Sample records for micranthos gugler hayek

  1. Comparing susceptibility of eastern and western U.S. grasslands to competition and allelopathy from spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe L. subsp. micranthos (Gugler) Hayek) (United States)

    Centaurea maculosa is native to Eurasia and is invasive in the western portion of the US. Negative impacts of C. maculosa present in the eastern US have not been recorded. In this study, we examine the effects of C. maculosa on species diversity on an eastern grassy bald, compare the competitive a...

  2. Hayek, law philosopher

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    Aeon Skoble J.


    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the relationship between Hayek's theory of the state and law and the constitutionalist tradition of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, with a focus on Hayek's evolutionists interpretation of the origin of social institutions. I will suggest the specificity of the evolutionist approach in the context of the concept of separation of powers, and especially the functional role of the legal system, and specific emphasis on the role of the judges in the development of law. A key aspect that characterizes Hayek's approach to the theory of law is a strong emphasis on the verge of rationality and, consequently, increased the importance of customary and traditional norms in preserving the rationality of the legal system.

  3. Mere Libertarianism: Blending Hayek and Rothbard


    Klein, Daniel


    As many have argued, libertarianism as idea and movement contains strands that often conflict, beg questions, or try our sensibilities. There are multiple libertarianisms. Two leading theorists of modern libertarianism are Friedrich Hayek and Murray Rothbard. Both pupils of Ludwig von Mises, Hayek and Rothbard provide dual libertarianisms that share a common precept but sustain that precept in inverse ways. Both Hayek and Rothbard maintain that, in societies like theirs, the desirable always ...

  4. Hayek and Departure from Praxeology

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    Jakub Wozinski


    Full Text Available Friedrich von Hayek is mostly known as a staunch critic of naturalist fallacy. It is claimed in the article that having been heavily influenced by Epicurus, he commited an identical error that he himself criticized. This opinion is based on Hayek’s application of Ernst Mach mind-body dualism criticism, Epicurean theory of irrational ethics and falsificationistic theory of knowledge related with atomistic view of the universe.

  5. Se Hayek conhecesse o “socialismo bolivariano”...

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    Tiago Wolff Beckert


    Full Text Available A partir  de uma comparação com o “socialismo bolivariano” da Venezuela, o presente artigo busca analisar a situação do análogo sistema na Bolívia,  sob a ótica da análise do teórico austríaco Hayek, exposta em “o caminho para a servidão”.

  6. O mercado como ordem social em Adam Smith, Walras e Hayek The market as a social order in Adam Smith , Walras and Hayek

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    Angela Ganem


    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo é apresentar criticamente as teorias do mercado de Adam Smith, Leon Walras e F. A. Hayek, sublinhando o que se considera terem em comum, ou seja, a ideia de mercado como expressão da ordem social capitalista. Entende-se que esta concepção do mercado como ordem social aparece originariamente na história do pensamento econômico e na história das ideias através da solução de Adam Smith frente aos filósofos do contrato e avança, analiticamente, um século após, na tentativa de demonstração lógico-matemática da Teoria do Equilíbrio Geral em Walras para adquirir a souplesse teórica necessária a sua sobrevivência, no século XX, na teoria de Hayek, em que a história realizaria o autodesenvolvimento da ordem do mercado. O texto percorre as filiações filosóficas e as implicações metodológicas das teorias do mercado desses grandes autores, mostrando as formas diferenciadas que elas assumem: ordem natural para Smith, ordem racional para Walras e ordem espontânea para Hayek.The objective of the article is to critically present the liberal theories of Adam Smith, Leon Walras and F. A. Hayek, underlining what they have in common, that is, the idea of market as a general theory of society and the construction of scientific attributes that make possible the understanding of the supremacy of market order against other forms of social organization. It is assumed that this conception of market as social order appears originally in the history of economical thought and in the history of ideas through Adam Smith's solution against contract philosophers and that it advances analytically, a century later, in the attempt of logic-mathematic demonstration in Walras, to acquire the necessary theoretical souplesse for its survival, in the XX century, in the Darwinian adventures of the Austrian school libertarians, specially Hayek, for whom history would realize the self-development of the market. The text will traverse the

  7. In search of the proper scientific approach: Hayek's views on biology, methodology, and the nature of economics. (United States)

    Beck, Naomi


    Friedrich August von Hayek (1899-1992) is mainly known for his defense of free-market economics and liberalism. His views on science--more specifically on the methodological differences between the physical sciences on the one hand, and evolutionary biology and the social sciences on the other--are less well known. Yet in order to understand, and properly evaluate Hayek's political position, we must look at the theory of scientific method that underpins it. Hayek believed that a basic misunderstanding of the discipline of economics and the complex phenomena with which it deals produced misconceptions concerning its method and goals, which led in turn to the adoption of dangerous policies. The objective of this article is to trace the development of Hayek's views on the nature of economics as a scientific discipline and to examine his conclusions concerning the scope of economic prediction. In doing so, I will first show that Hayek's interest in the natural sciences (especially biology), as well as his interest in epistemology, were central to his thought, dating back to his formative years. I will then emphasize the important place of historical analysis in Hayek's reflections on methodology and examine the reasons for his strong criticism of positivism and socialism. Finally, in the third and fourth sections that constitute the bulk of this article, I will show how Hayek's understanding of the data and goal of the social sciences (which he distinguished from those of the physical sciences), culminated in an analogy that sought to establish economics and evolutionary biology as exemplary complex sciences. I will challenge Hayek's interpretation of this analogy through a comparison with Darwin's views in The Origin of Species, and thus open a door to re-evaluating the theoretical foundations of Hayek's political claims.

  8. Capital controversy in the birth of macrotheory: the Keynes-Hayek exchange in retrospect

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    Gilberto Tadeu Lima


    Full Text Available A close historical inspection shows that many theoretical issues occupying contemporary macroeconomists surfaced in the Keynes-Hayek debate in the early 1930s. This paper, however, focuses only upon some capital-theoretic issues involved in that debate, this being done with a view to tentatively evaluate to what extent some theoretical conclusions advanced in Keynes' Treatise on Money are undermined by Hayek's capital-theoretic objections. It is submitted that a major source of disagreement between them regards the role played by monetary factors in the process through which eventual disequilibria between investment and saving lead to changes in the price level. Keynes argued that such disequilibria may lead to changes in the price level even if the amount of money in circulation remains constant, whereas Hayek claimed that changes in the price level arising from such disequilibria will be necessarily accompanied by proportional changes in the amount of money in circulation.Um exame histórico minucioso demonstra que várias das questões que atualmente ocupam os macroeconomistas emergiram no debate travado por Keynes e Hayek no início dos anos 1930. Este artigo, entretanto, focaliza somente algumas questões associadas à teoria do capital que emergiram naquele debate. Seu objetivo é avaliar em que medida certas conclusões tiradas por Keynes no Tratado da Moeda foram minadas pelas críticas de Hayek baseadas na teoria do capital. O artigo sustenta que uma fonte importante de discordância entre Keynes e Hayek diz respeito ao papel desempenhado por fatores monetários no processo através do qual eventuais desequilíbrios entre investimento e poupança acarretam mudanças no nível de preços. Enquanto Keynes argumentava que tais desequilíbrios podem ocasionar mudanças no nível de preços mesmo quando o volume de moeda em circulação permanece constante, Hayek acreditava que as mudanças no nível de preços geradas por esses eventuais

  9. Is Bitcoin the Only Cryptocurrency in the Town? Economics of Cryptocurrency and Friedrich A.Hayek


    Iwamura, Mitsuru; Kitamura, Yukinobu; Matsumoto, Tsutomu


    This paper overviews the entire landscape of Bitcoin-like cryptocurrencies. Bitcoin has not emerged out of cryptocurrency competition, but rather became a dominant currency as the first broad market based cryptocurrency. But there are more than a hundred of cryptocurrencies in the market, and some are catching up to Bitcoin. This is a healthy sign of currency competition á la Hayek. Through this competition new technological and security innovations may emerge. In this paper, we point out pot...

  10. Review on “The Counter-Revolution of Science. Studies on the Abuse of Reason” by Friedrich August von Hayek

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    Mihaltchuk Nikolay Mihailovitch


    Full Text Available The Austrian-English economist and social thinker Hayek sets the problem of "scientism" criticism, i.e. an illegal shift of methods from natural science to humanities. To solve this problem Hayek analyses the history of natural sciences and their separation from studies that are corroborated by historical experience (like jurisprudence, history, classic literature.

  11. La teoría del ciclo económico de Friedrich von Hayek: causas monetarias, efectos reales

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    Gómez Betancourt Rebeca


    Full Text Available Este artículo propone una lectura simultánea de dos textos: La Teoría monetaria y el ciclo económico (1929 y Precios y producción (1931, con el objetivo de presentar la teoría de los ciclos económicos del joven Hayek, como un conjunto teórico congruente. Ambos textos poseen una unidad temática complementaria, que representa el pensamiento del joven Hayek. Este artículo, subraya la distinción entre el rol que juegan los factores reales y los monetarios en la coherencia de su teoría. Aunque Hayek demuestre que el dinero no es neutro, ya que existe una variación de la estructura de los precios relativos, su propósito era probar su neutralidad.

  12. Presentación. La inevitable imperfección del conocimiento humano: Hayek y el uso social del conocimiento

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    Full Text Available Presenta una copia en español del artículo de Friedrich A. Von Hayek "The use of knowledge in society", originariamente publicado en American Economic Review. Sugiere que la actual crisis en las organizaciones y bienestar social frena no sólo desde una inmanejable burocracia, sino también desde una teoría incorrecta del conocimiento social.

  13. Tres Formas de Libertad: Hayek, Berlín y Rawls

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    Carlos Gil de Gomez Perez-Aradros


    Full Text Available Resumen Artículo de reflexión. La libertad –su ejercicio y su titularidad– ha sido un tema recurrente en el pensamiento a lo largo de la Historia. No obstante, cada autor que se ha acercado a ella la ha interpretado de un modo distinto; incluso dentro de la misma escuela de pensamiento. Así las cosas, este estudio pretende contraponer y enfrentar la diferente visión que de la libertad han tenido tres de los intelectuales más influyentes del siglo XX: F. Hayek, Isaiah Berlin y J. Rawls. Esta contraposición doctrinal permitirá concluir que la libertad liberal bascula entre la autoderminación y el reconocimiento. A través de los principales tex- tos originales de los tres autores mencionados y de otros y utilizando una metodología analítica-comparativa, se logran perfilar los distintos contornos de la libertad liberal y sus vínculos con la autodeterminación y el reconocimiento debido. Palabras clave: Libertad, Ética, Coacción, Racionalismo. Abstract Freedom – its exercise and its ownership- has been a recurring theme throughout the history of thought. Nonetheless, each author who has approached it has interpreted it in a different way, even within the same school of thought. Thus, this study aims at comparing and contrasting the different visions of freedom of three of the most influential intellectuals of the twentieth century: F. Hayek, Isaiah Berlin and J. Rawls. This comparison of doctrines will lead to the conclusion that liberal freedom shifts between self-determination and recognition. Through the major texts of the three authors and others, and using an analytical-comparative methodology, the article manages to outline the different shapes of liberal freedom and its links with self-determination and recognition. Keywords: Freedom, Ethics, Coercion, Rationalism. Resumo A Liberdade -seu exercício e posse- tem sido um tema recorrente no pensamento ao longo da história. Entretanto, cada autor se aproximou

  14. The Old Neo-Liberalism. The Neo-Liberalist Germ in Mises' and Hayek's Theories

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    Vanessa Lamattina


    Full Text Available What is neo-liberalism? I’m going to affirm here that, as well as being a political doctrine born in the 1970s, neo-liberalism is the construction, the extension and the final reinforcement of a number of classical elements. My argument is that many of the typical aspects of contemporary neo-liberalism were already present in theories expressed by thinkers such as L. von Mises and F. A. von Hayek. As proof of this fact, I reclaim some characteristics of the present neo-liberal phenomenon as having been conceived by the above authors. These characteristics actually imply the ongoing spread of a dominant ideology that tends to pit the concept of liberty against those of rationality and critical consciousness. First, the article will analyse the changes that have occurred within the phenomenon of consumerism, which becomes en-twined with the competitive and entrepreneurial spirit of the individual; second, it will reflect on the wide-spread aversion to socialist policies, and in fact to all policies that provide for public intervention by the State and that change the relationship between State and economy; finally, it will relate these investiga-tions to the ideological and structural model that supports the European Union.

