WorldWideScience

Sample records for microaerobic conditions utilization

  1. Glucose metabolism in Lactococcus lactis MG1363 under different aeration conditions: Requirement of acetate to sustain growth under microaerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkvist, Mikkel; Jensen, N.B.S.; Villadsen, John

    2003-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis MG1363 was grown in batch cultures on a defined medium with glucose as the energy source under different aeration conditions, namely, anaerobic conditions, aerobic conditions, and microaerobic conditions with a dissolved oxygen tension of 5% (when saturation...... resulted in acetate, CO2, and acetoin replacing formate and ethanol as end products. Under microaerobic conditions, growth came to a gradual halt, although more than 60% of the glucose was still left. A decline in growth was not observed during microaerobic cultivation when acetate was added to the medium...

  2. Enhanced performance of denitrifying sulfide removal process under micro-aerobic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuan; Ren, Nanqi; Wang, Aijie; Liu, Lihong; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2010-07-15

    The denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR) process with bio-granules comprising both heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrifiers can simultaneously convert nitrate, sulfide and acetate into di-nitrogen gas, elementary sulfur and carbon dioxide, respectively, at high loading rates. This study determines the reaction rate of sulfide oxidized into sulfur, as well as the reduction of nitrate to nitrite, would be enhanced under a micro-aerobic condition. The presence of limited oxygen mitigated the inhibition effects of sulfide on denitrifier activities, and enhanced the performance of DSR granules. The advantages and disadvantages of applying the micro-aerobic condition to the DSR process are discussed. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Enhanced performance of denitrifying sulfide removal process under micro-aerobic condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Chuan; Ren Nanqi; Wang Aijie; Liu Lihong; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2010-01-01

    The denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR) process with bio-granules comprising both heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrifiers can simultaneously convert nitrate, sulfide and acetate into di-nitrogen gas, elementary sulfur and carbon dioxide, respectively, at high loading rates. This study determines the reaction rate of sulfide oxidized into sulfur, as well as the reduction of nitrate to nitrite, would be enhanced under a micro-aerobic condition. The presence of limited oxygen mitigated the inhibition effects of sulfide on denitrifier activities, and enhanced the performance of DSR granules. The advantages and disadvantages of applying the micro-aerobic condition to the DSR process are discussed.

  4. Comparison of proteomics profiles of Campylobacter jejuni strain Bf under microaerobic and aerobic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramila Christiane Rodrigues

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni accounts for one of the leading causes of foodborne bacterial enteritis in humans. Despite being considered an obligate microaerobic microorganism, C. jejuni is regularly exposed to oxidative stress. However, its adaptive strategies to survive the atmospheric oxygen level during transmission to humans remain unclear. Recently, the atypical clinical C. jejuni Bf strain was shown by its unexpected ability to grow under ambient atmosphere. Here, we aimed to understand better the biological mechanisms underlying its atypical aerotolerance trait using two-dimensional protein electrophoresis, gene expression and enzymatic activities. Forty-seven proteins were identified with a significantly different abundance between cultivation under microaerobic and aerobic conditions. The over-expressed proteins in aerobiosis belonged mainly to the oxidative stress response, modulation of the main enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, iron uptake and regulation and amino acid uptake when compared to microaerobic conditions. The higher abundance of proteins related to oxidative stress was correlated to dramatically higher transcript levels of the corresponding encoding genes in aerobic conditions compared to microaerobic conditions. In addition, a higher catalase-equivalent activity in strain Bf was observed. Despite the restricted catabolic capacities of C. jejuni, this study reveals that strain Bf is equipped to withstand oxidative stress. This ability could contribute to emergence and persistence of particular strains of C. jejuni throughout food processing or macrophage attack during human infection.

  5. Butanol production under microaerobic conditions with a symbiotic system of Clostridium acetobutylicum and Bacillus cereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pengfei; Wang, Genyu; Wang, Gehua; Børresen, Børre Tore; Liu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Jianan

    2016-01-14

    One major problem of ABE (acetone, butanol and ethanol) fermentation is high oxygen sensitivity of Clostridium acetobutylicum. Currently, no single strain has been isolated or genetically engineered to produce butanol effectively under aerobic conditions. In our previous work, a symbiotic system TSH06 has been developed successfully by our group, and two strains, C. acetobutylicum TSH1 and Bacillus cereus TSH2, were isolated from TSH06. Compared with single culture, TSH06 showed promotion on cell growth and solvent accumulation under microaerobic conditions. To simulate TSH06, a new symbiotic system was successfully re-constructed by adding living cells of B. cereus TSH2 into C. acetobutylicum TSH1 cultures. During the fermentation process, the function of B. cereus TSH2 was found to deplete oxygen and provide anaerobic environment for C. acetobutylicum TSH1. Furthermore, inoculation ratio of C. acetobutylicum TSH1 and B. cereus TSH2 affected butanol production. In a batch fermentation with optimized inoculation ratio of 5 % C. acetobutylicum TSH1 and 0.5 % B. cereus TSH2, 11.0 g/L butanol and 18.1 g/L ABE were produced under microaerobic static condition. In contrast to the single culture of C. acetobutylicum TSH1, the symbiotic system became more aerotolerant and was able to produce 11.2 g/L butanol in a 5 L bioreactor even with continuous 0.15 L/min air sparging. In addition, qPCR assay demonstrated that the abundance of B. cereus TSH2 increased quickly at first and then decreased sharply to lower than 1 %, whereas C. acetobutylicum TSH1 accounted for more than 99 % of the whole population in solventogenic phase. The characterization of a novel symbiotic system on butanol fermentation was studied. The new symbiotic system re-constructed by co-culture of C. acetobutylicum TSH1 and B. cereus TSH2 showed excellent performance on butanol production under microaerobic conditions. B. cereus TSH2 was a good partner for C. acetobutylicum TSH1 by providing an anaerobic

  6. Micro-aerobic, anaerobic and two-stage condition for ethanol production by Enterobacter aerogenes from biodiesel-derived crude glycerol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saisaard, Kanokrat; Angelidaki, Irini; Prasertsan, Poonsuk

    2011-01-01

    The microbial production of ethanol from biodiesel-derived crude glycerol by Enterobacter aerogenes TISTR1468, under micro-aerobic and anaerobic conditions, was investigated. The experimental results showed that micro-aerobic conditions were more favorable for cellular growth (4.0 g/L DCW), ethanol...

  7. Molecular analysis of the biomass of a fluidized bed reactor treating synthetic vinasse at anaerobic and micro-aerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Elisa; Lopes, Alexandre; Fdz-Polanco, María; Stams, Alfons J M; García-Encina, Pedro A

    2012-03-01

    The microbial communities (Bacteria and Archaea) established in an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor used to treat synthetic vinasse (betaine, glucose, acetate, propionate, and butyrate) were characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and phylogenetic analysis. This study was focused on the competitive and syntrophic interactions between the different microbial groups at varying influent substrate to sulfate ratios of 8, 4, and 2 and anaerobic or micro-aerobic conditions. Acetogens detected along the anaerobic phases at substrate to sulfate ratios of 8 and 4 seemed to be mainly involved in the fermentation of glucose and betaine, but they were substituted by other sugar or betaine degraders after oxygen application. Typical fatty acid degraders that grow in syntrophy with methanogens were not detected during the entire reactor run. Likely, sugar and betaine degraders outnumbered them in the DGGE analysis. The detected sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) belonged to the hydrogen-utilizing Desulfovibrio. The introduction of oxygen led to the formation of elemental sulfur (S(0)) and probably other sulfur compounds by sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (γ-Proteobacteria). It is likely that the sulfur intermediates produced from sulfide oxidation were used by SRB and other microorganisms as electron acceptors, as was supported by the detection of the sulfur respiring Wolinella succinogenes. Within the Archaea population, members of Methanomethylovorans and Methanosaeta were detected throughout the entire reactor operation. Hydrogenotrophic methanogens mainly belonging to the genus Methanobacterium were detected at the highest substrate to sulfate ratio but rapidly disappeared by increasing the sulfate concentration.

  8. Cytotoxic Potential of Bacillus cereus Strains ATCC 11778 and 14579 Against Human Lung Epithelial Cells Under Microaerobic Growth Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen eKilcullen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus cereus, a food poisoning bacterium closely related to Bacillus anthracis, secretes a multitude of virulence factors including enterotoxins, hemolysins, and phospholipases. However, the majority of the in vitro experiments evaluating the cytotoxic potential of B. cereus were carried out in the conditions of aeration, and the impact of the oxygen limitation in conditions encountered by the microbe in natural environment such as gastrointestinal tract remains poorly understood. This research reports comparative analysis of ATCC strains 11778 (BC1 and 14579 (BC2 in aerated and microaerobic (static cultures with regard to their toxicity for human lung epithelial cells. We showed that BC1 increased its toxicity upon oxygen limitation while BC2 was highly cytotoxic in both growth conditions. The combined effect of the pore-forming, cholesterol-dependent hemolysin, cereolysin O (CLO, and metabolic product(s such as succinate produced in microaerobic conditions provided substantial contribution to the toxicity of BC1 but not BC2 which relied mainly on other toxins. This mechanism is shared between CB1 and B. anthracis. It involves the permeabilization of the cell membrane which facilitates transport of toxic bacterial metabolites into the cell. The toxicity of BC1was potentiated in the presence of bovine serum albumin which appeared to serve as reservoir for bacteria-derived nitric oxide participating in the downstream production of reactive oxidizing species with the properties of peroxynitrite. In agreement with this the BC1cultures demonstrated the increased oxidation of the indicator dye Amplex Red catalyzed by peroxidase as well as the increased toxicity in the presence of externally added ascorbic acid.

  9. Biological denitrification process based on the Fe(0)-carbon micro-electrolysis for simultaneous ammonia and nitrate removal from low organic carbon water under a microaerobic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shihai; Li, Desheng; Yang, Xue; Xing, Wei; Li, Jinlong; Zhang, Qi

    2016-11-01

    A combined process between micro-electrolysis and biological denitrification (MEBD) using iron scraps and an activated carbon-based micro-electrolysis carrier was developed for nitrogen removal under a microaerobic condition. The process provided NH4(+)-N and total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiencies of 92.6% and 95.3%, respectively, and TN removal rate of 0.373±0.11kgN/(m(3)d) at corresponding DO of 1.0±0.1mg/L and HRT of 3h, and the optimal pH of 7.6-8.4. High-throughput sequencing analysis verified that dominant classes belonged to β-, α-, and γ-Proteobacteria, and Nitrospira. The dominant genera Hydrogenophaga and Sphaerotilus significantly increased during the operation, covering 13.2% and 6.1% in biofilms attached to the carrier in the middle of the reactor, respectively. Autotrophic denitrification contributed to >80% of the TN removal. The developed MEBD achieved efficient simultaneous nitrification and autotrophic denitrification, presenting significant potential for application in practical low organic carbon water treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biofilm spatial organization by the emerging pathogen Campylobacter jejuni: comparison between NCTC 11168 and 81-176 strains under microaerobic and oxygen-enriched conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turonova, Hana; Briandet, Romain; Rodrigues, Ramila; Hernould, Mathieu; Hayek, Nabil; Stintzi, Alain; Pazlarova, Jarmila; Tresse, Odile

    2015-01-01

    During the last years, Campylobacter has emerged as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne infections in developed countries. Described as an obligate microaerophile, Campylobacter has puzzled scientists by surviving a wide range of environmental oxidative stresses on foods farm to retail, and thereafter intestinal transit and oxidative damage from macrophages to cause human infection. In this study, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to explore the biofilm development of two well-described Campylobacter jejuni strains (NCTC 11168 and 81-176) prior to or during cultivation under oxygen-enriched conditions. Quantitative and qualitative appraisal indicated that C. jejuni formed finger-like biofilm structures with an open ultrastructure for 81-176 and a multilayer-like structure for NCTC 11168 under microaerobic conditions (MAC). The presence of motile cells within the biofilm confirmed the maturation of the C. jejuni 81-176 biofilm. Acclimation of cells to oxygen-enriched conditions led to significant enhancement of biofilm formation during the early stages of the process. Exposure to these conditions during biofilm cultivation induced an even greater biofilm development for both strains, indicating that oxygen demand for biofilm formation is higher than for planktonic growth counterparts. Overexpression of cosR in the poorer biofilm-forming strain, NCTC 11168, enhanced biofilm development dramatically by promoting an open ultrastructure similar to that observed for 81-176. Consequently, the regulator CosR is likely to be a key protein in the maturation of C. jejuni biofilm, although it is not linked to oxygen stimulation. These unexpected data advocate challenging studies by reconsidering the paradigm of fastidious requirements for C. jejuni growth when various subpopulations (from quiescent to motile cells) coexist in biofilms. These findings constitute a clear example of a survival strategy used by this emerging human pathogen.

  11. Biofilm spatial organization by the emerging pathogen Campylobacter jejuni: comparison between NCTC 11168 and 81-176 strains under microaerobic and oxygen-enriched conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana eTuronova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, Campylobacter has emerged as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne infections in developed countries. Described as an obligate microaerophile, Campylobacter has puzzled scientists by surviving a wide range of environmental oxidative stresses on foods farm to retail, and thereafter intestinal transit and oxidative damage from macrophages to cause human infection. In this study, confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to explore the biofilm development of two well-described Campylobacter jejuni strains (NCTC 11168 and 81-176 prior to or during cultivation under oxygen-enriched conditions. Quantitative and qualitative appraisal indicated that C. jejuni formed finger-like biofilm structures with an open ultrastructure for 81-176 and a multilayer-like structure for NCTC 11168 under microaerobic conditions. The presence of motile cells within the biofilm confirmed the maturation of the C. jejuni 81-176 biofilm. Acclimation of cells to oxygen-enriched conditions led to significant enhancement of biofilm formation during the early stages of the process. Exposure to these conditions during biofilm cultivation induced an even greater biofilm development for both strains, indicating that oxygen demand for biofilm formation is higher than for planktonic growth counterparts. Overexpression of cosR in the poorer biofilm-forming strain, NCTC 11168, enhanced biofilm development dramatically by promoting an open ultrastructure similar to that observed for 81-176. Consequently, the regulator CosR is likely to be a key protein in the maturation of C. jejuni biofilm, although it is not linked to oxygen stimulation. These unexpected data advocate challenging studies by reconsidering the paradigm of fastidious requirements for C. jejuni growth when various subpopulations (from quiescent to motile cells coexist in biofilms. These findings constitute a clear example of a survival strategy used by this emerging human pathogen.

  12. Enhanced selection of micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol degrading granular sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Yuancai; Chen, Yuancai; Song, Wenzhe; Hu, Yongyou

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In this work, an aerobic column reactor was placed before the USB to maintain micro-oxygen condition in the reactor and the micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1–0.2 mg L −1 ) was successfully obtained. PCP degradation by the micro-aerobic system was studied and the variance of microbial community was also discussed by using PCR-DGGE analysis. - Highlights: • Micro-aerobic granular sludge was cultivated in column-type combined reactors. • PCP biodegradation, VFA accumulation and biogas production were studied. • The function of Methanogenic archaeon in the system was investigated. • Fluctuation and diversity of microbial community were discussed by DGGE analysis. • The dominated microorganisms were identified by 16S rDNA sequences. - Abstract: Column-type combined reactors were designed to cultivate micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1–0.2 mg L −1 ) over 39-day experimental period. Micro-aerobic granular had both anaerobic activity (SMA: 2.34 mMCH 4 /h g VSS) and aerobic activity (SOUR: 2.21 mMO 2 /h g VSS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that PCP was sequentially dechlorinated to TCP, DCP, and eventually to MCP. Methanogens were not directly involved in the dechlorination of PCP, but might played a vital role in stabilizing the overall structure of the granule sludge. For Eubacteria, the Shannon Index (2.09 in inoculated granular sludge) increased both in micro-aerobic granular sludge (2.61) and PCP-degradation granular sludge (2.55). However, for Archaea, it decreased from 2.53 to 1.85 and 1.84, respectively. Although the Shannon Index demonstrated slight difference between micro-aerobic granular sludge and PCP-degradation granular sludge, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated obvious variance of the microbial composition, revealing significant effect of micro-aerobic condition and

  13. Enhanced selection of micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol degrading granular sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Yuancai, E-mail: donkey1204@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chen, Yuancai, E-mail: chenyc@scut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecological Remediation for Industrial Agglomeration Area, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Song, Wenzhe, E-mail: songwenzhe007@126.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecological Remediation for Industrial Agglomeration Area, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Hu, Yongyou, E-mail: ppyyhu@scut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecological Remediation for Industrial Agglomeration Area, College of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: In this work, an aerobic column reactor was placed before the USB to maintain micro-oxygen condition in the reactor and the micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1–0.2 mg L{sup −1}) was successfully obtained. PCP degradation by the micro-aerobic system was studied and the variance of microbial community was also discussed by using PCR-DGGE analysis. - Highlights: • Micro-aerobic granular sludge was cultivated in column-type combined reactors. • PCP biodegradation, VFA accumulation and biogas production were studied. • The function of Methanogenic archaeon in the system was investigated. • Fluctuation and diversity of microbial community were discussed by DGGE analysis. • The dominated microorganisms were identified by 16S rDNA sequences. - Abstract: Column-type combined reactors were designed to cultivate micro-aerobic pentachlorophenol (PCP) degrading granular sludge under oxygen-limited conditions (0.1–0.2 mg L{sup −1}) over 39-day experimental period. Micro-aerobic granular had both anaerobic activity (SMA: 2.34 mMCH{sub 4}/h g VSS) and aerobic activity (SOUR: 2.21 mMO{sub 2}/h g VSS). Metabolite analysis results revealed that PCP was sequentially dechlorinated to TCP, DCP, and eventually to MCP. Methanogens were not directly involved in the dechlorination of PCP, but might played a vital role in stabilizing the overall structure of the granule sludge. For Eubacteria, the Shannon Index (2.09 in inoculated granular sludge) increased both in micro-aerobic granular sludge (2.61) and PCP-degradation granular sludge (2.55). However, for Archaea, it decreased from 2.53 to 1.85 and 1.84, respectively. Although the Shannon Index demonstrated slight difference between micro-aerobic granular sludge and PCP-degradation granular sludge, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated obvious variance of the microbial composition, revealing significant effect of micro-aerobic

  14. Microaerobic biodegradation of high organic load wastewater by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... concentration in the simulated wastewater as in the RCVBN medium. Optimization of wastewater composition and treatment conditions. SW with pollutants strength of 3600 mgl-1 COD was used to incubate the phototrophic bacteria microaerobically in the light (appro- ximately 2000 lx), the COD reduction ...

  15. Resistance capability of microaerobic granular sludge for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-02-08

    Feb 8, 2012 ... The resistance capability to pH shock of microaerobic granular sludge for pentachlorophenol (PCP) ... process with chlorine gas in pulp and paper, leather and spinning ... nitrifying bacteria in the aerobic zone, and then trans-.

  16. The chemical properties and microbial community characterization of the thermophilic microaerobic pretreatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shan-Fei; He, Shuai; Shi, Xiao-Shuang; Katukuri, Naveen Reddy; Dai, Meng; Guo, Rong-Bo

    2015-12-01

    Thermophilic microaerobic pretreatment (TMP) was recently reported as an efficient pretreatment method of anaerobic digestion (AD). In this study, the chemical properties and microbial community were characterized to reveal how TMP working. Compared with thermophilic treatment under anaerobic condition (TMP0), cellulase activity obviously improved under microaerobic condition (TMP1), which was 10.9-49.0% higher than that of TMP0. Reducing sugar, SCOD and VFAs concentrations of TMP1 were 2.6-8.9%, 1.8-4.8% and 13.8-24% higher than those of TMP0, respectively. TMP gave obvious rise to phylum Firmicutes, which associated with extracellular enzymes production. The proportion of class Bacilli (belongs to phylum Firmicutes and mainly acts during hydrolysis) in TMP1 was 124.89% higher than that of TMP0, which reflected the greater hydrolytic ability under microaerobic condition. The improved abundance of phylum Firmicutes (especially class Bacilli, order Bacillales) under microaerobic condition could be the fundamental reason for the improved AD performance of thermophilic microaerobic pretreated corn straw. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Micro-aerobics: when rice plants lose their resistance against oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuss, J; Harren, F J M

    2008-01-01

    Photoacoustic determination of ethane, ethanol and acetaldehyde releases from 14 d old rice seedlings leads to the conclusion that rice seedlings start suffering significant lipid peroxidation under micro-aerobic conditions. To produce micro-aerobic conditions in otherwise normal atmospheres, the oxygen concentration has been reduced to a value between 0.3 and 0.05% (v/v). The defense of the rice seedlings against oxygenic radicals becomes insufficient under these almost anaerobic conditions. The findings presented here are relevant for the clarification of what causes non-survival of rice seedlings under prolonged submergence.

  18. Model-based derivation, analysis and control of unstable microaerobic steady-states--considering Rhodospirillum rubrum as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carius, Lisa; Rumschinski, Philipp; Faulwasser, Timm; Flockerzi, Dietrich; Grammel, Hartmut; Findeisen, Rolf

    2014-04-01

    Microaerobic (oxygen-limited) conditions are critical for inducing many important microbial processes in industrial or environmental applications. At very low oxygen concentrations, however, the process performance often suffers from technical limitations. Available dissolved oxygen measurement techniques are not sensitive enough and thus control techniques, that can reliable handle these conditions, are lacking. Recently, we proposed a microaerobic process control strategy, which overcomes these restrictions and allows to assess different degrees of oxygen limitation in bioreactor batch cultivations. Here, we focus on the design of a control strategy for the automation of oxygen-limited continuous cultures using the microaerobic formation of photosynthetic membranes (PM) in Rhodospirillum rubrum as model phenomenon. We draw upon R. rubrum since the considered phenomenon depends on the optimal availability of mixed-carbon sources, hence on boundary conditions which make the process performance challenging. Empirically assessing these specific microaerobic conditions is scarcely practicable as such a process reacts highly sensitive to changes in the substrate composition and the oxygen availability in the culture broth. Therefore, we propose a model-based process control strategy which allows to stabilize steady-states of cultures grown under these conditions. As designing the appropriate strategy requires a detailed knowledge of the system behavior, we begin by deriving and validating an unstructured process model. This model is used to optimize the experimental conditions, and identify properties of the system which are critical for process performance. The derived model facilitates the good process performance via the proposed optimal control strategy. In summary the presented model-based control strategy allows to access and maintain microaerobic steady-states of interest and to precisely and efficiently transfer the culture from one stable microaerobic steady

  19. The causal structure of utility conditionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefon, Jean-François; Sloman, Steven A

    2013-01-01

    The psychology of reasoning is increasingly considering agents' values and preferences, achieving greater integration with judgment and decision making, social cognition, and moral reasoning. Some of this research investigates utility conditionals, ''if p then q'' statements where the realization of p or q or both is valued by some agents. Various approaches to utility conditionals share the assumption that reasoners make inferences from utility conditionals based on the comparison between the utility of p and the expected utility of q. This article introduces a new parameter in this analysis, the underlying causal structure of the conditional. Four experiments showed that causal structure moderated utility-informed conditional reasoning. These inferences were strongly invited when the underlying structure of the conditional was causal, and significantly less so when the underlying structure of the conditional was diagnostic. This asymmetry was only observed for conditionals in which the utility of q was clear, and disappeared when the utility of q was unclear. Thus, an adequate account of utility-informed inferences conditional reasoning requires three components: utility, probability, and causal structure. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  20. Microaerobic conversion of xylose to ethanol in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae SX6(MUT) expressing cofactor-balanced xylose metabolic enzymes and deficient in ALD6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Sung-Eun; Seong, Yeong-Je; Lee, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Soo Min; Kim, Soo-Jung; Park, Kyungmoon; Park, Yong-Cheol

    2016-06-10

    Xylose is a major monosugar in cellulosic biomass and should be utilized for cost-effective ethanol production. In this study, xylose-converting ability of recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae SX6(MUT) expressing NADH-preferring xylose reductase mutant (R276H) and other xylose-metabolic enzymes, and deficient in aldehyde dehydrogenase 6 (Ald6p) were characterized at microaerobic conditions using various sugar mixtures. The reduction of air supply from 0.5vvm to 0.1vvm increased specific ethanol production rate by 75% and did not affect specific xylose consumption rate. In batch fermentations using various concentrations of xylose (50-104g/L), higher xylose concentration enhanced xylose consumption rate and ethanol productivity but reduced ethanol yield, owing to the accumulation of xylitol and glycerol from xylose. SX6(MUT) consumed monosugars in pitch pine hydrolysates and produced 23.1g/L ethanol from 58.7g/L sugars with 0.39g/g ethanol yield, which was 14% higher than the host strain of S. cerevisiae D452-2 without the xylose assimilating enzymes. In conclusion, S. cerevisiae SX6(MUT) was characterized to possess high xylose-consuming ability in microaerobic conditions and a potential for ethanol production from cellulosic biomass. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. NNP-LANL Utilities - Condition Assessment and Project Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Grant Lorenz [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-21

    This report is a presentation on LANL Utilities & Transportation Asset Management; Utility Assets Overview; Condition Assessment; Utilities Project Nominations & Ranking; and Utilities Project Execution.

  2. The Causal Structure of Utility Conditionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefon, Jean-Francois; Sloman, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    The psychology of reasoning is increasingly considering agents' values and preferences, achieving greater integration with judgment and decision making, social cognition, and moral reasoning. Some of this research investigates utility conditionals, ‘"if 'p' then 'q'’" statements where the realization of "p" or "q" or…

  3. Inactivation of a single gene enables microaerobic growth of the obligate anaerobe Bacteroides fragilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Brian M; Baughn, Anthony D; Gallegos, Rene; Malamy, Michael H

    2012-07-24

    Bacteroides fragilis can replicate in atmospheres containing ≤0.05% oxygen, but higher concentrations arrest growth by an unknown mechanism. Here we show that inactivation of a single gene, oxe (i.e., oxygen enabled) in B. fragilis allows for growth in concentrations as high as 2% oxygen while increasing the tolerance of this organism to room air. Known components of the oxidative stress response including the ahpC, kat, batA-E, and tpx genes were not individually important for microaerobic growth. However, a Δoxe strain scavenged H(2)O(2) at a faster rate than WT, indicating that reactive oxygen species may play a critical role in limiting growth of this organism to low-oxygen environments. Clinical isolates of B. fragilis displayed a greater capacity for growth under microaerobic conditions than fecal isolates, with some encoding polymorphisms in oxe. Additionally, isolation of oxygen-enabled mutants of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron suggests that Oxe may mediate growth arrest of other anaerobes in oxygenated environments.

  4. Effect of microaerobic fermentation in preprocessing fibrous lignocellulosic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alattar, Manar Arica; Green, Terrence R; Henry, Jordan; Gulca, Vitalie; Tizazu, Mikias; Bergstrom, Robby; Popa, Radu

    2012-06-01

    Amending soil with organic matter is common in agricultural and logging practices. Such amendments have benefits to soil fertility and crop yields. These benefits may be increased if material is preprocessed before introduction into soil. We analyzed the efficiency of microaerobic fermentation (MF), also referred to as Bokashi, in preprocessing fibrous lignocellulosic (FLC) organic materials using varying produce amendments and leachate treatments. Adding produce amendments increased leachate production and fermentation rates and decreased the biological oxygen demand of the leachate. Continuously draining leachate without returning it to the fermentors led to acidification and decreased concentrations of polysaccharides (PS) in leachates. PS fragmentation and the production of soluble metabolites and gases stabilized in fermentors in about 2-4 weeks. About 2 % of the carbon content was lost as CO(2). PS degradation rates, upon introduction of processed materials into soil, were similar to unfermented FLC. Our results indicate that MF is insufficient for adequate preprocessing of FLC material.

  5. 42 CFR 482.30 - Condition of participation: Utilization review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... circumstances: (1) A Utilization and Quality Control Quality Improvement Organization (QIO) has assumed binding... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION CONDITIONS OF PARTICIPATION FOR HOSPITALS Basic Hospital Functions § 482.30 Condition of participation: Utilization review. The hospital must have in...

  6. The Existing Regulatory Conditions for 'Energy Smart Water Utilities'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    This chapter is focused on the legal conditions that exist for the energy–smart water utilities in the European Union (EU). In section 2 the interdependencies of water and energy services and the growing interest in solving these problems that may arise from this interdependence by regulatory ini...... legal design and the problems that it causes for the water utilities that want to be resource–efficient and have a low–carbon footprint.......This chapter is focused on the legal conditions that exist for the energy–smart water utilities in the European Union (EU). In section 2 the interdependencies of water and energy services and the growing interest in solving these problems that may arise from this interdependence by regulatory...... initiatives are shortly described. One of the solutions needed is a reduction of energy use in the water utilities by their utilisation of renewable sources – acting as energy–smart water utilities. Such utilities are described in section 3. The policy and law regulating the water utilities are important...

  7. Operation of static series compensator under distorted utility conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, H.; Nelsen, H.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    in the case of distorted grid voltage. Furthermore, a selective harmonic compensation strategy is applied to filter out the grid harmonics. The operation of the SSC under distorted utility conditions and voltage dips is discussed. The validity of the proposed controller is verified by experiments, carried out...... on a 10-kV SSC laboratory setup. Experimental results have shown the ability of the SSC to mitigate voltage dips and harmonics. It is also shown that the proposed controller has improved the transient performance of the SSC even under distorted utility conditions....

  8. Release of Waste Tire Comprehensive Utilization Industry Access Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On July 31, 2012, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology released the Tire Retread- ing lndustry Access Conditions and Waste Tire Comprehensive Utilization Industry Access Condi- tions with the No. 32 announcement of 2012. The state will lay a foundation for realizing the green, safe, efficient, eco-friendly and energy saving tar- gets in the "12th Five-year Plan" of the industry by raising access conditions, regulating industrial development order, strengthening environmental protection, promoting corporate optimizing and up- grading, improving resources comprehensive utiliza- tion technology and management level and guiding the "harmless recycling and eco-friendly utiliza- tion" of the industry.

  9. Fate of oestrogens during anaerobic blackwater treatment with micro-aerobic post-treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mes, de T.Z.D.; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K.; Zeeman, G.; Lettinga, G.

    2007-01-01

    The fate of oestrone (E1), 17b-oestradiol (E2) and 17a-ethynyloestradiol (EE2) was investigated in a concentrated blackwater treatment system consisting of an UASB septic tank, with micro-aerobic post-treatment. In UASB septic tank effluent a (natural) total concentration of 4.02 mg/L E1 and 18.69

  10. Utilization of Solar Energy for Air Conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutikno Juwari Purwo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research are to do a system simulation of air conditioning utilizing solar energy with single effect absorption refrigeration method, analyze the coefficient of performance (COP for each absorbent-refrigerant variable and compare the effectivity of every absorbent-refrigerant variable used. COP is a constant that denotes the effeciency of a refrigeration system, that is ratio of work or useful output to the amount of work or energy input. The higher the number of COP, the more efficient the system is. Absorbent-refrigerant (working fluids variables used in this research depend on its chemical and thermodynamics properties. Steps in this research are including data collection and tabulation from literature and do a simulation of air conditioning system both commercial air conditioning system (using electrical energy and solar energy air conditioning system with Aspen Plus software. Next, run the simulation for each working fluid variables used and calculate the COP for each variable. Subsequently, analyze and compare the effectivity of all variables used from COP value and economical point of view with commercial air conditioning system. From the result of the simulation, can be concluded that solar air conditioning can achieve 98,85 % of energy savings than commercial air conditioning. Furthermore, from the calculation of COP, the highest COP value is achieved by solar conditioning system with LiNO3-NH3 as working fluid where 55% of the composition is the refrigerant and 45% of absorbent.

  11. Aerobic lineage of the oxidative stress response protein rubrerythrin emerged in an ancient microaerobic, (hyperthermophilic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Cardenas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Rubrerythrins (RBRs are non-heme di-iron proteins belonging to the ferritin-like superfamily (FLSF. They are involved in oxidative stress defense as peroxide scavengers in a wide range of organisms. The vast majority of RBRs, including classical forms of this protein, contain a C-terminal rubredoxin-like domain involved in electron transport that is used during catalysis in anaerobic conditions. Rubredoxin is an ancient and large protein family of short length (<100 residues that contains a Fe-S center involved in electron transfer. However, functional forms of the enzyme lacking the rubredoxin-like domain have been reported (e.g., sulerythrin and ferriperoxin. In this study, phylogenomic evidence is presented that suggests that a complete lineage of rubrerythrins, lacking the rubredoxin-like domain, arose in an ancient microaerobic and (hyperthermophilic environments in the ancestors of the Archaea Thermoproteales and Sulfolobales. This lineage (termed the aerobic-type lineage subsequently evolved to become adapted to environments with progressively lower temperatures and higher oxygen concentrations via the acquisition of two co-localized genes, termed DUF3501 and RFO, encoding a conserved protein of unknown function and a predicted Fe-S oxidoreductase respectively. Proposed Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT events from these archaeal ancestors to Bacteria expanded the opportunities for further evolution of this RBR including adaption to lower temperatures. The second lineage (termed the cyanobacterial lineage is proposed to have evolved in cyanobacterial ancestors, maybe in direct response to the production of oxygen via oxygenic photosynthesis during the Great Oxygen Event (GOE. It is hypothesized that both lineages of RBR emerged in a largely anaerobic world with whiffs of oxygen and that their subsequent independent evolutionary trajectories allowed microorganisms to transition from this anaerobic world to an aerobic one.

  12. Actual conditions of radiation control in radioisotope utilization field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakihara, Koji

    1980-01-01

    It may be said that the actual conditions on radiation safety are being improved in utilizing radioisotopes or radiation in Japan. It depends greatly on the results of the voluntary effort of users and the regulations by the ''radiation injury prevention law'' and its relevant ordinances. However, the actual conditions of the strict observation of the law are much insufficient. According to the results of official inspection in 1978, 60% of whole enterprises concerned and 73% of educational and medical organizations were judged as incomplete. Such tendency should not be left as it is, but it should also be noticed that there are realities that critical accidents or injuries have not occurred even in such conditions as many violations mentioned above. Since the existing law has not been subjected to essential revision in the past two decades, it might be said that the law does not properly fit to the present conditions because the progress of related techniques was made during this period. Meanwhile, difficulties exist in measuring the low level concentration in the use of low energy radioisotopes or tracer experiments such as in the process analysis in factories or in the analysis of the movement of trace constituent in soil. Further, there is a problem on the necessity of securing the chief technicians handling radiation, and there is the contradiction that the chief technicians are useless in normal condition but are powerless in case of accidents. This situation should be improved as soon as possible. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  13. Expression of a mutated SPT15 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae enhances both cell growth and ethanol production in microaerobic batch, fed-batch, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Yeong-Je; Park, Haeseong; Yang, Jungwoo; Kim, Soo-Jung; Choi, Wonja; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Park, Yong-Cheol

    2017-05-01

    The SPT15 gene encodes a Saccharomyces cerevisiae TATA-binding protein, which is able to globally control the transcription levels of various metabolic and regulatory genes. In this study, a SPT15 gene mutant (S42N, S78R, S163P, and I212N) was expressed in S. cerevisiae BY4741 (BSPT15-M3), of which effects on fermentative yeast properties were evaluated in a series of culture types. By applying different nitrogen sources and air supply conditions in batch culture, organic nitrogen sources and microaerobic condition were decided to be more favorable for both cell growth and ethanol production of the BSPT15-M3 strain than the control S. cerevisiae BY4741 strain expressing the SPT15 gene (BSPT15wt). Microaerobic fed-batch cultures of BSPT15-M3 with glucose shock in the presence of high ethanol content resulted in a 9.5-13.4% higher glucose consumption rate and ethanol productivity than those for the BSPT15wt strain. In addition, BSPT15-M3 showed 4.5 and 3.9% increases in ethanol productivity from cassava hydrolysates and corn starch in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation processes, respectively. It was concluded that overexpression of the mutated SPT15 gene would be a potent strategy to develop robust S. cerevisiae strains with enhanced cell growth and ethanol production abilities.

  14. Effects of porous carrier size on biofilm development, microbial distribution and nitrogen removal in microaerobic bioreactors

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmad, Muhammad; Liu, Sitong; Mahmood, Nasir; Mahmood, Asif; Ali, Muhammad; Zheng, Maosheng; Ni, Jinren

    2017-01-01

    In this study, effects of porous carrier’s size (polyurethane-based) on microbial characteristics were systematically investigated in addition to nitrogen removal performance in six microaerobic bioreactors. Among different sized carriers (50, 30, 20, 15,10, 5 mm), 15 mm carrier showed highest nitrogen removal (98%) due to optimal micro-environments created for aerobic nitrifiers in outer layer (0∼7 mm), nitrifiers and denitrifiers in middle layer (7∼10 mm) and anaerobic denitrifiers in inner layer (10∼15 mm). Candidatus brocadia, a dominant anammox bacteria, was solely concentrated close to centroid (0∼70 μm) and strongly co-aggregated with other bacterial communities in the middle layer of the carrier. Contrarily, carriers with a smaller (<15 mm) or larger size (>15 mm) either destroy the effective zone for anaerobic denitrifiers or damage the microaerobic environments due to poor mass transfer. This study is of particular use for optimal design of carriers in enhancing simultaneous nitrification-denitrification in microaerobic wastewater treatment processes.

  15. Effects of porous carrier size on biofilm development, microbial distribution and nitrogen removal in microaerobic bioreactors

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmad, Muhammad

    2017-03-15

    In this study, effects of porous carrier’s size (polyurethane-based) on microbial characteristics were systematically investigated in addition to nitrogen removal performance in six microaerobic bioreactors. Among different sized carriers (50, 30, 20, 15,10, 5 mm), 15 mm carrier showed highest nitrogen removal (98%) due to optimal micro-environments created for aerobic nitrifiers in outer layer (0∼7 mm), nitrifiers and denitrifiers in middle layer (7∼10 mm) and anaerobic denitrifiers in inner layer (10∼15 mm). Candidatus brocadia, a dominant anammox bacteria, was solely concentrated close to centroid (0∼70 μm) and strongly co-aggregated with other bacterial communities in the middle layer of the carrier. Contrarily, carriers with a smaller (<15 mm) or larger size (>15 mm) either destroy the effective zone for anaerobic denitrifiers or damage the microaerobic environments due to poor mass transfer. This study is of particular use for optimal design of carriers in enhancing simultaneous nitrification-denitrification in microaerobic wastewater treatment processes.

  16. Performance evaluation of oxygen, air and nitrate for the microaerobic removal of hydrogen sulphide in biogas from sludge digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, I; Lopes, A C; Pérez, S I; Fdz-Polanco, M

    2010-10-01

    The removal performance of hydrogen sulphide in severely polluted biogas produced during the anaerobic digestion of sludge was studied by employing pure oxygen, air and nitrate as oxidant reactives supplied to the biodigester. Research was performed in a 200-L digester with an hydraulic retention time (HRT) of ∼20 days under mesophilic conditions. The oxygen supply (0.25 N m³/m³ feed) to the bioreactor successfully reduced the hydrogen sulphide content from 15,811 mg/N m³ to less than 400 mg/N m³. The introduction of air (1.27 N m³/m³ feed) removed more than 99% of the hydrogen sulphide content, with a final concentration of ∼55 mg/N m³. COD removal, VS reduction and methane yield were not affected under microaerobic conditions; however, methane concentration in the biogas decreased when air was employed as a result of nitrogen dilution. The nitrate addition was not effective for hydrogen sulphide removal in the biogas. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Utility residual fuel oil market conditions: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.A. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Planning for residual fuel oil usage and management remains an important part of the generation fuel planning and management function for many utilities. EPRI's Utility Planning Methods Center has maintained its analytical overview of the fuel oil markets as part of its overall fuel planning and management research program. This overview provides an update of recent fuel oil market directions. Several key events of the past year have had important implications for residual fuel oil markets. The key events have been the changes brought about by the Persian Gulf War and its aftermath, as well as continuing environmental policy developments. The Persian Gulf conflict has created renewed interest in reducing fuel oil use by utilities as part of an overall reduction in oil imports. The policy analysis performed to date has generally failed to properly evaluate utility industry capability. The Persian Gulf conflict has also resulted in an important change in the structure of international oil markets. The result of this policy-based change is likely to be a shift in oil pricing strategy. Finally, continued change in environmental requirements is continuing to shift utility residual oil requirements, but is also changing the nature of the US resid market itself

  18. A simplified and cost-effective enrichment protocol for the isolation of Campylobacter spp. from retail broiler meat without microaerobic incubation

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zhou, Ping

    2011-08-03

    Abstract Background To simplify the methodology for the isolation of Campylobacter spp. from retail broiler meat, we evaluated 108 samples (breasts and thighs) using an unpaired sample design. The enrichment broths were incubated under aerobic conditions (subsamples A) and for comparison under microaerobic conditions (subsamples M) as recommended by current reference protocols. Sensors were used to measure the dissolved oxygen (DO) in the broth and the percentage of oxygen (O2) in the head space of the bags used for enrichment. Campylobacter isolates were identified with multiplex PCR assays and typed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Ribosomal intergenic spacer analyses (RISA) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) were used to study the bacterial communities of subsamples M and A after 48 h enrichment. Results The number of Campylobacter positive subsamples were similar for A and M when all samples were combined (P = 0.81) and when samples were analyzed by product (breast: P = 0.75; thigh: P = 1.00). Oxygen sensors showed that DO values in the broth were around 6 ppm and O2 values in the head space were 14-16% throughout incubation. PFGE demonstrated high genomic similarity of isolates in the majority of the samples in which isolates were obtained from subsamples A and M. RISA and DGGE results showed a large variability in the bacterial populations that could be attributed to sample-to-sample variations and not enrichment conditions (aerobic or microaerobic). These data also suggested that current sampling protocols are not optimized to determine the true number of Campylobacter positive samples in retail boiler meat. Conclusions Decreased DO in enrichment broths is naturally achieved. This simplified, cost-effective enrichment protocol with aerobic incubation could be incorporated into reference methods for the isolation of Campylobacter spp. from retail broiler meat.

  19. Multidrug Efflux Systems in Microaerobic and Anaerobic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Zeling; Yan, Aixin

    2015-01-01

    Active drug efflux constitutes an important mechanism of antibiotic and multidrug resistance in bacteria. Understanding the distribution, expression, and physiological functions of multidrug efflux pumps, especially under physiologically and clinically relevant conditions of the pathogens, is the key to combat drug resistance. In animal hosts, most wounded, infected and inflamed tissues display low oxygen tensions. In this article, we summarize research development on multidrug efflux pumps i...

  20. Genetic Diversity as Consequence of a Microaerobic and Neutrophilic Lifestyle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora-Johanna Krüger

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As a neutrophilic bacterium, Helicobacter pylori is growth deficient under extreme acidic conditions. The gastric pathogen is equipped with an acid survival kit, regulating urease activity by a pH-gated urea channel, opening below pH 6.5. After overcoming acid stress, the bacterium's multiplication site is situated at the gastric mucosa with near neutral pH. The pathogen exhibits exceptional genetic variability, mainly due to its capability of natural transformation, termed competence. Using single cell analysis, we show here that competence is highly regulated in H. pylori. DNA uptake complex activity was reversibly shut down below pH 6.5. pH values above 6.5 opened a competence window, in which competence development was triggered by the combination of pH increase and oxidative stress. In contrast, addition of sublethal concentrations of the DNA-damaging agents ciprofloxacin or mitomycin C did not trigger competence development under our conditions. An oxygen-sensitive mutant lacking superoxide dismutase (sodB displayed a higher competent fraction of cells than the wild type under comparable conditions. In addition, the sodB mutant was dependent on adenine for growth in broth and turned into non-cultivable coccoid forms in its absence, indicating that adenine had radical quenching capacity. Quantification of periplasmically located DNA in competent wild type cells revealed outstanding median imported DNA amounts of around 350 kb per cell within 10 min of import, with maximally a chromosomal equivalent (1.6 Mb in individual cells, far exceeding previous amounts detected in other Gram-negative bacteria. We conclude that the pathogen's high genetic diversity is a consequence of its enormous DNA uptake capacity, triggered by intrinsic and extrinsic oxidative stress once a neutral pH at the site of chronic host colonization allows competence development.

  1. Energy Saving Potential by Utilizing Natural Ventilation under Warm Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oropeza-Perez, Ivan; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this article is to show the potential of natural ventilation as a passive cooling method within the residential sector of countries which are located in warm conditions using Mexico as a case study. The method is proposed as performing, with a simplified ventilation model, thermal......–airflow simulations of 27 common cases of dwellings (considered as one thermal zone) based on the combination of specific features of the building design, occupancy and climate conditions. The energy saving potential is assessed then by the use of a new assessment method suitable for large-scale scenarios using...... the actual number of air-conditioned dwellings distributed among the 27 cases. Thereby, the energy saving is presented as the difference in the cooling demand of the dwelling during one year without and with natural ventilation, respectively. Results indicate that for hot-dry conditions, buildings with high...

  2. INPR ACPR utilization in fuel behaviour studies under accidental condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negut, Gheorghe; Popov, Mircea

    1990-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to the experimental program, investigating CANDU type fuel behaviour in transient condition, as well as the facilities supporting this program. The tests Reactivity Initiated Accident type. The experiments were performed within TRIGA ACPR facility, installed at INSTITUTE for NUCLEAR POWER REACTORS, Pitesti, ROMANIA. Studies of the safety issues took a great international developement during last years. In USA, Japan, owners of the similar reactors, and USSR there are a big commitment to such programs, intended to establish the nuclear fuel behaviour under RIA-conditions. In our country, too, there are programs aiming a complete testing of the CANDU type fuels. As it is known, RIA is not a CANDU specific accident, but the fuel behaviour in such conditions can give useful informations on the fuel cladding failure threshold and about reflooding post LOCA heat transfer condition. Based on some papers and specific requirements it was initiated and developed a safety research program on CANDU type fuel using the ACPR. The paper describes the reactor,test capsule, instrumentation, fuel samples, tests, post irradiation results. (orig.)

  3. Alterations in an indium-111 Fab' under conditions of utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, S.E.; Sudora, E.; Tarburton, J.P.; Hagar, P.

    1992-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate alterations that occur in an indium/111 Fab' of a monoclonal antibody following its in vivo administration. Patients were infused with 111 In-Fab' of the monoclonal antibody ZCE-025. Serum and urine specimens were collected from these pateients. Starting materials, serum, urine and controls samples were studied by electrophoresis. Animal distribution studies were performed in normal Balb/c mice and, in some cases, nude mice bearing a carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)/producing human colon tumour since the antibody targets CEA. The studies indicated that the molecule circulated almost totally intact for at least 4 h and to a considerable extent for 24 h, with some evidence for in vivo fragmentation by 24 h. Evidence was also obtained suggesting the formation of a high molecular weight species in some patients. Shortly after infusion, some of the 111 In in the urine appeared as the intact Fab', but within hours the majority migrated electro-phoretically as low molecular weight species. We conclude that while the majority of the 111 In-Fab' of this particular antibody remains intact and immunoreactive following its administration, the molecule is structurally changed to some degree shortly after its infusion into humans. Since each monoclonal antibody is unique, the degree and rapidity of degradation of its Fab' in vivo could vary markedly from the above and possibly adversely effect its utility as a radiopharmaceutical. (orig.)

  4. A Theory of Utility Conditionals: Paralogical Reasoning from Decision-Theoretic Leakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefon, Jean-Francois

    2009-01-01

    Many "if p, then q" conditionals have decision-theoretic features, such as antecedents or consequents that relate to the utility functions of various agents. These decision-theoretic features leak into reasoning processes, resulting in various paralogical conclusions. The theory of utility conditionals offers a unified account of the various forms…

  5. Local Stability Conditions for Two Types of Monetary Models with Recursive Utility

    OpenAIRE

    Miyazaki, Kenji; Utsunomiya, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores local stability conditions for money-in-utility-function (MIUF) and transaction-costs (TC) models with recursive utility.A monetary variant of the Brock-Gale condition provides a theoretical justification of the comparative statics analysis. One of sufficient conditions for local stability is increasing marginal impatience (IMI) in consumption and money. However, this does not deny the possibility of decreasing marginal impatience (DMI). The local stability with DMI is mor...

  6. Microaerobic digestion of sewage sludge on an industrial-pilot scale: the efficiency of biogas desulphurisation under different configurations and the impact of O2 on the microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, I; Pérez, R; Reinoso, M; Torio, R; Fdz-Polanco, M

    2014-07-01

    Biogas produced in an industrial-pilot scale sewage sludge reactor (5m(3)) was desulphurised by imposing microaerobic conditions. The H2S concentration removal efficiency was evaluated under various configurations: different mixing methods and O2 injection points. Biogas was entirely desulphurised under all the configurations set, while the O2 demand of the digester decreased over time. Although the H2S removal seemed to occur in the headspace, S(0) (which was found to be the main oxidation product) was scarcely deposited there in the headspace. O2 did not have a significant impact on the digestion performance; the VS removal remained around 47%. Conversely, DGGE revealed that the higher O2 transfer rate to the sludge maintained by biogas recirculation increased the microbial richness and evenness, and caused an important shift in the structure of the bacterial and the archaeal communities in the long term. All the archaeal genera identified (Methanosaeta, Methanospirillum and Methanoculleus) were present under both anaerobic and microaerobic conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. In situ Removal of Hydrogen Sulfide During Biogas Fermentation at Microaerobic Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mengmeng; Zhang, Yima; Ye, Yuanyuan; Lin, Chunmian

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, rice straw was used as a raw material to produce biogas by anaerobic batch fermentation at 35 °C (mesophilic) or 55 °C (thermophilic). The hydrogen sulfide in biogas can be converted to S 0 or sulfate and removed in-situ under micro-oxygen environment. Trace oxygen was conducted to the anaerobic fermentation tank in amount of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, or 10.0 times stoichiometric equivalence, respectively, and the control experiment without oxygen addition was carried out. The results showed that the initial H 2 S concentrations of biogas are about 3235 ± 185 mg/m 3 (mesophilic) or 3394 ± 126 mg/m 3 (thermophilic), respectively. The desulfurization efficiency is 72.3 % (mesophilic) or 65.6 % (thermophilic), respectively, with oxygen addition by stoichiometric relation. When the oxygen feeded in amount of 2∼4 times, theoretical quantity demanded the removal efficiency of hydrogen sulfide could be over 92 %, and the oxygen residue in biogas could be maintained less than 0.5 %, which fit the requirement of biogas used as vehicle fuel or combined to the grid. Though further more oxygen addition could promote the removal efficiency of hydrogen sulfide (about 93.6 %), the oxygen residue in biogas would be higher than the application limit concentration (0.5 %). Whether mesophilic or thermophilic fermentation with the extra addition of oxygen, there were no obvious changes in the gas production and methane concentration. In conclusion, in-situ desulfurization can be achieved in the anaerobic methane fermentation system under micro-oxygen environment. In addition, air could be used as a substitute oxygen resource on the situation without strict demand for the methane content of biogas.

  8. A review of health utilities across conditions common in paediatric and adult populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopkins Robert B

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cost-utility analyses are commonly used in economic evaluations of interventions or conditions that have an impact on health-related quality of life. However, evaluating utilities in children presents several challenges since young children may not have the cognitive ability to complete measurement tasks and thus utility values must be estimated by proxy assessors. Another solution is to use utilities derived from an adult population. To better inform the future conduct of cost-utility analyses in paediatric populations, we reviewed the published literature reporting utilities among children and adults across selected conditions common to paediatric and adult populations. Methods An electronic search of Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library up to November 2008 was conducted to identify studies presenting utility values derived from the Health Utilities Index (HUI or EuroQoL-5Dimensions (EQ-5D questionnaires or using time trade off (TTO or standard gamble (SG techniques in children and/or adult populations from randomized controlled trials, comparative or non-comparative observational studies, or cross-sectional studies. The search was targeted to four chronic diseases/conditions common to both children and adults and known to have a negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL. Results After screening 951 citations identified from the literature search, 77 unique studies included in our review evaluated utilities in patients with asthma (n = 25, cancer (n = 23, diabetes mellitus (n = 11, skin diseases (n = 19 or chronic diseases (n = 2, with some studies evaluating multiple conditions. Utility values were estimated using HUI (n = 33, EQ-5D (n = 26, TTO (n = 12, and SG (n = 14, with some studies applying more than one technique to estimate utility values. 21% of studies evaluated utilities in children, of those the majority being in the area of oncology. No utility values for children were reported in skin

  9. Genotypic Variation of Early Maturing Soybean Genotypes for Phosphorus Utilization Efficiency under Field Grown Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abaidoo, R. C. [Kwame Nkrumah University of Technology, Kumasi (Ghana); International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan (Nigeria); Opoku, A.; Boahen, S. [Kwame Nkrumah University of Technology, Kumasi (Ghana); Dare, M. O. [Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (Nigeria)

    2013-11-15

    Variability in the utilization of phosphorus (P) by 64 early-maturing soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) genotypes under low-P soil conditions were evaluated in 2009 and 2010 at Shika, Nigeria. Fifteen phenotypic variables; number of nodules, nodule dry weight, grain yield, plant biomass, total biomass, biomass N and P content, Phosphorus Utilization Index (PUI), shoot P Utilization efficiency (PUIS), grain P Utilization efficiency (PUIG), Harvest Index (HI), Biological N fixed (BNF), total N fixed and N and P uptake were measured. The four clusters revealed by cluster analysis were basically divided along (1) plant biomass and uptake, (2) nutrient acquisition and utilization and (3) nodulation components. Three early maturing genotypes, TGx1842-14E, TGx1912-11F and TGx1913-5F, were identified as having high P utilization index and low P uptake. These genotypes could be a potential source for breeding for P use efficiency in early maturing soybean genotypes. (author)

  10. Effect of redox conditions on pharmaceutical loss during biological wastewater treatment using sequencing batch reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Lauren B., E-mail: lstadler@umich.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, 1351 Beal Avenue, EWRE, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Su, Lijuan, E-mail: lijuansu@buffalo.edu [Department of Chemistry, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States); Moline, Christopher J., E-mail: christopher.moline@hdrinc.com [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, 1351 Beal Avenue, EWRE, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Ernstoff, Alexi S., E-mail: alexer@dtu.dk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, 1351 Beal Avenue, EWRE, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Aga, Diana S., E-mail: dianaaga@buffalo.edu [Department of Chemistry, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States); Love, Nancy G., E-mail: nglove@umich.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, 1351 Beal Avenue, EWRE, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2015-01-23

    Highlights: • Pharmaceutical fate was studied in SBRs operated at different redox conditions. • Stable carbon oxidation and nitrification occurred under microaerobic conditions. • Losses of atenolol and trimethoprim were highest under fully aerobic conditions. • Loss of sulfamethoxazole was highest under microaerobic conditions. • Deconjugation occurred during treatment to form sulfamethoxazole and desvenlafaxine. - Abstract: We lack a clear understanding of how wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) process parameters, such as redox environment, impact pharmaceutical fate. WWTPs increasingly install more advanced aeration control systems to save energy and achieve better nutrient removal performance. The impact of redox condition, and specifically the use of microaerobic (low dissolved oxygen) treatment, is poorly understood. In this study, the fate of a mixture of pharmaceuticals and several of their transformation products present in the primary effluent of a local WWTP was assessed in sequencing batch reactors operated under different redox conditions: fully aerobic, anoxic/aerobic, and microaerobic (DO concentration ≈0.3 mg/L). Among the pharmaceuticals that were tracked during this study (atenolol, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, desvenlafaxine, venlafaxine, and phenytoin), overall loss varied between them and between redox environments. Losses of atenolol and trimethoprim were highest in the aerobic reactor; sulfamethoxazole loss was highest in the microaerobic reactors; and phenytoin was recalcitrant in all reactors. Transformation products of sulfamethoxazole and desvenlafaxine resulted in the reformation of their parent compounds during treatment. The results suggest that transformation products must be accounted for when assessing removal efficiencies and that redox environment influences the degree of pharmaceutical loss.

