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Sample records for michigan urban air

  1. 40 CFR 81.67 - Lake Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.67 Lake Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Menominee-Escanaba (Michigan)-Marinette (Wisconsin) Interstate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Lake Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Wisconsin) and revised to consist of the territorial area...

  2. Comparison between polluted and clean air masses over Lake Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkezweeny, A.J.; Laulainen, N.S.

    1981-01-01

    Clean and polluted air masses, advected over Lake Michigan, were studied using instrumental aircraft during the summers of 1976 and 1978. The results show that regardless of the degree of pollution, the particle size distribution is bimodal. The concentrations of sulfate, nitrate and trace metals in a clean air mass are more than an order of magnitude lower than those in polluted air masses. Furthermore, these concentrations are comparable with those measured in remote areas of the world. In clean air the ratio of the total light scattering to Rayleigh scattering is very close to one, indicating very low concentrations of particulates in the optically active size classes

  3. Urban air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenger, J.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled, and the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10. In the same period the fraction of people living in urban areas has increased by a factor of 4. In year 2000 this will amount to nearly half of the world population. About 20 urban regions will each have populations above 10 million people. Seen over longer periods, pollution in major cities tends to increase during the built up phase, they pass through a maximum and are then again reduced, as abatement strategies are developed. In the industrialised western world urban air pollution is in some respects in the last stage with effectively reduced levels of sulphur dioxide and soot. In recent decades however, the increasing traffic has switched the attention to nitrogen oxides, organic compounds and small particles. In some cities photochemical air pollution is an important urban problem, but in the northern part of Europe it is a large-scale phenomenon, with ozone levels in urban streets being normally lower than in rural areas. Cities in Eastern Europe have been (and in many cases still are) heavily polluted. After the recent political upheaval, followed by a temporary recession and a subsequent introduction of new technologies, the situation appears to improve. However, the rising number of private cars is an emerging problem. In most developing countries the rapid urbanisation has so far resulted in uncontrolled growth and deteriorating environment. Air pollution levels are here still rising on many fronts. Apart from being sources of local air pollution, urban activities are significant contributors to transboundary pollution and to the rising global concentrations of greenhouse gasses. Attempts to solve urban problems by introducing cleaner, more energy-efficient technologies will generally have a beneficial impact on these large-scale problems. Attempts based on city planning with a spreading of the activities, on the other hand, may generate

  4. 75 FR 32664 - Safety Zone; Milwaukee Air and Water Show, Lake Michigan, Milwaukee, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    .... ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a safety zone on Lake Michigan... of Lake Michigan due to a large-scale air show and a fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is... air show and fireworks display. DATES: This regulation is effective from 12:01 a.m. on June 10, 2010...

  5. Urban and community forests of the North Central East region: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2010-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry information for each state including human population characteristics and trends,...

  6. Urban structure and air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, T. J.; Kenworthy, J. R.; Newman, P. W. G.

    Representative driving cycles across the Perth, Western Australia, metropolitan region illustrate a direct relationship to urban land use. Movement away from the central business district results in fewer traffic events, higher speeds, longer cruise periods and shorter stops. The consequent reduction in root mean square acceleration leads to a corresponding reduction in vehicle emission factors. Urban planning implications are pursued and highlight the importance of public transport as an option in reducing urban air pollution.

  7. Source-receptor relationships for atmospheric mercury in urban Detroit, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Mary M.; Keeler, Gerald J.

    Speciated hourly mercury measurements were made in Detroit, Michigan during four sampling campaigns from 2000 to 2002. In addition, other chemical and meteorological parameters were measured concurrently. These data were analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA) in order to develop source receptor relationships for mercury species in urban Detroit. Reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) was found to cluster on two main factors; photochemistry and a coal combustion factor. Particulate phase mercury, Hg p, tended to cluster with RGM on the same factor. The photochemistry factor corroborates previous observations of the presence of RGM in highly oxidizing atmospheres and does not point to a specific source emission type. Instead, it likely represents local emissions and regional transport of photochemically processed air masses. The coal combustion factor is indicative of emissions from coal-fired power plants near the receptor site. Elemental mercury was found on a factor for combustion from automobiles and points to the influence these emissions have on the receptor site, which was located proximate to two major interstate highways and the largest border crossing in the United States. This analysis reveals that the receptor site which is located in an industrialized sector of the city of Detroit experienced impacts from both stationary and point sources of mercury that are both local and regional in nature.

  8. Ground-water contamination at Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, J.R.; Cummings, T.R.; Twenter, F.R.

    1983-01-01

    A sand and gravel aquifer of glacial origin underlies Wurtsmith Air Force Base in northeastern lower Michigan. The aquifer overlies a thick clay layer at an average depth of 65 feet. The water table is about 10 feet below land surface in the western part of the Base and about 25 feet below land surface in the eastern part. A ground-water divide cuts diagonally across the Base from northwest to southeast. South of the divide, ground water flows to the Au Sable River; north of the divide, it flows to Van Etten Creek and Van Etten Lake. Mathematical models were used to aid in calculating rates of groundwater flow. Rates range from about 0.8 feet per day in the eastern part of the Base to about 0.3 feet per day in the western part. Models also were used as an aid in making decisions regarding purging of contaminated water from the aquifer. In 1977, trichloroethylene was detected in the Air Force Base water-supply system. It had leaked from a buried storage tank near Building 43 in the southeastern part of the Base and moved northeastward under the influence of the natural ground-water gradient and the pumping of Base water-supply wells. In the most highly contaminated part of the plume, concentrations are greater than 1,000 micrograms per liter. Current purge pumping is removing some of the trichloroethylene, and seems to have arrested its eastward movement. Pumping of additional purge wells could increase the rate of removal. Trichloroethylene has also been detected in ground water in the vicinity of the Base alert apron, where a plume from an unknown source extends northeastward off Base. A smaller, less well-defined area of contamination also occurs just north of the larger plume. Trichloroethylene, identified near the waste-treatment plant, seepage lagoons, and the northern landfill area, is related to activities and operations in these areas. Dichloroethylene and trichloroethylene occur in significant quantities westward of Building 43, upgradient from the major

  9. 77 FR 65478 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Indiana; Michigan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... designed to ensure that the structural components of each State's air quality management program are... Department of Environmental Management (IDEM); Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ); Minnesota... components of each State's air quality management program are adequate to meet the State's responsibilities...

  10. Urban microbial ecology of a freshwater estuary of Lake Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jenny C; Newton, Ryan J; Dila, Deborah K; McLellan, Sandra L

    Freshwater estuaries throughout the Great Lakes region receive stormwater runoff and riverine inputs from heavily urbanized population centers. While human and animal feces contained in this runoff are often the focus of source tracking investigations, non-fecal bacterial loads from soil, aerosols, urban infrastructure, and other sources are also transported to estuaries and lakes. We quantified and characterized this non-fecal urban microbial component using bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences from sewage, stormwater, rivers, harbor/estuary, and the lake surrounding Milwaukee, WI, USA. Bacterial communities from each of these environments had a distinctive composition, but some community members were shared among environments. We used a statistical biomarker discovery tool to identify the components of the microbial community that were most strongly associated with stormwater and sewage to describe an "urban microbial signature," and measured the presence and relative abundance of these organisms in the rivers, estuary, and lake. This urban signature increased in magnitude in the estuary and harbor with increasing rainfall levels, and was more apparent in lake samples with closest proximity to the Milwaukee estuary. The dominant bacterial taxa in the urban signature were Acinetobacter, Aeromonas , and Pseudomonas , which are organisms associated with pipe infrastructure and soil and not typically found in pelagic freshwater environments. These taxa were highly abundant in stormwater and sewage, but sewage also contained a high abundance of Arcobacter and Trichococcus that appeared in lower abundance in stormwater outfalls and in trace amounts in aquatic environments. Urban signature organisms comprised 1.7% of estuary and harbor communities under baseflow conditions, 3.5% after rain, and >10% after a combined sewer overflow. With predicted increases in urbanization across the Great Lakes, further alteration of freshwater communities is likely to occur with potential

  11. Urban microbial ecology of a freshwater estuary of Lake Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny C. Fisher

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Freshwater estuaries throughout the Great Lakes region receive stormwater runoff and riverine inputs from heavily urbanized population centers. While human and animal feces contained in this runoff are often the focus of source tracking investigations, non-fecal bacterial loads from soil, aerosols, urban infrastructure, and other sources are also transported to estuaries and lakes. We quantified and characterized this non-fecal urban microbial component using bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences from sewage, stormwater, rivers, harbor/estuary, and the lake surrounding Milwaukee, WI, USA. Bacterial communities from each of these environments had a distinctive composition, but some community members were shared among environments. We used a statistical biomarker discovery tool to identify the components of the microbial community that were most strongly associated with stormwater and sewage to describe an “urban microbial signature,” and measured the presence and relative abundance of these organisms in the rivers, estuary, and lake. This urban signature increased in magnitude in the estuary and harbor with increasing rainfall levels, and was more apparent in lake samples with closest proximity to the Milwaukee estuary. The dominant bacterial taxa in the urban signature were Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, and Pseudomonas, which are organisms associated with pipe infrastructure and soil and not typically found in pelagic freshwater environments. These taxa were highly abundant in stormwater and sewage, but sewage also contained a high abundance of Arcobacter and Trichococcus that appeared in lower abundance in stormwater outfalls and in trace amounts in aquatic environments. Urban signature organisms comprised 1.7% of estuary and harbor communities under baseflow conditions, 3.5% after rain, and >10% after a combined sewer overflow. With predicted increases in urbanization across the Great Lakes, further alteration of freshwater communities is

  12. Urban microbial ecology of a freshwater estuary of Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jenny C.; Newton, Ryan J.; Dila, Deborah K.

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater estuaries throughout the Great Lakes region receive stormwater runoff and riverine inputs from heavily urbanized population centers. While human and animal feces contained in this runoff are often the focus of source tracking investigations, non-fecal bacterial loads from soil, aerosols, urban infrastructure, and other sources are also transported to estuaries and lakes. We quantified and characterized this non-fecal urban microbial component using bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences from sewage, stormwater, rivers, harbor/estuary, and the lake surrounding Milwaukee, WI, USA. Bacterial communities from each of these environments had a distinctive composition, but some community members were shared among environments. We used a statistical biomarker discovery tool to identify the components of the microbial community that were most strongly associated with stormwater and sewage to describe an “urban microbial signature,” and measured the presence and relative abundance of these organisms in the rivers, estuary, and lake. This urban signature increased in magnitude in the estuary and harbor with increasing rainfall levels, and was more apparent in lake samples with closest proximity to the Milwaukee estuary. The dominant bacterial taxa in the urban signature were Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, and Pseudomonas, which are organisms associated with pipe infrastructure and soil and not typically found in pelagic freshwater environments. These taxa were highly abundant in stormwater and sewage, but sewage also contained a high abundance of Arcobacter and Trichococcus that appeared in lower abundance in stormwater outfalls and in trace amounts in aquatic environments. Urban signature organisms comprised 1.7% of estuary and harbor communities under baseflow conditions, 3.5% after rain, and >10% after a combined sewer overflow. With predicted increases in urbanization across the Great Lakes, further alteration of freshwater communities is likely to occur with

  13. 76 FR 41075 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Indiana; Michigan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... requirements are designed to ensure that the structural components of each state's air quality management... Management (IDEM); Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ); Minnesota Pollution Control Agency... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R05-OAR-2007-1179; FRL-9436-7] Approval and...

  14. Air quality and urban management in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberti, M. [Stanford Univ. (United States). Center for Conservation Biology; Joffre, S. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Important changes in the quality of urban air have occurred in Europe during the last 20 years. Urban air quality trends are clearly correlated to changes in production and consumption processes which have occurred in European cities during the last decades. However, the way these trends are linked with the changes in the urban structure is not yet fully appreciated. A set of indicators is proposed to examine the relationships between air quality, energy consumption and transportation trends. On this basis is argued that the current decentralization of the urban structure and specialization of land use are major driving forces in current urban air pollution. The range of actions and tools to improve urban air quality should include: (1) land use planning, (2) efficient urban management, and (3) measures directed to protecting the quality of the urban environment. (author)

  15. Air quality and urban management in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberti, M [Stanford Univ. (United States). Center for Conservation Biology; Joffre, S [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Important changes in the quality of urban air have occurred in Europe during the last 20 years. Urban air quality trends are clearly correlated to changes in production and consumption processes which have occurred in European cities during the last decades. However, the way these trends are linked with the changes in the urban structure is not yet fully appreciated. A set of indicators is proposed to examine the relationships between air quality, energy consumption and transportation trends. On this basis is argued that the current decentralization of the urban structure and specialization of land use are major driving forces in current urban air pollution. The range of actions and tools to improve urban air quality should include: (1) land use planning, (2) efficient urban management, and (3) measures directed to protecting the quality of the urban environment. (author)

  16. Urban air quality in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Mar (ed.) [Spanish Research Council - CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Inst. for Environmental Assessment and Water Research

    2013-07-01

    This book provides an overview of air quality in urban environments in Europe, focusing on air pollutant emission sources and formation mechanisms, measurement and modeling strategies, and future perspectives. The emission sources described are biomass burning, vehicular traffic, industry and agriculture, but also African dust and long-range transport of pollutants across the European regions. The impact of these emission sources and processes on atmospheric particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen oxides and volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds is discussed and critical areas for particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide in Europe are identified. Finally, this volume presents future perspectives, mainly regarding upcoming air quality monitoring strategies, metrics of interest, such as submicron and nanoparticles, and indoor and outdoor exposure scenarios.

  17. Urban Air Pollution Climates Throughout the World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Ole; Goodsite, Michael Evan

    2009-01-01

    The extent of the urban area, the local emission density, and the temporal pattern in the releases govern the local contribution to air pollution levels in urban environments. However, meteorological conditions also heavily affect the actual pollution levels as they govern the dispersion conditio...... population and provide the right basis for future urban air pollution management....

  18. AIR POLLUTION OF URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAKAROVA V. N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Any manufacturing processes related to the generation of waste. Year after year, a growing mass of waste is one of the main factors reducing the quality of the environment and destruction of natural landscapes. Industrial development inevitably enhances human impacts on the environment and disrupts the ecological balance [3]. Atmospher air is a vital element of the environment. The development of industry, the growth of cities, increasing the number of transport, active exploration of near-Earth space lead to a change in the gas composition of the atmosphere and disruption of its natural balance. Air quality affects the health of the population [5]. Without water or food a person can do for a while, but without air he can not live a few minutes, therefore saving air breathable is an urgent problem. Purpose. The results of geological studies clearly indicate that the contamination of the surface layer of the atmosphere is the most powerful permanent factor of influence on the human food chain and the environment. This problem was reflected in the scientific literature [2; 3; 6], and the second significant indicator of ecological well-being of the region is the number of generation and accumulation of waste. According to this indicator, Dnipropetrovsk region is in the lead, as relates to the industrialized regions. The idea of the article is to consider the air pollution of the urban environment in terms of the accumulation of waste in the territory of enterprises, in particular slag dumps metallurgical production. Conclusion. Slag dumps located on the premises are a significant source of air pollution urbanized areas due to the permanent nature of the spread of contamination. Slag dump of PAT "Nikopol Ferroalloy Plant" is a source of manganese, zinc, nickel emissions. As a conclusion about the magnitude of pollution of the atmospheric boundary layer can say the following: on the border of the sanitary protection zone (SPZ, in

  19. Atmospheric Mercury Transport Across Southern Lake Michigan: Influence from the Chicago/Gary Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, L. E.; Keeler, G. J.; Dvonch, J. T.

    2008-12-01

    The local and regional impacts of mercury emissions from major urban and industrial areas are critical to quantify in order to further understand mercury cycling in the environment. The Chicago/Gary urban area is one such location in which mercury emissions from industrial sources are significant and regional mercury transport needs to be further examined. Speciated atmospheric mercury was measured in Chicago, IL and Holland, MI from July to November 2007 to better characterize the impact of Chicago/Gary on southwest Michigan. Previous work under the 1994-1995 Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study (LMMBS) indicated that the highest levels of mercury deposition in southwest Michigan occurred with transport from the Chicago/Gary area, particularly with rapid transport where less mercury was deposited close to sources(1). However, at that time it was not possible to measure reactive gas phase mercury (RGM), a highly-soluble form of mercury in industrial emissions that is readily removed from the atmosphere. Since the LMMBS, the development of speciated mercury systems has made it possible to continuously monitor gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0), particulate mercury (HgP), and RGM. These measurements are useful for understanding atmospheric mercury chemistry and differentiating between local and regional source impacts due to the different behaviors of reactive and elemental mercury. Results from 2007 show that, on average, Hg0 and HgP were 1.5 times higher and RGM was 2 times higher in Chicago than in Holland. Mean mercury wet deposition was nearly 3 times higher in Chicago than in Holland. Meteorological analysis indicates that transport across the lake from Chicago/Gary occurred frequently during the study. Additional measurements of O3, SO2, meteorological parameters, event mercury and trace element precipitation samples, and modeled back-trajectories are used to discern regional transport events from local deposition and characterize the impact of the Chicago/Gary urban

  20. The urban air; L'air de la ville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents the abstracts of conferences proposed during the meeting on the urban air, organized by the French Meteorological Society in november 2002. These conferences dealt with the air quality monitoring, the public health impacts, the air pollution in function of the meteorological effects, the pollutants, the main factors of the air quality and the models of the meteorology. (A.L.B.)