  15. Phytochemical screening, anticancer and antioxidant activities of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. viride (Boiss.) Hayek, a plant of traditional usage. (United States)

    Koldaş, Serkan; Demirtas, Ibrahim; Ozen, Tevfik; Demirci, Mehmet Ali; Behçet, Lütfi


    A detailed phytochemical analysis of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. viride (Boiss.) Hayek was carried out and the antioxidant activities of five different crude extracts were determined. The antiproliferative activities of the extracts were determined using the xCELLigence system (Real Time Cell Analyzer). Differences between the essential oil and volatile organic compound profiles of the plant were shown. The main component of the essential oil was caryophyllene oxide, while the main volatile organic compounds were sabinene and eucalyptol as determined by HS-GC/MS. Phenolic contents of the extracts were determined qualitatively and quantitatively by HPLC/TOF-MS. Ten phenolic compounds were found in the extracts from O. vulgare and Origanum acutidens: rosmarinic acid (in highest abundance), chicoric acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid, quercetin, apigenin-7-glucoside, kaempferol, naringenin and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde. This study provides first results on the antiproliferative and antioxidant properties and detailed phytochemical screening of O. vulgare ssp. viride (Boiss.) Hayek. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Fobia al Estado en Tocqueville y Hayek. Elementos para una arqueología del neo-liberalismo

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    José Ricardo Bernal Lugo


    Full Text Available En el presente artículo retomamos la noción de “fobia al Estado” utilizada por Foucault para analizar la manera en la que se logró problematizar la acción estatal como una amenaza al desarrollo económico y a la libertad individual en el ámbito de la sociedad civil. A través del estudio de la obra de Tocqueville, mostramos cómo algunos elementos de esta forma de problematización ya se encontraban articulados en los discursos del siglo xix; sin embargo, en el siglo xx los autores neoliberales radicalizarán la crítica al Estado, el cual opondrán al mercado como la única instancia capaz de procurar las exigencias de la democracia moderna. En ese viraje, los trabajos de Hayek en la obra Caminos de servidumbre adquieren una importancia vital.

  17. The function of root-systems in mineral nutrition of watercress (Rorippa nasturtium-Aquaticum (L) Hayek)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumbus, I.P.; Robinson, L.W.


    The ability of 'adventitious' and 'basal' root systems of watercress (Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L) Hayek) to absorb mineral nutrients from surrounding media is demonstrated using radioisotopes 32 P, 86 Rb and 59 Fe. Controlled experiments on single whole plants cultured in a dual-medium-apparatus, indicate that both root systems have a capacity for nutrient absorption. Analysis of axillary shoots formed during a seven day experimental period show that a greater proportion of phosphate and potassium, gained from the ambient media, was absorbed by the adventitious root system, although there was a greater mass of basal root tissue. Extensive translocation of nutrients to actively growing plant organs occurs from absorption sites on both root systems

  18. Wolfgang Bargmann (1906-1978) and Heinrich von Hayek (1900-1969): careers in anatomy continuing through German National Socialism to postwar leadership. (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Sabine


    None of the existing studies on the history of anatomy in National Socialism (NS) has yet explored the careers of those younger anatomists, whose professional development continued through NS times and who attained prominence in postwar German and Austrian anatomy. As they became modern anatomists' teachers and role models, the revelation that men like Wolfgang Bargmann and Heinrich von Hayek had used bodies of the executed for research in their early careers has recently led to some consternation. This study contributes to the analysis of the moral challenges inherent to a science that relies on work with "material" from human bodies and its interaction with its political environment. The results reveal that Bargmann and Hayek behaved like most other anatomists at the time, in that they used bodies of the executed for research and in that they joined the NS party or other NS political groups. As ambitious and successful young anatomists they may have felt that an early joining of NS affiliations was inevitable for the advancement of their careers. They and most of their colleagues became in some measure complicit with the NS regime. The complicated biographical realities of such luminous postwar figures as Bargmann and Hayek should lead modern anatomists to the questioning of their own ethical and political decisions in politically less demanding times. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Signal transduction in artichoke [Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. scolymus (L.) Hayek] callus and cell suspension cultures under nutritional stress. (United States)

    Lattanzio, Vincenzo; Caretto, Sofia; Linsalata, Vito; Colella, Giovanni; Mita, Giovanni


    Stimulated production of secondary phenolic metabolites and proline was studied by using cell cultures of artichoke [Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. scolymus (L.) Hayek] submitted to nutritional stress. Artichoke cell cultures accumulated phenolic secondary metabolites in a pattern similar to that seen in artichoke leaves and heads (capitula). This paper shows that both callus and cell suspension cultures under nutritional stress accumulated phenolic compounds and proline, at the same time their biomass production was negatively affected by nutrient deficiency. The results obtained strongly suggest that plant tissues respond to nutrient deprivation by a defensive costly mechanism, which determines the establishment of a mechanism of trade-off between growth and adaptive response. Furthermore, the results of this research suggest that perception of abiotic stress and increased phenolic metabolites are linked by a sequence of biochemical processes that also involves the intracellular free proline and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. The main conclusion of this paper is that, once calli and cell suspension cultures respond to nutrient deficiency, in acclimated cells the establishment of a negative correlation between primary metabolism (growth) and secondary metabolism (defence compounds) is observed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Epistemología del individualismo y orden espontáneo en el pensamiento de F.A. Hayek

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    Alí Javier Suárez-Brito


    Full Text Available El artículo tiene como objetivo analizar la epistemología de las nociones de individualismo y orden espontáneo en el pensamiento del economista y filósofo F.A. Hayek. En virtud de esto, se recurre al método hermenéutico con diseño documental para interpretar la información bibliográfica y reflexionar en torno a las ideas centrales. Del análisis se deriva que las referidas nociones no pueden entenderse de forma separada, por cuanto una supone a la otra: el individualismo no es tan sólo un método, ni mucho menos una metodología particular, aunque la presupone; se trata de una teoría social que intenta explicar la forma como los individuos actúan y cooperan en un orden espontáneo que no ha sido creado deliberadamente.

  1. Study of self-pollination and capitula characteristics in globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus Hayek L. under different irrigation regimes

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    Nouraei, Sina


    Full Text Available In order to estimate the drought effects on capitula characteristics and self-pollination of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus Hayek L., the randomized complete block design was carried out with three irrigation regimes (20 %, 50 % and 80 % depletion of soil available water and six replicates. The artichoke is mostly open-pollinated, however, after covering the buds and isolation of flowers to prevent cross pollination, 1.79 % self-pollination was observed and this amount was not affected by different irrigation regimes. In stress conditions (50 % and 80 % water depletion as well as non-stress condition (20 % water depletion, plants with respectively one and two medium capitula and without small capitula had most relative frequencies in the population and drought stress increased these relative frequencies by reducing the number of medium and small capitula in plants. In addition, Capitula size and dry weight were significantly affected by water stress. Water shortage induced severe decrease in length and dry weight of all capitula including large, medium and small, although capitula width was less affected by water deficit and only slight decline in medium (12.5 % and small capitula (23.7 % was observed under severe stress condition.

  2. Karl Popper Y Friedrich Hayek: una luz sobre la naturaleza, objeto y método de la administración

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    Francisco López Gallego


    Full Text Available Con base en el reconocimiento de la existencia de un conocimiento objetivo sin sujeto cognoscente, propio del llamado “tercer mundo” poperiano, en primera instancia se intenta someter a examen el discurso administrativo –en tanto sistema de conocimientos– para determinar hasta qué punto es susceptible de ser construido mediante un método válido, con lo cual se aspira a establecer una discusión en torno a su naturaleza. En un segundo momento, se continúa con la presentación del método que Popper reclama para las ciencias sociales en general, devenido de la economía, el cual sería también el apropiado para nuestra disciplina. Finalmente, se pretende delimitar un objeto de estudio propio de dicho sistema de conocimientos, a partir de la diferencia que F. Hayek establece entre los órdenes sociales artificiales y espontáneos.

  3. Observations on Professor Hayek's Plan

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    Ludwig von Mises


    Full Text Available This memorandum was written at the request of Henry Hazlitt to provide Mises’s comments on and concerns about F.A. Hayek’s initial proposals for what became the Mont Pèlerin Society. Mises stresses that those who favor liberty and freedom and oppose totalitarianism must also oppose interventionism. The memo argues that those who fought and lost against the rising tide of totalitarianism at the turn of the 20th Century lost their battles because they settled for middle-of-the-road policies that conceded considerable ground to the socialists. The weak point in Professor Hayek’s plan is that it relies upon the cooperation of many men who are today’s middle-of-the-roaders. As interventionists, they may not be the hoped-for intellectual pioneers to inspire people to build a freer world.

  4. The Hayek-Sraffa controversy in 1932

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydesen, Christian


    as an example to clarify the elemental preconditions of economic science to validly reach the core of economic theories and thus throw light on their historical and ideological conditions and range and the validity of the knowledge produced. The article uses Imre Lakatos’ thoughts on research programmes...

  5. Friedrich August von Hayek (1899-1992)(Second Edition)


    Ludwig van den Hauwe


    This paper is the sequel to chapter 30 of the 1999 first edition of The Elgar Companion to Law and Economics (ed. J. Backhaus). A new section has been added entitled 'An application of Hayekian law and economics: the comparative analysis of alternative monetary and banking regimes'.

  6. Lange and Hayek revisited: lessons from Czech voucher privatization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanousek, Jan; Filer, Randall K.


    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2002), s. 491-498 ISSN 0273-3072 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : Czech Republic * voucher privatization Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://search. ebscohost .com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=6463493&site=ehost-live

  7. Effects of invasive knapweed (Centaurea stoebe subsp. micranthos) on a threatened native thistle (Cirsium pitcheri) vary with environment and life stage (United States)

    Although invasive plants can threaten rare plants, more direct evidence on the type and magnitude of their effects on demographic parameters is needed. To determine whether Eurasian spotted knapweed, Centaurea maculosa, affected seedling emergence and establishment, juvenile survival or flowering pr...

  8. Vindplaatsen van Distelbremraap [Orobanche reticulata subsp. pallidiflora (Wimm. & Grab.) Hayek] in verstoorde duinen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Londo, Ger; Mounk, Joop


    About 30 years ago Orobanche reticulata was recorded on two sites in the dunes. The records were not accepted because the plants did not show the typical dark based glandular hairs. The rediscovery, after 28 years, of this rare species on one of those earlier dune localities led to the notion that

  9. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acid profile of Centaurea kotschyi (Boiss. and Heldr.) Hayek var. persica (Boiss.) Wagenitz from Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zengin, G.; Guler, G.O.; Cakmak, Y.S.; Aktumseka, A.


    The antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract and the fatty acid composition of C. kotschyi var. persica were investigated. Six different chemical methods were used to determine the antioxidant capacity. The fatty acid composition was analyzed using gas chromatography. The IC50 value of the extract was determined as 37.09 ig/ml (in the DPPH assay). In the {beta}carotene/linoleic acid system, the extract exhibited 65.22% inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. The amount of total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity were detected as 36.52 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 74.93 mg ascorbic acid equivalent (AE)/g, respectively. The major fatty acid in the composition of C. kotschyi var. persica was found to be C 18:3 u3 ({beta}-linolenic acid) by GC analysis. The results presented here indicate that C. kotschyi var. persica possess strong antioxidant properties. Therefore, the species can be used as a natural additive in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. (Author).

  10. Polyphenols from artichoke heads (Cynara cardunculus (L.) subsp. scolymus Hayek): in vitro bio-accessibility, intestinal uptake and bioavailability. (United States)

    D'Antuono, Isabella; Garbetta, Antonella; Linsalata, Vito; Minervini, Fiorenza; Cardinali, Angela


    Artichoke is a rich source of health promoting compounds such as polyphenols, important for their pharmaceutical and nutritional properties. In this study, the potential for bioavailability of the artichoke polyphenols was estimated by using both in vitro digestion and Caco-2 human intestinal cell models. In vitro digestive recoveries (bio-accessibility) were found to be 55.8% for total artichoke phenolics and in particular, 70.0% for chlorogenic acid, 41.3% for 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 50.3% for 1,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, highlighting potential sensitivity of these compounds to gastric and small intestinal digestive conditions. Uptake of artichoke polyphenols was rapid with peak accumulation occurring after 30 min with an efficiency of 0.16%, according to the poor uptake of dietary polyphenols. Some compounds, such as coumaric acid, caffeic acid and caffeic acid derivatives, were also detected in the basolateral side assuming extra and intracellular esterase activities on chlorogenic acid. Only apigenin-7-O-glucoside was transported through the Caco-2 monolayer demonstrating its bioavailability to the extent of 1.15% at 60 min. In addition, permeability coefficient (Papp = 2.29 × 10(-5) cm s(-1)), involving apical to basolateral transport of apigenin 7-O-glucoside, was calculated to facilitate estimation of transport through the Caco-2 monolayer. Finally, the mono and dicaffeoylquinic acids present in artichoke heads exert an antioxidant activity on the human low density lipoprotein system correlated to their chemical structure. In conclusion, the utilized in vitro models, although not fully responding to the morphological and physiological features of human in vivo conditions, could be a useful tool for investigating mechanistic effects of polyphenols released from the food matrix.