  11. Effect of redox conditions on pharmaceutical loss during biological wastewater treatment using sequencing batch reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadler, Lauren B.; Su, Lijuan; Moline, Christopher J.; Ernstoff, Alexi S.; Aga, Diana S.; Love, Nancy G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pharmaceutical fate was studied in SBRs operated at different redox conditions. • Stable carbon oxidation and nitrification occurred under microaerobic conditions. • Losses of atenolol and trimethoprim were highest under fully aerobic conditions. • Loss of sulfamethoxazole was highest under microaerobic conditions. • Deconjugation occurred during treatment to form sulfamethoxazole and desvenlafaxine. - Abstract: We lack a clear understanding of how wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) process parameters, such as redox environment, impact pharmaceutical fate. WWTPs increasingly install more advanced aeration control systems to save energy and achieve better nutrient removal performance. The impact of redox condition, and specifically the use of microaerobic (low dissolved oxygen) treatment, is poorly understood. In this study, the fate of a mixture of pharmaceuticals and several of their transformation products present in the primary effluent of a local WWTP was assessed in sequencing batch reactors operated under different redox conditions: fully aerobic, anoxic/aerobic, and microaerobic (DO concentration ≈0.3 mg/L). Among the pharmaceuticals that were tracked during this study (atenolol, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, desvenlafaxine, venlafaxine, and phenytoin), overall loss varied between them and between redox environments. Losses of atenolol and trimethoprim were highest in the aerobic reactor; sulfamethoxazole loss was highest in the microaerobic reactors; and phenytoin was recalcitrant in all reactors. Transformation products of sulfamethoxazole and desvenlafaxine resulted in the reformation of their parent compounds during treatment. The results suggest that transformation products must be accounted for when assessing removal efficiencies and that redox environment influences the degree of pharmaceutical loss

  12. Burden of emergency conditions and emergency care utilization: New estimates from 40 countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cindy Y.; Abujaber, Samer; Reynolds, Teri A.; Camargo, Carlos A.; Obermeyer, Ziad

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the global and national burden of emergency conditions, and compare them to emergency care utilization rates. Methods We coded all 291 Global Burden of Disease 2010 conditions into three categories to estimate emergency burden: conditions that, if not addressed within hours to days of onset, commonly lead to serious disability or death; conditions with common acute decompensations that lead to serious disability or death; and non-emergencies. Emergency care utilization rates were obtained from a systematic literature review on emergency care facilities in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), supplemented by national health system reports. Findings All 15 leading causes of death and DALYs globally were conditions with potential emergent manifestations. We identified 41 facility-based reports in 23 countries, 12 of which were in LMICs; data for 17 additional countries were obtained from national or regional reports on emergency utilization. Burden of emergency conditions was the highest in low-income countries, with median DALYs of 47,728 per 100,000 population (IQR 45,253-50,085) in low-income, 25,186 (IQR 21,982-40,480) in middle-income, and 15,691 (IQR 14,649-16,382) in high-income countries. Patterns were similar using deaths to measure burden and excluding acute decompensations from the definition of emergency conditions. Conversely, emergency utilization rates were the lowest in low-income countries, with median 8 visits per 1,000 population (IQR 6-10), 78 (IQR 25-197) in middle-income, and 264 (IQR 177-341) in high-income countries. Conclusion Despite higher burden of emergency conditions, emergency utilization rates are substantially lower in LMICs, likely due to limited access to emergency care. PMID:27334758

  13. Impact of socioeconomic status and medical conditions on health and healthcare utilization among aging Ghanaians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Bashiru Ii; Xicang, Zhao; Yawson, Alfred Edwin; Nguah, Samuel Blay; Nsowah-Nuamah, Nicholas N N

    2015-03-20

    This study attempts to examine the impact of socioeconomic and medical conditions in health and healthcare utilization among older adults in Ghana. Five separate models with varying input variables were estimated for each response variable. Data (Wave 1 data) were drawn from the World Health Organization Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) conducted during 2007-2008 and included a total of 4770 respondents aged 50+ and 803 aged 18-49 in Ghana. Ordered logits was estimated for self-rated health, and binary logits for functional limitation and healthcare utilization. Our results show that the study provides enough grounds for further research on the interplay between socioeconomic and medical conditions on one hand and the health of the aged on the other. Controlling for socioeconomic status substantially contributes significantly to utilization. Also, aged women experience worse health than men, as shown by functioning assessment, self-rated health, chronic conditions and functional limitations. Women have higher rates of healthcare utilization, as shown by significantly higher rates of hospitalization and outpatient encounters. Expansion of the national health insurance scheme to cover the entire older population--for those in both formal and informal employments--is likely to garner increased access and improved health states for the older population.

  14. Discovery of temporal and disease association patterns in condition-specific hospital utilization rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian S Haimovich

    Full Text Available Identifying temporal variation in hospitalization rates may provide insights about disease patterns and thereby inform research, policy, and clinical care. However, the majority of medical conditions have not been studied for their potential seasonal variation. The objective of this study was to apply a data-driven approach to characterize temporal variation in condition-specific hospitalizations. Using a dataset of 34 million inpatient discharges gathered from hospitals in New York State from 2008-2011, we grouped all discharges into 263 clinical conditions based on the principal discharge diagnosis using Clinical Classification Software in order to mitigate the limitation that administrative claims data reflect clinical conditions to varying specificity. After applying Seasonal-Trend Decomposition by LOESS, we estimated the periodicity of the seasonal component using spectral analysis and applied harmonic regression to calculate the amplitude and phase of the condition's seasonal utilization pattern. We also introduced four new indices of temporal variation: mean oscillation width, seasonal coefficient, trend coefficient, and linearity of the trend. Finally, K-means clustering was used to group conditions across these four indices to identify common temporal variation patterns. Of all 263 clinical conditions considered, 164 demonstrated statistically significant seasonality. Notably, we identified conditions for which seasonal variation has not been previously described such as ovarian cancer, tuberculosis, and schizophrenia. Clustering analysis yielded three distinct groups of conditions based on multiple measures of seasonal variation. Our study was limited to New York State and results may not directly apply to other regions with distinct climates and health burden. A substantial proportion of medical conditions, larger than previously described, exhibit seasonal variation in hospital utilization. Moreover, the application of clustering

  15. The utilization of natural resources under the conditions of intersectoral intergration

    OpenAIRE

    Dankevych, Ye.; Данкевич, Є. М.

    2013-01-01

    The paper studies and analyses the present-day state of the utilization of natural resources by agricultural commodity producers. Some changes of the natural components under the conditions of the increased anthropological load on landscape have been revealed. The author investigates the basic production factors which essentially influence the agrolandscape. It has been established that the increase in the technical level stipulates the human interference with natural complexes, land resource...

  16. Effects of oxidation reduction potential in the bypass micro-aerobic sludge zone on sludge reduction for a modified oxic-settling-anaerobic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kexun; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Zhongpin; Liu, Dongfang

    2014-01-01

    Batch experiments were conducted to determine the effect of oxidation reduction potential (ORP) on sludge reduction in a bypass micro-aerobic sludge reduction system. The system was composed of a modified oxic-settling-anaerobic process with a sludge holding tank in the sludge recycle loop. The ORPs in the micro-aerobic tanks were set at approximately +350, -90, -150, -200 and -250 mV, by varying the length of aeration time for the tanks. The results show that lower ORP result in greater sludge volume reduction, and the sludge production was reduced by 60% at the lowest ORP. In addition, low ORP caused extracellular polymer substances dissociation and slightly reduced sludge activity. Comparing the sludge backflow characteristics of the micro-aerobic tank's ORP controlled at -250 mV with that of +350 mV, the average soluble chemical oxygen (SCOD), TN and TP increased by 7, 0.4 and 2 times, median particle diameter decreased by 8.5 μm and the specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) decreased by 0.0043 milligram O2 per gram suspended solids per minute. For the effluent, SCOD and TN and TP fluctuated around 30, 8.7 and 0.66 mg/L, respectively. Therefore, the effective assignment of ORP in the micro-aerobic tank can remarkably reduce sludge volume and does not affect final effluent quality.

  17. Enhanced nitrogen removal from piggery wastewater with high NH4+ and low COD/TN ratio in a novel upflow microaerobic biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jia; Li, Jiuling; Li, Jianzheng; Antwi, Philip; Deng, Kaiwen; Nan, Jun; Xu, Pianpian

    2018-02-01

    To enhance nutrient removal more cost-efficiently in microaerobic process treating piggery wastewater characterized by high ammonium (NH 4 + -N) and low chemical oxygen demand (COD) to total nitrogen (TN) ratio, a novel upflow microaerobic biofilm reactor (UMBR) was constructed and the efficiency in nutrient removal was evaluated with various influent COD/TN ratios and reflux ratios. The results showed that the biofilm on the carriers had increased the biomass in the UMBR and enhanced the enrichment of slow-growth-rate bacteria such as nitrifiers, denitrifiers and anammox bacteria. The packed bed allowed the microaerobic biofilm process perform well at a low reflux ratio of 35 with a NH 4 + -N and TN removal as high as 93.1% and 89.9%, respectively. Compared with the previously developed upflow microaerobic sludge reactor, the UMBR had not changed the dominant anammox approach to nitrogen removal, but was more cost-efficiently in treating organic wastewater with high NH 4 + -N and low COD/TN ratio. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Resource Utilization Associated with Extracardiac Co-morbid Conditions Following Congenital Heart Surgery in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomela, Krista E; Gordon, John B; Cassidy, Laura D; Johaningsmeir, Sarah; Ghanayem, Nancy S

    2017-06-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is often associated with chronic extracardiac co-morbid conditions (ECC). The presence of ECC has been associated with greater resource utilization during the operative period; however, the impact beyond hospital discharge has not been described. This study sought to understand the scope of chronic ECC in infants with CHD as well as to describe the impact of ECC on resource utilization after discharge from the index cardiac procedure. IRB approved this retrospective study of infants Whitney Rank Sum Test with p < 0.05 considered significant. ECC occurred in 55% (481/876) of infants. Median STAT score was higher in the group with ECC (3 vs. 2, p < 0.001). Resource utilization after discharge from the index procedure as defined by median hospital charges (78 vs. 10 K, p < 0.001 and unplanned hospital days 4 vs. 0, p < 0.001) was higher in those with ECC, and increased with the greater number of ECC, even after accounting for surgical complexity. STAT score and the presence of multiple ECC were associated with higher resource utilization following the index cardiac surgical procedure. These data may be helpful in deciding which children might benefit from a cardiac complex care program that partners families and providers to improve health and decrease healthcare costs.

  19. Estimating health state utility values for comorbid health conditions using SF-6D data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Roberta; Brazier, John

    2011-01-01

    When health state utility values for comorbid health conditions are not available, data from cohorts with single conditions are used to estimate scores. The methods used can produce very different results and there is currently no consensus on which is the most appropriate approach. The objective of the current study was to compare the accuracy of five different methods within the same dataset. Data collected during five Welsh Health Surveys were subgrouped by health status. Mean short-form 6 dimension (SF-6D) scores for cohorts with a specific health condition were used to estimate mean SF-6D scores for cohorts with comorbid conditions using the additive, multiplicative, and minimum methods, the adjusted decrement estimator (ADE), and a linear regression model. The mean SF-6D for subgroups with comorbid health conditions ranged from 0.4648 to 0.6068. The linear model produced the most accurate scores for the comorbid health conditions with 88% of values accurate to within the minimum important difference for the SF-6D. The additive and minimum methods underestimated or overestimated the actual SF-6D scores respectively. The multiplicative and ADE methods both underestimated the majority of scores. However, both methods performed better when estimating scores smaller than 0.50. Although the range in actual health state utility values (HSUVs) was relatively small, our data covered the lower end of the index and the majority of previous research has involved actual HSUVs at the upper end of possible ranges. Although the linear model gave the most accurate results in our data, additional research is required to validate our findings. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Utilization of the series resonant dc link converter as a conditioning system for SMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marschke, K.W.; Caldeira, P.P.A.; Lipo, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a new superconductive magnetic energy storage (SMES) system utilizes a high-frequency series resonant dc link power converter of high efficiency as the conditioning converter is presented. This system generates a high-frequency (20 kHz or more) resonant current in a series link and switching is done at zero current instants, reducing switching losses to a minimal value. Through the utilization of an adequate control strategy, the input power factor can be fully adjusted during the charging, storing, and discharging modes of the SMES, improving the overall system efficiency. Different semiconductor devices are employed as the switching elements of the resonant converter and switching losses are established for each case. Experimental results from a monophase and three-phase system verified the results obtained from digital simulation

  1. Obstetric Outcomes and Delivery-Related Health Care Utilization and Costs Among Pregnant Women With Multiple Chronic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, Tyler N. A.; Heisler, Michele; Dalton, Vanessa K.

    2018-01-01

    Our objective was to measure obstetric outcomes and delivery-related health care utilization and costs among pregnant women with multiple chronic conditions. We used 2013–2014 data from the National Inpatient Sample to measure obstetric outcomes and delivery-related health care utilization and costs among women with no chronic conditions, 1 chronic condition, and multiple chronic conditions. Women with multiple chronic conditions were at significantly higher risk than women with 1 chronic condition or no chronic conditions across all outcomes measured. High-value strategies are needed to improve birth outcomes among vulnerable mothers and their infants. PMID:29420168

  2. Health plan utilization and costs of specialty drugs within 4 chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Patrick P; Alexander, G Caleb; Starner, Catherine I; Ritter, Stephen T; Van Houten, Holly K; Gunderson, Brent W; Shah, Nilay D

    2013-09-01

    Drugs are most typically defined as specialty because they are expensive; however, other criteria used to define a drug as specialty include biologic drugs, the need to inject or infuse the drug, the requirement for special handling, or drug availability only via a limited distribution network. Specialty drugs play an increasingly important role in the treatment of chronic conditions such as multiple sclerosis (MS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriasis, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), yet little is known regarding the comprehensive medical and pharmacy benefit utilization and cost trends for these conditions. To describe MS, RA, psoriasis, and IBD trends for condition prevalence, treatment with specialty drugs, specialty costs, nonspecialty costs, and total direct costs of care within the medical and pharmacy benefits. This was a descriptive analysis of a commercially insured population made up of 1 million members, using integrated medical and pharmacy administrative claims data from 2008 to 2010. Analyses were limited to continuously enrolled commercially insured individuals less than 65 years of age. Condition-specific cohorts for MS, RA, psoriasis, and IBD were defined using standardized criteria. Trends in condition prevalence, specialty drug use for the conditions, and direct total cost of care were analyzed. The direct costs were subcategorized into the following: medical benefit specialty drug costs, medical benefit all other costs, pharmacy benefit specialty drug costs, and pharmacy benefit all other costs. Trends and compound annual growth rates were calculated for the total cost of care and subcategory costs from 2008 through 2010. Condition prevalence ranged from a low of 1,720 per million members for MS to a high of 4,489 per million members for RA. Psoriasis and MS condition prevalence rates were unchanged over the 3 years; however, IBD prevalence increased 7.0%, and RA prevalence increased 9.7%. The rate of specialty drug use was lowest for IBD

  3. Healthcare Utilization and Spending for Constipation in Children With Versus Without Complex Chronic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, John R; Steiner, Michael J; DeJong, Neal; Rodean, Jonathan; Hall, Matt; Richardson, Troy; Berry, Jay G

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of diagnosis and treatment for constipation among children receiving Medicaid and to compare healthcare utilization and spending for constipation among children based on number of complex chronic conditions (CCCs). Retrospective cohort study of 4.9 million children ages 1 to 17 years enrolled in Medicaid from 2009 to 2011 in 10 states in the Truven Marketscan Database. Constipation was identified using International Classification of Disease, 9th revision codes for constipation (564.0x), intestinal impaction (560.3x), or encopresis (307.7). Outpatient and inpatient utilization and spending for constipation were assessed. CCC status was identified using validated methodology. A total of 267,188 children (5.4%) were diagnosed with constipation. Total constipation spending was $79.5 million. Outpatient constipation spending was $66.8 million (84.1%) during 406,814 visits, mean spending $120/visit. Among children with constipation, 1363 (0.5%) received inpatient treatment, accounting for $12.2 million (15.4%) of constipation spending, mean spending $7815/hospitalization. Of children hospitalized for constipation, 552 (40.5%) did not have an outpatient visit for constipation before admission. Approximately 6.8% of children in the study had ≥1 CCC; these children accounted for 33.5% of total constipation spending, 70.3% of inpatient constipation spending, and 19.8% of emergency department constipation spending. Constipation prevalence was 11.0% for children with 1 CCC, 16.6% with 2 CCCs, and 27.1% with ≥3 CCCs. Although the majority of pediatric constipation treatment occurs in the outpatient setting, inpatient care accounts for a sizable percentage of spending. Children with CCCs have a higher prevalence of constipation and account for a disproportionate amount of constipation healthcare utilization and spending.

  4. Health Service Utilization among Syrian Refugees with Chronic Health Conditions in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Lyles, Emily; Akhu-Zaheya, Laila; Oweis, Arwa; Al Ward, Nada; Burton, Ann

    2016-01-01

    The influx of Syrian refugees into Jordan presents an immense burden to the Jordanian health system, particularly in treating chronic health conditions. This study was undertaken to assess utilization of health services for chronic health conditions among Syrian refugees in non-camp settings. A survey of Syrian refugees in Jordan was undertaken in June 2014 to characterize health seeking behaviors and issues related to accessing care for hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, and arthritis. A cluster design with probability proportional to size sampling was used to attain a nationally representative sample of 1550 non-camp Syrian refugee households. Of 1363 cases with a chronic health condition diagnosis, 84.7% had received care in Jordan. Public facilities faced a heavy burden serving over half (53.9%) of care-seekers; the remainder received care in the private (29.6%) and NGO/charity (16.6%) sectors. Individuals with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the central region of Jordan and with arthritis had the lowest rates of care-seeking when compared to other regions and conditions. Overall, 31.6% of care-seekers had an out-of-pocket payment for the most recent care-seeking event which averaged 18.8 USD (median = 0 USD), excluding cost of medications. Forced displacement presents major challenges to those with NCDs, which have the potential to seriously impact both the quality of life and life expectancy amongst refugees. NCD patterns among Syrian refugees indicate the importance of continuing support to public sector services in Jordan to adequately meet expanding needs and ensure appropriate prevention and control of priority NCDs.

  5. Community household income and resource utilization for common inpatient pediatric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieldston, Evan S; Zaniletti, Isabella; Hall, Matthew; Colvin, Jeffrey D; Gottlieb, Laura; Macy, Michelle L; Alpern, Elizabeth R; Morse, Rustin B; Hain, Paul D; Sills, Marion R; Frank, Gary; Shah, Samir S

    2013-12-01

    Child health is influenced by biomedical and socioeconomic factors. Few studies have explored the relationship between community-level income and inpatient resource utilization for children. Our objective was to analyze inpatient costs for children hospitalized with common conditions in relation to zip code-based median annual household income (HHI). Retrospective national cohort from 32 freestanding children's hospitals for asthma, diabetes, bronchiolitis and respiratory syncytial virus, pneumonia, and kidney and urinary tract infections. Standardized cost of care for individual hospitalizations and across hospitalizations for the same patient and condition were modeled by using mixed-effects methods, adjusting for severity of illness, age, gender, and race. Main exposure was median annual HHI. Posthoc tests compared adjusted standardized costs for patients from the lowest and highest income groups. From 116,636 hospitalizations, 4 of 5 conditions had differences at the hospitalization and at the patient level, with lowest-income groups having higher costs. The individual hospitalization level cost differences ranged from $187 (4.1%) to $404 (6.4%). Patient-level cost differences ranged from $310 to $1087 or 6.5% to 15% higher for the lowest-income patients. Higher costs were typically not for laboratory, imaging, or pharmacy costs. In total, patients from lowest income zip codes had $8.4 million more in hospitalization-level costs and $13.6 million more in patient-level costs. Lower community-level HHI is associated with higher inpatient costs of care for 4 of 5 common pediatric conditions. These findings highlight the need to consider socioeconomic status in health care system design, delivery, and reimbursement calculations.

  6. Health Service Utilization among Syrian Refugees with Chronic Health Conditions in Jordan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Doocy

    Full Text Available The influx of Syrian refugees into Jordan presents an immense burden to the Jordanian health system, particularly in treating chronic health conditions. This study was undertaken to assess utilization of health services for chronic health conditions among Syrian refugees in non-camp settings.A survey of Syrian refugees in Jordan was undertaken in June 2014 to characterize health seeking behaviors and issues related to accessing care for hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, and arthritis. A cluster design with probability proportional to size sampling was used to attain a nationally representative sample of 1550 non-camp Syrian refugee households.Of 1363 cases with a chronic health condition diagnosis, 84.7% had received care in Jordan. Public facilities faced a heavy burden serving over half (53.9% of care-seekers; the remainder received care in the private (29.6% and NGO/charity (16.6% sectors. Individuals with non-communicable diseases (NCDs in the central region of Jordan and with arthritis had the lowest rates of care-seeking when compared to other regions and conditions. Overall, 31.6% of care-seekers had an out-of-pocket payment for the most recent care-seeking event which averaged 18.8 USD (median = 0 USD, excluding cost of medications.Forced displacement presents major challenges to those with NCDs, which have the potential to seriously impact both the quality of life and life expectancy amongst refugees. NCD patterns among Syrian refugees indicate the importance of continuing support to public sector services in Jordan to adequately meet expanding needs and ensure appropriate prevention and control of priority NCDs.

  7. Developing RCM Strategy for Hydrogen Fuel Cells Utilizing On Line E-Condition Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baglee, D; Knowles, M J

    2012-01-01

    Fuel cell vehicles are considered to be a viable solution to problems such as carbon emissions and fuel shortages for road transport. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells are mainly used in this purpose because they can run at low temperatures and have a simple structure. Yet high maintenance costs and the inherent dangers of maintaining equipment using hydrogen are two main issues which need to be addressed. The development of appropriate and efficient strategies is currently lacking with regard to fuel cell maintenance. A Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) approach offers considerable benefit to the management of fuel cell maintenance since it includes an identification and consideration of the impact of critical components. Technological developments in e-maintenance systems, radio-frequency identification (RFID) and personal digital assistants (PDAs) have proven to satisfy the increasing demand for improved reliability, efficiency and safety. RFID technology is used to store and remotely retrieve electronic maintenance data in order to provide instant access to up-to-date, accurate and detailed information. The aim is to support fuel cell maintenance decisions by developing and applying a blend of leading-edge communications and sensor technology including RFID. The purpose of this paper is to review and present the state of the art in fuel cell condition monitoring and maintenance utilizing RCM and RFID technologies. Using an RCM analysis critical components and fault modes are identified. RFID tags are used to store the critical information, possible faults and their cause and effect. The relationship between causes, faults, symptoms and long term implications of fault conditions are summarized. Finally conclusions are drawn regarding suggested maintenance strategies and the optimal structure for an integrated, cost effective condition monitoring and maintenance management system.

  8. Developing RCM Strategy for Hydrogen Fuel Cells Utilizing On Line E-Condition Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglee, D.; Knowles, M. J.

    2012-05-01

    Fuel cell vehicles are considered to be a viable solution to problems such as carbon emissions and fuel shortages for road transport. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells are mainly used in this purpose because they can run at low temperatures and have a simple structure. Yet high maintenance costs and the inherent dangers of maintaining equipment using hydrogen are two main issues which need to be addressed. The development of appropriate and efficient strategies is currently lacking with regard to fuel cell maintenance. A Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) approach offers considerable benefit to the management of fuel cell maintenance since it includes an identification and consideration of the impact of critical components. Technological developments in e-maintenance systems, radio-frequency identification (RFID) and personal digital assistants (PDAs) have proven to satisfy the increasing demand for improved reliability, efficiency and safety. RFID technology is used to store and remotely retrieve electronic maintenance data in order to provide instant access to up-to-date, accurate and detailed information. The aim is to support fuel cell maintenance decisions by developing and applying a blend of leading-edge communications and sensor technology including RFID. The purpose of this paper is to review and present the state of the art in fuel cell condition monitoring and maintenance utilizing RCM and RFID technologies. Using an RCM analysis critical components and fault modes are identified. RFID tags are used to store the critical information, possible faults and their cause and effect. The relationship between causes, faults, symptoms and long term implications of fault conditions are summarized. Finally conclusions are drawn regarding suggested maintenance strategies and the optimal structure for an integrated, cost effective condition monitoring and maintenance management system.

  9. Basic regulatory principles of Escherichia coli's electron transport chain for varying oxygen conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkel, S.G.; Ter Beek, A.S.; Steinsiek, S.; Stagge, S.; Bettenbrock, K.; Teixeira De Mattos, M.J.; Sauter, T.; Sawodny, O.; Ederer, M.

    2014-01-01

    For adaptation between anaerobic, micro-aerobic and aerobic conditions Escherichia coli's metabolism and in particular its electron transport chain (ETC) is highly regulated. Although it is known that the global transcriptional regulators FNR and ArcA are involved in oxygen response it is unclear

  10. Improvement of condition-based maintenance technology by utilization of thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Hiroki

    2004-01-01

    In the United States, condition-based maintenance technology comprising IR thermography (hereafter ''thermography'' for short) has been regarded in recent years as the established means for effectively improvement the performance of accident-preventive measures for nuclear power stations. As very few nuclear power plants in Japan have been utilizing the technology, measures for allowing power station personnel to use the technology with ease have been studied on an empirical basis. First, in view of improving the measuring efficiency to determine temperatures more accurately with a single measurement, principal factors affecting the measured temperature values have been analyzed. As a result, it has been found effective for accurate temperature measurement to make use of the table to radiation rates that have been determined for each facility coating specification by using a black body tape and to determine the measuring spot by avoiding rear heat sources (influence of reflection ratio) and background noise (influence of scattered light). Concurrently, as a result of determining the IR attenuation in the atmosphere, thermographic measurement has been found feasible without any significant attenuation as long as the distance is below 10 meters. Further, every power station facility (mainly electrical facilities) that is immune to thermography has been identified. These study results have been documented in the form of the ''Thermography Measurement Manual'' by also including in it the descriptions on abnormal thermal images and the judgment criteria at elevated temperatures that have been used in the United States. Based on these accomplishments, condition-based maintenance technology employing thermography has been applied to on-site investigation of nuclear power stations, and the effectiveness of thermography-aided accident-prevention has been demonstrated by detecting locally temperature rising spots of power cable joints. Moreover, with respect to maintenance

  11. Metabolic Characteristics of a Glucose-Utilizing Shewanella oneidensis Strain Grown under Electrode-Respiring Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen Nakagawa

    Full Text Available In bioelectrochemical systems, the electrode potential is an important parameter affecting the electron flow between electrodes and microbes and microbial metabolic activities. Here, we investigated the metabolic characteristics of a glucose-utilizing strain of engineered Shewanella oneidensis under electrode-respiring conditions in electrochemical reactors for gaining insight into how metabolic pathways in electrochemically active bacteria are affected by the electrode potential. When an electrochemical reactor was operated with its working electrode poised at +0.4 V (vs. an Ag/AgCl reference electrode, the engineered S. oneidensis strain, carrying a plasmid encoding a sugar permease and glucose kinase of Escherichia coli, generated current by oxidizing glucose to acetate and produced D-lactate as an intermediate metabolite. However, D-lactate accumulation was not observed when the engineered strain was grown with a working electrode poised at 0 V. We also found that transcription of genes involved in pyruvate and D-lactate metabolisms was upregulated at a high electrode potential compared with their transcription at a low electrode potential. These results suggest that the carbon catabolic pathway of S. oneidensis can be modified by controlling the potential of a working electrode in an electrochemical bioreactor.

  12. Reprocessing-conditioning-recycling: A competitive industry at the service of the utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, J.P.; Devezeaux de Lavergne, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    In order to answer to the future energy needs, the countries who have chosen nuclear power as a main energy source, have also opted for an optimisation of their policy through the Reprocessing-Conditioning-Recycling (RCR) strategy. The RCR industry is today totally mature and comprehensive thanks to proven industrial means for reprocessing through the UP3 and UP2-800 plants of the la Hague site and for Mixed Oxide fuel (Mox) supply. The optimisation of the RCR industry following the chromological logic of the fuel cycle development, has now focused on two main items: The fabrication of the Mox fuel and the management of the residues with a notably drastic reduction of the total volume of residues. From 1990 to 1994, several studies of the total fuel cycle cost have been carried out; German studies generally concluded to a potential advantage of the Direct Disposal option compared to the RCR strategy. But a 1996 Cogema-study, integrating the most recent data and based on a cost model of the complete fuel cycle, has shown (like the 1994 OECD study) very similar costs between the two options. Thanks to the industry optimisation, the RCR strategy has allowed to decrease the fuel cycle cost to a very low level of 1,5 Pf/kWh. The RCR strategy is economically competitive and less sensitive to price variations. Furthermore, it is immediately available for the utilities who consequently take advantage of a global service with firm prices. (orig.) [de

  13. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Jean Bustard

    2003-12-01

    ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) has successfully completed a research and development program granted by the Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to develop a family of non-toxic flue gas conditioning agents to provide utilities and industries with a cost-effective means of complying with environmental regulations on particulate emissions and opacity. An extensive laboratory screening of potential additives was completed followed by full-scale trials at four utility power plants. The developed cohesivity additives have been demonstrated on a 175 MW utility boiler that exhibited poor collection of unburned carbon in the electrostatic precipitator. With cohesivity conditioning, opacity spiking caused by rapping reentrainment was reduced and total particulate emissions were reduced by more than 30%. Ammonia conditioning was also successful in reducing reentrainment on the same unit. Conditioned fly ash from the process is expected to be suitable for dry or wet disposal and for concrete admixture.

  14. The transformation from anammox granules to deammonification granules in micro-aerobic system by facilitating indigenous ammonia oxidizing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolong; Gao, Dawen

    2018-02-01

    Granular deammonification process is a good way to retain aerobic and anaerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB and anammox bacteria) and exhaust flocculent nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB). In this study, to facilitate indigenous AOB growth on anammox granules, by stepwise reducing influent nitrite, anammox granules were effectively transformed into deammonification granules in a micro-aerobic EGSB in 100 days. Total nitrogen removal efficiency of 90% and nitrogen removal rate of 2.3 g N/L/d were reached at stable deammonification stage. High influent FA and limited oxygen supply contributed suppression for Nitrospira-like NOB. In transition stages, Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi were always dominated. Anammox abundance decreased, while AOB abundance grew fast. Anammox bacteria and AOB were dominated by Brocadia fulgida and Nitrosomonas europaea, respectively. Denitrification activity and bacteria existed although without influent organic. The final AOB abundance was about 4.55-13.8 times more than anammox bacteria abundance, with almost equal potential activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular analysis of the biomass of a fluidized bed reactor treating synthetic vinasse at anaerobic and micro-aerobic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, E.; Lopes, A.; Fdz-Polanco, M.; Stams, A.J.M.; Garcia Encina, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    The microbial communities (Bacteria and Archaea) established in an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor used to treat synthetic vinasse (betaine, glucose, acetate, propionate, and butyrate) were characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and phylogenetic analysis. This study was

  16. Conditions for energy generation as an alternative approach to compost utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raclavska, H; Juchelkova, D; Skrobankova, H; Wiltowski, T; Campen, A

    2011-01-01

    Very strict limits constrain the current possibilities for compost utilization in agriculture and for land reclamation, thus creating a need for other compost utilization practices. A favourable alternative can be compost utilization as a renewable heat source - alternative fuel. The changes of the basic physical-chemical parameters during the composting process are evaluated. During the composting process, energy losses of 920 kJ/kg occur, caused by carbohydrate decomposition (loss of 12.64% TOC). The net calorific value for mature compost was 11.169 kJ/kg dry matter. The grain size of compost below 0.045 mm has the highest ash content. The energetic utilization of compost depended on moisture, which can be influenced by paper addition or by prolonging the time of maturation to six months.

  17. A combined model to assess technical and economic consequences of changing conditions and management options for wastewater utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giessler, Mathias; Tränckner, Jens

    2018-02-01

    The paper presents a simplified model that quantifies economic and technical consequences of changing conditions in wastewater systems on utility level. It has been developed based on data from stakeholders and ministries, collected by a survey that determined resulting effects and adapted measures. The model comprises all substantial cost relevant assets and activities of a typical German wastewater utility. It consists of three modules: i) Sewer for describing the state development of sewer systems, ii) WWTP for process parameter consideration of waste water treatment plants (WWTP) and iii) Cost Accounting for calculation of expenses in the cost categories and resulting charges. Validity and accuracy of this model was verified by using historical data from an exemplary wastewater utility. Calculated process as well as economic parameters shows a high accuracy compared to measured parameters and given expenses. Thus, the model is proposed to support strategic, process oriented decision making on utility level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Tolerability and Healthcare Utilization in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients Undergoing Treatment for Tuberculosis-Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadah, Abdurrahman M; Beaulieu, Lynn M; Wilson, John W; Aksamit, Timothy R; Gregoire, James R; Williams, Amy W; Dillon, John J; Albright, Robert C; Onuigbo, Macaulay; Iyer, Venkateshwaran K; Hickson, LaTonya J

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in end-stage renal disease is significantly higher than that in the general population. Among those with kidney dysfunction, anti-TB treatment is associated with increased side effects, but the effect on healthcare utilization is unknown. Methods/Aim: To assess patient-reported symptoms, adverse effects and describe changes in healthcare utilization patterns during treatment for TB, we conducted a case series (n = 12) of patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis (HD) from Mayo Clinic Dialysis Services and concurrent drug therapy for TB from January 2002 through May 2014. Healthcare utilization (hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits independent of hospital admission) was compared before and during treatment. Patients were treated for latent (n = 7) or active (n = 5) TB. The majority of patients with latent disease were treated with isoniazid (n = 5, 71%), while active-disease patients received a 4-drug regimen. Adverse effects were reported in 83% of patients. Compared to measurements prior to drug initiation, serum albumin and dialysis weights were similar at 3 months. Commonly reported anti-TB drug toxicities were described. More than half (58%) of the patients were hospitalized at least once. No ED or hospital admissions occurred in the period prior to drug therapy, but healthcare utilization increased during treatment in the latent disease group (hospitalization rate per person-month: pre 0 vs. post 1). Among HD patients, anti-TB therapy is associated with frequently reported symptoms and increased healthcare utilization. Among this subset, patients receiving treatment for latent disease may be those with greatest increase in healthcare use. Careful monitoring and early complication detection may help optimize medication adherence and minimize hospitalizations. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Utility of collecting metadata to manage a large scale conditions database in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Gallas, EJ; The ATLAS collaboration; Borodin, M; Formica, A

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Conditions Database, based on the LCG Conditions Database infrastructure, contains a wide variety of information needed in online data taking and offline analysis. The total volume of ATLAS conditions data is in the multi-Terabyte range. Internally, the active data is divided into 65 separate schemas (each with hundreds of underlying tables) according to overall data taking type, detector subsystem, and whether the data is used offline or strictly online. While each schema has a common infrastructure, each schema's data is entirely independent of other schemas, except at the highest level, where sets of conditions from each subsystem are tagged globally for ATLAS event data reconstruction and reprocessing. The partitioned nature of the conditions infrastructure works well for most purposes, but metadata about each schema is problematic to collect in global tools from such a system because it is only accessible via LCG tools schema by schema. This makes it difficult to get an overview of all schemas,...

  20. Soil and applied sulphur utilization by sunflower grown on vertisol under rainfed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreemannarayana, B.; Sreenivasa Raju, A.

    1993-01-01

    In a field experiment, conducted with sunflower genotypes viz., Morden, APSH-11, and EC 68414 grown on a local black clay loam soil, fertilizer sulphur (labelled with 35 S) was applied at the rate of 0, 20, 40 and 60 kg S/ha through gypsum and ammonium sulphate. Among the sunflower genotypes, EC 68414 utilized maximum sulphur from the sources at any given growth stage i.e., star, bud, flowering and maturity. Sulphur applied through ammonium sulphate resulted in highest S utilization by all the genotypes at all the stages of growth. Though, sulphur uptake showed an increase, the S utilization decreased with increase in levels of S. The S uptake was highest at 60 kg S/ha level applied through any of the sources. The soil S uptake was higher than fertilizer S uptake at any given stage of crop. Maximum yields were recorded at 40 kg S/ha level signifying that this dose is optimum for sunflower grown on black clay loam soils. (author). 17 refs., 3 tabs

  1. Modelling of motorway tunnels scenario for utilization of conditionally released radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrncir, Tomas; Panik, Michal; Necas, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Considerable amount of solid radioactive waste with radioactivity slightly above the limits for unconditional release is generated during the decommissioning of the nuclear installations. Conditional release deals with precisely this type of materials with activity slightly above limits in order to save considerable financial resources, which would be otherwise spend on treatment, conditioning and disposal of these materials at appropriate repository. The basic principles of conditional release as well as possibilities of reusing of the conditionally released materials are described. One of these possibilities of the reusing was chosen and application proposal of conditional release of metal waste - steel reinforcement in the concrete, which could be used for construction of motorway tunnels, was created. The computer code Visiplan 4.0 3D ALARA planning tool software was used for the calculation of effective individual dose for personnel constructing the tunnel and for critical group related to scenario. Particular models for individual scenarios of conditional release have been developed within the scope of this software code. The aim of the paper is to determine a level of the radioactivity of conditional released materials to avoid over exceeding the value of annual individual effective dose 10μSv/year established by international recommendations. (author)

  2. Utility of collecting metadata to manage a large scale conditions database in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallas, E J; Albrand, S; Borodin, M; Formica, A

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Conditions Database, based on the LCG Conditions Database infrastructure, contains a wide variety of information needed in online data taking and offline analysis. The total volume of ATLAS conditions data is in the multi-Terabyte range. Internally, the active data is divided into 65 separate schemas (each with hundreds of underlying tables) according to overall data taking type, detector subsystem, and whether the data is used offline or strictly online. While each schema has a common infrastructure, each schema's data is entirely independent of other schemas, except at the highest level, where sets of conditions from each subsystem are tagged globally for ATLAS event data reconstruction and reprocessing. The partitioned nature of the conditions infrastructure works well for most purposes, but metadata about each schema is problematic to collect in global tools from such a system because it is only accessible via LCG tools schema by schema. This makes it difficult to get an overview of all schemas, collect interesting and useful descriptive and structural metadata for the overall system, and connect it with other ATLAS systems. This type of global information is needed for time critical data preparation tasks for data processing and has become more critical as the system has grown in size and diversity. Therefore, a new system has been developed to collect metadata for the management of the ATLAS Conditions Database. The structure and implementation of this metadata repository will be described. In addition, we will report its usage since its inception during LHC Run 1, how it has been exploited in the process of conditions data evolution during LSI (the current LHC long shutdown) in preparation for Run 2, and long term plans to incorporate more of its information into future ATLAS Conditions Database tools and the overall ATLAS information infrastructure.

  3. Utilization of 15NO3− by nodulated soybean plants under conditions of root hypoxia

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes Menolli Lanza, Luciana; Ferreira Lanza, Daniel Carlos; Sodek, Ladaslav

    2014-01-01

    Waterlogging of soils is common in nature. The low availability of oxygen under these conditions leads to hypoxia of the root system impairing the development and productivity of the plant. The presence of nitrate under flooding conditions is regarded as being beneficial towards tolerance to this stress. However, it is not known how nodulated soybean plants, cultivated in the absence of nitrate and therefore not metabolically adapted to this compound, would respond to nitrate under root hypox...

  4. Microaerobic growth and anaerobic survival of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Herndon Lewis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Representative strains of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum (MAIS grew at equal rates in laboratory medium at 21% (air and 12% oxygen. Growth in 6% oxygen proceeded at a 1.4–1.8-fold lower rate. Colony formation was the same at 21% (air and 6% oxygen. The MAIS strains survived rapid shifts from aerobic to anaerobic conditions as measured by two experimental approaches (Falkinham (1996 [1]. MAIS cells grown aerobically to log phase in broth were diluted, spread on agar medium, and incubated anaerobically for up to 20 days at 37 °C. Although no colonies formed anaerobically, upon transfer to aerobic conditions, greater than 25% of the colony forming units (CFU survived after 20 days of anaerobic incubation (Prince et al. (1989 [2]. MAIS cells grown in broth aerobically to log phase were sealed and vigorous agitation led to oxygen depletion (Wayne model. After 12 days anaerobic incubation, M. avium and M. scrofulaceum survival were high (>50%, while M. intracellulare survival was lower (22%. M. avium cells shifted to anaerobiosis in broth had increased levels of glycine dehydrogenase and isocitrate lyase. Growth of MAIS strains at low oxygen levels and their survival following a rapid shift to anaerobiosis is consistent with their presence in environments with fluctuating oxygen levels.

  5. Microaerobic growth and anaerobic survival of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Amy Herndon; Falkinham, Joseph O

    2015-03-01

    Representative strains of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum (MAIS) grew at equal rates in laboratory medium at 21% (air) and 12% oxygen. Growth in 6% oxygen proceeded at a 1.4-1.8-fold lower rate. Colony formation was the same at 21% (air) and 6% oxygen. The MAIS strains survived rapid shifts from aerobic to anaerobic conditions as measured by two experimental approaches (Falkinham (1996) [1]). MAIS cells grown aerobically to log phase in broth were diluted, spread on agar medium, and incubated anaerobically for up to 20 days at 37°C. Although no colonies formed anaerobically, upon transfer to aerobic conditions, greater than 25% of the colony forming units (CFU) survived after 20 days of anaerobic incubation (Prince et al. (1989) [2]). MAIS cells grown in broth aerobically to log phase were sealed and vigorous agitation led to oxygen depletion (Wayne model). After 12 days anaerobic incubation, M. avium and M. scrofulaceum survival were high (>50%), while M. intracellulare survival was lower (22%). M. avium cells shifted to anaerobiosis in broth had increased levels of glycine dehydrogenase and isocitrate lyase. Growth of MAIS strains at low oxygen levels and their survival following a rapid shift to anaerobiosis is consistent with their presence in environments with fluctuating oxygen levels. Copyright © 2015 Asian African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Metabolic behavior of Lactococcus lactis MG1363 in microaerobic continuous cultivation at a low dilution rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels B.S.; Melchiorsen, Claus Rix; Jochumsen, Kirsten Væver

    2001-01-01

    Minute amounts of oxygen were supplied to a continuous cultivation of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris MG1363 grown on a defined glucose-limited medium at a dilution rate of 0.1 h(-1). More than 80% of the carbon supplied with glucose ended up in fermentation products other than lactate. Addition...... of even minute amounts of oxygen increased the yield of biomass on glucose by more than 10% compared to that obtained under anaerobic conditions and had a dramatic impact on catabolic enzyme activities and hence on the distribution of carbon at the pyruvate branch point. Increasing aeration caused carbon...... dehydrogenase while increasing the enzyme activity levels of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, alpha -acetolactate synthase, and the NADH oxidases. Lactate dehydrogenase and glyceraldehyde dehydrogenase enzyme activity levels were unaffected by aeration....

  7. Perinatal development and nutrient utilization in chickens : effects of incubation conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, R.

    2010-01-01

    Suboptimal incubation conditions can negatively affect survival and development of chicken embryos. However, physiological mechanisms that may explain these effects, and the long-lasting consequences are largely unknown. Therefore, the first aim of this thesis was to investigate effects of eggshell

  8. Utilization of emergency medical transports and hospital admissions among persons with behavioral health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddeback, Gary; Patterson, P Daniel; Moore, Charity Galena; Brice, Jane H

    2010-04-01

    Emergency medical services transport and emergency department misuse among persons with behavioral health conditions is a concern. Administrative data were used to examine medical transports and hospital admissions among persons with behavioral health conditions. Data on 70,126 medical transports to emergency departments in three southeastern counties were analyzed. Compared with general medical transports, fewer behavioral health transports resulted in a hospital admission. Among behavioral health transports, persons with schizophrenia were 2.62 times more likely than those with substance use disorders to be admitted, and persons with mood disorders were 4.36 times more likely than those with substance use disorders to be admitted. Also, among behavioral health transports, rural transports were less likely than more urban transports to result in a hospital admission. More training of emergency medical services personnel and more behavioral health crisis resources, especially targeting rural areas and substance use disorders, are needed.

  9. Comparative study fodder plant in desert condition submontane in semidesert and utilization of amelioration

    OpenAIRE

    Nazarov Xolmirza Tirkashovich; Yusupova Kamola

    2017-01-01

    The aim of our research was selection and in visitation of eco-biological and economically valuable peculiarities, more perspective prospects of food under their sorts, useful for creation of seed food agricultural lands and haymaking in piedmont semi desert of Uzbekistan. The task of the research contained comparative research of their rise and development, food and seed productivity, and food mass. Practical value of the work was concluded in that for the first time the condition of piedmon...

  10. Utilization of (15)NO3 (-) by nodulated soybean plants under conditions of root hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes Menolli Lanza, Luciana; Ferreira Lanza, Daniel Carlos; Sodek, Ladaslav

    2014-07-01

    Waterlogging of soils is common in nature. The low availability of oxygen under these conditions leads to hypoxia of the root system impairing the development and productivity of the plant. The presence of nitrate under flooding conditions is regarded as being beneficial towards tolerance to this stress. However, it is not known how nodulated soybean plants, cultivated in the absence of nitrate and therefore not metabolically adapted to this compound, would respond to nitrate under root hypoxia in comparison with non-nodulated plants grown on nitrate. A study was conducted with (15)N labelled nitrate supplied on waterlogging for a period of 48 h using both nodulated and non-nodulated plants of different physiological ages. Enrichment of N was found in roots and leaves with incorporation of the isotope in amino acids, although to a much smaller degree under hypoxia than normoxia. This demonstrates that nitrate is taken up under hypoxic conditions and assimilated into amino acids, although to a much lesser extent than for normoxia. The similar response obtained with nodulated and non-nodulated plants indicates the rapid metabolic adaptation of nodulated plants to the presence of nitrate under hypoxia. Enrichment of N in nodules was very much weaker with a distinct enrichment pattern of amino acids (especially asparagine) suggesting that labelling arose from a tissue source external to the nodule rather than through assimilation in the nodule itself.

  11. Detection of Subsurface Defects in Levees in Correlation to Weather Conditions Utilizing Ground Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, I. A.; Eisenmann, D.

    2012-12-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) has been used for many years in successful subsurface detection of conductive and non-conductive objects in all types of material including different soils and concrete. Typical defect detection is based on subjective examination of processed scans using data collection and analysis software to acquire and analyze the data, often requiring a developed expertise or an awareness of how a GPR works while collecting data. Processing programs, such as GSSI's RADAN analysis software are then used to validate the collected information. Iowa State University's Center for Nondestructive Evaluation (CNDE) has built a test site, resembling a typical levee used near rivers, which contains known sub-surface targets of varying size, depth, and conductivity. Scientist at CNDE have developed software with the enhanced capabilities, to decipher a hyperbola's magnitude and amplitude for GPR signal processing. With this enhanced capability, the signal processing and defect detection capabilities for GPR have the potential to be greatly enhanced. This study will examine the effects of test parameters, antenna frequency (400MHz), data manipulation methods (which include data filters and restricting the range of depth in which the chosen antenna's signal can reach), and real-world conditions using this test site (such as varying weather conditions) , with the goal of improving GPR tests sensitivity for differing soil conditions.

  12. Generation of a conditional knockout of murine glucocerebrosidase: utility for the study of Gaucher disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Graham B; Jevon, Gareth; Colobong, Karen E; Randall, Derrick R; Choy, Francis Y M; Clarke, Lorne A

    2007-02-01

    Gaucher disease is a disorder of sphingolipid metabolism resulting from an inherited deficiency of the lysosomal hydrolase glucocerebrosidase. Affected individuals present with a spectrum of clinical symptoms ranging from hepatosplenomegaly, haematological abnormalities, and bone pain in type 1 disease, to severe neurodegeneration and premature death in types 2 and 3 disease. Although the basic biochemical defect is well characterized, there remains a poor understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of disease. In vitro studies suggest that macrophage glucocerebroside storage leads to tissue dysfunction through complex mechanisms involving altered intracellular calcium homeostasis and apoptosis. In order to study the pathogenic roles of these complex interactions, a viable animal model for Gaucher disease is needed. The complexity of this single gene disorder has been emphasized by the varied results of previous murine Gaucher models, ranging from perinatal lethality to phenotypically and biochemically asymptomatic animals. Recognizing the need to modulate the biochemical phenotype in mice to produce a relevant model, we have created a murine strain with key exons of the glucocerebrosidase gene flanked by loxP sites. We show that expression of Cre-recombinase in cells of hematopoietic and endothelial origin results in deficiency of glucocerebrosidase in the liver, spleen, bone marrow, and peripheral white cells. Glucocerebroside storage in this model leads to progressive splenomegaly with Gaucher cell infiltration and modest storage in the liver by 26 weeks of age. These results indicate the utility of this loxP GBA targeted murine strain for understanding the complex pathophysiology of Gaucher disease.

  13. Utility of bromide and heat tracers for aquifer characterization affected by highly transient flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Zheng, Chunmiao; Zachara, John M.; Tonkin, Matthew

    2012-08-01

    A tracer test using both bromide and heat tracers conducted at the Integrated Field Research Challenge site in Hanford 300 Area (300A), Washington, provided an instrument for evaluating the utility of bromide and heat tracers for aquifer characterization. The bromide tracer data were critical to improving the calibration of the flow model complicated by the highly dynamic nature of the flow field. However, most bromide concentrations were obtained from fully screened observation wells, lacking depth-specific resolution for vertical characterization. On the other hand, depth-specific temperature data were relatively simple and inexpensive to acquire. However, temperature-driven fluid density effects influenced heat plume movement. Moreover, the temperature data contained "noise" caused by heating during fluid injection and sampling events. Using the hydraulic conductivity distribution obtained from the calibration of the bromide transport model, the temperature depth profiles and arrival times of temperature peaks simulated by the heat transport model were in reasonable agreement with observations. This suggested that heat can be used as a cost-effective proxy for solute tracers for calibration of the hydraulic conductivity distribution, especially in the vertical direction. However, a heat tracer test must be carefully designed and executed to minimize fluid density effects and sources of noise in temperature data. A sensitivity analysis also revealed that heat transport was most sensitive to hydraulic conductivity and porosity, less sensitive to thermal distribution factor, and least sensitive to thermal dispersion and heat conduction. This indicated that the hydraulic conductivity remains the primary calibration parameter for heat transport.

  14. A support of the renewable source energy utilization and conditions for the biogass station investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Weiss

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes possibilities of the renewable energy source projects funding and arises an importance of the analysis whichshould be the first step before investing in the generation of energy from renewable sources.The issue of investing in biogas plants is related to particular conditions of the investor. The extent of the investment is never clearand always depends on the company equipment. Therefore, the quality evaluation of the project in the preparatory phase can protectthe investor against a direct damage and disappointment.

  15. Nitrogen utilization of vegetables grown under plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara using 15N technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitligil, M.B.; Kislal, H.; Sirin, H.; Sirin, C.; Kilicaslan, A.

