared strain fitness for the homozygous and heterozygous yeast deletion collections grown in spaceflight and ground, as well as plus and minus hyperosmolar sodium chloride, providing a second additive stressor. The genome-wide sensitivity profiles obtained from these treatments were then queried for their similarity to a compendium of drugs whose effects on the yeast collection have been previously reported. We found that the effects of spaceflight have high concordance with the effects of DNA-damaging agents and changes in redox state, suggesting mechanisms by which spaceflight may negatively affect cell fitness.

  8. A New Kind of English: Cultural Variance, Citizenship and DiY Politics amongst the Exodus Collective in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Lee Robert

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses the construction of citizenship in contemporary England as a boundary between "proper" and "improper" English behavior. Through an ethnographic study of the Exodus Collective, a Rastafarian-anarchist community that was located north of London, I show that constructing citizenship also constructs…

  9. Enabling School Structure, Collective Responsibility, and a Culture of Academic Optimism: Toward a Robust Model of School Performance in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jason H.; Hoy, Wayne K.; Tarter, C. John

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is twofold: to test a theory of academic optimism in Taiwan elementary schools and to expand the theory by adding new variables, collective responsibility and enabling school structure, to the model. Design/methodology/approach: Structural equation modeling was used to test, refine, and expand an…

  10. [Blood cultures in the paediatric emergency department. Guidelines and recommendations on their indications, collection, processing and interpretation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Bou, S; Álvarez Álvarez, C; Campo Fernández, M N; García Herrero, M A; Gené Giralt, A; Giménez Pérez, M; Piñeiro Pérez, R; Gómez Cortés, B; Velasco, R; Menasalvas Ruiz, A I; García García, J J; Rodrigo Gonzalo de Liria, C

    2016-05-01

    Blood culture (BC) is the gold standard when a bacteraemia is suspected, and is one of the most requested microbiological tests in paediatrics. Some changes have occurred in recent years: the introduction of new vaccines, the increasing number of patients with central vascular catheters, as well as the introduction of continuous monitoring BC systems. These changes have led to the review and update of different factors related to this technique in order to optimise its use. A practice guideline is presented with recommendations on BC, established by the Spanish Society of Paediatric Emergency Care and the Spanish Society for Paediatric Infectious Diseases. After reviewing the available scientific evidence, several recommendations for each of the following aspects are presented: BC indications in the Emergency Department, how to obtain, transport and process cultures, special situations (indications and interpretation of results in immunosuppressed patients and/or central vascular catheter carriers, indications for anaerobic BC), differentiation between bacteraemia and contamination when a BC shows bacterial growth and actions to take with a positive BC in patients with fever of unknown origin. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Microalgal technology for remediation of CO{sub 2} from power plant flue gas: A technoeconomic perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadam, K.L.; Sheehan, J.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States). Biotechnology Center for Fuels and Chemicals

    1996-12-01

    Power plants burning fossil fuels are a major source of CO{sub 2}, which is implicated in global warming. Microalgal systems, which photosynthetically assimilate CO{sub 2}, can be used to mitigate this major greenhouse gas. A technoeconomic model was developed for trapping CO{sub 2} from flue gases by microalgae in outdoor ponds. The model allows the authors to make some notable observations about the microalgal process. For example, although it was known that the delivered CO{sub 2} cost is an important parameter, this model demonstrates in quantitative terms that the targeted improvements for productivity and lipid content double the relative impact of CO{sub 2} resource cost on total annualized cost of the technology. The model also shows that both algal lipid content and growth rate are important for an economical process, but a trade-off exists between the two, i.e., a high lipid content and low growth rate combination can be as effective as a low lipid content and high growth rate combination. Model predictions were also used to compare the microalgal technology with alternative technologies in terms of CO{sub 2} mitigation costs. The mid-term process, which can be implemented in the near future, is competitive with other CO{sub 2} remediation technologies currently being proposed. Incorporating anticipated advances into the design basis, a CO{sub 2} mitigation cost of $30/t (CO{sub 2} avoided basis) is obtained for the long-term process, which is very promising. Deployment of this technology for CO{sub 2} mitigation looks attractive if research goals put forth by the model are achieved.

  12. Re-envisioning the renewable fuel standard to minimize unintended consequences: A comparison of microalgal diesel with other biodiesels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soratana, Kullapa; Khanna, Vikas; Landis, Amy E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Conducted a life cycle assessment (LCA) of microalgal diesel from PBR to combustion. • Compared the results with other existing LCA results of petroleum and other biodiesels. • Assessed the current Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2). • Proposed an approach to set emission thresholds for eutrophication (EP) and smog formation potentials (PSP). • Future RFS should include a life-cycle emissions threshold for EP and PSP. - Abstract: The Renewable Fuel Standard 2 (RFS2) program under the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 set a life-cycle emission reduction threshold to only greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; this type of single-dimensional threshold could lead to the unintended trading of one environmental problem for another. Many of the environmental impacts resulting over the life cycle of oil-crop biodiesel fuels manifest in the agricultural phase of production in the form of water quality degradation. This study investigated the extent to which different biofuels meet the RFS GHG requirement, and presents alternative strategies for minimizing unintended consequences. In addition to life-cycle global warming potential (GWP), the eutrophication potential (EP) and photochemical smog formation potential (PSP) from microalgal diesel were compared to the impacts resulting from petroleum-based diesel, soybean diesel and canola diesel. The results showed tradeoffs between GWP and eutrophication potential when microalgal diesel was compared to soybean diesel. Future RFS criteria should include EP and PSP metrics, however establishing thresholds like the GHG management approach may not be appropriate for these other impacts. Two possible strategies to setting life-cycle eutrophication standards are to establish a threshold based on first generation biofuels, as opposed to petro-fuels or to set maximum levels of EP loads for major watersheds or coastal areas. To decrease PSP, together with existing standards for tailpipe emissions, future RFSs

  13. Investment into the future of microbial resources: culture collection funding models and BRC business plans for biological resource centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David; McCluskey, Kevin; Stackebrandt, Erko

    2014-01-01

    Through their long history of public service, diverse microbial Biological Resource Centres (mBRCs) have made myriad contributions to society and science. They have enabled the maintenance of specimens isolated before antibiotics, made available strains showing the development and change of pathogenicity toward animals, humans and plants, and have maintained and provided reference strains to ensure quality and reproducibility of science. However, this has not been achieved without considerable financial commitment. Different collections have unique histories and their support is often tied to their origins. However many collections have grown to serve large constituencies and need to develop novel funding mechanisms. Moreover, several international initiatives have described mBRCs as a factor in economic development and have led to the increased professionalism among mBRCs.

  14. Fatty acids from high rate algal pond's microalgal biomass and osmotic stress effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drira, Neila; Dhouibi, Nedra; Hammami, Saoussen; Piras, Alessandra; Rosa, Antonella; Porcedda, Silvia; Dhaouadi, Hatem

    2017-11-01

    The extraction of oil from a wild microalgae biomass collected from a domestic wastewater treatment facility's high rate algal pond (HRAP) was investigated. An experiment plan was used to determine the most efficient extraction method, the optimal temperature, time and solvent system based on total lipids yield. Microwave-assisted extraction was the most efficient method whether in n-hexane or in a mixture of chloroform/methanol compared to Soxhlet, homogenization, and ultrasounds assisted extractions. This same wild biomass was cultivated in a photobioreactor (PBR) and the effect of osmotic stress was studied. The lipids extraction yield after 3days of stress increased by more than four folds without any significant loss of biomass, however, the quality of extracted total lipids in terms of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids was not affected by salinity change in the culture medium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Exogenous Gene Integration for Microalgal Cell Transformation Using a Nanowire-Incorporated Microdevice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sunwoong; Park, Seunghye; Kim, Jung; Choi, Jong Seob; Kim, Kyung Hoon; Kwon, Donguk; Jin, EonSeon; Park, Inkyu; Kim, Do Hyun; Seo, Tae Seok

    2015-12-16

    Superior green algal cells showing high lipid production and rapid growth rate are considered as an alternative for the next generation green energy resources. To achieve the biomass based energy generation, transformed microalgae with superlative properties should be developed through genetic engineering. Contrary to the normal cells, microalgae have rigid cell walls, so that target gene delivery into cells is challengeable. In this study, we report a ZnO nanowire-incorporated microdevice for a high throughput microalgal transformation. The proposed microdevice was equipped with not only a ZnO nanowire in the microchannel for gene delivery into cells but also a pneumatic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microvalve to modulate the cellular attachment and detachment from the nanowire. As a model, hygromycin B resistance gene cassette (Hyg3) was functionalized on the hydrothermally grown ZnO nanowires through a disulfide bond and released into green algal cells, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, by reductive cleavage. During Hyg3 gene delivery, a monolithic PDMS membrane was bent down, so that algal cells were pushed down toward ZnO nanowires. The supply of vacuum in the pneumatic line made the PDMS membrane bend up, enabling the gene delivered algal cells to be recovered from the outlet of the microchannel. We successfully confirmed Hyg3 gene integrated in microalgae by amplifying the inserted gene through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The efficiency of the gene delivery to algal cells using the ZnO nanowire-incorporated microdevice was 6.52 × 10(4)- and 9.66 × 10(4)-fold higher than that of a traditional glass bead beating and electroporation.

  16. Microalgal Metabolic Network Model Refinement through High-Throughput Functional Metabolic Profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaiboonchoe, Amphun; Dohai, Bushra Saeed; Cai, Hong; Nelson, David R.; Jijakli, Kenan; Salehi-Ashtiani, Kourosh

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic modeling provides the means to define metabolic processes at a systems level; however, genome-scale metabolic models often remain incomplete in their description of metabolic networks and may include reactions that are experimentally unverified. This shortcoming is exacerbated in reconstructed models of newly isolated algal species, as there may be little to no biochemical evidence available for the metabolism of such isolates. The phenotype microarray (PM) technology (Biolog, Hayward, CA, USA) provides an efficient, high-throughput method to functionally define cellular metabolic activities in response to a large array of entry metabolites. The platform can experimentally verify many of the unverified reactions in a network model as well as identify missing or new reactions in the reconstructed metabolic model. The PM technology has been used for metabolic phenotyping of non-photosynthetic bacteria and fungi, but it has not been reported for the phenotyping of microalgae. Here, we introduce the use of PM assays in a systematic way to the study of microalgae, applying it specifically to the green microalgal model species Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The results obtained in this study validate a number of existing annotated metabolic reactions and identify a number of novel and unexpected metabolites. The obtained information was used to expand and refine the existing COBRA-based C. reinhardtii metabolic network model iRC1080. Over 254 reactions were added to the network, and the effects of these additions on flux distribution within the network are described. The novel reactions include the support of metabolism by a number of d-amino acids, l-dipeptides, and l-tripeptides as nitrogen sources, as well as support of cellular respiration by cysteamine-S-phosphate as a phosphorus source. The protocol developed here can be used as a foundation to functionally profile other microalgae such as known microalgae mutants and novel isolates.

  17. Microalgal Metabolic Network Model Refinement through High-Throughput Functional Metabolic Profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiboonchoe, Amphun; Dohai, Bushra Saeed; Cai, Hong; Nelson, David R. [Division of Science and Math, New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Center for Genomics and Systems Biology (CGSB), New York University Abu Dhabi Institute, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Jijakli, Kenan [Division of Science and Math, New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Center for Genomics and Systems Biology (CGSB), New York University Abu Dhabi Institute, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Engineering Division, Biofinery, Manhattan, KS (United States); Salehi-Ashtiani, Kourosh, E-mail: ksa3@nyu.edu [Division of Science and Math, New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Center for Genomics and Systems Biology (CGSB), New York University Abu Dhabi Institute, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2014-12-10

    Metabolic modeling provides the means to define metabolic processes at a systems level; however, genome-scale metabolic models often remain incomplete in their description of metabolic networks and may include reactions that are experimentally unverified. This shortcoming is exacerbated in reconstructed models of newly isolated algal species, as there may be little to no biochemical evidence available for the metabolism of such isolates. The phenotype microarray (PM) technology (Biolog, Hayward, CA, USA) provides an efficient, high-throughput method to functionally define cellular metabolic activities in response to a large array of entry metabolites. The platform can experimentally verify many of the unverified reactions in a network model as well as identify missing or new reactions in the reconstructed metabolic model. The PM technology has been used for metabolic phenotyping of non-photosynthetic bacteria and fungi, but it has not been reported for the phenotyping of microalgae. Here, we introduce the use of PM assays in a systematic way to the study of microalgae, applying it specifically to the green microalgal model species Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The results obtained in this study validate a number of existing annotated metabolic reactions and identify a number of novel and unexpected metabolites. The obtained information was used to expand and refine the existing COBRA-based C. reinhardtii metabolic network model iRC1080. Over 254 reactions were added to the network, and the effects of these additions on flux distribution within the network are described. The novel reactions include the support of metabolism by a number of d-amino acids, l-dipeptides, and l-tripeptides as nitrogen sources, as well as support of cellular respiration by cysteamine-S-phosphate as a phosphorus source. The protocol developed here can be used as a foundation to functionally profile other microalgae such as known microalgae mutants and novel isolates.

  18. Dual uses of microalgal biomass: An integrative approach for biohydrogen and biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, Chitralekha Nag; Suseela, M.R.; Mandotra, S.K.; Kumar, Pankaj; Pandey, Manish K.; Toppo, Kiran; Lone, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Chlorella sp. NBRI029 and Scenedesmus sp. NBRI012 shows high biomass productivity. • Scenedesmus sp. NBRI012 shows maximum H 2 evolution in 6th day of fermentation. • Residual biomass after H 2 production contains high lipid content. • Lipid extracted from the residual biomass fulfills various biodiesel properties. - Abstract: Dual application of biomass for biohydrogen and biodiesel production could be considered a feasible option for economic and sustainable energy production from microalgae. In this study, after a large screening of fresh water microalgal isolates, Scenedesmus sp. NBRI012 and Chlorella sp. NBRI029 have exhibited high biomass (1.31 ± 0.11 and 2.62 ± 0.13 g/L respectively) and lipid (244.44 ± 12.3 and 587.38 ± 20.2 mg/L respectively) yield with an organic carbon (acetate) source. Scenedesmus sp. NBRI012 has shown the highest H 2 (maximum evolution of 17.72% v/v H 2 of total gases) production; it produced H 2 continuously for seven days in sulfur-deprived TAP media. Sulfur deprivation during the H 2 production was found to increase the lipid content (410.03 ± 18.5 mg/L) of the residual biomass. Fatty acid profile of the lipid extracted from the residual biomass of Scenedesmus sp. NBRI012 has showed abundance of fatty acids with a carbon chain length of C16 and C18. Cetane number, iodine value, and saponification value of biodiesel were found suitable according to the range given by the Indian standard (IS 15607), Brazilian National Petroleum Agency (ANP255) and the European biodiesel standard EN14214

  19. Feasibility study of microalgal and jatropha biodiesel production plants: Exergy analysis approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofori-Boateng, Cynthia; Keat, Teong Lee; JitKang, Lim

    2012-01-01

    The exergy analyses performed in this study are based on three thermodynamic performance parameters namely exergy destruction, exergy efficiency and thermodynamic improvement potentials. After mathematical analysis with Aspen Plus software, the results showed that 64% and 44% of the total exergy content of the input resources into microalgal methyl ester (MME) and jatropha methyl ester (JME) production plants were destroyed respectively for 1 ton of biodiesel produced. This implies that only 36% and 56% (for MME and JME production plants respectively) useful energy in the products is available to do work. The highest and lowest exergy destructions were recorded in the oil extraction units (38% and 39% of the total exergy destroyed for MME and JME plants respectively) and transesterification units (5% and 2% of total exergy destroyed for MME and JME plants respectively) respectively for 1 ton biodiesel produced. Since sustainable biodiesel production depends on cultivation of feedstock, oil extraction and transesterification processes, exergy analysis which is carried out on only the transesterification unit cannot justify the thermodynamic feasibility of the whole biodiesel production plant unless a complete thermodynamic assessment has been done for the whole plant. Thus, according to this study which considers all the biodiesel production processes, MME and JME production plants are not thermodynamically feasible. - Highlights: ► 64% of exergy content of input resources into MME production plant is destroyed. ► 44% of exergy content of input resources into JME production plant is destroyed. ► Exergetic efficiencies of MME and JME production plants are far less than 1. ► Thermodynamically, MME and JME production plants are unsustainable. ► Exergy loss can be reduced by using heat integrated reactive distillation process.

  20. Culturing photosynthetic bacteria through surface plasmon resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooms, Matthew D.; Bajin, Lauren; Sinton, David [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering and Centre for Sustainable Energy, University of Toronto, Toronto M5S 3G8 (Canada)

    2012-12-17

    In this work, cultivation of photosynthetic microbes in surface plasmon enhanced evanescent fields is demonstrated. Proliferation of Synechococcus elongatus was obtained on gold surfaces excited with surface plasmons. Excitation over three days resulted in 10 {mu}m thick biofilms with maximum cell volume density of 20% vol/vol (2% more total accumulation than control experiments with direct light). Collectively, these results indicate the ability to (1) excite surface-bound cells using plasmonic light fields, and (2) subsequently grow thick biofilms by coupling light from the surface. Plasmonic light delivery presents opportunities for high-density optofluidic photobioreactors for microalgal analysis and solar fuel production.

  1. Bacterial diversity analysis of larvae and adult midgut microflora using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods in lab-reared and field-collected Anopheles stephensi-an Asian malarial vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adak Tridibesh

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes are intermediate hosts for numerous disease causing organisms. Vector control is one of the most investigated strategy for the suppression of mosquito-borne diseases. Anopheles stephensi is one of the vectors of malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax. The parasite undergoes major developmental and maturation steps within the mosquito midgut and little is known about Anopheles-associated midgut microbiota. Identification and characterization of the mosquito midgut flora is likely to contribute towards better understanding of mosquito biology including longevity, reproduction and mosquito-pathogen interactions that are important to evolve strategies for vector control mechanisms. Results Lab-reared and field-collected A. stephensi male, female and larvae were screened by "culture-dependent and culture-independent" methods. Five 16S rRNA gene library were constructed form lab and field-caught A. stephensi mosquitoes and a total of 115 culturable isolates from both samples were analyzed further. Altogether, 68 genera were identified from midgut of adult and larval A. stephensi, 53 from field-caught and 15 from lab-reared mosquitoes. A total of 171 and 44 distinct phylotypes having 85 to 99% similarity with the closest database matches were detected among field and lab-reared A. stephensi midgut, respectively. These OTUs had a Shannon diversity index value of 1.74–2.14 for lab-reared and in the range of 2.75–3.49 for field-caught A. stephensi mosquitoes. The high species evenness values of 0.93 to 0.99 in field-collected adult and larvae midgut flora indicated the vastness of microbial diversity retrieved by these approaches. The dominant bacteria in field-caught adult male A. stephensi were uncultured Paenibacillaceae while in female and in larvae it was Serratia marcescens, on the other hand in lab-reared mosquitoes, Serratia marcescens and Cryseobacterium meninqosepticum bacteria were found to be abundant. Conclusion

  2. Microalgal technology for remediation of CO{sub 2} from power plant flue gas: A techno-economic perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadam, K.L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Power plants burning fossil fuels are a major source of CO{sub 2} which is implicated in global warming. Microalgal systems which photosynthetically assimilate carbon dioxide can be used for mitigation of this major greenhouse gas. A techno-economic model was developed for trapping carbon dioxide from flue gases by microalgae in outdoor ponds. The model also shows that algal lipid content and growth rate are both important for an economical process, but a trade-off exists between the two, i.e., a high lipid content and low growth rate combination can be as effective as a low lipid content and high growth rate combination. Hence, these two parameters may be treated as a composite parameter to be optimized to yield the least CO{sub 2} mitigation cost. Model predictions were also used to compare the microalgal technology with alternative technologies in terms of CO{sub 2} mitigation costs. Incorporating advances anticipated in the future into the design basis, the model yields a CO{sub 2} mitigation cost that is competitive with other CO{sub 2} remediation technologies currently being proposed. Furthermore, this technology also provides a lipid feedstock for producing a renewable fuel such as biodiesel. Deployment of this technology for CO{sub 2} mitigation looks attractive if research goals put forth by the model are achieved.

  3. Simultaneous improvement in production of microalgal biodiesel and high-value alpha-linolenic acid by a single regulator acetylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsaeimehr, Ali; Sun, Zhilan; Dou, Xiao; Chen, Yi-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Photoautotrophic microalgae are a promising avenue for sustained biodiesel production, but are compromised by low yields of biomass and lipids at present. We are developing a chemical approach to improve microalgal accumulation of feedstock lipids as well as high-value alpha-linolenic acid which in turn might provide a driving force for biodiesel production. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the small bioactive molecule "acetylcholine" on accumulation of biomass, total lipids, and alpha-linolenic acid in Chlorella sorokiniana. The effectiveness exists in different species of Chlorella. Moreover, the precursor and analogs of acetylcholine display increased effectiveness at higher applied doses, with maximal increases by 126, 80, and 60% over controls for biomass, total lipids, and alpha-linolenic acid, respectively. Production of calculated biodiesel was also improved by the precursor and analogs of acetylcholine. The biodiesel quality affected by changes in microalgal fatty acid composition was addressed. The chemical approach described here could improve the lipid yield and biodiesel production of photoautotrophic microalgae if combined with current genetic approaches.

  4. Lipid Production of Heterotrophic Chlorella sp. from Hydrolysate Mixtures of Lipid-Extracted Microalgal Biomass Residues and Molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hongli; Ma, Xiaochen; Gao, Zhen; Wan, Yiqin; Min, Min; Zhou, Wenguang; Li, Yun; Liu, Yuhuan; Huang, He; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of lipid production of Chlorella sp. from waste materials. Lipid-extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs) and molasses were hydrolyzed, and their hydrolysates were analyzed. Five different hydrolysate mixture ratios (w/w) of LMBRs/molasses (1/0, 1/1, 1/4, 1/9, and 0/1) were used to cultivate Chlorella sp. The results showed that carbohydrate and protein were the two main compounds in the LMBRs, and carbohydrate was the main compound in the molasses. The highest biomass concentration of 5.58 g/L, Y biomass/sugars of 0.59 g/g, lipid productivity of 335 mg/L/day, and Y lipids/sugars of 0.25 g/g were obtained at the hydrolysate mixture ratio of LMBRs/molasses of 1/4. High C/N ratio promoted the conversion of sugars into lipids. The lipids extracted from Chlorella sp. shared similar lipid profile of soybean oil and is therefore a potential viable biodiesel feedstock. These results showed that Chlorella sp. can utilize mixed sugars and amino acids from LMBRs and molasses to accumulate lipids efficiently, thus reducing the cost of microalgal biodiesel production and improving its economic viability.