  1. Urban air quality management. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This is the first in a series of reports commissioned by the International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (IPIECA) to represent members' views on the management of urban air quality in the growing cities in developing countries. In this report, a general, science based framework is provided as a basis for understanding the nature of the problem in any specific urban area, the range of solutions that might be available, and the potential impact of each solution and its least cost privatisation. The topics covered are: a process for urban air quality management; setting air quality targets; a structured approach to the assessment of current and future air quality modelling methodologies; identification and collation of air quality model input data; development of socio-economic scenarios -long-term trend forecasting; cost effectiveness studies; the IPIECA approach to urban air quality management - development of partnerships; encouraging commitment to implementation of programme recommendations. (7 figures; 2 tables; 18 references). (UK)

  2. Preliminary results from the Chicago air shower array and the Michigan muon array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krimm, H.A.; Cronin, J.W.; Fick, B.E.; Gibbs, K.G.; Mascarenhas, N.C.; McKay, T.A.; Mueller, D.; Newport, B.J.; Ong, R.A.; Rosenberg, L.J.; Wiedenbeck, M.E.; Green, K.D.; Matthews, J.; Nitz, D.; Sinclair, D.; van der Velde, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    The Chicago Air Shower Array (CASA) is a large area surface array designed to detect extensive air showers (EAS) produced by primaries with energy ∼100 TeV. It operates in coincidence with the underground Michigan Muon Array (MIA). Preliminary results are presented from a search for steady emission and daily emission from three astrophysical sources: Cygnus X-3, Hercules X-1, and the Crab nebula and pulsar. There is no evidence for a significant signal from any of these sources in the 1989 data

  3. Urban Form, Air Pollution, and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankey, Steve; Marshall, Julian D

    2017-12-01

    Urban form can impact air pollution and public health. We reviewed health-related articles that assessed (1) the relationships among urban form, air pollution, and health as well as (2) aspects of the urban environment (i.e., green space, noise, physical activity) that may modify those relationships. Simulation and empirical studies demonstrate an association between compact growth, improved regional air quality, and health. Most studies are cross-sectional and focus on connections between transportation emissions and land use. The physical and mental health impacts of green space, public spaces that promote physical activity, and noise are well-studied aspects of the urban environment and there is evidence that these factors may modify the relationship between air pollution and health. Urban form can support efforts to design clean, health-promoting cities. More work is needed to operationalize specific strategies and to elucidate the causal pathways connecting various aspects of health.

  4. 40 CFR 81.73 - South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton Harbor (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton Harbor (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. 81.73 Section 81.73 Protection of Environment... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.73 South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton...

  5. An Assessment of the Relationship between Urban Air Quality and Environmental Urban Factors in Urban Regeneration Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Egercioglu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban air pollution has been increasing due to ever increasing population, rapid urbanization, industrialization, energy usage, traffic density. The purpose of the study is to examine the relation between urban air quality and urban environmental factors in urban regeneration areas. Two common air polluters (SO2 and PM10 are considered in the study. The data are collected for Cigli district, including the level of air pollutants, the local natural gas service lines and planning decisions for the years between 2007 and 2011. According to the examinations, urban environmental factors and planning decisions affect the urban air quality in urban regeneration areas.

  6. Air pollution and urban air quality management in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santosa, Sri J. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta (Indonesia); Okuda, Tomoaki; Tanaka, Shigeru [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, Yokohama (Japan)

    2008-06-15

    The trade-led industry and economic development after the Asian financial crisis a decade ago has been accelerated in Indonesia to improve the quality of life of its population. This rapid development of Indonesia was in fact heavily fueled by fossil fuels, especially oil, followed by natural gas and coal. The exploitation of fossil fuel in fueling the development resulted in significant environmental quality degradation. Air pollution is perhaps Indonesia's most severe environmental problem. Industry and transportation were the typical main sources of urban air pollutants. Moreover, Indonesia also failed to reach its original 2005 target for a complete phase-out of leaded gasoline. As a result, the level of Pb together with other pollutants such as CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and total suspended particulates has exceeded or at least approached the designated ambient air quality standards. The urban air pollution will not be lesser in extent, but surely will be more severe in the future. Unfortunately, the capability of the Indonesian authorities to manage the urban air quality is still very limited and the portion of the budget allocated to the improvement of urban air quality is still remarkably low, typically 1% of total. This is why the efforts to enhance the capability to manage the urban air quality could not be handled by the environmental authorities in Indonesia's cities themselves, but outside stimulation in the form of man power, consultant and equipment assistance along with financial support has been very important. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. The changing face of urban air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Alastair C.

    2018-02-01

    The atmospheric chemistry that leads to photochemical smog and climate-active aerosols requires the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (1, 2). The VOCs in urban air typically derive from the prevailing energy and transport technologies as well as the use of petrochemical-derived products. On page 760 of this issue, McDonald et al. (3) report that a notable change in emissions may be underway in U.S. cities, with effects on secondary pollutants such as organic aerosols. Shifting from an urban atmosphere dominated by transport-related VOCs to one dominated by VOCs from coatings, adhesives, and consumer products would alter predictions of urban air quality and challenge the existing policy framework for emissions control.

  8. Urban air quality in the Asian region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopke, Philip K. [Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5708 (United States)], E-mail: hopkepk@clarkson.edu; Cohen, David D. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Physics Division, Private Mail Bag 1, Menai 2234, NSW (Australia); Begum, Bilkis A.; Biswas, Swapan K. [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC), Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka (AECD), P.O. Box 164, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Ni Bangfa [China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), China National Nuclear Corp. (CNNC), P.O. Box 275-50, Beijing 102413 (China); Pandit, Gauri Girish [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Santoso, Muhayatun [Center for Nuclear Technology of Material and Radiometry, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Jl. Tamansari 71, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Chung, Yong-Sam [Hanaro Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), 150 Dukjin-dong, Yusung-ku, P.O. Box 105, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Davy, Perry; Markwitz, Andreas [Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (GNS), 30 Gracefield Road, P.O. Box 31-312, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Waheed, Shahida; Siddique, Naila [Division of Nuclear Chemistry, PINSTECH, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), P.O. Box 1482, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Santos, Flora L.; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, P.O. Box 213, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Seneviratne, Manikkuwadura Consy Shirani [Atomic Energy Authority, 60/460, Baseline Road, Orugodawatta, Wellampitiya (Sri Lanka); Wimolwattanapun, Wanna; Bunprapob, Supamatthree [Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT), 16 Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Thu Bac Vuong [Centre for Radiation Protection, Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Technology, P.O. Box 5T-160, Cau Giay (Viet Nam)] (and others)

    2008-10-01

    Over the past decade, member states of the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA), an intergovernmental agreement for the East Asia and Pacific region under the auspices of the IAEA with the assistance of international organizations and financial institutions such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, have started to set in place policies and legislation for air pollution abatement. To support planning and evaluate the effectiveness of control programs, data are needed that characterizes urban air quality. The focus of this measurement program describe in this report is on size segregated particulate air pollution. Such airborne particulate matter can have a significant impact on human health and urban visibility. These data provide the input to receptor models that may permit the mitigation of these impacts by identification and quantitative apportionment of the particle sources. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the measurements of concentrations and composition of particulate air pollution in two size fractions across the participating countries. For many of the large cities in this region, the measured particulate matter concentrations are greater than air quality standards or guidelines that have been adopted in developed countries.

  9. Urban air quality in the Asian region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopke, Philip K.; Cohen, David D.; Begum, Bilkis A.; Biswas, Swapan K.; Ni Bangfa; Pandit, Gauri Girish; Santoso, Muhayatun; Chung, Yong-Sam; Davy, Perry; Markwitz, Andreas; Waheed, Shahida; Siddique, Naila; Santos, Flora L.; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.; Seneviratne, Manikkuwadura Consy Shirani; Wimolwattanapun, Wanna; Bunprapob, Supamatthree; Thu Bac Vuong

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, member states of the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA), an intergovernmental agreement for the East Asia and Pacific region under the auspices of the IAEA with the assistance of international organizations and financial institutions such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, have started to set in place policies and legislation for air pollution abatement. To support planning and evaluate the effectiveness of control programs, data are needed that characterizes urban air quality. The focus of this measurement program describe in this report is on size segregated particulate air pollution. Such airborne particulate matter can have a significant impact on human health and urban visibility. These data provide the input to receptor models that may permit the mitigation of these impacts by identification and quantitative apportionment of the particle sources. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the measurements of concentrations and composition of particulate air pollution in two size fractions across the participating countries. For many of the large cities in this region, the measured particulate matter concentrations are greater than air quality standards or guidelines that have been adopted in developed countries

  10. Crowdsourcing urban air temperature measurements using smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-10-01

    Crowdsourced data from cell phone battery temperature sensors could be used to contribute to improved real-time, high-resolution air temperature estimates in urban areas, a new study shows. Temperature observations in cities are in some cases currently limited to a few weather stations, but there are millions of smartphone users in many cities. The batteries in cell phones have temperature sensors to avoid damage to the phone.

  11. Spatial heterogeneity and air pollution removal by an urban forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco J. Escobedo; David J. Nowak

    2009-01-01

    Estimates of air pollution removal by the urban forest have mostly been based on mean values of forest structure variables for an entire city. However, the urban forest is not uniformly distributed across a city because of biophysical and social factors. Consequently, air pollution removal function by urban vegetation should vary because of this spatial heterogeneity....

  12. Estimating the Efficiency of Michigan's Rural and Urban Public School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranowski, Rita

    2012-01-01

    This study examined student achievement in Michigan public school districts to determine if rural school districts are demonstrating greater financial efficiency by producing higher levels of student achievement than school districts in other geographic locations with similar socioeconomics. Three models were developed using multiple regression…

  13. The implementation challenge of urban air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lint, R.J.T. van; Buitenkamp, S.; Zebregs, M. [Ministry of Housing, The Hague (Netherlands). Air Quality and Acidification Abatement Div.

    1995-12-31

    In recent years, the policy followed has booked some significant successes in the structural reduction of the emissions by a number of air polluting substances (e.g. sulphur dioxide and lead). However, the Third Environmental Outlook 1993-2015 has determined that the policy goals for a number of other air polluting substances will not be achieved, particularly in urban areas. This concerns fine dust (PM-10) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrogen dioxide, benzene and black smoke. The policy goals for the above priority substances have been set so as to protect the population against the negative effects on health from too high concentrations of these substances. Forty-six per cent of the Dutch population live in cities of more than 100,000 inhabitants, and, hence, many people are exposed to (too) high concentrations. For this reason, the Netherlands` Second National Environmental Policy Plan lays down that government, provinces and municipalities will together develop a plan of action to reduce urban air pollution to acceptable levels. The formulated strategy is presented in the document here. To that end, the problem analysis and current policy related to the issue are considered in more detail below. On the basis of this, the additional policy strategy is formulated. (author)

  14. The implementation challenge of urban air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lint, R J.T. van; Buitenkamp, S; Zebregs, M [Ministry of Housing, The Hague (Netherlands). Air Quality and Acidification Abatement Div.

    1996-12-31

    In recent years, the policy followed has booked some significant successes in the structural reduction of the emissions by a number of air polluting substances (e.g. sulphur dioxide and lead). However, the Third Environmental Outlook 1993-2015 has determined that the policy goals for a number of other air polluting substances will not be achieved, particularly in urban areas. This concerns fine dust (PM-10) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrogen dioxide, benzene and black smoke. The policy goals for the above priority substances have been set so as to protect the population against the negative effects on health from too high concentrations of these substances. Forty-six per cent of the Dutch population live in cities of more than 100,000 inhabitants, and, hence, many people are exposed to (too) high concentrations. For this reason, the Netherlands` Second National Environmental Policy Plan lays down that government, provinces and municipalities will together develop a plan of action to reduce urban air pollution to acceptable levels. The formulated strategy is presented in the document here. To that end, the problem analysis and current policy related to the issue are considered in more detail below. On the basis of this, the additional policy strategy is formulated. (author)

  15. Air pollution removal and temperature reduction by Gainesville's urban forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Escobedo; Jennifer A. Seitz; Wayne Zipperer

    2009-01-01

    Poor air quality is a common problem in many urban areas. It can lead to human health problems and reduced visibility, and it can impair the health of plants and wildlife. The urban forest can help improve air quality by removing pollutants and by reducing air temperature through shading and transpiration. Trees also emit volatile...

  16. Synthetic musk fragrances in urban and rural air of Iowa and the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Aaron M.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    Synthetic musk fragrances are semivolatile organic compounds used to scent a variety of household and personal care products. In this study, six polycyclic musk fragrances (HHCB, AHTN, ATII, AHMI, ADBI, and DPMI) and two nitro musk fragrances (musk xylene and musk ketone) were evaluated in 181 air samples collected at urban, suburban, and rural sites in Iowa and the Great Lakes. This is the largest reported study of the compounds in ambient air and reveals the ubiquitous nature of these environmental contaminants. HHCB and AHTN were detected most frequently and at the highest concentrations at all sites. Synthetic musk fragrance concentrations were highest in urban locations, including Milwaukee, WI (previously reported) and an urban location in Cedar Rapids, IA. Urban concentrations of HHCB and AHTN are on the order of 1-5 ng m -3 and background terrestrial concentrations are about an order of magnitude less. In rural Iowa, the concentrations and frequency of detection of the synthetic musk fragrances are comparable to (and often greater than) gas-phase pesticide concentrations. The concentrations measured at the suburban location in Iowa City, IA and over the Lakes Erie, Ontario, and Michigan were generally intermediate of those measured at the rural and urban locations. Concentrations of HHCB and AHTN were correlated with temperature at the sampling sites in Iowa.

  17. Urban air pollution, study of Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, M [PUE-UNAM (Mexico); Guzman, F [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico); Navarro, B [Univ. Autonoma Metropolitana (Mexico)

    1996-12-01

    The Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC) is an outstanding case of a fast urban development with lagging, and thus insufficient, massive transportation facilities. This has given rise to a distorted transportation system that accounts for most of the air pollution problem of the city and constitutes a drag on economic development. In this paper, we first describe the MAMC geographical conditions, its growth in physical and economic terms, its transportation system, the ensuring air pollution problems together with some of the mitigation actions undertaken. Afterwards the results of a survey of the displacements of individuals within the city and the time spent on these are presented, to then draw some considerations on the negative economic impact it represents. (EG)

  18. Urban air quality management : effects of trees on air pollution concentration in urban street canyon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salim, S.M.; Buccolieri, R.; Chan, A.; Sabatino, Di S.; Gromke, C.

    2009-01-01

    The aerodynamic effects of avenue-like tree planting on air flow and traffic-originated pollutant dispersion in urban built-up areas (i.e. street canyons of width to height ratio, W/H=1) are investigated using computational fluid dynamics techniques and complemented with extensive wind tunnel

  19. Evaluating strategies to reduce urban air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, L.; Relvas, H.; Silveira, C.; Ferreira, J.; Monteiro, A.; Gama, C.; Rafael, S.; Freitas, S.; Borrego, C.; Miranda, A. I.