    2004-01-01

    In order to find suitable varieties of tomato, pepper and cucumber for plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara and eventually to identify the best N fertilizer rate greenhouse experiments were conducted for two years. Yazgi F 1 variety for tomato, Hizir F 1 variety for cucumber and Serademre 8 variety for pepper were chosen to be the suitable varieties to grow in the plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara. Five N treatments [N 0 =0, N 1 =150, N 2 =300, and N 3 =450 kg/ha; also, soil N application treatment (N soil ) equivalent to the fertigation treatment of 300 kg/ha was included for tomato and pepper, however N rates for cucumber was 131, 266 and 339 kg N/ha; N soil being 266 kg N/ha] were investigated using 15 N labeled urea fertilizer. Significantly higher marketable fresh fruit and total dry matter yields and N uptakes values were obtained from N 3 treatments for tomato and cucumber, but from N 2 treatment for pepper. Also, significantly higher yields, N uptakes and % NUE values were obtained when the same amount of N fertilizer is applied through fertigation compared to the treatment where N fertilizer applied to the soil then drip irrigated. (author)

  16. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO(sub 3) and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, performance testing of flue gas conditioning was underway at the PacifiCorp Jim Bridger Power Plant. The product tested, ADA-43, was a combination resistivity modifier with cohesivity polymers. This represents the first long-term full-scale testing of this class of products. Modifications to the flue gas conditioning system at Jim Bridger, including development of alternate injection lances, was also undertaken to improve chemical spray distribution and to avoid spray deposition to duct interior surfaces. Also in this quarter, a firm commitment was received for another long-term test of the cohesivity additives. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity and particulate emissions performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Ammonia conditioning is employed here on one unit, but there is interest in liquid cohesivity additives as a safer alternative

  17. The impact of a conditional cash transfer program on the utilization of non-targeted services: Evidence from Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witvorapong, Nopphol; Foshanji, Abo Ismael

    2016-03-01

    While existing research suggests that health-related conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs have positive impacts on the utilization of CCT-targeted health services, little is known as to whether they also influence the utilization of non-targeted health services-defined as general health services for which program participants are not financially motivated. Based on a sample of 6649 households in a CCT program that took place in May 2009-June 2011 in Afghanistan, we evaluate the impact of the receipt of CCTs on the utilization of non-targeted health services both by women, who were direct beneficiaries of the program, and by members of their households. We estimate the outcomes of interest through four probit models, accounting for potential endogeneity of the CCT receipt and dealing with lack of credible exclusion restrictions in different ways. In comparison with the control group, the receipt of CCTs is found to be associated with an increase in the probability of utilizing non-targeted services among household members across regression models. The results are mixed, with regard to the utilization by women, suggesting that there exist non-economic barriers to health care, unique to women, that are not captured by the data. The results confirm the importance of accounting for direct as well as indirect effects in policy evaluation and suggest that future studies investigate more deeply the role of community health workers in removing non-economic barriers for Afghan women and the possibility of introducing an incentive structure to motivate them to contribute more actively to population health in Afghanistan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Water utilization of vegetables grown under plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara using neutron probe technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitligil, M.B.; Kislal, H.; Sirin, H.; Sirin, C.; Kilicaslan, A.

    2004-01-01

    In order to find suitable varieties of tomato, pepper and cucumber for plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara and ensure both higher yields and lower NO 3 leaching greenhouse experiments were conducted for three years. In the first year (2001) of the experiment four different varieties from each vegetable, namely, Tomato (Ecem F 1 , 9920 F 1 , 2116 F 1 and Yazg1 F 1 ), Cucumber (Hizir F 1 , Rapido, Hana, and Luna) and Pepper (1245 F 1 , 730 F 1 , Serademre 8 and 710 F 1 ) had been grown in the plastic greenhouse using drip irrigation-fertilization system. Yazg1 F 1 variety for tomato, Hizir F 1 variety for cucumber and Serademre 8 variety for pepper were chosen to be suitable varieties to grow in the plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara. One access tube in each N 3 and N 0 treatment plots of tomato, cucumber and pepper in 2002 and 2003 experiments were installed for the soil moisture determinations at 30, 60 and 90 cm depths. Readings with the neutron probe were taken before planting and after harvest for the water consumption calculations using the water balance approach and the WUE was calculated on the basis of the ratio of dry matter weight to the amount of water consumed. Tensiometer and suction cups were installed at 15, 30, 45 and 60 cm depths only to N 1 , N 2 and N 3 treatments plots of each vegetable in 2002 and 2003. Tensiometer readings were taken just before irrigation. Also, soil solution samples from suction cups were taken at final harvest and NO 3 determinations were done with RQFLEX nitrate test strips. Significantly higher yields and WUE values were obtained when the same amount of N fertilizer is applied through fertigation compared to the treatment where N fertilizer applied to the soil then drip irrigated. The nitrate concentrations of the soil solution increased as the N rates increased and no NO 3 had been found in the soil solution taken from 75 cm soil depth, indicating that no leaching of N fertilizer occurred beyond 75 cm soil depth

  19. Water utilization of vegetables grown under plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara using neutron probe technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitligil, M.B.; Kislal, H.; Sirin, H.; Sirin, C.; Kilicaslan, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In order to find suitable varieties of tomato, pepper and cucumber for plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara and ensure both higher yields and lower NO 3 leaching greenhouse experiments were conducted for three years. In the first year (2001) of the experiment four different varieties from each vegetable, namely, Tomato (Ecem F 1 , 9920 F 1 , 2116 F 1 and Yazg1 F 1 ), Cucumber (Hizir F 1 , Rapido, Hana, and Luna) and Pepper (1245 F 1 , 730 F 1 , Serademre 8 and 710 F 1 ) had been grown in the plastic greenhouse using drip irrigation-fertiligation system. Yazg1 F 1 variety for tomato, Hizir F 1 variety for cucumber and Serademre 8 variety for pepper were chosen to be suitable varieties to grow in the plastic greenhouse conditions in Ankara. One access tube in each N 3 and N 0 treatment plots of tomato, cucumber and pepper in 2002 and 2003 experiments were installed for the soil moisture determinations at 30, 60 and 90 cm depths. Readings with the neutron probe were taken before planting and after harvest for the water consumption calculations using the water balance approach and the WUE was calculated on the basis of the ratio of dry matter weight to the amount of water consumed. Tensiometer and suction cups were installed at 15, 30, 45 and 60 cm depths only to N 1 , N 2 and N 3 treatments plots of each vegetable in 2002 and 2003. Tensiometer readings were taken just before irrigation. Also, soil solution samples from suction cups were taken at final harvest and NO 3 determinations were done with RQFLEX nitrate test strips. Significantly higher yields and WUE values were obtained when the same amount of N fertilizer is applied through fertigation compared to the treatment where N fertilizer applied to the soil then drip irrigated. The nitrate concentrations of the soil solution increased as the N rates increased and no NO 3 had been found in the soil solution taken from 75 cm soil depth, indicating that no leaching of N fertilizer occurred beyond 75 cm

  20. Utility-free heuristic models of two-option choice can mimic predictions of utility-stage models under many conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven T Piantadosi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Economists often model choices as if decision-makers assign each option a scalar value variable, known as utility, and then select the option with the highest utility. It remains unclear whether as-if utility models describe real mental and neural steps in choice. Although choices alone cannot prove the existence of a utility stage in choice, utility transformations are often taken to provide the most parsimonious or psychologically plausible explanation for choice data. Here, we show that it is possible to mathematically transform a large set of common utility-stage two-option choice models (specifically ones in which dimensions are linearly separable into a psychologically plausible heuristic model (specifically, a dimensional prioritization heuristic that has no utility computation stage. We then show that under a range of plausible assumptions, both classes of model predict similar neural responses. These results highlight the difficulties in using neuroeconomic data to infer the existence of a value stage in choice.

  1. Utility-free heuristic models of two-option choice can mimic predictions of utility-stage models under many conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantadosi, Steven T.; Hayden, Benjamin Y.

    2015-01-01

    Economists often model choices as if decision-makers assign each option a scalar value variable, known as utility, and then select the option with the highest utility. It remains unclear whether as-if utility models describe real mental and neural steps in choice. Although choices alone cannot prove the existence of a utility stage, utility transformations are often taken to provide the most parsimonious or psychologically plausible explanation for choice data. Here, we show that it is possible to mathematically transform a large set of common utility-stage two-option choice models (specifically ones in which dimensions are can be decomposed into additive functions) into a heuristic model (specifically, a dimensional prioritization heuristic) that has no utility computation stage. We then show that under a range of plausible assumptions, both classes of model predict similar neural responses. These results highlight the difficulties in using neuroeconomic data to infer the existence of a value stage in choice. PMID:25914613

  2. Simulation of the impact of financial incentives on solar energy utilization for space conditioning and water heating: 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, H C

    1979-01-01

    Financial incentives designed to accelerate the use of solar energy for heating, cooling, and water heating of buildings have been proposed by both state and federal legislative bodies in the U.S.A. Among the most frequently mentioned incentives are sales and property tax exemptions, tax deductions and credits, rapid amortization provisions, and interest rate subsidies. At the present time there is little available information regarding the ability of such incentives to advance the rate of solar energy utilization. This paper describes the derivation and use of a computer simulation model designed to estimate solar energy use for space conditioning and water heating for given economic, climatic, and technological conditions. When applied to data from the Denver, Colorado metropolitan area, the simulation model predicts that sales tax exemptions would have little impact over the next decade, interest rate subsidies could more than double solar energy use, and the other proposed incentives would have an intermediate impact.

  3. Effects of the conditions imposed by the environment and by utilities on the design of process engineering plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernecker, G

    1976-09-01

    Conditions of environment and utilities have a great influence on the investment and operation costs of process engineering plants. If these conditions are taken into consideration in preliminary process engineering, the considerable amount of time spent in planning subsequent modifications could be saved. This publication from the seminar held with the topic 'planning and construction of process engineering systems' by the VDI-Bildungswerk shows how to facilitate problems of waste products already 'in statu nascendi'. The second part which will be published in the next edition will summarize the possibilities and the determining restrictions in the use of the available media for heating and cooling. Both essays are extended presentations of a chapter from a book in preparation by the VDI with the same title as the seminar.

  4. The Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Fluxome under Various OxygenConditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yinjie J.; Hwang, Judy S.; Wemmer, David E.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2006-03-17

    The central metabolic fluxes of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1were examined under carbon-limited (aerobic) and oxygen-limited(micro-aerobic) chemostat conditions using 13C labeled lactate as thesole carbon source. The carbon labeling patterns of key amino acids inbiomass were probed using both GC-MS and 13C-NMR. Based on the genomeannotation, a metabolic pathway model was constructed to quantify thecentral metabolic flux distributions. The model showed that thetricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is the major carbon metabolism route underboth conditions. The Entner-Doudoroff and pentose phosphate pathways weremainly utilized for biomass synthesis (flux below 5 percent of thelactate uptake rate). The anapleurotic reactions (pyruvate to malate andoxaloacetate to phosphoenolpyruvate) and the glyoxylate shunt wereactive. Under carbon-limited conditions, a substantial amount of carbonwas oxidized via the highly reversible serine metabolic pathway. Fluxesthrough the TCA cycle were less whereas acetate production was more underoxygen limitation than under carbon limitation. Although fluxdistributions under aerobic, micro-aerobic, and shake-flask cultureconditions were dramatically different, the relative flux ratios of thecentral metabolic reactions did not vary significantly. Hence, S.oneidensis metabolism appears to be quite robust to environmentalchanges. Our study also demonstrates the merit of coupling GC-MS with 13CNMR for metabolic flux analysis to reduce the use of 13C labeledsubstrates and to obtain more accurate flux values.

  5. Transferability of results of cost utility analyses for biologicals in inflammatory conditions for Central and Eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulácsi, László; Rencz, Fanni; Péntek, Márta; Brodszky, Valentin; Lopert, Ruth; Hevér, Noémi V; Baji, Petra

    2014-05-01

    Several Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries require cost-utility analyses (CUAs) to support reimbursement formulary listing. However, CUAs informed by local evidence are often unavailable, and the cost-effectiveness of the several currently reimbursed biologicals is unclear. To estimate the cost-effectiveness as multiples of per capita GDP/quality adjusted life years (QALY) of four biologicals (infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, golimumab) currently reimbursed in six CEE countries in six inflammatory rheumatoid and bowel disease conditions. Systematic literature review of published cost-utility analyses in the selected conditions, using the United Kingdom (UK) as reference country and with study selection criteria set to optimize the transfer of results to the CEEs. Prices in each CEE country were pro-rated against UK prices using purchasing power parity (PPP)-adjusted per capita GDP, and local GDP per capita/QALY ratios estimated. Central and Eastern European countries list prices were 144-333% higher than pro rata prices. Out of 85 CUAs identified by previous systematic literature reviews, 15 were selected as a convenience sample for estimating the cost-effectiveness of biologicals in the CEE countries in terms of per capita GDP/QALY. Per capita GDP/QALY values varied from 0.42 to 6.4 across countries and conditions (Bulgaria: 0.97-6.38; Czech Republic: 0.42-2.76; Hungary: 0.54-3.54; Poland: 0.59-3.90; Romania: 0.77-5.07; Slovakia: 0.55-3.61). While results must be interpreted with caution, calculating pro rata (cost-effective) prices and per capita GDP/QALY ratios based on CUAs can aid reimbursement decision-making in the absence of analyses using local data.

  6. Basic regulatory principles of Escherichia coli's electron transport chain for varying oxygen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Sebastian G; Ter Beek, Alexander; Steinsiek, Sonja; Stagge, Stefan; Bettenbrock, Katja; de Mattos, M Joost Teixeira; Sauter, Thomas; Sawodny, Oliver; Ederer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    For adaptation between anaerobic, micro-aerobic and aerobic conditions Escherichia coli's metabolism and in particular its electron transport chain (ETC) is highly regulated. Although it is known that the global transcriptional regulators FNR and ArcA are involved in oxygen response it is unclear how they interplay in the regulation of ETC enzymes under micro-aerobic chemostat conditions. Also, there are diverse results which and how quinones (oxidised/reduced, ubiquinone/other quinones) are controlling the ArcBA two-component system. In the following a mathematical model of the E. coli ETC linked to basic modules for substrate uptake, fermentation product excretion and biomass formation is introduced. The kinetic modelling focusses on regulatory principles of the ETC for varying oxygen conditions in glucose-limited continuous cultures. The model is based on the balance of electron donation (glucose) and acceptance (oxygen or other acceptors). Also, it is able to account for different chemostat conditions due to changed substrate concentrations and dilution rates. The parameter identification process is divided into an estimation and a validation step based on previously published and new experimental data. The model shows that experimentally observed, qualitatively different behaviour of the ubiquinone redox state and the ArcA activity profile in the micro-aerobic range for different experimental conditions can emerge from a single network structure. The network structure features a strong feed-forward effect from the FNR regulatory system to the ArcBA regulatory system via a common control of the dehydrogenases of the ETC. The model supports the hypothesis that ubiquinone but not ubiquinol plays a key role in determining the activity of ArcBA in a glucose-limited chemostat at micro-aerobic conditions.

  7. Inspection Method for Contact Condition of Soil on the Surface of Underground Pipe Utilizing Resonance of Transverse Lamb Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigawa, Hiroshi; Seno, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Nakajima, Koshiro

    1998-05-01

    A nondestructive inspection method to estimate the contact condition of soil on the surface of an underground pipe, utilizing the resonance of a transverse Lamb wave circulating along the pipe wall is proposed.The Q factor of the resonance is considered and measured under some contact conditions by sweeping the vibrating frequency in a 150-mm-inner diameter Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic Mortar (FRPM) pipe. It is confirmed that the Q factor shows a clear response to the change in the contact conditions. For example, the Q factor is 8.4 when the pipe is in ideal contact with the soil plane and goes up to 19.2 when a 100-mm-diameter void is located at the contact surface of the soil.The spatial resolution of the proposed inspection method is also measured by moving the sensing point along the direction of laying the length of the pipe into a 85-mm-diameter void. The resolution of the proposed method is estimated at about 50 mm.

  8. Cost-effectiveness performance analysis of organic Rankine cycle for low grade heat utilization coupling with operation condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dongxiang; Ling, Xiang; Peng, Hao

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzed the influence of working fluids selection and operation conditions on the cost-effectiveness performance and net power output of an ORC for low grade heat utilization. A net power output model has been proposed theoretically and compared with the theoretical data calculated from thermodynamic analysis, exhibiting excellent agreements with the theoretical data. The proposed net power output model theoretically indicates that Jacob number and the ratio of evaporating temperature and heat rejected temperature play essential roles in discriminating the net power output among various working fluids at the same operation condition. For a given condensing and evaporating temperature, it can be concluded theoretically that fluid with low Jacob number will show attractive performance in an ORC. The maximum net power output is determined by the heat source rather than working fluids with a low inlet temperature of heat source. Cost-effectiveness performance analysis reveals that the maximum net power output and the best CEP cannot be achieved at the same time and compromise must be made when choosing the most suitable organic working fluids in different ORC designs. -- Highlights: • A net power output model is proposed and compared with theoretical data. • For fixed operation condition, low Ja fluid shows attractive performance in ORC. • The heat source rather than working fluid determines ORC performance at low T hs,in • The peak W net and best CEP cannot be achieved at the same time, compromise must be made

  9. Effect of conditional cash transfer on choice and utilization of contraceptives among newly married couples in Satara district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha K Pratinidhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Satara district of western Maharashtra is in late expanding phase of demographic cycle. Postponement of first pregnancy with the use of reversible contraceptives is the need of the hour. Since 2007, Satara district is implementing a conditional cash transfer scheme second honeymoon package (SHP. Objectives: The objectives of this study are: (1 To find out the effect of conditional cash transfer on choice and utilization of contraceptives among participants of SHP. (2 To identify various barriers to the use of contraceptives. Materials and Methods: This was an evaluation study of a community based interventional program. Cases were the participants of SHP program while the controls were the couples residing in the same village as that of participants and married in the same year. Enquiries were made about their knowledge of contraceptives, reasons of postponement, choice of contraceptives, problems faced while using them, perceived benefits of participation, reasons for non-participation and non-use of contraceptives, etc. Results: This study has found out that 24.8% controls and 57.6% participant couples were having knowledge of contraception before their marriage. Amongst the participants of the scheme and controls, male condom was the most popular method used by 80.8% participants, followed by oral pills by 9.22% couples. Contraception prevalence rate among control couples was 17.6%, while that in participants was 91.8%. Resistance from family members, side-effects and failure of contraceptives were some of the barriers to their use. Conclusions: Conditional cash transfer has encouraged the use of contraceptives in acceptors of SHP. By participating in SHP and postponing first pregnancy 15.8% could complete their education, job/career betterment achieved by 16.4% and 19.3% adored marital pleasure.

  10. The utility of the zebrafish model in conditioned place preference to assess the rewarding effects of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Adam D; Echevarria, David J

    2013-09-01

    Substance abuse is a significant public health concern both domestically and worldwide. The persistent use of substances regardless of aversive consequences forces the user to give higher priority to the drug than to normal activities and obligations. The harmful and hazardous use of psychoactive substances can lead to a dependence syndrome. In this regard, the genetic and neurobiological underpinnings of reward-seeking behavior need to be fully understood in order to develop effective pharmacotherapies and other methods of treatment. Animal models are often implemented in preclinical screening for testing the efficacy of novel treatments. Several paradigms exist that model various facets of addiction including sensitization, tolerance, withdrawal, drug seeking, extinction, and relapse. Self-administration and, most notably, conditioned place preference (CPP) are relatively simple tests that serve as indicators of the aforementioned aspects of addiction by means of behavioral quantification. CPP is a commonly used technique to evaluate the motivational effects of compounds and experiences that have been associated with a positive or negative reward, which capitalizes on the basic principles of Pavlovian conditioning. During training, the unconditioned stimulus is consistently paired with a neutral set of environmental stimuli, which obtain, during conditioning, secondary motivational properties that elicit approach behavior in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus. For over 50 years, rodents have been the primary test subjects. However, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) is gaining favor as a valuable model organism in the fields of biology, genetics, and behavioral neuroscience. This paper presents a discussion on the merits, advantages, and limitations of the zebrafish model and its utility in relation to CPP.

  11. Effect of redox conditions on pharmaceutical loss during biological wastewater treatment using sequencing batch reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadler, Lauren B.; Su, Lijuan; Moline, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    We lack a clear understanding of how wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) process parameters, such as redox environment, impact pharmaceutical fate. WWTPs increasingly install more advanced aeration control systems to save energy and achieve better nutrient removal performance. The impact of redox...... under different redox conditions: fully aerobic, anoxic/aerobic, and microaerobic (DO concentration ≈0.3 mg/L). Among the pharmaceuticals that were tracked during this study (atenolol, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, desvenlafaxine, venlafaxine, and phenytoin), overall loss varied between them...... and between redox environments. Losses of atenolol and trimethoprim were highest in the aerobic reactor; sulfamethoxazole loss was highest in the microaerobic reactors; and phenytoin was recalcitrant in all reactors. Transformation products of sulfamethoxazole and desvenlafaxine resulted in the reformation...

  12. A rapid three-dimensional vortex micromixer utilizing self-rotation effects under low Reynolds number conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Che Hsin, Lin; Lung Ming, Fu; 10.1088/0960-1317/15/5/006

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel three-dimensional (3D) vortex micromixer for micro-total-analysis-systems ( mu TAS) applications which utilizes self-rotation effects to mix fluids in a circular chamber at low Reynolds numbers (Re). The microfluidic mixer is fabricated in a three-layer glass structure for delivering fluid samples in parallel. The fluids are driven into the circular mixing chamber by means of hydrodynamic pumps from two fluid inlet ports. The two inlet channels divide into eight individual channels tangent to a 3D circular chamber for the purpose of mixing. Numerical simulation of the microfluidic dynamics is employed to predict the self-rotation phenomenon and to estimate the mixing performance under various Reynolds number conditions. Experimental flow visualization by mixing dye samples is performed in order to verify the numerical simulation results. A good agreement is found to exist between the two sets of results. The numerical results indicate that the mixing performance can be as high as 9...

  13. Study on Heat Utilization in an Attached Sunspace in a House with a Central Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Ma

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on numerical simulations, the heating load reduction effect of an attached sunspace in winter was determined, and the effective heat utilization method and sunspace design were explored. In this paper, we studied the heating load reduction effect using heat from the sunspace and temperature fluctuation of each room at the time of heat use from the sunspace (sending air from the sunspace to the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC machine room and taking the air to the adjacent rooms. In the case of the all-day HVAC system, it was confirmed that a larger capacity of sunspace and not sending air from the sunspace to the adjacent room demonstrated a better heating-load reduction effect. Compared with Model Iw (a house with a window on the exterior of the sunspace opened to external air, Model I (a house with an attached sunspace on the second floor could save approximately 41% of the total energy. Model II (a house with the attached sunspace both on the first and second floors could save approximately 84% of the total energy. Sending heat from the sunspace to the adjacent room led to temperature increases in the adjacent rooms. However, if the construction plan is to have the sunspace only on the second floor, the house should be carefully designed, for example, by placing a living room on the second floor.

  14. Growth conditions for the biomass yield of two methanol utilizing yeast spp. , Candida sp. and Rhodotorula sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, S.W.

    1976-01-01

    More than 580 MeOH utilizing yeasts were isolated from samples collected throughout South Korea. Of these, 2 strains showed good biomass yield and were selected and tentatively identified as Candida melinii and Rhodotorula glutinis glutinis. Experiments on growth conditions for these 2 species were performed. Optimum pH was 2.6 for Candida, 5.2 for Rhodotorula, and the temperature optimum was 28 to 30/sup 0/ for both. Maximum biomass yield was 4.32 g/L for Candida and 4.2l g/L for Rhodotorula. Optimum concentrations were (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ 0.3%, Mg/sup +/ 400 ppM, Fe/sup +/ 10 to 15 ppM for Candida and (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ 0.3% Mg/sup +/ 600 ppM Ca/sup +/ 2 ppM for Rhodotorula. Biotin stimulated Candida. Protein contents of the dry cell biomass were 39.3% in Candida and 44.0% in Rhodotorula.

  15. A computationally efficient P_1 radiation model for modern combustion systems utilizing pre-conditioned conjugate gradient methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamoorthy, Gautham

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The P_1 radiation model was interfaced with high performance linear solvers. • Pre-conditioned conjugate gradient (PC CG) method improved convergence by 50% • PC CG was more than 30 times faster than classical iterative methods. • The time to solution scaled linearly with increase in problem size employing PC CG. • Employing WSGGM with P_1 model compared reasonably well against benchmark data. - Abstract: The iterative convergence of the P_1 radiation model can be slow in optically thin scenarios when employing classical iterative methods. In order to remedy this shortcoming, an in-house P_1 radiation model was interfaced with high performance, scalable, linear solver libraries. Next, the accuracies of P_1 radiation model calculations was assessed by comparing its predictions against discrete ordinates (DO) model calculations for prototypical problems representative of modern combustion systems. Corresponding benchmark results were also included for comparison. Utilizing Pre-Conditioners (PC) to the Conjugate Gradients (CG) method, the convergence time of the P_1 radiation model reduced by a factor of 30 for modest problem sizes and a factor of 70 for larger sized problems when compared against classical Gauss Seidel sweeps. Further, PC provided 50% computational savings compared to employing CG in a standalone mode. The P_1 model calculation times were about 25–30% of the DO model calculation time. The time to solution also scaled linearly with an increase in problem size. The weighted sum of gray gases model employed in this study in conjunction with the P_1 model provided good agreement against benchmark data with L_2 error norms (defined relative to corresponding DO calculations) improving when isotropic intensities were prevalent.

  16. Conditioning ad energetic utilization of wooden materials for landscape conservation; Aufbereitung und Energetische Nutzung von holzigem Landschaftspflegematerial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letalik, Christian [C.A.R.M.E.N. e.V., Straubing (Germany). Abt. Festbrennstoffe

    2013-10-01

    It has become common practice to energetically recover ligneous materials from landscape conservation activities in heat (and power) generation plants. The treatment of green cuttings along roads, railways or power supply lines is state of the art. Such landscaping materials are ligneous green residues e.g. from tree lopping in orchard meadows or shrub hedges - there are about 45,000 kilometers of hedgerows in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, alone. Shredder machines disintegrate the materials into any required size. By means of adjustable perforated baskets on the disintegrating engine and subsequent sieving steps, homogenous fuels of defined dimensions and low shares of fines can be provided, whichever required. Depending on the water content, such wood chips contain about 20% less energy (calorific value) than comparable forest wood chips. It is important, however, that mineral fine particles like sand, soil or small stones are being sieved out before the combustion because they do not only decrease the calorific value and hence the boiler performance but also cause problems in the combustion areas resulting in higher costs for maintenance, cleaning and ash utilization. Composting plants are regularly well-equipped. They use well-proven management concepts for the material flow to merely condition as much landscape cuttings into fuels, enable the aerobe composting process with less ligneous and more humid materials to continue. For both compost and wood fuels there is sufficient demand resulting in increasing revenues. The EEG amendment 2012 classifies landscape conservation materials as raw materials of remuneration class II (= 8 ct/kWhel on top of the basic remuneration). This is likely to further increment the demand for ligneous fuel from landscape conservation. According to the EEG 2012 there will no longer be power plants without reasonable heat concepts. (orig.)

  17. Estimation of low-potential heat recuperation efficiency of smoke fumes in a condensation heat utilizer under various operation conditions of a boiler and a heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionkin, I. L.; Ragutkin, A. V.; Luning, B.; Zaichenko, M. N.

    2016-06-01

    For enhancement of the natural gas utilization efficiency in boilers, condensation heat utilizers of low-potential heat, which are constructed based on a contact heat exchanger, can be applied. A schematic of the contact heat exchanger with a humidifier for preheating and humidifying of air supplied in the boiler for combustion is given. Additional low-potential heat in this scheme is utilized for heating of the return delivery water supplied from a heating system. Preheating and humidifying of air supplied for combustion make it possible to use the condensation utilizer for heating of a heat-transfer agent to temperature exceeding the dewpoint temperature of water vapors contained in combustion products. The decision to mount the condensation heat utilizer on the boiler was taken based on the preliminary estimation of the additionally obtained heat. The operation efficiency of the condensation heat utilizer is determined by its structure and operation conditions of the boiler and the heating system. The software was developed for the thermal design of the condensation heat utilizer equipped by the humidifier. Computation investigations of its operation are carried out as a function of various operation parameters of the boiler and the heating system (temperature of the return delivery water and smoke fumes, air excess, air temperature at the inlet and outlet of the condensation heat utilizer, heating and humidifying of air in the humidifier, and portion of the circulating water). The heat recuperation efficiency is estimated for various operation conditions of the boiler and the condensation heat utilizer. Recommendations on the most effective application of the condensation heat utilizer are developed.

  18. ON THE NECESSITY OF CHANGES IN THE STRATEGY OF UTILIZATION SHIP BOILER TECHNICAL CONDITION MAINTENANCE IN THE ASPECT OF LNG APPLIED AS FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej ADAMKIEWICZ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy oils (HFO fuels used on ships play a part in degradation of technical condition of heat exchange surfaces of utiliza-tion boilers especially on the exhaust gas side. Presence of sulphur in these fuels is the main factor favouring degrada-tion. The upper limit for sulphur content in the fuel used outside the SECA areas equal to 3.5% is currently in force, at least until the year 2020 or 2025. The recommended by classification societies overhauls of utilization boilers are, there-fore characterized by a specially chosen strategy thanks to which it is possible to maintain their appropriate technical condition. The requirement to use fuels with low sulphur content (LSFO, which are significantly more expensive than MDO fuels, in the areas of controlled sulphur emissions also led to a further introduction of alternative fuels, such as methanol and above all liquefied natural gas (LNG, onto ships. That is especially valid for the ship owners whose vessels e.g. ferries sail mainly within SCECA This article analyses the consequences of the introduced fuel change on utilization boiler maintenance. A change in the technical condition maintenance strategy for utilization boilers has been suggested.

  19. Short-term utilization of carbon by the soil microbial community under future climatic conditions in a temperate heathland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinsch, Sabine; Michelsen, Anders; Sárossy, Zsuzsa

    2014-01-01

    An in-situ13C pulse-labeling experiment was carried out in a temperate heath/grassland to study the impacts of elevated CO2 concentration (510ppm), prolonged summer droughts (annual exclusion of 7.6±0.8%) and increased temperature (~1°C) on belowground carbon (C) utilization. Recently assimilated C...... (13C from the pulse-label) was traced into roots, soil and microbial biomass 1, 2 and 8 days after pulse-labeling. The importance of the microbial community in C utilization was investigated using 13C enrichment patterns in different microbial functional groups on the basis of phospholipid fatty acid...... (PLFA) biomarker profiles. Climate treatments did not affect microbial abundance in soil or rhizosphere fractions in terms of total PLFA-C concentration. Elevated CO2 significantly reduced the abundance of gram-negative bacteria (17:0cy), but did not affect the abundance of decomposers (fungi...

  20. Isolation and characterization of a sulfur-oxidizing chemolithotroph growing on crude oil under anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Yumiko; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2003-01-01

    Molecular approaches have shown that a group of bacteria (called cluster 1 bacteria) affiliated with the epsilon subclass of the class Proteobacteria constituted major populations in underground crude-oil storage cavities. In order to unveil their physiology and ecological niche, this study isolated bacterial strains (exemplified by strain YK-1) affiliated with the cluster 1 bacteria from an oil storage cavity at Kuji in Iwate, Japan. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that its closest relative was Thiomicrospira denitrificans (90% identity). Growth experiments under anaerobic conditions showed that strain YK-1 was a sulfur-oxidizing obligate chemolithotroph utilizing sulfide, elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, and hydrogen as electron donors and nitrate as an electron acceptor. Oxygen also supported its growth only under microaerobic conditions. Strain YK-1 could not grow on nitrite, and nitrite was the final product of nitrate reduction. Neither sugars, organic acids (including acetate), nor hydrocarbons could serve as carbon and energy sources. A typical stoichiometry of its energy metabolism followed an equation: S(2-) + 4NO(3)(-) --> SO(4)(2-) + 4NO(2)(-) (Delta G(0) = -534 kJ mol(-1)). In a difference from other anaerobic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, this bacterium was sensitive to NaCl; growth in medium containing more than 1% NaCl was negligible. When YK-1 was grown anaerobically in a sulfur-depleted inorganic medium overlaid with crude oil, sulfate was produced, corresponding to its growth. On the contrary, YK-1 could not utilize crude oil as a carbon source. These results suggest that the cluster 1 bacteria yielded energy for growth in oil storage cavities by oxidizing petroleum sulfur compounds. Based on its physiology, ecological interactions with other members of the groundwater community are discussed.

  1. Correlation of denitrification-accepted fraction of electrons with NAD(P)H fluorescence for Pseudomonas aeruginosa performing simultaneous denitrification and respiration at extremely low dissolved oxygen conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fan; Xia, Qing; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2004-01-01

    In cystic fibrosis airway infection, Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms a microaerobic biofilm and undergoes significant physiological changes. It is important to understand the bacterium's metabolism at microaerobic conditions. In this work, the culture properties and two indicators (the denitrification-accepted e- fraction and an NAD(P)H fluorescence fraction) for the culture's "fractional approach" to a fully anaerobic denitrifying state were examined in continuous cultures with practically zero DO but different aeration rates. With decreasing aeration, specific OUR decreased while specific NAR and NIR increased and kept Y(ATP/S) relatively constant. P. aeruginosa thus appeared to effectively compensate for energy generation at microaerobic conditions with denitrification. At the studied dilution rate of 0.06 h(-1), the maximum specific OUR was 2.8 mmol O2/g cells-h and the Monod constant for DO, in the presence of nitrate, was extremely low (Y(X/S) increased significantly (from 0.24 to 0.34) with increasing aeration, attributed to a roughly opposite trend of Y(ATP/X) (ATP generation required for cell growth). As for the denitrification-accepted e- fraction and the fluorescence fraction, both decreased with increasing aeration as expected. The two fractions, however, were not directly proportional. The fluorescence fraction changed more rapidly than the e- fraction at very low aeration rates, whereas the opposite was true at higher aeration. The results demonstrated the feasibility of using online NAD(P)H fluorescence to monitor sensitive changes of cellular physiology and provided insights to the shift of e- -accepting mechanisms of P. aeruginosa under microaerobic conditions.

  2. An efficient protocol for the synthesis of highly sensitive indole imines utilizing green chemistry: optimization of reaction conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Bushra; Rubab, Syeda Laila; Raza, Abdul Rauf; Tariq, Sobia; Sultan, Ayesha; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz

    2018-04-11

    Novel and highly sensitive indole-based imines have been synthesized. Their synthesis has been compared employing a variety of protocols. Ultimately, a convenient, economical and high yielding set of conditions employing green chemistry have been designed for their synthesis.

  3. Development of a health safety culture under different social and cultural conditions: lessons from the experiences of Japanese utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Taketoshi

    1998-01-01

    In anticipation of the steady expansion of nuclear power in Asia, all organizations involved in operating nuclear facilities are emphasizing the importance of regional cooperation in the development and enhancement of a safety culture. This paper, based on employees' attitudinal surveys, provides some lessons learned from the experiences of Japanese electric utilities in developing and enhancing a sound safety culture within the organizations which are operating nuclear power plants and related facilities, and discusses approaches for cooperation in Asia, taking into account the different socio-cultural environments. (author)

  4. Contributions of COPD, asthma, and ten comorbid conditions to health care utilization and patient-centered outcomes among US adults with obstructive airway disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Terrence E; McAvay, Gail J; Allore, Heather G; Stamm, Jason A; Simonelli, Paul F

    2017-01-01

    Among persons with obstructive airway disease, the relative contributions of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and common comorbid conditions to health care utilization and patient-centered outcomes (PCOs) have not been previously reported. We followed a total of 3,486 persons aged ≥40 years with COPD, asthma, or both at baseline, from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) cohorts enrolled annually from 2008 through 2012 for 1 year. MEPS is a prospective observational study of US households recording self-reported COPD, asthma, and ten medical conditions: angina, arthritis, cancer, coronary heart disease, cognitive impairment, diabetes, hypertension, lung cancer, myocardial infarction, and stroke/transient ischemic attack. We studied the separate contributions of these conditions to health care utilization (all-cause and respiratory disease hospitalization, any emergency department [ED] visit, and six or more outpatient visits) and PCOs (seven or more days spent in bed due to illness, incident loss of mobility, and incident decline in self-perceived health). COPD made the largest contributions to all-cause and respiratory disease hospitalization and ED visits, while arthritis made the largest contribution to outpatient health care. Arthritis and COPD, respectively, made the greatest contributions to the PCOs. COPD made the largest and second largest contributions to health care utilization and PCOs among US adults with obstructive airway disease. The twelve medical conditions collectively accounted for between 52% and 61% of the health care utilization outcomes and between 53% and 68% of the PCOs. Cognitive impairment, diabetes, hypertension, and stroke also made significant contributions.

  5. The Potential and Utilization of Unused Energy Sources for Large-Scale Horticulture Facility Applications under Korean Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Tak Hyun

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As the use of fossil fuel has increased, not only in construction, but also in agriculture due to the drastic industrial development in recent times, the problems of heating costs and global warming are getting worse. Therefore, introduction of more reliable and environmentally-friendly alternative energy sources has become urgent and the same trend is found in large-scale horticulture facilities. In this study, among many alternative energy sources, we investigated the reserves and the potential of various different unused energy sources which have infinite potential, but are nowadays wasted due to limitations in their utilization. In addition, we utilized available unused energy as a heat source for a heat pump in a large-scale horticulture facility and analyzed its feasibility through EnergyPlus simulation modeling. Accordingly, the discharge flow rate from the Fan Coil Unit (FCU in the horticulture facility, the discharge air temperature, and the return temperature were analyzed. The performance and heat consumption of each heat source were compared with those of conventional boilers. The result showed that the power load of the heat pump was decreased and thus the heat efficiency was increased as the temperature of the heat source was increased. Among the analyzed heat sources, power plant waste heat which had the highest heat source temperature consumed the least electric energy and showed the highest efficiency.

  6. Effect on Vehicle Turbocharger Exhaust Gas Energy Utilization for the Performance of Centrifugal Compressors under Plateau Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the performance of centrifugal compressors for vehicle turbochargers operating at high altitude. The reasons for turbocharged diesel engine power loss increases and bad economy performance caused by exhaust gas energy utilization are investigated. The atmosphere’s impact on the turbocharger centrifugal compressor’s energy distribution characteristics under the plateau is discussed. The key parameters that affect compressor characteristics are concluded in a theoretical method. A simulation calculation model is established to accurately predict compressor performance at high altitude. By comparing the experimental results, the calculation results are validated. The details of the internal flow fields analysis, including critical parameters of a compressor operating at high altitude, are analyzed. The results show that with the increase of altitude from 0 m to 4500 m, the peak efficiency of the compressor is reduced by 2.4%, while the peak pressure ratio is increased by 7%. The main influence characters of the plateau environment on the turbocharger centrifugal compressor performance, such as blade loads, exergy utilization and entropy distribution are concluded. The key factors for compressor performance and compressor energy flow control design method operated at high altitude are obtained.

  7. Impact of comorbid conditions in COPD patients on health care resource utilization and costs in a predominantly Medicare population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwab P

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Phil Schwab,1 Amol D Dhamane,2 Sari D Hopson,1 Chad Moretz,1 Srinivas Annavarapu,1 Kate Burslem,2 Andrew Renda,3 Shuchita Kaila2 1Comprehensive Health Insights Inc., Louisville, KY, 2Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals Inc., Ridgefield, CT, 3Humana Inc., Louisville, KY, USA Background: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD often have multiple underlying comorbidities, which may lead to increased health care resource utilization (HCRU and costs.Objective: To describe the comorbidity profiles of COPD patients and examine the associations between the presence of comorbidities and HCRU or health care costs.Methods: A retrospective cohort study utilizing data from a large US national health plan with a predominantly Medicare population was conducted. COPD patients aged 40–89 years and continuously enrolled for 12 months prior to and 24 months after the first COPD diagnosis during the period of January 01, 2009, through December 31, 2010, were selected. Eleven comorbidities of interest were identified 12 months prior through 12 months after COPD diagnosis. All-cause and COPD-related hospitalizations and costs were assessed 24 months after diagnosis, and the associations with comorbidities were determined using multivariate statistical models.Results: Ninety-two percent of 52,643 COPD patients identified had at least one of the 11 comorbidities. Congestive heart failure (CHF, coronary artery disease, and cerebrovascular disease (CVA had the strongest associations with all-cause hospitalizations (mean ratio: 1.56, 1.32, and 1.30, respectively; P<0.0001; other comorbidities examined had moderate associations. CHF, anxiety, and sleep apnea had the strongest associations with COPD-related hospitalizations (mean ratio: 2.01, 1.32, and 1.21, respectively; P<0.0001; other comorbidities examined (except chronic kidney disease [CKD], obesity, and osteoarthritis had moderate associations. All

  8. The experience of utilization of electro-migration technology for soil decontamination from cesium-137 under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, I.A.; Prozorov, L.B.; Martyanov, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    The essence of methods for soil decontamination based on electrokinetic processes is that, in the field of constant current, contaminated particles-ions, depending on their charge mark, move to anode or cathode sides. If such a field is created in the soil containing ions of radionuclides or heavy metals, those ions-contaminants will begin to concentrated in the cathode or anode zone, i.e. soil decontamination with ion electric migration process takes place. During the recent tour years specialists from Mos RPA (Moscow Research-and-Production Association) Radon (Russia) have been conducting an extensive investigation on the utilization of electrokinetic processes for decontamination of soils from radionuclides and heavy metals

  9. Utilization of gene mapping and candidate gene mutation screening for diagnosing clinically equivocal conditions: a Norrie disease case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chini, Vasiliki; Stambouli, Danai; Nedelea, Florina Mihaela; Filipescu, George Alexandru; Mina, Diana; Kambouris, Marios; El-Shantil, Hatem

    2014-06-01

    Prenatal diagnosis was requested for an undiagnosed eye disease showing X-linked inheritance in a family. No medical records existed for the affected family members. Mapping of the X chromosome and candidate gene mutation screening identified a c.C267A[p.F89L] mutation in NPD previously described as possibly causing Norrie disease. The detection of the c.C267A[p.F89L] variant in another unrelated family confirms the pathogenic nature of the mutation for the Norrie disease phenotype. Gene mapping, haplotype analysis, and candidate gene screening have been previously utilized in research applications but were applied here in a diagnostic setting due to the scarcity of available clinical information. The clinical diagnosis and mutation identification were critical for providing proper genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis for this family.

  10. Computer modelling of the combined effects of plant conditions and coal quality on burnout in utility furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Stephenson [RWE npower Engineering, Swindon (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-15

    The aim of this paper is to describe the latest steps in the development of a computer model to predict the combined effects of plant conditions and coal quality on burnout. The work was conducted as part of RWE's contribution to the recent ECSC project 'Development of a carbon-in-ash notification system (CARNO)'. A burnout predictor code has been developed and validated; it includes both coal and plant effects and includes a burnout model based closely on CBK8. The agreement between predicted C-in-ash and plant data is encouraging, but further improvements are still desirable. The predictions obtained from the burnout predictor show that the calculated sensitivities to changes in plant condition can be very dependent on state of plant. 7 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Effects of anaerobic growth conditions on biomass accumulation, root morphology, and efficiencies of nutrient uptake and utilization in seedlings of some southern coastal plain pine species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topa, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Seedlings of pond (Pinus serotina (Michx.)), sand (P. clausa (Engelm.) Sarg.), and loblolly pines (P. taeda L., drought-hardy and wet site seed sources) were grown in a non-circulating, continuously-flowing solution culture under anaerobic or aerobic conditions to determine the effects of anaerobics on overall growth, root morphology and efficiencies of nutrient uptake and utilization. Although shoot growth of the 11-week old loblolly and pond pines was not affected by anaerobic treatment, it did significantly reduce root biomass. Sand pine suffered the largest biomass reduction. Flooding tolerance was positively correlated with specific morphological changes which enhanced root internal aeration. Oxygen transport from shoot to the root in anaerobically-grown loblolly and pond pine seedlings was demonstrated via rhizosphere oxidation experiments. Tissue elemental analyses showed that anaerobic conditions interfered with nutrient absorption and utilization. Short-term 32 p uptake experiments with intact seedlings indicated that net absorption decreased because of the reduction in root biomass, since H 2 PO 4 - influx in the anaerobically-grown seedlings was more than twice that of their aerobic counterparts. Sand pine possessed the physiological but not morphological capacity to increase P uptake under anaerobic growth conditions. Pond and wet-site loblolly pine seedlings maintained root growth, perhaps through enhanced internal root aeration - an advantage in field conditions where the phosphorus supply may be limited or highly localized

  12. Condition Assessment of Foundation Piles and Utility Poles Based on Guided Wave Propagation Using a Network of Tactile Transducers and Support Vector Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Dackermann

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel non-destructive testing and health monitoring system using a network of tactile transducers and accelerometers for the condition assessment and damage classification of foundation piles and utility poles. While in traditional pile integrity testing an impact hammer with broadband frequency excitation is typically used, the proposed testing system utilizes an innovative excitation system based on a network of tactile transducers to induce controlled narrow-band frequency stress waves. Thereby, the simultaneous excitation of multiple stress wave types and modes is avoided (or at least reduced, and targeted wave forms can be generated. The new testing system enables the testing and monitoring of foundation piles and utility poles where the top is inaccessible, making the new testing system suitable, for example, for the condition assessment of pile structures with obstructed heads and of poles with live wires. For system validation, the new system was experimentally tested on nine timber and concrete poles that were inflicted with several types of damage. The tactile transducers were excited with continuous sine wave signals of 1 kHz frequency. Support vector machines were employed together with advanced signal processing algorithms to distinguish recorded stress wave signals from pole structures with different types of damage. The results show that using fast Fourier transform signals, combined with principal component analysis as the input feature vector for support vector machine (SVM classifiers with different kernel functions, can achieve damage classification with accuracies of 92.5% ± 7.5%.

  13. Contributions of COPD, asthma, and ten comorbid conditions to health care utilization and patient-centered outcomes among US adults with obstructive airway disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy TE

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Terrence E Murphy,1 Gail J McAvay,1 Heather G Allore,1 Jason A Stamm,2 Paul F Simonelli2 1Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Geriatrics, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Thoracic Medicine, Geisinger Medical Center, Danville, PA, USA Background: Among persons with obstructive airway disease, the relative contributions of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, asthma, and common comorbid conditions to health care utilization and patient-centered outcomes (PCOs have not been previously reported.Methods: We followed a total of 3,486 persons aged ≥40 years with COPD, asthma, or both at baseline, from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS cohorts enrolled annually from 2008 through 2012 for 1 year. MEPS is a prospective observational study of US households recording self-reported COPD, asthma, and ten medical conditions: angina, arthritis, cancer, coronary heart disease, cognitive impairment, diabetes, hypertension, lung cancer, myocardial infarction, and stroke/transient ischemic attack. We studied the separate contributions of these conditions to health care utilization (all-cause and respiratory disease hospitalization, any emergency department [ED] visit, and six or more outpatient visits and PCOs (seven or more days spent in bed due to illness, incident loss of mobility, and incident decline in self-perceived health.Results: COPD made the largest contributions to all-cause and respiratory disease hospitalization and ED visits, while arthritis made the largest contribution to outpatient health care. Arthritis and COPD, respectively, made the greatest contributions to the PCOs.Conclusion: COPD made the largest and second largest contributions to health care utilization and PCOs among US adults with obstructive airway disease. The twelve medical conditions collectively accounted for between 52% and 61% of the health care utilization outcomes and between 53

  14. Mothers of children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: health conditions and medical care utilization in periods before and after birth of the child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, G Thomas; Croen, Lisa A; Habel, Laurel A

    2009-01-01

    Analyzing health conditions and medical utilization of mothers of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can shed light on biologic, environmental, and psychosocial factors relating to ADHD. To examine health conditions, health care utilization, and costs of mothers of children with ADHD in periods before the child was diagnosed. Using automated data from Northern California Kaiser Permanente we identified mothers of children with ADHD, mothers of children without ADHD, and mothers of children with asthma. Mothers' diagnostic clusters, health care utilization, and costs were compared. Mothers of children with ADHD were compared with mothers of children without ADHD and, separately, to mothers of children with asthma. Compared with mothers of children without ADHD, mothers of children with ADHD were more likely to be diagnosed with numerous medical and mental health problems in the 2 years after birth of their child, including depression [odds ratio (OR): 1.88], anxiety neuroses (OR: 1.64), obesity (OR: 1.70), and musculoskeletal symptoms (OR: 1.51). Results were similar for the year before delivery. Mothers of children with ADHD also had higher total health care costs per person in the year before ($1,003) and the 2 years after ($953) the birth of their child. Mothers of children with ADHD also were diagnosed with more health conditions and had higher health care costs than mothers of children with asthma. Our findings suggest that the likelihood of being diagnosed with ADHD is related to maternal conditions and use of health services that precede the child's diagnosis. Future studies are needed to clarify whether this is due to biologic, psychosocial, or environmental factors, or a combination.

  15. Optimal conditions in direct dimethyl ether synthesis from syngas utilizing a dual-type fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousefi, Ahmad; Eslamloueyan, Reza; Kazerooni, Nooshin Moradi

    2017-01-01

    Concerns over environmental pollution and ever-increasing energy demand have urged the global community to tap clean-burning fuels among which dimethyl ether is a promising candidate for contribution in the transportation sector. Direct dimethyl ether synthesis from syngas, in which methanol production and dehydration take place simultaneously, is arguably the preferred route for large scale production. In this study, direct dimethyl ether synthesis is proposed in an industrial dual-type fluidized bed reactor. This configuration involves two fluidized bed reactors operating in different conditions. In the first catalytic reactor (water-cooled reactor), the synthesis gas is partly converted to methanol after being preheated by the reaction heat in the second reactor (gas-cooled reactor). A two-phase generalized comprehensive reactor model, comprised of the flow in three different regimes is applied and a smooth transition between flow regimes is provided based on the probabilistic averaging approach. The optimal operating conditions are sought by employing differential evolution algorithm as a robust optimization strategy. The dimethyl ether mole fraction is considered as the objective function during the optimization. The results show considerable dimethyl ether enhancement by 16% and 14% compared to the conventional direct dimethyl ether synthesis reactor and dual-type fixed bed dimethyl ether reactor arrangements, respectively. - Highlights: • Dual-type catalytic fluidized bed reactors for dimethyl ether synthesis is studied. • A two-phase comprehensive model comprised of flow in three regimes is used. • Probabilistic averaging approach is applied for smooth transitions between regimes. • Differential evolution method is employed to determine optimal operating conditions. • Production capacity is remarkably enhanced compared to conventional reactor.

  16. Utility of an unitary-shredding method to evaluate the conditions and selection of constructional features during grinding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macko Marek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate and improve the efficiency of the process of grinding, various investigations are conducted, based on the relevant research methodology. One of them is the method in which the crushed sample is subjected to single stroke loads. On this basis, the influence of the geometric features of the chipper system and the dynamic process on the efficiency of the grinding is determined. Charpy hammers instrument were used to perform these modifications so that the momentary force of the resistance could be recorded with varying sample alignment, blade geometry changes and others. In addition, it was proposed to use a super fast camera (up to 1200 fps to record the deformation of the sample and its destruction, in order to interpretation the burdens there. Under such idealized conditions, a range of variables has been identified that significantly affect the reduction of energy demand during grinding.

  17. Load monitoring of aerospace structures utilizing micro-electro-mechanical systems for static and quasi-static loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, M; Rocha, B; Li, M; Shi, G; Beltempo, A; Rutledge, R; Yanishevsky, M

    2012-01-01

    The National Research Council Canada (NRC) has worked on the development of structural health monitoring (SHM) test platforms for assessing the performance of sensor systems for load monitoring applications. The first SHM platform consists of a 5.5 m cantilever aluminum beam that provides an optimal scenario for evaluating the ability of a load monitoring system to measure bending, torsion and shear loads. The second SHM platform contains an added level of structural complexity, by consisting of aluminum skins with bonded/riveted stringers, typical of an aircraft lower wing structure. These two load monitoring platforms are well characterized and documented, providing loading conditions similar to those encountered during service. In this study, a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) for acquiring data from triads of gyroscopes, accelerometers and magnetometers is described. The system was used to compute changes in angles at discrete stations along the platforms. The angles obtained from the MEMS were used to compute a second, third or fourth order degree polynomial surface from which displacements at every point could be computed. The use of a new Kalman filter was evaluated for angle estimation, from which displacements in the structure were computed. The outputs of the newly developed algorithms were then compared to the displacements obtained from the linear variable displacement transducers connected to the platforms. The displacement curves were subsequently post-processed either analytically, or with the help of a finite element model of the structure, to estimate strains and loads. The estimated strains were compared with baseline strain gauge instrumentation installed on the platforms. This new approach for load monitoring was able to provide accurate estimates of applied strains and shear loads. (paper)

  18. [An oral function improvement program utilizing health behavior theories ameliorates oral functions and oral hygienic conditions of pre-frail elderly persons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Hideo

    2014-06-01

    Oral function improvement programs utilizing health behavior theories are considered to be effective in preventing the need for long-term social care. In the present study, an oral function improvement program based upon health behavior theories was designed, and its utility was assessed in 102 pre-frail elderly persons (33 males, 69 females, mean age: 76.9 +/- 5.7) considered to be in potential need of long-term social care and attending a long-term care prevention class in Sayama City, Saitama Prefecture, Japan. The degree of improvement in oral functions (7 items) and oral hygienic conditions (3 items) was assessed by comparing oral health before and after participation in the program. The results showed statistically significant improvements in the following oral functions: (1) lip functions (oral diadochokinesis, measured by the regularity of the repetition of the syllable "Pa"), (2) tongue functions, (3) tongue root motor skills (oral diadochokinesis, measured by the regularity of the repetition of the syllables "Ta" and "Ka"), (4) tongue extension/retraction, (5) side-to-side tongue movement functions, (6) cheek motor skills, and (7) repetitive saliva swallowing test (RSST). The following measures of oral hygiene also showed a statistically significant improvement: (1) debris on dentures or teeth, (2) coated tongue, and (3) frequency of oral cleaning. These findings demonstrated that an improvement program informed by health behavior theories is useful in improving oral functions and oral hygiene conditions.

  19. Expected utility without utility

    OpenAIRE

    Castagnoli, E.; Licalzi, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper advances an interpretation of Von Neumann–Morgenstern’s expected utility model for preferences over lotteries which does not require the notion of a cardinal utility over prizes and can be phrased entirely in the language of probability. According to it, the expected utility of a lottery can be read as the probability that this lottery outperforms another given independent lottery. The implications of this interpretation for some topics and models in decision theory are considered....