  5. A cost analysis of microalgal biomass and biodiesel production in open raceways treating municipal wastewater and under optimum light wavelength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zion; Kim, Byung-Hyuk; Ramanan, Rishiram; Choi, Jong-Eun; Yang, Ji-Won; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Hee-Sik

    2015-01-01

    Open raceway ponds are cost-efficient for mass cultivation of microalgae compared with photobioreactors. Although low-cost options like wastewater as nutrient source is studied to overcome the commercialization threshold for biodiesel production from microalgae, a cost analysis on the use of wastewater and other incremental increases in productivity has not been elucidated. We determined the effect of using wastewater and wavelength filters on microalgal productivity. Experimental results were then fitted into a model, and cost analysis was performed in comparison with control raceways. Three different microalgal strains, Chlorella vulgaris AG10032, Chlorella sp. JK2, and Scenedesmus sp. JK10, were tested for nutrient removal under different light wavelengths (blue, green, red, and white) using filters in batch cultivation. Blue wavelength showed an average of 27% higher nutrient removal and at least 42% higher chemical oxygen demand removal compared with white light. Naturally, the specific growth rate of microalgae cultivated under blue wavelength was on average 10.8% higher than white wavelength. Similarly, lipid productivity was highest in blue wavelength, at least 46.8% higher than white wavelength, whereas FAME composition revealed a mild increase in oleic and palmitic acid levels. Cost analysis reveals that raceways treating wastewater and using monochromatic wavelength would decrease costs from 2.71 to 0.73 $/kg biomass. We prove that increasing both biomass and lipid productivity is possible through cost-effective approaches, thereby accelerating the commercialization of low-value products from microalgae, like biodiesel.

  6. Molecular characterization of two microalgal strains in Egypt and investigation of the antimicrobial activity of their extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Semary, NA.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of new pathogens and the increasing drug-resistance of recognized ones pose a difficult challenge. One way that this challenge is being addressed is through the discovery of new cost-effective drug resources in the form of bioactive compounds. Algae represent a promising source of bioactive compounds in this regard. In the present research, we used molecular and phylogenetic analysis to isolate and identify two microalgal strains. We found that one strain belonged to the phylum chrysophyta and the other to the cyanobacteria. We also investigated the antimicrobial activity of some of the lipophilic extracts of the two microalgal strains. Several fractions showed high individual antimicrobial bioactivity against multidrug-resistant Salmonella sp., Citrobacter sp., Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. Fraction III from Poterioochromonas malhamensis showed the highest level of activity against two multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens. The inhibition zone diameter was 1.4 cm for Salmonella and 1.4 cm for Citrobacter. Meanwhile, another lipophilic fraction from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis salina showed broad-spectrum bioactivity (inhibition zone diameter of 0.9 cm for Aspergillus niger, 1 cm for Citrobacter and 0.9 cm for Salmonella. One lipophilic fraction from Aphanizomenon showed antifungal bioactivity against Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus, where the inhibition zone diameter was 1.1 cm and 1.0 cm, respectively. The study highlights the antimicrobial bioactivity of extracts from local microalgae and emphasizes the importance of carrying out screening programs for those microorganisms.

  7. Extraction of microalgal lipids and the influence of polar lipids on biodiesel production by lipase-catalyzed transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro López, Elvira; Robles Medina, Alfonso; González Moreno, Pedro Antonio; Esteban Cerdán, Luis; Molina Grima, Emilio

    2016-09-01

    In order to obtain microalgal saponifiable lipids (SLs) fractions containing different polar lipid (glycolipids and phospholipids) contents, SLs were extracted from wet Nannochloropsis gaditana microalgal biomass using seven extraction systems, and the polar lipid contents of some fractions were reduced by low temperature acetone crystallization. We observed that the polar lipid content in the extracted lipids depended on the polarity of the first solvent used in the extraction system. Lipid fractions with polar lipid contents between 75.1% and 15.3% were obtained. Some of these fractions were transformed into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs, biodiesel) by methanolysis, catalyzed by the lipases Novozym 435 and Rhizopus oryzae in tert-butanol medium. We observed that the reaction velocity was higher the lower the polar lipid content, and that the final FAME conversions achieved after using the same lipase batch to catalyze consecutive reactions decreased in relation to an increase in the polar lipid content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Harvesting microalgae using activated sludge can decrease polymer dosing and enhance methane production via co-digestion in a bacterial-microalgal process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wágner, Dorottya Sarolta; Radovici, Maria; Smets, Barth F.

    2016-01-01

    , there is the potential to produce energy by co-digesting the two types of biomass. We present an innovative approach to recover microalgal biomass via a two-step flocculation using bacterial biomass after the destabilisation of microalgae with conventional cationic polymer. A short solids retention time (SRT) enhanced...

  9. Lipid extracted microalgal biomass residue as a fertilizer substitute for Zea mays L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahulkumar eMaurya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High volumes of lipid extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs are expected to be produced upon commencement of biodiesel production on a large scale, thus necessitating its value addition for sustainable development. LMBRs of Chlorella variabilis and Lyngbya majuscula were employed to substitute the nitrogen content of recommended rate of fertilizer (RRF for Zea mays L. The pot experiment comprised of 10 treatments, i.e. T1 (No fertilizer; T2 (RRF-120 N: 60 P2O5: 40 K2O kg ha-1; T3 to T6 -100, 75, 50 and 25% N through LMBR of the Chlorella sp., respectively; T7 to T10 -100, 75, 50 and 25% N through LMBR of Lyngbya sp., respectively. It was found that all LMBR substitution treatments were at par to RRF with respect to grain yield production. T10 gave the highest grain yield (65.16 g plant-1, which was closely followed by that (63.48 g plant-1 under T5. T10 also recorded the highest phosphorus and potassium contents in grains. T4 was markedly superior over control in terms of dry matter accumulation (DMA as well as carbohydrate content, which was ascribed to higher pigment content and photosynthetic activity in leaves. Even though considerably lower DMA was obtained in Lyngbya treatments, which might have been due to the presence of some toxic factors, no reduction in grain yield was apparent. The length of the tassel was significantly higher in either of the LMBRs at any substitution rates over RRF, except T6 and T7. The ascorbate peroxidase activity decreased with decreasing dose of Chlorella LMBR, while all the Lyngbya LMBR treatments recorded lower activity, which were at par with each other. Among the Chlorella treatments, only T5 recorded significantly higher values of glutathione reductase activity over RRF, while the rest were at par. There were significant increases in carbohydrate and crude fat, respectively, only in T4 and T3 over RRF, while no change was observed in crude protein due to LMBR treatments. Apparently, there was no

  10. Automation of a Nile red staining assay enables high throughput quantification of microalgal lipid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morschett, Holger; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Oldiges, Marco

    2016-02-09

    Within the context of microalgal lipid production for biofuels and bulk chemical applications, specialized higher throughput devices for small scale parallelized cultivation are expected to boost the time efficiency of phototrophic bioprocess development. However, the increasing number of possible experiments is directly coupled to the demand for lipid quantification protocols that enable reliably measuring large sets of samples within short time and that can deal with the reduced sample volume typically generated at screening scale. To meet these demands, a dye based assay was established using a liquid handling robot to provide reproducible high throughput quantification of lipids with minimized hands-on-time. Lipid production was monitored using the fluorescent dye Nile red with dimethyl sulfoxide as solvent facilitating dye permeation. The staining kinetics of cells at different concentrations and physiological states were investigated to successfully down-scale the assay to 96 well microtiter plates. Gravimetric calibration against a well-established extractive protocol enabled absolute quantification of intracellular lipids improving precision from ±8 to ±2 % on average. Implementation into an automated liquid handling platform allows for measuring up to 48 samples within 6.5 h, reducing hands-on-time to a third compared to manual operation. Moreover, it was shown that automation enhances accuracy and precision compared to manual preparation. It was revealed that established protocols relying on optical density or cell number for biomass adjustion prior to staining may suffer from errors due to significant changes of the cells' optical and physiological properties during cultivation. Alternatively, the biovolume was used as a measure for biomass concentration so that errors from morphological changes can be excluded. The newly established assay proved to be applicable for absolute quantification of algal lipids avoiding limitations of currently established

  11. MICRO ALGAE CULTURE FROM RAWA GAMBUT: INTRODUCTION STUDY OF MICRO ALGAE POTENTIAL AS BIO DIESEL RAW MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Jumiarni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable production of renewable energy is being a crucial problem, since fuel demand in Indonesia rises annually while the production decreases. Microalgae have been suggested as a potential feedstock for biofuel production. This research was a preliminary study to identified microalgal culture from water of peat swamp, and probe its potential as biodiesel feedstock.  Microalgal identification was conducted by morphological observation using microscope, while potential as biodiesel was probed by detection using Nile Red staining and supported by literature study. This research has identified 19 species of microalgae from culture, which were consisting of 16 species were Chlorophyceae and 3 species were Bacillariophyceae. Microalgae that  potentially to be developed biodiesel feedstock were Cyclotella atomus, Cyclotella sp, Nitzschia sp, Chlorella sp, Desmodesmus sp, Chlorella ellipsoida and Chlorella vulgaris.

  12. Genetically engineering Synechocystis sp. Pasteur Culture Collection 6803 for the sustainable production of the plant secondary metabolite p-coumaric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yong; Zhang, Yan; Cheng, Dan; Daddy, Soumana; He, Qingfang

    2014-07-01

    p-Coumaric acid is the precursor of phenylpropanoids, which are plant secondary metabolites that are beneficial to human health. Tyrosine ammonia lyase catalyzes the production of p-coumaric acid from tyrosine. Because of their photosynthetic ability and biosynthetic versatility, cyanobacteria are promising candidates for the production of certain plant metabolites, including phenylpropanoids. Here, we produced p-coumaric acid in a strain of transgenic cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Pasteur Culture Collection 6803 (hereafter Synechocystis 6803). Whereas a strain of Synechocystis 6803 genetically engineered to express sam8, a tyrosine ammonia lyase gene from the actinomycete Saccharothrix espanaensis, accumulated little or no p-coumaric acid, a strain that both expressed sam8 and lacked slr1573, a native hypothetical gene shown here to encode a laccase that oxidizes polyphenols, produced ∼82.6 mg/L p-coumaric acid, which was readily purified from the growth medium.

  13. Reassessing the ichthyotoxin profile of cultured Prymnesium parvum (golden algae) and comparing it to samples collected from recent freshwater bloom and fish kill events in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrikson, Jon C; Gharfeh, Majed S; Easton, Anne C; Easton, James D; Glenn, Karen L; Shadfan, Miriam; Mooberry, Susan L; Hambright, K David; Cichewicz, Robert H

    2010-06-15

    Within the last two decades, Prymnesium parvum (golden algae) has rapidly spread into inland waterways across the southern portion of North America and this organism has now appeared in more northerly distributed watersheds. In its wake, golden algae blooms have left an alarming trail of ecological devastation, namely massive fish kills, which are threatening the economic and recreational value of freshwater systems throughout the United States. To further understand the nature of this emerging crisis, our group investigated the chemical nature of the toxin(s) produced by P. parvum. We approached the problem using a two-pronged strategy that included analyzing both laboratory-grown golden algae and field-collected samples of P. parvum. Our results demonstrate that there is a striking difference in the toxin profiles for these two systems. An assemblage of potently ichthyotoxic fatty acids consisting primarily of stearidonic acid was identified in P. parvum cultures. While the concentration of the fatty acids alone was sufficient to account for the rapid-onset ichthyotoxic properties of cultured P. parvum, we also detected a second type of highly labile ichthyotoxic substance(s) in laboratory-grown golden algae that remains uncharacterized. In contrast, the amounts of stearidonic acid and its related congeners present in samples from recent bloom and fish kill sites fell well below the limits necessary to induce acute toxicity in fish. However, a highly labile ichthyotoxic substance, which is similar to the one found in laboratory-grown P. parvum cultures, was also detected. We propose that the uncharacterized labile metabolite produced by P. parvum is responsible for golden algae's devastating fish killing effects. Moreover, we have determined that the biologically-relevant ichthyotoxins produced by P. parvum are not the prymnesins as is widely believed. Our results suggest that further intensive efforts will be required to chemically define P. parvum

  14. Cyanobacterial diversity held in microbial biological resource centers as a biotechnological asset: the case study of the newly established LEGE culture collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Vitor; Morais, João; Castelo-Branco, Raquel; Pinheiro, Ângela; Martins, Joana; Regueiras, Ana; Pereira, Ana L; Lopes, Viviana R; Frazão, Bárbara; Gomes, Dina; Moreira, Cristiana; Costa, Maria Sofia; Brûle, Sébastien; Faustino, Silvia; Martins, Rosário; Saker, Martin; Osswald, Joana; Leão, Pedro N; Vasconcelos, Vitor M

    2018-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are a well-known source of bioproducts which renders culturable strains a valuable resource for biotechnology purposes. We describe here the establishment of a cyanobacterial culture collection (CC) and present the first version of the strain catalog and its online database (http://lege.ciimar.up.pt/). The LEGE CC holds 386 strains, mainly collected in coastal (48%), estuarine (11%), and fresh (34%) water bodies, for the most part from Portugal (84%). By following the most recent taxonomic classification, LEGE CC strains were classified into at least 46 genera from six orders (41% belong to the Synechococcales), several of them are unique among the phylogenetic diversity of the cyanobacteria. For all strains, primary data were obtained and secondary data were surveyed and reviewed, which can be reached through the strain sheets either in the catalog or in the online database. An overview on the notable biodiversity of LEGE CC strains is showcased, including a searchable phylogenetic tree and images for all strains. With this work, 80% of the LEGE CC strains have now their 16S rRNA gene sequences deposited in GenBank. Also, based in primary data, it is demonstrated that several LEGE CC strains are a promising source of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Through a review of previously published data, it is exposed that LEGE CC strains have the potential or actual capacity to produce a variety of biotechnologically interesting compounds, including common cyanotoxins or unprecedented bioactive molecules. Phylogenetic diversity of LEGE CC strains does not entirely reflect chemodiversity. Further bioprospecting should, therefore, account for strain specificity of the valuable cyanobacterial holdings of LEGE CC.

  15. Exploring social norms around cohabitation: The life course, individualization, and culture: Introduction to Special Collection: "Focus on Partnerships: Discourses on cohabitation and marriage throughout Europe and Australia"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brienna Perelli-Harris

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Explanations of the increase in cohabitation often rely on the concept of ideational change and shifting social norms. While researchers have investigated cohabitation and the role of social norms from a quantitative perspective, few studies have examined how people discuss the normative context of cohabitation, especially in cross-national comparison. Objective: This article introduces a Special Collection that uses focus group research to compare social norms relating to cohabitation and marriage in 8 countries in Europe. The Introduction explicates the concept of social norms, describes the focus group project, reflects on the method's advantages and limitations, and summarizes the theoretical and methodological contributions of the project. Methods: Collaborators conducted 7−8 focus groups in each country using a standardized questionnaire. They coded each discussion, analyzed the results, and produced a country-specific chapter on a particular theme. They also collaborated on an overview paper that synthesized the overall findings of the project. Results: The articles provide insights into the meanings of partnership formation in each country. In addition, their findings contribute to three main theoretical themes: 1 life courses, sequencing, and intersections; 2 individualization, freedom, and commitment; and 3 culture, religion, and the persistence of the past. Conclusions: This Special Collection contributes to and challenges current explanations of family change by pointing out how social norms shape partnership behavior. The project informs quantitative research by emphasizing the need for a culturally informed interpretation of demographic behavior. We urge researchers to recognize the multiple meanings of cohabitation within each context and across countries.

  16. Bioprospecting and indexing the microalgal diversity of different ecological habitats of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratha, Sachitra Kumar; Prasanna, Radha; Gupta, Vishal; Dhar, Dolly Wattal; Saxena, Anil Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Our study reports the collection, biodiversity analyses, isolation and identification of microalgae from different habitats of India. Cyanophyceae and Chlorophyceae were the most dominant algal groups recorded, with the highest number being recorded for non-heterocystous cyanobacteria (48), followed by 44 unicellular forms. Sagar Island, Sunderbans recorded the greatest number of algae, and unicellular/colonial green algae were present in all the samples. Shannon's Diversity Index was highest in Koikhali, Sunderbans, followed by Rushikulya River, Odisha. Selective enrichment, purification through serial dilution followed by plating and regular observations led to the isolation of sixteen strains. Identification was done by using microscopic observations, supported with standard monographs and classified as belonging to seven genera (Chlorella, Chlorococcum, Kirchneria, Scenedesmus, Chlamydomonas, Tetracystis and Ulothrix). 18S rDNA sequencing was undertaken for four strains. The set of sixteen strains were screened under standard cultural conditions for their growth kinetics and Chlorella sorokiniana MIC-G5, followed by Chlorella sp. MIC-G4 exhibited the highest growth rates. The strain Chlorococcum sp. MIC-G2 recorded highest chlorophyll, while MIC-G3 ranked highest for carbohydrates. The study aided in identifying the dominant microalgae in the diverse habitats and characterizing their growth rate and carbohydrate content, providing a valuable germplasm for further utilization in agriculture and industry.

  17. Developmental stages of fish blood flukes, Cardicola forsteri and Cardicola opisthorchis (Trematoda: Aporocotylidae), in their polychaete intermediate hosts collected at Pacific bluefin tuna culture sites in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Kazuo; Shirakashi, Sho; Tani, Kazuki; Shin, Sang Phil; Ishimaru, Katsuya; Honryo, Tomoki; Sugihara, Yukitaka; Uchida, Hiro'omi

    2017-02-01

    Farming of Pacific bluefin tuna (PBT), Thunnus orientalis, is a rapidly growing industry in Japan. Aporocotylid blood flukes of the genus Cardicola comprising C. orientalis, C. opisthorchis and C. forsteri are parasites of economic importance for PBT farming. Recently, terebellid polychaetes have been identified as the intermediate hosts for all these parasites. We collected infected polychaetes, Terebella sp., the intermediate host of C. opisthorchis, from ropes and floats attached to tuna cages in Tsushima, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. Also, Neoamphitrite vigintipes (formerly as Amphitrite sp. sensu Shirakashi et al., 2016), the intermediate host of C. forsteri, were collected from culture cages in Kushimoto, Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. The terebellid intermediate hosts harbored the sporocysts and cercariae in their body cavity. Developmental stages of these blood flukes were molecularly identified using species specific PCR primers. In this paper, we describe the cercaria and sporocyst stages of C. opisthorchis and C. forsteri and compare their morphological characteristics among three Cardicola blood flukes infecting PBT. We also discuss phylogenetic relations of the six genera of the terebellid intermediate hosts (Artacama, Lanassa, Longicarpus, Terebella, Nicolea and Neoamphitrite) of blood flukes infecting marine fishes, based on their morphological characters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Microalgal composition and primary production in Arctic sea ice: a seasonal study from Kobbeijord (Kangerluarsunnguaq), West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Ditte Marie; Rysgaard, Søren; Glud, Ronnie N.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the microalgal community in sea ice and in the water column of Kobbefjord, west Greenland, through an entire sea ice season, Temporal variation in physical (photosynthetically active radiation [PAR), temperature, brine volume) and chemical (salinity, nutrient concentration......) properties confirmed that sea ice is a very dynamic habitat. Nevertheless, a viable sea ice algal comuunity was present throughout the year, with a species succession from flagellate dominance (dinoflagellates and cryptophytes) in December to February, followed by Chaetoceros simplex (a centric diatom...... (maxima of 1.8 and 2.6 mu g chl](-1) in March and May, respectively). Primary production mirrored biomass dynamic, which had 2 seasonal peaks of ca. 21 and 15 mg Cm-2 d(-1). Integrated primary production over 7 mo was 0.8 g Cm-2 in sea ice and 94.4 g C m(-2) in the water column, with the vast majority...

  19. Microalgal composition and primary production in Arctic sea ice: a seasonal study from Kobbeijord (Kangerluarsunnguaq), West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Ditte Marie; Rysgaard, Søren; Glud, Ronnie N.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the microalgal community in sea ice and in the water column of Kobbefjord, west Greenland, through an entire sea ice season, Temporal variation in physical (photosynthetically active radiation [PAR), temperature, brine volume) and chemical (salinity, nutrient concentration...... (maxima of 1.8 and 2.6 mu g chl](-1) in March and May, respectively). Primary production mirrored biomass dynamic, which had 2 seasonal peaks of ca. 21 and 15 mg Cm-2 d(-1). Integrated primary production over 7 mo was 0.8 g Cm-2 in sea ice and 94.4 g C m(-2) in the water column, with the vast majority......) properties confirmed that sea ice is a very dynamic habitat. Nevertheless, a viable sea ice algal comuunity was present throughout the year, with a species succession from flagellate dominance (dinoflagellates and cryptophytes) in December to February, followed by Chaetoceros simplex (a centric diatom...

  20. Microalgal biotechnologies for recycling of pollutants; Tayona sorui kino wo kiban to suru seibutsuken busshitsu junkangata sogo saishigenka gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, K; Nasu, M; Hashimoto, C; Tanaka, K; Hirata, M [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutial Science; Fujita, M; Takagi, M [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Hirata, Y; Taya, M [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering Science; Yamanishi, H [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes the technology development by which biomass is produced by treatment of pollutants using microalgae, and is recycled. A bioreactor system has been developed, in which microalgal biomass can be obtained through the effective treatment of CO2 and NOx using microalgae having ability of increase under the severe condition with simultaneous flow of CO2 and NOx. A new method has been also developed for separating and recovering the microalgae. Materials, such as glucose, glycerol, acetic acid, and lactic acid, were produced from the obtained biomass through physico-chemical and biological treatments. These materials can be converted into ethanol and hydrogen. For this treatment and recycling system, functions as a part of natural material recycling were considered to be most significant. Development of an analysis and evaluation method of an impact of this system on the natural environment is also tried. 1 fig.