  11. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acid profile of Centaurea kotschyi (Boiss. & Heldr. Hayek var. persica (Boiss. Wagenitz from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aktumsek, Abdurrahman


    Full Text Available The antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract and the fatty acid composition of C. kotschyi var. persica were investigated. Six different chemical methods were used to determine the antioxidant capacity. The fatty acid composition was analyzed using gas chromatography. The IC50 value of the extract was determined as 37.09 μg/ml (in the DPPH assay. In the β-carotene/linoleic acid system, the extract exhibited 65.22% inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. The amount of total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity were detected as 36.52 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g and 74.93 mg ascorbic acid equivalent (AE/g, respectively. The major fatty acid in the composition of C. kotschyi var. persica was found to be C 18:3 ω3 (α-linolenic acid by GC analysis. The results presented here indicate that C. kotschyi var. persica possess strong antioxidant properties. Therefore, the species can be used as a natural additive in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.La capacidad antioxidante de extractos metanólicos y composición de ácidos grasos de C. kotschyi var. pérsica fueron investigados. Seis métodos químicos diferentes fueron realizados para la determinación de la capacidad antioxidante. La composición de ácidos grasos fue analizada por cromatografía de gases. Los valores de IC50 de los extractos fueron 37.09 μg/ml (en el ensayo con DPPH. En el sistema β-carotene/ácido linoleico, el extracto mostró un 65.22% de inhibición frente a la oxidación del ácido linoleico. La cantidad total de contenido fenólico y capacidad antioxidante total fueron 36.52 mg equivalentes de ácido gallico (GAE/g y 74.93 mg equivalentes de ácido ascórbico (AE/g, respectivamente. El principal ácidos graso encontrado, por análisis de CG, en C. kotschyi var. pérsica fue el C 18:3 ω3 (ácido α-linolenico. Los resultados presentados aquí indican que C. kotschyi var. pérsica posee unas fuertes propiedades antioxidantes. Además, las especies pueden ser usadas como aditivos naturales en los alimentos, en cosmética y en industria farmacéutica.

  12. Chemical composition and antifungal activities of essential oils of Satureja thymbra L. and Salvia pomifera ssp. calycina (Sm.) Hayek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glamoclija, J.; Sokovic, M.; Vukojevic, J.; Milenkovic, I.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.


    This work covers the chemical composition and antifungal activities of essential oils isolated from savory (Satureja thymbra) and sage (Salvia pomifera ssp. calycina) analyzed using GC/MS. The main components of S. thymbra oil were gamma-terpinene (23.2%) and carvacrol (48.5%). The main components


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Mrowiec


    Full Text Available The article starts with a brief description of Mises’ monetary theory, with emphasis on the Misesian differentiation of two kinds of credit: commodity and circulation credit, and with the description of the impact of circulation credit expansion on the business cycle. Further on it is described how Mises’ insights constituted the kernel of Austrian Business Cycle Theory, and how the same observations on the nature of credit constituted the kernel of the Chicago Plan (though Mises’ views on the nature of credit led him to different conculsions than it led the authors of the Chicago Plan, and how this plan is being “rediscovered” now. The following sections deal with observations of one of the preeminent current macroeconomic researches, Mr. Claudio Borio, on the elasticity of credit as the source of the current crisis, and on the importance of the financial cycle in analysing the current economic crisis. The author of this text demonstrates that Austrian Business Cycle Theory gave the same answer regarding the sources of economic crises that now modern macroeconomic theory seems to be approaching, and that the postulates for successful financial cycle modeling are already included in the ABCT. Finally, some observations on the current crisis, as well as proposals of avenues of further research are proposed.

  14. Neuroscience is awaiting for a breakthrough: an essay bridging the concepts of Descartes, Einstein, Heisenberg, Hebb and Hayek with the explanatory formulations in this special issue. (United States)

    Başar, Erol; Karakaş, Sirel


    The paper presents gedankenmodels which, based on the theories and models in the present special issue, describe the conditions for a breakthrough in brain sciences and neuroscience. The new model is based on contemporary findings which show that the brain and its cognitive processes show super-synchronization. Accordingly, understanding the brain/body-mind complex is possible only when these three are considered as a wholistic entity and not as discrete structures or functions. Such a breakthrough and the related perspectives to the brain/body-mind complex will involve a transition from the mechanistic Cartesian system to a nebulous Cartesian system, one that is basically characterized by parallel computing and is further parallel to quantum mechanics. This integrated outlook on the brain/body-mind, or dynamic functionality, will make the treatment of also the meta-cognitive processes and the greater part of the iceberg, the unconscious, possible. All this will be possible only through the adoption of a multidisciplinary approach that will bring together the knowledge and the technology of the four P's which consist of physics, physiology, psychology and philosophy. The genetic approach to the functional dynamics of the brain/body-mind, where the oscillatory responses were found to be laws of brain activity, is presented in this volume as one of the most recent perspectives of neuroscience.

  15. Chemical Composition of Ballota macedonica Vandas and Ballota nigra L. ssp. foetida (Vis.) Hayek Essential Oils - The Chemotaxonomic Approach. (United States)

    Đorđević, Aleksandra S; Jovanović, Olga P; Zlatković, Bojan K; Stojanović, Gordana S


    The essential oils isolated from fresh aerial parts of Ballota macedonica (two populations) and Ballota nigra ssp. foetida were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Eighty five components were identified in total; 60 components in B. macedonica oil (population from the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia), 34 components in B. macedonica oil (population from the Republic of Serbia), and 33 components in the oil of B. nigra ssp. foetida accounting for 93.9%, 98.4%, and 95.8% of the total oils, respectively. The most abundant components in B. macedonica oils were carotol (13.7 - 52.1%), germacrene D (8.6 - 24.6%), and (E)-caryophyllene (6.5 - 16.5%), while B. nigra ssp. foetida oil was dominated by (E)-phytol (56.9%), germacrene D (10.0%), and (E)-caryophyllene (4.7%). Multivariate statistical analyses (agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis) were used to compare and discuss relationships among Ballota species examined so far based on their volatile profiles. The chemical compositions of B. macedonica essential oils are reported for the first time. © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  16. Poder e liderança: as contribuições de Maquiavel, Gramsci, Hayek e Foucault DOI:10.5007/2175-8077.2010v12n26p221

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Sanches Amorim


    Full Text Available Liderança é um campo amplo no universo do comportamento organizacional. Os conceitos são problemáticos, no sentido da delimitação do objeto de estudo, ainda controversa. A maior parte da literatura origina-se na psicologia social, enquanto que a teoria política é pouco explorada na construção dos conceitos. Contribuições dos autores oriundos da psicologia social, quando “traduzidas” para o grande público disseminaram o surgimento de estereótipos e fórmulas, marcados pelo viés do chamado politicamente correto e pela despolitização do tema. Objetivo: mostrar que a ciência política pode ampliar o debate, propondo o estudo das relações entre poder e liderança nas organizações. Metodologia: revisão bibliográfica multidisciplinar, compatível com o ensaio teórico. Conclusões: a ciência política permite definir liderança como exercício de poder nas organizações, contornando o problema conceitual do tema; poder não tem conotação negativa ou positiva, tais juízos respeitam as formas e objetivos do poder; exercer o poder é uma contingência da liderança.

  17. The Continuing Relevance of Austrian Capital Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul


    The article presents a speech by Professor Nicolai J. Foss of Copenhagen Business School, delivered at the Austrian Scholars Conference held on March 8, 2012 in Auburn, Alabama, in which he discussed the knowledge essays by economist Friedrich A. von Hayek, the concept of capital theory and the w......The article presents a speech by Professor Nicolai J. Foss of Copenhagen Business School, delivered at the Austrian Scholars Conference held on March 8, 2012 in Auburn, Alabama, in which he discussed the knowledge essays by economist Friedrich A. von Hayek, the concept of capital theory...... and the works of Hayek on political philosophy and cultural evolution....

  18. Inetu pardipoeg / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus


    1999.a. Kolumbia telekanalil BCN jooksnud telenovela "Ma olen kole Betty" ("Yo soy Betty, la Fea") uusversioon USAs "Inetu Betty"("Ugly Betty"), peaosas America Ferrera, kaasa mängib ka seriaali produtsent Salma Hayek

  19. The New Report of Artichoke latent virus (ArLV) From Globe Artichoke in Turkey


    ERKAN, Semih; GÜMÜŞ, Mustafa; DUMAN, İbrahim; PAYLAN, İsmail Can; ERGÜN, Müge


    n recent years, some of artichoke growers in Aegean region of Turkey stated that globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. scolymus (L.) Hayek) plants in their fields have showed virus-like symptoms. So, in order to identify viruses

  20. Bandiiditarid / Alar Niineväli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niineväli, Alar


    Action-komöödia "Bandidas" : režissöörid Joachim Roenning, Espen Sandberg : stsenarist ja produtsent Luc Besson : osades Salma Hayek, Penelope Cruz : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Mehhiko - Prantsusmaa 2006

  1. Bandiiditarid jätkavad Robin Hoodi traditsiooni / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016


    Action-komöödia "Bandidas" : režissöörid Joachim Roenning, Espen Sandberg : stsenarist ja produtsent Luc Besson : osades Salma Hayek, Penelope Cruz : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Mehhiko - Prantsusmaa 2006

  2. Capitalism in the Classroom. (United States)

    Brown, Robert Edward


    Discussed is the new conservatism that is reflected in American economic circles today. Economists and organizations that are responsible for this new vitality in procapitalist economics are highlighted, including Arthur Laffer, Milton Friedman, William Allen, and Frederich Hayek. (JMD)

  3. The progressive tax


    Estrada, Fernando


    This article describes the argumentative structure of Hayek on the relationship between power to tax and the progressive tax. It is observed throughout its work giving special attention to two works: The Constitution of Liberty (1959) and Law, Legislation and Liberty, vol3; The Political Order of Free People, 1979) Hayek describes one of the arguments most complete information bout SFP progressive tax systems (progressive tax). According to the author the history of the tax progressive system...

  4. The Limits to Designed Orders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul


    We examine the argument, put forward by modern management writers and,in a somewhat different guise by Austrian economists, that authority is not aviable mechanism of coordination in the presence of `distributed knowledge'(which corresponds to Hayek's treatment of the use of dispersed knowledgein...... constrained by the Hayekian knowledge problem (Hayek,Kirzner, Sautet) is shaky. The positive flipside of this argument is thatAustrians confront an exciting research agenda in theorizing how distributedknowledge impacts economic organization....

  5. Consideraciones en tomo a "La fatal arrogancia"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Fernández Aguado


    Full Text Available The author makes here an analysis of Friedrick A. Hayek's The Fatal Conceit. This thinker considers that the best political-economical system for human civilization is capitalism, which has arised in an spontaneous, evolutive and adaptative way without any intention or plan thanks to a deus ex machina. Hayek shows himself as an advocate of capitalism and as an enemy of socialism; he despises solidarity and supports egoism as the motor of economy, for, according to him, without it society would not be where it is now. Hayek imports Darwin's evolutionary theory in order to justify economy's blind and fortuitous development, which in turn explains that capitalism is reached through a series of unforeseen and spontaneous events which are overcomed thanks to adaptation. Hayek draws historicist arguments at some poins, in an invalid way, rejecting everything that looks like socialism, and he makes mistakes where philosophical concepts are dealed with. Hayek's continuous reject towards Aristotle and his political-economical thesis obeys to the fact that the author rejects the Catholic Church, which, according to him, gathered the Aristotelian thesis through saint Thomas Aquinas. Hayek proposes a selfish and capitalist moral which one ought to accept if one does not wish for hunger and poverty.

  6. Filosofia da ciência como ferramenta microeconômica


    Fabio Barbieri


    A teoria neoclássica pressupõe conhecimento perfeito. A crítica hayekiana a essa teoria, por sua vez, afirma que esse conhecimento é resultado do processo competitivo e, portanto, não pode ser considerado como dado. O "Problema de Hayek" investiga sob que condições o conhecimento do agente se aproxima dos reais fundamentos de uma economia. A fim de solucionar o "Problema de Hayek", o nosso artigo utiliza algumas idéias da literatura de metodologia da Ciência, conhecida como teoria do "crescim...

  7. Thoughts on policies and the policy framework after a financial crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogduin, L.; Wierts, P.


    Attention from policymakers tends to concentrate on the short-term effects of crisis policies on growth and financial stability. This paper investigates side-effects of current crisis policies from the perspective of the classic debate between Keynes and Hayek. It argues that three issues remain

  8. The Current Evidence for Hayek’s Cultural Group Selection Theory

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    Brad Lowell Stone


    Full Text Available In this article I summarize Friedrich Hayek’s cultural group selection theory and describe the evidence gathered by current cultural group selection theorists within the behavioral and social sciences supporting Hayek’s main assertions. I conclude with a few comments on Hayek and libertarianism.