  20. Evaluation of Final Radiological Conditions at Areas of the Niagara Falls Storage Site Remediated under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program -12184

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, Christopher [U.S Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC; Kothari, Vijendra [U.S Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Morgantown, West Virginia; Starr, Ken [U.S Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Westminster, Colorado; Widdop, Michael; Gillespie, Joey [SM Stoller Corporation, Grand Junction, Colorado

    2012-02-26

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) methods and protocols allow evaluation of remediation and final site conditions to determine if remediated sites remain protective. Two case studies are presented that involve the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) and associated vicinity properties (VPs), which are being remediated under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). These properties are a part of the former Lake Ontario Ordnance Works (LOOW). In response to stakeholders concerns about whether certain remediated NFSS VPs were putting them at risk, DOE met with stakeholders and agreed to evaluate protectiveness. Documentation in the DOE records collection adequately described assessed and final radiological conditions at the completed VPs. All FUSRAP wastes at the completed sites were cleaned up to meet DOE guidelines for unrestricted use. DOE compiled the results of the investigation in a report that was released for public comment. In conducting the review of site conditions, DOE found that stakeholders were also concerned about waste from the Separations Process Research Unit (SPRU) at the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) that was handled at LOOW. DOE agreed to determine if SPRU waste remained at that needed to be remediated. DOE reviewed records of waste characterization, historical handling locations and methods, and assessment and remediation data. DOE concluded that the SPRU waste was remediated on the LOOW to levels that pose no unacceptable risk and allow unrestricted use and unlimited exposure. This work confirms the following points as tenets of an effective long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS&M) program: Stakeholder interaction must be open and transparent, and DOE must respond promptly to stakeholder concerns. DOE, as the long-term custodian, must collect and preserve site records in order to demonstrate that remediated sites pose no unacceptable risk. DOE must continue to maintain constructive relationships with the U

  1. Utility of remote sensing-based surface energy balance models to track water stress in rain-fed switchgrass under dry and wet conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Nishan; Wagle, Pradeep; Gowda, Prasanna H.; Kakani, Vijaya G.

    2017-11-01

    The ability of remote sensing-based surface energy balance (SEB) models to track water stress in rain-fed switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) has not been explored yet. In this paper, the theoretical framework of crop water stress index (CWSI; 0 = extremely wet or no water stress condition and 1 = extremely dry or no transpiration) was utilized to estimate CWSI in rain-fed switchgrass using Landsat-derived evapotranspiration (ET) from five remote sensing based single-source SEB models, namely Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL), Mapping ET with Internalized Calibration (METRIC), Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS), Simplified Surface Energy Balance Index (S-SEBI), and Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop). CWSI estimates from the five SEB models and a simple regression model that used normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), near-surface temperature difference, and measured soil moisture (SM) as covariates were compared with those derived from eddy covariance measured ET (CWSIEC) for the 32 Landsat image acquisition dates during the 2011 (dry) and 2013 (wet) growing seasons. Results indicate that most SEB models can predict CWSI reasonably well. For example, the root mean square error (RMSE) ranged from 0.14 (SEBAL) to 0.29 (SSEBop) and the coefficient of determination (R2) ranged from 0.25 (SSEBop) to 0.72 (SEBAL), justifying the added complexity in CWSI modeling as compared to results from the simple regression model (R2 = 0.55, RMSE = 0.16). All SEB models underestimated CWSI in the dry year but the estimates from SEBAL and S-SEBI were within 7% of the mean CWSIEC and explained over 60% of variations in CWSIEC. In the wet year, S-SEBI mostly overestimated CWSI (around 28%), while estimates from METRIC, SEBAL, SEBS, and SSEBop were within 8% of the mean CWSIEC. Overall, SEBAL was the most robust model under all conditions followed by METRIC, whose performance was slightly worse and better than SEBAL in dry and wet years

  2. Natural light-micro aerobic condition for PSB wastewater treatment: a flexible, simple, and effective resource recovery wastewater treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haifeng; Han, Ting; Zhang, Guangming; Ma, Shanshan; Zhang, Yuanhui; Li, Baoming; Cao, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) have two sets of metabolic pathways. They can degrade pollutants through light metabolic under light-anaerobic or oxygen metabolic pathways under dark-aerobic conditions. Both metabolisms function under natural light-microaerobic condition, which demands less energy input. This work investigated the characteristics of PSB wastewater treatment process under that condition. Results showed that PSB had very strong adaptability to chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration; with F/M of 5.2-248.5 mg-COD/mg-biomass, the biomass increased three times and COD removal reached above 91.5%. PSB had both advantages of oxygen metabolism in COD removal and light metabolism in resource recovery under natural light-microaerobic condition. For pollutants' degradation, COD, total organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus removal reached 96.2%, 91.0%, 70.5%, and 92.7%, respectively. For resource recovery, 74.2% of C in wastewater was transformed into biomass. Especially, coexistence of light and oxygen promote N recovery ratio to 70.9%, higher than with the other two conditions. Further, 93.7% of N-removed was synthesized into biomass. Finally, CO 2 emission reduced by 62.6% compared with the traditional process. PSB wastewater treatment under this condition is energy-saving, highly effective, and environment friendly, and can achieve pollution control and resource recovery.

  3. An utilization of liquid sublayer dryout mechanism in predicting critical heat flux under low pressure and low velocity conditions in round tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang-Won; Baik, Se-Jin; Ro, Tae-Sun

    2000-01-01

    From a theoretical assessment of extensive critical heat flux (CHF) data under low pressure and low velocity (LPLV) conditions, it was found out that lots of CHF data would not be well predicted by a normal annular film dryout (AFD) mechanism, although their flow patterns were identified as annular-mist flow. To predict these CHF data, a liquid sublayer dryout (LSD) mechanism has been newly utilized in developing the mechanistic CHF model based on each identified CHF mechanism. This mechanism postulates that the CHF occurrence is caused by dryout of the thin liquid sublayer resulting from the annular film separation or breaking down due to nucleate boiling in annular film or hydrodynamic fluctuation. In principle, this mechanism well supports the experimental evidence of residual film flow rate at the CHF location, which can not be explained by the AFD mechanism. For a comparative assessment of each mechanism, the CHF model based on the LSD mechanism is developed together with that based on the AFD mechanism. The validation of these models is performed on the 1406 CHF data points ranging over P=0.1-2 MPa, G=4-499 kg m -2 s -1 , L/D=4-402. This model validation shows that 1055 and 231 CHF data are predicted within ±30 error bound by the LSD mechanism and the AFD mechanism, respectively. However, some CHF data whose critical qualities are <0.4 or whose tube length-to-diameter ratios are <70 are considerably overestimated by the CHF model based on the LSD mechanism. These overestimations seem to be caused by an inadequate CHF mechanism classification and an insufficient consideration of the flow instability effect on CHF. Further studies for a new classification criterion screening the CHF data affected by flow instabilities as well as a new bubble detachment model for LPLV conditions, are needed to improve the model accuracy.

  4. Fly ashes from Polish power plants and combined heat and power plants and conditions of their application for carbon dioxide utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uliasz-Bochenczyk, A.; Mokrzycki, E. [Polish Academy of Science, Krakow (Poland). Mineral & Energy Economic Research Institute

    2006-09-15

    Poland has large resources of hard coal and brown coal. Therefore power industry is mostly based on these two original energy carriers. The power plants producing heat and electrical energy create combustion byproducts. These products include: fly ashes, slags, carbon dioxide and other gaseous compounds. In year 2003 fly ashes emission from hard coal combustion in Poland reached 37 000 tons and over 15 000 tons from brown coal combustion. Fly ashes are widely used in the economy. They are used in building materials industry, in road building and geotechnics. CO{sub 2} emission in Poland in 2003 originating from hard coal combustion was almost 91 million tons and from brown coal combustion-almost 58 million tons. High emissions of CO{sub 2} originating from power engineering processes of coal combustion are deleterious to the natural environment, contributing to the greenhouse effect. Presently there are carried out studies aimed at limiting CO{sub 2} emission coming from industrial processes. Fly ash properties are determined by qualitative characteristics of combusted coal, its chemical composition and combustion technology. Chemical composition of Polish fly ashes is very diversified. Fly ashes with high calcium oxide content can be used for carbon dioxide fixation. Fly ash carbonation is a complicated process however safe for natural environment. Polish fly ashes coming from power engineering, conditions of their use for the carbon dioxide utilization as well as their quantitative and qualitative characteristics are the subjects of this paper.

  5. Initiative for local district heating. New chances for municipal utilities. Boundary conditions for the heat market; Initiative Nahwaerme. Neue Chancen fuer Stadtwerke. Rahmenbedingungen fuer den Waermemarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, Michael [K.Group GmbH, Muenchen (Germany). Bereich Nachhaltige Energieversorgung und Stadtentwicklung

    2009-06-15

    In the regulated market, municipal utilities are forced to find new fields of activity. The heat market offers good chances. For example, local district heating grids can be established, independent power generation can be encouraged, and new services can be offered which may increase customer loyalty. The district heating initiative of the Baden-Wuerttemberg Minister of the Environment was launched early in 2009 with the intention to offer valuable assistance to the municipal utilities. (orig.)

  6. Pareto utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikefuji, M.; Laeven, R.J.A.; Magnus, J.R.; Muris, C.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    In searching for an appropriate utility function in the expected utility framework, we formulate four properties that we want the utility function to satisfy. We conduct a search for such a function, and we identify Pareto utility as a function satisfying all four desired properties. Pareto utility

  7. Energy wood reserves and the utilization conditions of them 1/1994-12/1996; Energiapuuvarat ja niiden hyoedyntaemisedellytykset 1/1994-12/1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesterlin, V. [Metsaetalouden kehittaemiskeskus Tapio, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The objective of the project was to reduce the harvesting and procurement costs of energy wood, and clarification of the procurable volumes of energy wood by using the forestry-planning systems for private forests. A model will be developed for planning the energy wood procurement, and the regional energy wood reserves will be investigated for different utilization targets and purposes. The project has started in the beginning of 1993 and it will last to the end of 1996. Basic information needed was collected from the pilot areas in cooperation with the PUUHA project stated in Mikkeli. The targets have been determined from the pilot areas using an position-data program, used as calculation program, in the form of maps and forest stand charts. The numerical road data of the area has been carried over from the database of the National Board of Survey. The volumes of energy wood reserves of the test area have been calculated and composed on different levels of biomass utilization from variable procurement targets by taking the calculatory short-distance transportation and the harvesting costs of the first thinnings in to account and separately from the utilization targets of the felling residues utilization targets. At present cost and stumpage price level only a small proportion of first thinning targets seem to be profitable in utilization of energy wood. Even these targets usually require forest amelioration support

  8. Energy wood reserves and the utilization conditions of them 1/1994-12/1996; Energiapuuvarat ja niiden hyoedyntaemisedellytykset 1/1994-12/1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesterlin, V [Metsaetalouden kehittaemiskeskus Tapio, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The objective of the project was to reduce the harvesting and procurement costs of energy wood, and clarification of the procurable volumes of energy wood by using the forestry-planning systems for private forests. A model will be developed for planning the energy wood procurement, and the regional energy wood reserves will be investigated for different utilization targets and purposes. The project has started in the beginning of 1993 and it will last to the end of 1996. Basic information needed was collected from the pilot areas in cooperation with the PUUHA project stated in Mikkeli. The targets have been determined from the pilot areas using an position-data program, used as calculation program, in the form of maps and forest stand charts. The numerical road data of the area has been carried over from the database of the National Board of Survey. The volumes of energy wood reserves of the test area have been calculated and composed on different levels of biomass utilization from variable procurement targets by taking the calculatory short-distance transportation and the harvesting costs of the first thinnings in to account and separately from the utilization targets of the felling residues utilization targets. At present cost and stumpage price level only a small proportion of first thinning targets seem to be profitable in utilization of energy wood. Even these targets usually require forest amelioration support

  9. Investigation of agricultural residues gasification for electricity production in Sudan as an example for biomass energy utilization under arid climate conditions in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhiet, Arig G

    2008-05-15

    utilization planning is possible as for any other energy resource. In Sudan, Baggase, Groundnuts shells and Roselle stalks could be considered as possible fuels. The experimental work done in chapter 5 showed that GN.S could be gasified in down draft gasifiers, which are less costly and simpler to operate than circulating systems. Acceptable values of gas thermal properties (c.v.{proportional_to} 4 MJ/Nm{sup 3}, 30 % of burnable gases) at fairly continuing processes were obtained. In chapter 6, a concept for biomass power plant was drafted, the main components are: downdraft, air based gasifier connected to ICE, multi-stage gas cleaning system (cyclones, washer and filters) mechanical ash removal and semi closed water cycle. Main operation measures are: electricity is the sole product; working time is 150 day/year between mid November-mid Mars. Environmental hazards of waste management e.g. flue gas emission and waste water management are the limiting factors. In the last part of chapter 6 an economic analysis was carried out. At a value of 3000 Euro/kW for the initial system and fuel price of 100000 Euro/year for {proportional_to}6 GWh then a price of 0.23 Euro/kWh and a return period of 24 years could be obtained. The study concludes in chapter 7 that biomass gasification under the local conditions has its comparative merits however a high institutional support is needed at the beginning. (orig.)

  10. Utility of remote sensing-based surface energy balance models to track water stress in rain-fed switchgrass under dry and wet conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of remote sensing-based surface energy balance (SEB) models to track water stress in rain-fed switchgrass has not been explored yet. In this paper, the theoretical framework of crop water stress index (CWSI) was utilized to estimate CWSI in rain-fed switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) usin...

  11. Differences in the prevalence of hospitalizations and utilization of emergency outpatient services for ambulatory care sensitive conditions between asylum-seeking children and children of the general population: a cross-sectional medical records study (2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célina Lichtl

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive (ACS conditions are established indicators for the availability and quality of ambulatory care. We aimed to assess the differences between asylum-seeking children and children of the general population in a German city with respect to (i the prevalence of ACS hospitalizations, and (ii the utilization of emergency outpatient services for ACS conditions. Methods Using anonymous account data, all children admitted to the University Hospital Heidelberg in 2015 were included in our study. A unique cost unit distinguished asylum seekers residing in a nearby reception center (exposed from the children of the general population. We adapted international lists of ACS conditions and calculated the prevalence of ACS hospitalizations and the utilization of emergency outpatient services for ACS conditions, attributable fractions among the exposed (Afe and the population attributable fraction among total admissions (PAF for each outcome. Differences in the prevalence of each outcome between exposed and controls were analyzed in logistic regression models adjusted for sex, age group and quarterly admission. Results Of the 32,015 admissions in 2015, 19.9% (6287 were from inpatient and 80.1% (25,638 from outpatient care. In inpatient care, 9.8% (622 of all admissions were hospitalizations for ACS conditions. The Afe of ACS hospitalizations was 46.57%, the PAF was 1.12%. Emergency service use for ACS conditions could be identified in 8.3% (3088 of all admissions (Afe: 79.57%, PAF: 5.08%. The odds ratio (OR of asylum-seeking children being hospitalized for ACS conditions in comparison to the control group was 1.81 [95% confidence interval, CI: 1.02; 3.2]. The OR of the asylumseeking population compared to the general population for the utilization of emergency service use for ACS conditions was 4.93 [95% CI: 4.11; 5.91]. Conclusions Asylum-seeking children had significantly higher odds of ACS

  12. Report on a survey in fiscal 1999. Survey on industrial utilization of microorganism reaction mechanisms under anaerobic condition; 1999 nendo kenki jokenka ni okeru biseibutsu hanno kiko no kogyoteki riyo ni kansuru chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Industrial utilization of reaction mechanisms of microorganisms under anaerobic condition permits structuring energy saving type production processes. The present survey has investigated features of new microorganisms under anaerobic condition and the status of researches thereon inside and outside the country, and discussed their future applications. Chapter 1 compares anaerobic microorganisms and functions of microorganism under anaerobic condition with those aerobic to describe their general features, and describes the purpose of this survey and the summary of the investigations. Chapter 2 surveys the current status of technologies to utilize microorganisms under anaerobic condition. Chapter 3 outlines metabolic characteristics of the anaerobic microorganisms, and extracts functions effective for material production by different anaerobic microorganisms to describe their applicability. Chapter 4 evaluates the system classification for the anaerobic microorganisms utilizing the basic arrangement of 16S rRNA genes, and extracts technical problems therein. Chapter 5 proposes structuring a total methane fermentation system including a raw material collecting process, and enhancing alcohol productivity of Zymomonas bacteria. (NEDO)

  13. Development of the advanced load leveling air conditioning technology utilizing unutilized energy; Miriyo energy kodo katsuyo fuka heijunka reidanbo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A heat supply plant utilizing unutilized energy is called for environment-friendly efficient operation including stable heat supply, energy saving, CO{sub 2} emission control and power load leveling. Toshiba developed the optimum operation system for environment-friendly efficient operation considering heat demand prediction and characteristics of a heat supply plant. The demonstration test result showed that this system is effective to reduce power cost of a heat supply plant by nearly 15%. This system was promoted by joint research of NEDO, Heat Pump and Thermal Storage Technology Center of Japan and Toshiba supported by Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, MITI. (translated by NEDO)

  14. Impact of oxidative stress defense on bacterial survival and morphological change in Campylobacter jejuni under aerobic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euna eOh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni, a microaerophilic foodborne pathogen, inescapably faces high oxygen tension during its transmission to humans. Thus, the ability of C. jejuni to survive under oxygen-rich conditions may significantly impact C. jejuni viability in food and food safety as well. In this study, we investigated the impact of oxidative stress resistance on the survival of C. jejuni under aerobic conditions by examining three mutants defective in key antioxidant genes, including ahpC, katA, and sodB. All the three mutants exhibited growth reduction under aerobic conditions compared to the wild type (WT, and the ahpC mutant showed the most significant growth defect. The CFU reduction in the mutants was recovered to the WT level by complementation. Higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS were accumulated in C. jejuni under aerobic conditions than microaerobic conditions, and supplementation of culture media with an antioxidant recovered the growth of C. jejuni. The levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were significantly increased in the mutants compared to WT. Additionally, the mutants exhibited different morphological changes under aerobic conditions. The ahpC and katA mutants developed coccoid morphology by aeration, whereas the sodB mutant established elongated cellular morphology. Compared to microaerobic conditions, interestingly, aerobic culture conditions substantially induced the formation of coccoidal cells, and antioxidant treatment reduced the emergence of coccoid forms under aerobic conditions. The ATP concentrations and PMA-qPCR analysis supported that oxidative stress is a factor that induces the development of a viable-but-non-culturable (VBNC state in C. jejuni. The findings in this study clearly demonstrated that oxidative stress resistance plays an important role in the survival and morphological changes of C. jejuni under aerobic conditions.

  15. The utilization of the climatic chamber to evaluate the influence of ambient conditions on endocrine, nervous and immune systems of rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazyna Wójcik

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The adaptation of an organism to a change in environmental conditions is a complex and in some aspects a poorly understood physiological process. The activating influence of stress on the sympathetic nervous system, the hypothalamic - pituitary - adrenal axis and the suppression of TSH, LH, FSH release is well known. The interplay of communication between the endocrine and immune systems plays an essential role in modulating the response to stress related mediators. The basis of many contradictory and incoherent results of experiments is due to the various methodologies of creating changes in environmental conditions, the way of collecting blood samples which influence stress mediators, the case of assessing the influence of many factors on reproductive functions and the performance of experiments without synchronization with the reproductive cycle. The review will focus on the presentation of simple and repeatable methods of development of an adaptation stress to changed environmental conditions (temperature, oxygenation, humidity and the technique of blood collection during hour-long estimation of interactions between the endocrine, nervous and immune systems. We would like to place emphasis on appropriate ways of performing experiments on female rats, with regards to the choice of a suitable phase of the reproductive cycle. Also on ways of anaesthesia and microsurgical techniques of vein catheterisation for repeated blood sampling. The performance of all phases of the experiment allow us to estimate only the influence of environmental conditions and eliminate interfering factors during the process of preparing animal for the experiment.

  16. The utilization of the climatic chamber to evaluate the influence of ambient conditions on endocrine, nervous and immune systems of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Arkadiusz; Jakiel, Grzegorz; Wójcik, Grazyna

    2008-01-01

    The adaptation of an organism to a change in environmental conditions is a complex and in some aspects a poorly understood physiological process. The activating influence of stress on the sympathetic nervous system, the hypothalamic - pituitary - adrenal axis and the suppression of TSH, LH, FSH release is well known. The interplay of communication between the endocrine and immune systems plays an essential role in modulating the response to stress related mediators. The basis of many contradictory and incoherent results of experiments is due to the various methodologies of creating changes in environmental conditions, the way of collecting blood samples which influence stress mediators, the case of assessing the influence of many factors on reproductive functions and the performance of experiments without synchronization with the reproductive cycle. The review will focus on the presentation of simple and repeatable methods of development of an adaptation stress to changed environmental conditions (temperature, oxygenation, humidity) and the technique of blood collection during hour-long estimation of interactions between the endocrine, nervous and immune systems. We would like to place emphasis on appropriate ways of performing experiments on female rats, with regards to the choice of a suitable phase of the reproductive cycle. Also on ways of anaesthesia and microsurgical techniques of vein catheterisation for repeated blood sampling. The performance of all phases of the experiment allow us to estimate only the influence of environmental conditions and eliminate interfering factors during the process of preparing animal for the experiment.

  17. Impaired health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with chronic conditions: a comparative analysis of 10 disease clusters and 33 disease categories/severities utilizing the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burwinkle Tasha M

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in biomedical science and technology have resulted in dramatic improvements in the healthcare of pediatric chronic conditions. With enhanced survival, health-related quality of life (HRQOL issues have become more salient. The objectives of this study were to compare generic HRQOL across ten chronic disease clusters and 33 disease categories/severities from the perspectives of patients and parents. Comparisons were also benchmarked with healthy children data. Methods The analyses were based on over 2,500 pediatric patients from 10 physician-diagnosed disease clusters and 33 disease categories/severities and over 9,500 healthy children utilizing the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales. Patients were recruited from general pediatric clinics, subspecialty clinics, and hospitals. Results Pediatric patients with diabetes, gastrointestinal conditions, cardiac conditions, asthma, obesity, end stage renal disease, psychiatric disorders, cancer, rheumatologic conditions, and cerebral palsy self-reported progressively more impaired overall HRQOL than healthy children, respectively, with medium to large effect sizes. Patients with cerebral palsy self-reported the most impaired HRQOL, while patients with diabetes self-reported the best HRQOL. Parent proxy-reports generally paralleled patient self-report, with several notable differences. Conclusion The results demonstrate differential effects of pediatric chronic conditions on patient HRQOL across diseases clusters, categories, and severities utilizing the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales from the perspectives of pediatric patients and parents. The data contained within this study represents a larger and more diverse population of pediatric patients with chronic conditions than previously reported in the extant literature. The findings contribute important information on the differential effects of pediatric chronic conditions on generic HRQOL from the perspectives of children and

  18. Impaired health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with chronic conditions: a comparative analysis of 10 disease clusters and 33 disease categories/severities utilizing the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varni, James W; Limbers, Christine A; Burwinkle, Tasha M

    2007-07-16

    Advances in biomedical science and technology have resulted in dramatic improvements in the healthcare of pediatric chronic conditions. With enhanced survival, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) issues have become more salient. The objectives of this study were to compare generic HRQOL across ten chronic disease clusters and 33 disease categories/severities from the perspectives of patients and parents. Comparisons were also benchmarked with healthy children data. The analyses were based on over 2,500 pediatric patients from 10 physician-diagnosed disease clusters and 33 disease categories/severities and over 9,500 healthy children utilizing the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales. Patients were recruited from general pediatric clinics, subspecialty clinics, and hospitals. Pediatric patients with diabetes, gastrointestinal conditions, cardiac conditions, asthma, obesity, end stage renal disease, psychiatric disorders, cancer, rheumatologic conditions, and cerebral palsy self-reported progressively more impaired overall HRQOL than healthy children, respectively, with medium to large effect sizes. Patients with cerebral palsy self-reported the most impaired HRQOL, while patients with diabetes self-reported the best HRQOL. Parent proxy-reports generally paralleled patient self-report, with several notable differences. The results demonstrate differential effects of pediatric chronic conditions on patient HRQOL across diseases clusters, categories, and severities utilizing the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales from the perspectives of pediatric patients and parents. The data contained within this study represents a larger and more diverse population of pediatric patients with chronic conditions than previously reported in the extant literature. The findings contribute important information on the differential effects of pediatric chronic conditions on generic HRQOL from the perspectives of children and parents utilizing the PedsQL 4.0 Generic Core Scales. These findings

  19. The Role of Sister Cities' Staff Exchanges in Developing "Learning Cities": Exploring Necessary and Sufficient Conditions in Social Capital Development Utilizing Proportional Odds Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Patrick Henry; Takahashi, Akio; Anderson, Amy

    2015-06-24

    In the last half century former international adversaries have become cooperators through networking and knowledge sharing for decision making aimed at improving quality of life and sustainability; nowhere has this been more striking then at the urban level where such activity is seen as a key component in building "learning cities" through the development of social capital. Although mega-cities have been leaders in such efforts, mid-sized cities with lesser resource endowments have striven to follow by focusing on more frugal sister city type exchanges. The underlying thesis of our research is that great value can be derived from city-to-city exchanges through social capital development. However, such a study must differentiate between necessary and sufficient conditions. Past studies assumed necessary conditions were met and immediately jumped to demonstrating the existence of structural relationships by measuring networking while further assuming that the existence of such demonstrated a parallel development of cognitive social capital. Our research addresses this lacuna by stepping back and critically examining these assumptions. To accomplish this goal we use a Proportional Odds Modeling with a Cumulative Logit Link approach to demonstrate the existence of a common latent structure, hence asserting that necessary conditions are met.

  20. The Role of Sister Cities’ Staff Exchanges in Developing “Learning Cities”: Exploring Necessary and Sufficient Conditions in Social Capital Development Utilizing Proportional Odds Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Henry Buckley

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last half century former international adversaries have become cooperators through networking and knowledge sharing for decision making aimed at improving quality of life and sustainability; nowhere has this been more striking then at the urban level where such activity is seen as a key component in building “learning cities” through the development of social capital. Although mega-cities have been leaders in such efforts, mid-sized cities with lesser resource endowments have striven to follow by focusing on more frugal sister city type exchanges. The underlying thesis of our research is that great value can be derived from city-to-city exchanges through social capital development. However, such a study must differentiate between necessary and sufficient conditions. Past studies assumed necessary conditions were met and immediately jumped to demonstrating the existence of structural relationships by measuring networking while further assuming that the existence of such demonstrated a parallel development of cognitive social capital. Our research addresses this lacuna by stepping back and critically examining these assumptions. To accomplish this goal we use a Proportional Odds Modeling with a Cumulative Logit Link approach to demonstrate the existence of a common latent structure, hence asserting that necessary conditions are met.

  1. The Role of Sister Cities’ Staff Exchanges in Developing “Learning Cities”: Exploring Necessary and Sufficient Conditions in Social Capital Development Utilizing Proportional Odds Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Patrick Henry; Takahashi, Akio; Anderson, Amy

    2015-01-01

    In the last half century former international adversaries have become cooperators through networking and knowledge sharing for decision making aimed at improving quality of life and sustainability; nowhere has this been more striking then at the urban level where such activity is seen as a key component in building “learning cities” through the development of social capital. Although mega-cities have been leaders in such efforts, mid-sized cities with lesser resource endowments have striven to follow by focusing on more frugal sister city type exchanges. The underlying thesis of our research is that great value can be derived from city-to-city exchanges through social capital development. However, such a study must differentiate between necessary and sufficient conditions. Past studies assumed necessary conditions were met and immediately jumped to demonstrating the existence of structural relationships by measuring networking while further assuming that the existence of such demonstrated a parallel development of cognitive social capital. Our research addresses this lacuna by stepping back and critically examining these assumptions. To accomplish this goal we use a Proportional Odds Modeling with a Cumulative Logit Link approach to demonstrate the existence of a common latent structure, hence asserting that necessary conditions are met. PMID:26114245

  2. Load leveling air conditioning technology development by unused energy high-level utilization. Summary of lectures given at the achievement report meeting; Miriyo energy kodo katsuyo fuka heijunka reidanbo gijutsu kaihatsu. Seika hokokukai koen yoshishu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes lectures given at the research and development achievement report meeting on load leveling air conditioning technologies utilizing unutilized energies at high levels. The lecture titled 'the current status and future problems in heat supply industries' given by the manager of the Heat Supply Industry Department at the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy explained the heat supply businesses in relation with global environment issues, electric power load leveling, and cogeneration. The lecture titled 'improvement of cities to energy saving type cities and district air conditioning systems' given by a construction official at the Ministry of Construction explained the guideline (draft) for introduction of district air conditioning systems as to their purpose, positioning, procedure for discussing the introduction, and procedure for its implementation as a business. The lecture titled 'the recent trend inside and outside the country around unutilized energies' given by Professor Tanazawa at the Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology described the intensification of energy problems, environment problems, and the near future measures to be taken against these problems. The lecture titled 'summarization of the achievements in development of load leveling air conditioning technologies utilizing unutilized energies at high levels' given by Professor Nakahara at the Kanagawa University explained the summary of the achievements in research and development by themes. (NEDO)

  3. Utility training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaros, P.E.; Luxo, Armando; Bruant, Jacques

    1977-01-01

    The study of operational training systems for electro-nuclear utilities may be conducted through two different approaches. A first analytical approach consists of determining, for each position of a given organization chart, the necessary qualifications required and the corresponding complementary training to be provided. This approach applies preferentially to existing classical systems which are converted to nuclear operation with objectives of minimum structural changes and conservation of maximum efficiency. A second synthetical approach consists of determining the specific characteristics of nuclear plant operation, then, of deducting the training contingencies and the optimized organization chart of the plant, while taking into account, at each step, the parameters linked to local conditions. This last approach is studied in some detail in the present paper, taking advantage of its better suitability to the problems raised at the first stage of an electro-nuclear program development. In this respect, the possibility offered by this apprach to coordinate the training system of a given nuclear power station personnel with the overall problem of developing a skilled industrial labor force in the country, may lead to reconsideration of some usual priorities in the economy of operation of the nuclear power plant

  4. Racial/ethnic disparities in service utilization for individuals with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders in the general population: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Keyes, Katherine M; Narrow, William E; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah S

    2008-07-01

    This study sought to determine whether black/white disparities in service utilization for mental health and substance use disorders persist or are diminished among individuals with psychiatric comorbidity in the general population. The 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions was used to identify individuals with lifetime co-occurring substance use disorders and mood/anxiety disorders (N = 4250; whites, N = 3597; blacks, N = 653). Lifetime service utilization for problems with mood, anxiety, alcohol, and drugs was assessed. Compared to whites, blacks with co-occurring mood or anxiety and substance use disorders were significantly less likely to receive services for mood or anxiety disorders, equally likely to receive services for alcohol use disorders, and more likely to receive some types of services for drug use disorders. Regardless of race/ethnicity, individuals with these co-occurring disorders were almost twice as likely to use services for mood/anxiety disorders than for substance use disorders. Despite the fact that comorbidity generally increases the likelihood of service use, black/white disparities in service utilization among an all-comorbid sample were found, although these disparities differed by type of disorder. Further research is warranted to understand the factors underlying these differences. Prevention and intervention strategies are needed to address the specific mental health needs of blacks with co-occurring disorders, as well as the overall lack of service use for substance use disorders among individuals with co-occurring psychiatric conditions.

  5. Regression models of discharge and mean velocity associated with near-median streamflow conditions in Texas: utility of the U.S. Geological Survey discharge measurement database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquith, William H.

    2014-01-01

    A database containing more than 16,300 discharge values and ancillary hydraulic attributes was assembled from summaries of discharge measurement records for 391 USGS streamflow-gauging stations (streamgauges) in Texas. Each discharge is between the 40th- and 60th-percentile daily mean streamflow as determined by period-of-record, streamgauge-specific, flow-duration curves. Each discharge therefore is assumed to represent a discharge measurement made for near-median streamflow conditions, and such conditions are conceptualized as representative of midrange to baseflow conditions in much of the state. The hydraulic attributes of each discharge measurement included concomitant cross-section flow area, water-surface top width, and reported mean velocity. Two regression equations are presented: (1) an expression for discharge and (2) an expression for mean velocity, both as functions of selected hydraulic attributes and watershed characteristics. Specifically, the discharge equation uses cross-sectional area, water-surface top width, contributing drainage area of the watershed, and mean annual precipitation of the location; the equation has an adjusted R-squared of approximately 0.95 and residual standard error of approximately 0.23 base-10 logarithm (cubic meters per second). The mean velocity equation uses discharge, water-surface top width, contributing drainage area, and mean annual precipitation; the equation has an adjusted R-squared of approximately 0.50 and residual standard error of approximately 0.087 third root (meters per second). Residual plots from both equations indicate that reliable estimates of discharge and mean velocity at ungauged stream sites are possible. Further, the relation between contributing drainage area and main-channel slope (a measure of whole-watershed slope) is depicted to aid analyst judgment of equation applicability for ungauged sites. Example applications and computations are provided and discussed within a real-world, discharge

  6. Utilization of lightflecks by seedlings of five dominant tree species of different subtropical forest successional stages under low-light growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q; Chen, Y J; Song, L Y; Liu, N; Sun, L L; Peng, C L

    2012-05-01

    We selected five typical tree species, including one early-successional species (ES) Pinus massoniana Lamb., two mid-successional species (MS) Schima superba Gardn. et Champ. and Castanopsis fissa (Champ. ex Benth.) Rehd. et Wils. and two late-successional species (LS) Cryptocarya concinna Hance. and Acmena acuminatissima (BI.) Merr et Perry., which represent the plants at three successional periods in Dinghushan subtropical forest succession of southern China. Potted seedlings of the five species were grown under 12% of full sunlight for 36 months. The ES and MS showed the slowest and fastest responses to lightflecks, respectively, which correlated with the rate of stomatal opening. In contrast to P. massoniana and C. concinna, the other three species exhibited a high induction loss. Early-successional species showed the lowest specific leaf area and chlorophyll content, the highest photosynthetic capacity (A(max)) and respiratory carbon losses (R(d)). Compared with ES and MS, LS showed lower A(max) and R(d). The five tree species showed a similar chlorophyll a/b ratio after long-term low-light adaptations. On the other hand, LS had a relatively higher de-epoxidation state to protect themselves from excess light during lightflecks. Our results indicated that (i) slower responses to lightflecks could partially explain why ES species could not achieve seedling regeneration in low-light conditions; (ii) fast responses to lightflecks could partially explain why MS species could achieve seedling regeneration in low-light conditions; and (iii) smaller respiratory carbon losses might confer on the LS species a competitive advantage in low-light conditions.

  7. Utilization of tannery fleshings: Optimization of conditions for fermenting delimed tannery fleshings using Enterococcus faecium HAB01 by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Rai, Amit; General, Thiyam; Bhaskar, N; Suresh, P V; Sakhare, P Z; Halami, P M; Gowda, Lalitha R; Mahendrakar, N S

    2010-03-01

    Conditions for fermentation of delimed tannery fleshings--to obtain higher degree of protein hydrolysis and reasonably better antioxidant activity--using Enterococcus faecium HAB01 (GenBank #FJ418568) were optimized. Three independent variables--viz., inoculum level (X1), glucose level (X2) and fermentation time (X3)--were optimized using response surface method considering degree of hydrolysis (DH; %) and total titrable acidity (TTA) as response variables. The optimized conditions were found to be 12.5% (v/w) inoculum, 17.5% (w/w) glucose and 96h of fermentation at 37+/-1 degrees C to obtain a maximum DH%. The usefulness of the predicted model was further validated by considering random combinations of the independent factors. The chemical score of the hydrolysate revealed an excess amount of essential amino acids, viz., arginine and leucine compared to reference protein. The liquor portion had relatively high antioxidant activities, indicating its potential for use as a high value feed ingredient. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Utilization of carrageenan, citric acid and cinnamon oil as an edible coating of chicken fillets to prolong its shelf life under refrigeration conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Anshul Kumar; Abraham, Robinson J J; Appa Rao, V; Babu, R Narendra

    2016-02-01

    The present study was conducted to determine efficacy of edible coating of carrageenan and cinnamon oil to enhance the shelf life of chicken meat stored under refrigeration conditions. Chicken breast was coated with carrageenan and cinnamon oil by three methods of application viz., spraying brushing and dipping. The coated meat was evaluated for drip loss, pH, thiobarbituric acid number (TBA), tyrosine value (TV), extract release volume (ERV), Warner-Bratzler shear force value (WBSFV), instrumental color, microbiological, and sensory qualities as per standard procedures. There was a significant difference observed for physicochemical parameters (pH, TBA, TV, ERV, drip loss and WBSFV) and microbiological analysis between storage periods in all the samples and between the control and treatments throughout the storage period but samples did not differed significantly for hunter color scores. However, there was no significant difference among three methods of application throughout the storage period though dipping had a lower rate of increase. A progressive decline in mean sensory scores was recorded along with the increase in storage time. The carrageenan and cinnamon edible coating was found to be a good alternative to enhance the shelf life of chicken meat under refrigeration conditions. It was also observed from study that dipping method of the application had comparatively higher shelf life than other methods of application.

  9. How Veterans With Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Comorbid Health Conditions Utilize eHealth to Manage Their Health Care Needs: A Mixed-Methods Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whealin, Julia M; Jenchura, Emily C; Wong, Ava C; Zulman, Donna M

    2016-10-26

    Mental health conditions are prevalent among US veterans and pose a number of self-management and health care navigation challenges. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) with comorbid chronic medical conditions (CMCs) is especially common, in both returning Iraq or Afghanistan and earlier war-era veterans. Patient-facing electronic health (eHealth) technology may offer innovative strategies to support these individuals' needs. This study was designed to identify the types of eHealth tools that veterans with PTSD and comorbid CMCs use, understand how they currently use eHealth technology to self-manage their unique health care needs, and identify new eHealth resources that veterans feel would empower them to better manage their health care. A total of 119 veterans with PTSD and at least one CMC who have used the electronic personal health record system of the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) responded to a mailed survey about their chronic conditions and preferences related to the use of technology. After the survey, 2 focus groups, stratified by sex, were conducted with a subgroup of patients to explore how veterans with PTSD and comorbid CMCs use eHealth technology to support their complex health care needs. Focus groups were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using standard content analysis methods for coding textual data, guided by the "Fit between Individual, Task, and Technology" framework. Survey respondents had a mean age of 64.0 (SD 12.0) years, 85.1% (97/114) were male, 72.4% (84/116) were white, and 63.1% (70/111) had an annual household income of eHealth literacy was 27.7 (SD 9.8). Of the respondents, 44.6% (50/112) used health-related technology 1 to 3 times per month and 21.4% (24/112) used technology less than once per month. Veterans reported using technology most often to search for health information (78.9%, 90/114), communicate with providers (71.1%, 81/114), and track medications (64.9%, 74/114). Five major themes emerged that describe how

  10. Improvement of a mesoscale atmospheric dynamic model PHYSIC. Utilization of output from synoptic numerical prediction model for initial and boundary condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Haruyasu; Yamazawa, Hiromi

    1995-03-01

    This report describes the improvement of the mesoscale atmospheric dynamic model which is a part of the atmospheric dispersion calculation model PHYSIC. To introduce large-scale meteorological changes into the mesoscale atmospheric dynamic model, it is necessary to make the initial and boundary conditions of the model by using GPV (Grid Point Value) which is the output of the numerical weather prediction model of JMA (Japan Meteorological Agency). Therefore, the program which preprocesses the GPV data to make a input file to PHYSIC was developed and the input process and the methods of spatial and temporal interpolation were improved to correspond to the file. Moreover, the methods of calculating the cloud amount and ground surface moisture from GPV data were developed and added to the model code. As the example of calculation by the improved model, the wind field simulations of a north-west monsoon in winter and a sea breeze in summer in the Tokai area were also presented. (author)

  11. Isobaric-Isothermal Molecular Dynamics Utilizing Density Functional Theory: An Assessment of the Structure and Density of Water at Near-Ambient Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.; VandeVondele, J.; Kuo, I.W.; Sebastiani, D.; Siepmann, J.I.; Hutter, J.; Mundy, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    We present herein a comprehensive density functional theory study toward assessing the accuracy of two popular gradient-corrected exchange correlation functionals on the structure and density of liquid water at near ambient conditions in the isobaric-isothermal ensemble. Our results indicate that both PBE and BLYP functionals under predict the density and over structure the liquid. Adding the dispersion correction due to Grimme(1, 2) improves the predicted densities for both BLYP and PBE in a significant manner. Moreover, the addition of the dispersion correction for BLYP yields an oxygen-oxygen radial distribution function in excellent agreement with experiment. Thus, we conclude that one can obtain a very satisfactory model for water using BLYP and a correction for dispersion.

  12. Utilization of carbon dioxide for polymer electrolytes [I]: Effect of supercritical treatment conditions on ionic conduction in amorphous polyether/salt mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oe, Yoshiyuki; Tominaga, Yoichi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Supercritical CO 2 treatment on amorphous polyether/salt mixtures improves ionic conductivity in the dry state. ► Suitable CO 2 condition for high conductivity exists in near the critical temperature and pressure. ► Conductivity decreases only 20% after 30 days. ► Dissociation of free ClO 4 − and interactions between ether chains and Li + increase in treated electrolytes. - Abstract: Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO 2 ) as a treatment medium has a possibility to realize excellent room temperature conductivity more than 10 −4 S/cm for polymer electrolytes in the dry state. In this study, a typical high ion-conductive polyether-based electrolyte which consists of poly-[ethylene oxide-co-2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl glycidyl ether] (P(EO/EM)) and lithium perchlorate (LiClO 4 ) was used as a model sample for the scCO 2 treatment. We found the suitable scCO 2 treatment conditions (pressure, temperature and time) for high conductivity. The conductivity of sample treated at 7.5 MPa and 40 °C for 40 min was more than 100-times higher than that of original without the treatment, and the value decreased only 20% after 30 days. DSC measurement revealed that the decrease in glass transition temperature (T g ) is caused by the scCO 2 -treatment. The change of ionic association in the scCO 2 -treated samples was confirmed using FT-IR measurement. The scCO 2 treatment gave rise to increase in peak fraction of free ClO 4 − anions (620–625 cm −1 ) and peak shift of ν(C–O–C) mode to lower frequency region (1060–1070 cm −1 ) depending on ether–Li + interactions.

  13. Utility of the end-of-season nitrate test for nitrogen sufficiency of irrigated maize under Mediterranean semi-arid conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isla, R.; Salmeron, M.; Cavero, J.; Yagüe, M.R.; Quilez, D.

    2015-07-01

    Calibration of decision tools to improve N fertilizer management is critical to increase its adoption by maize (Zea mays L.) growers. The objective of this study was to establish nitrate and total nitrogen concentrations in the basal maize stalks (BMS) at harvest to separate maize fields among three N availability categories (N-deficient, N-optimum, and N-excess) under Mediterranean irrigated semiarid conditions. We analysed data from 26 irrigated maize trials conducted between 2001 and 2012. Trials included treatments receiving different N fertilizer rates and sources (mineral and organic), irrigation systems (flood, sprinkler) and soil types. The critical nitrate concentration in BMS to identify N-deficient plots (CNCL) is affected by the irrigation system. The CNCL was lower under sprinkler irrigation (708 mg NO{sub 3}{sup -}–N/kg) than under flood irrigation (2205 mg NO{sub 3}{sup -}–N/kg), and the later presented a higher degree of uncertainty compared to sprinkler irrigated systems. The results showed the difficulty to identify the N-deficient plots with the BMS test and the higher sensibility of nitrate-N than total-N concentration in BMS to separate N-deficient from N-optimal plots. Under sprinkler irrigation, nitrate in BMS>1500 mg NO{sub 3}{sup -}–N/kg had a 85% probability of having received an excess of N. Considering economic net returns to N fertilization, the range of nitrate concentration in BMS that maximized profit under sprinkler-irrigated conditions was established between 1100 and 1700 mg NO3-–N/kg. Results suggest that BMS test can be useful in detecting plots with an excess of N but considering irrigation efficiency is crucial for stablishing successful CNC thresholds. (Author)

  14. A gender-focused perspective on health service utilization in comorbid bipolar I disorder and alcohol use disorders: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Benjamin I; Levitt, Anthony J

    2006-06-01

    This study compares health service utilization by individuals with comorbid lifetime bipolar I disorder and lifetime alcohol use disorders (AUD) to that of individuals with either diagnosis alone, using nationally representative data. The 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions was used to identify respondents with bipolar I disorder only (BD-only; N = 636), AUD only (N = 11,068), and comorbid bipolar I disorder and AUD (BD-AUD; N = 775). Diagnoses were generated using the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV Version. The 3 groups were compared with respect to self-reported health service utilization. For both men and women, respondents in the BD-AUD group were significantly more likely than AUD-only respondents to report any alcohol-related service utilization (p disorder-related hospital admissions as compared with BD-only respondents among males only (p = .009). Within the BD-AUD group, males reported significantly greater utilization of AUD treatment only (p disorder treatment only (p disorder services. As expected, individuals with comorbid bipolar I disorder and AUD utilize significantly more mental health services than individuals with either disorder alone. The primary original finding is that among those with comorbid bipolar I disorder and AUD, bipolar I disorder is more likely to go untreated among males and AUD is more likely to go untreated among females. Gender may be an important factor to consider in future health service planning for comorbid bipolar I disorder and AUD.

  15. Evaluating the clinical utility of the Validity-10 for detecting amplified symptom reporting for patients with mild traumatic brain injury and comorbid psychological health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dretsch, Michael N; Williams, Kathy; Staver, Tara; Grammer, Geoffrey; Bleiberg, Joseph; DeGraba, Thomas; Lange, Rael T

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the Validity-10 scale with the PAI Negative Impression Management Scale (PAI-NIM) for detecting exaggerated symptom reporting in active-duty military service members (SMs) admitted with unremitting mild TBI symptoms and comorbid psychological health conditions (mTBI/PH). Data were analyzed from 254 SMs who completed the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI) and Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) as a part of a larger battery of self-report symptom scales upon admission to the intensive-outpatient TBI treatment program at a military medical center. Symptom exaggeration was operationalized using the PAI Negative Impression Management Scale (PAI-NIM). A PAI-NIM score of ≥73 was categorized as positive for symptom exaggeration (SVTpos), while a lower score was categorized as negative for symptom exaggeration (SVTneg). SMs in the SVTpos group (n = 34) had significantly higher scores (p ≤ .004) on the PAI clinical scales as well as on the NSI total score (range: d = 0.59-1.91) compared to those who were SVTneg (n = 220). The optimal cut-score for the NSI Val-10 scale to identify possible symptom exaggeration was ≥26 (sensitivity = .29, specificity = .95, PPP = .74, NPP = .71). In patients suffering from mTBI/PH, the Validity-10 requires a higher cut-score than previously reported to be useful as a metric of exaggerated symptom reporting.

  16. Optimization of air conditioning systems utilizing low temperature thermal storage; Optimizacion de sistemas de acondicionamiento de aire utilizando sistemas de almacenamiento termico de baja temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras Ramirez, J.; Dorantes Rodriguez, R. [Departamento de Energia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Unidad Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    In the last few years the different projects on the saving and efficient use of energy in the tertiary sector have been demonstrating the existing great potential in the air conditioning systems and equipment, whose intensive use is due to the predominance of hot and dry and hot and humid climate prevailing in a large part of the Mexican territory. Without any doubts one of the most serious problems facing the complex management and optimization of these systems is related to the variability of the thermal load and the regulation possibilities of the thermal machines, so as to attain, along the day an appropriate use and optimization of the total installed load, with the best possible economic benefits. Among the strategies that allow the optimization of the installed capacity and the variability of the thermal load is the low temperature thermal storage, for instance, the storage of ice, which is produced and stored to be used when the cooling machines are in standby in order to use this stored energy during the peak hours and during the normal operation of the equipment, but diminishing in a significant amount the electrical demand of the system to satisfy the thermal load with a combination thermal storage-cooling machine. This paper presents some case histories and the type of thermal storage commonly used; a methodology is discussed that allows to determine technically as well as economically the size of a thermal storage room. Some problems in the control and operation of these thermal systems are also presented. [Espanol] En los ultimos anos los diversos proyectos sobre ahorro y uso eficiente de la energia en el sector terciario han venido mostrando el gran potencial existente en los sistemas y equipos de aire acondicionado, cuyo uso intensivo se debe al predominio de los climas calidos seco y calido humedo en buena parte del territorio nacional. Sin lugar a dudas uno de los problemas mas serios que enfrenta la compleja gestion y optimizacion de estos

  17. Optimization of air conditioning systems utilizing low temperature thermal storage; Optimizacion de sistemas de acondicionamiento de aire utilizando sistemas de almacenamiento termico de baja temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras Ramirez, J; Dorantes Rodriguez, R [Departamento de Energia, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Unidad Azcapotzalco, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    In the last few years the different projects on the saving and efficient use of energy in the tertiary sector have been demonstrating the existing great potential in the air conditioning systems and equipment, whose intensive use is due to the predominance of hot and dry and hot and humid climate prevailing in a large part of the Mexican territory. Without any doubts one of the most serious problems facing the complex management and optimization of these systems is related to the variability of the thermal load and the regulation possibilities of the thermal machines, so as to attain, along the day an appropriate use and optimization of the total installed load, with the best possible economic benefits. Among the strategies that allow the optimization of the installed capacity and the variability of the thermal load is the low temperature thermal storage, for instance, the storage of ice, which is produced and stored to be used when the cooling machines are in standby in order to use this stored energy during the peak hours and during the normal operation of the equipment, but diminishing in a significant amount the electrical demand of the system to satisfy the thermal load with a combination thermal storage-cooling machine. This paper presents some case histories and the type of thermal storage commonly used; a methodology is discussed that allows to determine technically as well as economically the size of a thermal storage room. Some problems in the control and operation of these thermal systems are also presented. [Espanol] En los ultimos anos los diversos proyectos sobre ahorro y uso eficiente de la energia en el sector terciario han venido mostrando el gran potencial existente en los sistemas y equipos de aire acondicionado, cuyo uso intensivo se debe al predominio de los climas calidos seco y calido humedo en buena parte del territorio nacional. Sin lugar a dudas uno de los problemas mas serios que enfrenta la compleja gestion y optimizacion de estos

  18. Estimating Utility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Simler, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental premise of absolute poverty lines is that they represent the same level of utility through time and space. Disturbingly, a series of recent studies in middle- and low-income economies show that even carefully derived poverty lines rarely satisfy this premise. This article proposes a......, with the current approach tending to systematically overestimate (underestimate) poverty in urban (rural) zones.......A fundamental premise of absolute poverty lines is that they represent the same level of utility through time and space. Disturbingly, a series of recent studies in middle- and low-income economies show that even carefully derived poverty lines rarely satisfy this premise. This article proposes...... an information-theoretic approach to estimating cost-of-basic-needs (CBN) poverty lines that are utility consistent. Applications to date illustrate that utility-consistent poverty measurements derived from the proposed approach and those derived from current CBN best practices often differ substantially...

  19. Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiggelbout, A.M.; Wakker, P.P.

    1995-01-01

    Methods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities, and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities.

  20. Multiattribute utility theory without expected utility foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Miyamoto, J.

    1996-01-01

    Methods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities, and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute utilities.

  1. Cost-utility of collaborative care for the treatment of comorbid major depressive disorder in outpatients with chronic physical conditions. A randomized controlled trial in the general hospital setting (CC-DIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goorden M

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Maartje Goorden,1 Christina M van der Feltz-Cornelis,2,3 Kirsten M van Steenbergen-Weijenburg,4 Eva K Horn,5 Aartjan TF Beekman,6,7 Leona Hakkaart-van Roijen1 1Institute of Health Policy and Management (iBMG/Institute for Medical Technology Assessment (iMTA, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, 2Tranzo Department, Tilburg University, 3Clinical Centre of Excellence for Body, Mind and Health, GGzBreburg, Tilburg, 4Trimbos Instituut, Utrecht, 5Viersprong Institute for Studies on Personality Disorders, Halsteren, 6Department of Psychiatry, 7EMGO+ Research Institute VUmc, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Purpose: Major depressive disorder (MDD is highly prevalent in patients with a chronic physical condition, and this comorbidity has a negative influence on quality of life, health care costs, self-care, morbidity, and mortality. Research has shown that collaborative care (CC may be a cost-effective treatment. However, its cost-effectiveness in this patient group has not yet been established. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the cost-utility of CC for the treatment of comorbid MDD in chronically ill patients in the outpatient general hospital setting. The study was conducted from a health care and societal perspective.Patients and methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 81 patients with moderate-to-severe MDD were included; 42 were randomly assigned to the CC group and 39 to the care as usual (CAU group. We applied the TiC-P, short-form Health-Related Quality of Life questionnaire, and EuroQol EQ-5D 3 level version, measuring the use of health care, informal care, and household work, respectively, at baseline and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months follow-up.Results: The mean annual direct medical costs in the CC group were €6,718 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3,541 to 10,680 compared to €4,582 (95% CI: 2,782 to 6,740 in the CAU group. The average quality-adjusted life years (QALYs gained were 0.07 higher

  2. Utilities objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousin, Y.; Fabian, H.U.

    1996-01-01

    The policy of French and german utilities is to make use of nuclear energy as a long term, competitive and environmentally friendly power supply. The world electricity generation is due to double within the next 30 years. In the next 20 to 30 years the necessity of nuclear energy will be broadly recognized. More than for most industries, to deal properly with nuclear energy requires the combination of a consistent political will, of a proper institutional framework, of strong and legitimate control authorities, of a sophisticated industry and of operators with skilled management and human resources. One of the major risk facing nuclear energy is the loss of competitiveness. This can be achieved only through the combination of an optimized design, a consistent standardization, a proper industrial partnership and a stable long term strategy. Although the existing plants in Western Europe are already very safe, the policy is clearly to enhance the safety of the next generation of nuclear plants which are designing today. The French and German utilities have chosen an evolutionary approach based on experience and proven technologies, with an enhanced defense in depth and an objective of easier operation and maintenance. The cost objective is to maintain and improve what has been achieved in the best existing power plants in both countries. This calls for rational choices and optimized design to meet the safety objectives, a strong standardization policy, short construction times, high availability and enough flexibility to enable optimization of the fuel cycle throughout the lifetime of the plants. The conceptual design phase has proven that the French and German teams from industry and from the utilities are able to pursue both the safety and the cost objectives, basing their decision on a rational approach which could be accepted by the safety authorities. (J.S.)