    2016-02-01

    During the last years, specific air quality problems have been detected in the urban area of Porto (Portugal). Both PM10 and NO2 limit values have been surpassed in several air quality monitoring stations and, following the European legislation requirements, Air Quality Plans were designed and implemented to reduce those levels. In this sense, measures to decrease PM10 and NO2 emissions have been selected, these mainly related to the traffic sector, but also regarding the industrial and residential combustion sectors. The main objective of this study is to investigate the efficiency of these reduction measures with regard to the improvement of PM10 and NO2 concentration levels over the Porto urban region using a numerical modelling tool - The Air Pollution Model (TAPM). TAPM was applied over the study region, for a simulation domain of 80 × 80 km2 with a spatial resolution of 1 × 1 km2. The entire year of 2012 was simulated and set as the base year for the analysis of the impacts of the selected measures. Taking into account the main activity sectors, four main scenarios have been defined and simulated, with focus on: (1) hybrid cars; (2) a Low Emission Zone (LEZ); (3) fireplaces and (4) industry. The modelling results indicate that measures to reduce PM10 should be focused on residential combustion (fireplaces) and industrial activity and for NO2 the strategy should be based on the traffic sector. The implementation of all the defined scenarios will allow a total maximum reduction of 4.5% on the levels of both pollutants.

  20. Air Inflated Greenhouse as Urban Farming Facilities: Architectural Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Abidin, Syed Zainol; Nasihien, Ronny D; Budiyanto, Hery

    2017-01-01

    Urban Farming utilizing land intensification, in order to meet the needs of fresh vegetables and fruits everyday for the community residential / housing in urban areas. Air Inflated Greenhouse as urban farming facilities, can be built and transferred to a residential location / specific housing is easy, safe, fast and lightweight (0,55mm PVC tarpaulin) so that urban farming products closer to consumers in urban settlements, the price impact getting cheaper, but quality. Long-term goal is to d...

  1. Does urban vegetation mitigate air pollution in northern conditions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setälä, Heikki; Viippola, Viljami; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea; Pennanen, Arto; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa

    2013-01-01

    It is generally accepted that urban vegetation improves air quality and thereby enhances the well-being of citizens. However, empirical evidence on the potential of urban trees to mitigate air pollution is meager, particularly in northern climates with a short growing season. We studied the ability of urban park/forest vegetation to remove air pollutants (NO 2 , anthropogenic VOCs and particle deposition) using passive samplers in two Finnish cities. Concentrations of each pollutant in August (summer; leaf-period) and March (winter, leaf-free period) were slightly but often insignificantly lower under tree canopies than in adjacent open areas, suggesting that the role of foliage in removing air pollutants is insignificant. Furthermore, vegetation-related environmental variables (canopy closure, number and size of trees, density of understorey vegetation) did not explain the variation in pollution concentrations. Our results suggest that the ability of urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is minor in northern climates. -- Highlights: ► The ability of northern urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is minor. ► Vegetation-related environmental variables had no effect on air pollution levels. ► The ability of vegetation to clean air did not differ between summer and winter. ► Dry deposition passive samplers proved applicable in urban air pollution study. -- The ability of urban vegetation to remove air pollutants seems to be minor in northern climates

  2. Outlier Detection in Urban Air Quality Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoest, V.M.; Stein, A.; Hoek, Gerard

    2018-01-01

    Low-cost urban air quality sensor networks are increasingly used to study the spatio-temporal variability in air pollutant concentrations. Recently installed low-cost urban sensors, however, are more prone to result in erroneous data than conventional monitors, e.g., leading to outliers. Commonly

  3. Modeling the effects of urban vegetation on air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Patrick J. McHale; Myriam Ibarra; Daniel Crane; Jack C. Stevens; Chris J. Luley

    1998-01-01

    Urban vegetation can directly and indirectly affect local and regional air quality by altering the urban atmospheric environment. Trees affect local air temperature by transpiring water through their leaves, by blocking solar radiation (tree shade), which reduces radiation absorption and heat storage by various anthropogenic surfaces (e.g., buildings, roads), and by...

  4. Scientific research in urban areas air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegrini, I.

    1998-01-01

    The presence of consistent amounts of polluting agents in the urban atmosphere is a fact widely confirmed which poses serious problems to the people responsible for the environment management. It is well known that the majority of the polluting agents are produced by the intense traffic or vehicles which introduces in the atmosphere a large quantity of compounds. The toxic effect of some of these (primary polluters) is direct; others (secondary polluters) are the result of chemical reactions occurring within the atmosphere. Consequently, the management of the atmospheric environment requires the knowledge of a great number of processes, which begin with the emission of the polluting agents, and continue with their diffusion in the air, their transformation, the way they move, and how they are deposited or removed [it

  5. Studies of urban climates and air pollution in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanner, H.; Hertig, J.

    1984-01-01

    In addition to an assessment of the factors that are responsible for urban climate change, this paper describes climatological studies and peculiarities of some Swiss cities. Although these cities are small, urban air pollution presents a real problem for urban planning. This is a result of the narow street canyons, the high traffic concentration and the complex topography, which favors air stagnation during anticyclonic weather conditions

  6. Quantification of human-associated fecal indicators reveal sewage from urban watersheds as a source of pollution to Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, Hayley T.; Dila, Deborah K.; Bootsma, Melinda J.; Corsi, Steven; McLellan, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Sewage contamination of urban waterways from sewer overflows and failing infrastructure is a major environmental and public health concern. Fecal coliforms (FC) are commonly employed as fecal indicator bacteria, but do not distinguish between human and non-human sources of fecal contamination. Human Bacteroides and humanLachnospiraceae, two genetic markers for human-associated indicator bacteria, were used to identify sewage signals in two urban rivers and the estuary that drains to Lake Michigan. Grab samples were collected from the rivers throughout 2012 and 2013 and hourly samples were collected in the estuary across the hydrograph during summer 2013. Human Bacteroides and human Lachnospiraceae were highly correlated with each other in river samples (Pearson’s r = 0.86), with average concentrations at most sites elevated during wet weather. These human indicators were found during baseflow, indicating that sewage contamination is chronic in these waterways. FC are used for determining total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) in management plans; however, FC concentrations alone failed to prioritize river reaches with potential health risks. While 84% of samples with >1000 CFU/100 ml FC had sewage contamination, 52% of samples with moderate (200–1000 CFU/100 ml) and 46% of samples with low (events and was highest during an event with a short duration of intense rain. This work demonstrates urban areas have unrecognized sewage inputs that may not be adequately prioritized for remediation by the TMDL process. Further analysis using these approaches could determine relationships between land use, storm characteristics, and other factors that drive sewage contamination in urban waterways.

  7. Study of urban air pollution in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chueinta, W.; Bunprapob, S.; Suksamran, C.; Sirinuntavid, A.

    2004-01-01

    The Office of Atoms for Peace has conducted a monitoring study of urban air pollution in Thailand for years. The primary objective of the project was to support the use of nuclear-related techniques for research and monitoring studies on air pollution. The databases obtained have been analyzed and interpreted by statistical methods including source identification using receptor model. This paper reports the work of 2002 at a heavy traffic area in Bangkok. A Gent sampler was set at the curbside of a major road in Bangkok to collect fine and coarse particles routinely on a weekday for 24 hours, once a week. The filter samples were analyzed for elemental concentrations by use of instrumental neutron activation analysis. Black carbon was separately determined by means of the reflectance measurement of the filter sample. In the report, the methodologies and the results of analyses of fine and coarse particles on filters collected in 2002 are presented. The study of the applicability of certified reference material was done by analyses of two standard reference materials provided by JAERI, i.e., NIST 1632c and NIES No.8. The comparisons of the measured and certified values are also given in the paper. (author)

  8. Particle growth in an isoprene-rich forest: Influences of urban, wildfire, and biogenic air masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunsch, Matthew J.; Schmidt, Stephanie A.; Gardner, Daniel J.; Bondy, Amy L.; May, Nathaniel W.; Bertman, Steven B.; Pratt, Kerri A.; Ault, Andrew P.

    2018-04-01

    Growth of freshly nucleated particles is an important source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and has been studied within a variety of environments around the world. However, there remains uncertainty regarding the sources of the precursor gases leading to particle growth, particularly in isoprene-rich forests. In this study, particle growth events were observed from the 14 total events (31% of days) during summer measurements (June 24 - August 2, 2014) at the Program for Research on Oxidants PHotochemistry, Emissions, and Transport (PROPHET) tower within the forested University of Michigan Biological Station located in northern Michigan. Growth events were observed within long-range transported air masses from urban areas, air masses impacted by wildfires, as well as stagnant, forested/regional air masses. Growth events observed during urban-influenced air masses were prevalent, with presumably high oxidant levels, and began midday during periods of high solar radiation. This suggests that increased oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) likely contributed to the highest observed particle growth in this study (8 ± 2 nm h-1). Growth events during wildfire-influenced air masses were observed primarily at night and had slower growth rates (3 ± 1 nm h-1). These events were likely influenced by increased SO2, O3, and NO2 transported within the smoke plumes, suggesting a role of NO3 oxidation in the production of semi-volatile compounds. Forested/regional air mass growth events likely occurred due to the oxidation of regionally emitted BVOCs, including isoprene, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes, which facilitated multiday growth events also with slower rates (3 ± 2 nm h-1). Intense sulfur, carbon, and oxygen signals in individual particles down to 20 nm, analyzed by transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDX), suggest that H2SO4 and secondary organic aerosol contributed to particle growth. Overall, aerosol

  9. 78 FR 8478 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; States of Michigan and Minnesota...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ...'s electric generating units, whereas its December 2009 plan determines BART on a plant-by-plant... zones of any grate-kiln taconite furnace. Therefore, this option is not technically feasible.'' Michigan... the indurating zones of two grate- kiln furnaces. These applications were found not to have adverse...

  10. A Microbial Signature Approach to Identify Fecal Pollution in the Waters Off an Urbanized Coast of Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Ryan J.; Bootsma, Melinda J.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Sogin, Mitchell L.

    2014-01-01

    Urban coasts receive watershed drainage from ecosystems that include highly developed lands with sewer and stormwater infrastructure. In these complex ecosystems, coastal waters are often contaminated with fecal pollution, where multiple delivery mechanisms that often contain multiple fecal sources make it difficult to mitigate the pollution. Here, we exploit bacterial community sequencing of the V6 and V6V4 hypervariable regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to identify bacterial distributions that signal the presence of sewer, fecal, and human fecal pollution. The sequences classified to three sewer infrastructure-associated bacterial genera, Acinetobacter, Arcobacter, and Trichococcus, and five fecal-associated bacterial families, Bacteroidaceae, Porphyromonadaceae, Clostridiaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Ruminococcaceae, served as signatures of sewer and fecal contamination, respectively. The human fecal signature was determined with the Bayesian source estimation program SourceTracker, which we applied to a set of 40 sewage influent samples collected in Milwaukee, WI, USA to identify operational taxonomic units (≥97 % identity) that were most likely of human fecal origin. During periods of dry weather, the magnitudes of all three signatures were relatively low in Milwaukee's urban rivers and harbor and nearly zero in Lake Michigan. However, the relative contribution of the sewer and fecal signature frequently increased to >2 % of the measured surface water communities following sewer overflows. Also during combined sewer overflows, the ratio of the human fecal pollution signature to the fecal pollution signature in surface waters was generally close to that of sewage, but this ratio decreased dramatically during dry weather and rain events, suggesting that nonhuman fecal pollution was the dominant source during these weather-driven scenarios. The qPCR detection of two human fecal indicators, human Bacteroides and Lachno2, confirmed the urban fecal footprint in

  11. Biofuels, vehicle emissions, and urban air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, Timothy J; Anderson, James E; Kurtz, Eric M; Tennison, Paul J

    2016-07-18

    Increased biofuel content in automotive fuels impacts vehicle tailpipe emissions via two mechanisms: fuel chemistry and engine calibration. Fuel chemistry effects are generally well recognized, while engine calibration effects are not. It is important that investigations of the impact of biofuels on vehicle emissions consider the impact of engine calibration effects and are conducted using vehicles designed to operate using such fuels. We report the results of emission measurements from a Ford F-350 fueled with either fossil diesel or a biodiesel surrogate (butyl nonanoate) and demonstrate the critical influence of engine calibration on NOx emissions. Using the production calibration the emissions of NOx were higher with the biodiesel fuel. Using an adjusted calibration (maintaining equivalent exhaust oxygen concentration to that of the fossil diesel at the same conditions by adjusting injected fuel quantities) the emissions of NOx were unchanged, or lower, with biodiesel fuel. For ethanol, a review of the literature data addressing the impact of ethanol blend levels (E0-E85) on emissions from gasoline light-duty vehicles in the U.S. is presented. The available data suggest that emissions of NOx, non-methane hydrocarbons, particulate matter (PM), and mobile source air toxics (compounds known, or suspected, to cause serious health impacts) from modern gasoline and diesel vehicles are not adversely affected by increased biofuel content over the range for which the vehicles are designed to operate. Future increases in biofuel content when accomplished in concert with changes in engine design and calibration for new vehicles should not result in problematic increases in emissions impacting urban air quality and may in fact facilitate future required emissions reductions. A systems perspective (fuel and vehicle) is needed to fully understand, and optimize, the benefits of biofuels when blended into gasoline and diesel.

  12. Disease and Health Inequalities Attributable to Air Pollutant Exposure in Detroit, Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheena E. Martenies

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The environmental burden of disease is the mortality and morbidity attributable to exposures of air pollution and other stressors. The inequality metrics used in cumulative impact and environmental justice studies can be incorporated into environmental burden studies to better understand the health disparities of ambient air pollutant exposures. This study examines the diseases and health disparities attributable to air pollutants for the Detroit urban area. We apportion this burden to various groups of emission sources and pollutants, and show how the burden is distributed among demographic and socioeconomic subgroups. The analysis uses spatially-resolved estimates of exposures, baseline health rates, age-stratified populations, and demographic characteristics that serve as proxies for increased vulnerability, e.g., race/ethnicity and income. Based on current levels, exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2.5, ozone (O3, sulfur dioxide (SO2, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 are responsible for more than 10,000 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs per year, causing an annual monetized health impact of $6.5 billion. This burden is mainly driven by PM2.5 and O3 exposures, which cause 660 premature deaths each year among the 945,000 individuals in the study area. NO2 exposures, largely from traffic, are important for respiratory outcomes among older adults and children with asthma, e.g., 46% of air-pollution related asthma hospitalizations are due to NO2 exposures. Based on quantitative inequality metrics, the greatest inequality of health burdens results from industrial and traffic emissions. These metrics also show disproportionate burdens among Hispanic/Latino populations due to industrial emissions, and among low income populations due to traffic emissions. Attributable health burdens are a function of exposures, susceptibility and vulnerability (e.g., baseline incidence rates, and population density. Because of these dependencies, inequality

  13. Functional traits of urban trees: Air pollution mitigation potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grote, Rüdiger; Samson, Roeland; Alonso, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    In an increasingly urbanized world, air pollution mitigation is considered one of most important issues in city planning. Urban trees help to improve air quality by facilitating widespread deposition of various gases and particles through the provision of large surface areas as well as through...... are manifested depends on species-specific tree properties: that is, their "traits". We summarize and discuss the current knowledge on how such traits affect urban air pollution. We also present aggregated traits of some of the most common tree species in Europe, which can be used as a decision-support tool...... their influence on microclimate and air turbulence. However, many of these trees produce wind-dispersed pollen (a known allergen) and emit a range of gaseous substances that take part in photochemical reactions - all of which can negatively affect air quality. The degree to which these air-quality impacts...

  14. Ambient Air Conditions and Variation in Urban Trail Use

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Ann M.; Lindsey, Greg; Qiu, Chenchen

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the effect of air quality and administrative policies on use of urban trails in Indianapolis, IN. Attention is focused on two policy variables: (1) issuance of air pollution advisories and (2) the adoption of Daylight Savings Time. Results suggest that while trail use varies with air quality, current public advisories regarding air pollution may be of limited effectiveness in reducing trail users’ exposures to hazardous pollutants. In contrast, the adoption of Daylight Sav...

  15. Crowdsourcing urban air temperatures from smartphone battery temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overeem, A.; Robinson, J.C.R.; Leijnse, H.; Steeneveld, G.J.; Horn, B.K.P.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2013-01-01

    [1] Accurate air temperature observations in urban areas are important for meteorology and energy demand planning. They are indispensable to study the urban heat island effect and the adverse effects of high temperatures on human health. However, the availability of temperature observations in

  16. Air quality effects of urban trees and parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nowak; Gordon Heisler

    2010-01-01

    Parks are significant parts of the urban landscape and comprise about 6% of city and town areas in the conterminous United States. These urban parks are estimated to contain about 370 million trees with a structural value of approximately $300 billion. The number of park trees varies by region of the country, but they can produce significant air quality effects in and...