  1. Recovery of Silver Using Adsorption Gels Prepared from Microalgal Residue Immobilized with Functional Groups Containing Sulfur or Nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanjana Khunathai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although biodiesel oil extracted from microalgae attracts much attention as one of the most promising green energies, its high production cost is a big problem, impeding its extensive use. In order to lower the production cost, the effective use of microalgal residue after extracting biofuel was investigated as a feed material of functional materials. In the present work, a new adsorbent for silver(I was prepared by immobilizing functional groups of polyethylene-polyamine or dithiooxamide, which exhibita high affinity for soft Lewis acids such as silver(I ions. Their adsorption behaviors for silver(I were investigated from aqueous nitrate and acidothiourea media. The effects of the concentrations of nitrate and thiourea, as well as of sulfuric acid, were qualitatively interpreted. From the study of adsorption isotherms on these gels, they were found to exhibita higher adsorption capacity than the majority of those reported to date.

  2. Continuous microalgal cultivation in a laboratory-scale photobioreactor under seasonal day-night irradiation: experiments and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucco, Alberto; Beraldi, Mariaelena; Sforza, Eleonora

    2014-08-01

    In this work, the production of Scenedesmus obliquus in a continuous flat-plate laboratory-scale photobioreactor (PBR) under alternated day-night cycles was tested both experimentally and theoretically. Variation of light intensity according to the four seasons of the year were simulated experimentally by a tunable LED lamp, and effects on microalgal growth and productivity were measured to evaluate the conversion efficiency of light energy into biomass during the different seasons. These results were used to validate a mathematical model for algae growth that can be applied to simulate a large-scale production unit, carried out in a flat-plate PBR of similar geometry. The cellular concentration in the PBR was calculated in both steady-state and transient conditions, and the value of the maintenance kinetic term was correlated to experimental profiles. The relevance of this parameter was finally outlined.

  3. Arginine vasopressin increases cellular free calcium concentration and adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate production in rat renal papillary collecting tubule cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, S.; Okada, K.; Saito, T.

    1988-01-01

    The role of calcium (Ca) in the cellular action of arginine vasopressin (AVP) was examined in rat renal papillary collecting tubule cells in culture. AVP increased both the cellular free Ca concentration ([Ca2+]i) using fura-2, and cAMP production in a dose-dependent manner. AVP-induced cellular Ca mobilization was totally blocked by the antagonist to the antidiuretic action of AVP, and somewhat weakened by the antagonist to the vascular action of AVP. 1-Deamino-8-D-AVP (dDAVP). an antidiuretic analog of AVP, also increased [Ca2+] significantly. Cellular Ca mobilization was not obtained with cAMP, forskolin (a diterpene activator of adenylate cyclase), or phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate. The early phase of [Ca2+]i depended on the intracellular Ca pool, since an AVP-induced rise in [Ca2+]i was obtained in cells pretreated with Ca-free medium containing 1 mM EGTA, verapamil, or cobalt, which blocked cellular Ca uptake. Also, AVP increased 45 Ca2+ influx during the initial 10 min, which initiated the sustained phase of cellular Ca mobilization. However, cellular cAMP production induced by AVP during the 10-min observation period was diminished in the cells pretreated with Ca-free medium, verapamil, or cobalt, but was still significantly higher than the basal level. This was also diminished by a high Ca concentration in medium. These results indicate that 1) AVP concomitantly regulates cellular free Ca as well as its second messenger cAMP production; 2) AVP-induced elevation of cellular free Ca is dependent on both the cellular Ca pool and extracellular Ca; and 3) there is an optimal level of extracellular Ca to modulate the AVP action in renal papillary collecting tubule cells

  4. Unique Phylogenetic Lineage Found in the Fusarium-like Clade after Re-examining BCCM/IHEM Fungal Culture Collection Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triest, David; De Cremer, Koen; Piérard, Denis; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2016-09-01

    Recently, the Fusarium genus has been narrowed based upon phylogenetic analyses and a Fusarium -like clade was adopted. The few species of the Fusarium -like clade were moved to new, re-installed or existing genera or provisionally retained as " Fusarium ." Only a limited number of reference strains and DNA marker sequences are available for this clade and not much is known about its actual species diversity. Here, we report six strains, preserved by the Belgian fungal culture collection BCCM/IHEM as a Fusarium species, that belong to the Fusarium -like clade. They showed a slow growth and produced pionnotes, typical morphological characteristics of many Fusarium -like species. Multilocus sequencing with comparative sequence analyses in GenBank and phylogenetic analyses, using reference sequences of type material, confirmed that they were indeed member of the Fusarium -like clade. One strain was identified as "Fusarium" ciliatum whereas another strain was identified as Fusicolla merismoides . The four remaining strains were shown to represent a unique phylogenetic lineage in the Fusarium -like clade and were also found morphologically distinct from other members of the Fusarium -like clade. Based upon phylogenetic considerations, a new genus, Pseudofusicolla gen. nov., and a new species, Pseudofusicolla belgica sp. nov., were installed for this lineage. A formal description is provided in this study. Additional sampling will be required to gather isolates other than the historical strains presented in the present study as well as to further reveal the actual species diversity in the Fusarium -like clade.

  5. The Potential of Popular Culture for the Creation of Left Populism in Serbia: The Case of the Hip-Hop Collective “The Bombs of the Nineties”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Papović

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is to highlight the potential of popular culture to become an agent of leftist populist politics in contemporary Serbia. The authors observe the hip-hop collective “The Bombs of the Nineties”, whose music tackles topics from recent history, and who subvert the fashion style of the 1990s “Dizel” subculture, which is often connected to Serbian nationalism and war profiteering. The paper analyses the relationships “The Bombs of the Nineties” create between their practices, class warfare and leftist discourses, aiming to show the potentials and threats those relationships introduce. Following Ernesto Laclau’s understanding of populism as a “hegemonic political articulation of demands”, we assume that “The Bombs of the Nineties” could represent a solid populist political agent in that they attempt to reveal and draw attention to the “unfulfilled demands” of disempowered Serbian youth. On the other hand, the counter-intuitive merge of ideologies they operate, and the limited impact of their strategies on the official politics could be an obstacle to the expansion of their message.

  6. Observation, Isolation and Characterization of Microalgal Red Tide Agent Dinoflagellates Prorocentrum sp. (Pengamatan, Isolasi dan Karakterisasi Mikroalga Red Tide dari Dinoflagellata Prorocentrum sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Susilaningsih

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Spesies Dinophyte mempunyai habitat dari kutub, perairan tropis, tetapi semakin berlimpah di perairan tropis atau hangat. Dinophyte diduga sebagai penyebab terjadinya "red tide" sehingga nampak berwarna kuning kemerahan di laut ketikan malam hari disebabkan aktivitas bioluminescence.Penelitian ini menggunakan Dinophyte yang diisolasi dari pantai dan sampel air yang diperoleh dari di Prefektur Iwate, Jepang. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui taksonomi yang menyebabkan blooming. Spesies ini memiliki karakter yang spesifik bernbentuk oval (panjang 20-30 μm dan lebar 1-20 μm, kloroplas berwarna kuning, nukleus yang besar, dua flagel yang berbeda, yang salah satunya disebut flagellum transfer, tidak memiliki selaput tengah yang, ornament sel yang indah "theca"dengan tulang belakang. Berdasarkan hasil squensing pada 18 S rDNA, Dinophyte mempunyai kesamaan dengan strain Prorocentrum MBIC11147 (100%, Di masa yang akan datang penelitian Procentrum sp. bisa menggunakan sebagai model squensing, perilaku pasang mikroalga. Kata kunci: alga, Dinophyte, karakterisasi, isolation, Prorocentrum, red tide Dinophyte species inhabit from polar, temperate to tropical waters, but tend to be more abundant in tropical or warm waters. The Dinophytes is suspected as one of the genera causing red tide in the sea with their yellow-redish colour that make the sea glows in the night because of their bioluminescence activity. In this work, the Dinophyte was isolated from offshore, and water sample collected in Iwate Prefecture, Japan. Purposes of the studies were for understanding the taxonomic features in particular of the dinophytes that usually occur in blooming areas. The species has specific characters, such as oval shape ( 20-30 μm long and 1-20 μm wide, yellow chloroplast, large nucleus, possesses two different flagellas which one of them is specific called transfer flagellum, no middle furrow and beautiful ornament cell covering (theca with spine

  7. Unique Phylogenetic Lineage Found in the Fusarium-like Clade after Re-examining BCCM/IHEM Fungal Culture Collection Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cremer, Koen; Piérard, Denis; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the Fusarium genus has been narrowed based upon phylogenetic analyses and a Fusarium-like clade was adopted. The few species of the Fusarium-like clade were moved to new, re-installed or existing genera or provisionally retained as "Fusarium." Only a limited number of reference strains and DNA marker sequences are available for this clade and not much is known about its actual species diversity. Here, we report six strains, preserved by the Belgian fungal culture collection BCCM/IHEM as a Fusarium species, that belong to the Fusarium-like clade. They showed a slow growth and produced pionnotes, typical morphological characteristics of many Fusarium-like species. Multilocus sequencing with comparative sequence analyses in GenBank and phylogenetic analyses, using reference sequences of type material, confirmed that they were indeed member of the Fusarium-like clade. One strain was identified as "Fusarium" ciliatum whereas another strain was identified as Fusicolla merismoides. The four remaining strains were shown to represent a unique phylogenetic lineage in the Fusarium-like clade and were also found morphologically distinct from other members of the Fusarium-like clade. Based upon phylogenetic considerations, a new genus, Pseudofusicolla gen. nov., and a new species, Pseudofusicolla belgica sp. nov., were installed for this lineage. A formal description is provided in this study. Additional sampling will be required to gather isolates other than the historical strains presented in the present study as well as to further reveal the actual species diversity in the Fusarium-like clade. PMID:27790062

  8. Bioaccumulation of perfluorinated carboxylates and sulfonates and polychlorinated biphenyls in laboratory-cultured Hexagenia spp., Lumbriculus variegatus and Pimephales promelas from field-collected sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prosser, R.S., E-mail: prosserr@uoguelph.ca [School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Mahon, K. [Aquatic Toxicology Unit, Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sibley, P.K. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Poirier, D.; Watson-Leung, T. [Aquatic Toxicology Unit, Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and perfluorinated carboxylates and sulfonates (PFASs) are persistent pollutants in sediment that can potentially bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms. The current study investigates variation in the accumulation of PCBs and PFASs in laboratory-cultured Hexagenia spp., Lumbriculus variegatus and Pimephales promelas from contaminated field-collected sediment using 28-day tests. BSAF{sup lipid} (lipid-normalized biota-sediment accumulation factor) values for total concentration of PCBs were greater in Hexagenia spp. relative to L. variegatus and P. promelas. The distribution of congeners contributing to the total concentration of PCBs in tissue varied among the three species. Trichlorobiphenyl congeners composed the greatest proportion of the total concentration of PCBs in L. variegatus while tetra- and pentabiphenyl congeners dominated in Hexagenia spp. and P. promelas. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was present in all three species at concentrations greater than all other PFASs analyzed. Hexagenia spp. also produced the greatest BSAF{sup lipid} and BSAF{sup ww} (non-lipid-normalized biota-sediment accumulation factor) values for PFOS relative to the other two species. However, this was not the case for all PFASs. The trend of BSAF values and number of carbon atoms in the perfluoroalkyl chain of perfluorinated carboxylates varied among the three species but was similar for perfluorinated sulfonates. Differences in the dominant pathways of exposure (e.g., water, sediment ingestion) likely explain a large proportion of the variation in accumulation observed across the three species. - Highlights: • BSAF values for total PCBs and PFOS greatest in Hexagenia spp. • BSAF values for other PFASs not consistently greatest in Hexagenia spp. • Trends in BSAF values for PFASs varied as a function of carbon chain length among species. • Differences in exposure pathways likely explain variation in accumulation across species.

  9. Novel schemes for production of biodiesel and value-added co-products from microalgal oil using heterogeneous catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tao

    Microalgae are promising sources of biofuels primarily because of their higher potential productivity compared to terrestrial biofuel crops. However, the production of liquid fuels from microalgae suffers from a lack of viable methods of extraction, conversion and fractionation of various components of the algal biomass. In this dissertation study, a rapid method was developed to accurately evaluate the biodiesel potential of microalgae biomass. The major advantage of this method is in situ fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) preparation directly from wet fresh microalgal and yeast biomass, without prior solvent extraction or dehydration. FAMEs were prepared by a sequential alkaline hydrolysis and acidic esterification process. This method can be used even with high amount of water in the biomass and is applicable to a vast range of microalgae and yeast species. A two-step in situ process was also investigated in this study to obtain a high FAME yield from microalgae biomass that had high free fatty acids (FFA) content. This process has the potential to reduce the production cost of microalgae-derived FAME and be more environmental compatible due to the higher FAME yield with reduced catalyst consumption. A cost-effective bio-char based catalyst was tested for the two-step biodiesel production. The results indicated that the bio-char catalyst was superior to commercial Amberly-15. A scalable chlorophyll remove process was also developed as a part of the system. The research resulted in a practical and cost-effective approach for producing biodiesel from crude microalgal oil. An integrated approach was explored in the fourth part of the study to produce biodiesel and fractionate high-value polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). Zeolites were employed as the catalyst for selective esterification of fatty acids according to their chain length and degree of saturation. Low-value short chain FFA could be largely converted into FAME, while PUFA would remain unreacted due to

  10. Dynamics of microalgal communities in the water-column/sediment interface of the inner shelf off Parana State, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Luiz Queiroz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The composition and biomass of the microalgal community at the water-column/sediment interface on the continental shelf off Parana State (Brazil were studied every 2 months during 1999. Samples for cell identification and determination of chlorophyll a were taken from the interface layer and at discrete depths up to 4 m above the sediment. Results showed a community mainly formed by benthic and planktonic diatoms >30 µm, benthic diatoms 30 µm, which accounted for most of the pigment biomass, were resuspended from the interface after turbulent periods, and may take advantage of calm periods to stay and grow at the interface. Small benthic diatoms were more susceptible to wind-induced turbulence occurring in higher densities in the water column just above the water-sediment interface. A cyanobacterial bloom (Trichodesmiun was observed at these bottom layers in the spring-summer periods.A composição geral e a biomassa da comunidade microalgal da interface sedimento/água da plataforma do Estado do Paraná (Brasil foram estudadas em 1999 em relação ao regime de ventos. A cada dois meses foram coletadas amostras para a identificação de organismos e determinação de clorofila a, na interface água-sedimento e em profundidades discretas, ao longo da coluna d'água, até 4m acima do sedimento. Os resultados obtidos revelaram uma comunidade constituída principalmente por diatomáceas planctônicas e bentônicas maiores que 30 µm, diatomáceas bentônicas menores que 30 µm, e cianobactérias coloniais. As densidades celulares foram geralmente mais altas na interface. Eventos de mistura e sedimentação parecem ser determinantes na regulação da composição e biomassa de tais comunidades. Formas menores, mais susceptíveis à turbulência, dominaram a comunidade de água de fundo na maioria das ocasiões, e foram as mais abundantes na interface apenas em períodos de extrema estabilidade. Células maiores, aparentemente contendo a maior parte

  11. Isolation and Selection of Microalgal Strains from Natural Water Sources in Viet Nam with Potential for Edible Oil Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, Tran Yen; Linh, Dinh Thi Nhat; Si, Vo Chi; Carter, Taylor W; Hill, Russell T

    2017-06-23

    Industrial vegetable oil production in Viet Nam depends on oil seeds and crude plant oils that are currently more than 90% imported. As the first step in investigating the feasibility of using microalgae to provide Viet Nam with a domestic source of oil for food and edible oil industries, fifty lipid-producing microalgae were isolated and characterized. The microalgae were isolated from water sources ranging from freshwater to brackish and marine waters from a wide geographic distribution in Viet Nam. Initial analyses showed that 20 of the 50 strains had good growth rates, produced high biomass and had high lipid content, ranging up to 50% of dry weight biomass. 18S rRNA gene sequence analyses of the 50 strains showed a great diversity in this assemblage of microalgae, comprising at least 38 species and representatives of 25 genera : Chlamydomonas , Poterioochromonas , Scenedesmus , Desmodesmus , Chlorella , Bracteacoccus , Monoraphidium , Selenastrum , Acutodesmus , Mychonastes , Ankistrodesmus , Kirchneriella , Raphidocelis , Dictyosphaerium , Coelastrella , Schizochlamydella , Oocystidium , Nannochloris , Auxenochlorella , Chlorosarcinopsis , Stichococcus , Picochlorum , Prasinoderma , Chlorococcum , and Marvania. Some of the species are closely related to well-known lipid producers such as Chlorella sorokiniana , but some other strains are not closely related to the strains found in public sequence databases and likely represent new species. Analysis of oil quality showed that fatty acid profiles of the microalgal strains were very diverse and strain-dependent. Fatty acids in the microalgal oils comprised saturated fatty acids (SFAs), poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). The main SFA was palmitic acid. MUFAs and PUFAs were dominated by oleic acid, and linoleic and linolenic acids, respectively. Some strains were especially rich in the essential fatty acid α-linolenic acid (ALA), which comprised more than 20% of the

  12. Antibacterial activity of marine culturable bacteria collected from a global sampling of ocean surface waters and surface swabs of marine organisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Melchiorsen, Jette; Bruhn, Jesper Bartholin

    2010-01-01

    ). Total cell counts at the seawater surface were 5 × 105 to 106 cells/ml, of which 0.1–0.2% were culturable on dilute marine agar (20°C). Three percent of the colonies cultured from seawater inhibited Vibrio anguillarum, whereas a significantly higher proportion (13%) of colonies from inert or biotic...

  13. [Progress in microalgae culture system for biodiesel combined with reducing carbon dioxide emission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hongyang; Zhou, Xuefei; Xia, Xuefen; Sun, Zhen; Zhang, Yalei

    2011-09-01

    Wastewater resources, CO2 emission reduction and microalgae biodiesel are considered as current frontier fields of energy and environmental researches. In this paper, we reviewed the progress in system of microalgae culture for biodiesel production by wastewater and stack gas. Multiple factors including microalgal species, nutrition, culture methods and photobioreactor, which were crucial to the cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production, were discussed in detail. A valuable culture system of microalgae for biodiesel production or other high value products combined with the treatment of wastewater by microalgae was put forward through the optimizations of algal species and culture technology. The culture system coupled with the treatment of wastewater, the reduction of CO2 emission with the cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production will reduce the production cost of microalgal biofuel production and the treatment cost of wastewater simultaneously. Therefore, it would be a promising technology with important environmental value, social value and economic value to combine the treatment of wastewater with the cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production.

  14. Best practices in heterotrophic high-cell-density microalgal processes: achievements, potential and possible limitations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bumbak, F.; Cook, S.; Zachleder, Vilém; Hauser, S.; Kovar, K.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 1 (2011), 31-46 ISSN 0175-7598 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Heterotrophic growth * Microalgae * High-celldensity culture Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.425, year: 2011

  15. Comparative Effects of Biomass Pre-Treatments for Direct and Indirect Transesterification to Enhance Microalgal Lipid Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemi Naghdi, Forough; Thomas-Hall, Skye R.; Durairatnam, Reuben; Pratt, Steven; Schenk, Peer M.

    2014-01-01

    Microalgal lipid recovery for biodiesel production is currently considered suboptimal, but pre-treatment of algal biomass, the use of solvent mixtures and the positioning of transesterification can lead to increased yields. Here, the effect of various reportedly successful pre-treatments and solvent mixtures were directly compared to each other and combined with direct and indirect transesterification methods using the oleaginous microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8. Microwave and thermal pre-treatments were applied and the total lipid and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) recoveries were investigated. The application of pre-treatments increased FAME recovery through indirect transesterification when a Soxhlet system was used but they had no significant effect for direct transesterification. Gravimetric analyses of total lipids revealed that lipid recovery was highest when utilizing the chloroform-based Bligh and Dyer extraction method; however, FAME yield was the highest when applying a Soxhlet system utilizing a solvent mixture of hexane–ethanol (3:1). Total lipid recovery did not necessarily correlate with the recovery of FAMEs. The highest FAME recovery was achieved from thermal or microwave pre-treated biomass followed by indirect transesterification through Soxhlet extraction. FAME recovery could be more than doubled (increase of up to 171%) under these conditions. We conclude that a simple thermal pre-treatment (80°C for 10 min) in combination with solvent mixture extraction through indirect transesterification may present a cost-effective and scalable option for large-scale lipid extraction from microalgae.

  16. Anaerobic co-digestion of microalgal biomass and wheat straw with and without thermo-alkaline pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé-Bundó, Maria; Eskicioglu, Cigdem; Garfí, Marianna; Carrère, Hélène; Ferrer, Ivet

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed at analyzing the anaerobic co-digestion of microalgal biomass grown in wastewater and wheat straw. To this end, Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) tests were carried out testing different substrate proportions (20-80, 50-50 and 80-20%, on a volatile solid basis). In order to improve their biodegradability, the co-digestion of both substrates was also evaluated after applying a thermo-alkaline pretreatment (10% CaO at 75°C for 24h). The highest synergies in degradation rates were observed by adding at least 50% of wheat straw. Therefore, the co-digestion of 50% microalgae - 50% wheat straw was investigated in mesophilic lab-scale reactors. The results showed that the methane yield was increased by 77% with the co-digestion as compared to microalgae mono-digestion, while the pretreatment only increased the methane yield by 15% compared to the untreated mixture. Thus, the anaerobic co-digestion of microalgae and wheat straw was successful even without applying a thermo-alkaline pretreatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative effects of biomass pre-treatments for direct and indirect transesterification to enhance microalgal lipid recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough eGhasemi Naghdi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Microalgal lipid recovery for biodiesel production is currently considered suboptimal, but pre-treatment of algal biomass, the use of solvent mixtures and the positioning of transesterification can lead to increased yields. Here, the effect of various reportedly successful pre-treatments and solvent mixtures were directly compared to each other and combined with direct and indirect transesterification methods using the oleaginous microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8. Microwave and thermal pre-treatments were applied and the total lipid and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME recoveries were investigated. The application of pre-treatments increased FAME recovery through indirect transesterification when a Soxhlet system was used but they had no significant effect for direct transesterification. Gravimetric analyses of total lipids revealed that lipid recovery was highest when utilizing the chloroform-based Bligh and Dyer extraction method; however FAME yield was the highest when applying a Soxhlet system utilizing a solvent mixture of hexane-ethanol (3:1. Total lipid recovery did not necessarily correlate with the recovery of FAMEs. The highest FAME recovery was achieved from thermal or microwave pre-treated biomass followed by indirect transesterification through Soxhlet extraction. FAME recovery could be more than doubled (increase of up to 171% under these conditions. We conclude that a simple thermal pre-treatment (80°C for 10 min in combination with solvent mixture extraction through indirect transesterification may present a cost-effective and scalable option for large-scale lipid extraction from microalgae.