  9. Is Military Science Scientific? (United States)


    the Battlefields of Modernity (New York: Columbia University Press, 2009). 4 John Shy, “Jomini,” in Makers of Modern Strategy: From Machiavelli to...War, ed. and trans. Michael Howard and Peter Paret ( Princ - eton: Princeton University Press, 1984), 117. 21 Hayek, “Pretense of Knowledge.” 22 Van

  10. Options, Sustainability Policy and the Spontaneous Order (United States)

    Foster, John


    This paper examines the implications for sustainability policy of environmental uncertainty and indeterminacy, and relates the associated problems with a conventional understanding of sustainable development to Hayek's critique of collective planning. It suggests that the appropriate recourse is not, however, a Hayekian endorsement of the free…

  11. Knowledge as the Source of Opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erikson, Truls; Korsgaard, Steffen


    In this paper, we show how Davidson's theory of knowledge can be used to elaborate the objective, intersubjective and subjective components of knowledge. Departing from Hayek's core insights about the dispersion of knowledge in society, we reiterate that opportunities involve subjective knowledge...

  12. The Kantian Insight on the Future of the Humanities (United States)

    Leone, Carlos


    This article makes the case for the relevance of Kant's perception in "The Contest of the Faculties" of the Humanities (as Philosophy) both to the university and to society in general. It illustrates this point by commenting on 20th-century essays by such diverse thinkers as Freud, Weber and Hayek. It suggests that the future of the Humanities is…

  13. MAO-A inhibition profiles of some benzophenone glucosides from Gentiana verna subsp. pontica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaya, Duygu; Jäger, Anna; Yalçin, Funda N


    Gentiana verna L. subsp. pontica (Soltok.) Hayek, G. pyrenaica L., and G. verna L. subsp. balcanica Pritchard from Turkey were tested for their MAO-A inhibitory effects. A photometric peroxidase linked MAO-A bioassay performed on the H20 extracts prepared from the methanolic extracts of the title...

  14. A retomada do debate do cálculo econômico socialista: economia da informação, escolha pública e a crítica austríaca

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    Fábio Barbieri


    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a moderna retomada do debate do cálculo econômico socialista. Mostramos como as modificações no cinturão protetor do programa de pesquisa neoclássico possibilitaram a discussão do problema dos incentivos sob informação assimétrica nas novas propostas de socialismo de mercado. Nessas propostas, o problema do conhecimento tal como desenvolvido por Hayek no debate original será interpretado como um problema de informação. Defendemos a tese de que, embora os modelos tenham sido criticados por economistas afiliados a escola da escolha pública, as novas propostas de socialismo de mercado e seus críticos sofrem dos mesmos problemas apontados por Hayek no debate original.

  15. Expeditionary Economics: A Force Multiplier in the Counterinsurgency Fight (United States)


    Cambridge, 2009. Smith, Adam. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes ofthe Wealth ofNations. London: Methuen and Co. Inc. , 1904. Takamae, Fiji ...theories guided many policy decisions undertaken during the Great 2 Adam Smith. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes ofthe Wealth ofNations (London...individual’s liberty is a recipe for disaster . Even though it could be well intentioned, Hayek believed that it would have unintended and far

  16. Austrian Economics and the Transaction Cost Approach to the Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai J. Foss


    Full Text Available As the transaction cost theory of the firm was taking shape in the 1970s, another important movement in economics was emerging: a revival of the ‘Austrian’ tradition in economic theory associated with such economists as Ludwig von Mises and F. A. Hayek (1973; Dolan, 1976; Spadaro, 1978. As Oliver Williamson has pointed out, Austrian economics is among the diverse sources for transaction cost economics. In particular, Williamson frequently cites Hayek (e.g., Williamson, 1985, p. 8; 1991, p. 162, particularly Hayek’s emphasis on adaptation as a key problem of economic organisation (Hayek, 1945. Following Williamson’s lead, a reference to Hayek’s ‘The Use of Knowledge in Society’ (Hayek, 1945 has become almost mandatory in discussions of economic organisation (e.g., Ricketts, 1987, p. 59; Milgrom and Roberts, 1992, p. 56; Douma and Schreuder 1991, p. 9. However, there are many other potential links between Austrian and transaction cost economics that have not been explored closely and exploited.This article argues that characteristically Austrian ideas about property, entrepreneurship, economic calculation, tacit knowledge, and the temporal structure of capital have important implications for theories of economic organisation, transaction cost economics in particular. Austrian economists have not, however, devoted substantial attention to the theory of the firm, preferring to focus on business-cycle theory, welfare economics, political economy, comparative economic systems, and other areas. Until recently the theory of the firm was an almost completely neglected area in Austrian economics, but over the last decade, a small Austrian literature on the firm has emerged. While these works cover a wide variety of theoretical and applied topics, their authors share the view that Austrian insights have something to offer students of firm organisation.

  17. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXX. Cynaropicrin in species of the subtribe Centaureanae Dumort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Nowak


    Full Text Available The presence of cynaropicrin was determined in 13 species of the subtribe Centaureinae Dumort.: Centaurea declinata M. B.- C. leucophylla M. B.. C. dealbata Willd.. C. zangezuri (Sosn. Sosn., C. carthalinica (Sosn. Sosn., C. thracica (Janka Hayek, C. exarata Boiss. ex Cosson, C. phaeopappoides Bordz., Chartolepis intermedia Bioss., Ch. glastifolia (L. Cass., Rhaponticum carthamoides (Willd. Iljin, Rh. serratuloides (Georgi Bobr., Leuzea rhapontica (L. Holub.

  18. Breaking the circle: The definition of individual liberty


    Bouillon, Hardy


    The definition of individual liberty as the absence of coercion or violence (threatened or actual) includes a circularity problem. A look at prominent representatives of classical liberalism and libertarianism (Hayek, Rothbard, Hoppe, Jasay) reveals that this is typical of classical liberals as well as of libertarians, though the latter avoid a confusion of power and freedom. However, the respective definitions of individual liberty analysed here rest on the assumption that coerci...

  19. The State-Owned Enterprise as a Vehicle for Stability (United States)


    economies focused on the former German Democratic Republic (East Germany ), in the context of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. While a lecturer...resources, and steel; (c) financial services such as banks, insurance companies, and social security administrations; and (d) social services such as... deregulation (1980-present) following the stagflation of the early 1970s and early 1980s, all in accordance with the philosophy of Friedrich Hayek, as

  20. As duas Fridas: história e identidades transculturais The two Fridas: history and transcultural identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Bartra


    Full Text Available Neste artigo, é feita uma análise do filme Frida (2003 dirigido por Julie Taymor e protagonizado por Salma Hayek e que tem como tema a relação amorosa entre o muralista Diego Rivera e a pintora Frida Kahlo. Não se trata absolutamente de uma biografia fílmica; enfoca apenas uma etapa da vida da pintora. De um lado, são feitas algumas comparações com o filme mexicano sobre a pintora, Frida, naturaleza viva (1983, de Paul Leduc, para contrastar as diferentes visões dos acontecimentos de uma mesma vida, por exemplo, com relação à política sexual. Por outro lado, explora-se até que ponto o polêmico filme de Taymor/Hayek é histórico, baseado na realidade, ou uma história contada pela imagem e pelo som a partir de uma biografia escrita.This article analyzes the film Frida (2003, directed by Julie Taymor and starred by Salma Hayek, which features the love relationship between the mural artist Diego Rivera and the painter Frida Khalo. It is not a filmic biography, but focuses on a period of the painter's life. On the one hand, it presents some comparison with the Mexican movie about the painter, Frida, naturaleza viva (1983, by Paul Leduc, to contrast different views on the events of a life, as to, for example, what concerns sexual politics. On the other hand, the paper explores to what extent the polemical film by Taymor/Hayek is historical, based on reality, or whether it is a sight-and-sound fictional version of a written biography.

  1. Una nota crítica a propósito del libro Why Nations Fail. The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty

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    Rubén Méndez


    Full Text Available Las instituciones conceptualizadas como reglas del juego 1(North, 1990, desarrollan los derechos de propiedad y representan un aspecto esencial para que se produzcan, asignen y utilicen los bienes económicos −entendidos como toda entidad tangible o intangible que potencialmente puede servir para satisfacer alguna necesidad humana−. Por lo tanto, nos encontramos frente a un fenómeno complejo (Hayek, 1964; 1967 que involucra la evolución del tejido social.

  2. Economic Analysis of Criminal Law and Liberal Criminal Law: Confluences and Forks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego H. Goldman


    Full Text Available Not all economic analysis necessarily lead to a maximalist criminal law that threatens the fundamental rights, but on the contrary, can be found in economic science approaches perfectly compatible with the most liberal thought currents. This paper aims to make a critical study of economic theory usually associated with the Criminal EAL, its practical implications and its teleological budgets. Criticism will leave an openly liberal view, which defends the ideas and values that over the centuries have expressed such diverse thinkers as Adam Smith, Friedrich von Hayek, Robert Nozick or Juan Bautista Alberdi.

  3. The reception of Austrian economics in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Magliulo


    Full Text Available Nowadays the Austrian School enjoys high reputation in Italy: books by Mises, Hayek and other Austrian economists are constantly republished and reviewed with great interest, both inside and outside academic circles. The situation was very different decades ago, when just a few Italian economists devoted attention to the Austrian School. This work studies the reception of Austrian Economics in Italy, from the beginning to our days, so as to bring out, by way of comparison, relevant features of Italian economic culture. We will try to offer just an overview of the entire story, in an attempt to provide useful elements for a deeper analysis of further topics and periods.

  4. Re-Interpreting the "Chinese miracle"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Xingyuan; Ljungwall, Christer; Guo, Sujian


    The rapid economic development and transformation of Chinese society over the past three decades has, by a large mass of analysts, been called a "Miracle." This paper not only addresses the shortcomings of existing interpretations but also develops a new multi-dimensional framework based on North......'s theory of institutional change and Hayek's theory of institutional evolution to explain China's miraculous growth. Our analysis shows that both Hayekian spontaneous order and Popper's "piecemeal social engineering" played a major role in attaining China's miraculous growth....

  5. Razlika između klasične i keynesijanske ekonomske doktrine u 20. stoljeću s implikacijama na hrvatsku tranziciju


    Brumec, Dino


    U dvadeseto stoljeće svijet je ušao s nepoljuljanom vjerom u snagu slobodnog tržišta koje će regulirati odnose među ljudima na svakoj razini. Prvi znanstvenik koji se suprostavio toj vjeri na jasno strukturiran način bio je John Maynard Keynes koji je ponudio državi doktrinu u kojoj njeno djelovanje ima velik prostor te je u vrlo kratkom roku postao najutjecajniji ekonomist na svijetu. Nasuprot njemu stajao je Friedrich Hayek koji je državi nudio mnogo manje utjecaja u gos...

  6. Sesquiterpene lactones. XXXVI. Sesquiterpene lactones in several subgenera of the genus Centaurea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Nowak


    Full Text Available The occurrence of both known and new sesquiterpene lactones was determined in six species classified in different subgenera of Centaurea L. Chlorojanerin, cynaropicrin and janerin were isolated from C. phaeopappoides Bordz. and C. thracica (Janka Hayek. C. marschalliana Spreng. was found to contain acroptilin, chlorojanerin, cebellin D and janerin while C. adjarica Alb. had repin, acroptilin, chlorojanerin, centaurepensin, janerin, repidiolide, cebellin D, E, F and L A new, hitherto underscribed cebellin J quaianolide was found in C. bella Trautv. and another germacranolide, 3α, 15-dihydroxycostunolide was found in C. sphaerocephala subsp. lusitanica (Boiss. et Reuter Nyman.

  7. Hydroxyapatite synthesis and labelling with with Samarium-153

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, J.; Enciso, A.M.; Herrera, J.; Portilla, A.; Carrillo, D.


    153 Sm-labeled hydroxyapatite (HA) is used in synovectomy performed by radiation. HA was synthesized according to the method employed by Hayek and Newesely, using calcium nitrate and ammonium diacid phosphate in basic pH. Chemical characterization of HA was carried out by x-ray diffraction. HA labeling with Sm-153 is conducted using citric acid as ligand; radiochemical purity is greater than 99% and labeled particles are stable up to 9 days. This product is adequate to treat rheumatoid arthritis

  8. A ética em Smith nos neo-clássicos e suas implicações na ética em negócios


    Salles, Carlos Alcides


    Esta pesquisa procurará discutir as relações entre ética em economia e administração. O enfoque adotado demonstrará que a ética da economia clássica representada pelo pensamento de Adam Smith é completamente diferente daquela encontrada nos pensadores neoclássicos representados por Hayek, Von Mises e Friedman. Decorre daí que apesar do mundo dos negócios adotar algumas perspectivas econômicas de Smith, os critérios de avaliação de desempenho empresarial decorrem da economia neoclássica e de f...

  9. Population biology of the Florida manatee (United States)

    O'Shea, Thomas J.; Ackerman, Bruce B.; Percival, H. Franklin


    The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is a unique element of the U.S. fauna. It is a distinct subspecies of the West Indian manatee (Domning and Hayek 1986) and one of the largest inshore mammals of the continent, reaching weights to 1,650 kg (Rathbun et al. 1990). Annual migratory circuits of some individuals through the intracoastal waterways of the Atlantic Coast are 1,700 km round trips at seasonal travel rates as high as 50km/day (*3 Reid and O'Shea 1989; Reid et al. 1991), resulting in one of the longest remaining intact mammalian migrations in the eastern United States.