  17. Pedogenesis, geochemical forms of heavy metals, and artifact weathering in an urban soil chronosequence, Detroit, Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, Jeffrey L., E-mail: jhoward@wayne.edu [Department of Geology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Olszewska, Dorota [Department of Geology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    An urban soil chronosequence in downtown Detroit, MI was studied to determine the effects of time on pedogenesis and heavy metal sequestration. The soils developed in fill derived from mixed sandy and clayey diamicton parent materials on a level late Pleistocene lakebed plain under grass vegetation in a humid-temperate (mesic) climate. The chronosequence is comprised of soils in vacant lots (12 and 44 years old) and parks (96 and 120 years old), all located within 100 m of a roadway. An A-horizon 16 cm thick with 2% organic matter has developed after only 12 years of pedogenesis. The 12 year-old soil shows accelerated weathering of iron (e.g. nails) and cement artifacts attributed to corrosion by excess soluble salts of uncertain origin. Carbonate and Fe-oxide are immobilizing agents for heavy metals, hence it is recommended that drywall, plaster, cement and iron artifacts be left in soils at brownfield sites for their ameliorating effects. - Research highlights: > An A horizon has developed in these urban soils after only 12 years of pedogenesis. > Iron and cement artifacts have undergone accelerated weathering due to deicing salts. > One soil is contaminated by lead derived from weathered paint. > Artifact weathering can have ameliorating effects on urban soils contaminated by heavy metals. - Weathering of artifacts can have ameliorating effects on heavy metal-polluted soils at brownfield sites.

  18. Pedogenesis, geochemical forms of heavy metals, and artifact weathering in an urban soil chronosequence, Detroit, Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, Jeffrey L.; Olszewska, Dorota

    2011-01-01

    An urban soil chronosequence in downtown Detroit, MI was studied to determine the effects of time on pedogenesis and heavy metal sequestration. The soils developed in fill derived from mixed sandy and clayey diamicton parent materials on a level late Pleistocene lakebed plain under grass vegetation in a humid-temperate (mesic) climate. The chronosequence is comprised of soils in vacant lots (12 and 44 years old) and parks (96 and 120 years old), all located within 100 m of a roadway. An A-horizon 16 cm thick with 2% organic matter has developed after only 12 years of pedogenesis. The 12 year-old soil shows accelerated weathering of iron (e.g. nails) and cement artifacts attributed to corrosion by excess soluble salts of uncertain origin. Carbonate and Fe-oxide are immobilizing agents for heavy metals, hence it is recommended that drywall, plaster, cement and iron artifacts be left in soils at brownfield sites for their ameliorating effects. - Research highlights: → An A horizon has developed in these urban soils after only 12 years of pedogenesis. → Iron and cement artifacts have undergone accelerated weathering due to deicing salts. → One soil is contaminated by lead derived from weathered paint. → Artifact weathering can have ameliorating effects on urban soils contaminated by heavy metals. - Weathering of artifacts can have ameliorating effects on heavy metal-polluted soils at brownfield sites.

  19. Urban Climate and Air Pollution in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linden, Jenny

    2011-05-15

    Africa has recently been singled out by UN Habitat as the fastest urbanizing continent in the world. The most extreme case was found in the Sahelian city of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, where the population is expected to almost double over the next ten years. It is well known that the rapid growth of an urban area is among the most important anthropogenic impacts on the environment, and that it has a profound impact on both the urban climate and air quality. Few studies have been focused on cities in the Sahel region, and the lack of information may consequently hinder adaptation to the extreme urbanization rates of these often heavily polluted cities. The main objective of this thesis was to study the nature of, and relationship between, urban climate and air pollution in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Specific objectives were to; examine spatial variations in daily temperature and humidity patterns during early dry season with focus on effects of different land cover; to examine the influence of atmospheric stability on the intra-urban air temperature patterns, the urban wind field and on air pollution levels; and to examine spatial variations in air pollution levels. An additional objective was to document the status and potential development of synoptic meteorological stations in Burkina Faso. Empirical data used in analyses were collected during five field studies between 2003 and 2010. Meteorological and air pollution parameters were measured at fixed sites and through car traverses in areas of different land cover, activity, traffic density and road surface. The most distinct features in thermal patterns found in Ouagadougou were strong intra-urban nocturnal cool islands in vegetated areas, caused by evening evaporative cooling by the vegetation. Extremely stable nocturnal atmospheric conditions were observed during 80 % of days examined in early dry season, during which spatial patterns in temperature and humidity as well as in air pollution were most pronounced

  20. Public health implications of urban air pollution in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwela, D H [World Health Organisation, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    Exposure to air pollution is an almost inescapable part of urban life throughout the world. Ambient air pollutant levels in urban areas are generally a reflection of emissions. For sulphur dioxide, total suspended particulate matter and lead, ambient concentrations are declining in the industrialized western countries. For nitrogen dioxide, ambient levels in cities are generally constant, or slightly increasing. For carbon dioxide, they are variable, declining where controls are being applied. In a substantial number of cities, particularly in developing countries, WHO guidelines are being often exceeded for the compounds mentioned. Given the rate at which these cities are growing, the air pollution situation will probably worsen if environmental control measures are not implemented. As a consequence, the health and well-being of urban residents will further deteriorate with high ambient air pollutant concentrations causing increased mortality, morbidity, deficits on pulmonary functions and cardiovascular and neurobehavioural effects. (author)

  1. Public health implications of urban air pollution in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwela, D.H. [World Health Organisation, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    Exposure to air pollution is an almost inescapable part of urban life throughout the world. Ambient air pollutant levels in urban areas are generally a reflection of emissions. For sulphur dioxide, total suspended particulate matter and lead, ambient concentrations are declining in the industrialized western countries. For nitrogen dioxide, ambient levels in cities are generally constant, or slightly increasing. For carbon dioxide, they are variable, declining where controls are being applied. In a substantial number of cities, particularly in developing countries, WHO guidelines are being often exceeded for the compounds mentioned. Given the rate at which these cities are growing, the air pollution situation will probably worsen if environmental control measures are not implemented. As a consequence, the health and well-being of urban residents will further deteriorate with high ambient air pollutant concentrations causing increased mortality, morbidity, deficits on pulmonary functions and cardiovascular and neurobehavioural effects. (author)

  2. Air pollution in urban area of Foligno (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peirone, E.; Gubbini, P.; Peppoloni, A.; Pompei, M.; Segoni, M.

    1998-01-01

    This work shows the air pollution levels, based on air's quality laws, detected around the urban area of the city of Foligno (Perugia-Italy)). The preliminary study done, has shown a general result of a good quality of the air, even if there were some excesses of the Attention Levels, during situations not alarming, as these situations occurred in particular conditions, characterized by intense traffic and unfavorable meteorological conditions [it

  3. 77 FR 46911 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Michigan; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ...-air quality environmental impacts of compliance; (3) any existing pollution control technology in use... relying on EPA's Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR) to address these requirements. EPA is also taking...) monitoring network, show that visibility impairment caused by air pollution occurs virtually all the time at...

  4. Particulate matter urban air pollution from traffic car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, G. M.; Brezoczki, V. M.

    2017-05-01

    The particulate matters (PM) are very important compounds of urban air pollution. There are a lot of air pollution sources who can generate PM and one of the most important of them it is urban traffic car. Air particulate matters have a major influence on human health so everywhere are looking for PM reducing solutions. It is knows that one of the solution for reduce the PM content from car traffic on ambient urban air is the fluidity of urban traffic car by introduction the roundabout intersections. This paper want to present some particulate matter determinations for PM10 and PM2.5 conducted on the two types of urban intersection respectively traffic light and roundabout intersections in Baia Mare town in the approximate the same work conditions. The determinations were carried out using a portable particulate matter monitor Haz - Dust model EPAM - 5000, who can provide a real time data for PM10, PM 2.5.Determinations put out that there are differences between the two locations regarding the PM content on ambient air. On roundabout intersection the PM content is less than traffic light intersection for both PM10 and PM 2.5 with more than 30%.

  5. The impacts of road traffic management on urban air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oduyemi, K.O.K. [School of Construction and Environment, University of Abertay Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom); Davidson, B. [Department of Environmental Health and Consumer Protection, Dundee City Council, Tayside House, Crichton Street, Dundee (United Kingdom)

    1998-07-11

    The effects of road traffic emissions on urban air quality are investigated, using long-term nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) data. The effectiveness of the several traffic management measures that have been made in Dundee city centre, UK, within the last 5 years in relation to urban air quality is discussed. The information assessed during this study indicates that the annual mean NO{sub 2} levels at all the study sites are, at present, below the current EC and WHO (long-term) air quality standards for NO{sub 2} concentration in the ambient air. Traffic restrictions appear to be effective in protecting urban air quality. The annual mean NO{sub 2} concentration at two of the study sites is currently close to 40 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, a value published in the Air Quality Regulations 1997 for the air quality objective to be achieved by the year 2005. Proactive traffic management mitigation measures are proposed for these sites and a methodology for the consideration of traffic management alternatives, based upon traffic flow modal split, is described. Some measures proposed are based upon a survey of vehicle occupancy rates, carried out at the busiest of the four study sites. The methodology and assessment procedures presented should be invaluable to assessors of traffic management and local air quality management in a small city, both at the planning and at the auditing stage

  6. Public Perception of Urban Air Pollution in Four Spanish Cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oltra, C.; Jorcano, A.; Sala, R.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study on public reactions to urban air pollution. An on-line survey was implemented in four Spanish cities. Various psychosocial dimensions were assessed: perception of local air quality; attention, understanding and public awareness of the problem of air pollution; perceived impacts on health and quality of life; beliefs of severity, susceptibility and controllability associated with the risk; emotional responses and related self-protection and involvement behaviors. Results show that residents in the four cities pay little attention to the quality of air in their daily life. They perceive air quality in their city as regular. Nevertheless, significant differences exist among cities that could be explained by air pollution levels. Participants believe that air pollution has significant impacts on their health and quality of life; however the degree of information and knowledge about air quality effects seems to be low. Fatalistic beliefs and low controllability regarding the possibility to protect from air pollution were found. Participants declare performing very few self-protection or involvement behaviors. Differences between cities were also found in this dimension. Those findings could be useful for risk communication programs and public involvement strategies in the field of urban air pollution.

  7. Ambient air conditions and variation in urban trail use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Ann M; Lindsey, Greg; Qiu, Chenchen

    2009-11-01

    This study examines the effect of air quality and administrative policies on use of urban trails in Indianapolis, IN. Attention is focused on two policy variables: (1) issuance of air pollution advisories and (2) the adoption of Daylight Savings Time. Results suggest that while trail use varies with air quality, current public advisories regarding air pollution may be of limited effectiveness in reducing trail users' exposures to hazardous pollutants. In contrast, the adoption of Daylight Savings Time was associated with a statistically significant increase in traffic levels.

  8. Urban Air Environmental Health Indicators for Kuala Lumpur City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leh, O.L.H.; Shaharuddin Ahmad; Kadaruddin Aiyub; Yaakob Mohd Jani; Hwa, T.K.

    2012-01-01

    Air environmental health indicators were defined operationally as a combination of air quality and air-related health indicators. Clean air is a basic precondition of human health. Air pollutants had been identified with potential negative impact on health especially on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Thus, studies are necessary to identify and understand the state of environmental health. This study was aimed to examine and analyses the air environmental health condition in city of Kuala Lumpur by using a set of indicators. House to house questionnaire survey was carried out to collect air-related health data, and air quality sampling was carried out to identify ambient air quality level of the city. In general, city of Kuala Lumpur was found to have a moderate level of air quality. Air-related illnesses indicated by acute respiratory infection and asthma were found to be higher in more developed or higher density zones, as compared to other zones. Besides, air-related illnesses were significantly correlated to respondents exposure to air pollution. The findings imply that human health can be improved by managing the urban development and its environmental quality properly. (author)

  9. Urban air pollution in Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romieu, I.; Weitzenfeld, H.; Finkelman, J.

    1991-01-01

    Urban air pollution has become an increasing problem in Latin America and the Caribbean. One reason is the rapid expansion in the size of the urban population. This phenomenon is associated with an increase in the number of vehicles and in energy utilization which, in addition to industrial processes often concentrated in the cities, are the primary sources of air pollution i n Latin American cities. The air quality standards established in such countries are frequently exceeded although control programs have been implemented. The urban areas more affected by anthropogenic pollutant emissions are Sao Paulo, Brazil; Santiago, Chile; and Mexico City. In Latin America, the population of cities with high priority air pollution problems include approximately 81 million people or 26.5 percent of the total urban population of Latin America, corresponding to 30 million children (<15 years), 47 million adults (15-59 years) and 4 million elderly people (≥60 years) who are exposed to air pollutant levels that exceed World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for adequate health protection

  10. Public Communication on Urban Air Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otra, C.; Sala, R.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the state of public information in the field of air pollution in Spain. We conducted semi-structured interviews with members of public agencies, technical experts, scientists, and members of non governmental associations together with a documentary analysis of air pollution documents (plans, reports, etc.). We tried to characterize the information actions on air quality carried out in Spanish cities during the last years. In the results section we first analyze the ideas, concerns and considerations that underlie the actions of public information on air pollution, as well as the main challenges of public communication on this subject, according to the documents and the different experts consulted. We analyze the various contents of information transmitted nowadays (on levels of pollution, health impacts and mitigation or protection actions), as well as the mechanisms by which it is communicated, both continuously and in the case of threshold overcoming episodes. We also review the different media used to communicate air pollution information (Internet, mobile applications and other forms) and other issues such as information audiences, or the perceived impacts of information provided. Finally, the implications for more diverse and effective public involvement strategies in air pollution are discussed. (Author)

  11. Synthetic musk fragrances in Lake Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Aaron M; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2004-01-15

    Synthetic musk fragrances are added to a wide variety of personal care and household products and are present in treated wastewater effluent. Here we report for the first time ambient air and water measurements of six polycyclic musks (AHTN, HHCB, ATII, ADBI, AHMI, and DPMI) and two nitro musks (musk xylene and musk ketone) in North America. The compounds were measured in the air and water of Lake Michigan and in the air of urban Milwaukee, WI. All of the compounds except DPMI were detected. HHCB and AHTN were found in the highest concentrations in all samples. Airborne concentrations of HHCB and AHTN average 4.6 and 2.9 ng/m3, respectively, in Milwaukee and 1.1 and 0.49 ng/m3 over the lake. The average water concentration of HHCB and AHTN in Lake Michigan was 4.7 and 1.0 ng/L, respectively. A lake-wide annual mass budget shows that wastewater treatment plant discharge is the major source (3470 kg/yr) of the synthetic musks while atmospheric deposition contributes less than 1%. Volatilization and outflow through the Straits of Mackinac are major loss mechanisms (2085 and 516 kg/yr for volatilization and outflow, respectively). Concentrations of HHCB are about one-half the predicted steady-state water concentrations in Lake Michigan.

  12. Air quality and urban form in U.S. urban areas: evidence from regulatory monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lara P; Millet, Dylan B; Marshall, Julian D

    2011-08-15

    The layout of an urban area can impact air pollution via changes in emissions and their spatial distribution. Here, we explore relationships between air quality and urban form based on cross-sectional observations for 111 U.S. urban areas. We employ stepwise linear regression to quantify how long-term population-weighted outdoor concentrations of ozone, fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)), and other criteria pollutants measured by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency depend on urban form, climate, transportation, city size, income, and region. Aspects of urban form evaluated here include city shape, road density, jobs-housing imbalance, population density, and population centrality. We find that population density is associated with higher population-weighted PM(2.5) concentrations (p urban form variables are associated with 4%-12% changes in population-weighted concentrations-amounts comparable, for example, to changes in climatic factors. Our empirical findings are consistent with prior modeling research and suggest that urban form could potentially play a modest but important role in achieving (or not achieving) long-term air quality goals.