  18. Comparative Effects of Biomass Pre-Treatments for Direct and Indirect Transesterification to Enhance Microalgal Lipid Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghasemi Naghdi, Forough; Thomas-Hall, Skye R.; Durairatnam, Reuben [Algae Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Pratt, Steven [School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Schenk, Peer M., E-mail: p.schenk@uq.edu.au [Algae Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Agriculture and Food Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD (Australia)

    2014-12-04

    Microalgal lipid recovery for biodiesel production is currently considered suboptimal, but pre-treatment of algal biomass, the use of solvent mixtures and the positioning of transesterification can lead to increased yields. Here, the effect of various reportedly successful pre-treatments and solvent mixtures were directly compared to each other and combined with direct and indirect transesterification methods using the oleaginous microalga Tetraselmis sp. M8. Microwave and thermal pre-treatments were applied and the total lipid and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) recoveries were investigated. The application of pre-treatments increased FAME recovery through indirect transesterification when a Soxhlet system was used but they had no significant effect for direct transesterification. Gravimetric analyses of total lipids revealed that lipid recovery was highest when utilizing the chloroform-based Bligh and Dyer extraction method; however, FAME yield was the highest when applying a Soxhlet system utilizing a solvent mixture of hexane–ethanol (3:1). Total lipid recovery did not necessarily correlate with the recovery of FAMEs. The highest FAME recovery was achieved from thermal or microwave pre-treated biomass followed by indirect transesterification through Soxhlet extraction. FAME recovery could be more than doubled (increase of up to 171%) under these conditions. We conclude that a simple thermal pre-treatment (80°C for 10 min) in combination with solvent mixture extraction through indirect transesterification may present a cost-effective and scalable option for large-scale lipid extraction from microalgae.

  19. Application of a novel enzymatic pretreatment using crude hydrolytic extracellular enzyme solution to microalgal biomass for dark fermentative hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yeo-Myeong; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Oh, You-Kwan; Shin, Hang-Sik; Jung, Kyung-Won

    2014-05-01

    In this study, a novel enzymatic pretreatment of Chlorella vulgaris for dark fermentative hydrogen production (DFHP) was performed using crude hydrolytic extracellular enzyme solution (CHEES) extracted from the H2 fermented effluent of food waste. It was found that the enzyme extracted at 52 h had the highest hydrolysis efficiency of microalgal biomass, resulting in the highest H2 yield of 43.1 mL H2/g dry cell weight along with shorter lag periods. Even though a high amount of VFAs was accumulated in CHEES, especially butyrate, the fermentative bacteria on the DFHP was not affected from product inhibition. It also appears that the presence of organic acids, especially lactate and acetate, contained in the CHEES facilitated enhancement of H2 production acted as a co-substrate. Therefore, all of the experimental results suggest that the enhancement of DFHP performance caused by CHEES has a dual role as the hydrolysis enhancer and the co-substrate supplier. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Microalgal bacterial flocs treating paper mill effluent: A sunlight-based approach for removing carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Hende, Sofie; Rodrigues, André; Hamaekers, Helen; Sonnenholzner, Stanislaus; Vervaeren, Han; Boon, Nico

    2017-10-25

    Treatment of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) effluent from a paper mill in aerated activated sludge reactors involves high aeration costs. Moreover, this calcium-rich effluent leads to problematic scale formation. Therefore, a novel strategy for the aerobic treatment of paper mill UASB effluent in microalgal bacterial floc sequencing batch reactors (MaB-floc SBRs) is proposed, in which oxygen is provided via photosynthesis, and calcium is removed via bio-mineralization. Based on the results of batch experiments in the course of this study, a MaB-floc SBR was operated at an initial neutral pH. This SBR removed 58±21% organic carbon, 27±8% inorganic carbon, 77±5% nitrogen, 73±2% phosphorus, and 27±11% calcium. MaB-flocs contained 10±3% calcium, including biologically-influenced calcite crystals. The removal of calcium and inorganic carbon by MaB-flocs significantly decreased when inhibiting extracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA), an enzyme that catalyses the hydration and dehydration of CO 2 . This study demonstrates the potential of MaB-floc SBRs for the alternative treatment of calcium-rich paper mill effluent, and highlights the importance of extracellular CA in this treatment process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A comparative study of soft sensor design for lipid estimation of microalgal photobioreactor system with experimental validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sung Jin; Jung, Dong Hwi; Kim, Jung Hun; Lee, Jong Min

    2015-03-01

    This study examines the applicability of various nonlinear estimators for online estimation of the lipid concentration in microalgae cultivation system. Lipid is a useful bio-product that has many applications including biofuels and bioactives. However, the improvement of lipid productivity using real-time monitoring and control with experimental validation is limited because measurement of lipid in microalgae is a difficult and time-consuming task. In this study, estimation of lipid concentration from other measurable sources such as biomass or glucose sensor was studied. Extended Kalman filter (EKF), unscented Kalman filter (UKF), and particle filter (PF) were compared in various cases for their applicability to photobioreactor systems. Furthermore, simulation studies to identify appropriate types of sensors for estimating lipid were also performed. Based on the case studies, the most effective case was validated with experimental data and found that UKF and PF with time-varying system noise covariance is effective for microalgal photobioreactor system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The establishment of an in vitro gene bank in Dianthus spiculifolius Schur and D. glacialis ssp. gelidus (Schott Nym. et Kotschy Tutin: I. The initiation of a tissue collection and the characterization of the cultures in minimal growth conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Holobiuc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades the plants have to cope with the warming of the climate. As a consequence of this process more than half of the plant species could become vulnerable or threatened until 2080. Romania has a high plant diversity, with endemic and endangered plant species, the measures of biodiversity conservation being necessary. The integrated approach of biodiversity conservation involves both in situ and ex situ strategies. Among ex situ methods of conservation, besides the traditional ones (including field and botanic collection and seed banks, in vitro tissues techniques offer a viable alternative. The germplasm collections can efficiently preserve the species (of economic, scientific and conservative importance, in the same time being a source of plant material for international exchanges and for reintroduction in the native habitats.The "in vitro gene banking" term refers to in vitro tissues cultures from many accessions of a target species and involves the collection of plant material from field or from native habitats, the elaboration of sterilization, micropropagation and maintaining protocols. These collections have to be maintained in optimal conditions, morphologically and genetically characterized. The aim of our work was to characterize the response of the plant material to the minimal in vitro growth protocol for medium-term cultures achievement as a prerequisite condition for an active gene bank establishment in two rare Caryophyllaceae taxa: Dianthus spiculifolius and D. glacialis ssp. gelidus. Among different factors previously tested for medium-term preservation in Dianthus genus, mannitol proved to be more efficient for minimal cultures achievement. In vitro, the cultures were evaluated concerning their growth, regenerability and enzyme activity (POX, SOD, CAT as a response to the preservation conditions in the incipient phase of the initiation of the in vitro collection. The two species considered in this study showed a

  3. Experimental and theoretical study of microalgal competition in laboratory and natural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisman, T. I.; Somova, L. A.

    An important aspect of studying mixed cultures of microalgae is the artificial ecosystems containing algal culture as a regeneration link and a source of vegetable substances. The peculiarities of studying the stability of microalgae mixed cultures in the laboratory and natural environment have been considered in the work. The role of factors most essentially affecting the species structure of phytoplankton community (temperature factor, light intensity, pH environments, elements of mineral nutrition, algal metabolites, predation and fluctuation of environmental conditions) has been displayed. As a result of experimental and theoretical modelling of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus quadricauda competition under limitation on nitrogen, the impossibility of their co-existence has been revealed. Under these conditions Chl. vulgaris turned out to be less competitive than Sc. quadricauda. The influence of the ratio of biogenic elements concentration in the environment, which should be recognized as an independent regulatory factor limiting growth of populations in the community and, thus affecting its structure, has been analyzed.

  4. Cultural Understanding Through Cross-Cultural Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, Jean-Francois

    1986-01-01

    A college course used an explicit intercultural approach and collective research activities to compare French and American cultures and to examine the reasons for cultural attitudes and culture conflict. Class assignments dealt with contrastive analyses of American and French institutions like advertising, cinema, feminism, etc. (MSE)

  5. Distributional records of Antarctic fungi based on strains preserved in the Culture Collection of Fungi from Extreme Environments (CCFEE Mycological Section associated with the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Selbmann

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This dataset includes information regarding fungal strains collected during several Antarctic expeditions: the Italian National Antarctic Research program (PNRA expeditions “X” (1994/1995, “XII” (1996/1997, “XVII” (2001/2002, “XIX” (2003/2004, “XXVI” (2010/2011, the Czech “IPY Expedition” (2007–2009 and a number of strains donated by E. Imre Friedmann (Florida State University in 2001, isolated from samples collected during the U.S.A. Antarctic Expeditions of 1980-1982. Samples, consisting of colonized rocks, mosses, lichens, sediments and soils, were collected in Southern and Northern Victoria Land of the continental Antarctica and in the Antarctic Peninsula. A total of 259 different strains were isolated, belonging to 32 genera and 38 species, out of which 12 represented new taxa. These strains are preserved in the Antarctic section of the Culture Collection of Fungi from Extreme Environments (CCFEE, which represents one of the collections associated with the Italian National Antarctic Museum (MNA, Section of Genoa, Italy, located at the Laboratory of Systematic Botany and Mycology, Department of Ecological and Biological Sciences (DEB, Tuscia University (Viterbo, Italy. The CCFEE hosts a total of 486 Antarctic fungal strains from worldwide extreme environments. Distributional records are reported here for 259 of these strains. The holotypes of the 12 new species included in this dataset are maintained at CCFEE and in other international collections: CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre (Utrecht, Netherlands; DBVPG, Industrial Yeasts Collection (University of Perugia, Italy; DSMZ, German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures (Brunswick, Germany; IMI, International Mycological Institute (London, U.K..

  6. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria or other disease-causing germs grow. A gram stain may also ... any time the skin is broken) Alternative Names ... Charnot-Katsikas A. Specimen collection and handling for diagnosis of infectious diseases. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical ...

  7. Comparative study of predatory responses in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) produced in suspended long line cultures or collected from natural bottom mussel beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Helle Torp; Dolmer, Per; Petersen, Jens Kjerulf

    2011-01-01

    Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) are a valuable resource for commercial shellfish production and may also have uses as a tool in habitat improvement, because mussel beds can increase habitat diversity and complexity. A prerequisite for both commercial mussel production and habitat improvement...... originated from suspended cultures had a higher length increment and lower mortality when compared to bottom mussels. It is concluded that suspended mussels potentially are an alternative resource to bottom culture and can be used in habitat improvement of mussel beds, but that the use of suspended mussels...

  8. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in microalgal photobioreactors: a potential loss in solar energy conversion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulatt, Chris J; Thomas, David N

    2010-11-01

    Microalgae are considered to be a potential alternative to terrestrial crops for bio-energy production due to their relatively high productivity per unit area of land. In this work we examined the amount of dissolved organic matter exuded by algal cells cultured in photobioreactors, to examine whether a significant fraction of the photoassimilated biomass could potentially be lost from the harvestable biomass. We found that the mean maximum amount of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) released measured 6.4% and 17.3% of the total organic carbon in cultures of Chlorellavulgaris and Dunaliella tertiolecta, respectively. This DOM in turn supported a significant growth of bacterial biomass, representing a further loss of the algal assimilated carbon. The release of these levels of DOC indicates that a significant fraction of the photosynthetically fixed organic matter could be lost into the surrounding water, suggesting that the actual biomass yield per hectare for industrial purposes could be somewhat less than expected. A simple and inexpensive optical technique, based on chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) measurements, to monitor such losses in commercial PBRs is discussed.

  9. A symbiotic gas exchange between bioreactors enhances microalgal biomass and lipid productivities: taking advantage of complementary nutritional modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, C A; Ferreira, M E; da Silva, T Lopes; Gouveia, L; Novais, J M; Reis, A

    2011-08-01

    bioreactors operating separately (controls). These results show an advantage of the symbiotic bioreactors association towards a cost-effective microalgal biodiesel production.

  10. School Libraries Addressing the Needs of ELL Students: Enhancing Language Acquisition, Confidence, and Cultural Fluency in ELL Students by Developing a Targeted Collection and Enriching Your Makerspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Peggy Henderson

    2018-01-01

    English Language Learner (ELL) students are sometimes a small constituency. Many resources already in the library can be used to enhance their language acquisition, confidence, and cultural fluency--resources such as graphic novels, hi-lo books, and makerspace materials. This article discusses enhancing language acquisition, confidence, and…

  11. Microalgal fatty acid methyl ester a new source of bioactive compounds with antimicrobial activity

    OpenAIRE

    Arumugham Suresh; Ramasamy Praveenkumar; Ramasamy Thangaraj; Felix Lewis Oscar; Edachery Baldev; Dharumadurai Dhanasekaran; Nooruddin Thajuddin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate fatty acid composition and the antimicrobial activity of the major fraction of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) extracts from three microalgae collected from freshwater lakes in Theni District, Tamil Nadu, India. Methods: Antimicrobial study was carried out by well diffusion method against bacterial as well as fungal pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter sp., Klebsiella sp., Salmonella typhi, Fusarium sp., Cryptococcus sp.,...

  12. Cultured Trash, Not Trash Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiqurrohman Taufiqurrohman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As civilized creature, human actually can manage trash as well as possible although it is often stereotyped as a vain thing. This article gives the proof that trash can be cultured as well so that a society can take benefits from the existence of it. This article parses ways of orderly managing it at schools, in this case two schools in Jepara. The results say that trash can be cultured by having an organization to manage the Trash Bank at schools and to train students to classify and recycle trash then take advantage of it by selling the collected and the recycled trash. It makes trash have good transformation of values, repelling against the prior stereotype. Finally, by taking example from Trash Bank management at schools, human can have so cultured trash that they would not be trapped by trash culture.

  13. A New, Sensitive Marine Microalgal Recombinant Biosensor Using Luminescence Monitoring for Toxicity Testing of Antifouling Biocides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ferandin, Sophie; Leroy, Fanny; Bouget, François-Yves

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we propose the use of the marine green alga Ostreococcus tauri, the smallest free-living eukaryotic cell known to date, as a new luminescent biosensor for toxicity testing in the environment. Diuron and Irgarol 1051, two antifouling biocides commonly encountered in coastal waters, were chosen to test this new biosensor along with two degradation products of diuron. The effects of various concentrations of the antifoulants on four genetic constructs of O. tauri (based on genes involved in photosynthesis, cell cycle, and circadian clock) were compared using 96-well culture microplates and a luminometer to automatically measure luminescence over 3 days. This was compared to growth inhibition of O. tauri wild type under the same conditions. Luminescence appeared to be more sensitive than growth inhibition as an indicator of toxicity. Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDKA), a protein involved in the cell cycle, fused to luciferase (CDKA-Luc) was found to be the most sensitive of the biosensors, allowing an accurate determination of the 50% effective concentration (EC50) after only 2 days (diuron, 5.65 ± 0.44 μg/liter; Irgarol 1015, 0.76 ± 0.10 μg/liter). The effects of the antifoulants on the CDKA-Luc biosensor were then compared to growth inhibition in natural marine phytoplankton. The effective concentrations of diuron and Irgarol 1051 were found to be similar, indicating that this biosensor would be suitable as a reliable ecotoxicological test. The advantage of this biosensor over cell growth inhibition testing is that the process can be easily automated and could provide a high-throughput laboratory approach to perform short-term toxicity tests. The ability to genetically transform and culture recombinant O. tauri gives it huge potential for screening many other toxic compounds. PMID:23144143

  14. Simultaneous flue gas bioremediation and reduction of microalgal biomass production costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douskova, I.; Doucha, J.; Livansky, K.; Umysova, D.; Zachleder, V.; Vitova, M. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Trebon (Czech Republic). Laboratory of Cell Cycles of Algae; Machat, J. [Masaryk University, Brno (Czech Republic). Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology; Novak, P. [Termizo Inc., Liberec (Czech Republic)

    2009-02-15

    A flue gas originating from a municipal waste incinerator was used as a source of CO{sub 2} for the cultivation of the microalga Chlorella vulgaris, in order to decrease the biomass production costs and to bioremediate CO{sub 2} simultaneously. The utilization of the flue gas containing 10-13% ({nu}/{nu}) CO2 and 8-10% ({nu}/{nu}) O{sub 2} for the photobioreactor agitation and CO{sub 2} supply was proven to be convenient. The growth rate of algal cultures on the flue gas was even higher when compared with the control culture supplied by a mixture of pure CO{sub 2} and air (11% ({nu}/{nu}) CO{sub 2}). Correspondingly, the CO{sub 2} fixation rate was also higher when using the flue gas (4.4 g CO{sub 2} l{sup -1} 24 h{sup -1}) than using the control gas (3.0 g CO{sub 2} l{sup -1} 24 h{sup -1}). The toxicological analysis of the biomass produced using untreated flue gas showed only a slight excess of mercury while all the other compounds (other heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls) were below the limits required by the European Union foodstuff legislation. Fortunately, extending the flue gas treatment prior to the cultivation unit by a simple granulated activated carbon column led to an efficient absorption of gaseous mercury and to the algal biomass composition compliant with all the foodstuff legislation requirements. (orig.)

  15. Co-culture of microalgae, cyanobacteria, and macromycetes for exopolysaccharides production: process preliminary optimization and partial characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelis, S; Novak, A C; Sydney, E B; Soccol, V T; Carvalho, J C; Pandey, A; Noseda, M D; Tholozan, J L; Lorquin, J; Soccol, C R

    2012-07-01

    In this study, the biomass and exopolysaccharides (EPS) production in co-cultures of microalgae/cyanobacteria and macromycetes was evaluated as a technology for producing new polysaccharides for medical and/or industrial application. Based on biomass and EPS productivity of monocultures, two algae and two fungi were selected and cultured in different co-culture arrangements. The hydrosoluble EPS fractions from mono- and co-cultures were characterized by ¹³C NMR spectroscopy and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and compared. It was found that co-cultures resulted in the production of an EPS different from those produced by monocultures, showing fungal predominance with microalgal/cyanobacterial traces. Co-cultures conditions were screened (temperature, agitation speed, fungal and microalgae inoculation rate, initial pH, illumination rate, and glucose concentration) in order to achieve maximum biomass and EPS production, resulting in an increase of 33 and 61% in exopolysaccharides and biomass productions, respectively (patent pending).

  16. Selective synthesis of human milk fat-style structured triglycerides from microalgal oil in a microfluidic reactor packed with immobilized lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Xi; Wang, Xu-Dong; Dong, Tao; Zhao, Xing-Yu; Zhu, Dan; Mei, Yi-Yuan; Wu, Guo-Hua

    2016-11-01

    Human milk fat-style structured triacylglycerols were produced from microalgal oil in a continuous microfluidic reactor packed with immobilized lipase for the first time. A remarkably high conversion efficiency was demonstrated in the microreactor with reaction time being reduced by 8 times, Michaelis constant decreased 10 times, the lipase reuse times increased 2.25-fold compared to those in a batch reactor. In addition, the content of palmitic acid at sn-2 position (89.0%) and polyunsaturated fatty acids at sn-1, 3 positions (81.3%) are slightly improved compared to the product in a batch reactor. The increase of melting points (1.7°C) and decrease of crystallizing point (3°C) implied higher quality product was produced using the microfluidic technology. The main cost can be reduced from $212.3 to $14.6 per batch with the microreactor. Overall, the microfluidic bioconversion technology is promising for modified functional lipids production allowing for cost-effective approach to produce high-value microalgal coproducts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Direct quantification of fatty acids in wet microalgal and yeast biomass via a rapid in situ fatty acid methyl ester derivatization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tao; Yu, Liang; Gao, Difeng; Yu, Xiaochen; Miao, Chao; Zheng, Yubin; Lian, Jieni; Li, Tingting; Chen, Shulin

    2015-12-01

    Accurate determination of fatty acid contents is routinely required in microalgal and yeast biofuel studies. A method of rapid in situ fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) derivatization directly from wet fresh microalgal and yeast biomass was developed in this study. This method does not require prior solvent extraction or dehydration. FAMEs were prepared with a sequential alkaline hydrolysis (15 min at 85 °C) and acidic esterification (15 min at 85 °C) process. The resulting FAMEs were extracted into n-hexane and analyzed using gas chromatography. The effects of each processing parameter (temperature, reaction time, and water content) upon the lipids quantification in the alkaline hydrolysis step were evaluated with a full factorial design. This method could tolerate water content up to 20% (v/v) in total reaction volume, which equaled up to 1.2 mL of water in biomass slurry (with 0.05-25 mg of fatty acid). There were no significant differences in FAME quantification (p>0.05) between the standard AOAC 991.39 method and the proposed wet in situ FAME preparation method. This fatty acid quantification method is applicable to fresh wet biomass of a wide range of microalgae and yeast species.

  18. Sensing of phosphates by using luminescent Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes: application to the microalgal cell Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadella, Sandeep; Sahoo, Jashobanta; Subramanian, Palani S; Sahu, Abhishek; Mishra, Sandhya; Albrecht, Markus

    2014-05-12

    Phenanthroline-based chiral ligands L(1) and L(2) as well as the corresponding Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes were synthesized and characterized. The coordination compounds show red and green emission, which was explored for the sensing of a series of anions such as F(-), Cl(-), Br(-), I(-), NO3(-), NO2(-), HPO4(2-), HSO4(-), CH3COO(-), and HCO3(-). Among the anions, HPO4(2-) exhibited a strong response in the emission property of both europium(III) and terbium(III) complexes. The complexes showed interactions with the nucleoside phosphates adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). Owing to this recognition, these complexes have been applied as staining agents in the microalgal cell Chlorella vulgaris. The stained microalgal cells were monitored through fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Initially, the complexes bind to the outer cell wall and then enter the cell wall through holes in which they probably bind to phospholipids. This leads to a quenching of the luminescence properties. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Assessment of endemic microalgae as potential food for Artemia franciscana culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M Pacheco-Vega

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, five microalgal strains were isolated from Bahía de La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico and identified as Grammatophora sp., Navícula sp., Rhabdonema sp., Schizochytrium sp., and Nitzschia sp., and their evaluation as potential food for Artemia franciscana. The isolated strains were cultured outdoors and harvested after four days. Chaetoceros muelleri was cultured under laboratory conditions and used as control. The protein, lipid, and carbohydrate composition and the fatty acid profiles of the strains were determined by gas chromatography. To assess the effect of microalgal strains on A. franciscana, decapsulated cysts were cultured at outdoor conditions in 15 L containers. The experiment was conducted for twelve days. Samples from the five different feeding treatments were taken at the beginning and end of the experiment to assess number, size, and weight of Artemia larvae. Treatment with Rhabdonema sp. showed larvae with a lower percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs while Grammatophora sp. showed those with the greatest PUFA proportion, even more than those fed Chaetoceros muelleri (control. Larvae consuming Schizochytrium sp. had no docosahexanoic (DHA nor eicosapentaenoic (EPA fatty acid content. Growth and survival of A. franciscana did not show significant differences among feed treatments, except when it was fed Nitzschia sp., showing lower survival and dry weight. Treatment based on Schizochytrium sp. and Rhabdonema sp. had a greater A. franciscana size but reduced dry weight; additional tests including two or more algal species for every treatment should be carried out to determine the best yield.