  10. The spontaneous market order and evolution. (United States)

    Beck, Naomi


    Darwin's theory of natural selection and the idea of a spontaneous order share a fundamental feature: the claim that apparent design or order do not necessarily imply a designer or rational planning. But they also present important differences, which touch upon central questions such as the evolution of morality, the role of human agency in social evolution, the existence (or not) of directionality in undesigned processes, and the presence (nor not) of a providential element in evolutionary accounts. In this article, I explore these themes and probe the relationship between the notion of a spontaneous order and the theory of evolution by natural selection. The reflections of Nobel laureate in economics, F.A. von Hayek, provide the beginning and endpoint in this voyage, for they constitute the most pronounced effort to develop a full-fledged theory combining evolution and economics in recent times. But along the way, I also investigate the influence of classical political economy on Darwin's thought, primarily that of Adam Smith, and consider the reasons for which Darwin did not refer to Smith when discussing the principle of natural selection in The Origin of Species. I conclude that the spontaneous order, as understood by Hayek, and evolution by natural selection constitute two disparate concepts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. As duas Fridas: história e identidades transculturais

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    Eli Bartra


    Full Text Available Neste artigo, é feita uma análise do filme Frida (2003 dirigido por Julie Taymor e protagonizado por Salma Hayek e que tem como tema a relação amorosa entre o muralista Diego Rivera e a pintora Frida Kahlo. Não se trata absolutamente de uma biografia fílmica; enfoca apenas uma etapa da vida da pintora. De um lado, são feitas algumas comparações com o filme mexicano sobre a pintora, Frida, naturaleza viva (1983, de Paul Leduc, para contrastar as diferentes visões dos acontecimentos de uma mesma vida, por exemplo, com relação à política sexual. Por outro lado, explora-se até que ponto o polêmico filme de Taymor/Hayek é histórico, baseado na realidade, ou uma história contada pela imagem e pelo som a partir de uma biografia escrita.

  12. Creating resilient SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus; Guay, Fanny


    According to the EU, during the past five years, small and medium enterprises (SMEs) have created 85% of new jobs and two-thirds of private sector employment in the region. SMEs are considered the backbone of the economy in Europe and represent more than 95% of enterprises in USA and Australia....... They are considered more vulnerable to disasters because of their size. This paper argues, on the contrary, that SMEs also can be less vulnerable to sudden change than large corporations, drawing upon the ideas of Hayek and Taleb, and that networks of SMEs may contribute to the overall resilience of society...... if certain criteria are met. With this in mind, this paper will be examining how to create resilient SMEs. A well-known concept in the field is business continuity management. BCM is defined as “a holistic management process that identifies potential threats to an organization and the impacts to business...

  13. The role of rules in the evolution of the market system: Hayek’s concept of evolutionary epistemology

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    Krstić Miloš


    Full Text Available Starting from the concept of the Darwinian paradigm that, by using Darwin’s principles of variation, selection, and retention, all domains from biology to economic systems can be explained, the advocates of modern evolutionary epistemology have analyzed the role of thoughtful institutional design in the process of cultural evolution. In light of the issue of how human intention and evolutionary forces interact in socioeconomic processes, this paper examines the views of F. A. Hayek, the most famous follower of evolutionary epistemology, on the evolution of the market economy system. In this paper special attention will be devoted to Hayek’s concept of rational liberalism and his evolutionary epistemology. [Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179066: Improving the Competitiveness of the Public and Private Sectors by Networking Competences in the European Integration Process of Serbia

  14. Dynamic competition and enterprising discovery: Kirzner’s market process theory

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    Ahmet İhsan KAYA


    Full Text Available Market process theory is designed by the followers of Austrian School tradition as an alternative to neo-classic price theory in order to explain perceptible markets. Contrary to neo-classic economy which focuses on the concept of equilibrium, market process theory seeks to explore unequilibrium and direction to equilibrium. While doing so, the role of enterprenuer in dealing with limited information which is not taken into consideration in the price theory of neo-classic economy, uncertainty because of time and uncertainty which occurs in market underpins Israel Kirzner's analyses. In the study, Kirzner's competition and enterpreneurship theory is discussed with the contributions of Mises and Hayek. The study constitutes an introduction to market process theory of Kirzner.

  15. A complexidade e o construtivismo na economia

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    Arnaldo Mauerberg Junior


    Full Text Available Complexity and constructivism in economics. This paper attempts to show and summarize the concept of rules, order and complexity introduced around the mid-twentieth century by Friedrich August von Hayek. It also attempts to create a current parallel between those concepts and the field of complexity economics. At the time of his writings, the author sought to present arguments against the Cartesian rationality. Nowadays, the concepts presented by him could also serve as arguments against the way of thought used in mainstream microeconomics. A debate can now be seen between the mainstream microeconomics and the authors of the complexity theory applied to the economy, which can be understood as explanations guided by generic assumptions versus natural explanations guided in a computational approach.

  16. Filosofia da ciência como ferramenta microeconômica

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    Fabio Barbieri


    Full Text Available Neoclassical theory assumes perfect knowledge. In turn, Hayekian criticism of this theory affirms that this knowledge is the result of the competitive process, and therefore cannot be considered as a given. The "Hayek Problem" investigates the conditions under which agents knowledge approaches the true fundamentals of an economy. In order to solve this problem, our paper uses ideas taken from the methodology of science known as the "growth of knowledge" theory (Popper, Kuhn, Lakatos and others. These ideas are used to understand how agents knowledge evolves, especially the knowledge of entrepreneurs. These are seen as active formulators of conjectural entrepreneurial theories that are criticized in the competitive process, and not as passive agents that maximize already known functions as in conventional theory. We use philosophy of science not to methodologically analyze microeconomics, but as an analytical tool that is part of economic theory.


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    Pedro Pablo Serna


    Full Text Available En el presente texto se presentan dos miradas con respecto a la democracia y su relación con el pensamiento liberal, mostrando de manera específica las características principales de la democracia radical y la manera como ésta puede realizar un adecuado encuentro entre lo individual y lo social, sin afectar las garantías mínimas que se le deben dar a todos los individuos para la realización de su propia concepción de bien. Debe propiciar también unas condiciones adecuadas de participación y control sobre lo público. Para ello, mostraré las visiones de Hayek y Nozick, confrontadas con la mirada de autores como Mouffe, Fraser y otros, quienes proponen un sentido viable, más amplio e incluyente de democracia.

  18. Contrato y Utopía: Continuidad y Discontinuidad de Los Mitos Libertarios de Anarquía, Estado y Utopía


    Augier,Felipe Schwember


    RESUMEN: El presente trabajo examina Anarquía, Estado y utopía de Robert Nozick a la luz de los mitos y ficciones sobre los cuales se construye. En este sentido, se sostendrá que es posible identificar dos mitos principales: el estado de naturaleza lockeano, cuyo principio se deja resumir en la máxima volenti non fit iniuria; y la meta-utopía libertaria, que se deja explicar como una aplicación de la teoría evolutiva de Hayek y de la epistemología de Popper a la construcción de una utopía. Se...

  19. Deliberative Democracy between Social Liberalism and Neoliberalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loftager, Jørn

    During the same decades as neoliberalism has expanded at the expense of social liberalism, democratic theory has witnessed a profound deliberative turn. The paper explores links be-tween these developments and presents a double argument. First, it argues for a critical oppo-sition between a current...... agenda with problems calling for effective public reasoning and the predominance of neoliberal politics and ideas of citizenship. Whereas a social liberal notion of citizenship based on equal rights is conducive to deliberative democracy, recent years’ ne-oliberalism tends to define citizenship in terms...... in neoliberal ontology (Hayek). Here there is a remarkable parallel to French solidarism and especially the social liberal think-ing of Durkheim. Danish politics will serve as an illustrative empirical, least likely, case in point....


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    Full Text Available This article aims to be an overview of the model proposed by Hayek and to explore the possibility of its implementation as a reform of the current monetary system. Research has shown that the proposed system somewhat resembles today’s international monetary system, with various currencies and issuers. Therefore, it seems that the transition to such a system would likely start with the complete removal of controls on capital movements and exchange rates, paths on which steps have already been made. The analysis of the model revealed a number of issues yet to be clarified, which call into question its ability to have performance in practice. The biggest problem is that such a system did not exist before and therefore there is no empirical data available. However, this does not mean that it is impossible to implement, but casts doubt on the concepts on which it was built.

  1. Neoliberal epistemology: From the impossibility of knowing to human capital

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    Krašovec Primož


    Full Text Available Today’s discussions on education policy mostly consist of uncritical shuffling of allegedly neutral and merely technical or practical notions such as life-long learning, learning to learn or problem-solving and are based on similarly uncritical acceptance of socio-economic theories of the knowledge society, which is supposed to present an objective framework of education reforms. The aim of this article is to sketch the history of mentioned notions and to present a critique of theories of the knowledge society through an analysis of its tacit political content. To this aim, we took upon early neoliberal epistemology (Hayek and Polanyi as well as its transition towards theories of human capital (Drucker and Machlup.

  2. O neoliberalismo como um dos fundamentos da educação domiciliar

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    Romualdo Luiz Portela de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar o neoliberalismo como um dos fundamentos da educação domiciliar, fenômeno de interesse crescente no Brasil, dada a tentativa de regulamentá-lo no país. Para tanto, foram tomados como referência três autorizados representantes do neoliberalismo: Friedrich Hayek; Milton Friedman e Ludwig von Mises e a reiterada preocupação destes com as liberdades, sobretudo as individuais. O artigo argumenta que o neoliberalismo se apresenta como uma das correntes teóricas que também dá suporte ao homeschooling, tendo como ponto crucial de sua fundamentação a rejeição da compulsoriedade da educação escolar, o que gera fortes implicações para o debate educacional, principalmente como desafios à escola pública compulsória.

  3. Idea państwa według minarchistów i anarchokapitalistów [Idea of the State from the Perspective of Minarchists and Anarcho-capitalists

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    Hubert Staskiewicz


    Full Text Available This scientific article treats of libertarianism. Its fundamental premises are: conception of self-ownership, non-aggression axiom, proprietorship, free market, ‘no victim,no crime’ rule, aversion to the state institutions. The existence of libertarianism itselfis the most prominent subject of dispute between its two currents: minarchism andanarcho-capitalism. The adherents of the doctrine of minimal statism were FriedrichA. von Hayek and Milton Friedman, while Murray N. Rothbard and Hans-HermannHoppe were the followers of the free-market anarchy. The traditional, one-dimensional division into the left and right wing is not sufficient for the libertarianism tofind its place on the political scene. It is multidimensionality that characterises thelibertarian thought.

  4. The Exotic Other: Representations of Latina tropicalism in U.S. popular culture

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    Martynuska Małgorzata


    Full Text Available U.S. Latina/o identity is a complex and panethnic construction. One of the most enduring tropes surrounding Latina women in US culture is that of tropicalism, which by erasing ethnic specificity helps construct homogenous stereotypes such as bright colours, rhythmic music, and brown skin that are represented in visual texts. Tropicalization helps position the Latina body as oversexed as well as sexually available; all that is identified with seductive clothing, curvaceous hips and breasts, long brunette hair or extravagant jewellery. The article concerns Latina images in US media and popular culture and focuses on such stars as Jennifer Lopez and Salma Hayek in order to explore the gendered signifiers surrounding Latinidad and Latina iconicity. The female ethnicity is depicted as other through its categorization and marginalization in relation to dominant constructions of Whiteness and femininity. The article bridges the approaches of gender studies and Latina/o studies with recent research on hybridity and transnational identities.

  5. Is Neoliberalism Weberian?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ossandón, José


    Like a sociological detective of ideas, professor of sociology at the University of Warwick Nicholas Gane (2012, 2014 a, b) has been following the traces of social scientific thought in neoliberalism. The initial clue was given by Michel Foucault who in his Birth of Biopolitics argued that Max...... Weber’s work not only influenced critical theorists such as Adorno and Horkheimer but also one of the main branches within neoliberal thinking, German ordoliberalism. While Gane’s research ended up finding Foucault’s Weber-Ordoliberals connections rather thin, the investigation took him to an even more...... worrying result, namely, Weber’s influence on the work of Ludwig von Mises and his followers in Vienna, including the über neoliberal Friedrich Hayek....