  13. Identifying the contribution of different urban highway air pollution sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peace, H.; Owen, B.; Raper, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and results, and draws conclusions from a large-scale source apportionment study undertaken in a large urban conurbation in the northwest of England. Annual average oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission and ambient air pollution contributions have been estimated for road traffic sources. Ground level air pollution concentrations were estimated over a 1552-km 2 area with a resolution of up to 20 m, using emissions estimates and the second generation ADMS-Urban Gaussian dispersion model. Road traffic emissions were split into car and motorcycles; heavy and light goods vehicles; and buses to represent domestic users; commercial users and bus companies. Car related emissions were split further in to journey lengths under 3 km; journeys between 3 and 8 km; and journeys over 8 km to represent journeys which could be either walked or cycled; journeys for which a bus can easily be used and other journeys. These source sections were chosen so that the relevant authorities could target key groups in terms of reducing air pollution. The results confirm that the areas most likely to exceed air quality objectives are typically close to main arterial routes and close to urban centres and that the major culprits of road traffic related air pollution are goods vehicles and car journeys over 8 km. The paper also discusses the implications of the results and suggests how these can be used in the assessment of actions to reduce air pollution concentrations

  14. Identifying the contribution of different urban highway air pollution sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace, H; Owen, B; Raper, D W

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes the methodology and results, and draws conclusions from a large-scale source apportionment study undertaken in a large urban conurbation in the northwest of England. Annual average oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission and ambient air pollution contributions have been estimated for road traffic sources. Ground level air pollution concentrations were estimated over a 1552-km(2) area with a resolution of up to 20 m, using emissions estimates and the second generation ADMS-Urban Gaussian dispersion model. Road traffic emissions were split into car and motorcycles; heavy and light goods vehicles; and buses to represent domestic users; commercial users and bus companies. Car related emissions were split further in to journey lengths under 3 km; journeys between 3 and 8 km; and journeys over 8 km to represent journeys which could be either walked or cycled; journeys for which a bus can easily be used and other journeys. These source sections were chosen so that the relevant authorities could target key groups in terms of reducing air pollution. The results confirm that the areas most likely to exceed air quality objectives are typically close to main arterial routes and close to urban centres and that the major culprits of road traffic related air pollution are goods vehicles and car journeys over 8 km. The paper also discusses the implications of the results and suggests how these can be used in the assessment of actions to reduce air pollution concentrations.

  15. Air Quality and Air Pollution Management in Urban Areas in Less Developed Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P. V.

    2007-01-01

    The working group will address the complexity of air pollution management in the growing urban sphere in the less developed countries, and will discus and evaluate how Danish and Scandinavian research institutions, universities and private companies can initiate a more progressive role...... in development aid and capacity development in relation to air pollution. For further information on the actions objective, activities and dissemination plan...

  16. A first-approximation urban-air-quality indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    David M. Paproski; Julian R. Walker

    1977-01-01

    Development of the first-approximation-urban-air-quality indicator was reported by the Economic Council of Canada. The indicator takes account of ambient concentrations of five pollutants: sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and total oxidants. Epidemiological evidence indicating the potential impact of these pollutants on human...

  17. Assessment on pattern of urban air quality by using chemometric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluate the relationship between the main daily concentrations of criteria air pollutants in urban areas and their associations by using chemometric technique. Data were gathered from the Department of Environmental for three years observations (2011-2013) consisting of 5 major pollutants such as SO2, NO2, ...

  18. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to urban outdoor air ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outdoor air pollution in urban areas in South Africa was estimated to cause 3.7% of the national mortality from cardiopulmonary disease and 5.1 % of mortality attributable to cancers of the trachea, bronchus and lung in adults aged 30 years and older, and 1.1 % of mortality from ARis in children under 5 years of age.

  19. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to urban outdoor air ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PM10 and PM2.5 data from air-quality assessment studies in areas not covered by the network were also included. Population-attributable fractions calculated using risk coefficients presented in the WHO study were weighted by the proportion of the total population (33%) in urban environments, and applied to revised ...

  20. Assessing the effect of Michigan's smoke-free law on air quality inside restaurants and casinos: a before-and-after observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamo, Farid; Wilson, Teri; Kiley, Janet; Repace, James

    2015-07-16

    To assess the effect of Michigan's smoke-free air (SFA) law on the air quality inside selected restaurants and casinos. The hypothesis of the study: if the SFA law is effectively implemented in restaurants and casinos, there will be a significant reduction in the particulate matter PM2.5 measured in the same establishments after the law is implemented. Prelaw and postlaw design study. 78 restaurants in 14 Michigan cities from six major regions of the state, and three Detroit casinos. We monitored the real-time PM2.5 in 78 restaurants and three Detroit casinos before the SFA law, and again monitored the same restaurants and casinos after implementation of the law, which was enacted on 1 May 2010. Concentration measurements of secondhand smoke (SHS) fine particles (PM2.5) were compared in each restaurant in the prelaw period to measurements of PM2.5 in the same restaurants during the postlaw period. A second comparison was made for PM2.5 levels in three Detroit casinos prelaw and postlaw; these casinos were exempted from the SFA law. Prelaw data indicated that 85% of the restaurants had poor to hazardous air quality, with the average venue having 'unhealthy' air according to Michigan's Air Quality Index for PM2.5. Postlaw, air quality in 93% of the restaurants improved to 'good'. The differences were statistically significant (prestaurants after implementation of the SFA law indicates that the law was very effective in reducing exposure to SHS. Since the Detroit casinos were exempted from the law, the air quality was unchanged, and remained unhealthy in both prelaw and postlaw periods. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Air toxics regulatory issues facing urban settings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olden, K.; Guthrie, J. [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Biomarker research does not exist in isolation. Its usefulness can only be realized when it is translated into prevention strategies to protect public health. In the context of air toxics, these prevention strategies begin with the development of regulatory standards derived from risk assessment schemes. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 list 189 air toxics, including many volatile organics, metals, and pesticides. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), through its affiliation with the National Toxicology Program, has generated toxicity and carcinogenicity data on more than 100 of these air toxics. The NIEHS extramural and intramural research portfolios support a variety of projects that develop and validate biomarkers for use in environmental health science and risk assessment. Biomarkers have a tremendous potential in the areas of regulating air toxics and protecting public health. Risk assessors need data provided by biomarkers of exposure, biomarkers of close/pharmacokinetics, biomarkers of susceptibility or individual variability, and biomarkers of effects. The greatest benefit would be realized if biomarkers could be employed in four areas of primary and secondary prevention. The first is the use of biomarkers to enhance extrapolation of animal data to human exposure situations in establishing risk standards. The second is the use of biomarkers that assess noncancer, as well as cancer, end points. Important health end points include pulmonary dysfunction, immunotoxicity, and neurotoxicity. Third, biomarkers that serve as early warning signs to detect intermediate effects would enhance our ability to design timely and cost-effective intervention strategies. Finally, biomarkers used to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention strategies both in clinical and regulatory settings, would enable us to ensure that programs designed to protect public health do, in fact, achieve the desired outcome. 9 refs., 2 tabs.

  2. The impact of an urban-industrial region on the magnitude and variability of persistent organic pollutant deposition to Lake Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbuckle, Keri C; Green, Mark L

    2003-09-01

    A predictive model for gas-phase PCBs and trans-nonachlor over Lake Michigan has been constructed and the resulting data examined for trends. In this paper, we describe the model results to show how the magnitude and variability of a plume of contaminants from the Chicago area contributes to a highly variable region of net contaminant deposition over the entire lake. For the whole lake, gross annual deposition of PCBs is approximately 3200 kg, although the net annual gas exchange is not significantly different from zero. The data-driven model illustrates that on a daily basis, the net exchange of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) can change from net deposition to net volatilization depending on the area of plume impact. These findings suggest that i) control of urban areas can accelerate the rate of volatilization from lakes; and ii) release of POPs from urban areas is largely a result of volatilization processes.

  3. Potential availability of urban wood biomass in Michigan: Implications for energy production, carbon sequestration and sustainable forest management in the U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Tree and wood biomass from urban areas is a potentially large, underutilized resource viewed in the broader social context of biomass production and utilization. Here, data and analysis from a regional study in a 13-county area of Michigan, U.S.A. are combined with data and analysis from several other studies to examine this potential. The results suggest that urban trees and wood waste offer a modest amount of biomass that could contribute significantly more to regional and national bio-economies than it does at present. Better utilization of biomass from urban trees and wood waste could offer new sources of locally generated wood products and bio-based fuels for power and heat generation, reduce fossil fuel consumption, reduce waste disposal costs and reduce pressure on forests. Although wood biomass generally constitutes a 'carbon-neutral' fuel, burning rather than burying urban wood waste may not have a net positive effect on reducing atmospheric CO 2 levels, because it may reduce a significant long term carbon storage pool. Using urban wood residues for wood products may provide the best balance of economic and environmental values for utilization

  4. Reassessment of urbanization effect on surface air temperature trends at an urban station of North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Tao; Ren, Guoyu

    2017-11-01

    Based on a homogenized data set of monthly mean temperature, minimum temperature, and maximum temperature at Shijiazhuang City Meteorological Station (Shijiazhuang station) and four rural meteorological stations selected applying a more sophisticated methodology, we reanalyzed the urbanization effects on annual, seasonal, and monthly mean surface air temperature (SAT) trends for updated time period 1960-2012 at the typical urban station in North China. The results showed that (1) urbanization effects on the long-term trends of annual mean SAT, minimum SAT, and diurnal temperature range (DTR) in the last 53 years reached 0.25, 0.47, and - 0.50 °C/decade, respectively, all statistically significant at the 0.001 confidence level, with the contributions from urbanization effects to the overall long-term trends reaching 67.8, 78.6, and 100%, respectively; (2) the urbanization effects on the trends of seasonal mean SAT, minimum SAT, and DTR were also large and statistically highly significant. Except for November and December, the urbanization effects on monthly mean SAT, minimum SAT, and DTR were also all statistically significant at the 0.05 confidence level; and (3) the annual, seasonal, and monthly mean maximum SAT series at the urban station registered a generally weaker and non-significant urbanization effect. The updated analysis evidenced that our previous work for this same urban station had underestimated the urbanization effect and its contribution to the overall changes in the SAT series. Many similar urban stations were being included in the current national and regional SAT data sets, and the results of this paper further indicated the importance and urgency for paying more attention to the urbanization bias in the monitoring and detection of global and regional SAT change based on the data sets.

  5. Air Pollution In The Mountain - Urban Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakovljevic, I.; Pehnec, G.; Vadjic, V.; Marovic, G.; Suric Mihic, M.; Sencar, J.; Godec, R.; Davila, S.

    2015-01-01

    Pollution of the environment is characterized, among others, by ionizing radiation burden and air pollution. Ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), is operational quantity for area monitoring due to ionizing radiation exposure. One of air pollution sources is benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) as the most commonly measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and is used as an indicator of carcinogenic hazard in polluted environments. PAHs are widely distributed in the atmosphere and were among the first pollutants identified as potential carcinogens. PAHs are products of the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and other organic materials. More than 500 PAHs have so far been identified in the air. Sampling of airborne particles PM10 was carried out in a mountain area in Gorski Kotar, Croatia during 60 days in the winter and 60 days in the summer period of the year. During the sampling of airborne particles, the ambient dose equivalent rate was also measured using an electronic dosemeter ALARA device. High performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector was used for BaP analysis. BaP concentrations showed strong seasonal variations. During winter, the average BaP concentrations were significantly higher (5.46 ng/m3) than in the summer (0.06 ng/m3). Ambient dose equivalent rate in winter period was a little higher than in summer. Ambient dose equivalent was calculated on a yearly base. Yearly ambient dose equivalent was 860 micro Sv which is slightly lower than the average value for Croatia (890 micro Sv). (author).

  6. Crowdsourcing urban air temperatures from smartphone battery temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overeem, Aart; Robinson, James C. R.; Leijnse, Hidde; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan; Horn, Berthold K. P.; Uijlenhoet, Remko

    2014-05-01

    Accurate air temperature observations in urban areas are important for meteorology and energy demand planning. They are indispensable to study the urban heat island effect and the adverse effects of high temperatures on human health. However, the availability of temperature observations in cities is often limited. Here we show that relatively accurate air temperature information for the urban canopy layer can be obtained from an alternative, nowadays omnipresent source: smartphones. In this study, battery temperatures were collected by an Android application for smartphones. It has been shown that a straightforward heat transfer model can be employed to estimate daily mean air temperatures from smartphone battery temperatures for eight major cities around the world. The results demonstrate the enormous potential of this crowdsourcing application for real-time temperature monitoring in densely populated areas. Battery temperature data were collected by users of an Android application for cell phones (opensignal.com). The application automatically sends battery temperature data to a server for storage. In this study, battery temperatures are averaged in space and time to obtain daily averaged battery temperatures for each city separately. A regression model, which can be related to a physical model, is employed to retrieve daily air temperatures from battery temperatures. The model is calibrated with observed air temperatures from a meteorological station of an airport located in or near the city. Time series of air temperatures are obtained for each city for a period of several months, where 50% of the data is for independent verification. The methodology has been applied to Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Mexico City, Moscow, Rome, and Sao Paulo. The evolution of the retrieved air temperatures often correspond well with the observed ones. The mean absolute error of daily air temperatures is less than 2 degrees Celsius, and the bias is within 1 degree

  7. Air quality measurements in urban green areas - a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttler, W.; Strassburger, A.

    The influence of traffic-induced pollutants (e.g. CO, NO, NO 2 and O 3) on the air quality of urban areas was investigated in the city of Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), Germany. Twelve air hygiene profile measuring trips were made to analyse the trace gas distribution in the urban area with high spatial resolution and to compare the air hygiene situation of urban green areas with the overall situation of urban pollution. Seventeen measurements were made to determine the diurnal concentration courses within urban parks (summer conditions: 13 measurements, 530 30 min mean values, winter conditions: 4 measurements, 128 30 min mean values). The measurements were carried out during mainly calm wind and cloudless conditions between February 1995 and March 1996. It was possible to establish highly differentiated spatial concentration patterns within the urban area. These patterns were correlated with five general types of land use (motorway, main road, secondary road, residential area, green area) which were influenced to varying degrees by traffic emissions. Urban parks downwind from the main emission sources show the following typical temporal concentration courses: In summer rush-hour-dependent CO, NO and NO 2 maxima only occurred in the morning. A high NO 2/NO ratio was established during weather conditions with high global radiation intensities ( K>800 W m -2), which may result in a high O 3 formation potential. Some of the values measured found in one of the parks investigated (Gruga Park, Essen, area: 0.7 km 2), which were as high as 275 μg m -3 O 3 (30-min mean value) were significantly higher than the German air quality standard of 120 μg m -3 (30-min mean value, VDI Guideline 2310, 1996) which currently applies in Germany and about 20% above the maximum values measured on the same day by the network of the North Rhine-Westphalian State Environment Agency. In winter high CO and NO concentrations occur in the morning and during the afternoon rush-hour. The

  8. Lead and cadmium in indoor air and the urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarnicki, Guenter J.K.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was conducted to find potential terrestrial biomonitors for heavy metals in indoor air in an urban environment. TSP, PM 10 , and PM 2.5 were collected in three retirement facilities in the urban area of Vienna. In addition, particulate matter and soil, vegetation, and isopods (Porcellio scaber L.) were collected in the adjacent garden areas. Aerosols were sampled with a low-volume air sampler. The sampled materials were wet ashed and total lead and cadmium contents were determined. Water-soluble heavy metal concentrations were measured in aqueous extracts from air exposed filters, soil, and vegetation. Lead and cadmium were analyzed by graphite furnace AAS. Lead contents in the vegetation were inferred from water-soluble lead in soils. Lead in isopods generally reflected the contents in vegetation. Cadmium in plants probably derived from soil solutions as well as from atmospheric input. Isopods reflected the total cadmium contents in soils. Particulate matter was dominated by PM 2.5 , both with respect to mass concentrations and to heavy metal contents. The indoor aerosol was found to be influenced by human activity, indoor sources, and outdoor particles. Relationships between indoor airborne heavy metals and the contents in vegetation (lead and cadmium: positive) and isopods (lead: negative) were identified to have the potential for biomonitoring indoor air quality. - Urban vegetation and isopods are potential indicators for indoor aerial heavy metals

  9. Chromosomal Aberrations in Humans Induced by Urban Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Norppa, Hannu; Gamborg, Michael O.

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the influence of individual susceptibility factors on the genotoxic effects of urban air pollution in 106 nonsmoking bus drivers and 101 postal workers in the Copenhagen metropolitan area. We used the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes as a biomar......We have studied the influence of individual susceptibility factors on the genotoxic effects of urban air pollution in 106 nonsmoking bus drivers and 101 postal workers in the Copenhagen metropolitan area. We used the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes...... that long-term exposure to urban air pollution (with traffic as the main contributor) induces chromosome damage in human somatic cells. Low DNA repair capacity and GSTM1 and NAT2 variants associated with reduced detoxification ability increase susceptibility to such damage. The effect of the GSTM1 genotype......, which was observed only in the bus drivers, appears to be associated with air pollution, whereas the NAT2 genotype effect, which affected all subjects, may influence the individual response to some other common exposure or the baseline level of chromosomal aberrations....