  3. The effect of telehealth, telephone support or usual care on quality of life, mortality and healthcare utilization in elderly high-risk patients with multiple chronic conditions. A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivieso, Bernardo; García-Sempere, Anibal; Sanfélix-Gimeno, Gabriel; Faubel, Raquel; Librero, Julian; Soriano, Elisa; Peiró, Salvador

    2018-04-25

    To assess the effect of home based telehealth or structured telephone support interventions with respect to usual care on quality of life, mortality and healthcare utilization in elderly high-risk multiple chronic condition patients. 472 elderly high-risk patients with plurimorbidity in the region of Valencia (Spain) were recruited between June 2012 and May 2013, and followed for 12 months from recruitment. Patients were allocated to either: (a) a structured telephone intervention, a nurse-led case management program with telephone follow up every 15 days; (b) telehealth, which adds technology for remote self-management and the exchange of clinical data; or (c) usual care. Main outcome measures was quality of life measured by the EuroQol (EQ-5D) instrument, cognitive impairment, functional status, mortality and healthcare resource use. Inadequate randomization process led us to used propensity scores for adjusted analyses to control for imbalances between groups at baseline. EQ-5D score was significantly higher in the telehealth group compared to usual care (diff: 0.19, 0.08-0.30), but was not different to telephone support (diff: 0.04, -0.05 to 0.14). In adjusted analyses, inclusion in the telehealth group was associated with an additional 0.18 points in the EQ-5D score compared to usual care at 12 months (p<0.001), and with a gain of 0.13 points for the telephone support group (p<0.001). No differences in mortality or utilization were found, except for a borderline significant increase in General Practitioner visits. Telehealth was associated with better quality of life. Important limitations of the study and similarity of effects to telephone intervention call for careful endorsement of telemedicine. Clinicaltrials.gov (identifier: NCT02447562). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Thorium utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trauger, D B [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1978-01-01

    Some of the factors that provide incentive for the utilization of thorium in specific reactor types are explored and the constraints that stand in the way are pointed out. The properties of thorium and derived fuels are discussed, and test and reactor operating experience is reviewed. In addition, symbiotic systems of breeder and converter reactor are suggested as being particularly attractive systems for energy production. Throughout the discussion, the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor and Molten Salt Reactor are treated in some detail because they have been developed primarily for use with thorium fuel cycles.

  5. Japanese utilities' plutonium utilization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Yuichiro.

    1996-01-01

    Japan's 10 utility companies are working and will continue to work towards establishing a fully closed nuclear fuel cycle. The key goals of which are: (1) reprocessing spent fuel; (2) recycling recovered uranium and plutonium; and (3) commercializing fast breeder technology by around the year 2030. This course of action by the Japanese electric power industry is in full accordance with Japan's national policy outlined in the government's report ''The Long-Term Program for Research, Development, and Nuclear Energy,'' which was published in June 1994. The Japanese civilian nuclear program is a long-term program that looks into the 21st century and beyond. It is quite true that sustaining the recycling option for energy security and the global environment demands a large investment. For it to be accepted by the public, safety must be the highest priority and will be pursued at a great cost if necessary. In its history, Japan has learned that as technology advances, costs will come down. The Japanese utility industry will continue investment in technology without compromising safety until the recycling option becomes more competitive with other options. This effort will be equally applied to the development of the commercial FBRs. The Japanese utility industry is confident that Japan's stable policy and strong objective to develop competitive and peaceful technology will contribute to the global economy and the environment without increasing the threat of plutonium proliferation

  6. Multiattribute Utility Theory without Expected Utility Foundations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Miyamoto (John); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractMethods for determining the form of utilities are needed for the implementation of utility theory in specific decisions. An important step forward was achieved when utility theorists characterized useful parametric families of utilities and simplifying decompositions of multiattribute

  7. Condicionantes en la utilización de los servicios de atención primaria: Evidencias empíricas e inconsistencias metodológicas Factors conditioning primary care services utilization: Empirical evidence and methodological inconsistencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sáez

    2003-10-01

    : problemas de diseño, errores de medida, errores de especificación y métodos estadísticos inadecuados. Como vías de solución citaríamos el diseño de cuasi experimentos, la utilización de grandes bases de datos administrativos, así como de fuentes de datos primarios (diseño; la distinción entre distintos tipos de utilización y entre unidades de análisis alternativas a la visita, y la corrección de errores de medida en las variables explicativas (errores de medida; la consideración de variables explicativas relevantes (errores de especificación, y la utilización de modelos multinivel (métodos estadísticos inadecuados.Introduction: In Spain, the degree and characteristics of primary care services utilization have been the subject of analysis since at least the 1980s. One of the main reasons for this interest is to assess the extent to which utilization matches primary care needs. In fact, the provision of an adequate health service for those who most need it is a generally accepted priority. Factors conditioning use: The evidence shows that individual characteristics, mainly health status, are the factors most closely related to primary care utilization. Other personal characteristics, such as gender and age, could act as modulators of health care need. Some family and/or cultural variables, as well as factors related to the health care professional and institutions, could explain some of the observed variability in primary care services utilization. Socioeconomic variables, such as income, reveal a paradox. From an aggregate perspective, income is the main determinant of utilization as well as of health care expenditure. When data are analyzed for individuals, however, income is not related to primary health utilization. Methodological inconsistencies: The situation is controversial, with methodological implications and, above all, consequences for the assessment of the efficiency in primary care utilization. Review of the literature reveals certain

  8. Subjective expected utility without preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Bouyssou , Denis; Marchant , Thierry

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a theory of subjective expected utility based on primitives only involving the fact that an act can be judged either "attractive" or "unattractive". We give conditions implying that there are a utility function on the set of consequences and a probability distribution on the set of states such that attractive acts have a subjective expected utility above some threshold. The numerical representation that is obtained has strong uniqueness properties.

  9. Relative efficiency of mustard (Brassica juncea l.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus l.) in utilizing soil phosphorous in presence of P, 2n and FYM under normal and saline soil conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dravid, M.S.; Goswami, N.N.

    1988-01-01

    Studies with 32 P labelled fertilizer on mustard and sunflower showed a marked reduction in drymatter accumulation, total P uptake, per cent Pdff and per cent P utilization at 10.6 dSm -1 level of salinity over normal one. Except drymatter accumulation, the extent of reduction in total P uptake, per cent Pdff and per cent P utilization was of higher magnitude in sunflower as compared to mustard. Application of P either alone or in conjunction with Zn/FYM gave significantly higher values of drymatter yield, total P uptake, per cent Pdff and per cent P utilization in both the crops. Data further, revealed that application of P in conjunction with FYM was found more beneficial as compared to zinc. It was also observed that the per cent P utilization of applied fertilizer in these crops decreased at higher (80 kg P 2 O 5 /ha) level of P. Amongst the varieties of mustard and sunflower, tested, PR-45 of mustard and EC-69874 of sunflower showed higher yield potential and utilization of native soil phosphorus more efficiently, while Pusa Bold of mustard and Surya of sunflower utilized fertilizer phosphorus more efficiently. (author). 24 refs., 2 tables

  10. Chronic Conditions Dashboard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Chronic Conditions Dashboard presents statistical views of information on the prevalence, utilization and Medicare spending for Medicare beneficiaries with...

  11. Integrating photovoltaics into utility distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaininger, H.W.; Barnes, P.R.

    1995-01-01

    Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of distributed photovoltaic (PV) energy sources vary from site to site and utility to utility. The objective of this paper is to examine several utility- and site-specific conditions which may affect economic viability of distributed PV applications to utility systems. Assessment methodology compatible with technical and economic assessment techniques employed by utility engineers and planners is employed to determine PV benefits for seven different utility systems. The seven case studies are performed using utility system characteristics and assumptions obtained from appropriate utility personnel. The resulting site-specific distributed PV benefits increase nonsite-specific generation system benefits available to central station PV plants as much as 46%, for one utility located in the Southwest

  12. Load leveling air conditioning technology development by unused energy high-level utilization. Summary of achievements by development themes; Miriyo energy kodo katsuyo fuka heijunka reidanbo gijutsu kaihatsu. Kaihatsu temabetsu seika gaiyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This paper introduces a number of research and development cases on utilization of unutilized energies. In developing the component technology for a thermal plant utilizing low-temperature unutilized energies, the paper introduces a heat exchanger system to collect heat from sea water, a heat exchanger system to collect heat from waste heated area in subways and urban sewage plants, and a high-density heat transportation system using ice plus water slurry or PCM-C plus water slurry. Furthermore, with regard to the heat pump system using low-temperature unutilized hear sources, development was introduced on a 'heat source load responsive heat pump system', which combines a load variation responsive heat pump utilizing river waters with a latent heat storage system using nighttime electric power serving for electric power load leveling. In developing the component technology for a heat plant utilizing high-temperature unutilized energies, introduction was given on a turbine driven turbo type heat pump system, a high-efficiency absorption type heat pump, a waste heat driven absorption type freezer, and an urban type underground heat storage tank. (NEDO)

  13. Role of the utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellin, A.

    1986-03-01

    It is common to say that a nuclear programme needs basic infrastructures such as an appropriate educational system, governmental organizations for regulation, decision and inspection, engineering organizations for design and implementation, industrial infrastructures for manufacturing, erection and commissioning, operation organizations for running and maintaining power plants. This schematic organization is not sufficient to succeed in a nuclear programme: one has to consider very carefully the attribution of responsibilities. It appears, that, among all the different systems which exist in the world for the organization of a nuclear project, it is always the utility which bears the overall responsibility for the implementation of the project. It defines objectives such as production capacity, schedule, price; it takes part in the definition of a national policy for energy supply, for the choice of a type of reactor, for the implementation of a national nuclear industry; it selects sites and conducts feasibility studies including a preliminary project; it participates in the definition of organization charts and selects contractors; it calls for and obtains authorizations from regulatory bodies; it manages the project, coordinates contractors and permanently ensures that goals are attained as regards safety, quality, schedule, costs. The French utility has directly taken charge of all these basic responsibilities and this is commonly considered as a major reason of the success of the French nuclear programme. Depending on its capacities, the utility may delegate some of these responsibilities - mainly concerning engineering and project management - to experienced firms. Nevertheless, one has to remember that the utility bears the final responsibility and that it is probably the organization most fully aware of the fact that the final goal is not the construction of a nuclear power station but the production of nuclear electricity in the best and safest conditions

  14. Real Conditions and Themes of Gender Diversity in Management in Japan, China, and South Korea: 605 results from the "Corporate Survey of Human Resource Utilization (China and Korea)" (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    ISHIZUKA Hiromi

    2014-01-01

    Japan, China, and South Korea, as neighboring countries in northeast Asia, have a Confucian-rooted orientation toward the separation of labor among women and men, and they share the perception of having gender disparities in the workplace. Hereafter, their various roles in serving the world economy will increase, as will corporate expansion and employee movements. The purpose of this paper is to use the company survey data of the three countries to compare the real conditions of gender divers...

  15. Stochastic Dominance under the Nonlinear Expected Utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinling Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1947, von Neumann and Morgenstern introduced the well-known expected utility and the related axiomatic system (see von Neumann and Morgenstern (1953. It is widely used in economics, for example, financial economics. But the well-known Allais paradox (see Allais (1979 shows that the linear expected utility has some limitations sometimes. Because of this, Peng proposed a concept of nonlinear expected utility (see Peng (2005. In this paper we propose a concept of stochastic dominance under the nonlinear expected utilities. We give sufficient conditions on which a random choice X stochastically dominates a random choice Y under the nonlinear expected utilities. We also provide sufficient conditions on which a random choice X strictly stochastically dominates a random choice Y under the sublinear expected utilities.

  16. Healthcare Policy Statement on the Utility of Coronary Computed Tomography for Evaluation of Cardiovascular Conditions and Preventive Healthcare: From the Health Policy Working Group of the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slim, Ahmad M; Jerome, Scott; Blankstein, Ron; Weigold, Wm Guy; Patel, Amit R; Kalra, Dinesh K; Miller, Ryan; Branch, Kelley; Rabbat, Mark G; Hecht, Harvey; Nicol, Edward D; Villines, Todd C; Shaw, Leslee J

    The rising cost of healthcare is prompting numerous policy and advocacy discussions regarding strategies for constraining growth and creating a more efficient and effective healthcare system. Cardiovascular imaging is central to the care of patients at risk of, and living with, heart disease. Estimates are that utilization of cardiovascular imaging exceeds 20 million studies per year. The Society of Cardiovascular CT (SCCT), alongside Rush University Medical Center, and in collaboration with government agencies, regional payers, and industry healthcare experts met in November 2016 in Chicago, IL to evaluate obstacles and hurdles facing the cardiovascular imaging community and how they can contribute to efficacy while maintaining or even improving outcomes and quality. The summit incorporated inputs from payers, providers, and patients' perspectives, providing a platform for all voices to be heard, allowing for a constructive dialogue with potential solutions moving forward. This article outlines the proceedings from the summit, with a detailed review of past hurdles, current status, and potential solutions as we move forward in an ever-changing healthcare landscape. Copyright © 2017 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. All rights reserved.

  17. Calculating utility prudency issue costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    The nuclear industry, particularly utilities and their construction, engineering and vendor agents, is faced with a surging increase in prudency management audits. What started as primarily a nuclear project-oriented requirement has spread to encompass most significant utility capital construction projects. Such audits are often a precedent condition to commencement of rate hearings. The cost engineer, a primary major capital construction project participant, is required to develop or critique ''prudency issue'' costs as part of such audits. Although utility costs in the broadest sense are potentially at issue, this paper concentrates on the typical project/construction management costs. The costs of design, procurement and construction are all subject to the calculation process

  18. [Utility and validity of indicators from the Nursing Outcomes Classification as a support tool for diagnosing Ineffective Self Health Management in patients with chronic conditions in primary health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morilla-Herrera, J C; Morales-Asencio, J M; Fernández-Gallego, M C; Cobos, E Berrobianco; Romero, A Delgado

    2011-01-01

    Self-care and management of therapeutic regime (drugs adherence, preventive behaviours and development of healthy life-styles) are key components for managing chronic diseases. Nursing has standardized languages which describe many of these situations, such as the diagnosis "Ineffective Self Health Management" (ISHM) or many of the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) indicators. The aims of this study were to determine the interobserver reliability of a NOC-based instrument for assessment and aid in diagnosis of the ISHM in patients with chronic conditions in Primary Health Care, to determine its diagnostic validity and to describe the prevalence of patients with this problem. Cross-sectional validation study developed in the provinces of Málaga, Cádiz and Almería from 2006 to 2009. Each patient was assessed by 3 independent observers: the first two observers evaluated scoring of the NOC indicators and the third one acted as the "gold-standard". Two hundred and twenty-eight patients were included, 37.7% of them with more than one chronic condition. NOC indicators showed a high interobserver reliability (ICC>0,70) and a consistency (Cronbach's alpha: 0.81). With a cut-point of 10.5, sensitivity was 61% and specificity 85%, and the area under the curve was 0.81 (CI95%: 0.77 to 0.85). The prevalence of patients with ISHM was 36% (CI 95%: 34 to 40). The use of NOC indicators allows evaluation of management of the therapeutic regime in people with chronic conditions with a satisfactory validity and it provides new approaches for dealing with this problem.

  19. Entrez Programming Utilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Entrez Programming Utilities (E-utilities) are a set of eight server-side programs that provide a stable interface into the Entrez query and database system at...

  20. Utilization of renewable energy in architectural design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Lei; QIN Youguo

    2007-01-01

    Renewable energy does not simply equal to using a photovoltaic (PV) board.In addition to heating,ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) engineering considerations,the design approaches of architects are crucial to the utilization condition and methods of renewable energy.Through profound comprehension of the relationship between renewable energy utilization and design approaches,we can achieve a dual-standard of building environment performance and esthetics.

  1. Fuel manufacturing and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The efficient utilisation of nuclear fuel requires manufacturing facilities capable of making advanced fuel types, with appropriate quality control. Once made, the use of such fuels requires a proper understanding of their behaviour in the reactor environment, so that safe operation for the design life can be achieved. The International Atomic Energy Agency supports Member States to improve in-pile fuel performance and management of materials; and to develop advanced fuel technologies for ensuring reliability and economic efficiency of the nuclear fuel cycle. It provides assistance to Member States to support fuel-manufacturing capability, including quality assurance techniques, optimization of manufacturing parameters and radiation protection. The IAEA supports the development fuel modelling expertise in Member States, covering both normal operation and postulated and severe accident conditions. It provides information and support for the operation of Nuclear Power Plant to ensure that the environment and water chemistry is appropriate for fuel operation. The IAEA supports fuel failure investigations, including equipment for failed fuel detection and for post-irradiation examination and inspection, as well as fuel repair, it provides information and support research into the basic properties of fuel materials, including UO 2 , MOX and zirconium alloys. It further offers guidance on the relationship with back-end requirement (interim storage, transport, reprocessing, disposal), fuel utilization and management, MOX fuels, alternative fuels and advanced fuel technology

  2. US utility partnerships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthington, B.

    1995-01-01

    Activities of the United States Energy Association were reviewed, as well as the manner in which its members are benefitting from the Association's programs. The principal cooperative program set up is the Utility Partnership Program, which was described. Through this program the Association is matching US companies, both electric utilities and gas utilities, with counterparts in Eastern Europe or the former Soviet Union. So far, about 25 partnerships were signed, e.g. in the Czech Republic, in Kazakhstan, in Poland, and in Slovakia. It was estimated that the return to the United States from the investments made by the American government in these Utility Partnership Programs has been well over 100-fold

  3. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from

  4. Estimating the relative utility of screening mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, Craig K; Eckstein, Miguel P; Boone, John M

    2013-05-01

    The concept of diagnostic utility is a fundamental component of signal detection theory, going back to some of its earliest works. Attaching utility values to the various possible outcomes of a diagnostic test should, in principle, lead to meaningful approaches to evaluating and comparing such systems. However, in many areas of medical imaging, utility is not used because it is presumed to be unknown. In this work, we estimate relative utility (the utility benefit of a detection relative to that of a correct rejection) for screening mammography using its known relation to the slope of a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve at the optimal operating point. The approach assumes that the clinical operating point is optimal for the goal of maximizing expected utility and therefore the slope at this point implies a value of relative utility for the diagnostic task, for known disease prevalence. We examine utility estimation in the context of screening mammography using the Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trials (DMIST) data. We show how various conditions can influence the estimated relative utility, including characteristics of the rating scale, verification time, probability model, and scope of the ROC curve fit. Relative utility estimates range from 66 to 227. We argue for one particular set of conditions that results in a relative utility estimate of 162 (±14%). This is broadly consistent with values in screening mammography determined previously by other means. At the disease prevalence found in the DMIST study (0.59% at 365-day verification), optimal ROC slopes are near unity, suggesting that utility-based assessments of screening mammography will be similar to those found using Youden's index.

  5. 29 CFR 1915.93 - Utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT General Working Conditions § 1915.93 Utilities... a pressure not exceeding the safe working pressure of the vessel's system in its present condition...

  6. X-rays utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebigan, F.

    1979-03-01

    The modality of X-ray utilization in different activities and economy is given. One presents firstly quantities and units used in radiation dosimetry and other fields. One gives the generation of X-rays, their properties as well as the elements of radiation protection. The utilization characteristics of these radiations in different fields are finally given. (author)

  7. Chromosomal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and more. Stony Point, NY 10980 Close X Home > Complications & Loss > Birth defects & other health conditions > Chromosomal conditions Chromosomal conditions ... Disorders See also: Genetic counseling , Your family health history Last reviewed: February, 2013 ... labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & ...

  8. Marginal Utility of Conditional Sensitivity Analyses for Dynamic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/MethodsDynamic ecological processes may be influenced by many factors. Simulation models thatmimic these processes often have complex implementations with many parameters. Sensitivityanalyses are subsequently used to identify critical parameters whose uncertai...

  9. Utilization of wood waste in condition of Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta Pavolová

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is a plant matter such as trees, grasses, agricultural crops or other biological material. It can be used as a solid fuel, or converted into liquid or gaseous forms, for the production of electric power, heat, chemicals, or fuels. The use of biomass energy has a potential to greatly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. When burning the biomass, almost the same amount of carbon dioxideis released as with fossil fuels. However, fossil fuels release carbon dioxide captured by photosynthesis millions of years ago an essentially "new" greenhouse gas. The biomass, on the other hand, releases carbon dioxide that is largely balanced by the carbon dioxide captured in its own growth (depending on how much energy was used to grow, harvest, and process the fuel. Biopower, or biomass power, is the use of biomass to generate electricity. Biopower system technologies include direct-firing, cofiring, gasification, pyrolysis, and anaerobic digestion. Most biopower plants use direct-fired systems. They burn bioenergy feedstocks directly to produce steam. The steam drives turbines, which turn generators, converting the power into electricity. In some biomass industries, the steam spent in the power plant is also used for manufacturing processes or to heat buildings. Such combined heat and power systems greatly increase the overall energy efficiency. Paper mills the largest current producers of biomass power generate the electricity or process the heat as a part of the process for recovering pulping chemicals.

  10. UTILITY OF GENETIC INDICATORS FOR MONITORING ECOLOGICAL CONDITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is evident that Earth's ecosystems have been steadily deteriorating due to relatively recent human activities. Since quality of life depends upon the ecosystem services, the impacts of deterioration of ecosystems on human health and on wild life populations has been amply de...

  11. Utility portfolio diversification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffes, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses portfolio analysis as a method to evaluate utility supply decisions. Specifically a utility is assumed to increase the value of its portfolio of assets whenever it invests in a new supply technology. This increase in value occurs because the new asset either enhances the return or diversifies the risks of the firm's portfolio of assets. This evaluation method is applied to two supply innovations in the electric utility industry: jointly-owned generating plants and supply contracts with independent power producers (IPPs)

  12. Economical electricity supply and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, K

    1980-05-01

    During the first oil crisis in 1973, hundreds of millions of D-marks have been wasted by medium-sized businesses in the FRG due to avoidable losses and increased electricity costs. Serious attempts towards excluding such losses have to be initiated by an analysis of the individual technical conditions of an enterprise and by consultations 'on site'. Problems relating to an economical electricity supply and utilization in medium-sized industrial enterprises are discussed in this article from the point of view of an industrial consultant being an expert in this field. Practical examples are also given.

  13. MSIS Drug Utilization Datamart

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This page provides background needed to take advantage of the capabilities of the MSIS Drug Utilization Datamart. This mart allows the user to develop high-level...

  14. Utility franchises reconsidered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidner, B.

    1981-11-01

    It is easier to obtain a public utility franchise than one for a fast food store because companies like Burger King value the profit share and control available with a franchise arrangement. The investor-owned utilities (IOUs) in Chicago and elsewhere gets little financial or regulatory benefit, although they do have an alternative because the franchise can be taken over by the city with a one-year notice. As IOUs evolved, the annual franchise fee has been incorporated into the rate in a move that taxes ratepayers and maximizes profits. Cities that found franchising unsatisfactory are looking for ways to terminate the franchise and finance a takeover, but limited-term and indeterminate franchises may offer a better mechanism when public needs and utility aims diverge. A directory lists franchised utilities by state and comments on their legal status. (DCK)

  15. Chemical Search Web Utility

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical Search Web Utility is an intuitive web application that allows the public to easily find the chemical that they are interested in using, and which...

  16. Utility requirements for HTGRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Eskom, the state utility of South Africa, is currently evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of the helium cooled Pebble Bed Modular Reactor with a closed cycle gas turbine power conversion system for future power generating additions to its electric system. This paper provides an overview of the Eskom system including the needs of the utility for future generation capacity and the key performance requirements necessary for incorporation of this gas cooled reactor plant. (author)

  17. Utility, games, and narratives

    OpenAIRE

    Fioretti, Guido

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a general overview of theories and tools to model individual and collective decision-making. In particular, stress is laid on the interaction of several decision-makers. A substantial part of this paper is devoted to utility maximization and its application to collective decision-making, Game Theory. However, the pitfalls of utility maximization are thoroughly discussed, and the radically alternative approach of viewing decision-making as constructing narratives is pre...

  18. Multiattribute Fixed-State Utility Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-27

    of a companion distribution, are presented in Appendix A. Because of the theory of conditional expected utility and the modelling of the utilities by...obtain approximations to the moments, using the companion V ) ) distribution discussed in Section 3. The moments of both distributions are discussed...1956b, 21, 207-216. Slavic, P. "From Shakespeare to Simon: Speculation -- and some evidence -- about man’s ability to process information." O g . a

  19. Utility requirements for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondrasek, R.J.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability

  20. Miscellaneous conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.; Hoffman, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on numerous conditions (systemic diseases, metabolic diseases, etc.) that may also affect the foot and ankle. In many cases, imaging of the foot and ankle is not performed for primary diagnostic purposes. However, radiographic changes do occur with these conditions. Therefore, it is important to be aware of radiographic abnormalities that these diseases may cause in the foot and ankle

  1. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Caro, Janicce I.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffery T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, like aboard the International Space Station or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of the Synthetic Biology project, Cow in a Column, was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel-through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) in order to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products. For future work, the production of the casein protein for milk would require the development of a genetically modified organism, which was beyond the scope of the original project. Additional trials would be needed to further refine the required

  2. Measurement of utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavorncharoensap, Montarat

    2014-05-01

    The Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) is the most widely recommended health outcome measure for use in economic evaluations. The QALY gives a value to the effect of a given health intervention in terms of both quantity and quality. QALYs are calculated by multiplying the duration of time spent in a given health state, in years, by the quality of life weighted, known as utility. Utility can range from 0 (the worst health state-the equivalent of death) to 1 (the best health state-full health). This paper provides an overview of the various methods that can be used to measure utility and outlines the recommended protocol for measuring utility, as described in the Guidelines for Health Technology Assessment in Thailand (second edition). The recommendations are as follows: Wherever possible, primary data collection using EQ-5D-3L in patients using Thai value sets generated from the general public should be used. Where the EQ-5D-3L is considered inappropriate, other methods such as Standard gamble (SG), Time-trade-off (TTO), Visual analogue scale (VAS), Health Utilities Index (HUI), SF-6D, or Quality of well being (QWB) can be used. However, justification and full details on the chosen instrument should always be provided.

  3. The Legal Conditions for Water Utilities Eco-Innovation as Energy Smart Water Utilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe

    2013-01-01

    Welfare and green growth rest havely on an appropriate supply of safe water, the provision of adequate sewage, and on energy services. These services are interdependent, as water is an integral part of electric-power generation. Energy is also an integrated part of water services, as satisfying w...

  4. Electric utility report '80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    A collection of brief atricles describes the trends and developments in Canada's electric utilities for the 1980's. Generating stations planned or under construction are listed. The trends in technology discused at a recent Canadian Electrical Association meeting are summarized in such areas as turbine stability control, power line vibration control, system reliability, substations and transformer specifications. Developments in nuclear generation are discussed and compared on the world scale where Japan, for example, has the world's largest nuclear program. Progress on fusion is discussed. In Canada the electric utilities are receiving the support of the comprehensive nuclear R and D program of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. New innovations in utility technology such as street lighting contactors, superconductive fault limiters and demand profile analyzers are discussed. (T.I.)

  5. Utility planning for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.H.

    1982-01-01

    Though the biggest impact on a utility of nuclear power plant decommissioning may occur many years from now, procrastination of efforts to be prepared for that time is unwarranted. Foresight put into action through planning can significantly affect that impact. Financial planning can assure the recovery of decommissioning costs in a manner equitable to customers. Decision-making planning can minimize adverse affects of current decisions on later decommissioning impacts and prepare a utility to be equipped to make later decommissioning decisions. Technological knowledge base planning can support all other planning aspects for decommissioning and prepare a utility for decommissioning decisions. Informed project planning can ward off potentially significant pitfalls during decommissioning and optimize the effectiveness of the actual decommissioning efforts

  6. Markets: green utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Elisa

    2006-01-01

    Publicly owned utilities have consistently led the United States in the rate of customer participation in green power programmes. The US has about 2000 community and state-owned utilities, which serve 43 million customers and account for about 16.6% of kilowatt-hour sales to consumers. In all, public power is responsible for about 10% of the nation's installed electric capacity. Investor owned utilities account for 39%, with the remainder of the nation's power mostly from independent power generators. Although IOUs have almost four times as much electric capacity as public power, they edge out public power by only a small margin when it comes to renewable capacity. IOUs are responsible for 24,577.5 MW of renewable capacity, compared to the 21,338 MW installed by public power. The reasons discussed by the author range from small town advantage to clean and cheap power. (Author)

  7. Octopus: LLL's computing utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The Laboratory's Octopus network constitutes one of the greatest concentrations of computing power in the world. This power derives from the network's organization as well as from the size and capability of its computers, storage media, input/output devices, and communication channels. Being in a network enables these facilities to work together to form a unified computing utility that is accessible on demand directly from the users' offices. This computing utility has made a major contribution to the pace of research and development at the Laboratory; an adequate rate of progress in research could not be achieved without it. 4 figures

  8. Electric utilities in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    Although the conference dealt specifically with concerns of the electric utilities in Illinois, the issues were dealt with in the national context as well. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 5 sections of this proceeding. A total of 25 papers were presented. Section titles are: Forecasting, Planning and Siting, Reliability, Rates and Financing, and Future Developments.

  9. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  10. "Utilizing" signal detection theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Spencer K; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2014-09-01

    What do inferring what a person is thinking or feeling, judging a defendant's guilt, and navigating a dimly lit room have in common? They involve perceptual uncertainty (e.g., a scowling face might indicate anger or concentration, for which different responses are appropriate) and behavioral risk (e.g., a cost to making the wrong response). Signal detection theory describes these types of decisions. In this tutorial, we show how incorporating the economic concept of utility allows signal detection theory to serve as a model of optimal decision making, going beyond its common use as an analytic method. This utility approach to signal detection theory clarifies otherwise enigmatic influences of perceptual uncertainty on measures of decision-making performance (accuracy and optimality) and on behavior (an inverse relationship between bias magnitude and sensitivity optimizes utility). A "utilized" signal detection theory offers the possibility of expanding the phenomena that can be understood within a decision-making framework. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Electric vehicle utilization for ancillary grid services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad

    2018-02-01

    Electric vehicle has been developed through several decades as transportation mean, without paying sufficient attention of its utilization for other purposes. Recently, the utilization of electric vehicle to support the grid electricity has been proposed and studied intensively. This utilization covers several possible services including electricity storage, spinning reserve, frequency and voltage regulation, and emergency energy supply. This study focuses on theoretical and experimental analysis of utilization of electric vehicles and their used batteries to support a small-scale energy management system. Charging rate of electric vehicle under different ambient temperature (seasonal condition) is initially analyzed to measure the correlation of charging rate, charging time, and state-of-charge. It is confirmed that charging under warmer condition (such as in summer or warmer region) shows higher charging rate than one in colder condition, therefore, shorter charging time can be achieved. In addition, in the demonstration test, each five electric vehicles and used batteries from the same electric vehicles are employed and controlled to support the electricity of the office building. The performance of the system is evaluated throughout a year to measure the load leveling effect during peak-load time. The results show that the targeted peak-load can be shaved well under certain calculated peak-shaving threshold. The finding confirms that the utilization of electric vehicle for supporting the electricity of grid or certain energy management system is feasible and deployable in the future.

  12. Dynamic Convex Duality in Constrained Utility Maximization

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yusong; Zheng, Harry

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study a constrained utility maximization problem following the convex duality approach. After formulating the primal and dual problems, we construct the necessary and sufficient conditions for both the primal and dual problems in terms of FBSDEs plus additional conditions. Such formulation then allows us to explicitly characterize the primal optimal control as a function of the adjoint process coming from the dual FBSDEs in a dynamic fashion and vice versa. Moreover, we also...

  13. Nonprice terms and conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    In this and the following chapter the authors review some of the more common provisions contained in wheeling contracts. Here they discuss nonprice terms and conditions. In the next chapter they look at the manner in which they address the pricing issue. At the outset one should note that there is a relationship between price and nonprice terms and condition. A couple of the provisions discussed here affect the risks incurred by the wheeling utility and the price it may charge for that service. These provisions include the length of the contract, the degree to which service can be interrupted and the ability to terminate the contract early, among others. These provisions are often characterized as nonprice terms and conditions. In reality, however, these factors have a direct bearing on the overall cost of wheeling services provided

  14. Wind Power Utilization Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    The expres- sions for the rotor torque for a Darrieus machine can be found in Reference 4.16. The Darrieus wind turbine offers the following... turbine generators, wind -driven turbines , power conditioning, wind power, energy conservation, windmills, economic ana \\sis. 20 ABS 1"ACT (Conti,on... turbines , power conditioning requirements, siting requirements, and the economics of wind power under different conditions. Three examples are given to

  15. MARS and its applications at Northeast Utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Y.F.; Raines, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The MAAP Accident Response System (MARS) for Northeast Utilities Millstone Unit 1 (MP-1) has been jointly developed by Northeast Utilities (NU) and Fauske ampersand Associates, Inc. (FAI). Millstone Unit 1 is a 2011-MW(thermal) boiling water reactor (BWR)/3 with a Mark-I containment. MARS/MP1 is user-friendly computer software that is structured to provide Northeast Utilities management and engineering staff with key insights during actual or simulated accidents. Times to core uncovery, vessel failure, and containment failure are among the figures of merit that can be obtained from this system. MARS/MP1 can predict future conditions of the MP-1 plant based on current plant data and their trends (time-dependent plant data). The objective of this paper is to present the research and development effort of the MARS/MP1 software at Northeast Utilities

  16. Utilization of mining and mineral wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Ho; Hong, Seung Woong; Choi, Young Yoon; Kim, Byung Gyu; Park, Je Shin [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Up to now, it is estimated that more than 50 million tons of mineral wastes have been generated mining industries and deposited on the land in Korea. Much of cultivated land and hilly areas have been occupied by this wastes, which cause pollution of the environment. Utilization of the mineral wastes is preferable to stabilization because full use would both eliminate the waste and broaden the mineral resource base. Therefore, the development of utilization techniques of mineral wastes is very important not only for improving the environment but also for resource conservation. In countries with high population and poor natural resources like Korea, the utilization of these wastes is essential to decrease the environmental problem and the secure the resources and the study on this field play a important part. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop the utilization techniques of the mineral wastes. In first year's research, the contents and scope of this study are 1) Present condition and Field Survey on the mineral wastes with respect of their utilization, 2) Reviews of Current effects and research to utilize mineral wastes, 3) Characterization of mineral wastes and environmental test, 4) Evaluation and study on the utilization. (author). 67 refs., 25 tabs., 54 figs.

  17. Utilization of mining and mineral wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Ho; Hong, Seung Woong; Choi, Young Yoon; Kim, Byung Gyu; Park, Je Shin [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Up to now, it is estimated that more than 50 million tons of mineral wastes have been generated mining industries and deposited on the land in Korea. Much of cultivated land and hilly areas have been occupied by this wastes, which cause pollution of the environment. Utilization of the mineral wastes is preferable to stabilization because full use would both eliminate the waste and broaden the mineral resource base. Therefore, the development of utilization techniques of mineral wastes is very important not only for improving the environment but also for resource conservation. In countries with high population and poor natural resources like Korea, the utilization of these wastes is essential to decrease the environmental problem and the secure the resources and the study on this field play a important part. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop the utilization techniques of the mineral wastes. In first year's research, the contents and scope of this study are 1) Present condition and Field Survey on the mineral wastes with respect of their utilization, 2) Reviews of Current effects and research to utilize mineral wastes, 3) Characterization of mineral wastes and environmental test, 4) Evaluation and study on the utilization. (author). 67 refs., 25 tabs., 54 figs.

  18. Energetic utilization of dietary fiber in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnen, M.M.J.A.

    2003-01-01

    The energetic utilization of fermentable dietary fiber (fDF) of different fiber sources and its relation to physical activity and housing conditions was studied in three experiments. In all experiments the daily intake of digestible nutrients, nitrogen and energy balances, heat production, and

  19. Aquatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren E. Heilman

    1999-01-01

    This publication provides citizens, private and public organizations, scientists, and others with information about the aquatic conditions in or near national forests in the Ozark-Ouachita Highlands: the Mark Twain in Missouri, the Ouachita in Arkansas and Oklahoma, and the Ozark-St. Francis National Forests in Arkansas. This report includes water quality analyses...

  20. Biomass ash utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristol, D.R.; Noel, D.J.; O`Brien, B. [HYDRA-CO Operations, Inc., Syracuse, NY (United States); Parker, B. [US Energy Corp., Fort Fairfield, ME (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This paper demonstrates that with careful analysis of ash from multiple biomass and waste wood fired power plants that most of the ash can serve a useful purpose. Some applications require higher levels of consistency than others. Examples of ash spreading for agricultural purposes as a lime supplement for soil enhancement in Maine and North Carolina, as well as a roadbase material in Maine are discussed. Use of ash as a horticultural additive is explored, as well as in composting as a filtering media and as cover material for landfills. The ash utilization is evaluated in a framework of environmental responsibility, regulations, handling and cost. Depending on the chemical and physical properties of the biomass derived fly ash and bottom ash, it can be used in one or more applications. Developing a program that utilizes ash produced in biomass facilities is environmentally and socially sound and can be financially attractive.

  1. Utilization of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    About 200 research reactors are now in operation in different parts of the world, and at least 70 such facilities, which are in advanced stages of planning and construction, should be critical within the next two or three years. In the process of this development a multitude of problems are being encountered in formulating and carrying out programs for the proper utilization of these facilities, especially in countries which have just begun or are starting their atomic energy work. An opportunity for scientific personnel from different Member States to discuss research reactor problems was given at an international symposium on the Programing and Utilization of Research Reactors organized by the Agency almost immediately after the General Conference session. Two hundred scientists from 35 countries, as well as from the European Nuclear Energy Agency and EURATOM, attended the meeting which was held in Vienna from 16 to 21 October 1961

  2. Health care utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Serritzlew, Søren

    An important task in governing health services is to control costs. The literatures on both costcontainment and supplier induced demand focus on the effects of economic incentives on health care costs, but insights from these literatures have never been integrated. This paper asks how economic cost...... containment measures affect the utilization of health services, and how these measures interact with the number of patients per provider. Based on very valid register data, this is investigated for 9.556 Danish physiotherapists between 2001 and 2008. We find that higher (relative) fees for a given service...... make health professionals provide more of this service to each patient, but that lower user payment (unexpectedly) does not necessarily mean higher total cost or a stronger association between the number of patients per supplier and the health care utilization. This implies that incentives...

  3. Industrial coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the National Energy Act on the use of coal in US industrial and utility power plants are considered. Innovative methods of using coal in an environmentally acceptable way are discussed: furnace types, fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil-mixtures, coal firing in kilns and combustion of synthetic gas and liquid fuels. Fuel use in various industries is discussed with trends brought about by uncertain availability and price of natural gas and fuel oils: steel, chemical, cement, pulp and paper, glass and bricks. The symposium on Industrial Coal Utilization was sponsored by the US DOE, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, April 3 to 4, 1979. Twenty-one papers have been entered individually into the EDB. (LTN)

  4. Utility customer issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    Customer issues affected by the restructuring of the $250 billion US electric power industry were discussed. In the past the industry's vertically integrated utilities conducted their business in protected geographic markets. With deregulation and greater competition, that industry structure will change. This presentation highlighted the strategies that Unicom is using to react to the restructuring of the electric power industry. The underlying principle is for the utility to reinvent itself to change its market orientation and focus on customer services, such as reliability, responsiveness, custom tailored solutions, and guaranteed savings over time. Attempting to become total energy providers and delivering integrated solutions to meet the needs of large industrial and commercial consumers, intensive market research, improved service and installation, and sophisticated customer retention initiatives will also have to be high on the agenda

  5. Reactor utilization, Annex A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinc, R.; Stanic, A.

    1984-01-01

    Reactor was operated until August 1984 due to prohibition issued by the Ministry since the reactor does not have the emergency cooling system nor special filters in the ventilation system yet. This means that the operation plan was fulfilled by 69%. This annex includes detailed tables containing data about utilization of reactor experimental channels, irradiated samples, as well as interruptions of operation. Detailed data about reactor power during this period are shown as well

  6. Electric utilities in 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyman, L.S. [Smith Barney Inc., New York, NY (United States)

    1998-10-01

    A century ago--in the year J.J. Thomson discovered the electron--electricity, gas and traction companies battled for markets, and corrupt city councils demanded their fair share of the take. One tycoon became so disgusted with the confusion and dishonesty that he decided to bribe the legislature to set up an honest, state-run regulatory agency that would bring order to chaos. But he was found out. The scandal set back the cause of regulation until 1907, the year in which the electric washing machine and the vacuum cleaner were invented. By then, electricity sales had septupled from 1897 levels, and three states had established utility regulation. In the coming decade, 1997 to 2007, the utility business could undergo similar dramatic change, but it will move toward less regulation and more competition during a period of slow growth. Management will have to work harder to achieve success, however, because much of the profits will have to come not from a growing market but from the pockets of competitors. By 2007, electricity will constitute a component of a larger energy and utility services industry that sells electricity, natural gas and possibly water, propane and telecommunications. Customized service will meet the needs of consumers of all sizes. The dominant firm in the industry, the virtual utility, may look more like a financial organization or a mass marketer than the traditional converter of raw material to energy. Emphasis on market-based pricing should lead to more efficient use of resources. If the process works right, the consumer wins.

  7. Utilization of biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, J L; Ross, C C; Smith, M S; Harper, S R [Georgia Tech Research Corp., Atlanta, GA (USA)

    1989-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the systems and equipment required to convert biogas into useful thermal and/or electrical energy was conducted, and the results published in the Handbook on Biogas Utilization (Walsh et al., Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, 1988). The physical, chemical and combustion characteristics of biogas, and the impact of these characteristics on both new and modified combustion equipment, were considered. The study also included consideration of auxiliary equipment for biogas collection, clean-up, compression and storage. (author).

  8. UTILITY OF SIMPLIFIED LABANOTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Pilar Naranjo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available After using simplified Labanotation as a didactic tool for some years, the author can conclude that it accomplishes at least three main functions: efficiency of rehearsing time, social recognition and broadening of the choreographic consciousness of the dancer. The doubts of the dancing community about the issue of ‘to write or not to write’ are highly determined by the contexts and their own choreographic evolution, but the utility of Labanotation, as a tool for knowledge, is undeniable.

  9. Inter-utility trade review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaahedi, E.; Poirier, R.; Necsulescu, C.; Warnes, E.M.

    1991-01-01

    The National Energy Board (NEB) was requested by the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources to identify possible measures to improve cooperation among Canadian electrical utilities and to enhance access for Canadian buyers and sellers of electricity to available transmission capacity through intervening systems for wheeling purposes. To identify measures for enhancing transmission access, two projects were initiated: a study of technical issues associated with wheeling, and quantification of potential wheeling benefits. The first project examined the technical and economic problems associated with wheeling, while the second used computer simulation to quantify benefits of wheeling. The projects are described together with a historical review of wheeling in Canada. The following conclusions where reached: there seems to be enough wheeling benefits (a 6-10% increase in benefits) to justify its promotion; wheeling should be performed on a voluntary basis; the wheeling utility should make the final decisions regarding the ability of the system to wheel power and the need for system improvements; pricing should be flexible, reflecting the conditions of the service; the buy/sell type of arrangement which disregards the transmission path may be the preferred wheeling arrangement; and if negotiation fails to resolve conflicts over pricing, arbitration is suggested as an effective means for resolving disputes. 6 refs., 6 figs

  10. Clean energy utilization technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honma, Takuya

    1992-01-01

    The technical development of clean energy including the utilization of solar energy was begun in 1973 at the time of the oil crisis, and about 20 years elapsed. Also in Japan, the electric power buying system by electric power companies for solar light electric power and wind electric power has been started in 1992, namely their value as a merchandise was recognized. As for these two technologies, the works of making the international standards and JIS were begun. The range of clean energy or natural energy is wide, and its kinds are many. The utilization of solar heat and the electric power generation utilizing waves, tide and geotherm already reached the stage of practical use. Generally in order to practically use new energy, the problem of price must be solved, but the price is largely dependent on the degree of spread. Also the reliability, durability and safety must be ensured, and the easiness of use, effectiveness and trouble-saving maintenance and operation are required. For the purpose, it is important to packaging those skillfully in a system. The cases of intelligent natural energy systems are shown. Solar light and wind electric power generation systems and the technology of transporting clean energy are described. (K.I.)

  11. British Columbia Utilities Commission 2001 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    The main responsibility of the British Columbia Utilities Commission is to regulate energy utilities under its jurisdiction to ensure that energy rates are fair and that utility operators in the province provide safe, adequate and secure service to their customers. The Commission also approves the construction of new facilities planned by utilities. It also participates in the review of utility and energy projects under the Environmental Assessment Act. Several successes were achieved in 2001 as the utility implemented its first performance plan. Oral public hearings were held for applications by Pacific Northern Gas and by Pembina Pipelines, owners of the common carrier oil pipeline from Taylor to Kamloops. A review of BC Gas' rate design to apportion utility revenue requirements fairly to different classes of customers was successfully achieved by a negotiated settlement process. In 2001, there was also a high level of proposed mergers, acquisitions and divestitures. Duke Energy Corporation's share acquisition of Westcoast Energy's two affiliated gas utilities was approved. BC Gas' application to divest its customer care activities to a joint venture company with Enbridge was also reviewed, and an oral hearing was held to review a West Kootenay Power application to sell its Kootenay River hydroelectric generation assets to Columbia Basin Trust and the Columbia Power Corp. In this case, the decision rendered was that the sale terms had to be changed so that customers could share the proceeds. The utility therefore, decided not to proceed with the sale under these conditions. The BC Hydro legislated rate freeze, which was due to expire on September 30, 2001, was extended for an additional 18 months to allow the new provincial government time to implement a new energy policy. The new energy policy is expected to give the province an energy advantage by facilitating growth and diversification in energy production while providing competition and more choice for

  12. FY 1998 annual summary report on development of techniques for keeping water environments in good conditions by utilizing phenomena involving immobilization of microorganisms on soft structures of carbon fibers (abbreviated to carbon/water environment project); 1998 nendo tanso sen'i nansoshiki eno biseibutsu kochaku gensho wo riyoshita mizukankyo seibi gijutsu no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Ryakusho tanso mizukankyo project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This project is aimed at creation of the new industry of keeping water environments in good conditions in wide amphitrichous areas by establishing the technical systems for applying the phenomena in which microorganisms are massively immobilized on a carbon fiber bundle suspended in water to, e.g., purification of sewage systems, rivers and ponds, and providing sites for algae to grow, and by commercializing these systems. The following 3 themes have been established. The first theme is to develop the techniques for braiding/weaving carbon fibers. The second theme is to analyze characteristics of the immobilized microorganism groups. The third theme is to establish the principles of utilization. The FY 1997 R&D efforts were directed to production of a total of 57 types of braided/woven carbon fibers, development of sizing agents, and analysis of microorganism groups. In FY 1998, the carbon fibers treated with new sizing agents have been developed, and the braided/woven carbon fibers are being tested in water purification systems and algae sites. It is found that the microorganism groups exhibit synergistic effects between the pumping function and carbon/gel materials. The simulation models are being developed for system designs. The systems which apparently show the effects of this method have been classified by analyzing the field test results. (NEDO)

  13. Market research for electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shippee, G.

    1999-01-01

    Marketing research is increasing in importance as utilities become more marketing oriented. Marketing research managers need to maintain autonomy from the marketing director or ad agency and make sure their work is relevant to the utility's operation. This article will outline a model marketing research program for an electric utility. While a utility may not conduct each and every type of research described, the programs presented offer a smorgasbord of activities which successful electric utility marketers often use or have access to

  14. Time Functions as Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguzzi, E.

    2010-09-01

    Every time function on spacetime gives a (continuous) total preordering of the spacetime events which respects the notion of causal precedence. The problem of the existence of a (semi-)time function on spacetime and the problem of recovering the causal structure starting from the set of time functions are studied. It is pointed out that these problems have an analog in the field of microeconomics known as utility theory. In a chronological spacetime the semi-time functions correspond to the utilities for the chronological relation, while in a K-causal (stably causal) spacetime the time functions correspond to the utilities for the K + relation (Seifert’s relation). By exploiting this analogy, we are able to import some mathematical results, most notably Peleg’s and Levin’s theorems, to the spacetime framework. As a consequence, we prove that a K-causal (i.e. stably causal) spacetime admits a time function and that the time or temporal functions can be used to recover the K + (or Seifert) relation which indeed turns out to be the intersection of the time or temporal orderings. This result tells us in which circumstances it is possible to recover the chronological or causal relation starting from the set of time or temporal functions allowed by the spacetime. Moreover, it is proved that a chronological spacetime in which the closure of the causal relation is transitive (for instance a reflective spacetime) admits a semi-time function. Along the way a new proof avoiding smoothing techniques is given that the existence of a time function implies stable causality, and a new short proof of the equivalence between K-causality and stable causality is given which takes advantage of Levin’s theorem and smoothing techniques.

  15. Electricity utilities: Nuclear sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosche, D.

    1992-01-01

    The safe and economic operation of nuclear power plants requires an appropriate infrastructure on the part of the operator as well as a high level of technical quality of the plants and of qualification of the personnel. Added to this are a variety of services rendered by specialist firms. The Bayernwerk utility, with plants of its own, has played a major role in the development of nuclear power in the Federal Republic of Germany. The importance of nuclear power to this firm is reflected in the pattern of its electricity sources and in the composition of its power plants. (orig.) [de

  16. Reactor utilization, Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinc, R.; Stanic, A.

    1981-01-01

    The reactor operating plan for 1981 was subject to the needs of testing operation with the 80% enriched fuel and was fulfilled on the whole. This annex includes data about reactor operation, review of shorter interruptions due to demands of the experiments, data about safety shutdowns caused by power cuts. Period of operation at low power levels was used mostly for activation analyses, and the operation at higher power levels were used for testing and regular isotope production. Detailed data about samples activation are included as well as utilization of the reactor as neutron source and the operating plan for 1982 [sr

  17. Energy utilization in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, J.

    1976-04-01

    The situation of the energy supply of Canada is characterized by its geographic location and by the dispersal of the energy consumers over a wide area. At present, the energy supply leaving the successful CANDU nuclear energy programme out of account, is based mainly on crude oil, natural gas, and electricity as well as on coal imported from the USA. The targets of Canadian enery policies and energy research are stated as follows: a) Reducing and optimizing energy consumption, b) introducing district heating, and c) utilizing the extensive local coal deposits. (GG) [de

  18. Managing the nuclear utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.W. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The Florida Power and Light Company (FP and L) is the fifth largest investor-owned utility in the country. The success of nuclear power generation at the St. Lucie Units 1 and 2 and Turkey Point Units 3 and 4 has resulted from a continuing management commitment to the nuclear program. The management of the power plants rely strongly on teamwork for most large projects and activities whether they entail plant operation, construction, or maintenance. Various examples of how teamwork has been used to realize the successful completion of projects or solutions to problems are given

  19. Tribal Utility Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, R. A.; Zoellick, J. J.

    2007-06-30

    The Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) assisted the Yurok Tribe in investigating the feasibility of creating a permanent energy services program for the Tribe. The original purpose of the DOE grant that funded this project was to determine the feasibility of creating a full-blown Yurok Tribal electric utility to buy and sell electric power and own and maintain all electric power infrastructure on the Reservation. The original project consultant found this opportunity to be infeasible for the Tribe. When SERC took over as project consultant, we took a different approach. We explored opportunities for the Tribe to develop its own renewable energy resources for use on the Reservation and/or off-Reservation sales as a means of generating revenue for the Tribe. We also looked at ways the Tribe can provide energy services to its members and how to fund such efforts. We identified opportunities for the development of renewable energy resources and energy services on the Yurok Reservation that fall into five basic categories: • Demand-side management – This refers to efforts to reduce energy use through energy efficiency and conservation measures. • Off-grid, facility and household scale renewable energy systems – These systems can provide electricity to individual homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not currently have access to the electric utility grid. • Village scale, micro-grid renewable energy systems - These are larger scale systems that can provide electricity to interconnected groups of homes and Tribal facilities in areas of the Reservation that do not have access to the conventional electric grid. This will require the development of miniature electric grids to serve these interconnected facilities. • Medium to large scale renewable energy development for sale to the grid – In areas where viable renewable energy resources exist and there is access to the conventional electric utility grid, these resources can be

  20. Social group utility maximization

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Xiaowen; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explains how to leverage mobile users' social relationships to improve the interactions of mobile devices in mobile networks. It develops a social group utility maximization (SGUM) framework that captures diverse social ties of mobile users and diverse physical coupling of mobile devices. Key topics include random access control, power control, spectrum access, and location privacy.This brief also investigates SGUM-based power control game and random access control game, for which it establishes the socially-aware Nash equilibrium (SNE). It then examines the critical SGUM-b

  1. Chiropractic and CAM Utilization: A Descriptive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meeker William C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To conduct a descriptive review of the scientific literature examining use rates of modalities and procedures used by CAM clinicians to manage chronic LBP and other conditions Data Sources A literature of PubMed and MANTIS was performed using the key terms Chiropractic; Low Back Pain; Utilization Rate; Use Rate; Complementary and Alternative Medicine; and Health Services in various combinations. Data Selection A total of 137 papers were selected, based upon including information about chiropractic utilization, CAM utilization and low back pain and other conditions. Data Synthesis Information was extracted from each paper addressing use of chiropractic and CAM, and is summarized in tabular form. Results Thematic analysis of the paper topics indicated that there were 5 functional areas covered by the literature: back pain papers, general chiropractic papers, insurance-related papers, general CAM-related papers; and worker's compensation papers. Conclusion Studies looking at chiropractic utilization demonstrate that the rates vary, but generally fall into a range from around 6% to 12% of the population, most of whom seek chiropractic care for low back pain and not for organic disease or visceral dysfunction. CAM is itself used by people suffering from a variety of conditions, though it is often used not as a primary intervention, but rather as an additional form of care. CAM and chiropractic often offer lower costs for comparable results compared to conventional medicine.