  6. Plano X mercado na história do pensamento econômico: quatro rodadas de um grande debate

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    Eduardo da Motta e Albuquerque


    Full Text Available A bancarrota das burocracias do Leste Europeu contribuiu para uma retomada de debates em torno da possibilidade (ou impossibilidade de uma transição ao socialismo. O objetivo deste artigo é resenhar os aspectos principais de quatro rodadas: o debate do cálculo econômico no socialismo (Barone, Mises, Hayek e Lange; plano e mercado na industrialização na Rússia (Preobrazhesnky e Bukarin; plano, mercado e democracia na crise da URSS (Nove, Mandel e Elson e socialismo de mercado (Roemer, Wright. Essa resenha busca uma avaliação sintética das contribuições específicas de cada rodada para uma elaboração acadêmica atual sobre o tema. Na conclusão, esse balanço é articulado com possíveis linhas de investigação que poderiam contribuir para uma elaboração contemporânea.The collapse of USSR has stimulated a huge scholarly debate on socialist alternatives. This paper surveys four rounds of the debate on market and planning in the transition towards socialism: the socialist calculation debate (Barone, Mises, Lange and Hayek, market and plan in the Soviet industrialization (Preobrazhesnky and Bukharin, plan, market and democracy in the USSR’s crisis (Nove, Mandel and Elson and market socialism (Roemer, Wright. This survey summarizes the specific contributions of each round. The concluding section suggests a research agenda for a contemporary elaboration on this subject. This elaboration includes both these lessons and the structural changes within the capitalist system.

  7. The political, legal, and financial issues that plastic surgery is facing and how to develop a plan to cope. (United States)

    Luria, L William


    Our specialty has been a creative wonder and an outright blessing to mankind. We have honed the arts of soft-tissue reconstruction to a level never thought possible just 100 years ago. We have found solutions to wound problems long after others have given up. We have restored the destroyed features of people ravaged by disease, life circumstances, and the acts of war. We have treated the deformed child, the patient with cancer, and reversed the signs of age. But as Thomas Sowell states in his article in 1994 in Forbes Magazine on the 100th anniversary of the birth of Fredrich Hayek, the author of The Road to Serfdom, the rule of law, which Hayek saw as crucial to the economy and to the survival of freedom, is nowhere in greater danger than in the supreme court of the United States. Sowell warned of the process going on that would bring socialism to our health care delivery system. He goes on to assert that it will be paid for by "loss of freedom to make our own decisions about medical care that are literally questions of life and death. The key to the future of medicine is now in our hands. This key will open the door to every doctor's dream of having the technologies that will allow physicians to diagnose and treat all the physical ills of the human race. Or the key, on the other hand, could open the exit door through which the best and brightest will leave medicine, feeling that they no longer can take on the legal and the financial risks to themselves and their families. The road to freedom from the controlling factors noted will require a change in culture. Knowing these facts will allow the plastic surgeon in practice to accept these factors and work with them to provide better care for their patients.

  8. Liberalismo económico, desigualdades sociales y pobreza en los países subdesarrollados Economic liberalism, social disparities and poverty in underdeveloped countries

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    Valier Jacques


    Full Text Available Luego de los programas de ajustes radicales, las entidades internacionales y los gobiernos de los países latinoamericanos vienen adoptando políticas en defensa de los más pobres, bien sea para compensar el deterioro del nivel de vida que aquellos originaron o bien para evitar un mayor descontento social. Hoy se acepta la intervención del Estado para afrontar los problemas de la pobreza y las desigualdades sociales, aunque desde una óptica liberal, es decir, expulsando la política y dando prioridad al mercado como entidad reguladora de la sociedad. Así, las políticas en la defensa de los pobres adquiere un carácter de mera beneficencia o de red de seguridad para quienes son excluidos por el mercado, y se basan en dos principios: hay que ser pacientes y esperar hasta mañana. Sus fundamentos filosóficos se encuentran en Rawls y Hayek, quienes aunque difieren en algunas cuestiones comparte cuatro temas fundamentales: el papel determinante del mercado en la formación de la sociedad, la apología del fetichismo de la mercancía, las desigualdades creadoras y la exclusión social como fenómeno individual.Following the radical programs of economic adjustment, international agencies and governments in Latin America have been shaping their policies to protect the very poor, either by compensating for a deterioration in standards of living to which they themselves had contributed to, or simply to avoid further social unrest. Today, the idea that the government should intervene to resol ve problems of poverty and disparity is accepted; but it is accepted from a liberal
    standpoint, that is to say, expeling politics from the equation and giving the market free rein to regulate society. In this view, policy to protect the poor makes the State some kind of charitable organization, a safety-net for those shut out of the market. This is based on two principIes: be patient, wait till tomorrow. These principIes are to be found in Rawls and in

  9. Contrato y Utopía: Continuidad y Discontinuidad de Los Mitos Libertarios de Anarquía, Estado y Utopía

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    Felipe Schwember Augier

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El presente trabajo examina Anarquía, Estado y utopía de Robert Nozick a la luz de los mitos y ficciones sobre los cuales se construye. En este sentido, se sostendrá que es posible identificar dos mitos principales: el estado de naturaleza lockeano, cuyo principio se deja resumir en la máxima volenti non fit iniuria; y la meta-utopía libertaria, que se deja explicar como una aplicación de la teoría evolutiva de Hayek y de la epistemología de Popper a la construcción de una utopía. Se sostendrá además que existe una continuidad entre ambos mitos y que dicha continuidad viene dada por una intuición moral que Nozick formula al principio de la obra y que sirve también de inspiración al mito libertario: que la vida solo puede tener sentido cuando se deja a cada persona vivir la suya del modo en que estime conveniente. Dicha intuición, se concluirá, se traduce en el campo de la política y del derecho en el principio de que cada persona es dueña de sí misma y que, por consiguiente, esta forma particular de propiedad constituye el secreto hilo conductor de toda la obra.

  10. Wokół własności. Próba uporządkowania stanowisk w filozofii politycznej (PRIVATE PROPERTY. AN ATTEMPT AT CLASSIFICATION THE KEY POSITIONS IN POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY

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    Dariusz Juruś


    Full Text Available In the paper the author proposes a new model of political spectrum. Instead - as so far - arranging political philosophies in two or four dimensional diagrams (from the left to the right, from the top to the bottom he suggests a form of spiral, where political philosophies evolve naturally from amoralistic anarchism to communism. He also puts some names of philosophers who represent respective political views. Thus we start from amoralistic anarchism by Max Stirner, then we have moralistic anarchism by Murray N. Rothbard, then moralistic minarchism by Robert Nozick, which in turn evolves into utilitarian minarchism by Ludwig von Mises, then utilitarian liberalism by Friedrich A. von Hayek, socialist liberalism by John Rawls and socialism leading to communism by Karl Marx. In this model one organizes political views not as usually around the concept of freedom (personal and economic, but around the concept of private property. Therefore we are able to include in this model anarchism, which is usually ignored, as a non-political view.

  11. Social justice and the formal principle of freedom

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    Nikolić Olga


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show, contra the right-libertarian critique of social justice, that there are good reasons for defending policies of social justice within a free society. In the first part of the paper, we will present two influential right-libertarian critiques of social justice, found in Friedrich Hayek’s Law, Legislation and Liberty and Robert Nozick’s Anarchy, State and Utopia. Based on their approach, policies of social justice are seen as an unjustified infringement on freedoms of individual members of a society. In response to this critique, we will introduce the distincion between formal and factual freedom and argue that the formal principle of freedom defended by Hayek and Nozick does not suffice for the protection of factual freedom of members of a society, because it does not recognize (1 the moral obligation to help those who, without their fault, lack factual freedom to a significant degree, and (2 the legal obligation of the state to protect civic dignity of all members of a society. In the second part of the paper, we offer an interpretation of Kant’s argument on taxation, according to which civic dignity presupposes factual freedom, in order to argue that Kant’s justification of taxation offers good reasons for claiming that the state has the legal obligation to protect factual freedom via the policies of social justice.

  12. The “Invisible Hand” of Economic Markets Can Be Visualized through the Synergy Created by Division of Labor

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    Klaus Jaffé


    Full Text Available Inspired by Adam Smith and Friedrich Hayek, economists promoting free markets postulate the existence of invisible forces that drive economic growth. Simulations with Sociodynamica allowed the emergence of market forces in virtual economies, showing that the synergistic working of division of labor in complex settings favors a stable state where all actors benefit (win-win interaction. By visualizing the detailed dynamics underlying this phenomenon in a simple virtual economy, the elements underpinning the synergistic effect on economic output produced by the division of labor between agents could be dissected. These are heterogeneity or spatial or temporal heterogeneous environment and/or agents; complementary activities of agents, with divergent optimization options; and synchrony. Markets help synchronize agent’s actions. The larger the contact horizon between participants of the market is, the more efficient the market forces act. These features allow for social processes that increase the information available and increase simultaneously the capacity of producing useful economic work, that is, synergy. This insight, although trivial if viewed a posteriori, improves our understanding of the source and nature of synergies in real economic markets and might render economic and natural sciences more consilient.

  13. Globalization and Peace: A Hayekian Perspective

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    Adrián Osvaldo Ravier


    Full Text Available In his Studies in Philosophy, Politics and Economics (1967, p.168, Nobel Prize laureate Friedrich A. von Hayek explains that “from the first establishment of (trade which served reciprocal but not common purposes, a process has been going on for millennia which, by making rules of conduct independent of the particular purposes of those concerned, made it possible to extend these rules to ever wider circles of undetermined persons and eventually might make possible a universal peaceful order of the world.”Today, we can denominate this the process of globalization, understanding as such the process that arises spontaneously in the market and acts by developing a progressive international division of labour, eliminating restrictions on individual liberties, reducing transportation and communication costs, and increasingly integrating the individuals that compose the “great society.”The purpose of the present essay is to attempt to deepen in this Hayekian thesis and approximate an explanation of why the said process could lead to world peace. To be consistent with Hayek’s works, we must conduct a multidisciplinary analysis of the process under consideration; analysis which must necessarily include a historical reference, an economic study, a legal approach, and finally the consideration of its cultural implications.

  14. Methodological solipsism and kaleidoscopic worlds of Ludwig Mauritz Lachmann

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    Bazhenov Grigory, A.


    Full Text Available Among the Austrians fifth generation occupies a special place disciple of Friedrich A. von Hayek, economist, distracting from the overall flow of the Austrians, Ludwig M. Lachmann. Using the framework of his theory of the fundamental assumptions of the Austrian School (individualism, subjectivism, Lachmann did not try to pull them under the base of normative conclusions about the structure of the economic system of society, but rather, an attempt to build a more rigorous theory of the social world order. German economist, recognizing the importance of the concept of subjective value, pay attention to its insufficiency and stressed the need to incorporate to construct a theory of subjectivity expectations that brings his views with the views of John Maynard Keynes. Following George Shackle Ludwig Lachmann believes that the economy is similar to a kaleidoscope: the elements of economic reality are in constant rearrangement, creating continuously changing each other short-lived and unstable patterns. The author of the paper analyzes the concepts and ideas of Ludwig M. Lachmann, noting both the strengths and weaknesses of his theory. The author shows the importance of the theoretical development of the German economist for modern economics.

  15. Fallible Knowledge

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    Rogério P. de Andrade


    Full Text Available O artigo discute a natureza do conhecimento em um ambiente sócio-econômico caracterizado por incerteza genuína. O ponto de partida é considerar que ambientes incertos tornam o conhecimento falível e contingente. O conhecimento é falível tanto em virtude de interações no espaço que acontecem ao mesmo tempo (complexidade, como devido à passagem do tempo. O artigo enfatiza dois tipos de conhecimento: “knowledge how” e “knowledge that”. O primeiro consiste em um tipo de conhecimento acerca do modo como fazemos algo e o segundo em um tipo de conhecimento acerca do porque fazemos algo. Uma forma que os agentes encontram para lidar com a condição de conhecimento falível é recorrer a convenções (Keynes e regras (Hayek. Convenções e regras são uma espécie de reservatório de uma forma de conhecimento social e intersubjetiva que os agentes podem adquirir, armazenar e comunicar uns com os outros. Elas fornecem em parte a informação necessária para o desempenho de suas atividades cotidianas.


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    Zelina Cardoso


    Full Text Available This work has been prepared through bibliographic search to give focus to the influences of neoliberalism and international organizations in educational policymaking. It is important to stress that the educational system was the fruit of neoliberal hegemony season, that originated the legislation responsible education guidelines. The neoliberal philosophy, although it has been defended Friedrich Von Hayek in l945, only took strength in the mid-1970s, when collapsed economic liberalism system of John Maynard Keynes. In the years 1980 many countries, especially Latin American were in debt crisis and with that came on the scene, the World Bank debt management, as well as to promote the development of countries through external funding; The World Bank, to identify in education a human development factor, treat it as a fundamental part of funding agreements. To this end adopted tough measures for the reduction of public spending, compulsory education State responsibility only for basic education, directing education for the private sector, subject to the laws of the market. Measures were recommended to the complete reform of the educational system and the role of the State in its administration and funding, aimed at improving the quality, equity and efficiency. These measures, from the power of multilateral bodies, based on principles were winning the neoliberal view and consent between governmental authorities and government in government, have been incorporated into the Brazilian legislation.