  20. A two dimensional clinostat experiment for microalgae cultures - basic work for bio- regenerativ life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harting, Benjamin; Slenzka, Klaus

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the influence of microgravity environments on photosynthetic organisms we designed a 2 dimensional clinostatexperiment for a suspended cell culture of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. A novel approach of online measurments concerning relevant parameters important for the clasification of photosynthesis was obtained. To adress the photosynthesis rate we installed and validated an optical mesurement system to monitor the evolution and consumption of dissolved oxygen. Simultaneously a PAM sensor to analyse the flourescence quantum yield of the photochemical reaction was integarted. Thus it was possible to directly classify important parameters of the phototrophic metabolism during clinorotation. The experiment design including well suited light conditions and further biochemical analysis were directly performed for microalgal cell cultures. Changes in the photosynthetic efficiancy of phototrophic cyanobacteria has been observed during parabolic flight campaign but the cause is already not understood. Explenations could be the dependency of gravitaxis by intracellular ionconcentartion or the existance of mechanosensitive ionchannels for example associated in chloroplasts of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The purpuse of the microalgal clinostat are studies in a qasi microgravity environment for the process design of future bioregenerative life suport systems in spaceflight missions. First results has indicated the need for special nourishment of the cell culture during microgravity experiments. Further data will be presented during the assembly.

  1. A Novel Miniature Culture System to Screen CO2-Sequestering Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoling Miao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a novel 96-well microplate swivel system (M96SS was built for high-throughput screening of microalgal strains for CO2 fixation. Cell growth under different CO2 supply conditions (0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 g L−1 d−1, residual nitrate, and pH value of Chlorella sp. SJTU-3, Chlorella pyrenoidosa SJTU-2, and Scenedesmus obliquus SJTU-3 were examined in the M96SS and traditional flask cultures. The dynamic data showed there was a good agreement between the systems. Two critical problems in miniature culture systems (intra-well mixing and evaporation loss were improved by sealed vertical mixing of the M96SS. A sample screen of six microalgal species (Chlorella sp. SJTU-3, Chlorella pyrenoidosa SJTU-2, Selenastrum capricornutum, Scenedesmus obliquus SJTU-3, Chlamydomonas sajao, Dunaliella primolecta was carried out in flasks and the M96SS. Chlamydomonas sajao appeared to be a robust performer (highest cell density: 1.437 g L−1 in anaerobic pond water with 0.8, and 1.2 g L−1 d−1 CO2. The reliability and efficiency of the M96SS were verified through a comparison of traditional flask culture, M96SS, Lukavský’s system, and a microplate shaker.

  2. Effect of solvents and oil content on direct transesterification of wet oil-bearing microalgal biomass of Chlorella vulgaris ESP-31 for biodiesel synthesis using immobilized lipase as the biocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dang-Thuan; Chen, Ching-Lung; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2013-05-01

    In this work, a one-step extraction/transesterification process was developed to directly convert wet oil-bearing microalgal biomass of Chlorella vulgaris ESP-31 into biodiesel using immobilized Burkholderia lipase as the catalyst. The microalgal biomass (water content of 86-91%; oil content 14-63%) was pre-treated by sonication to disrupt the cell walls and then directly mixed with methanol and solvent to carry out the enzymatic transesterification. Addition of a sufficient amount of solvent (hexane is most preferable) is required for the direct transesterification of wet microalgal biomass, as a hexane-to-methanol mass ratio of 1.65 was found optimal for the biodiesel conversion. The amount of methanol and hexane required for the direct transesterification process was also found to correlate with the lipid content of the microalga. The biodiesel synthesis process was more efficient and economic when the lipid content of the microalgal biomass was higher. Therefore, using high-lipid-content microalgae as feedstock appears to be desirable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The use of flue gas for the growth of microalgal biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeiler, K.G.; Kadam, K.L.; Heacox, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    Capture and utilization of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) by microalgae is a promising technology to help reduce emissions from fossil fuel-fired power plants. Microalgae are of particular interest because of their rapid growth rates and tolerance to varying environmental conditions. Laboratory work is directed toward investigating the effects of simulated flue gas on microalgae, while engineering studies have focused on the economics of the technology. One strain of a green algae, Monoraphidium minutum, has shown excellent tolerance and growth when exposed to simulated flue gas which meets the requirements of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (1990 CAAA). Biomass concentrations of ∼2g/L have been measured in batch culture. Several other microalgae have also shown tolerance to simulated flue gas; however, the growth of these strains is not equivalent to that observed for M. minutum. Coupling the production of biodiesel or other microalgae-derived commodity chemicals with the use of flue gas carbon dioxide is potentially a zero-cost method of reducing the amount of carbon dioxide contributed to the atmosphere by fossil fuel-fired power plants. We have identified two major biological performance parameters which can provide sufficient improvement in this technology to render it cost-competitive with other existing CO x mitigation technologies. These are algal growth rate and lipid content. An updated economic analysis shows that growth rate is the more important of the two, and should be the focus of near term research activities. The long term goal of achieving zero cost will require other, non-biological, improvements in the process

  4. The use of flue gas for the growth of microalgal biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiler, K.G.; Kadam, K.L.; Heacox, D.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    Capture and utilization of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) by microalgae is a promising technology to help reduce emissions from fossil fuel-fired power plants. Microalgae are of particular interest because of their rapid growth rates and tolerance to varying environmental conditions. Laboratory work is directed toward investigating the effects of simulated flue gas on microalgae, while engineering studies have focused on the economics of the technology. One strain of a green algae, Monoraphidium minutum, has shown excellent tolerance and growth when exposed to simulated flue gas which meets the requirements of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (1990 CAAA). Biomass concentrations of {similar_to}2g/L have been measured in batch culture. Several other microalgae have also shown tolerance to simulated flue gas; however, the growth of these strains is not equivalent to that observed for M. minutum. Coupling the production of biodiesel or other microalgae-derived commodity chemicals with the use of flue gas carbon dioxide is potentially a zero-cost method of reducing the amount of carbon dioxide contributed to the atmosphere by fossil fuel-fired power plants. We have identified two major biological performance parameters which can provide sufficient improvement in this technology to render it cost-competitive with other existing CO{sub x} mitigation technologies. These are algal growth rate and lipid content. An updated economic analysis shows that growth rate is the more important of the two, and should be the focus of near term research activities. The long term goal of achieving zero cost will require other, non-biological, improvements in the process.

  5. Information and Corporate Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Miriam A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper defines "corporate culture" (set of values and beliefs shared by people working in an organization which represents employees' collective judgments about future) and discusses importance of corporate culture, nature of corporate cultures in business and academia, and role of information in shaping present and future corporate…

  6. Characterization of the photosynthetic conditions and pigment profiles of the colour strains of Hypnea musciformis from field-collected and in vitro cultured samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela R. P. Fernandes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen JV Lamour. is a species of great economic interest as it produces Κ-carrageenan and has shown biological activities against HIV and HSV viruses. This species displays different colour strains in its natural habitat, which may have implications for the biotechnological potential of the species. The aim of this study was to characterize the photosynthetic apparatus and pigment profile of three colour strains of H. musciformis (green, brown and red in their natural habitat and in culture. Chlorophyll a fluorescence of photosystem II was measured with a pulse-amplitude modulated fluorometer and pigments were quantified by spectrofluorimetry (chlorophyll a and spectrophotometry (phycobiliproteins. In the natural habitat, we detected significant differences between the colour strains for the following photochemical parameters: the green strain had a higher effective quantum yield (ΦPSII than the red strain and a higher maximum relative electron transport rate (rETRmax than the brown and red strains. Saturation irradiances were 1000 µE.m-2.s-1 (green and 500 µE.m-2.s-1 (brown and red. Concerning in vitro culture, the green strain presented the lowest ΦPSII, rETRmax, and α rETR, while the brown strain presented the highest values for these same parameters. The chlorophyll a content of the cultured green strain was the lowest. The phycoerythrin contents of the three colour strains were unchanged by either natural of in vitro conditions: lower in green, intermediate in brown and higher in the red strain, ensuring the chromatic identity of the strains. Our results suggest that the green strain has a better performance when exposed to high irradiance, but a lower efficiency under low irradiance compared to the brown and red strains.

  7. Difficult Past, Difficult Present?: How Collective Memory and Personal Experience Shape Beliefs on Politico-Cultural Identity in Post-Conflict Societies Today

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leigh, James

    2013-01-01

    In essence, we are all products of our experience; thus the positions we adopt today are influenced by what we remember (and forget) about our past. This is true at both individual and collective levels. In societies traumatised by conflict, the act of recalling and dealing with the past is

  8. The Mouse Intestinal Bacterial Collection (miBC) provides host-specific insight into cultured diversity and functional potential of the gut microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Pukall, Rüdiger; Abt, Birte

    2016-01-01

    of intestinal microbiomes and their interactions with diet and host. It is thus important to study in detail the diversity and functions of gut microbiota members, including those colonizing the mouse intestine. To address these issues, we aimed at establishing the Mouse Intestinal Bacterial Collection (mi...

  9. Microalgal fatty acid methyl ester a new source of bioactive compounds with antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugham Suresh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate fatty acid composition and the antimicrobial activity of the major fraction of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME extracts from three microalgae collected from freshwater lakes in Theni District, Tamil Nadu, India. Methods: Antimicrobial study was carried out by well diffusion method against bacterial as well as fungal pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter sp., Klebsiella sp., Salmonella typhi, Fusarium sp., Cryptococcus sp., Candida sp., and Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. The FAME profiles were determined through gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. Results: The FAME was found to be radial effective in inhibiting the radial growth of both bacterial and fungal pathogens. The FAME extracts exhibited the antibacterial activity against three clinical pathogens, namely, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Enterobacter sp. with the maximum zone of inhibition of 12.0 mm, 12.0 mm and 11.0 mm, respectively. The FAME showed moderate antifungal activity against Cryptococcus sp. (11.8 mm, Aspergillus niger (10.5 mm, Candida sp. (11.8 mm and Fusarium sp. (10.4 mm. Gas chromatography-flame ionization detector analysis revealed about 30 different FAMEs. Conclusions: We assume that the observed antimicrobial potency may be due to the abundance of erucic acid methyl ester (C22:0, arachidic acid methyl ester (C20:0, palmitic acid methyl ester (C16:0, cis-11-eicosenoicmethyl ester (C20:1, cis-11, 14-eicosadienoic acid methyl ester (C20:2 and linolenic acid methyl ester (C18:3 in FAMEs which appears to be promising to treat microbial diseases.

  10. Vernalophrys algivore gen. nov., sp. nov. (Rhizaria: Cercozoa: Vampyrellida), a New Algal Predator Isolated from Outdoor Mass Culture of Scenedesmus dimorphus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yingchun; Patterson, David J; Li, Yunguang; Hu, Zixuan; Sommerfeld, Milton; Chen, Yongsheng; Hu, Qiang

    2015-06-15

    Microbial contamination is the main cause of loss of biomass yield in microalgal cultures, especially under outdoor environmental conditions. Little is known about the identities of microbial contaminants in outdoor mass algal cultures. In this study, a new genus and species of vampyrellid amoeba, Vernalophrys algivore, is described from cultures of Scenedesmus dimorphus in open raceway ponds and outdoor flat-panel photobioreactors. This vampyrellid amoeba was a significant grazer of Scenedesmus and was frequently associated with a very rapid decline in algal numbers. We report on the morphology, subcellular structure, feeding behavior, molecular phylogeny, and life cycle. The new amoeba resembles Leptophrys in the shape of trophozoites and pseudopodia and in the mechanism of feeding (mainly by engulfment). It possesses two distinctive regions in helix E10_1 (nucleotides 117 to 119, CAA) and E23_1 (nucleotides 522 and 523, AG) of the 18S rRNA gene. It did not form a monophyletic group with Leptophrys in molecular phylogenetic trees. We establish a new genus, Vernalophrys, with the type species Vernalophrys algivore. The occurrence, impact of the amoeba on mass culture of S. dimorphus, and means to reduce vampyrellid amoeba contamination in Scenedesmus cultures are addressed. The information obtained from this study will be useful for developing an early warning system and control measures for preventing or treating this contaminant in microalgal mass cultures. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. The isolation and preliminary characterization of native cyanobacterial and microalgal strains from lagoons contaminated with petroleum oil in Khark Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Noroozi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Algae has many applications in terms of ecology, biodiversity, agriculture, medicine, biotechnology, industry, etc. They are potent organisms in bio-active compound production, bioremediation and primary producer. Therefore, it is important to discover local strains with biotechnological and ecological applications. Materials and methods: Soil and water samples were collected from different sites of Khark Island (Persian Gulf. The samples were cultivated and purified using different techniques. Seven different antibiotics together with other physical methods used to purify the isolates. Results: Throughout the project 7 strains including 2 eukaryotic algae and 5 cyanobacteria have been isolated. Imipenem and cycloheximide were the best antibiotics for purification of cultures. Three of isolates were morphologically similar to Arthronema africanum, Pseudanabaena teremula, Anabaenopsis sp. However, they have some different characteristics which according to the present identification keys it is not possible to identify their identity (they have nominated Kh.C.d2, Kh.T.1 and Kh.T.2. Discussion and conclusion: According to the results, isolated strains were identified at the genus level based on morphology characters; therefore the complementary examinations such as molecular identification, ITS, 18s rRNA, 16s rRNA and sequencing can help to approve the strains identity. Upon approval of the new strains account for morphological traits are necessary for their easy identification. The Imipenem antibiotic is the best for eukaryotic algae purification and Cycloheximide is suitable for prokaryotic algae (cyanobacteria purification.

  12. Association with an ammonium-excreting bacterium allows diazotrophic culture of oil-rich eukaryotic microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Marquez, Juan Cesar Federico; Do Nascimento, Mauro; Dublan, Maria de Los Angeles; Curatti, Leonardo

    2012-04-01

    Concerns regarding the depletion of the world's reserves of oil and global climate change have promoted an intensification of research and development toward the production of biofuels and other alternative sources of energy during the last years. There is currently much interest in developing the technology for third-generation biofuels from microalgal biomass mainly because of its potential for high yields and reduced land use changes in comparison with biofuels derived from plant feedstocks. Regardless of the nature of the feedstock, the use of fertilizers, especially nitrogen, entails a potential economic and environmental drawback for the sustainability of biofuel production. In this work, we have studied the possibility of nitrogen biofertilization by diazotrophic bacteria applied to cultured microalgae as a promising feedstock for next-generation biofuels. We have obtained an Azotobacter vinelandii mutant strain that accumulates several times more ammonium in culture medium than wild-type cells. The ammonium excreted by the mutant cells is bioavailable to promote the growth of nondiazotrophic microalgae. Moreover, this synthetic symbiosis was able to produce an oil-rich microalgal biomass using both carbon and nitrogen from the air. This work provides a proof of concept that artificial symbiosis may be considered an alternative strategy for the low-N-intensive cultivation of microalgae for the sustainable production of next-generation biofuels and other bioproducts.

  13. Culture and Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Anders Ib

    INTRODUCTION The present publication deals with issues of imagination and creativity as a notion, philosophy – and social and cultural form, with point of departure in current debates on visual culture. Whereas these debates cover a large ground, spanning from media studies over design to cultural...... studies, they seldom reflect on the basic fact that visual culture in its present form indicates a huge collective creativity in some capacity, implicating the entire postwar era. From early focuses on the possible social and cultural roles of the image in the 1950s and 60s - e.g. in work of Roland...... and cognitive science. Thus visual culture points to an interesting inroad to - and a possible novel focus on - the image - pictorial representation - as an issue of cultural creativity. For one thing the current interest in visual culture goes along with a surge in concrete interest in culture and creativity...

  14. Performance evaluation of a green process for microalgal CO2 sequestration in closed photobioreactor using flue gas generated in-situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Geetanjali; Karemore, Ankush; Dash, Sukanta Kumar; Sen, Ramkrishna

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, carbon-dioxide capture from in situ generated flue gas was carried out using Chlorella sp. in bubble column photobioreactors to develop a cost effective process for concomitant carbon sequestration and biomass production. Firstly, a comparative analysis of CO2 sequestration with varying concentrations of CO2 in air-CO2 and air-flue gas mixtures was performed. Chlorella sp. was found to be tolerant to 5% CO2 concentration. Subsequently, inhibitory effect of pure flue gas was minimized using various strategies like use of high initial cell density and photobioreactors in series. The final biofixation efficiency was improved by 54% using the adopted strategies. Further, sequestered microalgal biomass was analyzed for various biochemical constituents for their use in food, feed or biofuel applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Transversalidades no estudo sobre jovens no Brasil: educação, ação coletiva e cultura Transversalities in the study on young people in Brazil: education, collective action, and culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Pontes Sposito

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O artigo examina as possibilidades de análise das ações coletivas de jovens, particularmente aquelas que derivam de práticas culturais, no interior de uma perspectiva que procura resgatar orientações do pensamento sociológico brasileiro que recusa uma segmentação estanque dos campos de estudo. A partir de balanço realizado da produção discente na Pós-Graduação nas Ciências Sociais, Educação e Serviço Social, é possível delinear novos desafios para a pesquisa sobre jovens e suas práticas coletivas. Um conjunto de estudos realizados a partir de meados dos anos 1990 oferece um quadro importante das manifestações derivadas dos denominados grupos de estilos e culturas juvenis, sobretudo no campo da música. Darks, punks, rappers foram os principais estilos investigados e, em menor escala, a cultura funk. A compreensão adensada das presenças diversificadas dos jovens nos espaços públicos em seus coletivos remete a uma necessária trans-versalidade que demanda não desconsiderar na análise outras dimensões da experiência juvenil. As transformações decorrentes da intensa expansão dos sistemas de ensino nas últimas décadas no Brasil, as novas configurações do mundo do trabalho e as significativas formas de apropriação do espaço urbano que articula novas formas de sociabilidade são aspectos importantes a serem considerados nas análises das denominadas culturas juvenis e suas formas de ação coletiva.This article examines the possibilities of analyzing collective action by young people, especially that which derives from cultural practices within a perspective that tries to recall the guiding lines of the Brazilian sociological thought which denies a rigid segmentation of study fields. Starting from a survey on student production in Post-Graduation programs in Social Sciences, Education, and Social Work, it is possible to delineate new challenges for the research on young people and their collective practices. A

  16. Imagine A Collective Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Silvia Campanini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Iceland plays a key role in the circumpolar context. The research investigates the fields of both the icelandic cultural landscape perception and the icelandic cultural identity. It considers the book Ultima thule; or, a summer in Iceland and Ólafur Elíasson art works as two sides of a same medal: the Iceland on the brain concept (F. Burton. The transition from a cultural identity to a collective landscape identity is investigated analysing Imagine J. Lennon's song which inspired Yõko Ono's work art titled Imagine Peace Tower.

  17. Measuring Cultural Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patsiurko, Natalka; Campbell, John L.; Hall, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Many claim that national economic success depends upon cultural homogeneity. We collect new time-series data and develop new measures of ethnic, linguistic and religious fractionalization for the OECD countries. We show that cultural diversity may vary by type across countries and over short peri...

  18. Cross-Cultural Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triandis, Harry C.; Brislin, Richard W.

    Cross-Cultural psychology refers to the collective efforts of researchers who work among people who live in different societies, with different languages and different forms of government. There are a number of benefits to the study of human behavior which can be accrued by carrying out research in various cultures, largely concerned with better…

  19. Effects of wavelength mixing ratio and photoperiod on microalgal biomass and lipid production in a two-phase culture system using LED illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirisuk, Phunlap; Ra, Chae-Hun; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Kim, Sung-Koo

    2018-04-01

    Blue and red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were used to study the effects of wavelength mixing ratios, photoperiod regimes, and green wavelength stress on Nannochloropsis salina, Isochrysis galbana, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum cell biomass and lipid production. The maximum specific growth rates of I. galbana and P. tricornutum were obtained under a 50:50 mixing ratio of blue and red wavelength LEDs; that of N. salina was obtained under red LED. Maximum cell biomass for N. salina and P. tricornutum was 0.75 and 1.07 g dcw/L, respectively, obtained under a 24:0 h light/dark cycle. However, the maximum I. galbana biomass was 0.89 g dcw/L under an 18:6 h light/dark cycle. The maximum lipid contents for N. salina, I. galbana, and P. tricornutum were 49.4, 63.3 and 62.0% (w/w), respectively, after exposure to green LED. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were obtained 1% in P. tricornutum and 2% in I. galbana. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Multidisciplinary team review of best practices for collection and handling of blood cultures to determine effective interventions for increasing the yield of true-positive bacteremias, reducing contamination, and eliminating false-positive central line-associated bloodstream infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Robert A; Spitzer, Eric D; Beaudry, Josephine; Beck, Cindy; Diblasi, Regina; Gilleeny-Blabac, Michelle; Haugaard, Carol; Heuschneider, Stacy; Kranz, Barbara P; McLean, Karen; Morales, Katherine L; Owens, Susan; Paciella, Mary E; Torregrosa, Edwin

    2015-11-01

    A literature search was conducted using keywords for articles published in English from January 1990 to March 2015. Using criteria related to blood culture collection and handling, the search yielded 101 articles. References used also included Microbiology Laboratory standards, guidelines, and textbook information. The literature identified diverse and complex issues surrounding blood culture practices, including the impact of false-positive results, laboratory definition of contamination, effect on central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) reporting, indications for collecting blood cultures, drawing from venipuncture sites versus intravascular catheters, selection of antiseptics, use of needleless connectors, inoculation of blood culture bottles, and optimizing program management in emergency departments, education, and implementation of bundled practice initiatives. Hospitals should optimize best practice in the collection, handling, and management of blood culture specimens, an often overlooked but essential component in providing optimal care of patients in all settings and populations, reducing financial burdens, and increasing the accuracy of reportable CLABSI. Although universal concepts exist in blood culture practices, some issues require further research to determine benefit. Institutions undertaking a review of their blood culture programs are encouraged to use a checklist that addresses elements that encompass the research contained in this review. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A fast and systematic procedure to develop dynamic models of bioprocesses: application to microalgae cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mailier

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to report on the development of a procedure for inferring black-box, yet biologically interpretable, dynamic models of bioprocesses based on sets of measurements of a few external components (biomass, substrates, and products of interest. The procedure has three main steps: (a the determination of the number of macroscopic biological reactions linking the measured components; (b the estimation of a first reaction scheme, which has interesting mathematical properties, but might lack a biological interpretation; and (c the "projection" (or transformation of this reaction scheme onto a biologically-consistent scheme. The advantage of the method is that it allows the fast prototyping of models for the culture of microorganisms that are not well documented. The good performance of the third step of the method is demonstrated by application to an example of microalgal culture.