  2. Chiropractic and CAM utilization: a descriptive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Dana J; Meeker, William C

    2007-01-22

    To conduct a descriptive review of the scientific literature examining use rates of modalities and procedures used by CAM clinicians to manage chronic LBP and other conditions A literature of PubMed and MANTIS was performed using the key terms Chiropractic; Low Back Pain; Utilization Rate; Use Rate; Complementary and Alternative Medicine; and Health Services in various combinations. A total of 137 papers were selected, based upon including information about chiropractic utilization, CAM utilization and low back pain and other conditions. Information was extracted from each paper addressing use of chiropractic and CAM, and is summarized in tabular form. Thematic analysis of the paper topics indicated that there were 5 functional areas covered by the literature: back pain papers, general chiropractic papers, insurance-related papers, general CAM-related papers; and worker's compensation papers. Studies looking at chiropractic utilization demonstrate that the rates vary, but generally fall into a range from around 6% to 12% of the population, most of whom seek chiropractic care for low back pain and not for organic disease or visceral dysfunction. CAM is itself used by people suffering from a variety of conditions, though it is often used not as a primary intervention, but rather as an additional form of care. CAM and chiropractic often offer lower costs for comparable results compared to conventional medicine.

  3. Geothermal Resource Utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, Paul J.

    1998-01-03

    Man has utilized the natural heat of the earth for centuries. Worldwide direct use of geothermal currently amounts to about 7,000 MWt, as compared to 1,500 MWe, now being used for the generation of electricity. Since the early 1970s, dwindling domestic reservoirs of oil and gas, continued price escalation of oil on the world market and environmental concerns associated with coal and nuclear energy have created a growing interest in the use of geothermal energy in the United States. The Department of Energy goals for hydrothermal resources utilization in the United States, expressed in barrels of oil equivalent, is 50 to 90 million bbl/yr by 1985 and 350 to 900 million bbl/yr by the year 2000. This relatively clean and highly versatile resource is now being used in a multitude of diverse applications (e.g., space heating and cooling, vegetable dehydration, agriculture, aquaculture, light manufacturing), and other applications requiring a reliable and economic source of heat.

  4. Utilization of coalbed methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavson, J.B. [Gustavson Associates Inc., Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Substantial progress has been made in capturing coalbed methane (CBM gas), which constitutes a valuable source of clean burning energy. It is of importance to study the various potential uses of coalbed methane and to understand the various technologies required, as well as their economics and any institutional constraints. In industrialised countries, the uses of coalbed methane are almost solely dependent on microeconomics; coalbed methane must compete for a market against natural gas and other energy sources - and frequently, coalbed methane is not competitive against other energy sources. In developing countries, on the other hand, particularly where other sources of energy are in short supply, coalbed methane economics yield positive results. Here, constraints to development of CBM utilization are mainly lack of technology and investment capital. Sociological aspects such as attitude and cultural habits, may also have a strong negative influence. This paper outlines the economics of coalbed methane utilization, particularly its competition with natural gas, and touches upon the many different uses to which coalbed methane may be applied. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Utilities in UNIX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, L.

    2002-01-01

    This manual goes to the users with some or much experience in the unix operating system. In such manner that they can get more efficiency using the unix of the most vendors. Include the majority of UNIX commands, shell built-in functions to create scripts, and a brief explication of the variables in several environments. In addition, other products are included, more and more integrated in the most of the unix operating systems. For example: the scanning and processing language awk, the print server LPRng, GNU Utilities, batch subsystem, etc. The manual was initially based in an specific unix. But it and been written for use of the most unix that exist: Tru64 unix, aix, iris, hpux. solaris y linux. In this way, many examples in the chapter had been included. The purpose of this manual is to provide an UNIX reference for advanced users in any of the unix operating systems family. (Author)

  6. Hydrogen and energy utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hustadt, Daniel [Vattenfall Europe Innovation GmbH (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Renewable electricity generation plays one major role with the biggest share being wind energy. At the end of the year 2009 a wind power plant capacity of around 26 GW was installed in Germany. Several outlooks come to the conclusion that this capacity can be doubled in ten years (compare Figure 1). Additionally the German government has set a target of 26 GW installed off-shore capacity in North and Baltic Sea until 2030. At Vattenfall only a minor percentage of the electricity production comes from wind power today. This share will be increased up to 12% until 2030 following Vattenfall's strategy 'Making Electricity Clean'. This rapid development of wind power offers several opportunities but also means some challenges to Utilities. (orig.)

  7. Utility prudency issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnoff, G.

    1986-01-01

    The conventional legal standard of prudence found in the common law of public utility regulation precludes a judgment about past decisions based on present knowledge of whether the decisions proved in time to have been right or wrong. The proper inquiry is not whether every management decision proved to be correct. Rather, the proper inquiry as stated by the New York Public Service Commission in Re Consolidated Edison Co. of New York, Inc. is ...whether the company's conduct was reasonable at the time, under all of the circumstances, considering that the company had to solve its problems prospectively.... The exercise of prudence does not guarantee performance on schedule or within budget, or the making of correct decisions, when judged after the fact. But it does require or involve the exercise of reasoned decision making within a framework of reasonably available alternatives

  8. Estimation of the total efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization for maintenance and growth by cattle in tropical conditions Estimação da eficiência total de utilização da energia metabolizável para manutenção e crescimento por bovinos em condições tropicais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Sampaio Henrique

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Data of 320 animals were obtained from eight comparative slaughter studies performed under tropical conditions and used to estimate the total efficiency of utilization of the metabolizable energy intake (MEI, which varied from 77 to 419 kcal kg-0.75d-1. The provided data also contained direct measures of the recovered energy (RE, which allowed calculating the heat production (HE by difference. The RE was regressed on MEI and deviations from linearity were evaluated by using the F-test. The respective estimates of the fasting heat production and the intercept and the slope that composes the relationship between RE and MEI were 73 kcal kg-0.75d-1, 42 kcal kg-0.75d-1 and 0.37. Hence, the total efficiency was estimated by dividing the net energy for maintenance and growth by the metabolizable energy intake. The estimated total efficiency of the ME utilization and analogous estimates based on the beef cattle NRC model were employed in an additional study to evaluate their predictive powers in terms of the mean square deviations for both temperate and tropical conditions. The two approaches presented similar predictive powers but the proposed one had a 22% lower mean squared deviation even with its more simplified structure.Foram utilizadas 320 informações obtidas a partir de 8 estudos de abate comparativo conduzidos em condições tropicais para se estimar a eficiência total de utilização da energia metabolizável consumida, a qual variou de 77 a 419kcal kg-0.75d-1. Os dados também continham informações sobre a energia retida (RE, o que permitiu o cálculo da produção de calor por diferença. As estimativas da produção de calor em jejum e dos coeficientes linear e angular da regressão entre RE e MEI foram respectivamente, 73 kcal kg-0.75d-1, 42 kcal kg-0.75d-1 e 0,37. Em seguida, a eficiência total foi estimada dividindo-se a energia líquida para mantença e produção pelo consumo de energia metabolizável. A eficiência total de

  9. Energy utilities and the Internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The chances for energy utilities in the Netherlands to present themselves on the Internet are briefly outlined. It appears that other businesses are ahead of the Dutch utilities in offering electronic services with respect to energy

  10. Municipal climate protection as a measure for sustainable energy supply under the conditions of globalization and liberalization? An empirical investigation considering the municipal actors and public utility companies; Kommunaler Klimaschutz als Instrument einer nachhaltigen Energieversorgung unter den Bedingungen von Globalisierung und Liberalisierung? Eine empirische Untersuchung unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Akteure Kommune und Stadtwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielitza-Mimjaehner, Ralf

    2007-03-01

    With the background of the threatening global warming that requires a reduction of greenhouse gas emission by 20 % until 2010 und by 80% until 2050 in Germany, t is reasonable to consider local or municipal climate protection activities. A climate protection politics ''from the bottom'' is not only contributing to a real greenhouse gas reduction, but also triggering the stagnant international climate politics and enhances the sustainable development on a local level. Due to this fact amongst others the Enquete commission of the German Bundestag ''sustainable energy supply under the conditions of globalization and liberalization'' identifies the municipal climate protection activities as important part within the mix of measures that will allow the initiation of an alteration of the actual energy system toward a sustainable energy supply in the long-run. The consequences of globalization and liberalization on the municipal level have not yet been discussed or considered by the Enquete commission. This thesis analyses the conditions induced by the globalization and liberalization on the municipal climate protection activities as constituent of a sustainable energy supply. The project is focusing on the municipal actors and the public utility companies as central point of the considerations. [German] Vor dem Hintergrund einer drohenden globalen Erwaermung, die eine Reduktion der klimawirksamen Treibhausgase bundesweit um 20 % bis 2010 und um 80 % bis 2050 noetig macht, sind Klimaschutzaktivitaeten auf einer lokalen oder kommunalen Ebene in mehreren Dimensionen sinnvoll. Den tatsaechlichen, bezifferbaren Reduktionen von CO2, die hier geleistet werden, gesellt sich ein ''vorbildhafter'' Druck auf eine stockende internationale Klimapolitik hinzu, ebenso leistet die ''Klimaschutzpolitik von unten'' einer nachhaltigen Entwicklung der lokalen Ebene durch Lerneffekte Vorschub. Unter anderem aus

  11. original article predictors of safe delivery service utilization in arsi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abrham

    There is limited information on the mothers' use of skilled delivery services in the ... to conditions related to pregnancy and child birth. 99% of .... having favourable attitude towards utilization of ... two injections of Tetanus Toxoid vaccine during.

  12. Assessing Somatosensory Utilization during Unipedal Postural Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Rahul; De Dios, Yiri E; Gadd, Nichole E; Caldwell, Erin E; Peters, Brian T; Reschke, Millard F; Bloomberg, Jacob J; Oddsson, Lars I E; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P

    2017-01-01

    Multisensory-visual, vestibular and somatosensory information is integrated for appropriate postural control. The primary goal of this study was to assess somatosensory utilization during a functional motor task of unipedal postural control, in normal healthy adults. Assessing individual bias in the utilization of individual sensory contributions during postural control may help customization of rehabilitation protocols. In this study, a test paradigm of unipedal stance control in supine orientation with and without vision was assessed. Postural control in this test paradigm was hypothesized to utilize predominantly contributions of somatosensory information from the feet and ankle joint, with minimal vestibular input. Fourteen healthy subjects "stood" supine on their dominant leg while strapped to a backpack frame that was freely moving on air-bearings, to remove available otolith tilt cues with respect to gravity that influences postural control when standing upright. The backpack was attached through a cable to a pneumatic cylinder that provided a gravity-like load. Subjects performed three trials each with Eyes-open (EO) and Eyes-closed (EC) while loaded with 60% body weight. There was no difference in unipedal stance time (UST) across the two conditions with EC condition challenging the postural control system greater than the EO condition. Stabilogram-diffusion analysis (SDA) indicated that the critical mean square displacement was significantly different between the two conditions. Vestibular cues, both in terms of magnitude and the duration for which relevant information was available for postural control in this test paradigm, were minimized. These results support our hypothesis that maintaining unipedal stance in supine orientation without vision, minimizes vestibular contribution and thus predominantly utilizes somatosensory information for postural control.

  13. Utilization of Natural Products as Functional Feed

    OpenAIRE

    Stella Magdalena; Natadiputri G H; Nailufar; Purwadaria T

    2013-01-01

    The use of antibiotics as feed additive improves performance in livestock. However, scientific data related to the use of antibiotics in feed merge spreading of bacterial resistance in animal and human bodies, therefore the usage of antibiotics in animal production is restricted. This condition raise the utilization of natural antibiotic as functional feed such as phytogenics (essential oil, flavonoid, saponin, and tannin), enzyme, probiotic, and prebiotic to improve the livestock’s performan...

  14. Utilization of Geothermal Energy in Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Wittenberger; Ján Pinka

    2005-01-01

    Owing to favourable geological conditions, Slovakia is a country abundant in occurrence of low-enthalpy sources. The Slovakian government sponsors new renewable ecological energy sources, among which belongs the geothermal energy. Geothermal water is utilized for recreation (swimming pools, spas), agriculture (heating of greenhouses, fishing) and heating of houses. The effectivity of utilisation is about 30 % due to its seasonal use. That is why the annual house-heating and the hot water supp...

  15. National Utility Rate Database: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, S.; McKeel, R.

    2012-08-01

    When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.

  16. Utility service entrance in boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    This study evaluates alternatives for utility service entrances to the repository. We determined the requirements for a repository utility supply. These requirements were defined as safety, maintainability, flexibility, reliability, cost efficiency, voltage regulation, and simplicity of operation. The study showed that repository shafts can best satisfy all requirements for location of the utility supply without the use of borehole penetrations into the repository. It is recommended that the shafts be utilized for utility distribution to the repository, and that the current NWTS program position to minimize the number of boreholes penetrating the repository horizon be maintained. 42 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Utility application of simulation software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudduth, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss dynamic system simulation from the perspective of a successful utility user. In it, four aspects of the issue of utility use of simulation will be addressed: (1) What simulation software is available to utilities which can be of practical assistance with a modest investment in staff and training. (2) To what specific problems can utilities apply the technique of simulation and achieve reasonably cost effective results. (3) What the advantages are of in-house dynamic simulation capability, as opposed to depending on NSSS vendors or consultants. (4) What the prospects are for wider use of dynamic simulation in the utility industry

  18. Market research for electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shippee, G.

    1999-12-01

    Marketing research is increasing in importance as utilities become more marketing oriented. Marketing research managers need to maintain autonomy from the marketing director or ad agency and make sure their work is relevant to the utility's operation. This article will outline a model marketing research program for an electric utility. While a utility may not conduct each and every type of research described, the programs presented offer a smorgasbord of activities which successful electric utility marketers often use or have access to.

  19. Utilization management in anatomic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandrowski, Kent; Black-Schaffer, Steven

    2014-01-01

    There is relatively little published literature concerning utilization management in anatomic pathology. Nonetheless there are many utilization management opportunities that currently exist and are well recognized. Some of these impact only the cost structure within the pathology department itself whereas others reduce charges for third party payers. Utilization management may result in medical legal liabilities for breaching the standard of care. For this reason it will be important for pathology professional societies to develop national utilization guidelines to assist individual practices in implementing a medically sound approach to utilization management. © 2013.

  20. SYMPAL: utilities guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.A.; Sublet, J.-Ch.

    1997-02-01

    The processing code SYMPAL is used to perform the data treatment for creating a new version of the European Activation File (EAF). The entire process is handled by different modules of the code in a sequential and orderly manner. The modular code system accesses, translates and processes cross section data from a wide variety of libraries and calculations with nuclear model codes. Two major data bases are accessed and merged so as to create a new library version. The Master Data File (MDF) contains the original cross section data extracted, unmodified but reformatted, from numerous sources. The Master Parameter File (MPF) contains a compilation of all physical information necessary to renormalise, split and internally validate any particular type of cross section. The combination of these two files generates a new activation library in pointwise and various groupwise formats. The SYMPAL utilities guide describes a set of programs developed to handle certain aspects of the procedure done outside of the main processing tasks. These include counting, translating, selecting and plotting data streams. Special printing and plotting procedures have been written to handle the large amounts of information present in activation libraries. (author)

  1. Gnuastro: GNU Astronomy Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaghi, Mohammad

    2018-01-01

    Gnuastro (GNU Astronomy Utilities) manipulates and analyzes astronomical data. It is an official GNU package of a large collection of programs and C/C++ library functions. Command-line programs perform arithmetic operations on images, convert FITS images to common types like JPG or PDF, convolve an image with a given kernel or matching of kernels, perform cosmological calculations, crop parts of large images (possibly in multiple files), manipulate FITS extensions and keywords, and perform statistical operations. In addition, it contains programs to make catalogs from detection maps, add noise, make mock profiles with a variety of radial functions using monte-carlo integration for their centers, match catalogs, and detect objects in an image among many other operations. The command-line programs share the same basic command-line user interface for the comfort of both the users and developers. Gnuastro is written to comply fully with the GNU coding standards and integrates well with all Unix-like operating systems. This enables astronomers to expect a fully familiar experience in the source code, building, installing and command-line user interaction that they have seen in all the other GNU software that they use. Gnuastro's extensive library is included for users who want to build their own unique programs.

  2. Knowledge-based utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chwalowski, M.

    1997-01-01

    This presentation provides industry examples of successful marketing practices by companies facing deregulation and competition. The common thread through the examples is that long term survival of today's utility structure is dependent on the strategic role of knowledge. As opposed to regulated monopolies which usually own huge physical assets and have very little intelligence about their customers, unregulated enterprises tend to be knowledge-based, characterized by higher market value than book value. A knowledge-based enterprise gathers data, creates information and develops knowledge by leveraging it as a competitive weapon. It institutionalizes human knowledge as a corporate asset for use over and over again by the use of databases, computer networks, patents, billing, collection and customer services (BCCS), branded interfaces and management capabilities. Activities to become knowledge-based such as replacing inventory/fixed assets with information about material usage to reduce expenditure and achieve more efficient operations, and by focusing on integration and value-adding delivery capabilities, were reviewed

  3. Gas utilization technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biljetina, R.

    1994-01-01

    One of the constant challenges facing the research community is the identification of technology needs 5 to 15 years from now. A look back into history indicates that the forces driving natural gas research have changed from decade to decade. In the 1970s research was driven by concerns for adequate supply; in the 1980s research was aimed at creating new markets for natural gas. What then are the driving forces for the 1990s? Recent reports from the natural gas industry have helped define a new direction driven primarily by market demand for natural gas. A study prepared by the Interstate Natural Gas Association of America Foundation entitled ''Survey of Natural Research, Development, and Demonstration RD ampersand D Priorities'' indicated that in the 1990s the highest research priority should be for natural gas utilization and that technology development efforts should not only address efficiency and cost, but environmental and regulatory issues as well. This study and others, such as the report by the American Gas Association (A.G.A.) entitled ''Strategic Vision for Natural Gas Through the Year 2000,'' clearly identify the market sectors driving today's technology development needs. The biggest driver is the power generation market followed by the industrial, transportation, appliance, and gas cooling markets. This is best illustrated by the GRI 1994 Baseline Projection on market growth in various sectors between the year 1992 and 2010. This paper highlights some of the recent technology developments in each one of these sectors

  4. Automated ISS Flight Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermann, Jan Tuzlic

    2016-01-01

    During my internship at NASA Johnson Space Center, I worked in the Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG), where I was tasked with a number of projects focused on the automation of tasks and activities related to the operation of the International Space Station (ISS). As I worked on a number of projects, I have written short sections below to give a description for each, followed by more general remarks on the internship experience. My first project is titled "General Exposure Representation EVADOSE", also known as "GEnEVADOSE". This project involved the design and development of a C++/ ROOT framework focused on radiation exposure for extravehicular activity (EVA) planning for the ISS. The utility helps mission managers plan EVAs by displaying information on the cumulative radiation doses that crew will receive during an EVA as a function of the egress time and duration of the activity. SRAG uses a utility called EVADOSE, employing a model of the space radiation environment in low Earth orbit to predict these doses, as while outside the ISS the astronauts will have less shielding from charged particles such as electrons and protons. However, EVADOSE output is cumbersome to work with, and prior to GEnEVADOSE, querying data and producing graphs of ISS trajectories and cumulative doses versus egress time required manual work in Microsoft Excel. GEnEVADOSE automates all this work, reading in EVADOSE output file(s) along with a plaintext file input by the user providing input parameters. GEnEVADOSE will output a text file containing all the necessary dosimetry for each proposed EVA egress time, for each specified EVADOSE file. It also plots cumulative dose versus egress time and the ISS trajectory, and displays all of this information in an auto-generated presentation made in LaTeX. New features have also been added, such as best-case scenarios (egress times corresponding to the least dose), interpolated curves for trajectories, and the ability to query any time in the

  5. Facility Utilization Reports - FAA Aviation Information Utilization Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Provides: (1) Space management and planning, including area calculations, tracking space by organization and employee, and monitoring space utilization information....

  6. Utility Computing: Reality and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Ivan I.

    Utility Computing is not a new concept. It involves organizing and providing a wide range of computing-related services as public utilities. Much like water, gas, electricity and telecommunications, the concept of computing as public utility was announced in 1955. Utility Computing remained a concept for near 50 years. Now some models and forms of Utility Computing are emerging such as storage and server virtualization, grid computing, and automated provisioning. Recent trends in Utility Computing as a complex technology involve business procedures that could profoundly transform the nature of companies' IT services, organizational IT strategies and technology infrastructure, and business models. In the ultimate Utility Computing models, organizations will be able to acquire as much IT services as they need, whenever and wherever they need them. Based on networked businesses and new secure online applications, Utility Computing would facilitate "agility-integration" of IT resources and services within and between virtual companies. With the application of Utility Computing there could be concealment of the complexity of IT, reduction of operational expenses, and converting of IT costs to variable `on-demand' services. How far should technology, business and society go to adopt Utility Computing forms, modes and models?

  7. Privatization of municipal electrical utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J.

    1998-01-01

    The challenges and special issues which arise through the sale of a municipal electric utility were discussed. The recent sales of two utilities, the Kentville Electric Commission in Nova Scotia and Cornwall Electric in Ontario, were used as examples to show how the sale of an electric utility differs from the sale of most business enterprises. Municipal utilities are integral parts of the communities they serve which introduces several complexities into the sale. Factors that require special attention in the sale of the utilities, including electricity rates, local accountability, treatment of employees and local economic development, and the need for a comprehensive communication program to deal with the substantial public interest that sale of a municipal utility will engender, were reviewed

  8. Mox fuel utilization in ATR

    OpenAIRE

    下村 和生; 川太 徳夫

    1987-01-01

    ATR, a heavy-water moderated boiling-light-water cooled reactor developed in Japan, is a unique reactor with out-standing flexibility regarding nuclear fuel utilization, because it has superior properties concerning the utilization of plutonium, recovered uranium and depleted uranium. The development of this type of reactor is expected to contribute both to the stable supply of energy and to the establishment of plutonium utilization in Japan. Much effort has been and will be made on the deve...

  9. Utility deregulation and AMR technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews the effects of deregulation on other utilities and services and examines how the electric utilities can avoid the worst of these effects and capitalize of the best aspects of competition in achieving marketing excellence. The article presents deregulation as a customer service and underscores the need for utilities to learn to compete aggressively and intelligently and provide additional services available through technology such as automated meter reading

  10. VT Electric Utility Franchise Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) ELCFRANCHISE includes Vermont's Electric Utility Franchise boundaries. It is a compilation of many data sources. The boundaries are approximate...

  11. Multiattribute Utility Theory, Intertemporal Utility and Correlation Aversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten

    2018-01-01

    Convenient assumptions about qualitative properties of the intertemporal utility function have generated counterintuitive implications for the relationship between atemporal risk aversion and the intertemporal elasticity of substitution. If the intertemporal utility function is additively separable...... aversion. Our results show that subjects are correlation averse over lotteries with intertemporal income profiles....

  12. The changing utility workforce and the evolution of utility design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, A. [Autodesk Inc., (United States); Zeiss, G. [Autodesk Inc., (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Electric utilities are experiencing an unprecedented workforce turnover as a wave of retirement approaches. The challenge for the industry is to mitigate the loss of industry knowledge and attract talented new designers and engineers. Utilities need to effectively transfer knowledge from an existing workforce with up to three decades of experience to their new hires who have very different skill levels as well as different expectations regarding design tools compared to their predecessors. Knowledge transfer from the retiring workforce to the new hires can be facilitated with rules-based design software. Easy-to-use design software with built-in validations can accelerate training. By investing in utility design software that incorporates the best elements of design processes from other industries, utilities can attract the new generation of engineers and designers to help utilities define new processes to upgrade existing infrastructure, bring online new distributed and renewable generation facilities, implement smart devices and meters, and improve customer service. 3 refs.

  13. Nuclear fuel utilization in Kozloduy NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyadzhiev, Z; Kharalampieva, Ts; Pejchinov, Ts [Kombinat Atomna Energetika, Kozloduj (Bulgaria)

    1994-12-31

    An assessment of fuel utilization in Kozloduy NPP units 1-6 is made on the basis of operational data obtained for a total of 62 fuel cycles. Basic characteristics of core loading and operation conditions are given. SPPS-1 and BIPR-7 codes are used to calculate assembly-wise power distributions for different full power days of a given cycle and unit. The data are compared with the measured values of these quantities. The analysis performed shows that the core loading option chosen has led to efficient fuel utilization without violation of the nuclear safety criteria. For WWER-440 (Units 1 - 4) this is expressed in effective reduction of the reactor vessel irradiation, maintaining the design duration of the fuel cycles at a reduced number of assemblies by a factor 5 - 5-10%, utilizing fuel with higher enrichment and implementing the 4-year fuel cycle. For WWER-1000 the improvements lead to: adoption of the 3-year fuel cycle utilizing fuel with 4.4% initial enrichment, implementation of improved fuel with a new type of absorbers and more effective low-leakage core loading patterns. 10 tabs., 6 figs., 7 refs.

  14. Children with intellectual disability and hospice utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Lisa C; Colman, Mari Beth; Meadows, John T

    2017-02-01

    Over 42,000 children die each year in the United States, including those with intellectual disability (ID). Survival is often reduced when children with intellectual disability also suffer from significant motor dysfunction, progressive congenital conditions, and comorbidities. Yet, little is known about hospice care for children with intellectual disability. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between intellectual disability and hospice utilization. Additionally, we explored whether intellectual disability combined with motor dysfunction, progressive congenital conditions, and comorbidities influenced pediatric hospice utilization. Using a retrospective cohort design and data from the 2009 to 2010 California Medicaid claims files, we conducted a multivariate analysis of hospice utilization. This study shows that intellectual disability was negatively related to hospice enrollment and length of stay. We also found that when children had both intellectual disability and comorbidities, there was a positive association with enrolling in hospice care. A number of clinical implications can be drawn from the study findings that hospice and palliative care nurses use to improve their clinical practice of caring for children with ID and their families at end of life.

  15. Risk measures on networks and expected utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerqueti, Roy; Lupi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In reliability theory projects are usually evaluated in terms of their riskiness, and often decision under risk is intended as the one-shot-type binary choice of accepting or not accepting the risk. In this paper we elaborate on the concept of risk acceptance, and propose a theoretical framework based on network theory. In doing this, we deal with system reliability, where the interconnections among the random quantities involved in the decision process are explicitly taken into account. Furthermore, we explore the conditions to be satisfied for risk-acceptance criteria to be consistent with the axiomatization of standard expected utility theory within the network framework. In accordance with existing literature, we show that a risk evaluation criterion can be meaningful even if it is not consistent with the standard axiomatization of expected utility, once this is suitably reinterpreted in the light of networks. Finally, we provide some illustrative examples. - Highlights: • We discuss risk acceptance and theoretically develop this theme on the basis of network theory. • We propose an original framework for describing the algebraic structure of the set of the networks, when they are viewed as risks. • We introduce the risk measures on networks, which induce total orders on the set of networks. • We state conditions on the risk measures on networks to let the induced risk-acceptance criterion be consistent with a new formulation of the expected utility theory.

  16. Nash was a first to axiomatize expected utility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Bleichrodt (Han); C. Li (Chen); I. Moscati (Ivan); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractNash is famous for many inventions, but it is less known that he, simultaneously with Marschak, also was the first to axiomatize expected utility for risk. In particular, these authors were the first to state the independence condition, a condition that should have been but was not

  17. The utility target market model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng, G.J.; Martin, J.

    1994-01-01

    A new model (the Utility Target Market Model) is used to evaluate the economic benefits of photovoltaic (PV) power systems located at the electrical utility customer site. These distributed PV demand-side generation systems can be evaluated in a similar manner to other demand-side management technologies. The energy and capacity values of an actual PV system located in the service area of the New England Electrical System (NEES) are the two utility benefits evaluated. The annual stream of energy and capacity benefits calculated for the utility are converted to the installed cost per watt that the utility should be willing to invest to receive this benefit stream. Different discount rates are used to show the sensitivity of the allowable installed cost of the PV systems to a utility's average cost of capital. Capturing both the energy and capacity benefits of these relatively environmentally friendly distributed generators, NEES should be willing to invest in this technology when the installed cost per watt declines to ca $2.40 using NEES' rated cost of capital (8.78%). If a social discount rate of 3% is used, installation should be considered when installed cost approaches $4.70/W. Since recent installations in the Sacramento Municipal Utility District have cost between $7-8/W, cost-effective utility applications of PV are close. 22 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  18. Empirical Specification of Utility Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellenbergh, Gideon J.

    Decision theory can be applied to four types of decision situations in education and psychology: (1) selection; (2) placement; (3) classification; and (4) mastery. For the application of the theory, a utility function must be specified. Usually the utility function is chosen on a priori grounds. In this paper methods for the empirical assessment…

  19. Xylose utilization in recombinant zymomonas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimi, Perry G; McCole, Laura; Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V

    2014-03-25

    Xylose-utilizing Zymomonas strains studied were found to accumulate ribulose when grown in xylose-containing media. Engineering these strains to increase ribose-5-phosphate isomerase activity led to reduced ribulose accumulation, improved growth, improved xylose utilization, and increased ethanol production.

  20. Overview of Steel Slag Application and Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant quantities of steel slag are generated as waste material or byproduct every day from steel industries. Slag is produced from different types of furnaces with different operating conditions. Slag contains Ferrous Oxide, Calcium Oxide, Silica etc. Physical and chemical properties of slag are affected by different methods of slag solidification such as air cooled, steam, and injection of additives. Several material characterization methods, such as X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Scanned Electron Microscopy (SEM and Inductive Coupled Plasma (ICP-OES are used to determine elemental composition in the steel slag. Therefore, slags can become one of the promising materials in various applications such as in transportation industry, construction, cement production, waste water and water treatment. The various applications of steel slag indicate that it can be reused and utilized rather than being disposed to the landfill. This paper presents a review of its applications and utilization.

  1. Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Comfort air conditioning and heating of residences: Space HVAC systems; Industrial and special air conditioning and ventilation for nuclear facilities, and for mines; Energy sources, such as Geothermal energy, solar utilization, and energy resources; Building operation and maintenance; energy management, and Thermal storage

  2. Hualapai Tribal Utility Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hualapai Tribal Nation

    2008-05-25

    The first phase of the Hualapai Tribal Utility Development Project (Project) studied the feasibility of establishing a tribally operated utility to provide electric service to tribal customers at Grand Canyon West (see objective 1 below). The project was successful in completing the analysis of the energy production from the solar power systems at Grand Canyon West and developing a financial model, based on rates to be charged to Grand Canyon West customers connected to the solar systems, that would provide sufficient revenue for a Tribal Utility Authority to operate and maintain those systems. The objective to establish a central power grid over which the TUA would have authority and responsibility had to be modified because the construction schedule of GCW facilities, specifically the new air terminal, did not match up with the construction schedule for the solar power system. Therefore, two distributed systems were constructed instead of one central system with a high voltage distribution network. The Hualapai Tribal Council has not taken the action necessary to establish the Tribal Utility Authority that could be responsible for the electric service at GCW. The creation of a Tribal Utility Authority (TUA) was the subject of the second objective of the project. The second phase of the project examined the feasibility and strategy for establishing a tribal utility to serve the remainder of the Hualapai Reservation and the feasibility of including wind energy from a tribal wind generator in the energy resource portfolio of the tribal utility (see objective 2 below). It is currently unknown when the Tribal Council will consider the implementation of the results of the study. Objective 1 - Develop the basic organizational structure and operational strategy for a tribally controlled utility to operate at the Tribe’s tourism enterprise district, Grand Canyon West. Coordinate the development of the Tribal Utility structure with the development of the Grand Canyon

  3. Beyond Widgets -- Systems Incentive Programs for Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnier, Cindy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mathew, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Robinson, Alastair [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walter, Travis [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-15

    Utility incentive programs remain one of the most significant means of deploying commercialized, but underutilized building technologies to scale. However, these programs have been largely limited to component-based products (e.g., lamps, RTUs). While some utilities do provide ‘custom’ incentive programs with whole building and system level technical assistance, these programs require deeper levels of analysis, resulting in higher program costs. This results in custom programs being restricted to utilities with greater resources, and are typically applied mainly to large or energy-intensive facilities, leaving much of the market without cost effective access and incentives for these solutions. In addition, with increasingly stringent energy codes, cost effective component-based solutions that achieve significant savings are dwindling. Building systems (e.g., integrated façade, HVAC and/or lighting solutions) can deliver higher savings that translate into large sector-wide savings if deployed at the scale of these programs. However, systems application poses a number of challenges – baseline energy use must be defined and measured; the metrics for energy and performance must be defined and tested against; in addition, system savings must be validated under well understood conditions. This paper presents a sample of findings of a project to develop validated utility incentive program packages for three specific integrated building systems, in collaboration with Xcel Energy (CO, MN), ComEd, and a consortium of California Public Owned Utilities (CA POUs) (Northern California Power Agency(NCPA) and the Southern California Public Power Authority(SCPPA)). Furthermore, these program packages consist of system specifications, system performance, M&V protocols, streamlined assessment methods, market assessment and implementation guidance.

  4. Dealing with the difficult utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keats, D.E.; Sundquist, M.J.; Cross, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    STS HydroPower, Ltd. (STS) is an independent hydroelectric power developer involved in the full scope of hydroelectric activities. This includes the permitting, design, financing, turbine design and manufacturing, site construction and operation of small to mid-sized hydroelectric sites across the United States. At the present time, STS owns and operates nine sites in four states with a combined capacity of 20 megawatts. In dealing with the implementation of these sites, STS has dealt with five different utilities. In addition, in pursuing additional development opportunities throughout the United States, STS has had contact with numerous other utilities. During this time it would be fair to conclude that each of these utilities has exhibited its own personality with respect to dealing with independent developers. To the credit of the utility industry, the majority of these utilities have been helpful and supportive of independent projects, but a small number of utilities have approached projects from an initial and continuing adversarial position. The purpose of this paper is to examine those options and procedures available to the developer when a utility is encountered with a negative predisposition

  5. No 2868. Report made on behalf of the commission of finances, general economy and plan about the proposal of resolution (no 2790) from M. Alain Bocquet aiming at creating an inquiry commission about the conditions of bringing out of EDF's shares, about the opening of its capital to the financial market, about the recourse to forced shareholders and about the consequences of this situation in the realization of its public utility missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-02-01

    The creation of an inquiry commission was requested by part of the house of commons in order to analyze the conditions of Electricite de France (EDF) privatization and in particular some discreditable means that might have been implemented by banks, by the direction of EDF and by the public authorities to accelerate the privatization of the national electric utility and to make it a success. The aim of this report is to analyze the admissibility of this request before launching the creation of an inquiry commission. It stresses on the impreciseness of the fraud charges, on the success of EDF's capital increase and concludes on the unsuitability of an inquiry commission to supply answers to these charges. (J.S.)

  6. A utility perspective on BRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, B.

    1988-01-01

    The author is program manager for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) for the Utility Nuclear Waste Management Group (UNWMG), an activity funded by 45 utilities with nuclear power programs. The UNWMG represents the utility industry on high-level and low-level radioactive waste issues in legislative, regulatory, and technical proceedings, and therefore has a strong interest in the progress of below-regulatory-concern (BRC) regulations. The author addresses waste disposal volumes prior to discussing recent developments and status of BRC regulations

  7. Net lost revenue adjustment (NLRA) mechanisms for utility DSM programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, L.W.

    1995-01-01

    We examine the experiences that states and utilities are having with the NLRA approach. Contrary to concerns raised by some industry analysts, our results indicate the NLRA is a feasible approach to the lost-revenue disincentive. Seven of the 10 states we studied report no substantial problems with their approach. We observe several conditions linked to effective NLRA implementation and, for those states reporting problems, conditions linked to implementation difficulties. Finally, observed changes in utility-investment behavior occur after implementation of DSM rate reforms, which include deployment of NLRA mechanisms. We find that utilities in states with lost revenue recovery invest more than twice as much in DSM as do utilities in other states. (Author)

  8. Studies in utilization of fertilizer and soil nitrogen by carrots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, A.G.; Markgraf, G.; Geissler, T.

    1985-01-01

    Pot experiments were conducted to determine the extent of fertilizer N utilization by carrots, using double-labelled 15 N-ammonium nitrate. The degree of soil N utilization was also studied. The residual effect of nitrogen in the individual variants was determined in spinach grown as succeeding crop. Under the experimental conditions, N utilization was highest at high water supply (100 % of water capacity). Due to the daily rhythm of pot watering to approximately 100 % of water capacity, gas exchange (air and oxygen) was ensured as well, providing optimum growth conditions. At medium nitrogen rates (12.5 g N/m 2 ), carrots took up 44.5 % of the fertilizer N on sand and 54.5 % on loess soil. When water supply decreased to 70 % of the water capacity, utilization of fertilizer N declined to 26 % on sand and 43.8 % on loess soil. Spinach grown as succeeding crop took up more soil N than fertilizer N. (author)

  9. Utilization of carbohydrates by radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, T.; Nagasawa, N.; Yoshii, F.

    2002-01-01

    Upgrading and utilization of carbohydrates such as chitosan, sodium alginate, carrageenan, cellulose, pectin have been investigated for recycling these bio-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. These carbohydrates were easily degraded by irradiation and various kinds of biological activities such as anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction, etc. were induced. On the other hand, some carbohydrate derivatives, carboxymethylcellulose and carboxymethylstarch, could be crosslinked under certain radiation condition and produce the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use

  10. Utilization of Natural Products as Functional Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Magdalena

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics as feed additive improves performance in livestock. However, scientific data related to the use of antibiotics in feed merge spreading of bacterial resistance in animal and human bodies, therefore the usage of antibiotics in animal production is restricted. This condition raise the utilization of natural antibiotic as functional feed such as phytogenics (essential oil, flavonoid, saponin, and tannin, enzyme, probiotic, and prebiotic to improve the livestock’s performance, quality, and health. Functional feeds increase profitability in animal husbandry production and its use is feeds are expected to be functional foods that may have positive effects in human nutrition.

  11. Medicare Utilization for Part B

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This link takes you to the Medicare utilization statistics for Part B (Supplementary Medical Insurance SMI) which includes the Medicare Part B Physician and Supplier...

  12. State Drug Utilization Data 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  13. Decentralized method for utility regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeb, M. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh); Magat, W.A.

    1979-10-01

    A new institutional arrangement for regulating utilities is suggested that minimizes the costs of natural monopolies. A mixture of regulation and franchising, the plan draws on the advantages of each and eliminates many of the problems. The proposal allows utilities to set their own price on the basis of demand and marginal-cost projections. Subsidies are provided by the regulatory agency if there is a consumer surplus. The system encourages the utility to select a competitive price and to produce only the amount of service needed. Operating efficiency is encouraged by rewarding cost reductions and discouraging cost overstatement at the rate review. The regulatory agency would not need to take action to bring price and marginal costs into equality. The franchise sale can be made by competitive bidding, in which the bidders would capitalize part or all of the subsidy or the regulatory agency could recover the subsidy in a lump-sum tax on the utility.

  14. State Drug Utilization Data 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  15. Medicare Utilization for Part A

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This link takes you to the Medicare utilization statistics for Part A (Hospital Insurance HI) which include the Medicare Ranking for all Short-Stay Hospitals by...

  16. Build Resilience at Your Utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    CREAT allows users to evaluate potential impacts of climate change on their utility and to evaluate adaptation options to address them using both traditional risk assessment and scenario-based decision making.

  17. State Drug Utilization Data 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  18. State Drug Utilization Data 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  19. Growth of hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Two isolates from marine mud having broad spectrum hydrocarbon utilizing profile were identified as Arthrobacter simplex and Candida tropicalis.Both the organisms grew exponentially on crude oil. The cell yield of the organisms was influenced...

  20. State Drug Utilization Data 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  1. State Drug Utilization Data 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  2. State Drug Utilization Data 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  3. State Drug Utilization Data 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  4. State Drug Utilization Data 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  5. State Drug Utilization Data 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  6. State Drug Utilization Data 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  7. State Drug Utilization Data 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  8. State Drug Utilization Data 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  9. State Drug Utilization Data 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  10. State Drug Utilization Data 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  11. State Drug Utilization Data 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  12. State Drug Utilization Data 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  13. State Drug Utilization Data 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  14. State Drug Utilization Data 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  15. State Drug Utilization Data 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  16. State Drug Utilization Data 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  17. State Drug Utilization Data 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  18. State Drug Utilization Data 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  19. State Drug Utilization Data 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  20. HUG - the Hydrogen Utility Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinkler, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Hydrogen Utility Group (HUG) was formally established in October 2005 by a group of leading electric utilities with a common interest in sharing hydrogen experiences and lessons learned. HUG's Mission Statement is: 'To accelerate utility integration of promising hydrogen energy related business applications through the coordinated efforts and actions of its members in collaboration with key stakeholders, including government agencies and utility support organizations.' In February 2006, HUG members presented a briefing to the US Senate Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Caucus in Washington, DC, outlining the significant role that the power industry should play in an emerging hydrogen economy. This presentation provides an overview of that briefing, summarizing the HUG's ongoing interests and activities

  1. State Drug Utilization Data 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Drug utilization data are reported by states for covered outpatient drugs that are paid for by state Medicaid agencies since the start of the Medicaid Drug Rebate...

  2. Evaluating Utility Gloves as a Potential Reservoir for Pathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Kathy L; Naber, E Donald; Halteman, William A

    2015-08-01

    This pilot study sought to determine the rate and degree to which gram-negative Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus occurred on the inside of utility gloves used at University of Maine at Augusta, Dental Health Programs' dental hygiene clinic. Five steam autoclave utility gloves were randomly selected to serve as control and a convenience sample of 10 used utility gloves were selected from the sterilization area. A sample was collected from a predetermined surface area from the inside of each steam autoclave utility glove and used utility glove. Each sample was used to inoculate a Petri plate containing 2 types of culture media. Samples were incubated at 37° C for 30 to 36 hours in aerobic conditions. Colony forming units (CFU) were counted. Confidence intervals (CI) estimated the rate of contamination with gram-negative K. pneumoniae, E. coli and P. aeruginosa on the inside of steam autoclave utility gloves to be n=33 95% CL [0.000, 0.049], used utility gloves to be n=70, 95% CL [0.000, 0.0303]. Data estimated the rate of contamination with gram-positive S. aureus on the inside of steam autoclave utility gloves to be n=35, 95% CL [0.233, 0.530], used utility gloves to be n=70, 95% CL [0.2730, 0.4975]. Culture media expressed a wide range of CFU from 0 to over 200. The risk of utility glove contamination with gram-negative bacteria is likely low. The expressed growth of S. aureus from steam autoclave utility gloves controls raises questions about the effectiveness and safety of generally accepted sterilization standards for the governmentally mandated use of utility gloves. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  3. Critical paths to coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, G R

    1977-01-01

    The present dilemma of energy producers, converters, and policy decision makers is presented. The consequences of environmental control regulations, coupled with the need for conservation and energy, and of energy resources on the increased utilization of coal, are discussed. Several recent technical accomplishments that make possible increased utilization of coal for power generation are described. Groundwork is laid for discussion of the technical development that must occur if the United States is to retain its energy viability.

  4. The 1990 utility tax conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This article reports on the Sixth Annual Utility Tax Conference held in Washington, D.C. in October. Topics of the conference concerned tax issues associated with depreciable assets, employee benefits plans, valuation on utility property, pollution control, and restructuring and reorganization. Also discussed briefly were the tax changes being considered at that time as part of the negotiation of the details of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act

  5. Strategies for the plutonium utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouain, D.M.; Lima, J.O.V.; Sakamoto, L.H.

    1981-11-01

    A review of the activities involving plutonium (its recycle, utilization and technological status and perspectives) is done. These informations are useful for an economic viability study for the plutonium utilization in thermal reactors (recycling) and in fast breeders reactor (FBR), trying to collect the major number of informations about these subjects. The initial phase describes the present status and projections of plutonium accumulation and requirements. Then, the technological process are described and some strategies are analyzed. (E.G.) [pt

  6. Investment Dynamics and Capacity Utilization under Monopolistic Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Omar LICANDRO

    1992-01-01

    In the tradition of Tobin's q models, the influence on investment of demand uncertainty and capacity constraints is analyzed in a monopolistically competitive economy. Under these conditions, the degree of capacity utilization has a positive effect on the markup rate and explains the difference between average q and marginal q. In the aggregate economy, when the representative firm faces only specific demand uncertainty, it is shown that the degree of capacity utilization is strictly smaller ...

  7. Utility requirements for fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBellis, R.J.

    1977-03-01

    A four-man month study was undertaken to identify utility requirements of fusion power and define a role for the utilities in the fusion development process during the 1980s. This report, preliminary in nature, serves mainly as a planning document for future requirements analyses. A requirements organization was defined to consist of three major chronological phases: research and development, plant installation, and plant operation. Thirty-seven requirements were identified, covering all categories. In addition, training, environment, safety, licensing, and utility model were identified as five matrix-type requirements. As the requirement definition process continued during the study period, comments received from utility representatives revealed a consistency of key issues in the fusion development process. These issues form the basis for the eventual establishment of definitive roles for the utilities during the 1980s. The issues are not meant to reflect a negative view of fusion, but are items that must be solved before fusion can be introduced commercially as an electrical power source. As a result of this requirements study, preliminary candidate roles for the utilities in the fusion development process during the 1980s were identified as public education, commercialization studies, industry investment analyses, training plan implementation, alternate reactor concept development, ERDA concept design review, and requirements refinement

  8. Utility requirements for fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeBellis, R.J.

    1977-03-01

    A four-man-month study, jointly funded by EPRI and McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company-EAST, was undertaken to identify the utility requirements of fusion power and define a role for the utilities in the fusion development process during the 1980's. This report, preliminary in nature, serves mainly as a planning document for future requirements analyses. A requirements organization was defined to consist of three major chronological phases: research and development, plant installation, and plant operation. Thirty-seven requirements were identified, covering all categories. In addition, training, environment, safety, licensing, and utility model were identified as five matrix-type requirements. As the requirement definition process continued during the study period, comments received from utility representatives revealed a consistency of key issues in the fusion development process. These issues form the basis for the eventual establishment of definitive roles for the utilities during the 1980's. The issues are not meant to reflect a negative view of fusion, but are items which must be solved before fusion can be introduced commercially as an electrical power source. As a result of this requirements study, preliminary candidate roles for the utilities in the fusion development process during the 1980's were identified as public education, commercialization studies, industry investment analyses, training plan implementation, alternate reactor concept development, ERDA concept design review, and requirements refinement

  9. No 2790. Proposal of resolution aiming at creating an inquiry commission about the conditions of bringing out of EDF's shares, about the opening of its capital to the financial market, about the recourse to forced shareholders and about the consequences of this situation in the realization of its public utility missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document is a proposal of resolution for the creation of an inquiry commission about the different aspects of Electricite de France (EDF) privatization and about the different discreditable means that might have been implemented by banks, by the direction of EDF and by the public authorities to accelerate the privatization of the French national electric utility and to make it a success. (J.S.)

  10. Nuclear submarine utilization. Financial deadlock and search for its output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dovgusha, V.V.; Tikhonov, M.N.

    1995-01-01

    Program of nuclear submarine utilization in the Russian Federation is described. The program provides for complete solution of all problems, connected with nuclear submarine utilization, including reconstruction of ship-repair and ship-cutting plants, metal fabrication plants, construction of points of temporary radioactive waste storages, new burials, as well as required social support of personnel, working under unhealthy conditions. The program is based on guaranteed and sufficient financing from extra-budgetary sources, as well as on new technologies, enabling to utilize all written off ships during 10-15 years

  11. Presence and the utility of audio spatialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bormann, Karsten

    2005-01-01

    The primary concern of this paper is whether the utility of audio spatialization, as opposed to the fidelity of audio spatialization, impacts presence. An experiment is reported that investigates the presence-performance relationship by decoupling spatial audio fidelity (realism) from task...... performance by varying the spatial fidelity of the audio independently of its relevance to performance on the search task that subjects were to perform. This was achieved by having conditions in which subjects searched for a music-playing radio (an active sound source) and having conditions in which...... supplied only nonattenuated audio was detrimental to performance. Even so, this group of subjects consistently had the largest increase in presence scores over the baseline experiment. Further, the Witmer and Singer (1998) presence questionnaire was more sensitive to whether the audio source was active...

  12. Clinical utility of measures of breathlessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Deborah L; Rodak, Bernadette

    2002-09-01

    measurement instruments we studied meet important standards of validity and reliability. Discriminative measures have limited clinical utility and, when used for populations or conditions for which they are not designed or validated, the data collected may not be clinically relevant. Evaluative measures have greater clinical utility and can be applied for outcome purposes. Measures should be applied to the populations and conditions for which they were designed. The relationship between clinical therapies and the measurement of dyspnea as an outcome can develop as respiratory therapists become more comfortable with implementing dyspnea measurement instruments and use the data to improve patient treatment. Dyspnea evaluation should be considered for all clinical practice guidelines and care pathways.

  13. Initial Cladding Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegmann, E.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to describe the condition of commercial Zircaloy clad fuel as it is received at the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) site. Most commercial nuclear fuel is encased in Zircaloy cladding. This analysis is developed to describe cladding degradation from the expected failure modes. This includes reactor operation impacts including incipient failures, potential degradation after reactor operation during spent fuel storage in pool and dry storage and impacts due to transportation. Degradation modes include cladding creep, and delayed hydride cracking during dry storage and transportation. Mechanical stresses from fuel handling and transportation vibrations are also included. This Analysis and Model Report (AMR) does not address any potential damage to assemblies that might occur at the YMP surface facilities. Ranges and uncertainties have been defined. This analysis will be the initial boundary condition for the analysis of cladding degradation inside the repository. In accordance with AP-2.13Q, ''Technical Product Development Planning'', a work plan (CRWMS M andO 2000c) was developed, issued, and utilized in the preparation of this document. There are constraints, caveats and limitations to this analysis. This cladding degradation analysis is based on commercial Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel with Zircaloy cladding but is applicable to Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel. Reactor operating experience for both PWRs and BWRs is used to establish fuel reliability from reactor operation. It is limited to fuel exposed to normal operation and anticipated operational occurrences (i.e. events which are anticipated to occur within a reactor lifetime), and not to fuel that has been exposed to severe accidents. Fuel burnup projections have been limited to the current commercial reactor licensing environment with restrictions on fuel enrichment, oxide coating thickness and rod plenum pressures. The information provided in this analysis will be used in

  14. Flue gas conditioning today

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southam, B.J.; Coe, E.L. Jr. [Wahlco Engineering International Ltd., Santa Ana, CA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Many relatively small electrostatic precipitators (ESP`s) exist which collect fly ash at remarkably high efficiencies and have been tested consistently at correspondingly high migration velocities. But the majority of the world`s coal supplies produce ashes which are collected at much lower migration velocities for a given efficiency and therefore require correspondingly large specific collection areas to achieve acceptable results. Early trials of flue gas conditioning (FGC) showed benefits in maximizing ESP performance and minimizing expense which justified continued experimentation. Trials of several dozen ways of doing it wrong eventually developed a set of reliable rules for doing it right. One result is that the use of sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}) for adjustment of the resistivity of fly ash from low sulfur coal has been widely applied and has become an automatically accepted part of the option of burning low sulfur coal for compliance with the Clean Air Act of l990 in the U.S.A. Currently, over 100,000 MW of generating capacity is using FGC, and it is estimated that approximately 45,800 MW will utilize coal-switching with FGC for Clean Air Act emission compliance. Guarantees that this equipment will be available to operate at least 98 percent of the time it is called upon are routinely fulfilled.

  15. Pentose utilization in yeasts: Physiology and biochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeppson, H.

    1996-04-01

    The fermentive performance of bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi was investigated in a pentose (xylose)-rich lignocellulosic hydrolyzate. The filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum and the xylose-fermenting yeast Pichia stipitis were found to be very sensitive to the inhibiting hydrolyzate. Recombinant xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed very poor ethanol formation from xylose; xylitol being the major product formed. The highest ethanol yields were obtained with recombinant Escherichia coli KO11, however, for maximal ethanol yield detoxification of the hydrolyzate was required. The influence of oxygen on the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism in the xylose-fermenting yeast P. stipitis CBS 6054 was investigated. A low and well-controlled level of oxygenation has been found to be required for efficient ethanol formation from xylose by the xylose-fermenting yeasts. The requirement of oxygen is frequently ascribed to the apparent redox imbalance which develops under anaerobic conditions due to the difference in co-factor utilization of the two first enzymes in the xylose metabolism, further reflected in xylitol excretion. However, a low and well controlled level of oxygenation for maximal ethanol production from glucose was also demonstrated, suggesting that the oxygen requirement is not only due to the dual co-factor utilization, but also serves other purposes. Cyanide-insensitive and salicyl hydroxamic acid-sensitive respiration (CIR) was found in P. stipitis. CIR is suggested to act as a redox sink preventing xylitol formation in P. stipitis under oxygen-limited xylose fermentations. Xylitol metabolism by P. stipitis CBS 6054 was strictly respiratory and ethanol was not formed under any conditions. The absence of ethanol formation was not due to a lack of fermentative enzymes, since the addition of glucose to xylitol-pregrown cells resulted in ethanol formation. 277 refs, 5 figs, 7 tabs

  16. Utility-based early modulation of processing distracting stimulus information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Mike; Luna-Rodriguez, Aquiles; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2014-12-10

    Humans are selective information processors who efficiently prevent goal-inappropriate stimulus information to gain control over their actions. Nonetheless, stimuli, which are both unnecessary for solving a current task and liable to cue an incorrect response (i.e., "distractors"), frequently modulate task performance, even when consistently paired with a physical feature that makes them easily discernible from target stimuli. Current models of cognitive control assume adjustment of the processing of distractor information based on the overall distractor utility (e.g., predictive value regarding the appropriate response, likelihood to elicit conflict with target processing). Although studies on distractor interference have supported the notion of utility-based processing adjustment, previous evidence is inconclusive regarding the specificity of this adjustment for distractor information and the stage(s) of processing affected. To assess the processing of distractors during sensory-perceptual phases we applied EEG recording in a stimulus identification task, involving successive distractor-target presentation, and manipulated the overall distractor utility. Behavioral measures replicated previously found utility modulations of distractor interference. Crucially, distractor-evoked visual potentials (i.e., posterior N1) were more pronounced in high-utility than low-utility conditions. This effect generalized to distractors unrelated to the utility manipulation, providing evidence for item-unspecific adjustment of early distractor processing to the experienced utility of distractor information. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3416720-06$15.00/0.