  17. New Configuration of the Brazilian State: Liberty and Development in the Evolution of Government in Brazil

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    Maya Reyes-Ricon


    Full Text Available The recent events in the global economy have revitalized the debate about the size and functions of the State. The neoliberal discourse was put in check, reopening the discussions concerning Market Liberty and the importance of the State. Since the proclamation of the Republic, the Brazilian government has undergone numerous reforms, sometimes assuming a liberal, external market dependent orientation, while at other times assuming an authoritarian, developmental state-driven orientation. The aim of this article is to develop insights into the evolution of the governmental organization and reflect on the assumptions that lie behind the various reforms that have taken place since the beginning of the Republic. The theoretical framework is divided into three parts: Development and Liberty based on the perspectives of Friedrich Hayek and Amartya Sen; the role of the State and its impact on the economy and; the formats assumed by the Brazilian State throughout the history of the Republic. The latter part of the work returns to the theoretical framework, summarizing all that has been discussed in order to fulfil the aims of the study.

  18. Electric transition(s) - What Europe and markets have been unable to tell you

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Jean-Pierre; Percebois, Jacques; Mestrallet, Gerard


    In an interview, one of the authors proposes an assessment of 20 years of liberalisation of the electric power sector and market: no technological innovation like in the telecommunication sector, disturbance of market operation, high subsidies awarded to renewable sources, emergence of stranded costs. He also explains that electricity is not a product like others (it is a strategic product), the importance of time (a power plant lifetime is often more than 40 years), and that the digital revolution will probably change the deal. He explains why France is an exception in the production of clean electric power. As 40 per cent of power production is based on coal, he discusses what could be an efficient measure to reduce this share. Then, an article proposes a review of the book. It outlines the contradiction between approach by or for the market, reports the different failures noticed by the author regarding power markets and utilities. It describes how the authors promote deregulation and prefer Hayek to Keynes. It finally discusses the two electric transitions which are existing within the European electric power system: the end of public services and the de-carbonation of power generation

  19. Production inventory policies for defective items with inspection errors, sales return, imperfect rework process and backorders (United States)

    Jaggi, Chandra K.; Khanna, Aditi; Kishore, Aakanksha


    In order to sustain the challenges of maintaining good quality and perfect screening process, rework process becomes a rescue to compensate for the imperfections present in the production system. The proposed model attempts to explore the existing real-life situation with a more practical approach by incorporating the concept of imperfect rework as this occurs as an unavoidable problem to the firm due to irreparable disorders even in the reworked items. Hence, a production inventory model is formulated here to study the combined effect of imperfect quality items, faulty inspection process and imperfect rework process on the optimal production quantity and optimal backorder level. An analytical method is employed to maximize the expected total profit per unit time. Moreover, the results of several previous research articles namely Chiu et al (2006), Chiu et al (2005), Salameh and Hayek (2001), and classical EPQ with shortages are deduced as special cases. To demonstrate the applicability of the model, and to observe the effects of key parameters on the optimal replenishment policy, a numerical example along with a comprehensive sensitivity analysis has been presented. The pertinence of the model can be found in most of the manufacturing industries like textile, electronics, furniture, footwear, plastics etc. A production lot size model has been explored for defectives items with inspection errors and an imperfect rework process.

  20. The historical development of business philanthropy: social responsibility in the new corporate economy. (United States)

    Marinetto, M


    According to neo-liberal economists such as Friedman and Hayek, the prime function of any business enterprise is to generate profits; its central responsibility is to shareholders. The idea that business owners should also seek to perform social tasks is regarded as completely erroneous. Historical evidence suggests that not all business leaders have been content simply to perform a commercial role in society. Numerous industrialists and entrepreneurs throughout the nineteenth century made significant contributions to their local communities. The early efforts of socially responsible business leaders are well documented. This paper aims to build on existing historical analysis of business philanthropy and social involvement by analysing developments in post-war Britain. Three main historical developments are outlined. Firstly, the early post-war years, despite the formation of the welfare state, witnessed some notable efforts to engage business in society. These were mainly inspired by church-led organisations and Christian entrepreneurs. Second, the expansion of the corporate economy throughout the 1940s and 1950s placed increasing constraints on the social aspirations of businesses. Finally, from the mid-1970s onwards there grew a more general interest in corporate responsibility. This was consolidated in the 1980s. As part of the general redefinition of state functions in this period, the role of business in addressing social problems became more prominent. Such political and policy developments, it is argued, have made a significant contribution towards enhancing the social role of business.

  1. Crítica à leitura hayekiana da História: a perspectiva da ação política de Hannah Arendt

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    Angela Ganem


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the limitations of a Hayekian reading of history, comparing it with the theoretical perspective of Hannah Arendts political action. The article constitutes of three parts: in the first part we present the Hayekian theory of spontaneous order as a rational order and laws as inexorable as the ones he criticizes in Marx; in other words, the idea of the markets self-development seen as the only possible way to organize contemporary societies. In the second part we show that concepts precious to liberalism are present in critical authors such as Hannah Arendt, for whom the individual in political action binds himself to the historical construction of a fair world, reconciling individual liberties with collective interests. Finally, in the third part of the article, we compare the two authors, showing that the antidote to totalitarianism, and the space for freedom is not to be found in liberalism or the markets logic, as Hayek advocates, but in democracy, as Arendt pleads, as the central concept of its theoretical building and privileged space for political action, freedom and justice.

  2. Antibacterial activity and GC/MS analysis of the essential oils from flower, leaf and stem of Origanum vulgare ssp. viride growing wild in north-west Iran. (United States)

    Shafaghat, Ali


    Essential oils obtained from flowers, leaves and stems of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. viride (Boiss.) Hayek., growing wild in Ardabil Province (north-west Iran), were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. beta-Caryophyllene was the major constituent in all three oils (48.1%, 50.1% and 60.2%, respectively). Of the 19 components detected in the flower oil, comprising 96.3% of the total, the major components were 1,8-cineole (11.6%), alpha-pinene (6.9%), and gamma-cadinene (4.8%). 1-Octen-3-ol (23.8%), and 1,8-cineole (8.5%) predominated in the leafoil. In the stem oil, other main constituents were bicyclogermacrene (9.8%), 1,8-cineole (6.4%), borneol (5.1%), and pinocarvone (4.4%). The essential oils were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against 10 selected microorganisms. The data obtained contribute to the future use of certain essential oils as natural preservatives for food products, due to their safety and positive effect on shelf life.

  3. Strategy for the expansion of renewable energies. An investigation of the pricing strategy of the Renewable Energy Law from the viewpoint of an evolutionary cybernetic theory of economic policy; Die Strategie des Ausbaus erneuerbarer Energien. Eine Untersuchung der Preissetzungsstrategie des EEGs aus Sicht einer evolutorisch-kybernetischen Theorie der Wirtschaftspolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, Fabian


    This publication reports on how the steadily increasing costs caused by the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) have brought the German strategy for the expansion of renewable energies under criticism. According to theories of regulatory economic policy, which state that politico-economic incentives of this kind must necessarily result in an inefficient allocation of scarce resources, this cost increase can be interpreted as a direct consequence of the price intervention. The present publication takes a critical stance on this viewpoint, developing for its purpose a new position on regulatory policy referred to as the evolutionary cybernetic theory of economic policy. It starts out from the works of F.A. von Hayek, which it then takes a significant step further however. The author argues that price interventions can be meaningful strategies of economic policy as long as they are aimed at a temporary initiation of market development towards sustainability and efficiency. Based on this model conception of a shrewd pricing strategy the publication undertakes an analysis from the perspective of regulatory policy of the German subsidisation of renewable energies. In the process it not only reveals errors in design of the EEG but also makes a proposal for an amendment that could be effective in cutting through the present price dynamics. In presenting its recommendation of a self-steering expansion policy the publication not only contributes to the further development of an evolutionary cybernetic theory of economic policy but addresses the urgent problem of how to wisely use regulatory policy to create pricing strategies which serve the expansion of renewable energies.

  4. An Analysis of Yusuf (AS's Counter-Cyclical Principle and its Implementation in the Modern World

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    Jameel Ahmed


    Full Text Available Objective - This study examines the present-day implementation of the counter-cyclical principle suggested by Yusuf (AS around four thousand years ago, in response to the King of Egypt's dream, to overcome the famine of seven years through saving grain during seven years of abundance. In general, the counter-cyclical principle encourages saving during times of plenty and spending during times of scarcity, activities which today help to stabilise the business-cycle.Method - Library research is applied since this paper relies on secondary data by thoroughly reviewing the most relevant literature. This paper reviews the commodity-based currency systems proposed before, during and after the Second World War by several prominent economists (particularly Keynes, 1938; Graham, 1940; Hayek, 1943; Grondona, 1950 and Lietaer, 2001 all of which basically incorporated the counter-cyclical principle of Prophet Yusuf (AS. The primary purpose of these commodity-based currency systems is to stabilise the real value of money in order to improve macroeconomic stability. Additionally, this paper provides an in-depth analysis of Grondona system of conditional currency convertibility.Results - The Grondona system would partially stabilise the real value of each country's national currency in terms of a range of durable, essential, basic imported commodities, thereby also partially stabilising the prices of the selected commodities in terms of the national currency of each country implementing the system.Conclusion - The Grondona system of conditional currency convertibility as compared to other commodity-based currency systems is more practical. Its primary advantage in comparison to other proposals of commodity reserve currency is that it could be implemented in parallel with the existing monetary system. Accordingly, it could be taken as a preliminary step towards a monetary system based on real money such as gold dinar.Keywords : Counter-cyclical principle

  5. Reconsidering 'Set the People Free': Neoliberalism and Freedom Rhetoric in Churchill's Conservative Party. (United States)

    Freeman, James


    It is often assumed that 'Hayekian' or 'neoliberal' influences lay behind Conservative attacks on socialism in 1945 and subsequent calls to 'set the people free' in 1950 and 1951. This assumption has had consequences for our understanding of late-1940s Conservatism and for wider interpretations of post-war politics. Heeding recent calls to reconnect the inter-war and post-war parties and to pay closer attention to how opponents and contexts generate arguments, this article revisits senior Conservatives' rhetoric between 1945 and 1951 to break the link between neoliberal influence and freedom rhetoric. First, it argues that the rhetoric of 1945 was derived from a distinctly Conservative lineage of interwar argument and reflected strategies developed before the publication of F. A. Hayek's 'The Road to Serfdom'. Second, it demonstrates that senior Conservatives' emancipatory rhetoric in opposition after 1945 was neither a simple continuation of these themes nor primarily a response to the public's growing antipathy towards rationing and controls. Rather, such rhetoric was a complex response to Britain's immediate economic difficulties and the political challenges presented by austerity. Finally, the article sheds new light on the strategy that governed the party's campaigns in 1950 and 1951. Churchill and others' calls to 'set the people free' stemmed from a belief that the rhetorical opportunity lay in reconciling liberty with security. In that sense, the leadership had moved beyond begrudging compromises with the 'Attleean settlement' and was instead attempting to define a new identity within the parameters of the welfare state. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  6. Sesquiterpene lactones from the Yugoslavian wild growing plant families Asteraceae and Apiaceae (REVIEW

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    Full Text Available 1. Introduction 2. Results 3. Asteraceae 3.1. Genus Artemisia L. 3.1.1. Artemisia annua L. 3.1.2. Artemisia vulgaris L. 3.1.3. Artemisia absinthium L. (warmwood 3.1.4. Artemisia scoparia W. et K. 3.1.5. Artemisia camprestris L. 3.2. Genus Ambrosia L. 3.2.1. Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (the common rag weed 3.3. Genus Tanacetum L. (syn. Chrysanthemum L. 3.3.1. Tanacetum parthenium L. (feverfew 3.3.2. Tanacetum serotinum L. 3.3.3. Tanacetum vulgare L. (tansy 3.3.4. Tanacetum macrophyllum Willd. 3.3.5. Tanacetum corymbosum L. 3.4. Genus Telekia Baumg. 3.4.1. Telekia speciosa (Schreb. Baumg. 3.5. Genus Inula L. 3.5.1. Inula helenium L. 3.5.2. Inula spiraeifolia L. 3.6. Genus Eupatorium L. 3.6.1. Eupatorium cannabinum L. 3.7. Genus Achillea L. 3.7.1. Achillea abrotanoides Vis. 3.7.2. Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica 3.7.3. Achillea crithmifolia W. et K. 3.7.4. Achillea clypeolata Sibth. et Sm. 3.7.5. Achillea serbica Nyman 3.7.6. Achillea depressa Janka 3.8. Genus Anthemis L. 3.8.1. Anthemis carpatica Willd. 3.8.2. Anthemis cretica L. subsp. cretica 3.9. Genus Centaurea L. 3.9.1. Centaurea derventana Vis. et Panc. 3.9.2. Centaurea kosaninii Hayek 3.9.3. Centaurea solstitialis L. 4. Apiaceae 4.1. Genus Laserpitium L. 4.1.1. Laserpitium siler L. 4.1.2. Laserpitium marginatum L. 4.1.3. Laserpitium latifolium L. 4.1.4. Laserpitium alpinum W. K. 4.2. Genus Angelica L. 4.2.1. Angelica silvestris L. 4.3. Genus Peucedanum L. 4.3.1. Peucedanum austriacum (Jacq. Koch

  7. Crítica à leitura hayekiana da História: a perspectiva da ação política de Hannah Arendt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Ganem


    Full Text Available Mostrar as limitações da leitura hayekiana da História contrapondo-a à perspectiva teórica da ação política de Hannah Arendt é o objetivo deste texto. O artigo tem três partes constitutivas: na primeira parte, apresentamos a teoria hayekiana da ordem espontânea como uma ordem racional e leis tão inexoráveis quanto as que ele critica em Marx. Em uma palavra, a ideia do autodesenvolvimento do mercado visto como a única forma possível de organização para as sociedades contemporâneas. Na segunda parte, mostramos que conceitos caros ao liberalismo estão presentes em autores críticos, como Hannah Arendt, em que o indivíduo através da ação política constrói um mundo justo, conciliando liberdade individual com interesses coletivos. Finalmente, na terceira parte do artigo, contrapomos os dois autores, mostrando que o antídoto ao totalitarismo e o espaço da liberdade não estão no liberalismo ou na lógica do mercado, como advoga Hayek, mas na democracia, como pleiteia Arendt, conceito central do seu edifício teórico e espaço privilegiado da ação política, da liberdade e da justiça.