  2. Developing cultural sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruddock, Heidi; Turner, deSalle

    2007-01-01

    . Background. Many countries are becoming culturally diverse, but healthcare systems and nursing education often remain mono-cultural and focused on the norms and needs of the majority culture. To meet the needs of all members of multicultural societies, nurses need to develop cultural sensitivity......Title. Developing cultural sensitivity: nursing students’ experiences of a study abroad programme Aim. This paper is a report of a study to explore whether having an international learning experience as part of a nursing education programme promoted cultural sensitivity in nursing students...... and incorporate this into caregiving. Method. A Gadamerian hermeneutic phenomenological approach was adopted. Data were collected in 2004 by using in-depth conversational interviews and analysed using the Turner method. Findings. Developing cultural sensitivity involves a complex interplay between becoming...

  3. The Generalizing Work on History and Culture of the Cossacks (Book Review: Essays on the History and Culture of the Cossacks of Southern Russia: Collective Monograph [Text] / ed. by G. G. Matishov, I. O. Tyumentsev ; Southern Scientic Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences; Volgograd Branch of Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education “Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration”. – Volgograd : Izd-vo Volgogradskogo Filiala FGBOU VPO RANKhiGS, 2014. – 624 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugay Nikolay F.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article represents a review of the collective monograph “Essays on the history and culture of the Cossacks of Southern Russia”, published in 2014 under the auspices of the Southern Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Volgograd branch of Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration. The review provides a critical analysis of the material in the collective monograph on the problems of studying the history and culture of the Cossacks. The author notes that the revival of Cossacks that began in the 1990s, not only drew attention to the Cossack problem in modern Russia, but also stimulated scientific and public interest in the history and culture of the Cossacks. Russian Cossacks have rich past and its culture is colorful and specific, its role in the history of Russia is significant. Issues of origin and development of the Cossacks, their place among the peoples of Russia, the specificity of cultural practices are constantly causing great interest for researchers. All this has led scientistsspecialists in the history and culture of the Cossacks to the idea of the creation of this scientific work, which has become a generalization of accumulated research experience on the most important issues of the Cossacks’ historical existence. The authors of the monograph limited their research by Southern Russia because of the complexity of creating general work on all Cossack troops which have historically existed in the Russian state and had sometimes very great cultural differences and special historical destiny. The authors made a very successful attempt to highlight the main problematic aspects of the history and culture of the Cossacks. The genre of essay chosen for creating a collective monograph, has allowed not only to identify the most relevant topics of the Cossack history and culture, but also to consider them in relation and development. Each essay contains material that allows to

  4. Culture, technology, communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ess, Charles; Sudweeks, Fay

    The first book-length anthology to collect some of the most significant culturally-oriented research and scholarship on CMC from the biennial conference series "Cultural Attitudes towards Technology and Communication" (CATaC). The collection is significant for its contribution towards calling...... attention to the role of culturally-variable dimensions, including communication preferences, in the design, implementation, and use of ICTs - and thereby helping to bring into the mainstream of related scholarship and research (e.g., HCI, etc.) what was then a novel perspective and series of questions...

  5. Culture-sensitive psychotraumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Schnyder

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although there is some evidence of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD construct's cross cultural validity, trauma-related disorders may vary across cultures, and the same may be true for treatments that address such conditions. Experienced therapists tailor psychotherapy to each patient's particular situation, to the nature of the patient's psychopathology, to the stage of therapy, and so on. In addition, culture-sensitive psychotherapists try to understand how culture enhances the meaning of their patient's life history, the cultural components of their illness and help-seeking behaviors, as well as their expectations with regard to treatment. We cannot take for granted that all treatment-seeking trauma survivors speak our language or share our cultural values. Therefore, we need to increase our cultural competencies. Methods: The authors of this article are clinicians and/or researchers from across the globe, working with trauma survivors in various settings. Each author focused on one or more specific cultural aspects of working with trauma survivors and highlighted the following aspects. Results: As a result of culture-specific individual and collective meanings linked to trauma and trauma-related disorders survivors may be exposed to (self-stigma in the aftermath of trauma. Patients who are reluctant to talk about their traumatic experiences may instead be willing to write or use other ways of accessing the painful memories such as drawing. In other cultures, community and family cohesion are crucial elements of recovery. While awareness of culture-specific aspects is important, we also need to beware of premature cultural stereotyping. When disseminating empirically supported psychotherapies for PTSD across cultures, a number of additional challenges need to be taken into account: many low and middle income countries have very limited resources available and suffer from a poor health infrastructure. Conclusions: In summary

  6. Biocapture of CO2 by Different Microalgal-Based Technologies for Biogas Upgrading and Simultaneous Biogas Slurry Purification under Various Light Intensities and Photoperiods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Pengfei; Zhang, Yuejin; Zhao, Yongjun

    2018-01-01

    Co-cultivation of microalgae and microbes for pollutant removal from sewage is considered as an effective wastewater treatment method. The aim of this study is to screen the optimal photoperiod, light intensity and microalgae co-cultivation method for simultaneously removing nutrients in biogas slurry and capturing CO2 in biogas. The microalgae–fungi pellets are deemed to be a viable option because of their high specific growth rate and nutrient and CO2 removal efficiency under the photoperiod of 14 h light:10 h dark. The order of both the biogas slurry purification and biogas upgrading is ranked the same, that is Chlorella vulgaris–Ganoderma lucidum > Chlorella vulgaris–activated sludge > Chlorella vulgaris under different light intensities. For all cultivation methods, the moderate light intensity of 450 μmol m−2 s−1 is regarded as the best choice. This research revealed that the control of photoperiod and light intensity can promote the biological treatment process of biogas slurry purification and biogas upgrading using microalgal-based technology. PMID:29543784

  7. Production of DagA and ethanol by sequential utilization of sugars in a mixed-sugar medium simulating microalgal hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Juyi; Hong, Soon-Kwang; Chang, Yong Keun

    2015-09-01

    A novel two-step fermentation process using a mixed-sugar medium mimicking microalgal hydrolysate has been proposed to avoid glucose repression and thus to maximize substrate utilization efficiency. When DagA, a β-agarase was produced in one step in the mixed-sugar medium by using a recombinant Streptomyces lividans, glucose was found to have negative effects on the consumption of the other sugars and DagA biosynthesis causing low substrate utilization efficiency and low DagA productivity. To overcome such difficulties, a new strategy of sequential substrate utilization was developed. In the first step, glucose was consumed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae together with galactose and mannose producing ethanol, after which DagA was produced from the remaining sugars of xylose, rhamnose and ribose. Fucose was not consumed. By adopting this two-step process, the overall substrate utilization efficiency was increased approximately 3-fold with a nearly 2-fold improvement of DagA production, let alone the additional benefit of ethanol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Search for a Lipid Trigger: The Effect of Salt Stress on the Lipid Profile of the Model Microalgal Species Chlamydomonas reinhardtii for Biofuels Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounslow, Emily; Kapoore, Rahul Vijay; Vaidyanathan, Seetharaman; Gilmour, D James; Wright, Phillip C

    2016-11-01

    Algal cells produce neutral lipid when stressed and this can be used to generate biodiesel. Salt stressed cells of the model microalgal species Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were tested for their suitability to produce lipid for biodiesel. The starchless mutant of C. reinhardtii (CC-4325) was subjected to salt stress (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 M NaCl) and transesterification and GC analysis were used to determine fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) content and profile. Fatty acid profile was found to vary under salt stress conditions, with a clear distinction between 0.1 M NaCl, which the algae could tolerate, and the higher levels of NaCl (0.2 and 0.3 M), which caused cell death. Lipid content was increased under salt conditions, either through long-term exposure to 0.1 M NaCl, or short-term exposure to 0.2 and 0.3 M NaCl. Palmitic acid (C16:0) and linolenic acid (C18:3n3) were found to increase significantly at the higher salinities. Salt increase can act as a lipid trigger for C. reinhardtii.

  9. Evaluation of indigenous microalgal isolate Chlorella sp. FC2 IITG as a cell factory for biodiesel production and scale up in outdoor conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuraj, Muthusivaramapandian; Kumar, Vikram; Palabhanvi, Basavaraj; Das, Debasish

    2014-03-01

    The present study reports evaluation of an indigenous microalgal isolate Chlorella sp. FC2 IITG as a potential candidate for biodiesel production. Characterization of the strain was performed under photoautotrophic, heterotrophic, and mixotrophic cultivation conditions. Further, an open-pond cultivation of the strain under outdoor conditions was demonstrated to evaluate growth performance and lipid productivity under fluctuating environmental parameters and in the presence of potential contaminants. The key findings were: (1) the difference in cultivation conditions resulted in significant variation in the biomass productivity (73-114 mg l⁻¹ day⁻¹) and total lipid productivity (35.02-50.42 mg l⁻¹ day⁻¹) of the strain; (2) nitrate and phosphate starvation were found to be the triggers for lipid accumulation in the cell mass; (3) open-pond cultivation of the strain under outdoor conditions resulted in biomass productivity of 44 mg l⁻¹ day⁻¹ and total lipid productivity of 10.7 mg l⁻¹ day⁻¹; (4) a maximum detectable bacterial contamination of 7 % of the total number of cells was recorded in an open-pond system; and (5) fatty acid profiling revealed abundance of palmitic acid (C16:0), oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2), which are considered to be the key elements for suitable quality biodiesel.

  10. Biocapture of CO2 by Different Microalgal-Based Technologies for Biogas Upgrading and Simultaneous Biogas Slurry Purification under Various Light Intensities and Photoperiods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Guo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Co-cultivation of microalgae and microbes for pollutant removal from sewage is considered as an effective wastewater treatment method. The aim of this study is to screen the optimal photoperiod, light intensity and microalgae co-cultivation method for simultaneously removing nutrients in biogas slurry and capturing CO2 in biogas. The microalgae–fungi pellets are deemed to be a viable option because of their high specific growth rate and nutrient and CO2 removal efficiency under the photoperiod of 14 h light:10 h dark. The order of both the biogas slurry purification and biogas upgrading is ranked the same, that is Chlorella vulgaris–Ganoderma lucidum > Chlorella vulgaris–activated sludge > Chlorella vulgaris under different light intensities. For all cultivation methods, the moderate light intensity of 450 μmol m−2 s−1 is regarded as the best choice. This research revealed that the control of photoperiod and light intensity can promote the biological treatment process of biogas slurry purification and biogas upgrading using microalgal-based technology.

  11. Evaluation of various solvent systems for lipid extraction from wet microalgal biomass and its effects on primary metabolites of lipid-extracted biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Faiz Ahmad; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Shriwastav, Amritanshu; Guldhe, Abhishek; Rawat, Ismail; Bux, Faizal

    2017-06-01

    Microalgae have tremendous potential to grow rapidly, synthesize, and accumulate lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. The effects of solvent extraction of lipids on other metabolites such as proteins and carbohydrates in lipid-extracted algal (LEA) biomass are crucial aspects of algal biorefinery approach. An effective and economically feasible algae-based oil industry will depend on the selection of suitable solvent/s for lipid extraction, which has minimal effect on metabolites in lipid-extracted algae. In current study, six solvent systems were employed to extract lipids from dry and wet biomass of Scenedesmus obliquus. To explore the biorefinery concept, dichloromethane/methanol (2:1 v/v) was a suitable solvent for dry biomass; it gave 18.75% lipids (dry cell weight) in whole algal biomass, 32.79% proteins, and 24.73% carbohydrates in LEA biomass. In the case of wet biomass, in order to exploit all three metabolites, isopropanol/hexane (2:1 v/v) is an appropriate solvent system which gave 7.8% lipids (dry cell weight) in whole algal biomass, 20.97% proteins, and 22.87% carbohydrates in LEA biomass. Graphical abstract: Lipid extraction from wet microalgal biomass and biorefianry approach.

  12. [Proceedings of the VII international symposium 'Cultural heritage in geosciences, mining and metallurgy : libraries, archives, museums' : "Museums and their collections" held at the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Leiden (The Netherlands), 19-23 May, 2003 / Cor F. Winkler Prins and Stephen K. Donovan (editors)]: Collections in libraries: a collection of travel-books in the University Library Leoben

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jontes, L.

    2004-01-01

    Collecting seems to be a topic, which has become more and more interesting during the last years. It is not only the passion that seizes people of all parts of our society, it is more than some sort of eccentricity, it goes back to our roots, when we were hunters and gatherers to gain our living.

  13. What Is so "Cultural" About Cultural Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staffan Albinsson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The term “cultural entrepreneurship” has been increasingly used during the new millennium, mirroring the rapidly growing importance of the “quaternary sector of the economy,” i.e. knowledge-based industries, including culture. Exploration of the literature in which the term “cultural entrepreneurship” is used does not bring a solid, clear-cut, and unambiguous understanding of its definition or meaning. The aim of this paper is to present various uses of the concept and to bring about some clarity in how the concept can be understood. Two overarching uses of the cultural entrepreneurship concept have been found: 1. the anthropologist’s and institutional economist’s use, which indicates the dynamic development of intangible cultural features such as symbols, myths, languages, beliefs, values, norms, rituals, and attitudes in and between societies, and 2. the arts development use, which indicates the dynamic development of cultural services, tangible goods, and individual or collective career promotion. Most authors use a cultural entrepreneurship concept without defining it. Authors could apply more precise definitions by using a quadruple bottom-line framework to position themselves in the nexus of financial, social, artistic, and cultural perspectives.

  14. Changes in cultural consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarrete, T.; Borowiecki, K. J.

    2016-01-01

    Visits to museums have been studied as hedonic and utilitarian forms of cultural consumption, though limited attention has been given to the access of museum collections online. We perform a unique historic analysis of the visibility of collections in a museum of ethnographic collections and comp......, particularly when showing them being used). Results support understanding of online heritage consumption and emerging dynamics, particularly outside of an institutional environment, such as Wikipedia. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group....

  15. Collective Improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare M. Cooper

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Collective improvisation as a creative practice is intensely social, trusting, unpopular, anti-hierarchical and, for these reasons, political. Cooper describes the risks and rich rewards of improvising with fellow artists and identifies the parallels between improvising ensembles of musicians in Australia with the collectively painted protest banners of the Taring Padi Collective in Indonesia after a brief visit to Jogjakarta.

  16. Urine culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  17. 縣市立(文化中心)圖書館與地方文獻服務 | The Local Collection Services of Cultural Center Libraries in Taiwan, R.O.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    陳仲彥 Chung-yen Chen

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available

    頁次:65-71

    本文係根據「縣市立(文化中心)圖書館推展地方文獻服務調查問卷」所得之結果,將各縣市立(文化中心)圖書館辦理地方文獻的情況,做一概要性的描述。同時歸納出一些相關的問題,以供未來圖書館進行地方文獻服務工作時參考。最後並建議必須結合政府與民間的力量,才能夠做好此項工作。

    According to the result of one questionnaire survey, this article describes the current situations of local collection services of cultural center libraries in Taiwan, R.O.C. In order to improve the qualities of local collection services, some key points and suggestions are presented. The author believe that the successes of local collection services must be based on the cooperation of governments, private institutions, and common people.

  18. Safeguards Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2012-07-01

    The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.

  19. Organizational culture

    OpenAIRE

    Schein, Edgar H.

    1988-01-01

    Cultural orientations of an organization can be its greatest strength, providing the basis for problem solving, cooperation, and communication. Culture, however, can also inhibit needed changes. Cultural changes typically happen slowly – but without cultural change, many other organizational changes are doomed to fail. The dominant culture of an organization is a major contributor to its success. But, of course, no organizational culture is purely one type or another. And the existence of sec...

  20. Culture and luxury value perception

    OpenAIRE

    Grange, Ségolène

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate how culture influences the way consumers perceive luxury. The model used in this paper combines previously developed frameworks concerning luxury value dimensions with the famous model of Hofstedes’ cultural dimensions. An online survey has been completed to collect data to compare responses of consumers from two different countries. Then an analysis of the data collected has been conducted in order to identify the cultural influence. ...

  1. Forest ecosystem services: Cultural values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissa M. Kreye; Damian C. Adams; Ramesh Ghimire; Wayde Morse; Taylor Stein; J. M. Bowker

    2017-01-01

    How we define “culture” and societal well-being related to culture depends heavily on who is looking at it, but culture can be generally described as “the customs and beliefs of a particular group of people that are used to express their collectively held values” (Soulbury Commission 2012). In the context of forests, culturally derived norms, beliefs, and values help...

  2. Cultural entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Klamer (Arjo)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCultural entrepreneurship is a new character in the cultural sector. This paper characterizes the cultural entrepreneur paying homage to the hermeneutic approach of Don Lavoie and others. The challenge is to render the "cultural" meaningful. An invention is the highlighting of the

  3. Industrial cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    1996-01-01

    The chapter deals with different paradigms andtheories of cultural development. The problem toexplain change and methods to analyse developmentin different cultures are presented and discussed.......The chapter deals with different paradigms andtheories of cultural development. The problem toexplain change and methods to analyse developmentin different cultures are presented and discussed....

  4. Chromium (VI) biosorption and removal of chemical oxygen demand by Spirulina platensis from wastewater-supplemented culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Clinei D; Deon, Maitê C; De Rossi, Andreia; Reinehr, Christian O; Hemkemeier, Marcelo; Colla, Luciane M

    2012-01-01

    The inappropriate discharge of wastewater containing high concentrations of toxic metals is a serious threat to the environment. Given that the microalga Spirulina platensis has demonstrated a capacity for chromium VI (Cr (VI) biosorption, we assessed the ideal concentration of chromium-containing wastewater required for maximum removal of Cr (VI) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the environment by using this microalga. The Paracas and Leb-52 strains of S. platensis, with initial wastewater concentrations of 0%, 12.5%, 25%, and 50%, were cultured in Zarrouk medium diluted to 50% under controlled air, temperature, and lighting conditions. The cultures were maintained for 28 days, and pH, biomass growth, COD, and Cr (VI) were assessed. The wastewater concentration influenced microalgal growth, especially at high concentrations. Removal of 82.19% COD and 60.92% Cr (VI) was obtained, but the COD removal was greater than the Cr (VI) removal in both strains of S. platensis.

  5. Delegating effectively across cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvie Chevrier; Michaël Viegas-Pires

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This article builds on the contingency approach of global leadership to examine empowerment in a cross-cultural context. Drawing upon an ethnographic research in a French NGO settled in Madagascar, it demonstrates that effective empowerment is not so much a matter of degree -more or less delegation- than a matter of manner. Understanding the cultural representations of role and structure formalization, skill development, collective work and decision-making appeared to ...

  6. Culture-sensitive psychotraumatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnyder, Ulrich; Bryant, Richard A.; Ehlers, Anke; Foa, Edna B.; Hasan, Aram; Mwiti, Gladys; Kristensen, Christian H.; Neuner, Frank; Oe, Misari; Yule, William

    2016-01-01

    Background Although there is some evidence of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) construct's cross cultural validity, trauma-related disorders may vary across cultures, and the same may be true for treatments that address such conditions. Experienced therapists tailor psychotherapy to each patient's particular situation, to the nature of the patient's psychopathology, to the stage of therapy, and so on. In addition, culture-sensitive psychotherapists try to understand how culture enhances the meaning of their patient's life history, the cultural components of their illness and help-seeking behaviors, as well as their expectations with regard to treatment. We cannot take for granted that all treatment-seeking trauma survivors speak our language or share our cultural values. Therefore, we need to increase our cultural competencies. Methods The authors of this article are clinicians and/or researchers from across the globe, working with trauma survivors in various settings. Each author focused on one or more specific cultural aspects of working with trauma survivors and highlighted the following aspects. Results As a result of culture-specific individual and collective meanings linked to trauma and trauma-related disorders survivors may be exposed to (self-)stigma in the aftermath of trauma. Patients who are reluctant to talk about their traumatic experiences may instead be willing to write or use other ways of accessing the painful memories such as drawing. In other cultures, community and family cohesion are crucial elements of recovery. While awareness of culture-specific aspects is important, we also need to beware of premature cultural stereotyping. When disseminating empirically supported psychotherapies for PTSD across cultures, a number of additional challenges need to be taken into account: many low and middle income countries have very limited resources available and suffer from a poor health infrastructure. Conclusions In summary, culture

  7. ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE AND MANAGEMENT CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Tudor Hobeanu; Loredana Vacarescu Hobeanu

    2010-01-01

    Communication reveals the importance of organizational culture and management culture supported by the remarkable results in economic and social level of organization. Their functions are presented and specific ways of expression levels of organizational culture and ways of adapting to the requirements of the organization's management culture.