  10. Air pollution removal by urban forests in Canada and its effect on air quality and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Satoshi Hirabayashi; Marlene Doyle; Mark McGovern; Jon Pasher

    2018-01-01

    Urban trees perform a number of ecosystem services including air pollution removal, carbon sequestration, cooling air temperatures and providing aesthetic beauty to the urban landscape. Trees remove air pollution by intercepting particulate matter on plant surfaces and absorbing gaseous pollutants through the leaf stomata. Computer simulations with local environmental...

  11. L’Aquila Smart Clean Air City: The Italian Pilot Project for Healthy Urban Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Avveduto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to atmospheric pollution is a major concern for urban populations. Currently, no effective strategy has been adopted to tackle the problem. The paper presents the Smart Clean Air City project, a pilot experiment concerning the improvement in urban air quality. Small wet scrubber systems will be operating in a network configuration in suitable urban areas of L’Aquila city (Italy. The purpose of this work is to describe the project and show the preliminary results obtained in the characterization of two urban sites before the remediation test; the main operating principles of the wet scrubber system will be discussed, as well as the design of the mobile treatment plant for the processing of wastewater resulting from scrubber operation. Measurements of particle size distributions in the range of 0.30–25 µm took place in the two sites of interest, an urban background and a traffic area in the city of L’Aquila. The mean number concentration detected was 2.4 × 107 and 4.5 × 107 particles/m3, respectively. Finally, theoretical assessments, performed by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD codes, will show the effects of the wet scrubber operation on air pollutants under different environmental conditions and in several urban usage patterns.

  12. Urban air pollution control in Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-20

    Our central health cost estimate from particulate matter (PM) concentrations in larger Peruvian cities is approximately USD 790 million/year. More than 60 percent of these costs occur in Lima-Callao. Diesel vehicles are the most important emission source. Various abatement actions could yield health benefits of around USD 50 million in 2008 and USD 185 million after 2010. Some of the most important cost effective actions would be an inspection and maintenance (I&M) program for vehicles (planned to start in 2006) and introduction of low sulphur diesel (<50 ppm) from 2010. When low sulphur diesel is available, installing retrofit particle control technology on existing vehicles could be very cost effective. Some actions towards stationary sources could also be cost effective. In addition a mixture of several measures like tax incentives to promote use of gasoline cars at the expense of diesel cars, accelerated scrapping of old, polluting vehicles, ban on the use of some diesel vehicles and import restrictions on used cars could be chosen to yield short and long term air pollution benefits.

  13. Congestion, air pollution, and road safety in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shefer, Daniel [Department of Urban and Regional Economics and Transport, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel)

    1993-06-01

    The continuous rapid growth in Vehicle Miles Travelled (VMT), coupled with the rapid increase in traffic congestion on highways of virtually every large urban area, explain a major portion of the observed deterioration of urban air quality. To halt this deterioration process and to secure safe and healthy environments and improve the quality of life in our cities, it is paramount to initiate and implement programs which jointly treat traffic congestion, air quality, and road safety. A host of market-based strategies, driven by price mechanisms, have been proposed as the best and most efficient way to decrease traffic congestion and to reduce vehicle emission. Congestion pricing, emission fees, reducing emissions of high polluting vehicles, and introducing more efficient vehicle and/or fuel technologies are not mutually exclusive strategies and therefore they can, and perhaps should, be employed jointly within an overall strategy. In view of the conflicting objectives which may exist between improving urban air quality and reducing road fatalities and traffic congestion, it is of great importance to thoroughly investigate these functional relationships. The results of such studies will help decision makers identify the `socially optimal level of congestion` which will yield the highest net social benefit. 2 figs., 43 refs.

  14. Air ion concentrations in various urban outdoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xuan; Jayaratne, Rohan; Morawska, Lidia

    2010-06-01

    Atmospheric ions are produced by many natural and anthropogenic sources and their concentrations vary widely between different environments. There is very little information on their concentrations in different types of urban environments, how they compare across these environments and their dominant sources. In this study, we measured airborne concentrations of small ions, particles and net particle charge at 32 different outdoor sites in and around a major city in Australia and identified the main ion sources. Sites were classified into seven groups as follows: park, woodland, city centre, residential, freeway, power lines and power substation. Generally, parks were situated away from ion sources and represented the urban background value of about 270 ions cm -3. Median concentrations at all other groups were significantly higher than in the parks. We show that motor vehicles and power transmission systems are two major ion sources in urban areas. Power lines and substations constituted strong unipolar sources, while motor vehicle exhaust constituted strong bipolar sources. The small ion concentration in urban residential areas was about 960 cm -3. At sites where ion sources were co-located with particle sources, ion concentrations were inhibited due to the ion-particle attachment process. These results improved our understanding on air ion distribution and its interaction with particles in the urban outdoor environment.

  15. Urban air pollution in megacities of the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mage, David; Ozolins, Guntis; Peterson, Peter; Webster, Anthony; Orthofer, Rudi; Vandeweerd, Veerle; Gwynne, Michael

    Urban air pollution is a major environmental problem in the developing countries of the world. WHO and UNEP created an air pollution monitoring network as part of the Global Environment Monitoring System. This network now covers over 50 cities in 35 developing and developed countries throughout the world. The analyses of the data reported by the network over the past 15-20 yr indicate that the lessons of the prior experiences in the developed countries (U.S.A., U.K.) have not been learned. A study of air pollution in 20 of the 24 megacities of the world (over 10 million people by year 2000) shows that ambient air pollution concentrations are at levels where serious health effects are reported. The expected rise of population in the next century, mainly in the developing countries with a lack of capital for air pollution control, means that there is a great potential that conditions will worsen in many more cities that will reach megacity status. This paper maps the potential for air pollution that cities will experience in the future unless control strategies are developed and implemented during the next several decades.

  16. The relationship between urban form and air pollution depends on seasonality and city size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yupeng; Wu, Jianguo; Yu, Deyong; Ma, Qun

    2018-06-01

    Understanding how urban form is related to air pollution is important to urban planning and sustainability, but the urban form-air pollution relationship is currently muddled by inconsistent findings. In this study, we investigated how the compositional and configurational attributes of urban form were related to different air pollution measures (PM 2.5 , API, and exceedance) in 83 Chinese cities, with explicit consideration of city size and seasonality. Ten landscape metrics were selected to quantify urban form attributes, and Spearman's correlation was used to quantify the urban form-air pollution relationship. Our results show that the urban form and air pollution relationship was dominated by city size and moderated by seasonality. Specifically, urban air pollution levels increased consistently and substantially from small to medium, large, and megacities. The urban form-air pollution relationship depended greatly on seasonality and monsoons. That is, the relationship was more pronounced in spring and summer than fall and winter, as well as in cities affected by monsoons. Urban air pollution was correlated more strongly with landscape composition metrics than landscape configuration metrics which seemed to affect only PM 2.5 concentrations. Our study suggests that, to understand how air pollution levels are related to urban form, city size and seasonality must be explicitly considered (or controlled). Also, in order to mitigate urban air pollution problems, regional urban planning is needed to curb the spatial extent of built-up areas, reduce the degree of urban fragmentation, and increase urban compactness and contiguity, especially for large and megacities.

  17. PARTICULATE MATTER IN ATMOSPHERIC AIR IN URBAN AGGLOMERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Marczak

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the mass concentration of PM10 in the air in urban area. The specific objective of the research was to analyze and assess the impact of transport road emissions on the level of concentration of particulate matter in the atmosphere in the Lublin agglomeration. The measuring points were located in places at different distances from the communications emission sources and, at the same time, possibly varying degrees of air pollution dust. Measuring the concentration of dust at the measuring points was performed using an indirect method using a laser photometer. In the research point which was not under direct influence of a heavy traffic road dust levels lower by 10.5% to 65.4% than in the vicinity of the transport route were reported. Small particle air pollution at all the points covered by the study increased significantly during the heating season. Based on the comparison of the obtained values of PM10 concentrations with legal standards, it was found that the air pollution exceeded the limits in all measurement points only during a series of measurements in the months of November-December. The recorded increase in air pollution during the heating season should be associated with an increased dust emissions in this period from the "low" emitters - local house boilers and detached houses.

  18. The MUMBA campaign: measurements of urban, marine and biogenic air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton-Walsh, Clare; Guérette, Élise-Andrée; Kubistin, Dagmar; Humphries, Ruhi; Wilson, Stephen R.; Dominick, Doreena; Galbally, Ian; Buchholz, Rebecca; Bhujel, Mahendra; Chambers, Scott; Cheng, Min; Cope, Martin; Davy, Perry; Emmerson, Kathryn; Griffith, David W. T.; Griffiths, Alan; Keywood, Melita; Lawson, Sarah; Molloy, Suzie; Rea, Géraldine; Selleck, Paul; Shi, Xue; Simmons, Jack; Velazco, Voltaire

    2017-06-01

    The Measurements of Urban, Marine and Biogenic Air (MUMBA) campaign took place in Wollongong, New South Wales (a small coastal city approximately 80 km south of Sydney, Australia) from 21 December 2012 to 15 February 2013. Like many Australian cities, Wollongong is surrounded by dense eucalyptus forest, so the urban airshed is heavily influenced by biogenic emissions. Instruments were deployed during MUMBA to measure the gaseous and aerosol composition of the atmosphere with the aim of providing a detailed characterisation of the complex environment of the ocean-forest-urban interface that could be used to test the skill of atmospheric models. The gases measured included ozone, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane and many of the most abundant volatile organic compounds. The aerosol characterisation included total particle counts above 3 nm, total cloud condensation nuclei counts, mass concentration, number concentration size distribution, aerosol chemical analyses and elemental analysis.The campaign captured varied meteorological conditions, including two extreme heat events, providing a potentially valuable test for models of future air quality in a warmer climate. There was also an episode when the site sampled clean marine air for many hours, providing a useful additional measure of the background concentrations of these trace gases within this poorly sampled region of the globe. In this paper we describe the campaign, the meteorology and the resulting observations of atmospheric composition in general terms in order to equip the reader with a sufficient understanding of the Wollongong regional influences to use the MUMBA datasets as a case study for testing a chemical transport model. The data are available from PANGAEA (pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.871982" target="_blank">http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.871982).

  19. Dispersion model computations of urban air pollution in Espoo, Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valkonen, E.; Haerkoenen, J.; Kukkonen, J.; Rantakrans, E.; Jalkanen, L.

    1997-12-31

    This report presents the numerical results of air quality studies of the city of Espoo in southern Finland. This city is one of the four cities in the Helsinki metropolitan area, having a total population of 850 000. A thorough emission inventory was made of both mobile and stationary sources in the Helsinki metropolitan area. The atmospheric dispersion was evaluated using an urban dispersion modelling system, including a Gaussian multiple-source plume model and a meteorological pre-processing model. The hourly time series of CO, NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} concentrations were predicted, using the emissions and meteorological data for the year 1990. The predicted results show a clear decrease in the yearly mean concentrations from southeast to northwest. This is due in part to the denser traffic in the southern parts of Espoo, and in part to pollution from the neighbouring cities of Helsinki and Vantaa, located east of Espoo. The statistical concentration parameters found for Espoo were lower than the old national air quality guidelines (1984); however, some occurrences of above-threshold values were found for NO{sub 2} in terms of the new guidelines (1996). The contribution of traffic to the total concentrations varies spatially from 30 to 90 % for NO{sub 2} from 1 to 65 % for SO{sub 2} while for CO it is nearly 100 %. The concentrations database will be further utilised to analyse the influence of urban air pollution on the health of children attending selected day nurseries in Espoo. The results of this study can also be applied in traffic and city planning. In future work the results will also be compared with data from the urban measurement network of the Helsinki Metropolitan Area Council. (orig.) 19 refs.

  20. Multisite study of particle number concentrations in urban air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Roy M; Jones, Alan M

    2005-08-15

    Particle number concentration data are reported from a total of eight urban site locations in the United Kingdom. Of these, six are central urban background sites, while one is an urban street canyon (Marylebone Road) and another is influenced by both a motorway and a steelworks (Port Talbot). The concentrations are generally of a similar order to those reported in the literature, although higher than those in some of the other studies. Highest concentrations are at the Marylebone Road site and lowest are at the Port Talbot site. The central urban background locations lie somewhere between with concentrations typically around 20 000 cm(-3). A seasonal pattern affects all sites, with highest concentrations in the winter months and lowest concentrations in the summer. Data from all sites show a diurnal variation with a morning rush hour peak typical of an anthropogenic pollutant. When the dilution effects of windspeed are accounted for, the data show little directionality at the central urban background sites indicating the influence of sources from all directions as might be expected if the major source were road traffic. At the London Marylebone Road site there is high directionality driven by the air circulation in the street canyon, and at the Port Talbot site different diurnal patterns are seen for particle number count and PM10 influenced by emissions from road traffic (particle number count) and the steelworks (PM10) and local meteorological factors. Hourly particle number concentrations are generally only weakly correlated to NO(x) and PM10, with the former showing a slightly closer relationship. Correlations between daily average particle number count and PM10 were also weak. Episodes of high PM10 concentration in summer typically show low particle number concentrations consistent with transport of accumulation mode secondary aerosol, while winter episodes are frequently associated with high PM10 and particle number count arising from poor dispersion of

  1. Urban sprawl and air quality in large US cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Brian

    2008-03-01

    This study presents the results of a paper of urban spatial structure and exceedances of the 8-h national ambient air quality standard for ozone in 45 large US metropolitan regions. Through the integration of a published index of sprawl with metropolitan level data on annual ozone exceedances, precursor emissions, and regional climate over a 13-year period, the association between the extent of urban decentralization and the average number of ozone exceedances per year, while controlling for precursor emissions and temperature, is measured. The results of this analysis support the hypothesis that large metropolitan regions ranking highly on a quantitative index of sprawl experience a greater number of ozone exceedances than more spatially compact metropolitan regions. Importantly, this relationship was found to hold when controlling for population size, average ozone season temperatures, and regional emissions of nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, suggesting that urban spatial structure may have effects on ozone formation that are independent of its effects on precursor emissions from transportation, industry, and power generation facilities.

  2. Urban scale air quality modelling using detailed traffic emissions estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, C.; Amorim, J. H.; Tchepel, O.; Dias, D.; Rafael, S.; Sá, E.; Pimentel, C.; Fontes, T.; Fernandes, P.; Pereira, S. R.; Bandeira, J. M.; Coelho, M. C.

    2016-04-01

    The atmospheric dispersion of NOx and PM10 was simulated with a second generation Gaussian model over a medium-size south-European city. Microscopic traffic models calibrated with GPS data were used to derive typical driving cycles for each road link, while instantaneous emissions were estimated applying a combined Vehicle Specific Power/Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (VSP/EMEP) methodology. Site-specific background concentrations were estimated using time series analysis and a low-pass filter applied to local observations. Air quality modelling results are compared against measurements at two locations for a 1 week period. 78% of the results are within a factor of two of the observations for 1-h average concentrations, increasing to 94% for daily averages. Correlation significantly improves when background is added, with an average of 0.89 for the 24 h record. The results highlight the potential of detailed traffic and instantaneous exhaust emissions estimates, together with filtered urban background, to provide accurate input data to Gaussian models applied at the urban scale.

  3. Urban air pollution; La pollution de l'air dans la ville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The theme of this congress concerns air pollution in urban areas. Cities are accumulation of populations and economic activities, and then pollutants activities. The first articles are devoted to pollutants and their effects on health. Then come articles relative to measurements and modeling. Finally, the traffic in city and the automobile pollution are examined. Transportation systems as well technology in matter of gas emissions are reviewed. (N.C.)

  4. Urban air pollution; La pollution de l'air dans la ville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The theme of this congress concerns air pollution in urban areas. Cities are accumulation of populations and economic activities, and then pollutants activities. The first articles are devoted to pollutants and their effects on health. Then come articles relative to measurements and modeling. Finally, the traffic in city and the automobile pollution are examined. Transportation systems as well technology in matter of gas emissions are reviewed. (N.C.)

  5. Effect of air pollution on peri-urban agriculture: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, M.; Singh, B.; Rajput, M.; Marshall, F.; Bell, J.N.B.