  17. Inter-utility trade review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnes, E.M.; Vaahedi, E.

    1991-01-01

    The National Energy Board was requested by the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources to identify possible measures to improve cooperation among Canadian electrical utilities and to enhance access for buyers and sellers of electricity to available transmission capacity through intervening systems for wheeling purposes. To identify measures to improve cooperation, a questionnaire was sent to electric utilities and other interested parties on the present extent and future possibilities for inter-utility cooperation. The questionnaire and its results are presented. It was found that there already exists a significant amount of inter-utility cooperation in Canada. Such cooperation generally involves interchanges of economy energy, non-economic capacity and energy, coordinated operation, resource sharing, maintenance scheduling, emergency supports, etc. There is a very limited degree of integrated generation expansion planning. Typically, these agreements are carried out under interconnection agreements negotiated on a bi-lateral basis. The highest current degree of cooperation exists under the auspices of the Alberta interconnected power system pool. Wheeling is limited and generally restricted to cases where the sender and receiver are the same entity or where power is wheeled to a utility purchasing it from the wheeler's system. 2 figs., 3 tabs

  18. A utility theoretic view on probabilistic safety criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, J.E.

    1997-03-01

    A probabilistic safety criterion specifies the maximum acceptable hazard rates of various accidental consequences. Assuming that the criterion depends also on the benefit of the process to society and on the licensing time applied, we can regard such statements as preference relations. In this paper, a probabilistic safety criterion is interpreted to mean that if the accident hazard rate is higher than the accident hazard rate criterion, then the optimal stopping time of a hazardous process is shorter than the licensing time. This interpretation yields a condition for a feasible utility function. In particular, we derive such a condition for the parameters of a linear plus exponential utility function. (orig.) (12 refs.)

  19. Decomposing a Utility Function Based on Discrete Distribution Independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Ying; Dyer, James; Butler, John

    2014-01-01

    For two-attribute decision-making problems, the multilinear utility model cannot be applied when the risk aversion on one attribute depends on the level of the other attribute. We propose a family of general preference conditions called nth-degree discrete distribution independence that can...... accommodate a variety of dependence relationships between two attributes. The special case of second-degree discrete distribution independence is equivalent to the utility independence condition. We focus on third-degree discrete distribution independence that leads to a decomposition formula that contains...

  20. Demonstration test on the heat pump system, thermally utilizing the domestic waste water. Result of the collecting test on an air conditioning system, Hokkaido Electric Power Gymnasium, Tomari; Seikatsu haisui netsuriyo heat pump system jissho shiken. Tomari Hokuden taiikukan reidanbo system no sainetsu shiken kekka ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honma, T; Yamada, K; Watanabe, K [Hokkaido Electric Power Co. Inc., Sapporo (Japan)

    1995-06-14

    A heat pump system utilizing the domestic waste water was introduced into a gymnasium owned by Hokkaido Electric Power to elucidate the applicability of domestic waste water as a thermal source of heat pump in the cold region. The gymnasium is a two-storied concrete building with the floor space of 2292m{sup 2}. Ground water at temperatures from 10 to 20{degree}C is utilized for the water supply. Made to flow together as waste water, the dirty water and daily exhaust water are discharged at the rate of 100t/day into a river after passing through the septic tank. Higher by 5 to 15{degree}C than the atmospheric temperature, the discharging temperature is kept higher than 10{degree}C even during the very cold period. The domestic waste water is almost neutral in pH, and normal in both SS and BOD. The heat pump was utilized for two stages, i.e., thermal collection and temperature heightening. The capacity of a sewage storage tank tank was made to be 170m{sup 3} to meet the thermal load of 139000kcal/h in the gymnasium. The temperature of 15{degree}C could be kept during the air heating trial. The system is about 2 in coefficient of performance. The K-value of heat exchanger decreased by about 30% after seven months of operation. Upon its overhauling, its K-value recovered to 2.37, so that it must be overhauled once a year. 5 refs., 15 figs. 4 tabs.

  1. Modelling of biomass utilization for energy purpose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzybek, Anna [ed.

    2010-07-01

    From the introduction: The following natural conditions enable agriculture development: surface configuration, climatic conditions including insolation, temperature, rainfalls, winds and frost periods, soil conditions (fertility), water conditions. Water conditions are determined by sum of rainfalls, evaporation quantity and water transpiration by plants. Climatic conditions and soil conditions are decisive factors for agricultural land use. They determine plants selection for crop and expected yield level. Non-natural conditions are also important for agriculture development. The following factors belong to them: labour force, structure of the land ownership, farms size, fertilization, herbicides utilisation, farm mechanisation, education and skills of a farmer, EU and state agricultural policy. EU and Polish agricultural policy is characterized by protectionalism. It means a financial support system and preferential credits with implementation of other means for agricultural market protection. Poland lies in the sphere of clashes between influences of continental climate (with quite dry summers and cold winters) and moderate Atlantic climate. These clashes are reason of unstable conditions for agricultural production. The annual average air temperature varies from 6.0 to 8.8 degrees Celsius. The length of the thermal vegetation period is about 220 days and only in South-West part of Poland exceeds 230 days. The annual sum of rainfall is about 500-600 mm on lowlands, 600-700 mm on highlands and it is above 1000 mm in mountains. Central Poland (Masovia, Great Poland, Kuyavia) belongs to European regions with the smallest rainfall sum which not exceeds 550 mm. Atlantic Ocean significantly influences on Polish climate from west side of Poland and Asia continent from east side of Poland. Rainfall is another significant factor. Western Europe has significantly higher rainfall in comparison with Poland. Polish agriculture is featured by: high amount of smallest farms in

  2. Modelling of biomass utilization for energy purpose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzybek, Anna (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    From the introduction: The following natural conditions enable agriculture development: surface configuration, climatic conditions including insolation, temperature, rainfalls, winds and frost periods, soil conditions (fertility), water conditions. Water conditions are determined by sum of rainfalls, evaporation quantity and water transpiration by plants. Climatic conditions and soil conditions are decisive factors for agricultural land use. They determine plants selection for crop and expected yield level. Non-natural conditions are also important for agriculture development. The following factors belong to them: labour force, structure of the land ownership, farms size, fertilization, herbicides utilisation, farm mechanisation, education and skills of a farmer, EU and state agricultural policy. EU and Polish agricultural policy is characterized by protectionalism. It means a financial support system and preferential credits with implementation of other means for agricultural market protection. Poland lies in the sphere of clashes between influences of continental climate (with quite dry summers and cold winters) and moderate Atlantic climate. These clashes are reason of unstable conditions for agricultural production. The annual average air temperature varies from 6.0 to 8.8 degrees Celsius. The length of the thermal vegetation period is about 220 days and only in South-West part of Poland exceeds 230 days. The annual sum of rainfall is about 500-600 mm on lowlands, 600-700 mm on highlands and it is above 1000 mm in mountains. Central Poland (Masovia, Great Poland, Kuyavia) belongs to European regions with the smallest rainfall sum which not exceeds 550 mm. Atlantic Ocean significantly influences on Polish climate from west side of Poland and Asia continent from east side of Poland. Rainfall is another significant factor. Western Europe has significantly higher rainfall in comparison with Poland. Polish agriculture is featured by: high amount of smallest farms in

  3. Utilization trend of wood species utilized in furniture industry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The utilization trend of four commonly used wood species and two lesser used wood species that are used for furniture making was examined. The wood species are Mansonia altissima (Mansonia), Khaya ivorensis (Khaya), Cordia millenii (Cordia) and Tectona grandis (Teak) as commonly used wood species; Aningeria ...

  4. The NRC and utility finances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byus, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    In a speech before the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners in November 1991, Nuclear Regulatory Commission Chairman Ivan Selin presented what he called an open-quotes expansion of the concept of safety beyond our previous narrow bounds.close quotes He went on to explain, open-quotes To be seen as successful and safe operators of nuclear facilities, utilities must have safe and predictable cash flows.close quotes While there is little disagreement that the concepts of successful plant operations and financial strength go hand in hand, the relationship between the two is not clear. Which came first, successful operation of generating plants or financial strength? Selin's views on NRC involvement in financial aspects of utility operation in the United States are sure to stimulate debate on the issue

  5. The European Utility Requirement Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, I.I.

    1999-01-01

    The major European electricity producers work on a common requirement document for future LWR plants since 1992. They aim at requirements acceptable together by the owners, the public and the authorities. Thus the designers can develop standard LWR designs acceptable everywhere in Europe and the utilities can open their consultations to vendors on common bases. Such a standardisation promotes an improvement of generation costs and of safety : public and authorities acceptance should be improved as well ; significant savings are expected in development and construction costs. Since the early stages of the project, the EUR group has grown significantly. It now includes utilities from nine European countries. Utilities from two other European countries are joining the group. Specific cooperation agreements are also in progress with a few extra-European partners

  6. Condition Indicators for Gearbox Condition Monitoring Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Večeř

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Condition monitoring systems for manual transmissions based on vibration diagnostics are widely applied in industry. The systems deal with various condition indicators, most of which are focused on a specific type of gearbox fault. Frequently used condition indicators (CIs are described in this paper. The ability of a selected condition indicator to describe the degree of gearing wear was tested using vibration signals acquired during durability testing of manual transmission with helical gears. 

  7. Utility applications and broadband networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chebra, R.; Taylor, P.

    2003-02-01

    A detailed analytical model of a cable network that would be capable of providing utilities with such services as automatic meter reading, on-line ability to remotely connect and disconnect commodity service, outage notification, tamper detection, direct utility-initiated load control, indirect user prescribed load control, and user access to energy consumption information, is described. The paper provides an overview of of the zones of focus that must be addressed -- market assessment, competitive analysis, product identification, economic model development, assessment of skill set requirements, performance monitoring and tracking, and various technical issues -- to identify any gaps in the organisation's ability to fully develop such a plan. Developers of the model field tested it in 1995 using some benchmarks that were available at that time, and found that the benefit afforded by direct labor saving was not sufficient to cover the capital expenditure of the advanced utility gateway connected to the cable network. However, since 1995 the unanticipated shift in the derived consumer value from a host of cable-based communications services has rendered these original projections irrelevant. Since national communications organizations concentrate on 'tier one' or at best 'tier two' cities (roughly corresponding to the NFL franchise cities and baseball farm team cities), the uncovered rural and suburban areas of the country create a significant digital divide within the population. The developers of the model contend that these unserviced areas provide utilities, especially municipal utilities, with an excellent opportunity to step into the gap and provide a full range of services that includes water, electricity and communications. The proposed model provides the foundation for utilities upon which to base their ultimate implementation decisions.

  8. 24 CFR 5.632 - Utility reimbursements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 8 Project-Based Assistance Family Payment § 5.632 Utility reimbursements. (a) Applicability. This... the utility supplier to pay the utility bill on behalf of the family. If the PHA elects to pay the utility supplier, the PHA must notify the family of the amount paid to the utility supplier. (3) In the...

  9. 'Utility marketing' as an oxymoron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedge, P.

    1996-01-01

    Electricity industry restructuring through the elimination of monopolies and the introduction of competition was examined. A distinction was made between marketing a product and brand marketing, emphasizing the customer loyalty, customer confidence and high profitability associated with brand names. The meaning of 'brand' in general and particularly in relation to electric power was explained. The old and the new utilities world were contrasted, and the place and importance of marketing in the deregulated, customer choice-based, market-driven new utilities world was described

  10. Environmental issues: I - Energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincer, I.

    2001-01-01

    In this article, energy utilization and its major environmental impacts are discussed from the standpoint of sustainable development, including anticipated patterns of future energy use and consequent environmental issues and policies. Overall, the paper also examines several issues related to energy utilization, environment, sustainable development from both current and future perspectives, and energy use and its environmental impacts in the transportation sector. Finally, the conclusions and recommendations are presented in the form to be beneficial to energy scientists, engineers and energy policy makers. (author)

  11. Electric energy utilization and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Various aspects of electric energy utilization and conservation are discussed. First chapter reviews thermodynamic aspects of energy conservation. Subsequent chapters describe possibilities and methods of energy conservation in thermal power plants, airconditioning and ventilation systems, electric lighting systems, electric heating systems in industries, and railway electrification. Chapter 8 describes various modes of energy storage and compares their economies. The next chapter discusses various facets of energy economics and the last chapter discusses the practical aspects of energy conservation in different industries and power utilities. (M.G.B.). 100 refs

  12. E-Commerce for utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malicky, M. [Metzler and Associates, Deerfield, IL (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The use of E-Commerce by energy utility and service companies was discussed. E-Commerce was described as being all communication via the web including Internet, Intranet and Extranet. E-Commerce communication includes the exchange of information, data, money services, products, ideas, conversations, knowledge, inventory and events. E-Commerce can be applied to electric and gas utilities to enhance energy marketing, delivery, retail energy, energy services, retail services and customer satisfaction. This means of communication is quickly becoming an essential part of customer care strategy. It reduces costs and improves performance. It was forecasted that E-Commerce will more than double from 1998 to 2001. 15 refs.

  13. `Utility marketing` as an oxymoron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gedge, P. [TransAlta Utilities Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Electricity industry restructuring through the elimination of monopolies and the introduction of competition was examined. A distinction was made between marketing a product and brand marketing, emphasizing the customer loyalty, customer confidence and high profitability associated with brand names. The meaning of `brand` in general and particularly in relation to electric power was explained. The old and the new utilities world were contrasted, and the place and importance of marketing in the deregulated, customer choice-based, market-driven new utilities world was described.

  14. Current status of and problems in ice heat storage systems contributing to improving load rate. Air conditioning system utilizing ice heat storage and building frame storage (Takenaka Corporation); Fukaritsu kaizen ni kokensuru kori chikunetsu system no genjo to kadai. Kori chikunetsu to kutai chikunetsu wo riyoshita kucho system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Y.; Yoshitake, Y. [Takenaka Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    Development was made on a new air conditioning system, `building frame heat storage air conditioning system`, which combines an ice heat storage system with a building frame heat storage. With the building frame heat storage system, a damper is installed on an indoor device to blow cold air from the air conditioner onto slabs on the upper floor during nighttime power generating period. Heat is stored in beams, pillars and walls, and the shell absorbs and dissipates heat during daytime. Since general office buildings consume primary energy at 22.8% for heat source and 26.9% for transportation, which is greater, a natural coolant circulation type air conditioning system was developed as an air conditioning system for the secondary side. This made the building frame heat regeneration possible for the first time. With regard to heat storage quantity and heat dissipation quantity, the quantity of heat which can be stored during nighttime (10 hours) and dissipated during air conditioning using period in daytime (10 hours) is 80% of the stored heat quantity. This system was installed in a building in Kobe City. As a result of the measurement, it was found that indoor heat load reduction rate as a result of using the building frame heat storage was 24% or more in summer and 80% or more in winter. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Thorium utilization in power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraceno; Marcos.

    1978-10-01

    In this work the recent (prior to Aug, 1976) literature on thorium utilization is reviewed briefly and the available information is updated. After reviewing the nuclear properties relevant to the thorium fuel cycle we describe briefly the reactor systems that have been proposed using thorium as a fertile material. (author) [es

  16. Breaking into the utility market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argue, D.; Rubinoff, M.

    1992-01-01

    The wind energy industry in Canada must displace competition from government protected conventional energy industries if it is to gain a market position. This hypothesis is discussed for the case of Ontario, where the provincial utility has historically focused on nuclear, large hydro, and coal-fired sources. It is alleged that the utility has consistently underestimated costs for conventional energy sources and overestimated those for renewable sources such as wind power. Research by a coalition of environmental groups is cited to show that avoided generation costs in Ontario range from 8 cents/kWh for off-peak periods to a high of 12 cents/kWh during peak periods. At these values, even the utility's high cost estimates of $1,890-$2,600/kW for wind turbines and wind farms indicates cost effectiveness. Estimates of the added costs of conventional energy developments (the costs of environmental impacts not taken into account in conventional utility accounting) range from 1.1 cents/kWh for gas combined cycle cogeneration to 4.4 cents/kWh for existing coal-fired plants. By taking this kind of information to public hearings on energy developments, the wind energy industry can help establish new standards for evaluating conventional energy technology

  17. Natural gas for utility generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, T.

    1992-01-01

    Forecasters predict that natural gas will be the dominant fuel choice for utility capacity additions in the coming decade and that power generation will be by far the largest growth market for gas sales. While gas's low emissions, high efficiency potential, and present low cost argue persuasively for a surge in gas-fired generation, many utilities have been slow to commit to a gas future, citing reasoned concern about long-term price trends and the ability of gas suppliers to deliver the fuel where and when it will be needed. Meanwhile, the relatively low cost of gas-fired units is providing an opportunity for independent power producers to compete strongly with utilities for generation contracts. EPRI studies suggest that a sound, competitive strategy will be based not on how much gas a utility burns, but rather on how this capacity fits into its overall generating mix at various fuel price levels. Gas suppliers will need to pay special attention to the operating needs of power generators if they are to solidify this important market

  18. Utilities practices toward sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The strategy toward a Sustainable Development is not standardised and it is useful to compare approaches of companies. WG C3.03 analysed a number of Sustainability Reports or Environmental Reports, published by Utilities, exposing their current approaches to the three 'Pillars': environmental aspects, society development and economical performances. Case studies, relevant to the three 'Pillars', show examples of practices

  19. Utility of spoken dialog systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barnard, E

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available the evolution of poken dialog system research in the developed world, and show that the utility of speech is based on user factors and application factors (among others). After adjusting the factors for the developing world context, and plotting...

  20. Utility impact on STARFIRE design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFreece, D.A.; Waganer, L.M.; Woklenhauer, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    A primary objective of STARFIRE has been to design a tokamak fusion power plant that was attractive to the utilities. To achieve this goal, several utility representatives were directly involved in the decision-making processes as the design evolved. An initial step was to establish the relative importance to the utilities for an extensive list of economic, performance, safety and environmental issues. The top twenty issues were ranked. Cost of electricity was clearly most important with very little spread in the ratings of individual evaluators. Licensing is a go/no-go factor and must be accomplished for the other factors to have meaning. The top nine factors were judged to be very important by all evaluators, as was shown by the spread of ratings from 5 to 10. There is considerably more spread in the bottom eleven, which reflects a lack of consensus as to the relative importance of the evaluation factors. This evaluation was utilized in establishing the initial design concept

  1. Solar energy storage and utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S. W.; Bloom, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    A method of storing solar energy in the ground for heating residential buildings is described. The method would utilize heat exchanger pipes with a circulating fluid to transfer the energy beneath the surface as well as to extract the stored energy.

  2. Wind energy utilization: A bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Bibliography cites documents published to and including 1974 with abstracts and references, and is indexed by topic, author, organization, title, and keywords. Topics include: Wind Energy Potential and Economic Feasibility, Utilization, Wind Power Plants and Generators, Wind Machines, Wind Data and Properties, Energy Storage, and related topics.

  3. Utilizing Twitter for Concept Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzelli, Armand; Holdan, E. Gregory; Rota, Daniel; McCarthy, John

    2016-01-01

    Despite the perception that face-to-face classrooms provide speaking opportunities, studies by Fassinger (1995), Nunn (1996), and Weimer (2013) have conveyed that there is limited interaction in a traditional college lecture setting. Social media networks such as Twitter provide an opportunity for instructors to utilize popular mobile technology…

  4. Expected utility with lower probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendon, Ebbe; Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte

    1994-01-01

    An uncertain and not just risky situation may be modeled using so-called belief functions assigning lower probabilities to subsets of outcomes. In this article we extend the von Neumann-Morgenstern expected utility theory from probability measures to belief functions. We use this theory...

  5. Utilization technology on slurried ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanbe, Yoshio; Yasuda, Minoru; Furuki, Yasuhiko [The Coal Mining Research Centre, Japan, Tokyo, Japan; Electric Power Development Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1987-08-01

    Three research results of the utilization technology on slurried ash were reported. As for the utilization as the fly ash quick setting (FQS) backfill grout for tail void in shield works of tunneling, grout blending was simplified, the blended solution of cement, clay, additives and water was stabilized, and a favorable workability and long term durability were obtained. As for the utilization as the material of a SMW (soil mixing wall) method for continuous walls in long shaft digging, a fly ash-gypsum-cement (FGC) stabilizer showed an excellent workability and remarkably high water-tightness as compared with conventional cement bentonite. As for the utilization as the material of an injection method of overlay mats in foundation works of light weight structures on the sea bed mud foundation, since a FGC concrete weight in water was remarkably light as 0.7t/m{sup 3}, no both large mold form strength and vibration compacting were required. 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Production and utilization of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekine, Toshiaki; Matsuoka, Hiromitsu

    1999-01-01

    A plan of developing radioisotopes with a high power proton accelerator of the Neutron Science Project is presented. The status of production and utilization of radioisotopes in Japan is briefly discussed. The radioisotopes to be produced for biomedical use are discussed together with the facility for production of those radioisotopes and for research with the products. (author)

  7. Waste heat utilization in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, P.

    1983-01-01

    The Proceedings contain 17 papers presented at meetings of the Working Group for Waste Heat Utilization of the Committee of the European Society of Nuclear Methods in Agriculture of which 7 fall under the INIS scope. The working group met in May 1980 in Brno, Czechoslovakia, in October 1981 in Aberdeen, Scotland and in September 1982 in Brno. (Z.M.)

  8. Utilization and management of alder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David G. Briggs; Dean S. DeBell; William A. Atkinson

    1978-01-01

    In the Pacific Northwest and British Columbia, red alder often grows on forest lands following natural or man-caused disturbances. Frequently ignored as a pest or weed, many alder stands have developed to the point where important utilization and management questions are being asked. It is recognized that alder is a fast growing species, and that its rapid early growth...

  9. TWRS LDUA utilization study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieck, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    Tank Waste Remediation Systems functional requirements were reviewed. The Light Duty Utility Arm capabilities were considered as a means to support completion of these functional requirements. The recommendation is made to continue to develop the LDUA, integrating TWRS functional needs into the design to better support completion of TWRS mission needs

  10. A method of short range system analysis for nuclear utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, R.; Mason, E.A.; Benedict, M.

    1976-01-01

    An optimization procedure has been formulated and tested that is capable of solving for the optimal generation schedule of several nuclear power reactors in an electric power utility system, under short-range, resource-limited, conditions. The optimization procedure utilizes a new concept called the Opportunity Cost of Nuclear Power (OCNP) to optimally assign the resource-limited nuclear energy to the different weeks and hours in the short-range planning horizon. OCNP is defined as the cost of displaced energy when optimally distributed nuclear energy is marginally increased. Under resource-limited conditions, the short-range 'value' of nuclear power to a utility system is not its actual generation cost, but the cost of the next best alternative supply of energy, the OCNP. OCNP is a function of a week's system reserve capacity, the system's economic loading order, the customer demand function, and the nature of the available utility system generating units. The optimized OCNP value of the short-range planning period represents the utility's short-range energy replacement cost incurred when selling nuclear energy to a neighbouring utility. (author)

  11. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-05-01

    Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents provides materials that clarify the authority for Federal agencies to enter into utility energy services contracts (UESCs), as well as sample documents and resources to ease utility partnership contracting.

  12. Assessing the planet's condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L R

    1990-01-01

    The destruction of the environment has accelerated since the Earth Day of 1970, the world's population has increased by another 1.6 billion, and over 500 million acres of forest have been lost. Carbon dioxide levels, greenhouse gases, and chlorofluorocarbons have increased in the atmosphere with evidence that global warming has started. The ozone hole has appeared, acid rain has destroyed forests, air pollution in major northern hemisphere cities has worsened, and species are disappearing, while toxic chemicals have been dumped indiscriminately. World grain production has fallen while population has increased. In Europe 14 countries have stabilized their population, and Japan, France, and Finland are on the way to zero growth. Reduction of high fertility in 1/2 could halt the deterioration of living conditions. Japan and China achieved this within a decade. Energy efficiency has to be attained; US cars still consume too much gas. Solar energy with photovoltaic cells to provide power, fuel alcohol from plants, and solar thermal power plants have potential. Semiarid regions, such as northern Africa, could become major producers of solar energy. Various measures are mandatory to cut down on waste: to recycle paper bags, to use standardized glasses for beverages, and to utilize scrap metal in electric arc steel furnaces. Reforestation is also on the agenda, as major deforestation has occurred in the Brazilian Amazon region, in India, and in Europe because of acid rain. Australia's national plan envisions planting 1 billion trees, and the US project is of similar magnitude during the 1990s. Only the US has succeeded in erosion control and topsoil stabilization when it converted erodible cropland into grassland or woodland during 1986-90.

  13. Power Sales to Electric Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-02-01

    The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) of 1979 requires that electrical utilities interconnect with qualifying facilities and purchase electricity at a rate based upon their full avoided costs (i.e., costs of providing both capacity and energy). Qualifying facilities (QF) include solar or geothermal electric units, hydropower, municipal solid waste or biomass-fired power plants, and cogeneration projects that satisfy maximum size, fuel use, ownership, location, and/or efficiency criteria. In Washington State, neither standard power purchase prices based upon a proxy ''avoided plant'', standard contracts, or a standard offer process have been used. Instead, a variety of power purchase contracts have been negotiated by developers of qualifying facilities with investor-owned utilities, public utility districts, and municipally-owned and operated utilities. With a hydro-based system, benefits associated with resource acquisition are determined in large part by how compatible the resource is with a utility's existing generation mix. Power purchase rates are negotiated and vary according to firm energy production, guarantees, ability to schedule maintenance or downtime, rights of refusal, power plant purchase options, project start date and length of contract; front-loading or levelization provisions; and the ability of the project to provide ''demonstrated'' capacity. Legislation was also enacted which allows PURPA to work effectively. Initial laws established ownership rights and provided irrigation districts, PUDs, and municipalities with expanded enabling powers. Financial processes were streamlined and, in some cases, simplified. Finally, laws were passed which are designed to ensure that development proceeds in an environmentally acceptable manner. In retrospect, PURPA has worked well within Washington. In the state of Washington, 20 small-scale hydroelectric projects with a combined generating capacity of

  14. Sizing Analysis for Aircraft Utilizing Hybrid-Electric Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    world, the paragon of animals -William Shakespeare I would not have made it this far without the love and support of my parents. Their work-ethic...xiii  I.  Introduction ...Condition 1 SIZING ANALYSIS FOR AIRCRAFT UTILIZING HYBRID- ELECTRIC PROPULSION SYSTEMS I. Introduction 1. Background Physically

  15. Biomass utilization opportunities to achieve diverse silvicultural goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry Wynsma; Christopher R. Keyes

    2010-01-01

    Silviculturists and ecologists may recommend land management prescriptions that are designed to be resilient to changing climatic conditions. When considering biomass utilization opportunities that may result from climate-change treatments, it really doesn’t matter what species mix or stocking levels are to be retained: if there are trees that need to be harvested,...

  16. Assessing the Utility of a Demand Assessment for Functional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Eileen M.; Rooker, Griffin W.; Pence, Sacha T.; Longworth, Lynlea J.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the utility of an assessment for identifying tasks for the functional analysis demand condition with 4 individuals who had been diagnosed with autism. During the demand assessment, a therapist presented a variety of tasks, and observers measured problem behavior and compliance to identify demands associated with low levels of…

  17. Classical conditioning in the treatment of psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ader, R

    2000-11-01

    It has been argued that the placebo effect represents a learned response. Research is suggested to address the utility of applying principles derived from classical (Pavlovian) conditioning to the design of drug treatment protocols. In the present instance, it is hypothesized that, by capitalizing on conditioned pharmacotherapeutic responses, it may be possible to reduce the cumulative amount of corticosteroid medication used in the treatment of psoriasis.

  18. Robot transparency, trust and utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortham, Robert H.; Theodorou, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    As robot reasoning becomes more complex, debugging becomes increasingly hard based solely on observable behaviour, even for robot designers and technical specialists. Similarly, non-specialist users have difficulty creating useful mental models of robot reasoning from observations of robot behaviour. The EPSRC Principles of Robotics mandate that our artefacts should be transparent, but what does this mean in practice, and how does transparency affect both trust and utility? We investigate this relationship in the literature and find it to be complex, particularly in nonindustrial environments where, depending on the application and purpose of the robot, transparency may have a wider range of effects on trust and utility. We outline our programme of research to support our assertion that it is nevertheless possible to create transparent agents that are emotionally engaging despite having a transparent machine nature.

  19. Utilization of the terrestrial cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Hiroshi; Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Furukawa, Jun; Kimura, Shunta; Yokoshima, Mika; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Takenaka, Hiroyuki

    The terrestrial, N _{2}-fixing cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune has expected to utilize for agriculture, food and terraforming cause of its extracellular polysaccharide, desiccation tolerance and nitrogen fixation. Previously, the first author indicated that desiccation related genes were analyzed and the suggested that the genes were related to nitrogen fixation and metabolisms. In this report, we suggest possibility of agriculture, using the cyanobacterium. Further, we also found radioactive compounds accumulated N. commune (cyanobacterium) in Fukushima, Japan after nuclear accident. Thus, it is investigated to decontaminate radioactive compounds from the surface soil by the cyanobacterium and showed to accumulate radioactive compounds using the cyanobacterium. We will discuss utilization of terrestrial cyanobacteria under closed environment. Keyword: Desiccation, terrestrial cyanobacteria, bioremediation, agriculture

  20. Tattoo machines, needles and utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkilde, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Starting out as a professional tattooist back in 1977 in Copenhagen, Denmark, Frank Rosenkilde has personally experienced the remarkable development of tattoo machines, needles and utilities: all the way from home-made equipment to industrial products of substantially improved quality. Machines can be constructed like the traditional dual-coil and single-coil machines or can be e-coil, rotary and hybrid machines, with the more convenient and precise rotary machines being the recent trend. This development has resulted in disposable needles and utilities. Newer machines are more easily kept clean and protected with foil to prevent crosscontaminations and infections. The machines and the tattooists' knowledge and awareness about prevention of infection have developed hand-in-hand. For decades, Frank Rosenkilde has been collecting tattoo machines. Part of his collection is presented here, supplemented by his personal notes. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. New Energy Utility Business Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, V.

    2016-01-01

    Recently a lot of big changes happened in the power sector: energy efficiency and renewable energy sources are quickly progressing, distributed or decentralised generation of electricity is expanding, climate change requires reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and price volatility and incertitude of fossil fuel supply is common. Those changes have led to obsolescence of vertically integrated business models which have dominated in energy utility organisations for a hundred years and new business models are being introduced. Those models take into account current changes in the power sector and enable a wider application of energy efficiency and renewable energy sources, especially for consumers, with the decentralisation of electricity generation and complying with the requirements of climate and environment preservation. New business models also solve the questions of financial compensations for utilities because of the reduction of centralised energy generation while contributing to local development and employment.(author).

  2. Capacity Utilization in European Railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khadem Sameni, Melody; Landex, Alex

    2013-01-01

    and unprecedented approach for this aim. Relative operational efficiency of 24 European railways in capacity utilization is studied for the first time by data envelopment analysis (DEA). It deviates from previous applications of DEA in the railway industry that are conducted to analyze cost efficiency of railways....... Six DEA models quantify various aspects of micro, macro and quality of railway capacity utilization in these countries. New inputs like gross domestic product, population and area of the country help to provide a better picture of the status of railways. Passenger satisfaction data about different...... aspects of railway services in European countries has recently been quantified by European commission and are used for the first time in the literature. Invaluable insights can be inferred from the results which can provide a ground basis for railway practitioners and policy makers....

  3. RTNS-II utilization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwilsky, Klaus M.

    1978-09-01

    This plan describes a general program for the effective utilization of this resource by the fusion materials community. Because its flux is low relative to levels expected in commercial fusion reactors, the RINS-II is not expected to produce data of direct engineering significance (with some exceptions). Rather, it will be used chiefly to aid in the development of models of high energy neutron effects. Such models are needed in projecting engineering data obtained in high flux fission reactors to the fusion environment. Fission reactors, because of their relatively soft neutron spectra, cannot produce the high ratio of transmutations to displacements (except in an important special case) or the high energy recoil atoms appropriate to fusion reactors utilizing the D-T reaction.

  4. Neutron dosimeter utilizing CR-39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, H.V.C. de.

    1991-05-01

    A personnel neutron dosimeter has been developed with discretization in a wide range of energies of real interest, utilizing the CR-39 polymer, to detect recoil protons in the fast range, and alpha particles in the thermal and epithermal ranges, with possibility to be disposed in the IRD/CNEN's conventional film badge suport. They are presented, abstractly, the difficulties and importance of the neutron dosimetry, beyond the general objectives that motivated this work execution. The details of the materials utilized in the dosimeter confection, and the experimental methodology employed to obtain the performance curves are presented. The results about linearity response of the dosimeter with respect to equivalent dose, in a wide range of doses, and about the verified angular dependence are analysed. (author)

  5. Impact of Federal tax policy and electric utility rate schedules upon the solar building/electric utility interface. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, S.L.; Wirtshafter, R.M.; Abrash, M.; Anderson, B.; Sullivan, P.; Kohler, J.

    1978-10-01

    An analysis is performed to show that a utility solar-passive strategy can be used rather effectively in aiding the utility to obtain more efficient load factors and lower costs. The objectives are to determine the impact of active and passive solar energy designs for space conditioning and hot water heating for the residential sector upon the diurnal and annual load curves for several utilities, to assess the effect of present utility pricing policies, and to examine alternative pricing schemes, as well as Federal and state tax credits, as they may affect the optimal sizing and configuration of active solar and passive solar building components. The methodology, the systems model, an overall building design, building cost determination, and a description of TRNSYS are presented. The major parameters discussed that distinguish variation in the cost-effectiveness of particular building design fall into 5 categories: the weather, building configurations, building costs, utility costs and rates, and financial parameters (inclusive of tax credits for solar and energy conservation investment). Five utilities are studied: Colorado Springs Department of Public Utilities; Public Service Co. of New Mexico; New England Electric System; Pacific Gas and Electric; and Georgia Power Co.

  6. Strategy for utilizing nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, E.J.

    1977-01-01

    One of the national goals is to achieve independence in the area of energy supplies in the next few years. It is believed that attaining this goal will require extensive utilization of nuclear power in conventional fission reactors. It is proposed that the best way to develop the nuclear resource is through government ownership of the reactors. It is argued that this will minimize the risks associated with the nuclear-power option and clear the way for its exploitation

  7. FAIR VALUE: UTILITY AND LIMITS

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin Gabriel Cristea

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the utility and the limits of the fair value. We believe that any new product must be tried and tested before being imposed on the market and must be accepted by all potential users and those who will be affected, directly or indirectly and its advantages, disadvantages, risks, its cost must be predetermined and analyzed in a comprehensive and objective.We ask: Do financial statements at fair value meet users' expectations? The requirement to use fair value pricing mode...

  8. Environmental impacts of energy utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, C.P.C. do; Orsini, C.M.Q.; Rodrigues, D.; Barolli, E.; Nogueira, F.R.; Bosco, F.A.R.; Tabacniks, M.H.; Artaxo Netto, P.E.

    1981-04-01

    A survey is done of the available data on the physical environmental impacts in Brazil, derived from energetic systems such as: petroleum, hydroelectricity, firewood, coal, ethanol, methanol and hydrogen. A critical evalution of these data is done with respect to the preservation of the environment. The necessity of studying the environmental impact of the utilization of ethanol, nuclear fuels and coal is stressed. (M.A.) [pt

  9. Developing utility emergency preparedness exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, K.

    1986-01-01

    Utility emergency preparedness exercises constitute an important link in upgrading the response to nuclear power plant emergencies. Various emergency exercises are arranged annually at the Loviisa nuclear power plant. The on-site simulator is a practical tool in developing suitable accident scenarios and demonstrating them to the site emergency players and spectators. The exercises concentrate on emergency management and radiological activities. It is important to create a high degree of motivation. (author)

  10. Deprival value: information utility analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Marco Antonio; Pinto, Alexandre Evaristo; Barbosa Neto, João Estevão; Martins, Eliseu

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article contributes to the perception that the users’ learning process plays a key role in order to apply an accounting concept and this involves a presentation that fits its informative potential, free of previous accounting fixations. Deprival value is a useful measure for managerial and corporate purposes, it may be applied to the current Conceptual Framework of the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). This study analyzes its utility, taking into account cognitive...

  11. FFTF utilization for irradiation testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrigan, D.C.; Julyk, L.J.; Hoth, C.W.; McGuire, J.C.; Sloan, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    FFTF utilization for irradiation testing is beginning. Two Fuels Open Test Assemblies and one Vibration Open Test Assembly, both containing in-core contact instrumentation, are installed in the reactor. These assemblies will be used to confirm plant design performance predictions. Some 100 additional experiments are currently planned to follow these three. This will result in an average core loading of about 50 test assemblies throughout the early FFTF operating cycles

  12. Skin Condition Finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SKIN CONDITIONS HEALTH TOPICS FOR PROFESSIONALS Rash and Skin Condition Finder 1 Select Age Group Infant Child ... Toe Toe Webspace Toe Nail CLOSE About the Skin Condition Finder Have a health question or concern? ...

  13. Imaging utilization commentary: a radiology perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, Martin H.

    2008-01-01

    To adhere to the ALARA concept, imaging should be limited to studies that actually contribute to the management of the patient. For example, by applying the Ottawa Ankle Rule and the Ottawa Knee Rule, fewer radiographs are required to evaluate ankle and knee trauma in children. Chest radiographs usually do not contribute to the management of children presenting with typical acute bronchiolitis or asthma, and they can be detrimental because consolidation resulting from retained secretions is interpreted as pneumonia and the child is started on antibiotics unnecessarily. Moreover, a radiograph of the abdomen has poor validity and reproducibility for the diagnosis of constipation. The Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) and the Pediatric Emergency Research in Canada (PERC) are currently developing decision rules for the use of CT in the assessment of minor head injuries in children, which should reduce its utilization in this condition. PECARN is also developing a decision rule for the use of CT in the assessment of abdominal trauma in children. CT is frequently used for the diagnosis of appendicitis in children, but appendicitis can be diagnosed clinically. If imaging is required, appendicitis can often be diagnosed with US, and CT need only be used in the minority of cases where the diagnosis is still in doubt. Utilization guidelines for pediatric imaging studies obtained in children in the emergency setting can improve yield and help in the more efficient management of often scarce health care resources. (orig.)

  14. Solar energy utilizing technology for future cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Kei

    1987-11-20

    This report proposes solar energy utilizing technologies for future cities, centering on a system that uses Fresnel lenses and optical fiber cables. This system selects out beams in the visible range and the energy can be sent to end terminals constantly as long as sunlight is available. Optical energy is concentrated 4,000-fold. The system can provide long-distance projection of parallel rays. It will be helpful for efficient utilization of light in cities and can increase the degree of freedom in carrying out urban development. The total efficiency for the introduction into optical fiber can be up to 40 percent. With no heating coil incorporated, there is no danger of fire. The standard size of a light condenser is 2 m in dome diameter and 2.5 m in height. Auxiliary artificial light is used for backup purposes when it is cloudy. Heat pumps operating on solar thermal energy are employed to maintain air conditioning for 24 hours a day in order to ensure the establishment of an environment where residential areas exist in the neighborhood of office areas. Seven automatic solar light collection and transfer systems are currently in practical use at the Arc Hills building. The combination of Fresnel lens and optical fiber is more than six times as high in efficiency as a reflecting mirror. (5 figs, 3 tabs, 8 photos, 6 refs)

  15. [Health services' utilization patterns in Catalonia, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Carmen; Salvador, Xavier; Faixedas, M Teresa; Gallo, Pedro

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this article is disclose services utilization patterns among the Catalan population with particular emphasis on primary care, specialised care, hospital care and emergency care. A number of logistic regression models were used to explain the utilization of the various types of services. Variables in the analysis included self-perceived need, lifestyles, and sociodemographic variables. Separate analyses were performed for male, female, adults, and children as well as for the general population. Women use all types of services more often than men. Children and people over 64 are more frequent users of primary care. Primary care is also associated to lower socioeconomic conditions. Young adults and the migrant population in general are found to be under users of services, except of emergency care services. The use of specialised care is associated to the better-off, to those with university level education attainment, individual private insurance, and those living in the city of Barcelona. Hospital care is largely associated to need variables. The use of health services is explained by self-perceived need as well as by demographic, socioeconomic and geographical factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydrogen utilization potential in subsurface sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Ram Adhikari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface microbial communities undertake many terminal electron-accepting processes, often simultaneously. Using a tritium-based assay, we measured the potential hydrogen oxidation catalyzed by hydrogenase enzymes in several subsurface sedimentary environments (Lake Van, Barents Sea, Equatorial Pacific and Gulf of Mexico with different predominant electron-acceptors. Hydrogenases constitute a diverse family of enzymes expressed by microorganisms that utilize molecular hydrogen as a metabolic substrate, product or intermediate. The assay reveals the potential for utilizing molecular hydrogen and allows qualitative detection of microbial activity irrespective of the predominant electron-accepting process. Because the method only requires samples frozen immediately after recovery, the assay can be used for identifying microbial activity in subsurface ecosystems without the need to preserve live material.We measured potential hydrogen oxidation rates in all samples from multiple depths at several sites that collectively span a wide range of environmental conditions and biogeochemical zones. Potential activity normalized to total cell abundance ranges over five orders of magnitude and varies, dependent upon the predominant terminal electron acceptor. Lowest per-cell potential rates characterize the zone of nitrate reduction and highest per-cell potential rates occur in the methanogenic zone. Possible reasons for this relationship to predominant electron acceptor include (i increasing importance of fermentation in successively deeper biogeochemical zones and (ii adaptation of H2ases to successively higher concentrations of H2 in successively deeper zones.

  17. Imaging utilization commentary: a radiology perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Martin H. [University of Manitoba, Diagnostic Imaging, Children' s Hospital, Health Sciences Centre, Winnipeg (Canada); Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada)

    2008-11-15

    To adhere to the ALARA concept, imaging should be limited to studies that actually contribute to the management of the patient. For example, by applying the Ottawa Ankle Rule and the Ottawa Knee Rule, fewer radiographs are required to evaluate ankle and knee trauma in children. Chest radiographs usually do not contribute to the management of children presenting with typical acute bronchiolitis or asthma, and they can be detrimental because consolidation resulting from retained secretions is interpreted as pneumonia and the child is started on antibiotics unnecessarily. Moreover, a radiograph of the abdomen has poor validity and reproducibility for the diagnosis of constipation. The Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) and the Pediatric Emergency Research in Canada (PERC) are currently developing decision rules for the use of CT in the assessment of minor head injuries in children, which should reduce its utilization in this condition. PECARN is also developing a decision rule for the use of CT in the assessment of abdominal trauma in children. CT is frequently used for the diagnosis of appendicitis in children, but appendicitis can be diagnosed clinically. If imaging is required, appendicitis can often be diagnosed with US, and CT need only be used in the minority of cases where the diagnosis is still in doubt. Utilization guidelines for pediatric imaging studies obtained in children in the emergency setting can improve yield and help in the more efficient management of often scarce health care resources. (orig.)

  18. Selenium Utilization Strategy by Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroya Araie

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of selenoproteins raises the question of why so many life forms require selenium. Selenoproteins are found in bacteria, archaea, and many eukaryotes. In photosynthetic microorganisms, the essential requirement for selenium has been reported in 33 species belonging to six phyla, although its biochemical significance is still unclear. According to genome databases, 20 species are defined as selenoprotein-producing organisms, including five photosynthetic organisms. In a marine coccolithophorid, Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta, we recently found unique characteristics of selenium utilization and novel selenoproteins using 75Se-tracer experiments. In E. huxleyi, selenite, not selenate, is the main substrate used and its uptake is driven by an ATP-dependent highaffinity, active transport system. Selenite is immediately metabolized to low-molecular mass compounds and partly converted to at least six selenoproteins, named EhSEP1–6. The most (EhSEP2 and second-most abundant selenoproteins (EhSEP1 are disulfide isomerase (PDI homologous protein and thioredoxin reductase (TR 1, respectively. Involvement of selenium in PDI is unique in this organism, while TR1 is also found in other organisms. In this review, we summarize physiological, biochemical, and molecular aspects of selenium utilization by microalgae and discuss their strategy of selenium utilization.

  19. Purchasing non-utility power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackeen, L.G.

    1990-01-01

    The author discusses Houston Lighting and Power Company's procedure for purchasing power from cogenerators. By way of introduction, HL and P is the eighth largest electric utility in the United States in terms of kilowatt-hour sales and the second largest purchaser of natural gas in the nation. HL and P is also the principal utility providing electric service to the massive petrochemical industry in Southeast Texas. Of the 4,800 MW of cogeneration available, HL and P buys 945 MW under firm contracts, wheel 1,600 MW to other utilities, buy 400 MW under non-firm contracts and the balance is self-generation used to displace power which would otherwise be purchased from HL and P. With all this cogeneration capacity available, the problem until recently has been managing the surplus. HL and P now is finding itself in the unaccustomed position of needing to buy additional power or build plants to meet the modest growth it forecasts for Houston. The need for additional capacity coincides with the expiration of cogeneration contracts in 1993 and 1994. To meet this capacity need, they are determined to avoid buying cogeneration at a very high price and on delivery terms which do not reflect realistic benefits to their electric customers. The paper gives information on the background on PUC regulations and legislation, then briefly reviews the procedure for purchase of cogenerated power in Texas

  20. Plant design and beam utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svendsen, E.B.

    1983-01-01

    Plant design and beam utilization are two things closely tied together: without a proper plant design, one can never get good beam utilization. When a company decides to build an irradiation facility, there are some major decisions to be made right in the beginning. These decisions can be most important for the long-term success or failure of the irradiation facility, because the company normally will have to live with these decisions during the whole life-time of the irradiation equipment. To start with the decision has to be made whether to select a cobalt-60 irradiation plant or an accelerator irradiation plant. This decision can only be reached after a careful study of the products and the 'weight' and the material of the products the company wants to irradiate. As an old accelerator-man, I tend to personally favor accelerators, although I am very impressed by the newer cobalt-60 pallet irradiation plants from A.E.C.L. I believe that they have a great future in the emerging field of food irradiation. As I have primarily been involved with accelerators during the last 14 years, this paper is only dealing with different design approaches and utilizations of accelerator-plants. (author)

  1. Utilization of thorium in thermal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, K.R.; Nakra, A.N.

    1978-01-01

    Large deposits of thorium are found in India. 233 U produced by neutron capture in 232 Th is a more valuable fuel for thermal reactors than the plutonium that results from capture in 238 U. These two facts are the main reasons for the interest in utilizing thorium in power reactors. But natural thorium does not contain any fissile material and its capture cross section is nearly two and a half times that of 238 U. These have made the fuelling cost high. However, in certain conditions and certain types of reactors the costs are comparable with those using uranium fuel. The relative cost effectiveness of different fuels is discussed. Apart from long term interest, the short term interest of using thorium fuel in RAPP type reactors is also briefly described. Finally the reactor physics experiments using thorium fuel and their comparison with calculations are presented. (author)

  2. Climate conditions in bedded confinement buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confinement buildings are utilized for finishing cattle to allow more efficient collection of animal waste and to buffer animals against adverse climatic conditions. Environmental data were obtained from a 29 m wide x 318 m long bedded confinement building with the long axis oriented east to west. T...

  3. High-utilizing Crohn's disease patients under psychosomatic therapy*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantschek Günther

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Few studies have been published on health care utilization in Crohn's disease and the influence of psychological treatment on high utilizers. Methods The present sub study of a prospective multi center investigation conducted in 87 of 488 consecutive Crohn's disease (CD patients was designed to investigate the influence of the course of Crohn's disease on health care utilization (hospital days (HD and sick leave days (SLD collected by German insurance companies and to examine the conditions of high-utilizing patients. Predictors of health care utilization should be selected. Based on a standardized somatic treatment, high health care utilizing patients of the psychotherapy and control groups should be compared before and after a one-year treatment. Results Multivariate regression analysis identified disease activity at randomization as an important predictor of the clinical course (r2 = 0.28, p 2 = 0.15, p = 0.09. The patients' level of anxiety, depression and lack of control at randomization predicted their health-related quality of life at the end of the study (r2 = 0.51, p 2 = 0.22, p Among high utilizers, a significantly greater drop in HD (p Conclusion The course of Crohn's disease is influenced by psychological as well as somatic factors; especially depression seems important here. A significant drop of health care utilization demonstrates the benefit of psychological treatment in the subgroup of high-utilizing CD patients. Further studies are needed to replicate the findings of the clinical outcome in this CD subgroup.

  4. Simple utility functions with Giffen demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Norman

    2007-01-01

    Simple utility functions with the Giffen property are presented: locally, the demand curve for a good is upward sloping. The utility functions represent continuous, monotone, convex preferences......Simple utility functions with the Giffen property are presented: locally, the demand curve for a good is upward sloping. The utility functions represent continuous, monotone, convex preferences...

  5. Promotion of HANARO Utilization for Year 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, J. M.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, H. R.

    2005-06-01

    To activate the HANARO utilization by expanding HANARO utilization fields, recruiting and training new users. In order to promote the HANARO utilization, the following activities have been performed. The neutron usage fee in HANARO, Achievements of HANARO utilization, Project for Activation of the Research using HANARO, Operation and Management of HANARO Homepage, HANARO Workshop 2004, Management of HANARO related committees, Training of HANARO users, Related activities of HANARO publicity. The related activities to activate HANARO utilization have been carried out successfully. This report summarized the detailed activities to activate the HANARO utilization. They will be useful for expanding HANARO utilization in the near future

  6. Promotion of HANARO utilization for year 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, J. M.; Park, K. B.; Kim, Y. J.

    2004-06-01

    To activate the HANARO utilization by expanding HANARO utilization fields, recruiting and training new users. In order to promote the HANARO utilization, the following activities have been performed. - The neutron usage fee in HANARO - Achievements of HANARO utilization - Project for Activation of the Research using HANARO - Management of HANARO Homepage - HANARO Workshop 2003 - Operation and Management of HANARO related committees - Training of HANARO users - Related activities of HANARO publicity. The related activities to activate HANARO utilization have been carried out successfully. This report summarized the detailed activities to activate the HANARO utilization. They will be useful for expanding HANARO utilization in the near future

  7. Promotion of HANARO utilization for year 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, J. M.; Park, K. B.; Kim, Y. J.

    2003-06-01

    Object and importance to activate the HANARO utilization by expanding HANARO utilization fields, recruiting and training new users. In order to promote the HANARO utilization, the following activities have been performed. The neutron usage fee in HANARO, Achievements of HANARO utilization, Project for activation of the research using HANARO, Management of HANARO homepage, Management of HANARO related committees, Training of HANARO users, Establishment of user-room, Related activities of HANARO publicity. The related activities to activate HANARO utilization have been carried out successfully. This report summarized the detailed activities to activate the HANARO utilization. They will be useful for expanding HANARO utilization in the near future

  8. Promotion of HANARO Utilization for Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, J. M.; Kim, H. R.; Jun, B. J. (and others)

    2007-05-15

    To activate the HANARO utilization by expanding HANARO utilization fields, recruiting and training new users. In order to promote the HANARO utilization, the following activities have been performed. The neutron usage fee in HANARO. Achievements of HANARO utilization. Project for Activation of the Research using HANARO. HANARO Symposium. Survey of the HANARO User Satisfaction Index. Operation and Management of HANARO Server. Management of HANARO related committees. Training of HANARO users. Related activities of HANARO publicity. The related activities to activate HANARO utilization have been carried out successfully. This report summarized the detailed activities to activate the HANARO utilization. They will be useful for expanding HANARO utilization in the near future.

  9. Recent trend in coal utilization technology. Coal utilization workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chon Ho; Son, Ja Ek; Lee, In Chul; Jin, Kyung Tae; Kim, Seong Soo [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The 11th Korea-U.S.A. joint workshop on coal utilization technology was held in somerset, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. from october 2 to 3, 1995. In the opening ceremony, Dr.C. Low-el Miller, associate deputy assistant secretary of office of clean coal technology, U.S.DOE, gave congratulatory remarks and Dr. Young Mok Son, president of KIER, made a keynote address. In this workshop, 30 papers were presented in the fields of emission control technology, advanced power generation systems, and advanced coal cleaning and liquid fuels. Especially, from the Korean side, not only KIER but also other private research institutes and major engineering companies including KEPCO, Daewoo Institute of Construction Technology, Jindo Engineering and Construction Co. Daewoo Institute for Advanced Engineering and universities participated in this workshop, reflecting their great interests. Attendants actively discussed about various coal utilization technologies and exchanged scientific and technical information on the state-of-art clean coal technologies under development. (author)

  10. Cellulase enzyme and biomass utilization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-03

    Jun 3, 2009 ... human population grows and economic development. However, the current .... conditions and the production cost of the related enzyme system. Therefore ... Given the importance of this enzyme to these so many industries,.

  11. Betting on conditionals

    OpenAIRE

    Politzer , Guy; Over , David P; Baratgin , Jean

    2010-01-01

    A study is reported testing two hypotheses about a close parallel relation between indicative conditionals, if A then B, and conditional bets, I bet you that if A then B. The first is that both the indicative conditional and the conditional bet are related to the conditional probability, P(B|A). The second is that de Finetti's three-valued truth table has psychological reality for both types of conditional – true, false, or void for indicative conditionals and win, lose or void for conditiona...