  8. Time series monitoring of water quality and microalgal diversity in a tropical bay under intense anthropogenic interference (SW coast of the Bay of Bengal, India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaik, Aziz ur Rahman [CSIR — National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, 176 Lawson' s Bay Colony, Visakhapatnam, AP 530017 (India); Biswas, Haimanti, E-mail: haimanti.biswas@nio.org [CSIR — National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, 176 Lawson' s Bay Colony, Visakhapatnam, AP 530017 (India); Reddy, N.P.C.; Srinivasa Rao, V. [CSIR — National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, 176 Lawson' s Bay Colony, Visakhapatnam, AP 530017 (India); Bharathi, M.D. [Present address: ICMAM Project Directorate, 2nd Floor, NIOT Campus, Velacherry-Tambaram Main Road, Pallikkaranai, Chennai 600100 (India); Subbaiah, Ch.V. [CSIR — National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, 176 Lawson' s Bay Colony, Visakhapatnam, AP 530017 (India)

    2015-11-15

    In recent decades, material fluxes to coastal waters from various land based anthropogenic activities have significantly been enhanced around the globe which can considerably impact the coastal water quality and ecosystem health. Hence, there is a critical need to understand the links between anthropogenic activities in watersheds and its health. Kakinada Bay is situated at the SW part of the Bay of Bengal, near to the second largest mangrove cover in India with several fertilizer industries along its bank and could be highly vulnerable to different types of pollutants. However, virtually, no data is available so far reporting its physicochemical status and microalgal diversity at this bay. In order to fill this gap, we conducted three time series observations at a fixed station during January, December and June 2012, at this bay measuring more than 15 physical, chemical and biological parameters in every 3 h over a period of 36 h in both surface (0 m) and subsurface (4.5 m) waters. Our results clearly depict a strong seasonality between three sampling months; however, any abnormal values of nutrients, biological oxygen demand or dissolved oxygen level was not observed. A Skeletonema costatum bloom was observed in December which was probably influenced by low saline, high turbid and high Si input through the river discharge. Otherwise, smaller diatoms like Thalassiosira decipiens, Thalassiothrix frauenfeldii, and Thalassionema nitzschioides dominated the bay. It is likely that the material loading can be high at the point sources due to intense anthropogenic activities, however, gets diluted with biological, chemical and physical processes in the offshore waters. - Highlights: • No signature of enormous nutrient loading was observed over the diel cycle • Dissolved oxygen and BOD concentrations did not show any exceptional trend • Diatoms dominated more than 90% of the total phytoplankton communities • A Skeletonema Costatum (a centric diatom) bloom was

  9. Time series monitoring of water quality and microalgal diversity in a tropical bay under intense anthropogenic interference (SW coast of the Bay of Bengal, India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaik, Aziz ur Rahman; Biswas, Haimanti; Reddy, N.P.C.; Srinivasa Rao, V.; Bharathi, M.D.; Subbaiah, Ch.V.

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, material fluxes to coastal waters from various land based anthropogenic activities have significantly been enhanced around the globe which can considerably impact the coastal water quality and ecosystem health. Hence, there is a critical need to understand the links between anthropogenic activities in watersheds and its health. Kakinada Bay is situated at the SW part of the Bay of Bengal, near to the second largest mangrove cover in India with several fertilizer industries along its bank and could be highly vulnerable to different types of pollutants. However, virtually, no data is available so far reporting its physicochemical status and microalgal diversity at this bay. In order to fill this gap, we conducted three time series observations at a fixed station during January, December and June 2012, at this bay measuring more than 15 physical, chemical and biological parameters in every 3 h over a period of 36 h in both surface (0 m) and subsurface (4.5 m) waters. Our results clearly depict a strong seasonality between three sampling months; however, any abnormal values of nutrients, biological oxygen demand or dissolved oxygen level was not observed. A Skeletonema costatum bloom was observed in December which was probably influenced by low saline, high turbid and high Si input through the river discharge. Otherwise, smaller diatoms like Thalassiosira decipiens, Thalassiothrix frauenfeldii, and Thalassionema nitzschioides dominated the bay. It is likely that the material loading can be high at the point sources due to intense anthropogenic activities, however, gets diluted with biological, chemical and physical processes in the offshore waters. - Highlights: • No signature of enormous nutrient loading was observed over the diel cycle • Dissolved oxygen and BOD concentrations did not show any exceptional trend • Diatoms dominated more than 90% of the total phytoplankton communities • A Skeletonema Costatum (a centric diatom) bloom was

  10. Music, Meaning and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Widdess

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper situates musical meaning in culture, addressing music as social symbol and as ongoing process of meaning creation. Three examples of non- Western musical practice are used to illustrate the embedding of musical meaning in cultural context. The performance of an Australian Aboriginal song is shown to exemplify the interdependence of song style and social structure as a matrix for the emergence of cultural meanings; an example of North Indian performance is adduced to demonstrate the multi-layered nature of meaning as embodied in musical performance; and an example of collective festival performance from Nepal illustrates ways in which the structure of musical performance can mirror local cultural forms. Each of the three examples lends weight to the idea that music's meanings are often non-linguistic and reflect foundational schemas that are specific to the cultures from the musics are drawn.

  11. Culture as Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacunko, Slavko

    essays, Slavko Kacunko discusses the process art by crossing the disciplines of art history and comparative media-, visual- and -cultural studies. As a first approximation, several historiographical remarks on closed-circuit video installations underline their importance as a core category of process art......A collection of essays 2011-2014 By following, and reproducing, the cultural turn, the rhetoric of cultural mix and hybridism is disseminated today primarily in its crossing of trade barriers. Cultures reduced to their exchange value function as capital - an accumulative, speculative and....... In the second part, the problems of process art, seen as a threshold of art history, are further examined in another retroanalytical step, in which concepts and objects related to `mirror', `frame' and `immediacy' are analyzed as the triple delimitation of visual culture studies. In the third part, previously...

  12. Culture as Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacunko, Slavko

    A collection of essays 2011-2014 By following, and reproducing, the cultural turn, the rhetoric of cultural mix and hybridism is disseminated today primarily in its crossing of trade barriers. Cultures reduced to their exchange value function as capital - an accumulative, speculative and...... essays, Slavko Kacunko discusses the process art by crossing the disciplines of art history and comparative media-, visual- and -cultural studies. As a first approximation, several historiographical remarks on closed-circuit video installations underline their importance as a core category of process art....... In the second part, the problems of process art, seen as a threshold of art history, are further examined in another retroanalytical step, in which concepts and objects related to `mirror', `frame' and `immediacy' are analyzed as the triple delimitation of visual culture studies. In the third part, previously...

  13. Culture and Social Psychology: Converging Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimaggio, Paul; Markus, Hazel Rose

    2010-01-01

    Views of culture in psychology and sociology have converged markedly in the past two decades. Both have rejected what Adams and Markus (2004) refer to as the "entity" conception of culture--the view that culture is coherent, stable, and located in the heads of collectivities' members--in favor of more supple and dynamic constructs. Culture, in…

  14. Optimization and radiation protection culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, In Young; Shin, Hyeong Ki; Lee, Chan Mi

    2013-01-01

    Safety culture or radiation protection culture is based in common on the term, 'culture'. Culture is defined as the learned, shared set of symbols and patterns of basic assumptions, which is invented, discovered, or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problem of external adaptation and internal integration. Safety culture generally refers to the attitude and behaviors affecting safety performance. The concept of 'Safety Culture' was introduced after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. For the accident, nuclear society reached the conclusion that the cause was the wrong management attitude of the NPP, that is, deficient 'Safety Culture'. Recently, 'Radiation Protection Culture' was introduced as the core concept of nuclear safety culture. There have been many efforts to establish definition and develop assessment tool for radiation protection culture in international level such as ICRP and IRPA as well as NRC. In the same context with the safety culture, radiation protection culture is defined as 'the core values and behaviors resulting from a collective commitment by leaders and individual's to emphasize safety over competing goals to ensure protection of people and the environment.' It is worthwhile to recognize that regulatory enforcement in establishing healthy radiation protection culture of operators should be minimized because culture is not in the domain of regulatory enforcement. However, as 'ALARA', the most important concept in radiation protection, may be successfully achieved only in well established radiation protection culture, the least regulatory intervention would be needed in promoting and nurturing radiation protection culture in licensee. In addition, the concept of radiation protection culture should be addressed in plant operational policy to achieve the goals of ALARA. The pre-condition of the successful radiation protection culture is a healthy organizational

  15. Optimization and radiation protection culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, In Young; Shin, Hyeong Ki; Lee, Chan Mi [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Safety culture or radiation protection culture is based in common on the term, 'culture'. Culture is defined as the learned, shared set of symbols and patterns of basic assumptions, which is invented, discovered, or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problem of external adaptation and internal integration. Safety culture generally refers to the attitude and behaviors affecting safety performance. The concept of 'Safety Culture' was introduced after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. For the accident, nuclear society reached the conclusion that the cause was the wrong management attitude of the NPP, that is, deficient 'Safety Culture'. Recently, 'Radiation Protection Culture' was introduced as the core concept of nuclear safety culture. There have been many efforts to establish definition and develop assessment tool for radiation protection culture in international level such as ICRP and IRPA as well as NRC. In the same context with the safety culture, radiation protection culture is defined as 'the core values and behaviors resulting from a collective commitment by leaders and individual's to emphasize safety over competing goals to ensure protection of people and the environment.' It is worthwhile to recognize that regulatory enforcement in establishing healthy radiation protection culture of operators should be minimized because culture is not in the domain of regulatory enforcement. However, as 'ALARA', the most important concept in radiation protection, may be successfully achieved only in well established radiation protection culture, the least regulatory intervention would be needed in promoting and nurturing radiation protection culture in licensee. In addition, the concept of radiation protection culture should be addressed in plant operational policy to achieve the goals of ALARA. The pre-condition of the successful radiation protection culture is a healthy organizational

  16. Collective Efficacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ying; Zhou, Xiaohu; Klyver, Kim

    2018-01-01

    at manufacturing companies show that benevolent leadership and moral leadership, both components of paternalistic leadership, are positively related to organizational commitment and further that collective efficacy mediates the moral leadership–organizational commitment relationship. We did not find a relationship...... between authoritarian leadership and organizational commitment. Besides, it was found that team cohesion negatively moderates the relationship between moral leadership and collective efficacy and positively moderates the relationship between collective efficacy and organizational commitment. Explanations......Based on social cognitive theory, we theorize that collective efficacy plays a mediating role in the relationship between paternalistic leadership and organizational commitment and that this mediating role depends on team cohesion. The empirical results from a study of 238 employees from 52 teams...

  17. Culturing Protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Compares various nutrient media, growth conditions, and stock solutions used in culturing protozoa. A hay infusion in Chalkey's solution maintained at a stable temperature is recommended for producing the most dense and diverse cultures. (WB)

  18. Safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    Safety culture has become a topic of increasing interest for industry and regulators as issues are raised on safety problems around the world. The keys to safety culture are organizational effectiveness, effective communications, organizational learning, and a culture that encourages the identification and resolution of safety issues. The necessity of a strong safety culture places an onus on all of us to continually question whether the safety measures already in place are sufficient, and are being applied. (author)

  19. Growth-arresting Activity of Acmella Essential Oil and its Isolated Component D-Limonene (1, 8 P-Mentha Diene) against Trichophyton rubrum (Microbial Type Culture Collection 296).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhan, Diptikanta; Pattnaik, Smaranika; Behera, Ajaya Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Spilanthes acmella is used as a remedy in toothache complaints by the tribal people of Western part of Odisha, India. The objective of this study was to study the growth-arresting activity of an indigenous Acmella essential oil (EO) ( S. acmella Murr, Asteraceae ) and its isolated component, d-limonene against Trichophyton rubrum (microbial type culture collection 296). The EO was extracted from flowers of indigenous S. acmella using Clevenger's apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) was carried out to isolate the major constituent. The isolated fraction was subjected to fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The antidermatophytic activity was screened for using "disc diffusion" and "slant dilution" method followed by optical, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. The molecular dockings were made between d-limonene with cell wall synthesis-related key enzymes (14 methyl deaminase and monooxygenase). The GC-MS analysis EO had inferred the presence of 7 number of major (≥2%) components. The component with highest peak area (%) was found to be 41.02. The HPLC-isolated fraction was identified as d-limonene (1,8 p-Mentha-diene) by FTIR and NMR. Qualitative and quantitative assays had suggested the growth inhibitory activity of Acmella EO and its component. Shrinkage, evacuation, cell wall puncture, and leakage of cellular constituents by the activity of Acmella oil and d-limonene were evidenced from optical, SEM, and TEM studies. The computer simulation had predicted the binding strengths of d-limonene and fluconazole with dermatophyte cell wall enzymes. There could have been synergistic action of all or some of compounds present in indigenous Acmella EO. There was presence of seven number of (d-limonene, ocimene, β-myrcene, cyclohexene, 3-(1, 5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl)-6-methylene,

  20. Beyond Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Daniel D.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the lack of literature relating to cultural differences and school library media programs and reviews the book "Beyond Culture" by Edward T. Hall. Highlights include the population/environment crisis, cultural literacy, the use of technology, and Marshall McLuhan's idea of the global village. (LRW)

  1. Bile culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - bile ... is placed in a special dish called a culture medium to see if bacteria, viruses, or fungi ... Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Body fluid - anaerobic culture. In: ... . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:225-226. Kim AY, ...

  2. Handling Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieter van Nispen tot Pannerden

    2011-01-01

    The article indicates how companies may prepare for and deal with cultural differences. Because the research base is still rather limited an overall perspective may not be realised. After discussing definitions and concepts of culture, as well as values, cultural differences between states are

  3. Collective Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galster, Kjeld

    in worldwide market conditions left perceptible ripples in Danish economy, budget discussions grew in importance over this period. The pacifist stance entailed disinclination to accept that the collective security concept and international treaties and accords signed by Denmark should necessitate credible...... and other international treaties provided arguments for adjusting the foreign and security policy ambitions, and since the general flux in worldwide market conditions left perceptible ripples in Danish economy, budget discussions grew in importance over this period. The pacifist stance entailed......Collective Security: National Egotism (Abstract) In Danish pre-World War I defence debate the notion of collective security is missing. During the early years of the 19th century, the political work is influenced by a pervasive feeling of rising tension and danger on the continent of Europe...

  4. Locals Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Hastings-King

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A locals collection is a set of parameters that are used to delimit data-mining operations. This piece uses a collection of locals from around Essex Massachusetts to shape and delimit an interrogation of post-reality in contemporary America. It explores the notion of crisis, the possibility of a crisis of empire that may or may not emerge in a media-space that does not allow crisis of empire to be mentioned and relations this maybe-crisis to the various levels of economic dysfunction that have become evident since late 2008. But mostly this piece explores ways in which particular stories about particular people do and do not link/link to these larger-scale narratives. This is the first of a potential series of locals collections that will mine the American post-real.

  5. Collective Action of 'Others' in Sydney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter F Lalich

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Various ethnic communities undertake collective action to satisfy their social needs in a place of settlement. Collectively created social resources are representative of the patterns of fragmented ethnic collective actions that differ in their capability to appropriate human and material resources, orientation, outcome, form and intensity. Through collective creation of social space migrants add a new and dynamic dimension to the social environment. During the dramatic post-1945 changes in Sydney demographic and cultural structures, over 450 “other” (ethnic collectives mobilised through grass-roots efforts their scarce resources and created needed collective goods, such as places of worship, clubs, schools, age care facilities. In this way, through creation of communal roots ethnic collectives navigate the path between exclusion and the various forms of inclusion in a dynamic culturally diverse society. Ethnic communal places signify collective conscience, participation, and the embeddedness of transplanted cultures in a transforming social environment and transnational social space.

  6. 76 FR 4697 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... engagement and on the current organizational culture and climate surrounding patient and family engagement... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research...

  7. Storytelling and German Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Connie S. Eigenmann

    The genre of fairytales, one structured form of storytelling, has been labeled "Marchen." German culture is orally transmitted in this generic form, and can be traced to a collection of 210 fairytales, the Grimm brothers'"Kinder-und Taus-Marchen," first published shortly after 1800. For this study, research questions were posed…

  8. Culture in Sustainability--Defining Cultural Sustainability in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Marja

    2016-01-01

    The definition of cultural sustainability in education is explored in this article by looking into conceptions of cultural sustainability collected through expert queries and focus group engagement. These conceptions are compared with the scientific and especially pedagogical discourse on the matter as well as Soini and Birkeland's theory of story…

  9. Personal Albums and Cultural Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi Lorenz

    2018-01-01

    as discussions of representational ethics in relation to anthropological and colonial photography, this article examines the exhibition The Photo Albums at the Dutch National Maritime Museum. Typically, the photo collections of maritime museums include many photographs that represent cultural encounters...

  10. African Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Jarita C; Medupe, R. Thebe; Current Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy research in Africa

    2008-01-01

    Astronomy is the science of studying the sky using telescopes and light collectors such as photographic plates or CCD detectors. However, people have always studied the sky and continue to study the sky without the aid of instruments this is the realm of cultural astronomy. This is the first scholarly collection of articles focused on the cultural astronomy of Africans. It weaves together astronomy, anthropology, and Africa. The volume includes African myths and legends about the sky, alignments to celestial bodies found at archaeological sites and at places of worship, rock art with celestial imagery, and scientific thinking revealed in local astronomy traditions including ethnomathematics and the creation of calendars. Authors include astronomers Kim Malville, Johnson Urama, and Thebe Medupe; archaeologist Felix Chami, and geographer Michael Bonine, and many new authors. As an emerging subfield of cultural astronomy, African cultural astronomy researchers are focused on training students specifically for do...

  11. Producción de Ácidos Grasos Poliinsaturados a partir de Biomasa Microalgal en un Cultivo Heterotrófico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Inés Leal Medina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo aquí presentado se enfocó en la producción de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados o PUFA’s (por sus siglas del inglés PolyUnsaturated Fatty Acids a partir de biomasa microalgal en un cultivo heterotrófico. Para esto, se utilizaron las algas Chlorella sp. y Scenedesmus sp., en condiciones heterotróficas, posteriormente se seleccionó la cepa con mayor productividad, se realizaron las cinéticas con ambas algas para cuantificar la concentración de biomasa, glucosa, nitrógeno y fósforo; se extrajeron los lípidos y se analizaron por cromatografía de gases. El cultivo heterotrófico se estableció en un reactor de tanque agitado de flujo continuo o CSTR (por sus siglas del inglés Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor de 1L, con las siguientes condiciones; 28°C, 1vvm, pH 6,8 y relación C/N 12:1. Luego, se realizó el cultivo en un “Biorreactor BioFlo 115” con volumen de 10L y se determinó la productividad de los lípidos obtenidos. El perfil lipídico permitió establecer que el ácido graso obtenido en mayor cantidad en CHL2 es el ácido oleico (C 18:1 con un porcentaje igual al 28,75 del total de ácidos grasos, también se destacan la acumulación de los ácidos grasos palmitoléico (C 16:1 con 19,75%, ácido araquídico (C 20:0 con 19,37%, ácido linoleico (C 18:2 con 11,86%, ácido palmítico (C 16:0 con 7,24%, ácido linolénico (ɤ-C 18:3 con 2,61%, ácido erúcico (C 22:1 con 4,61% y ácido esteárico (C 18:0 2,4%.

  12. Allelopathic interactions between the red-tide causative dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense and the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum* This study was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China-Guangdong Province Joint Key Project (U1133003 Science Technology Planning Project of Guangdong Province (2012B020307009 Open Fund from Key Laboratory of Aquatic Eutrophication Control of Harmful Algal Blooms of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes Open Fund from Key Laboratory of Microbial Resources Collection Preservation Ministry of Agriculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoping Cai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between the red-tide causing dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense and the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum were investigated using a co-culture experiment and an enriched culture filtrate experiment. The results showed that when the two microalgae were cultured together with different initial cell densities, the growth of one species was basically suppressed by the other one. In addition, the enriched culture filtrates of one species had generally inhibitory effects on the other one. Our result inferred that P. donghaiense and P. tricornutum would interfere with each other mainly by releasing allelochemicals into the culture medium, and that the degree of allelopathic effects was dependent on the initial cell densities and growth phases. The allelopathic interactions between microalgal species may contribute to the formation and succession of red tides.

  13. Improved biomass and lipid production in a mixotrophic culture of Chlorella sp. KR-1 with addition of coal-fired flue-gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveenkumar, Ramasamy; Kim, Bohwa; Choi, Eunji; Lee, Kyubock; Park, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Jin-Suk; Lee, Young-Chul; Oh, You-Kwan

    2014-11-01

    Industrial CO2-rich flue-gases, owing to their eco-toxicity, have yet to be practically exploited for microalgal biomass and lipid production. In this study, various autotrophic and mixotrophic culture modes for an oleaginous microalga, Chlorella sp. KR-1 were compared for the use in actual coal-fired flue-gas. Among the mixotrophic conditions tested, the fed-batch feedings of glucose and the supply of air in dark cycles showed the highest biomass (561 mg/L d) and fatty-acid methyl-ester (168 mg/L d) productivities. This growth condition also resulted in the maximal population of microalgae and the minimal population and types of KR-1-associated-bacterial species as confirmed by particle-volume-distribution and denaturing-gradient-gel-electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses. Furthermore, microalgal lipid produced was assessed, based on its fatty acid profile, to meet key biodiesel standards such as saponification, iodine, and cetane numbers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Glycerol and Glucose on the Enhancement of Biomass, Lipid and Soluble Carbohydrate Production by Chlorella vulgaris in Mixotrophic Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel-derived glycerol is a promising substrate for mixotrophic cultivation of oleaginous microalgae, which can also reduce the cost of microalgal biodiesel. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of using glycerol and glucose as a complex carbon substrate to produce microalgal biomass and biochemical components, such as photosynthetic pigments, lipids, soluble carbohydrates and proteins by Chlorella vulgaris. The results show that C. vulgaris can utilize glycerol as a sole carbon substrate, but its effect is inferior to that of the mixture of glycerol and glucose. The effect of glycerol and glucose could enhance the algal cell growth rate, biomass content and volumetric productivity, and overcome the lower biomass production on glycerol as the sole organic carbon source in mixotrophic culture medium. The utilization of complex organic carbon substrate can stimulate the biosynthesis of lipids and soluble carbohydrates as the raw materials for biodiesel and bioethanol production, and reduce the anabolism of photosynthetic pigments and proteins. This study provides a promising niche for reducing the overall cost of biodiesel and bioethanol production from microalgae as it investigates the by-products of algal biodiesel production and algal cell hydrolysis as possible raw materials (lipids and carbohydrates and organic carbon substrates (soluble carbohydrates and glycerol for mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae.