    2003-01-01

    Peri-urban agriculture is vital for the urban populations of many developing countries. Increases in both industrialization and urbanization, and associated air pollution threaten urban food production and its quality. Six hour mean concentrations were monitored for SO 2 , NO 2 and O 3 and plant responses were measured in terms of physiological characteristics, pigment, biomass and yield. Parameter reductions in mung bean (Vigna radiata), palak (Beta vulgaris), wheat (Triticum aestivum) and mustard (Brassica compestris) grown within the urban fringes of Varanasi, India correlated directly with the gaseous pollutants levels. The magnitude of response involved all three gaseous pollutants at peri-urban sites; O 3 had more influence at a rural site. The study concluded that air pollution in Varanasi could negatively influence crop yield. - Urban air pollution has a negative impact on peri-urban agriculture

  6. Effect of air pollution on peri-urban agriculture: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, M.; Singh, B.; Rajput, M.; Marshall, F.; Bell, J.N.B

    2003-12-01

    Peri-urban agriculture is vital for the urban populations of many developing countries. Increases in both industrialization and urbanization, and associated air pollution threaten urban food production and its quality. Six hour mean concentrations were monitored for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} and plant responses were measured in terms of physiological characteristics, pigment, biomass and yield. Parameter reductions in mung bean (Vigna radiata), palak (Beta vulgaris), wheat (Triticum aestivum) and mustard (Brassica compestris) grown within the urban fringes of Varanasi, India correlated directly with the gaseous pollutants levels. The magnitude of response involved all three gaseous pollutants at peri-urban sites; O{sub 3} had more influence at a rural site. The study concluded that air pollution in Varanasi could negatively influence crop yield. - Urban air pollution has a negative impact on peri-urban agriculture.

  7. A Comparison of Exposure Metrics for Traffic-Related Air Pollutants: Application to Epidemiology Studies in Detroit, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehicles are major sources of air pollutant emissions, and individuals living near large roads endure high exposures and health risks associated with traffic-related air pollutants. Air pollution epidemiology, health risk, environmental justice, and transportation planning studi...

  8. Capabilities and Gaps Assessments of Urban Air Quality Manage-ment in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Tamale Kiggundu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, large cities across the globe are facing a pervasive problem of air pollution.  The purpose of this study is to assess the capabilities and gaps in urban air quality management in Uganda as well as proposing strategies for curbing air pollution. This study applied face to face interviews, targeting key informants such as the environmental experts, urbanization researchers and officials from the National Environment Management Authority (NEMA. Results show that rapid motorization, continued dependence on fossil fuels, open waste burning, biomass burning, industrialization, bushfires and urbanization are the key causes of air pollution in Uganda. To reduce air pollution and improve urban air quality it is critical to promote non-motorised mass transport, increase electricity access, regulate open waste burning, establish laboratories, strengthen local research and training capacity, promote collaborations, introduce more fuel efficient vehicles and periodic vehicle inspection and carry out public awareness campaigns about air pollution.

  9. Air pollution removal by urban trees and shrubs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Daniel E. Crane; Jack C. Stevens

    2006-01-01

    A modeling study using hourly meteorological and pollution concentration data from across the coterminous United States demonstrates that urban trees remove large amounts of air pollution that consequently improve urban air quality. Pollution removal (03, PM10, NO2, SO2, CO)...

  10. A dispersion modelling system for urban air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karppinen, A.; Kukkonen, J.; Nordlund, G.; Rantakrans, E.; Valkama, I.

    1998-10-01

    An Urban Dispersion Modelling system UDM-FMI, developed at the Finnish Meteorological Institute is described in the report. The modelling system includes a multiple source Gaussian plume model and a meteorological pre-processing model. The dispersion model is an integrated urban scale model, taking into account of all source categories (point, line, area and volume sources). It includes a treatment of chemical transformation (for NO{sub 2}) wet and dry deposition (for SO{sub 2}) plume rise, downwash phenomena and dispersion of inert particles. The model allows also for the influence of a finite mixing height. The model structure is mainly based on the state-of-the-art methodology. The system also computes statistical parameters from the time series, which can be compared to air quality guidelines. The relevant meteorological parameters for the dispersion model are evaluated using data produced by a meteorological pre-processor. The model is based mainly on the energy budget method. Results of national investigations have been used for evaluating climate-dependent parameters. The model utilises the synoptic meteorological observations, radiation records and aerological sounding observations. The model results include the hourly time series of the relevant atmospheric turbulence 51 refs.

  11. Assessing environmental inequalities in ambient air pollution across urban Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knibbs, Luke D; Barnett, Adrian G

    2015-04-01

    Identifying inequalities in air pollution levels across population groups can help address environmental justice concerns. We were interested in assessing these inequalities across major urban areas in Australia. We used a land-use regression model to predict ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels and sought the best socio-economic and population predictor variables. We used a generalised least squares model that accounted for spatial correlation in NO2 levels to examine the associations between the variables. We found that the best model included the index of economic resources (IER) score as a non-linear variable and the percentage of non-Indigenous persons as a linear variable. NO2 levels decreased with increasing IER scores (higher scores indicate less disadvantage) in almost all major urban areas, and NO2 also decreased slightly as the percentage of non-Indigenous persons increased. However, the magnitude of differences in NO2 levels was small and may not translate into substantive differences in health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Inhalable desert dust, urban emissions, and potentially biotoxic metals in urban Saharan-Sahelian air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Virginia H.; Majewski, Michael S.; Konde, Lassana; Wolf, Ruth E.; Otto, Richard D.; Tsuneoka, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Saharan dust incursions and particulates emitted from human activities degrade air quality throughout West Africa, especially in the rapidly expanding urban centers in the region. Particulate matter (PM) that can be inhaled is strongly associated with increased incidence of and mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and cancer. Air samples collected in the capital of a Saharan–Sahelian country (Bamako, Mali) between September 2012 and July 2013 were found to contain inhalable PM concentrations that exceeded World Health Organization (WHO) and US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) PM2.5 and PM10 24-h limits 58 – 98% of days and European Union (EU) PM10 24-h limit 98% of days. Mean concentrations were 1.2-to-4.5 fold greater than existing limits. Inhalable PM was enriched in transition metals, known to produce reactive oxygen species and initiate the inflammatory response, and other potentially bioactive and biotoxic metals/metalloids. Eroded mineral dust composed the bulk of inhalable PM, whereas most enriched metals/metalloids were likely emitted from oil combustion, biomass burning, refuse incineration, vehicle traffic, and mining activities. Human exposure to inhalable PM and associated metals/metalloids over 24-h was estimated. The findings indicate that inhalable PM in the Sahara–Sahel region may present a threat to human health, especially in urban areas with greater inhalable PM and transition metal exposure.

  13. Air pollution and decreased semen quality: A comparative study of Chongqing urban and rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Niya; Cui, Zhihong; Yang, Sanming; Han, Xue; Chen, Gangcai; Zhou, Ziyuan; Zhai, Chongzhi; Ma, Mingfu; Li, Lianbing; Cai, Min; Li, Yafei; Ao, Lin; Shu, Weiqun; Liu, Jinyi; Cao, Jia

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association and effects of air pollution level on male semen quality in urban and rural areas, this study examines the outdoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM 10 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrous dioxide (NO 2 ) and semen quality outcomes for 1346 volunteers in both urban and rural areas in Chongqing, China. We found the urban area has a higher pollution level than the rural area, contrasted with better semen quality in the rural residents, especially for sperm morphology and computer assistant semen analysis (CASA) motility parameters. A multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrates that concentrations of PM 10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 significantly and negatively are associated with normal sperm morphology percentage (P  10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 in urban ambient air may account for worse semen quality in urban males. - Highlights: • We investigate the distributions of PM 10 , SO 2 and NO 2 in urban and rural areas in Chongqing, China. • We explore the associations of air pollution and male semen quality. • The concentrations of PM 10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 are significantly higher in urban areas. • Median values of some semen quality parameters in rural male were higher than urban male. • PM 10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 were negatively associated with semen quality parameters. - Air pollution is higher in the urban area while there is better semen quality in rural males. Polluted air may thus account for worse semen quality in urban males

  14. Meteorological and urban landscape factors on severe air pollution in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lijian; Zhou, Weiqi; Li, Weifeng; Meshesha, Derege T; Li, Li; Zheng, Mingqing

    2015-07-01

    Air pollution gained special attention with the rapid development in Beijing. In January 2013, Beijing experienced extreme air pollution, which was not well examined. We thus examine the magnitude of air quality in the particular month by applying the air quality index (AQI), which is based on the newly upgraded Chinese environmental standard. Our finding revealed that (1) air quality has distinct spatial heterogeneity and relatively better air quality was observed in the northwest while worse quality happened in the southeast part of the city; (2) the wind speed is the main determinant of air quality in the city-when wind speed is greater than 4 m/sec, air quality can be significantly improved; and (3) urban impervious surface makes a contribution to the severity of air pollution-that is, with an increase in the fraction of impervious surface in a given area, air pollution is more severe. The results from our study demonstrated the severe pollution in Beijing and its meteorological and landscape factors. Also, the results of this work suggest that very strict air quality management should be conducted when wind speed less than 4 m/sec, especially at places with a large fraction of urban impervious surface. Prevention of air pollution is rare among methods with controls on meteorological and urban landscape conditions. We present research that utilizes the latest air quality index (AQI) to compare air pollution with meteorological and landscape conditions. We found that wind is the major meteorological factor that determines the air quality. For a given wind speed greater than 4 m/sec, the air quality improved significantly. Urban impervious surface also contributes to the severe air pollution: that is, when the fraction of impervious surface increases, there is more severe air pollution. These results suggest that air quality management should be conducted when wind speed is less than 4 m/sec, especially at places with a larger fraction of urban impervious surface.

  15. Estimating the Impact of Urbanization on Air Quality in China Using Spatial Regression Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanglin Fang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban air pollution is one of the most visible environmental problems to have accompanied China’s rapid urbanization. Based on emission inventory data from 2014, gathered from 289 cities, we used Global and Local Moran’s I to measure the spatial autorrelation of Air Quality Index (AQI values at the city level, and employed Ordinary Least Squares (OLS, Spatial Lag Model (SAR, and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR to quantitatively estimate the comprehensive impact and spatial variations of China’s urbanization process on air quality. The results show that a significant spatial dependence and heterogeneity existed in AQI values. Regression models revealed urbanization has played an important negative role in determining air quality in Chinese cities. The population, urbanization rate, automobile density, and the proportion of secondary industry were all found to have had a significant influence over air quality. Per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP and the scale of urban land use, however, failed the significance test at 10% level. The GWR model performed better than global models and the results of GWR modeling show that the relationship between urbanization and air quality was not constant in space. Further, the local parameter estimates suggest significant spatial variation in the impacts of various urbanization factors on air quality.

  16. Traffic-related particulate air pollution exposure in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, C.; Tchepel, O.; Costa, A. M.; Martins, H.; Ferreira, J.; Miranda, A. I.

    In the last years, there has been an increase of scientific studies confirming that long- and short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) pollution leads to adverse health effects. The development of a methodology for the determination of accumulated human exposure in urban areas is the main objective of the current work, combining information on concentrations at different microenvironments and population time-activity pattern data. A link between a mesoscale meteorological and dispersion model and a local scale air quality model was developed to define the boundary conditions for the local scale application. The time-activity pattern of the population was derived from statistical information for different sub-population groups and linked to digital city maps. Finally, the hourly PM 10 concentrations for indoor and outdoor microenvironments were estimated for the Lisbon city centre, which was chosen as the case-study, based on the local scale air quality model application for a selected period. This methodology is a first approach to estimate population exposure, calculated as the total daily values above the thresholds recommended for long- and short-term health effects. Obtained results reveal that in Lisbon city centre a large number of persons are exposed to PM levels exceeding the legislated limit value.

  17. Variability of air ion concentrations in urban Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, V. N.; Herrmann, E.; Manninen, H. E.; Hussein, T.; Hakala, J.; Nieminen, T.; Aalto, P. P.; Merkel, M.; Wiedensohler, A.; Kulmala, M.; Petäjä, T.; Hämeri, K.

    2015-12-01

    Air ion concentrations influence new particle formation and consequently the global aerosol as potential cloud condensation nuclei. We aimed to evaluate air ion concentrations and characteristics of new particle formation events (NPF) in the megacity of Paris, France, within the MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric Pollution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation) project. We measured air ion number size distributions (0.8-42 nm) with an air ion spectrometer and fine particle number concentrations (> 6 nm) with a twin differential mobility particle sizer in an urban site of Paris between 26 June 2009 and 4 October 2010. Air ions were size classified as small (0.8-2 nm), intermediate (2-7 nm), and large (7-20 nm). The median concentrations of small and large ions were 670 and 680 cm-3, respectively, (sum of positive and negative polarities), whereas the median concentration of intermediate ions was only 20 cm-3, as these ions were mostly present during new particle formation bursts, i.e. when gas-to-particle conversion produced fresh aerosol particles from gas phase precursors. During peaks in traffic-related particle number, the concentrations of small and intermediate ions decreased, whereas the concentrations of large ions increased. Seasonal variations affected the ion population differently, with respect to their size and polarity. NPF was observed in 13 % of the days, being most frequent in spring and late summer (April, May, July, and August). The results also suggest that NPF was favoured on the weekends in comparison to workdays, likely due to the lower levels of condensation sinks in the mornings of weekends (CS weekdays 09:00: 18 × 10-3 s-1; CS weekend 09:00: 8 × 10-3 s-1). The median growth rates (GR) of ions during the NPF events varied between 3 and 7 nm h-1, increasing with the ion size and being higher on workdays than on weekends for intermediate and large ions. The median GR of

  18. Research on Value Assessment and Compensation for Health Hazards of Urban Air Pollution-A Case Study of Urumqi

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Chen; Hui, Sun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT With the acceleration of urbanization and industrialization, urban air pollution has become a serious threat to the health of urban residents. In this study, to investigate health hazards caused by air pollution for urban residents, concentrations of main air pollutants and annual coal consumption amounts during the period from 2000 to 2013 were analyzed. Our results showed that economic losses of Urumqi caused by air pollution amounted to 63.155 million yuan in 2013, accounting for ...

  19. A review of urban air pollution monitoring and exposure assessment methods

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Xingzhe; Semanjski, Ivana; Gautama, Sidharta; Tsiligianni, Evaggelia; Deligiannis, Nikos; Rajan, Raj; Pasveer, Frank; Philips, Wilfried

    2017-01-01

    The impact of urban air pollution on the environments and human health has drawn increasing concerns from researchers, policymakers and citizens. To reduce the negative health impact, it is of great importance to measure the air pollution at high spatial resolution in a timely manner. Traditionally, air pollution is measured using dedicated instruments at fixed monitoring stations, which are placed sparsely in urban areas. With the development of low-cost micro-scale sensing technology in the...

  20. Capabilities and Gaps Assessments of Urban Air Quality Manage-ment in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Amin Tamale Kiggundu

    2015-01-01

    Today, large cities across the globe are facing a pervasive problem of air pollution.  The purpose of this study is to assess the capabilities and gaps in urban air quality management in Uganda as well as proposing strategies for curbing air pollution. This study applied face to face interviews, targeting key informants such as the environmental experts, urbanization researchers and officials from the National Environment Management Authority (NEMA). Results show that rapid motorization, cont...

  1. Air quality and its integration within urban planning: Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elva Alicia Corona–Zambrano

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available As a result of world wide urbanization and industrialization, urban air pollution shows a growing trend directly proportional to increasing demands on energy for domestic and industrial activities. From this point of view, cities along with their urban, functional and morphological structure are not being planned with pollution prevention or minimum environmental impacts in mind. This work has two purposes: first, it sets an assessment of air quality in Mexicali by analyzing O3, CO, SO2, NO2 and PM10 emissions in relation to urban structure. And second, the assessment of already implemented urban strategies aimed to minimize environmental impacts. This work also presents a scheme that incorporates air quality issues into town planning and urban management.

  2. Analysis of surface air temperature variations and local urbanization effects on central Yunnan Plateau, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yunling; Wu, Zhijie; Liu, Xuelian; Deng, Fuying

    2018-01-01

    With the surface air temperature (SAT) data at 37 stations on Central Yunnan Plateau (CYP) for 1961-2010 and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program/Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS) nighttime light data, the temporal-spatial patterns of the SAT trends are detected using Sen's Nonparametric Estimator of Slope approach and MK test, and the impact of urbanization on surface warming is analyzed by comparing the differences between the air temperature change trends of urban stations and their corresponding rural stations. Results indicated that annual mean air temperature showed a significant warming trend, which is equivalent to a rate of 0.17 °C/decade during the past 50 years. Seasonal mean air temperature presents a rising trend, and the trend was more significant in winter (0.31 °C/decade) than in other seasons. Annual/seasonal mean air temperature tends to increase in most areas, and higher warming trend appeared in urban areas, notably in Kunming city. The regional mean air temperature series was significantly impacted by urban warming, and the urbanization-induced warming contributed to approximately 32.3-62.9 % of the total regional warming during the past 50 years. Meantime, the urbanization-induced warming trend in winter and spring was more significant than that in summer and autumn. Since 1985, the urban heat island (UHI) intensity has gradually increased. And the urban temperatures always rise faster than rural temperatures on the CYP.