  12. Vision 2021. The utilities future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liere, J van [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1996-12-01

    The electricity industry is gradually making the transition to a free market economy characterized by competition. With the arrival of a more market-oriented structure, the electricity companies have taken measures to reduce costs while retaining reliability and safety of the production and distribution. Today the majority of these efforts are oriented towards optimizing the scope and the structure of the organizations and towards streamlining internal processes in order to improve productivity. Throughout the world, the increasing competition among utilities is accompanied by the unbundling of production, transport, distribution and customer service functions. There is a remarkable similarity between the transitions in the computer industry some years ago (from main frame to personal PC`s) and in the electric utility industry today. The new structure is expected to be less centralized and more dispersed. In the dispersed generation concept the locally deployed power plant must become smaller, more flexible, more efficient and less expensive than today`s power plants. Power generation is gradually changing from a steam cycle (Rankine cycle) via the combined cycle to the gas cycle (Brayton cycle). The fuel used to power the gas turbine is expected to change in the future from high calorific to low calorific gas, generated from biomass, waste, oil residues, blast furnaces, coal, etc. Five new areas to be addressed have been identified that can be characterized as follows: (a) improved utilization of capital-intensive production resources to reduce costs, (b) electrification and the supply of heat to increase sales and market share, (c) sustainable developments to broaden our future resource base, (d) improved efficiency based on the Brayton cycle to increase flexibility, (e) development of energy services with new secondary services to stay in the market. (EG) 10 refs.

  13. Electric utility deregulation - A nuclear opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMella, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    influenced and ultimately determined the price or tariffs for electricity to customers, were generally the same. Utilities revenue requirements were founded upon complex 'cost of service' formulas which emphasized and allowed the recovery of all 'reasonable' costs including operating expenses, taxes, depreciation of investments and additionally assured a reasonable rate or return on all outstanding investments. The consequence was that, through regulation of electric rate design, the ultimate price of electricity was determined by the aggregate of costs to produce it, independent of the forces of supply and demand. Through the examination of the major principles and features of regulated compared to unregulated electric markets such as the 'obligation to serve' and the 'cost of service', this presentation will address and discuss the economic opportunities and risks associated with nuclear power plants operating in deregulated, competitive electric generation markets. In transitioning to competitive markets, a number of key economic questions will be raised that will emphasize nuclear plant economic requirements for a profitable enterprise, addressing factors such as, plant operating performance, market conditions, energy price, key economic measures, investment opportunities, nuclear asset valuation and plant life extension. An economic analysis of a recent nuclear power plant valuation study will be presented including a discussion of key input variables, financial assumptions, economic results and a brief demonstration of an interactive, PC based computer model used for the analysis. A similar model, is currently being considered by the IAEA to evaluate the economics of nuclear power plant life extension along with alternative generation approaches. In closing, a number of short and long term prospects for the future of nuclear power will be discussed including plant life extension and the prognostication of a new electric generation business model concept

  14. Resource utilization during software development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelkowitz, Marvin V.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses resource utilization over the life cycle of software development and discusses the role that the current 'waterfall' model plays in the actual software life cycle. Software production in the NASA environment was analyzed to measure these differences. The data from 13 different projects were collected by the Software Engineering Laboratory at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and analyzed for similarities and differences. The results indicate that the waterfall model is not very realistic in practice, and that as technology introduces further perturbations to this model with concepts like executable specifications, rapid prototyping, and wide-spectrum languages, we need to modify our model of this process.

  15. FAIR VALUE: UTILITY AND LIMITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Gabriel Cristea

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the utility and the limits of the fair value. We believe that any new product must be tried and tested before being imposed on the market and must be accepted by all potential users and those who will be affected, directly or indirectly and its advantages, disadvantages, risks, its cost must be predetermined and analyzed in a comprehensive and objective.We ask: Do financial statements at fair value meet users' expectations? The requirement to use fair value pricing model that was carrying was not accompanied by a parallel examination of its impact on the presentation of accounts.

  16. 236-Z canyon utilization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    The 236-Z canyon contains equipment for repurification of plutonium and recovery of plutonium from scrap material. To meet production requirements of Fast Flux Test Facility/Clinch River Breeder Reactor oxide with the existing plant, several new pieces of equipment will be needed in the future. More storage space and a better accountability system are needed to support this increased production. The available canyon space needs to be utilized to its fullest in order to accommodate the new equipment. The purpose of this document is to identify the new pieces of equipment, show how they fit into the flowsheet, and locate them in the canyon

  17. Transforming your Municipal Electric Utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, P.

    1999-01-01

    A series of overhead viewgraphs accompanied this presentation which focused on what municipalities should and can do to prepare for a competitive energy market in Ontario. Particular attention was given to business strategies, restructuring and transformation of the Municipal Electric Utilities (MEU). Issues and questions regarding ownership were also discussed. Each municipality will have to decide what is the most appropriate governance and organizational structure for their MEU. It was noted that one of the most contentious areas is refinancing and rate structures. Issues regarding merger or partnering options were also discussed. 1 tab

  18. Direct utilization of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide application of geothermal energy for direct utilization is reviewed. This paper is based on the world update for direct-use presented at the World Geothermal Congress 2010 in Bali, Indonesia (WGC2010) which also includes material presented at three world geothermal congresses in Italy, Japan and Turkey (WGC95, WGC2000 and WGC2005). This report is based on country update papers prepared for WGC2010 and data from other sources. Final update papers were received from 70 countries of which 66 reported some direct utilization of geothermal energy for WGC2010. Twelve additional countries were added to the list based on other sources of information. The 78 countries having direct utilization of geothermal energy, is a significant increase from the 72 reported in 2005, the 58 reported in 2000, and the 28 reported in 1995. An estimate of the installed thermal power for direct utilization at the end of 2009, reported from WGC2010 is 48,493 MW th , almost a 72 % increased over the 2005 data, growing at a compound rate of 11.4% annually with a capacity factor of 0.28. The thermal energy used is 423,830 TJ/year (117,740 GWh/yr), about a 55% increase over 2005, growing at a compound rate of 9.2% annually. The distribution of thermal energy used by category is approximately 47.2% for ground-source heat pumps, 25.8% for bathing and swimming (including balneology), 14.9% for space heating (of which 85% is for district heating), 5.5% for greenhouses and open ground heating, 2.8% for industrial process heating, 2.7% for aquaculture pond and raceway heating, 0.4% for agricultural drying, 0.5% for snow melting and cooling, and 0.2% for other uses. Energy savings amounted to 250 million barrels (38 million tonnes) of equivalent oil annually, preventing 33 million tonnes of carbon and 107 million tonnes of CO 2 being released to the atmosphere which includes savings in geothermal heat pump cooling (compared to using fuel oil to generate electricity). (author)

  19. Direct Utilization of Geothermal Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Lund

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The worldwide application of geothermal energy for direct utilization is reviewed. This paper is based on the world update for direct-use presented at the World Geothermal Congress 2010 in Bali, Indonesia (WGC2010 [1] which also includes material presented at three world geothermal congresses in Italy, Japan and Turkey (WGC95, WGC2000 and WGC2005. This report is based on country update papers prepared for WGC2010 and data from other sources. Final update papers were received from 70 countries of which 66 reported some direct utilization of geothermal energy for WGC2010. Twelve additional countries were added to the list based on other sources of information. The 78 countries having direct utilization of geothermal energy, is a significant increase from the 72 reported in 2005, the 58 reported in 2000, and the 28 reported in 1995. An estimate of the installed thermal power for direct utilization at the end of 2009, reported from WGC2010 is 48,493 MWt, almost a 72 % increased over the 2005 data, growing at a compound rate of 11.4% annually with a capacity factor of 0.28. The thermal energy used is 423,830 TJ/year (117,740 GWh/yr, about a 55% increase over 2005, growing at a compound rate of 9.2% annually. The distribution of thermal energy used by category is approximately 47.2% for ground-source heat pumps, 25.8% for bathing and swimming (including balneology, 14.9% for space heating (of which 85% is for district heating, 5.5% for greenhouses and open ground heating, 2.8% for industrial process heating, 2.7% for aquaculture pond and raceway heating, 0.4% for agricultural drying, 0.5% for snow melting and cooling, and 0.2% for other uses. Energy savings amounted to 250 million barrels (38 million tonnes of equivalent oil annually, preventing 33 million tonnes of carbon and 107 million tonnes of CO2 being release to the atmosphere which includes savings in geothermal heat pump cooling (compared to using fuel oil to generate electricity.

  20. Support for cold neutron utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kye Hong; Han, Young Soo; Choi, Sungmin; Choi, Yong; Kwon, Hoon; Lee, Kwang Hee

    2012-06-01

    - Support for experiments by users of cold neutron scattering instrument - Short-term training of current and potential users of cold neutron scattering instrument for their effective use of the instrument - International collaboration for advanced utilization of cold neutron scattering instruments - Selection and training of qualified instrument scientists for vigorous research endeavors and outstanding achievements in experiments with cold neutron - Research on nano/bio materials using cold neutron scattering instruments - Bulk nano structure measurement using small angle neutron scattering and development of analysis technique

  1. Emergency Vehicle Scheduling Problem with Time Utility in Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobing Gan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a flexible emergency rescue system which is chiefly composed of three parts, namely, disaster assistance center, relief vehicles, and disaster areas. A novel objective of utility maximization is used to evaluate the entire system in disasters. Considering the uncertain road conditions in the relief distribution, we implement triangular fuzzy number to calculate the vehicle velocity. As a consequence, a fuzzy mathematical model is built to maximize the utility of emergency rescue system and then converted to the crisp counterpart. Finally, the results of numerical experiments obtained by particle swarm optimization (PSO prove the validity of this proposed mathematical model.

  2. Model franchise agreements with public utilities. Musterkonzessionsvertraege mit Energieversorgungsunternehmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menking, C. (Niedersaechsischer Staedte- und Gemeindebund, Hannover (Germany, F.R.))

    1989-01-01

    In 1987, the Committee of Town and Community Administrations of Lower Saxonia established the task force 'Franchise Agreements'. This is a forum where town and community officials interested in energy issues cooperate. The idea was to improve conditions and participation possibilities for local administrations in contracts with their present utilities, and to draw up, and coordinate with the utilities, a franchise agreement creating possibilities for the communities, inter alia, in the sectors power supply concept, advising on energy conservation, energy generation. A model of a franchise agreement for the electricity sector is presented in its full wording. (orig./HSCH).

  3. Halogenase engineering and its utility in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraley, Amy E; Sherman, David H

    2018-06-15

    Halogenation is commonly used in medicinal chemistry to improve the potency of pharmaceutical leads. While synthetic methods for halogenation present selectivity and reactivity challenges, halogenases have evolved over time to perform selective reactions under benign conditions. The optimization of halogenation biocatalysts has utilized enzyme evolution and structure-based engineering alongside biotransformation in a variety of systems to generate stable site-selective variants. The recent improvements in halogenase-catalyzed reactions has demonstrated the utility of these biocatalysts for industrial purposes, and their ability to achieve a broad substrate scope implies a synthetic tractability with increasing relevance in medicinal chemistry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Maintenance cost avoidance through comprehensive condition monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.P.; McClymonds, S.L.

    1990-01-01

    Condition monitoring, the measurement and trending of a critical parameter for predictive maintenance, has reached new levels of acceptance and application within the utility and manufacturing industry. Commercially available systems extend well beyond traditional vibration-monitoring systems to include such areas as online wear, crack and leak detection, and stress monitoring. The challenge facing industry is to integrate the information generated from condition monitoring. Current studies indicate that the effectiveness of predictive maintenance depends much more on the program that is established to apply the monitoring techniques than on the monitoring equipment itself. This paper presents a five-phase approach to developing a condition monitoring program

  5. Kyoto : implications for utility regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunsky, P.

    2003-01-01

    The author provided a historical perspective of energy use and the role of carbon in the western hemisphere by displaying a series of graphs showing carbon intensity of energy, carbon emissions from energy, and the long path to green power. The 1990s represented a decade of progress. Almost three times as much wind capacity as nuclear capacity was added worldwide in 2001. The main challenge for the 21st century will be to bring under-developed countries into the fold while perpetuating the economic and human progress of the twentieth century. It was emphasized that environmental damage caused by utilities must be reversed. The contemporary context for the Kyoto Protocol was reviewed. Canada's commitment under the Kyoto Protocol is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 6 per cent below 1990 levels. The challenge for utility regulators to meet this commitment was examined. The costs are not entirely excessive. Some of the regulatory issues were discussed, namely revising a broad rate making framework, cost recovery and others. The Kyoto compliance plan was also reviewed with reference to internal options, external options, identification of regulatory barriers, and consideration of greenhouse gas credit markets. figs

  6. Utilizing inheritance in requirements engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaindl, Hermann

    1994-01-01

    The scope of this paper is the utilization of inheritance for requirements specification, i.e., the tasks of analyzing and modeling the domain, as well as forming and defining requirements. Our approach and the tool supporting it are named RETH (Requirements Engineering Through Hypertext). Actually, RETH uses a combination of various technologies, including object-oriented approaches and artificial intelligence (in particular frames). We do not attempt to exclude or replace formal representations, but try to complement and provide means for gradually developing them. Among others, RETH has been applied in the CERN (Conseil Europeen pour la Rechereche Nucleaire) Cortex project. While it would be impossible to explain this project in detail here, it should be sufficient to know that it deals with a generic distributed control system. Since this project is not finished yet, it is difficult to state its size precisely. In order to give an idea, its final goal is to substitute the many existing similar control systems at CERN by this generic approach. Currently, RETH is also tested using real-world requirements for the Pastel Mission Planning System at ESOC in Darmstadt. First, we outline how hypertext is integrated into a frame system in our approach. Moreover, the usefulness of inheritance is demonstrated as performed by the tool RETH. We then summarize our experiences of utilizing inheritance in the Cortex project. Lastly, RETH will be related to existing work.

  7. Chinese Manned Space Utility Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y.

    Since 1992 China has been carrying out a conspicuous manned space mission A utility project has been defined and created during the same period The Utility Project of the Chinese Manned Space Mission involves wide science areas such as earth observation life science micro-gravity fluid physics and material science astronomy space environment etc In the earth observation area it is focused on the changes of global environments and relevant exploration technologies A Middle Revolution Image Spectrometer and a Multi-model Micro-wave Remote Sensor have been developed The detectors for cirrostratus distribution solar constant earth emission budget earth-atmosphere ultra-violet spectrum and flux have been manufactured and tested All of above equipment was engaged in orbital experiments on-board the Shenzhou series spacecrafts Space life science biotechnologies and micro-gravity science were much concerned with the project A series of experiments has been made both in ground laboratories and spacecraft capsules The environmental effect in different biological bodies in space protein crystallization electrical cell-fusion animal cells cultural research on separation by using free-low electrophoresis a liquid drop Marangoni migration experiment under micro-gravity as well as a set of crystal growth and metal processing was successfully operated in space The Gamma-ray burst and high-energy emission from solar flares have been explored A set of particle detectors and a mass spectrometer measured

  8. Managing change in nuclear utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    The nuclear power industry has undergone change since inception, but never so much as now. The rewards for proactively changing in anticipation of emerging demands are great, but the cost of failure is also great. Today nuclear plants are being shut down by socio-political and economic processes. The survival of the technology as a clean energy source for the future depends on the demonstration of long term safety to the public, protection of the environment, and economic superiority to competing energy sources. The overriding influence on these factors is strong management of the business with effective regulation. In particular it is necessary for both utility and regulator to believe that enhancing safety is part of being successful. This publication has been developed for all levels of management who are developing and implementing changes within their areas of responsibility. The safety conscious, continuous improvement, management culture, which has proven successful in today's nuclear business, has taken time to develop. Many utilities have difficulty sustaining this culture during the transitions that are intrinsic to change. Properly managed however, changes can enhance nuclear safety, plant reliability and cost competitiveness, from the design stage to decommissioning. Change has no respect for timing and regardless of the level of experience managers may have in its management, large scale change is confronting every nuclear utility world wide. These take the form of government policy changes, open market demands, privatization with the demand for increased shareholder returns, regulatory and social pressures, and economic and political transition. The danger from such issues for the nuclear company executive and the regulator is that they are powerful distractions, particularly for those executives who are not experienced in the unique managerial requirements of the nuclear business. This report gathers the experience of Member States into an array of

  9. Managing change in nuclear utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The nuclear power industry has undergone change since inception, but never so much as now. The rewards for proactively changing in anticipation of emerging demands are great, but the cost of failure is also great. Today nuclear plants are being shut down by socio-political and economic processes. The survival of the technology as a clean energy source for the future depends on the demonstration of long term safety to the public, protection of the environment, and economic superiority to competing energy sources. The overriding influence on these factors is strong management of the business with effective regulation. In particular it is necessary for both utility and regulator to believe that enhancing safety is part of being successful. This publication has been developed for all levels of management who are developing and implementing changes within their areas of responsibility. The safety conscious, continuous improvement, management culture, which has proven successful in today's nuclear business, has taken time to develop. Many utilities have difficulty sustaining this culture during the transitions that are intrinsic to change. Properly managed however, changes can enhance nuclear safety, plant reliability and cost competitiveness, from the design stage to decommissioning. Change has no respect for timing and regardless of the level of experience managers may have in its management, large scale change is confronting every nuclear utility world wide. These take the form of government policy changes, open market demands, privatization with the demand for increased shareholder returns, regulatory and social pressures, and economic and political transition. The danger from such issues for the nuclear company executive and the regulator is that they are powerful distractions, particularly for those executives who are not experienced in the unique managerial requirements of the nuclear business. This report gathers the experience of Member States into an array of

  10. Medicare Payments, How Much Do Chronic Conditions Matter

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — There has been a growing interest in understanding the utilization patterns of patients with chronic conditions. Even though there is a lack of standard definition...

  11. Health workers' perception on the work, working conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the philosophy that ensures proper utilization of human resources that would ... on the work, working conditions, compensation, and career development in a ... of human resources management practices to change the negative perceptions ...

  12. NON-EXPECTED UTILITY THEORIES: WEIGHTED EXPECTED, RANK DEPENDENT, AND CUMULATIVE PROSPECT THEORY UTILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Tuthill, Jonathan W.; Frechette, Darren L.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the failings of expected utility including the Allais paradox and expected utility's inadequate one dimensional characterization of risk. Three alternatives to expected utility are discussed at length; weighted expected utility, rank dependent utility, and cumulative prospect theory. Each alternative is capable of explaining Allais paradox type problems and permits more sophisticated multi dimensional risk preferences.

  13. New record in peat utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Increment of peat utilization that started in 1990 continued also in 1991, due to which new record was achieved. Peat delivery increased 11.2 % from 16.1 million m 3 in 1990 to 17.9 million m 3 in 1991. The portion of energy peat was 16.4 million m 3 , and the portion of peat for other purposes 1.5 million m 3 . The energy content of fuel peat was 15.8 TWh, of which 13.8 TWh was milled peat and 2.0 TWh sod peat. The main portion of energy peat was used in communal back-pressure power plants for production of electricity and district heat. The second largest utilizer was industry. The rests 0.3 TWh (2 %) was delivered to private small scale utilization and export. About 88 000 MWh of sod peat was exported to Sweden. The portion of horticultural peat of the peat delivered for other purposes than energy production was 662 000 m 3 , of which only 260 000 m 3 was used in Finland and 408 000 m 3 was exported. Agriculture is the main user of peat outside the energy production. Weakly humified peat was used as litter and as absorber for slurrified manure about 286 000 m 3 . The value of the deliveries of peat industry exeeded 800 million FIM, of which the portion of milled peat was about 650 million FIM, the portion of sod peat about 95 million FIM, and the portion of domestic deliveries of horticultural peat 30 million FIM. The export of peat was 36 million FIM. Peat production in 1991 was 10.605 million m 3 , which is nearly a half of the production of 1990. The decrease was caused by both poor weather of may-june 1991 and the large peat supplies from the year 1990. About 60 % of the production target of 1991 was achieved. The production of sod peat increased by over 50 % from 736 000 m 3 in 1990 to 1 147 000 m 3 in 1991

  14. Challenges in sensor development for the electric utility industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Barry H.

    1999-01-01

    The electric utility industry is reducing operating costs in order to prepare for deregulation. The reduction in operating cost has meant a reduction in manpower. The ability to utilize remaining maintenance staff more effectively and to stay competitive in a deregulated environment has therefore become critical. In recent years, the industry has moved away from routine or periodic maintenance to predictive or condition based maintenance. This requires the assessment of equipment condition by frequent testing and inspection; a requirement that is incompatible with cost reduction. To overcome this dilemma, industry trends are toward condition monitoring, whereby the health of apparatus is monitored continuously. This requires the installation of sensors hr transducers on power equipment and the data taken forwarded to an intelligent device for further processing. These devices then analyze the data and make evaluations based on parameter levels or trends, in an attempt to predict possible deterioration. This continuous monitoring allows the electric utility to schedule maintenance on an as needed basis. The industry has been faced with many challenges in sensor design. The measurement of physical, chemical and electrical parameters under extreme conditions of electric fields, magnetic fields, temperature, corrosion, etc. is extensive. This paper will give an overview of these challenges and the solutions adopted for apparatus such as power transformers, circuit breakers, boilers, cables, batteries, and rotating machinery.

  15. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Childhood Health Utilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Joseph; Kim, Sung Wook; Ungar, Wendy J; Tsiplova, Kate; Madan, Jason; Petrou, Stavros

    2018-04-01

    A common feature of most reviews or catalogues of health utilities has been their focus on adult health states or derivation of values from adult populations. More generally, utility measurement in or on behalf of children has been constrained by several methodological concerns. The objective of this study was to conduct the first comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of primary utility data for childhood conditions and descriptors, and to determine the effects of methodological factors on childhood utilities. The review followed PRISMA guidelines. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, PsycINFO, EconLit, CINAHL and Cochrane Library were searched for primary studies reporting health utilities for childhood conditions or descriptors using direct or indirect valuation methods. The Paediatric Economic Database Evaluation (PEDE) Porject was also searched for cost-utility analyses with primary utility values. Mean or median utilities for each of the main samples were catalogued, and weighted averages of utilities for each health condition were estimated, by valuation method. Mixed-effects meta-regression using hierarchical linear modeling was conducted for the most common valuation methods to estimate the utility decrement for each health condition category relative to general childhood population health, as well as the independent effects of methodological factors. The literature searches resulted in 272 eligible studies. These yielded 3,414 utilities when all sub-groups were considered, covering all ICD-10 chapters relevant to childhood health, 19 valuation methods, 12 respondent types, 8 modes of administration, and data from 36 countries. A total of 1,191 utility values were obtained when only main study samples were considered, and these were catalogued by health condition or descriptor, and methodological characteristics. 1,073 mean utilities for main samples were used for fixed-effects meta-analysis by health condition and valuation method. Mixed

  16. Energy conversion and utilization technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The DOE Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) Program continues its efforts to expand the generic knowledge base in emerging technological areas that support energy conservation initiatives by both the DOE end-use sector programs and US private industry. ECUT addresses specific problems associated with the efficiency limits and capabilities to use alternative fuels in energy conversion and end-use. Research is aimed at understanding and improving techniques, processes, and materials that push the thermodynamic efficiency of energy conversion and usage beyond the state of the art. Research programs cover the following areas: combustion, thermal sciences, materials, catalysis and biocatalysis, and tribology. Six sections describe the status of direct contact heat exchange; the ECUT biocatalysis project; a computerized tribology information system; ceramic surface modification; simulation of internal combustion engine processes; and materials-by-design. These six sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the database. (CK)

  17. Electret dosimeter utilizing gas multiplication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeya, M.; Miki, T.

    1980-01-01

    It was found that the high electric field around the surface of an electret leads to cascade multiplication of the ionization process in a surrounding gas. Very sensitive charge decay constants of the order of 1mrad, were obtained for electrets composed of polyvinyliden fluoride or teflon polymers. The reduced charge is stable and can be utilized in personnel dosimetry. A simple pocket chamber dosimeter is described consisting of a small speaker or buzzer, a cylindrical chamber filled with air, argon or other gases, a polymer thermoelectret foil and an electrode. The sonic vibration of the foil induces an alternating charge on the electrode which is amplified and detected. The feasibility of this dosimeter and its shock and vibration resistance have been demonstrated. (author)

  18. Geothermal energy utilization and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Dickson, Mary H; Fanelli, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Geothermal energy refers to the heat contained within the Earth that generates geological phenomena on a planetary scale. Today, this term is often associated with man's efforts to tap into this vast energy source. Geothermal Energy: utilization and technology is a detailed reference text, describing the various methods and technologies used to exploit the earth's heat. Beginning with an overview of geothermal energy and the state of the art, leading international experts in the field cover the main applications of geothermal energy, including: electricity generation space and district heating space cooling greenhouse heating aquaculture industrial applications The final third of the book focuses upon environmental impact and economic, financial and legal considerations, providing a comprehensive review of these topics. Each chapter is written by a different author, but to a set style, beginning with aims and objectives and ending with references, self-assessment questions and answers. Case studies are includ...

  19. Virginia ADS consortium - thorium utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myneni, Ganapati

    2015-01-01

    A Virginia ADS consortium, consisting of Virginia Universities (UVa, VCU, VT), Industry (Casting Analysis Corporation, GEM*STAR, MuPlus Inc.), Jefferson Lab and not-for-profit ISOHIM, has been organizing International Accelerator-Driven Sub-Critical Systems (ADS) and Thorium Utilization (ThU) workshops. The third workshop of this series was hosted by VCU in Richmond, Virginia, USA Oct 2014 with CBMM and IAEA sponsorship and was endorsed by International Thorium Energy Committee (IThEC), Geneva and Virginia Nuclear Energy Consortium Authority. In this presentation a brief summary of the successful 3 rd International ADS and ThU workshop proceedings and review the worldwide ADS plans and/or programs is given. Additionally, a report on new start-ups on Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) systems is presented. Further, a discussion on potential simplistic fertile 232 Th to fissile 233 U conversion is made

  20. News technology utilization fossil fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blišanová Monika

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Fossil fuel – “alternative energy“ is coal, petroleum, natural gas. Petroleum and natural gas are scarce resources, but they are delimited. Reserves petroleum will be depleted after 39 years and reserves natural gas after 60 years.World reserves coal are good for another 240 years. Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel. It is the least expensive energy source for generating electricity. Many environmental problems associated with use of coal:in coal production, mining creates environmental problems.On Slovakia representative coal only important internal fuel – power of source and coal is produced in 5 locality. Nowadays, oneself invest to new technology on utilization coal. Perspective solution onself shows UCG, IGCC.

  1. Advanced clean coal utilization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moritomi, Hiroshi [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The most important greenhouse gas is CO{sub 2} from coal utilization. Ways of mitigating CO{sub 2} emissions include the use of alternative fuels, using renewable resources and increasing the efficiency of power generation and end use. Adding to such greenhouse gas mitigation technologies, post combustion control by removing CO{sub 2} from power station flue gases and then storing or disposing it will be available. Although the post combustion control have to be evaluated in a systematic manner relating them to whether they are presently available technology, to be available in the near future or long term prospects requiring considerable development, it is considered to be a less promising option owing to the high cost and energy penalty. By contrast, abatement technologies aimed at improving conversion efficiency or reducing energy consumption will reduce emissions while having their own commercial justification.

  2. Utility unbundling : large consumer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, C.

    1997-01-01

    The perspectives of Sunoco as a large user of electric power on utility unbundling were presented. Sunoco's Sarnia refinery runs up an energy bill of over $60 million per year for electricity, natural gas (used both as a feedstock as well as a fuel), natural gas liquids and steam. As a large customer Sunoco advocates unbundling of all services, leaving only the 'pipes and wires' as true monopolies. In their view, regulation distorts the market place and prevents the lower prices that would result from competition as has been seen in the airline and telephone industries. Sunoco's expectation is that in the post-deregulated environment large and small consumers will have a choice of energy supplier, and large consumers will increasingly turn to co-generation as the most desirable way of meeting their power needs

  3. Conditional Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    of the differences in results between studies. Taking all available studies in consideration, we find no support for conditionality with respect to policy, while conditionality regarding aid itself is dubious. However, the results differ depending on the authors’ institutional affiliation....

  4. Energetics Conditioning Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetics Conditioning Facility is used for long term and short term aging studies of energetic materials. The facility has 10 conditioning chambers of which 2...

  5. Solar energy utilization by physical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M

    1974-04-19

    On the basis of the estimated contributions of these differing methods of the utilization of solar energy, their total energy delivery impact on the projected U.S. energy economy (9) can be evaluated (Fig. 5). Despite this late energy impact, the actual sales of solar energy utilization equipment will be significant at an early date. Potential sales in photovoltaic arrays alone could exceed $400 million by 1980, in order to meet the projected capacity buildup (10). Ultimately, the total energy utilization equipment industry should attain an annual sales volume of several tens of billion dollars in the United States, comparable to that of several other energy related industries. Varying amounts of technology development are required to assure the technical and economic feasibility of the different solar energy utilization methods. Several of these developments are far enough along that the paths can be analyzed from the present time to the time of demonstration of technical and economic feasibility, and from there to production and marketing readiness. After that point, a period of market introduction will follow, which will differ in duration according to the type of market addressed. It may be noted that the present rush to find relief from the current energy problem, or to be an early leader in entering a new market, can entail shortcuts in sound engineering practice, particularly in the areas of design for durability and easy maintenance, or of proper application engineering. The result can be loss of customer acceptance, as has been experienced in the past with various products, including solar water heaters. Since this could cause considerable delay in achieving the expected total energy impact, it will be important to spend adequate time at this stage for thorough development. Two other aspects are worth mentioning. The first is concerned with the economic impacts. Upon reflection on this point, one will observe that largescale solar energy utilization will

  6. Deprival value: information utility analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article contributes to the perception that the users’ learning process plays a key role in order to apply an accounting concept and this involves a presentation that fits its informative potential, free of previous accounting fixations. Deprival value is a useful measure for managerial and corporate purposes, it may be applied to the current Conceptual Framework of the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB. This study analyzes its utility, taking into account cognitive aspects. Also known as value to the business, deprival value is a measurement system that followed a path where it was misunderstood, confused with another one, it faced resistance to be implemented and fell into disuse; everything that a standardized measurement method tries to avoid. In contrast, deprival value has found support in the academy and in specific applications, such as those related to the public service regulation. The accounting area has been impacted by sophistication of the measurement methods that increasingly require the ability to analyze accounting facts on an economic basis, at the risk of loss of their information content. This development becomes possible only when the potential of a measurement system is known and it is feasible to be achieved. This study consists in a theoretical essay based on literature review to discuss its origin, presentation, and application. Considering the concept’s cognitive difficulties, deprival value was analyzed, as well as its corresponding heteronym, value to the business, in order to explain some of these changes. The concept’s utility was also explored through cross-analysis with impairment and the scheme developed was applied to actual economic situations faced by a company listed on stock exchange.

  7. Laboratory cost and utilization containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, J W; Root, J M; White, D C

    1991-01-01

    The authors analyzed laboratory costs and utilization in 3,771 cases of Medicare inpatients admitted to a New England academic medical center ("the Hospital") from October 1, 1989 to September 30, 1990. The data were derived from the Hospital's Decision Resource System comprehensive data base. The authors established a historical reference point for laboratory costs as a percentage of total inpatient costs using 1981-82 Medicare claims data and cost report information. Inpatient laboratory costs were estimated at 9.5% of total inpatient costs for pre-Diagnostic Related Groups (DRGs) Medicare discharges. Using this reference point and adjusting for the Hospital's 1990 case mix, the "expected" laboratory cost was 9.3% of total cost. In fact, the cost averaged 11.5% (i.e., 24% above the expected cost level), and costs represented an even greater percentage of DRG reimbursement at 12.9%. If we regard the reimbursement as a total cost target (to eliminate losses from Medicare), then that 12.9% is 39% above the "expected" laboratory proportion of 9.3%. The Hospital lost an average of $1,091 on each DRG inpatient. The laboratory contributed 29% to this loss per case. Compared to other large hospitals, the Hospital was slightly (3%) above the mean direct cost per on-site test and significantly (58%) above the mean number of inpatient tests per inpatient day compared to large teaching hospitals. The findings suggest that careful laboratory cost analyses will become increasingly important as the proportion of patients reimbursed in a fixed manner grows. The future may hold a prospective zero-based laboratory budgeting process based on predictable patterns of DRG admissions or other fixed-reimbursement admission and laboratory utilization patterns.

  8. Enumeration of petroleum hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, S.; Barot, M.; Levine, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    In-situ biological treatment is one among a number of emerging technologies that may be applied to the remediation of contaminated soils and groundwater. In 1985, a surface spill of 1,500 gallons of dielectric transformer oil at the Sandia National Laboratories (HERMES II facility) resulted in contamination of soil up to depths of 160 feet. The extent of contamination and site characteristics favored the application of in-situ bioremediation as a potential remedial technology. The purpose of this research was to enumerate indigenous microbial populations capable of degrading petroleum hydrocarbons. Microbial enumeration and characterization methods suitably adapted for hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria were used as an indicator of the presence of viable microbial consortia in excavated oil samples with hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations ranging from 300 to 26,850 ppm. Microbial activity was quantified by direct and streak plating soil samples on silica gel media. Effects of toxicity and temperature were studied using batch cultures of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (selectively isolated in an enrichment medium), at temperatures of 20 and 35 C. It was concluded from this study that it is possible to isolate native microorganisms from contaminated soils from depths of 60 to 160 feet, and with oil concentration ranging from 300 to 26,850 ppm. About 62% of the microorganisms isolated form the contaminated soil were capable of using contaminant oil as a substrate for growth and metabolism under aerobic conditions. Growth rates were observed to be 50% higher for the highest contaminant concentration at 20 C. Resistance to toxicity to contaminant oil was also observed to be greater at 20 C than at 35 C

  9. Low Fertility Preservation Utilization Among Transgender Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahata, Leena; Tishelman, Amy C; Caltabellotta, Nicole M; Quinn, Gwendolyn P

    2017-07-01

    Research demonstrates a negative psychosocial impact of infertility among otherwise healthy adults, and distress among adolescents facing the prospect of future infertility due to various medical conditions and treatments that impair reproductive health. Guidelines state that providers should counsel transgender youth about potential infertility and fertility preservation (FP) options prior to initiation of hormone therapy. The purpose of this study was to examine the rates of fertility counseling and utilization of FP among a cohort of adolescents with gender dysphoria seen at a large gender clinic. An Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective review of electronic medical records was conducted of all patients with ICD-9/10 codes for gender dysphoria referred to Pediatric Endocrinology for hormone therapy (puberty suppression and/or cross-sex hormones) from January 2014 to August 2016. Seventy-eight patients met inclusion criteria. Five children were prepubertal, no hormone therapy was considered, and they were therefore excluded. Of the remaining 73 patients, 72 had documented fertility counseling prior to initiation of hormone therapy and 2 subjects attempted FP; 45% of subjects mentioned a desire or plan to adopt, and 21% said they had never wanted to have children. Utilization rates of FP are low among transgender adolescents. More research is needed to understand parenthood goals among transgender youth at different ages and developmental stages and to explore the impact of gender dysphoria on decision-making about FP and parenthood. Discussions about infertility risk, FP, and other family building options should be prioritized in this vulnerable adolescent population. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Utilization of nuclear research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Full text: Report on an IAEA interregional training course, Budapest, Hungary, 5-30 November 1979. The course was attended by 19 participants from 16 Member States. Among the 28 training courses which the International Atomic Energy Agency organized within its 1979 programme of technical assistance was the Interregional Training Course on the Utilization of Nuclear Research Reactors. This course was held at the Nuclear Training Reactor (a low-power pool-type reactor) of the Technical University, Budapest, Hungary, from 5 to 30 November 1979 and it was complemented by a one-week Study Tour to the Nuclear Research Centre in Rossendorf near Dresden, German Democratic Republic. The training course was very successful, with 19 participants attending from 16 Member States - Bangladesh, Bolivia, Czechoslovakia, Ecuador, Egypt, India, Iraq, Korean Democratic People's Republic, Morocco, Peru, Philippines, Spain, Thailand, Turkey, Vietnam and Yugoslavia. Selected invited lecturers were recruited from the USA and Finland, as well as local scientists from Hungarian institutions. During the past two decades or so, many research reactors have been put into operation around the world, and the demand for well qualified personnel to run and fully utilize these facilities has increased accordingly. Several developing countries have already acquired small- and medium-size research reactors mainly for isotope production, research in various fields, and training, while others are presently at different stages of planning and installation. Through different sources of information, such as requests to the IAEA for fellowship awards and experts, it became apparent that many research reactors and their associated facilities are not being utilized to their full potential in many of the developing countries. One reason for this is the lack of a sufficient number of trained professionals who are well acquainted with all the capabilities that a research reactor can offer, both in research and

  11. Insider Models with Finite Utility in Markets with Jumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohatsu-Higa, Arturo; Yamazato, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    In this article we consider, under a Lévy process model for the stock price, the utility optimization problem for an insider agent whose additional information is the final price of the stock blurred with an additional independent noise which vanishes as the final time approaches. Our main interest is establishing conditions under which the utility of the insider is finite. Mathematically, the problem entails the study of a “progressive” enlargement of filtration with respect to random measures. We study the jump structure of the process which leads to the conclusion that in most cases the utility of the insider is finite and his optimal portfolio is bounded. This can be explained financially by the high risks involved in models with jumps.

  12. Comprehensive Smart Grid Planning in a Regulated Utility Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Matthew; Liao, Yuan; Du, Yan

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the tools and exercises used during the Kentucky Smart Grid Roadmap Initiative in a collaborative electric grid planning process involving state regulators, public utilities, academic institutions, and private interest groups. The mandate of the initiative was to assess the existing condition of smart grid deployments in Kentucky, to enhance understanding of smart grid concepts by stakeholders, and to develop a roadmap for the deployment of smart grid technologies by the jurisdictional utilities of Kentucky. Through involvement of many important stakeholder groups, the resultant Smart Grid Deployment Roadmap proposes an aggressive yet achievable strategy and timetable designed to promote enhanced availability, security, efficiency, reliability, affordability, sustainability and safety of the electricity supply throughout the state while maintaining Kentucky's nationally competitive electricity rates. The models and methods developed for this exercise can be utilized as a systematic process for the planning of coordinated smart grid deployments.

  13. Modelling classroom conditions with different boundary conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marbjerg, Gerd Høy; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    A model that combines image source modelling and acoustical radiosity with complex boundary condition, thus including phase shifts on reflection has been developed. The model is called PARISM (Phased Acoustical Radiosity and Image Source Model). It has been developed in order to be able to model...

  14. Watershed condition [Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; Jonathan W. Long; Malchus B. Baker

    2012-01-01

    Managers of the Prescott National Forest are obliged to evaluate the conditions of watersheds under their jurisdiction in order to guide informed decisions concerning grazing allotments, forest and woodland management, restoration treatments, and other management initiatives. Watershed condition has been delineated by contrasts between “good” and “poor” conditions (...

  15. Utility Energy Services Contracts Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-08-01

    This document describes best practices in the use of Utility Energy Services Contracts. The recommendations were generated by a group of innovative energy managers in many successful projects. The topics include project financing, competition between utility franchises, and water conservation.

  16. Operating Room Utilization at Frederick Memorial Hospital

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edwards, Jonathan A

    2007-01-01

    .... A logistical regression analysis was used to identify the impact of variables on operating room utilization rates and therefore help explain how or why some operating rooms incurred higher utilization rates than others...

  17. Utility Bill Insert for Wastewater Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intended for use by wastewater and water supply utilities, one side of the utility bill insert has information for customers that discharge to sanitary sewer systems; the other side is for customers with septic systems.

  18. UTILIZATION OF 5Es' CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACH FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    learning, the effective utilization of which can enhance biology teaching and learning. This paper focused on how ... KEYWORDS: Utilization, 5Es Constructivist approach, difficult concepts, Biology. ... gives hope to the development of the deep.

  19. Evaluating Utility in Diagnostic Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harber, Jean R.

    1981-01-01

    The utility of the procedures special educators apply in making decisions about the identification of handicapped individuals has not been thoroughly studied. The paper examines the utility of diagnostic decision making from the perspective of receiver operating curve analysis. (Author)

  20. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Karen; Vasquez, Deb

    2017-01-01

    The Federal Energy Management Program's 'Utility Energy Service Contracts: Enabling Documents' provide legislative information and materials that clarify the authority for federal agencies to enter into utility energy service contracts, or UESCs.

  1. Differences in root distribution, nutrient acquisition and nutrient utilization by tropical forage species grown in degraded hillside soil conditions¹ Diferencias en la distribución de raíces, absorción y utilización de nutrientes por especies forrajeras tropicales en condiciones de suelos degradados de ladera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnulfo Gómez-Carabalí

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Low nutrient availability, especially phosphorus (P and nitrogen (N supply is the major limitation to forage production in acid infertile soils of the tropics. A field study was conducted at the farm ‘La Esperanza’ located in Mondomo, Department of Cauca, in the coffee growing zone of Colombia. The main objective was to determine differences in root distribution, nutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S acquisition and nutrient utilization of one C4 forage grass (Brachiaria dictyoneura and two C3 forage legumes (Arachis pintoi and Centrosema macrocarpum grown under two fertilization levels, cultivated either in monoculture or in association and harvested at four different ages.There were no significant differences in root biomass among the grass and legumes and their combinations. The native vegetation had the lowest root biomass; while the introduced grass (B. dictyoneura had the highest root length density among all materials at all depths and ages and the native vegetation had the highest specific root length. As expected, nutrient uptake increased with age and with high fertilization in all species. Centrosema macrocarpun had the highest N and Ca uptake among all plant materials tested. Uptake of P, K and Mg was greater in the grass B. dictyoneura than in the other plant species and combination planting at all ages. On the other hand, the grass had the lowest Ca uptake. The grass and its mixture with the legumes A. pintoi and C. macrocarpun had the highest S uptake. A highly significant (pLa baja disponibilidad de nutrientes, especialmente fósforo (P y nitrógeno (N es el mayor limitante para la producción de forrajes en los suelos ácidos de baja fertilidad del trópico. En la finca La Esperanza. localizada en Mondomo, departamento del Cauca, zona cafetera de Colombia, se llevo a cabo un estudio con el objeto de determinar las diferencias en la distribución de raíces, absorción y utilización de nutrientes (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, y S de una gram

  2. Quantifying the financial impacts of net-metered PV on utilities and ratepayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satchwell, Andrew; Mills, Andrew; Barbose, Galen

    2015-01-01

    Deployment of customer-sited photovoltaics (PV) in the United States has expanded rapidly in recent years, driven by falling PV system prices, the advent of customer financing options, and various forms of policy support at the federal, state, and local levels. With the success of these efforts, heated debates have surfaced in a number of U.S. states about the impacts of customer-sited PV on utility shareholders and ratepayers. We performed a scoping analysis using a financial model to quantify the financial impacts of customer-sited PV on utility shareholders and ratepayers and to assess the magnitude of these impacts under alternative utility conditions. We find that customer-sited PV generally reduces utility collected revenues greater than reductions in costs leading to a revenue erosion effect and lost future earnings opportunities. We also find that average retail rates increase as utility costs are spread over a relatively smaller sales base. We analyze these results under various assumptions about utility operating and regulatory environments and find that these impacts can vary greatly depending upon the specific circumstances of the utility. Based on this analysis, we highlight potential implications for policymakers and identify key issues warranting further analysis. - Highlights: • Customer-sited PV erodes utility revenues and avoids future utility investments. • Reductions in utility sales greater than utility costs increases average rates. • Impacts of customer-sited PV can vary depending on specific circumstances of utility

  3. Urban ecology and the municipal utilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    1998-01-01

    Current management of municipal utilities for energy, water and solid waste is often in conflict with the ideas of ecological demonstrationprojects. The writer argue there is a need of transformation within municipal utilities and a need of new planning tools......Current management of municipal utilities for energy, water and solid waste is often in conflict with the ideas of ecological demonstrationprojects. The writer argue there is a need of transformation within municipal utilities and a need of new planning tools...

  4. The effect of nonlinear utility on behaviour in repeated prisoner’s dilemmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assen, van M.A.L.M.; Snijders, C.C.P.

    2010-01-01

    The present study focuses on the effect of agents’ utility on their cooperation in indefinitely repeated two-person prisoner’s dilemma games (PDs). A game-theoretical analysis suggests that conditions for cooperation in the PDs improve with concavity of utility, with increasing risk aversion, and

  5. Efficient utilization of crude glycerol as fermentation substrate in the synthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    One refined and 2 crude glycerol samples were utilized to produce poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) by Pseudomonas oleovorans NRRL B-14682. Fermentation conditions were determined to efficiently utilize glycerol while maintaining PHB yields. A batch culture protocol including 1% glycerol and an aerati...

  6. Trends in Utility Green Pricing Programs (2005)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Brown, E.

    2006-10-01

    This report presents year-end 2005 data on utility green pricing programs, and examines trends in consumer response and program implementation over time. The data in this report, which were obtained via a questionnaire distributed to utility green pricing program managers, can be used by utilities to benchmark the success of their green power programs.

  7. 49 CFR 218.22 - Utility employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Utility employee. 218.22 Section 218.22... employee. (a) A utility employee shall be subject to the Hours of Service Act, and the requirements for... parts 217, 219, and 228 of this chapter. (b) A utility employee shall perform service as a member of...

  8. Integration of SPS with utility system networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaupang, B.M.

    1980-06-01

    This paper will discuss the integration of SPS power in electric utility power systems. Specifically treated will be the nature of the power output variations from the spacecraft to the rectenna, the operational characteristics of the rectenna power and the impacts on the electric utility system from utilizing SPS power to serve part of the system load.

  9. Multiservice utility plug for remote fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldmann, L.H. Jr.; Jensen, D.A.

    1979-10-01

    This paper presents the design of a multiservice utility plug and drive system to be used for reliably engaging and disengaging all utility connections automatically that serve large portable equipment modules. The modules are arranged into a fuel processing production line within the Fuels and Materials Examination Laboratory. The utility plugs allow the modules to be easily replaced, rearranged or removed for maintenance

  10. European Utility Requirements: European nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komsi, M.; Patrakka, E.

    1997-01-01

    The work procedure and the content of the European Utility Requirements (EUR) concerning the future LWRs is described in the article. European Utility Requirements, produced by utilities in a number of European countries, is a document specifying the details relating to engineered safety, operating performance, reliability and economics of the reactors to be built by manufacturers for the European market

  11. Proceedings: 1993 fuel oil utilization workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The primary objective of the Workshop was to utilize the experiences of utility personnel and continue the interchange of information related to fuel oil issues. Participants also identified technical problem areas in which EPRI might best direct its efforts in research and development of fuel oil utilization and to improve oil-fired steam generating systems' performance. Speakers presented specific fuel projects conducted at their particular utilities, important issues in the utilization of fuel oil, studies conducted or currently in the process of being completed, and information on current and future regulations for fuel utilization. Among the major topics addressed at the 1993 Fuel Oil Utilization Workshop were burner and ESP improvements for the reduction of particulate and NO x emissions, practical experience in utilization of low API gravity residual fuel oils, the use of models to predict the spread of oil spills on land, implementing OPA 90 preparedness and response strategies planning, a report on the annual Utility Oil Buyers Conference, ASTM D-396 specification for No. 6 fuel oil, the utilization of Orimulsion reg-sign in utility boilers, recent progress on research addressing unburned carbon and opacity from oil-fired utility boilers, EPRI's hazardous air pollutant monitoring and implications for residual fuel oil, and the feasibility of toxic metals removal from residual fuel oils. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  12. Clinical utility of a 377 gene custom next-generation sequencing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    JEN BEVILACQUA

    2017-07-26

    Jul 26, 2017 ... Clinical utility of a 377 gene custom next-generation sequencing epilepsy panel ... number of genes, making it a very attractive option for a condition as .... clinical value of various test offerings to guide decision making.

  13. Conditional uncertainty principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gour, Gilad; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Kłobus, Waldemar; Łodyga, Justyna; Narasimhachar, Varun

    2018-04-01

    We develop a general operational framework that formalizes the concept of conditional uncertainty in a measure-independent fashion. Our formalism is built upon a mathematical relation which we call conditional majorization. We define conditional majorization and, for the case of classical memory, we provide its thorough characterization in terms of monotones, i.e., functions that preserve the partial order under conditional majorization. We demonstrate the application of this framework by deriving two types of memory-assisted uncertainty relations, (1) a monotone-based conditional uncertainty relation and (2) a universal measure-independent conditional uncertainty relation, both of which set a lower bound on the minimal uncertainty that Bob has about Alice's pair of incompatible measurements, conditioned on arbitrary measurement that Bob makes on his own system. We next compare the obtained relations with their existing entropic counterparts and find that they are at least independent.

  14. Distributed photovoltaic systems - Addressing the utility interface issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firstman, S. I.; Vachtsevanos, G. J.

    This paper reviews work conducted in the United States on the impact of dispersed photovoltaic sources upon utility operations. The photovoltaic (PV) arrays are roof-mounted on residential houses and connected, via appropriate power conditioning equipment, to the utility grid. The presence of such small (4-6 Kw) dispersed generators on the distribution network raises questions of a technical, economic and institutional nature. After a brief identification of utility interface issues, the paper addresses such technical concerns as protection of equipment and personnel safety, power quality and utility operational stability. A combination of experimental and analytical approaches has been adopted to arrive at solutions to these problems. Problem areas, under various PV system penetration scenarios, are identified and conceptual designs of protection and control equipment and operating policies are developed so that system reliability is maintained while minimizing capital costs. It is hoped that the resolution of balance-of-system and grid interface questions will ascertain the economic viability of photovoltaic systems and assist in their widespread utilization in the future.

  15. Stakeholder needs for ground penetrating radar utility location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, A. M.; Rogers, C. D. F.; Chapman, D. N.; Metje, N.; Castle, J.

    2009-04-01

    In the UK alone there are millions of miles of underground utilities with often inaccurate, incomplete, or non-existent location records that cause significant health and safety problems for maintenance personnel, together with the potential for large, unnecessary, social and financial costs for their upkeep and repair. This has led to increasing use of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) for utility location, but without detailed consideration of the degree of location accuracy required by stakeholders — i.e. all those directly involved in streetworks ranging from utility owners to contractors and surveyors and government departments. In order to ensure that stakeholder requirements are incorporated into a major new UK study, entitled Mapping the Underworld, a questionnaire has been used to determine the current and future utility location accuracy requirements. The resulting data indicate that stakeholders generally require location tolerances better than 100 mm at depths usually extending down to 3 m, and more occasionally to 5 m, below surface level, providing significant challenges to GPR if their needs are to be met in all ground conditions. As well as providing much useful data on stakeholder needs, these data are also providing a methodology for assessment of GPR utility location in terms of the factor most important to them — the degree to which the equipment provides location within their own accuracy requirements.

  16. The Health Utilities Index (HUI®: concepts, measurement properties and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horsman John

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is a review of the Health Utilities Index (HUI® multi-attribute health-status classification systems, and single- and multi-attribute utility scoring systems. HUI refers to both HUI Mark 2 (HUI2 and HUI Mark 3 (HUI3 instruments. The classification systems provide compact but comprehensive frameworks within which to describe health status. The multi-attribute utility functions provide all the information required to calculate single-summary scores of health-related quality of life (HRQL for each health state defined by the classification systems. The use of HUI in clinical studies for a wide variety of conditions in a large number of countries is illustrated. HUI provides comprehensive, reliable, responsive and valid measures of health status and HRQL for subjects in clinical studies. Utility scores of overall HRQL for patients are also used in cost-utility and cost-effectiveness analyses. Population norm data are available from numerous large general population surveys. The widespread use of HUI facilitates the interpretation of results and permits comparisons of disease and treatment outcomes, and comparisons of long-term sequelae at the local, national and international levels.

  17. Enhancing the utilization of photovoltaic power generation by superconductive magnetic energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tam, K.S.; Kumar, P.; Foreman, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that a superconductive magnetic energy storage (SMES) system can enhance large scale utilization of PV generation. With SMES support, power generated from PV arrays van be fully utilized under different weather conditions and PV penetrations can be increased to significant levels without causing adverse effects to the power system. Coupled with PV generation, a SMES system is even more effective in performing diurnal load leveling. A coordinated PV/SMES operation scheme is proposed and demonstrated under different weather conditions

  18. Successful process management for public utilities; Erfolgreiches Prozessmanagement fuer Stadtwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knipprath, Daniel [projekt:unternehmensberatungsgesellschaft mbH, Muenchen (Germany); Schaefer, Anke [Dr. Schaefer PR- und Strategieberatung, Rostock (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    As a result of regulatory cuts in their revenue structure, public utilities are increasingly compelled to improve their cost efficiency. Furthermore, they have to deal with altered framework conditions of energy procurement as well as the necessity of sustainable customer loyalty management. The example of a regional supplier is used here to show how goal-oriented process management can contribute to securing a sustainable, promising position in the market.

  19. Utilization of balance equipment in windsurf beginners off water training.

    OpenAIRE

    Frič, Čestmír

    2013-01-01

    Work name: Utilization of balance equipment in windsurf beginners off water training. Aim of work: To determin and evaluate significance of balance equipment in off water training. Method: The method of comparative experiment have been used in this thesis. Than the obtained data were evaluated. It was nessesary to create and compare two groups of people, compound of young healthy individuals in the age 20 - 30 both male and female. The only condition for the research was their zero experience...

  20. A simple test of expected utility theory using professional traders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, John A; Haigh, Michael S

    2005-01-18

    We compare behavior across students and professional traders from the Chicago Board of Trade in a classic Allais paradox experiment. Our experiment tests whether independence, a necessary condition in expected utility theory, is systematically violated. We find that both students and professionals exhibit some behavior consistent with the Allais paradox, but the data pattern does suggest that the trader population falls prey to the Allais paradox less frequently than the student population.