  15. Innovation in the collective brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukrishna, Michael; Henrich, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Innovation is often assumed to be the work of a talented few, whose products are passed on to the masses. Here, we argue that innovations are instead an emergent property of our species' cultural learning abilities, applied within our societies and social networks. Our societies and social networks act as collective brains. We outline how many human brains, which evolved primarily for the acquisition of culture, together beget a collective brain. Within these collective brains, the three main sources of innovation are serendipity, recombination and incremental improvement. We argue that rates of innovation are heavily influenced by (i) sociality, (ii) transmission fidelity, and (iii) cultural variance. We discuss some of the forces that affect these factors. These factors can also shape each other. For example, we provide preliminary evidence that transmission efficiency is affected by sociality—languages with more speakers are more efficient. We argue that collective brains can make each of their constituent cultural brains more innovative. This perspective sheds light on traits, such as IQ, that have been implicated in innovation. A collective brain perspective can help us understand otherwise puzzling findings in the IQ literature, including group differences, heritability differences and the dramatic increase in IQ test scores over time. PMID:26926282

  16. Concurrent Collections

    OpenAIRE

    Budimlić, Zoran; Burke, Michael; Cavé, Vincent; Knobe, Kathleen; Lowney, Geoff; Newton, Ryan; Palsberg, Jens; Peixotto, David; Sarkar, Vivek; Schlimbach, Frank; Taşırlar, Sağnak

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the Concurrent Collections (CnC) programming model. CnC supports flexible combinations of task and data parallelism while retaining determinism. CnC is implicitly parallel, with the user providing high-level operations along with semantic ordering constraints that together form a CnC graph. We formally describe the execution semantics of CnC and prove that the model guarantees deterministic computation. We evaluate the performance of CnC implementations on several applications an...

  17. Spatial Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Spatial Culture – A Humanities Perspective Abstract of introductory essay by Henrik Reeh Secured by alliances between socio-political development and cultural practices, a new field of humanistic studies in spatial culture has developed since the 1990s. To focus on links between urban culture...... and modern society is, however, an intellectual practice which has a much longer history. Already in the 1980s, the debate on the modern and the postmodern cited Paris and Los Angeles as spatio-cultural illustrations of these major philosophical concepts. Earlier, in the history of critical studies, the work...... Foucault considered a constitutive feature of 20th-century thinking and one that continues to occupy intellectual and cultural debates in the third millennium. A conceptual framework is, nevertheless, necessary, if the humanities are to adequa-tely address city and space – themes that have long been...

  18. Cultural contrast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周志

    2016-01-01

    Chinese cultural contains a great number of styles;culture differentiation does not depend on region differentiation.This research would interpret what difference between Hong Kong and Shenzhen.1.Food culture in china Traditional Chinese medicine suggests eating local seasonal fruit and vegetables,as they are most suitable for the body during a particular season.It is also divided food into 3 characteristics:cooling foods,warming foods and balance or

  19. Culture evolves

    OpenAIRE

    Whiten, Andrew; Hinde, Robert A.; Laland, Kevin N.; Stringer, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    Culture pervades human lives and has allowed our species to create niches all around the world and its oceans, in ways quite unlike any other primate. Indeed, our cultural nature appears so distinctive that it is often thought to separate humanity from the rest of nature and the Darwinian forces that shape it. A contrary view arises through the recent discoveries of a diverse range of disciplines, here brought together to illustrate the scope of a burgeoning field of cultural evolution and to...

  20. Manuscript Cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What do Mesoamerica, Greece, Byzantium, Island, Chad, Ethiopia, India, Tibet, China and Japan have in common? Like many other cultures of the world, they share a particular form of cultural heritage: ancient handwritten documents. In 2007, scholars from some20 countries around the world gathered...... at the University of Copenhagen for a workshop on manuscripts to compare notes. This event led to the publication of this volume, which brings together16 articles on philological, cultural, and material aspects of manuscripts in search for a common ground across disciplines and cultures....

  1. [Proceedings of the VII international symposium 'Cultural heritage in geosciences, mining and metallurgy : libraries, archives, museums' : "Museums and their collections" held at the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Leiden (The Netherlands), 19-23 May, 2003 / Cor F. Winkler Prins and Stephen K. Donovan (editors)]: Towards modern petrological collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kriegsman, L.M.

    2004-01-01

    Petrological collections result from sampling for academic research, for aesthetic or commercial reasons, and to document natural diversity. Selection criteria for reducing and enhancing collections include adequate documentation, potential for future use, information density, time and money

  2. 77 FR 5023 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... organizations to develop a ``culture of safety'' such that their workforce and processes focus on improving the... proposed information collection project: ``Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture Comparative... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Proposed Project Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture Comparative Database...

  3. Skin or nail culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  4. [Proceedings of the VII international symposium 'Cultural heritage in geosciences, mining and metallurgy : libraries, archives, museums' : "Museums and their collections" held at the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Leiden (The Netherlands), 19-23 May, 2003 / Cor F. Winkler Prins and Stephen K. Donovan (editors)]: The Alexander the First collection of the Lausanne Museum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minina, E.L.

    2004-01-01

    Study of written sources in archives sometimes allows to restore the history of collections. A good example is the Alexander the First collection. In 1819, de la Harpe had sent an Etruscan vase to Alexander I as a gift, and had received a collection of Russian minerals in return. Alexander's

  5. [Proceedings of the VII international symposium 'Cultural heritage in geosciences, mining and metallurgy : libraries, archives, museums' : "Museums and their collections" held at the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Leiden (The Netherlands), 19-23 May, 2003 / Cor F. Winkler Prins and Stephen K. Donovan (editors)]: Historical mineral collections in the silver mining town of Kongsberg, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordrum, F.S.; Berg, B.I.

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of native silver deposits at Kongsberg, Norway, in 1623 created interest for silver specimens and mineral collecting, also among mining officers. Large collections were donated by J. Hiort, M.T. Brünnich and J. Esmark to the Mining Academy at Kongsberg. The Academy's collections were

  6. Collective Success or Collective Failure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fayyaz, Anjum

    study of soccer village project to learn how various attempts at facilitating joint CSR action in the Pakistani football manufacturing have consistently failed in addressing international CSR compliance demands. I conclude that this form of collective failure – along with technological changes, lack...... of innovation, and government failure - can partly explain why Sialkot has been marginalized in terms of its overall share of world football manufacturing in the last decade....

  7. Examples of safety culture practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report has been prepared to illustrate the concepts and principles of safety culture produced in 1991 by the International Safety Advisory Group as 75-INSAG-4. It provides a small selection of examples taken from a worldwide collection of safety performance evaluations (e.g. IAEA safety series, national regulatory inspections, utility audits and a plant assessments). These documented evaluations collectively provide a database of safety performance strengths and weakness, and related safety culture observations. The examples which have been selected for inclusion in this report are those which are considered worthy of special mention and which illustrate a specific attribute of safety culture given in 75-INSAG-4

  8. Cultural probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Østergaard

    The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation.......The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation....

  9. Cultural Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jose

    It is too often taken for granted that the communication process with culturally different children takes place as readily as it might with children from Anglo cultures. Most teachers receive training in verbal and formal communication skills; children come to school with nonverbal and informal communication skills. This initially can create…

  10. Connecting Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugegaard, Rikke; Mynster Christensen, Maya

    2017-01-01

    The understanding of cultural dynamics in the area of operations is essential in to the accomplishment of military missions in international operations. The aim of this handbook is to introduce a tool enabling the use of culture as part of the military operational planning process....

  11. Stool Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infections and may be identified with a stool culture. Some important examples include: Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and other toxin- ... the toxin-producing C. difficile will be performed. Examples of other less common causes include: ... of stool cultures that are reported as negative usually reflect the ...

  12. Boosting Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Culture makes up an indispensable part of our lives, just like material comfort. It is thought of as an important source of a nation’s vitality and creativity, and constitutes a key factor uniting the nation,while making it distinctive from other countries. It is also said culture is a productiv

  13. Internet culture

    CERN Document Server

    Porter, David

    2013-01-01

    The internet has recently grown from a fringe cultural phenomenon to a significant site of cultural production and transformation. Internet Culture maps this new domain of language, politics and identity, locating it within the histories of communication and the public sphere. Internet Culture offers a critical interrogation of the sustaining myths of the virtual world and of the implications of the current mass migration onto the electronic frontier. Among the topics discussed in Internet Culture are the virtual spaces and places created by the citizens of the Net and their claims to the hotly contested notion of "virtual community"; the virtual bodies that occupy such spaces; and the desires that animate these bodies. The contributors also examine the communication medium behind theworlds of the Net, analyzing the rhetorical conventions governing online discussion, literary antecedents,and potential pedagogical applications.

  14. Avatar Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koda, Tomoko; Ishida, Toru; Rehm, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    and Western designers. The goals of the study were: (1) to investigate cultural differences in avatar expression evaluation and apply findings from psychological studies of human facial expression recognition, (2) to identify expressions and design features that cause cultural differences in avatar facial...... expression interpretation. The results of our study confirmed that (1) there are cultural differences in interpreting avatars’ facial expressions, and the psychological theory that suggests physical proximity affects facial expression recognition accuracy is also applicable to avatar facial expressions, (2......Avatars are increasingly used to express our emotions in our online communications. Such avatars are used based on the assumption that avatar expressions are interpreted universally among all cultures. This paper investigated cross-cultural evaluations of avatar expressions designed by Japanese...

  15. CULTURAL TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana POP

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will try to analyse the cultural tourism. We will start by referring to the complex concepts of tourism and culture and to the synergies existing between them. We will define cultural tourism and present its appearance and evolution as well as its importance as a modern form of tourism. We will present the various types of cultural tourism with their characteristics and the specific features of cultural tourists according to their interests. We will also mention that there are advantages and disadvantages for any kind of tourism depending on the position – local communities, companies or tourists. For the future we will refer to the new partnership between UNWTO and UNESCO.

  16. The Power of Collective Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoo, Jenni; Hattie, John; Eells, Rachel

    2018-01-01

    When the members of a team of educators are confident they have the ability to make a difference in a school, it can have a significant impact on school culture and achievement. In this article, the authors discuss the ways that collective efficacy (or its absence) manifests in a school and offer suggestions for leaders on how to develop it. Key…

  17. Frame of Reference: Special Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetsch, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    Rare, distinctive, unique--academic libraries are exploring new ways to describe and define what they've traditionally called special collections: incunabula, manuscripts, rare books, cultural artifacts and more. These valuable, historically important, and often one-of-a-kind artifacts can be a treasure trove for scholars and students. Technology…

  18. Cultural mediation in museums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gherghina Boda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available If we perceive the museum not only as a place of storing and conserving the patrimony, but also of transmitting it, then we can also see it as a mediator through which cultures can become collective patrimony. Tightly connected to patrimonial appropriation, mediation appears from this perspective as a process and not an end, as it manifests itself in animation, communication and making knowledge popular in relation to a precise patrimony. That is why we can see cultural mediation as a transmission, as a transformation, as an action or social project which aims at creating social bonds, the museum thus being not only a place of meeting for the public with the objects exposed, but also as a place of meeting between different cultures. Thus, cultural mediation presents itself as the most efficient means for access to culture of all categories of the public, situated as the crossroads of culture, continuous education and entertainment and is inscribed in the field of informal education.

  19. Foreign Language Teaching and Cultural Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Raja T., Ed.; And Others

    A collection of works on the role of cultural identity in second language learning and teaching includes: "Linguas estrangeiras e ideologia" (Roberto Ballalai); "Cultural Identity and Bilinguality" (Josiane F. Hamers, Michel Blanc); "Foreign Language Teaching and Cultural Identity" (Lakshmie K. Cumaranatunge);…

  20. Safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drukraroff, C.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of Safety Culture was defined after Chernobyl's nuclear accident in 1986. It has not been exempt from discussion interpretations, adding riders, etc..., over the last 24 years because it has to do with human behavior and performance in the organizations. Safety Culture is not an easy task to define, assess and monitor. The proof of it is that today we still discussing and writing about it. How has been the evolution of Safety Culture at the Juzbado Factory since 1985 to today?. What is the strategy that we will be following in the future. (Author)

  1. Thesaurus-based search in large heterogeneous collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielemaker, J.; Hildebrand, M.; van Ossenbruggen, J.; Schreiber, G.

    2008-01-01

    In cultural heritage, large virtual collections are coming into existence. Such collections contain heterogeneous sets of metadata and vocabulary concepts, originating from multiple sources. In the context of the E-Culture demonstrator we have shown earlier that such virtual collections can be

  2. Globalization, culture and psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melluish, Steve

    2014-10-01

    This article outlines the cultural and psychological effects of globalization. It looks at the impact of globalization on identity; ideas of privacy and intimacy; the way we understand and perceive psychological distress; and the development of the profession of psychology around the world. The article takes a critical perspective on globalization, seeing it as aligned with the spread of neoliberal capitalism, a tendency towards cultural homogenization, the imposition of dominant 'global north' ideas and the resultant growing inequalities in health and well-being. However, it also argues that the increased interconnectedness created by globalization allows for greater acknowledgement of our common humanity and for collective efforts to be developed to tackle what are increasingly global problems. This requires the development of more nuanced understandings of cultural differences and of indigenous psychologies.

  3. The biology of cultural conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berns, Gregory S; Atran, Scott

    2012-03-05

    Although culture is usually thought of as the collection of knowledge and traditions that are transmitted outside of biology, evidence continues to accumulate showing how biology and culture are inseparably intertwined. Cultural conflict will occur only when the beliefs and traditions of one cultural group represent a challenge to individuals of another. Such a challenge will elicit brain processes involved in cognitive decision-making, emotional activation and physiological arousal associated with the outbreak, conduct and resolution of conflict. Key targets to understand bio-cultural differences include primitive drives-how the brain responds to likes and dislikes, how it discounts the future, and how this relates to reproductive behaviour-but also higher level functions, such as how the mind represents and values the surrounding physical and social environment. Future cultural wars, while they may bear familiar labels of religion and politics, will ultimately be fought over control of our biology and our environment.

  4. Paramilitary Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, James William

    1989-01-01

    Identifies the movie, "Rambo," and "Soldier of Fortune" magazine as artifacts of "paramilitary culture." Contends that they are a social phenomenon which helps legitimate the United States government's rapid escalation of military forces. (MS)

  5. Rectal culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have an infection of the rectum, such as gonorrhea . It may also be done instead of a ... infection. This may be: Bacterial infection Parasitic enterocolitis Gonorrhea Sometimes a culture shows that you are a ...

  6. [Proceedings of the VII international symposium 'Cultural heritage in geosciences, mining and metallurgy : libraries, archives, museums' : "Museums and their collections" held at the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Leiden (The Netherlands), 19-23 May, 2003 / Cor F. Winkler Prins and Stephen K. Donovan (editors)]: Landesmuseum Karnten - the Collections of Natural Sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stumfohl, R.

    2004-01-01

    Public museums collections had a hard start in Carinthia: only in 1848 did the first Museum of Natural Sciences open, maintained by the 'Naturhistorischer Verein für Kärnten'. For a long time the collections were based on private donations. In 1884, the 'Naturhistorischer Verein' and the

  7. Safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The response to a previous publication by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG), indicated a broad international interest in expansion of the concept of Safety Culture, in such a way that its effectiveness in particular cases may be judged. This report responds to that need. In its manifestation, Safety Culture has two major components: the framework determined by organizational policy and by managerial action, and the response of individuals in working within and benefiting by the framework. 1 fig

  8. An Outlook on Microalgal Biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijffels, R.H.; Barbosa, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Microalgae are considered one of the most promising feedstocks for biofuels. The productivity of these photosynthetic microorganisms in converting carbon dioxide into carbon-rich lipids, only a step or two away from biodiesel, greatly exceeds that of agricultural oleaginous crops, without competing

  9. Microalgal hydrogen production - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khetkorn, Wanthanee; Rastogi, Rajesh P; Incharoensakdi, Aran; Lindblad, Peter; Madamwar, Datta; Pandey, Ashok; Larroche, Christian

    2017-11-01

    Bio-hydrogen from microalgae including cyanobacteria has attracted commercial awareness due to its potential as an alternative, reliable and renewable energy source. Photosynthetic hydrogen production from microalgae can be interesting and promising options for clean energy. Advances in hydrogen-fuel-cell technology may attest an eco-friendly way of biofuel production, since, the use of H 2 to generate electricity releases only water as a by-product. Progress in genetic/metabolic engineering may significantly enhance the photobiological hydrogen production from microalgae. Manipulation of competing metabolic pathways by modulating the certain key enzymes such as hydrogenase and nitrogenase may enhance the evolution of H 2 from photoautotrophic cells. Moreover, biological H 2 production at low operating costs is requisite for economic viability. Several photobioreactors have been developed for large-scale biomass and hydrogen production. This review highlights the recent technological progress, enzymes involved and genetic as well as metabolic engineering approaches towards sustainable hydrogen production from microalgae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Microalgal photosynthesis under flashing light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vejrazka, C.

    2012-01-01

    Microalgae are promising organisms for a biobased economy as a sustainable source of food, feed and fuel. High-density microalgae production could become cost effective in closed photobioreactors (PBR). Therefore, design and optimization of closed PBRs is a topic of ongoing research in both

  11. The implications of culture in business and the Cultural dimensions of Finland and India : A study of cultural Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Lindholm, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis is to examine the implications of culture in business. The thesis makes use of the most popular theoretical frameworks in the field, namely the cultural dimensions where data has been chiefly collected through the efforts of Geert Hofstede and Fons Trompenaars. In theory, the application of cultural knowledge as professed through the cultural dimensions into managerial practices can be applied. The validity of these theories has proven impossible to quantify and ...

  12. 78 FR 26757 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ...; Comment Request AGENCY: Department of Defense/Department of the Air Force/673 Civil Engineer Natural... the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the 673 Civil Engineer Natural Cultural Resources and Planning... associated collection instruments, please write to 673 Civil Engineer Natural Cultural Resources and Planning...

  13. Microalgae Harvest through Fungal Pelletization—Co-Culture of Chlorella vulgaris and Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarman Oktovianus Gultom

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae harvesting is a labor- and energy-intensive process and new approaches to harvesting microalgae need to be developed in order to decrease the costs. In this study; co-cultivatation of filamentous fungus (Aspergillus niger and microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris to form cell pellets was evaluated under different conditions, including organic carbon source (glucose; glycerol; and sodium acetate concentration; initial concentration of fungal spores and microalgal cells and light. Results showed that 2 g/L of glucose with a 1:300 ratio of fungi to microalgae provided the best culturing conditions for the process to reach >90% of cell harvest efficiency. The results also showed that an organic carbon source was required to sustain the growth of fungi and form the cell pellets. The microalgae/fungi co-cultures at mixotrophic conditions obtained much higher total biomass than pure cultures of each individual strains; indicating the symbiotic relationship between two strains. This can benefit the microbial biofuel production in terms of cell harvest and biomass production.

  14. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  15. Cultural tourism and tourism cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Presenting a comprehensive and dynamic understanding of cultural tourism, this volume examines cultural mediators and how they help tourists appreciate foreign cultures. It also shows how tourism experiences are strategically crafted by mediators, the complexity of the mediation process, and how...... various products are mediated differently. A number of different products are investigated, including destination brand identities, "living" cultures and everyday life, art and history. The author illustrates his arguments by comparing the tourism strategies of Copenhagen and Singapore, and demonstrates...... how tourism is an agent for social change. The author also offers an original and refreshing way of understanding tourist behaviour through the concept of the "versatile tourist". The book's empirical cases and dialogic framework provide new and deep insights into tourism activities. In his...

  16. Uterine culture in mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, D

    1984-05-01

    A guarded, sterile swab is used to obtain samples for uterine culture. With the mare in stocks, the tail bandage and the perineum washed, the culture rod is introduced into the vagina with a gloved hand. After the rod is guided through the cervix, the guard cap is dislodged and the swab is rubbed along the endometrium, after which the rod is extracted. Samples for uterine culture should only be obtained during full estrus. Swabs should be directly plated onto agar within 2 hours of collection. Blood agar is appropriate for initial screening, but use of specialized types of agar expedites identification of microbes. Plates are incubated at 37 C and inspected for growth every 12 hours. The type and number of bacterial colonies should be coupled with the history and clinical signs in deciding on the necessity and type of treatment. Pure, heavy bacterial growth is usually accompanied by clinical signs of infection. Interpretation of the significance of moderate bacterial growth may be aided by cytologic examination of endometrial smears, made by rolling the swab onto a glass slide and staining with Diff - Quik . Large numbers of neutrophils indicate the need for antibiotic therapy. Mixed bacterial growth and variable numbers of neutrophils usually indicate faulty sampling technic. Microaerophilic or anaerobic cultures may aid diagnosis in cases of equivocal aerobic culture results.

  17. A Cultural Sexuality or a Sexual Culture?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandermeersch, Patrick

    1990-01-01

    P. Vandermeersch, A Cultural Sexuality or a Sexual Culture? In: F. VAN DE VIJVER & G. HUTSCHEMAEKERS (ed.), The Investigation of Culture. Current Issues in Cultural Psychology, Tilburg, Tilburg University Press, 1990, 43-58.

  18. Cultural Resurrection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    "Who are we?Where are we from?"Humans have been pondering these questions since the day they first came into being.One of the ways we preserve memories of the past is through our cul- tural heritage that has been passed on from generation to genera- tion.Intangible cultural heritage,as well as tangible cultural her- itage,is essential to the continuity of human civilization. Since the United Nations Educational,Scientific and Cultural Organization(UNESCO)unveiled the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity in 2001,China has had Kunqu opera,Guqin and its music,the art of Uygur Muqam of Xinjiang and the traditional Mongolian folk song Long Song added to UNESCO’s protection list.It is now one of the coun-

  19. Japanese Shame Culture and American Guilt Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Weijie

    2016-01-01

    Culture is an important factor contributing to the success of intercultural communication. In the east and west, there are many different cultures, among which Japanese shame culture and American guilt culture are two typical ones. Influenced by different cultures, these two countries have different characteristics, which reminds us that in intercultural communication culture should be paid much attention to.

  20. Mayan Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervik, Peter Bent

    1992-01-01

    The social categories « Maya » and « mestizo » habe been applied to denote the Yucatec Mayan people in Mexico. The A. examines the cluster of perceived attributes (schemata) evoked by the terms and how they relate to each other. He shows that there is an incongruency between them along the lines ...... of local and academic categorization, which is an implication of the different social spaces in which they arise. In spite of the incongruency and the cultural plurality evoked by their usage, the A. argues that the people of Yucatec share a single culture....