  8. Liberalism - neoliberalism - market fundamentalism: from the concept of freedom to the totalitarian dogma

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    V. I. Chelischev


    Full Text Available The article further describes the ideological, historical, socio-political and economic circumstances, responsible for the specific direction of a new form of the ideology of liberalism - contemporary liberalism (neo-liberalism. The special attention, along with the analysis of the ideas of the founder of original theory of the state intervention in the economic life of the society of John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946, is given to “neoliberal” economic constructions of an ideological orientation of Friedrich August von Hayek (1899-1992 and Milton Friedman (1912-2006, defenders of a liberal principle of self-regulation of economy, free from any regalements. The author, on the basis of the analysis of primary sources and examples from a political and social life of some States, shows that in theory the resurgence of liberalism in the form of neo-liberalism personified the idea of the priority of the individual to society and the State, the market - before planning and regulation, the human rights - before the power authority and the team. However in practice this revival was accompanied by displacement of accents and growth of ideological tendencies. Thus, theorists and practitioners of neo-liberalism lined up quite utopian model not only of economic, but also of social relations. Article details the mechanisms by which the theoretical constructions of economists-neoliberals were emasculated by politicians who gradually reduced them to the primitive and convenient theses, justifying any actions of the authorities. Over time, these points have become “undeniable truths”, through which neo-liberalism became dogmatic, and its economic credo has got obvious fundamentalist character, having turned to market dogma of totalitarian type.

  9. O déficit da previdência social e os reflexos do pensamento neoconservador nos direitos previdenciários no Brasil, México e Chile

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    Juliana Toralles dos Santos Braga


    Full Text Available O presente trabalho pretende buscar elementos e mecanismos institucionais para uma reflexão que subsidie o debate em torno da influência do pensamento neoconservador nas reformas operadas na legislação previdenciária de países em desenvolvimento como Brasil, México e Chile. Na primeira parte há a demonstração de como o neoconservadorismo afetou os direitos sociais previdenciários nas últimas décadas, através do estudo dos expoentes deste momevimento: Ludwig Von Misses, Milton Friedman e Friedrich Augusto Von Hayek. Na segunda parte, busca-se fazer uma relação entre as influências do pensamento neoliberal nas reformas operadas na legislação previdenciária do Brasil após a promulgação da Constituição da República Federativa do Brasil, em 1988. Após, procura-se demonstrar as consequências dessa influência através de breve relato sobre as experiências vividas por países também em desenvolvimento como México e Chile. Ao final, são apresentados dados que embasam o questionamento sobre o déficit da Previdência Social no Brasil, em busca de uma barreira de contenção para o hegemônico discurso neoconservador.

  10. Strategy for the expansion of renewable energies. An investigation of the pricing strategy of the Renewable Energy Law from the viewpoint of an evolutionary cybernetic theory of economic policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlueter, Fabian


    This publication reports on how the steadily increasing costs caused by the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) have brought the German strategy for the expansion of renewable energies under criticism. According to theories of regulatory economic policy, which state that politico-economic incentives of this kind must necessarily result in an inefficient allocation of scarce resources, this cost increase can be interpreted as a direct consequence of the price intervention. The present publication takes a critical stance on this viewpoint, developing for its purpose a new position on regulatory policy referred to as the evolutionary cybernetic theory of economic policy. It starts out from the works of F.A. von Hayek, which it then takes a significant step further however. The author argues that price interventions can be meaningful strategies of economic policy as long as they are aimed at a temporary initiation of market development towards sustainability and efficiency. Based on this model conception of a shrewd pricing strategy the publication undertakes an analysis from the perspective of regulatory policy of the German subsidisation of renewable energies. In the process it not only reveals errors in design of the EEG but also makes a proposal for an amendment that could be effective in cutting through the present price dynamics. In presenting its recommendation of a self-steering expansion policy the publication not only contributes to the further development of an evolutionary cybernetic theory of economic policy but addresses the urgent problem of how to wisely use regulatory policy to create pricing strategies which serve the expansion of renewable energies.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirghi Nicoleta


    Full Text Available The neoclassical theory of the firm deals with the pattern of perfect competition, within which the perfect information available to economic agents provides instant allocation of production factors and access to economic goods. The Austrian School (C. Menger, L. von Mises, Hayek, etc. supported the idea of minimal state intervention on the markets, bringing important conceptual developments on the theory of the firm. Hirschleifer (1982 put forward the model of social and institutional functioning, arguing that the game theory is able to predict the outcome of the collective behavior and the human characteristics necessary for building the respective institutions.The evolutionary theory provides the firm and the entrepreneur the recognition of the functions of innovation, of generating and exploiting information and of organizing and coordinating production. The evolutionary perspective of the firm assumes the existence of a body of knowledge that is acquired through and builds up the organizational memory, subsequently found in routines, all choices being made based on these routines (Nelson and Winter, 2002. The evolution of the firm is considered to be similar to natural selection, but unlike the classic market selection, the evolutionists suggest the existence of a plurality of selection media. The present research is structured as follows: a brief introduction into the theories of the firm, the second part of the paper analyzes the theories of the firm from an institutional, neo-institutional and evolutionary perspective. In the third part of the paper the evolutionary games are described and analyzed from the evolutionary perspective of the firm. The last part of the paper represents a study of the “hawk-dove” game dynamic replicator. The final conclusions of the paper show that the evolutionary theory brings valuable contributions to the foundation of explanations regarding economic phenomena, indicating new directions for advanced

  12. El legado económico del TLCAN: ¿Otra institución neoliberal zombi?

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    James M. Cypher


    Full Text Available El proyecto neoliberal de los tres países que conforman el Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte (TLCAN constituye un bloque de poder de gran concordancia. Este proyecto se mantiene vivo aún cuando sus postulados y presupuestos han sido refutados repetidamente por la evidencia empírica y mediante el análisis lógico. Muy a pesar de sus efectos negativos, el proyecto neoliberal no ha sido desbancado de su posición de hegemonía intelectual; una consecuencia que podría haberse esperado de la crisis económica de 2007-2013, y cuyo origen se encuentra en Estados Unidos (US. En México, trastornado por los efectos indirectos de esta crisis, no hay señales de decaimiento del proyecto neoliberal, sino todo lo contrario. Desde 1994, ciertamente las críticas al TLCAN se han acumulado, sin embargo estas han tenido nulo efecto, a pesar de que las ideas dominantes de la economía política neoliberal han demostrado estar “muertas” desde hace tiempo, siguen dominando la escena política nacional e internacional. A esta dominancia se le ha señalado como el “efecto zombi” (muerto caminando del neoliberalismo. En este mismo sentido, un ejemplo es el ‘capítulo muerto’ del TLCAN sobre el petróleo, el cual ya ha comenzado a caminar nuevamente, pues el capítulo “revivirá” a merced del capital privado transnacional, tal como fuera antes de su nacionalización en la tercera década del siglo XX. Así es el proceso evolutivo neoliberal del TLCAN en general; no hay fin, ni datos empíricos, ni argumentos lógicos pertinentes para oponerse al proceso, porque el proyecto del fundamentalismo de mercado se basa en el pensamiento metafísico mágico de Friedman y Hayek. Detrás de las instituciones zombis se encuentran los “hechiceros” que construyen el andamiaje conceptual institucional, basado en la idea “mágica” de un sistema socioeconómico supuestamente idóneo, auto-regulado por “la mano invisible”; un sistema de

  13. Faba Greens, Globe Artichoke’s Offshoots, Crenate Broomrape and Summer Squash Greens: Unconventional Vegetables of Puglia (Southern Italy With Good Quality Traits

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    Massimiliano Renna


    Full Text Available Globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. [L.] scolymus Hayek, summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L. and faba bean (Vicia faba L. are widely cultivated for their immature inflorescences, fruits and seeds, respectively. Nevertheless, in some areas of Puglia (Southern Italy, other organs of these species are traditionally used as vegetables, instead of being considered as by-products. Offshoots (so-called cardoni or carducci of globe artichoke, produced during the vegetative growing cycle and removed by common cultural procedures, are used like to the cultivated cardoons (C. cardunculus L. var. altilis DC. The stems, petioles, flowers and smaller leaves of summer squash are used as greens (so-called cime di zucchini, like other leafy vegetables such as chicory (Cichorium intybus L. and Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L.. Also the plant apex of faba bean, about 5–10 cm long, obtained from the green pruning, are used as greens (so-called cime di fava like spinach leaves. Moreover, crenate broomrape (Orobanche crenata Forssk., a root parasite plant that produces devastating effects on many crops (mostly legumes, is used like asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L. to prepare several traditional dishes. In this study ethnobotanical surveys and quality assessment of these unconventional vegetables were performed. For their content of fiber, offshoots of globe artichokes can be considered a useful food to bowel. Summer squash greens could be recommended as a vegetable to use especially in the case of hypoglycemic diets considering both content and composition of their carbohydrates. For their low content of nitrate, faba greens could be recommended as a substitute of nitrate-rich leafy vegetables. Crenate broomrape shows a high antioxidant activity and may be considered as a very nutritious agri-food product. Overall, the results of the present study indicate that offshoots of globe artichoke, summer squash greens, faba greens and crenate broomrape have good

  14. Man, Economy and Free Market: the Approach of M.N. Rothbard

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    Vladimir V. Maltsev


    Full Text Available The aims of the paper are to highlight the main contributions of Rothbard to the development of the economic science through analyzing his most significant works and to explain his unique influence on the intellectual tradition of the Austrian School of Economics. In the XXI century, the Austrian School is exerting a significant influence on the development of economics and its application to the realm of public policy. More economists respond positively towards fundamental Austrian ideas and the academic journals are more accepting of the works in this line of thought. In the past century only a few economists were aware of the Austrian’s school existence and many disagreed with its methods and conclusions. At the present, the Austrian school’s ideas are situated much closer to the economic mainstream, because the accepted paradigm grew to accept some of its ideas. When mentioning the Austrian School in the Russian economic discussions, mostly the names of Friedrich Hayek or Ludwig von Mises or Israel Kirzner can be mentioned. However, many important scholars are still being left out. One of those scholars is Murray Newton Rothbard. In 2016, it is 90 years since his birth. Few economists are capable of creating such a great volume of work that can provide a heated discussion twenty years after the author’s death. Rothbard, being the student of Mises, became a leading representative of the Austrian School in the United States. He built upon and significantly expanded the economic analysis of his mentor in his fundamental work “Man, Economy and State with Power and Market” (2004. Rothbard gained recognition among the Austrian paradigm due to his innovative developments in questions of methodology, utility, welfare, monopoly and money. He also successfully applied the Austrian theory to explain such important historical events as the Great Depression in his book «America’s Great Depression» (2000 or the genesis and development of the

  15. A Self-Directed Mobile Intervention (WaznApp) to Promote Weight Control Among Employees at a Lebanese University: Protocol for a Feasibility Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial. (United States)

    Bardus, Marco; Hamadeh, Ghassan; Hayek, Bouchra; Al Kherfan, Rawan


    and waist circumference), behavioral outcomes (physical activity and diet), and cognitive factors (motivation to participate in the trial and to manage weight). WaznApp was funded in June 2017, and recruitment started in March 2018. This study will provide information as to whether the selected mobile apps offer a feasible solution for promoting weight management in an academic workplace. The results will inform a larger trial whose results might be replicated in similar workplaces in Lebanon and the Middle East and North Africa region, and will be used as a benchmark for further investigations in other settings and similar target groups. NCT03321331; (Archived by WebCite at RR1-10.2196/9793. ©Marco Bardus, Ghassan Hamadeh, Bouchra Hayek, Rawan Al Kherfan. Originally published in JMIR Research Protocols (, 16.05.2018.