  3. Relationships between Changes in Urban Characteristics and Air Quality in East Asia from 2000 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Andrew; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Geddes, Jeffrey A; Martin, Randall V; Hystad, Perry

    2016-09-06

    Characteristics of urban areas, such as density and compactness, are associated with local air pollution concentrations. The potential for altering air pollution through changing urban characteristics, however, is less certain, especially for expanding cities within the developing world. We examined changes in urban characteristics from 2000 to 2010 for 830 cities in East Asia to evaluate associations with changes in nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution. Urban areas were stratified by population size into small (100 000-250 000), medium, (250 000-1 000 000), and large (>1 000 000). Multivariate regression models including urban baseline characteristics, meteorological variables, and change in urban characteristics explained 37%, 49%, and 54% of the change in NO2 and 29%, 34%, and 37% of the change in PM2.5 for small, medium and large cities, respectively. Change in lights at night strongly predicted change in NO2 and PM2.5, while urban area expansion was strongly associated with NO2 but not PM2.5. Important differences between changes in urban characteristics and pollutant levels were observed by city size, especially NO2. Overall, changes in urban characteristics had a greater impact on NO2 and PM2.5 change than baseline characteristics, suggesting urban design and land use policies can have substantial impacts on local air pollution levels.

  4. Urban land use, air toxics and public health: Assessing hazardous exposures at the neighborhood scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corburn, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Land use data are increasingly understood as important indicators of potential environmental health risk in urban areas where micro-scale or neighborhood level hazard exposure data are not routinely collected. This paper aims to offer a method for estimating the distribution of air toxics in urban neighborhoods using land use information because actual air monitoring data rarely exist at this scale. Using Geographic Information System spatial modeling tools, we estimate air toxics concentrations across neighborhoods in New York City and statistically compare our model with the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Air Toxic Assessment and air monitoring data across three NYC neighborhoods. We conclude that land use data can act as a good proxy for estimating neighborhood scale air toxics, particularly in the absence of monitoring data. In addition, the paper suggests that land use data can expand the reach of environmental impact assessments that routinely exclude analyses of potential exposures to urban air toxics at the neighborhood scale

  5. Hybrid Air Quality Modeling Approach For Use in the Near-Road Exposures to Urban Air Pollutant Study (NEXUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Near-road EXposures to Urban air pollutant Study (NEXUS) investigated whether children with asthma living in close proximity to major roadways in Detroit, MI, (particularly near roadways with high diesel traffic) have greater health impacts associated with exposure to air pol...

  6. Effects of air pollution on thermal structure and dispersion in an urban planetary boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viskanta, R.; Johnson, R. O.; Bergstrom, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    The short-term effects of urbanization and air pollution on the transport processes in the urban planetary boundary layer (PBL) are studied. The investigation makes use of an unsteady two-dimensional transport model which has been developed by Viskanta et al., (1976). The model predicts pollutant concentrations and temperature in the PBL. The potential effects of urbanization and air pollution on the thermal structure in the urban PBL are considered, taking into account the results of numerical simulations modeling the St. Louis, Missouri metropolitan area.

  7. Statistical modeling of urban air temperature distributions under different synoptic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Christoph; Breitner, Susanne; Cyrys, Josef; Hald, Cornelius; Hartz, Uwe; Jacobeit, Jucundus; Richter, Katja; Schneider, Alexandra; Wolf, Kathrin

    2015-04-01

    Within urban areas air temperature may vary distinctly between different locations. These intra-urban air temperature variations partly reach magnitudes that are relevant with respect to human thermal comfort. Therefore and furthermore taking into account potential interrelations with other health related environmental factors (e.g. air quality) it is important to estimate spatial patterns of intra-urban air temperature distributions that may be incorporated into urban planning processes. In this contribution we present an approach to estimate spatial temperature distributions in the urban area of Augsburg (Germany) by means of statistical modeling. At 36 locations in the urban area of Augsburg air temperatures are measured with high temporal resolution (4 min.) since December 2012. These 36 locations represent different typical urban land use characteristics in terms of varying percentage coverages of different land cover categories (e.g. impervious, built-up, vegetated). Percentage coverages of these land cover categories have been extracted from different sources (Open Street Map, European Urban Atlas, Urban Morphological Zones) for regular grids of varying size (50, 100, 200 meter horizonal resolution) for the urban area of Augsburg. It is well known from numerous studies that land use characteristics have a distinct influence on air temperature and as well other climatic variables at a certain location. Therefore air temperatures at the 36 locations are modeled utilizing land use characteristics (percentage coverages of land cover categories) as predictor variables in Stepwise Multiple Regression models and in Random Forest based model approaches. After model evaluation via cross-validation appropriate statistical models are applied to gridded land use data to derive spatial urban air temperature distributions. Varying models are tested and applied for different seasons and times of the day and also for different synoptic conditions (e.g. clear and calm

  8. MICHIGAN: Cyclotron conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    A sense of excitement was in the air as cyclotron physicists and engineers from 17 countries convened on 30 April for the opening of the Tenth International Conference on Cyclotrons and Their Applications. Some 50 years after its invention, the redoubtable cyclotron remains a topic of compelling current interest. Cyclotron experts gathered at Michigan State University's Kellogg Center to hear of latest developments, of progress and successes on new machines which had come into operation, of new projects which were underway, and of dreams which lay ahead

  9. MICHIGAN: Cyclotron conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1984-10-15

    A sense of excitement was in the air as cyclotron physicists and engineers from 17 countries convened on 30 April for the opening of the Tenth International Conference on Cyclotrons and Their Applications. Some 50 years after its invention, the redoubtable cyclotron remains a topic of compelling current interest. Cyclotron experts gathered at Michigan State University's Kellogg Center to hear of latest developments, of progress and successes on new machines which had come into operation, of new projects which were underway, and of dreams which lay ahead.

  10. Microbiological air quality in an urban solid waste selection plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Del Cimmuto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Exposure to bioaerosols may pose health risks to workers operating in the processing of Urban Solid Waste (USW. The aim of this study is to evaluate microbiological air quality within an USW selection facility.

    Methods: Nine sampling points in an USW selection plant situated in central-southern Italy were selected. One outdoor sampling point provided the background data. Sampling was performed on a yearly basis (2005 – 2009 upon request by the management of the selection plant. Total Mesophilic Counts (TMC, as well as fungal and Gram-negative concentrations were determined.

    Results: The highest viable fungal particles concentrations (medians were found in waste delivery areas (about 20000 CFU/m3, while the lowest were found in the control rooms (485 – 967 CFU/m3. TMC (median was highest (6116 CFU/m3 at the delivery pit, followed by the machine shop (3147 CFU/m3, where no waste processing takes place. Medians of Gram-negative bacteria are below the suggested Occupational Exposure Limit of 1000 CFU/m3, although this limit was exceeded at several single time-points in the waste delivery areas, and also in a personnel resting room. The lowest Gram-negative contamination was found in the control rooms (medians <1 CFU/m3.

    Conclusions: Some areas within a USW selection plant act as internal sources of contamination towards those areas where partially processed waste, or no waste at all, is present. Well-designed air flows, or carefullythought positioning of areas that are not directly involved in waste processing are necessary and effective in obtaining

  11. Multicriteria methodological approach to manage urban air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachokostas, Ch.; Achillas, Ch.; Moussiopoulos, N.; Banias, G.

    2011-08-01

    Managing urban air pollution necessitates a feasible and efficient abatement strategy which is characterised as a defined set of specific control measures. In practice, hard budget constraints are present in any decision-making process and therefore available alternatives need to be hierarchised in a fast but still reliable manner. Moreover, realistic strategies require adequate information on the available control measures, taking also into account the area's special characteristics. The selection of the most applicable bundle of measures rests in achieving stakeholders' consensus, while taking into consideration mutually conflicting views and criteria. A preliminary qualitative comparison of alternative control measures would be most handy for decision-makers, forming the grounds for an in-depth analysis of the most promising ones. This paper presents an easy-to-follow multicriteria methodological approach in order to include and synthesise multi-disciplinary knowledge from various stakeholders so as to result into a priority list of abatement options, achieve consensus and secure the adoption of the resulting optimal solution. The approach relies on the active involvement of public authorities and local stakeholders in order to incorporate their environmental, economic and social preferences. The methodological scheme is implemented for the case of Thessaloniki, Greece, an area considered among the most polluted cities within Europe, especially with respect to airborne particles. Intense police control, natural gas penetration in buildings and metro construction equally result into the most "promising" alternatives in order to control air pollution in the GTA. The three optimal alternatives belong to different thematic areas, namely road transport, thermal heating and infrastructure. Thus, it is obvious that efforts should spread throughout all thematic areas. Natural gas penetration in industrial units, intense monitoring of environmental standards and regular

  12. Urban heat island and linkage with air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greuillet, C.; Galsomies, L.

    2013-01-01

    The urban heat island (UHI) effect can be noticed in cities where the temperature is higher than the surrounding countryside, on average 2 deg. C above. In summer during a heat wave, the gap can up to over ten-degree. UHI causes a thermal stress which induces some repercussions on health. The formation of UHI is more and more documented but further studies have to be conducted in order to qualify and quantify the impacts on our health and environment, and the link with atmospheric pollution. Studies have shown air quality deterioration in UHI areas: Both phenomena can be simultaneous because their conditions of appearance are often linked. Henceforth the stake is to manage and if possible reduce UHI to adapt cities to the expected climate change. Dense cities in the future will also have to be naturally cooled down. In order to do so, we will have to act on the most influential UHI formation factors, namely: vegetation and water, buildings (shapes and materials), production and consumption of energy. (authors)

  13. The Influence of Urban Planning Affected Static and Stable Meteorological Field on Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Liyuan; Zhang, Yunwei

    2018-02-01

    Accompany with the rapid urbanized and industrialized process, the built-up area and the number of high-rise buildings increased fast. Urban air quality is facing with the challenge caused by the rapid increase in energy consumption, motor vehicles owned, and the city construction. Long term high precision analysis on Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region has been conducted in this article, so as to explore the influence of rapid increase in urban size and tall building amount on occurrence frequency of urban static and stable meteorological conditions as well as the contribution to urban PM2.5 pollution.

  14. Examination of the Relationship between Urban Air Pollution and Urban Planning Decisions in Cigli Case, Izmir (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Sinem Ozcan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The air pollution problem remains, although significant improvements have been seen in urban air quality over the last years. Despite the size and variety of studies on urban air pollution, the usage of spatial statistics has been extremely limited. This study aims to show that the spatial statistic techniques can well be used to examine and explain the air pollution levels in urban areas. The data for the sulphur dioxide (SO2 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 concentrations are measures using passive diffusion tubes at the 67 monitoring sites in the district of Çiğli (Izmir, which are selected through a spatial systematic sampling process. The tubes were exposed for a 2-week period in August 2015. For the determination of the level of clustering for high values and low values of SO2 and NO2 concentrations, Getis-Ord G* local statistics are calculated. There are five points with high values of SO2 surrounded by low values, three points of NO2, where the results are statistically significant at the 0.10 level. The findings indicate that the presence of the industrial zone, the form of fossil fuels (coal or natural gas used in heating, and topography are the strong determinants urban air pollution.

  15. URBAN SPRAWL MODELING, AIR QUALITY MONITORING AND RISK COMMUNICATION: THE NORTHEAST OHIO PROJECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Northeast Ohio Urban Sprawl, Air Quality Monitoring, and Communications Project (hereafter called the Northeast Ohio Project) provides local environmental and health information useful to residents, local officials, community planners, and others in a 15 county region in the ...

  16. Bicyclists' Uptake of Traffic-Related Air Pollution: Effects of the Urban Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-27

    While bicyclists and other active travelers obtain health benefits from increased physical activity, they also risk uptake of traffic-related air pollution. But pollution uptake by urban bicyclists is not well understood due to a lack of direct measu...

  17. The indicative effects of inefficient urban traffic flow on fuel cost and exhaust air pollutant emissions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moselakgomo, M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Poor urban traffic management such as poor intersection controls, congestions, illegal roadway blockages and construction works causes “stop-go” driving conditions with excessive idling resulting in wasted fuel and increased air pollutant emissions...

  18. A state of the art regarding urban air quality prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croitoru, Cristiana; Nastase, Ilinca

    2018-02-01

    Urban pollution represents an increasing risk to residents of urban regions, particularly in large, over-industrialized cities knowing that the traffic is responsible for more than 25% of air gaseous pollutants and dust particles. Air quality modelling plays an important role in addressing air pollution control and management approaches by providing guidelines for better and more efficient air quality forecasting, along with smart monitoring sensor networks. The advances in technology regarding simulations, forecasting and monitoring are part of the new smart cities which offers a healthy environment for their occupants.

  19. A state of the art regarding urban air quality prediction models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croitoru Cristiana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban pollution represents an increasing risk to residents of urban regions, particularly in large, over-industrialized cities knowing that the traffic is responsible for more than 25% of air gaseous pollutants and dust particles. Air quality modelling plays an important role in addressing air pollution control and management approaches by providing guidelines for better and more efficient air quality forecasting, along with smart monitoring sensor networks. The advances in technology regarding simulations, forecasting and monitoring are part of the new smart cities which offers a healthy environment for their occupants.

  20. Influence of urban vegetation on air pollution and noise exposure - A case study in Gothenburg, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingberg, Jenny; Broberg, Malin; Strandberg, Bo; Thorsson, Pontus; Pleijel, Håkan

    2017-12-01

    Air pollution levels (NO 2 , PAHs, O 3 ) were investigated, before (BLE) and after (ALE) leaf emergence, in the urban landscape of Gothenburg, Sweden. The aims were to study the 1) spatial and temporal variation in pollution levels between urban green areas, 2) effect of urban vegetation on air pollution levels at the same distance from a major emission source (traffic route), 3) improvement of urban air quality in urban parks compared to adjacent sites near traffic, 4) correlation between air pollution and noise in a park. O 3 varied little over the urban landscape. NO 2 varied strongly and was higher in situations strongly influenced by traffic. Four PAH variables were included: total PAH, total particle-bound PAH, the quantitatively important gaseous phenanthrene and the highly toxic particle-bound benzo(a)pyrene. The variation of PAHs was similar to NO 2 , but for certain PAHs the difference between highly and less polluted sites was larger than for NO 2 . At a vegetated site, NO 2 and particulate PAH levels were lower than at a non-vegetated site at a certain distance from a busy traffic route. This effect was significantly larger ALE compared to BLE for NO 2 , indicating green leaf area to be highly significant factor for air quality improvement. For particulate PAHs, the effect was similar BLE and ALE, indicating that tree bark and branches also could be an important factor in reducing air pollution. Parks represented considerably cleaner local environments (park effect), which is likely to be a consequence of both a dilution (distance effect) and deposition. Noise and air pollution (NO 2 and PAH) levels were strongly correlated. Comparison of noise levels BLE and ALE also showed that the presence of leaves significantly reduced noise levels. Our results are evidence that urban green spaces are beneficial for urban environmental quality, which is important to consider in urban planning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Dealing with Variations over Space and Time in Urban Vegetation-Air Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, P. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Studies on role of urban vegetation ameliorate poor air quality frequently encountered in urban areas should aim to answer a pertinent question: what is the net impact of urban vegetation in improving public health directly or indirectly through removal of air pollutants? Answers to this question need to consider that role of urban vegetation in air quality improvement is not just dependent on physical and physiological processes mediated by plants, it is also highly dependent on atmospheric processes. The roles of these two components thus need to be separated. This uncertainty is further complicated by heterogeneity of air quality over spatial scales and fluctuations in air quality over time. Singapore is used to illustrate these complexities. Between seasons, the main external source of atmospheric pollutants is aerosols from biomass burning in plantations in surrounding SE Asian countries, and air quality is highly dependent on wind directions dictated by monsoon systems. When air quality does deteriorate from transboundary pollution, there are also spatial differences within the city, as air pollutant levels differ in different regions. Rainfall from monsoons and other rain-bearing weather systems over Singapore also dictate the relative amounts of wet and dry deposition and the persistence of particulate matter deposited on vegetation surfaces. For locally generated air pollutants, diurnal fluctuations of anthropogenic activities, such as vehicular emissions between peak and non-peak hours, should also lead to fluctuations over the day. Not only does air quality vary from region to region, air quality within a vertical transect in the urban canopy layer also differs due to urban morphology and urban elements. A pedestrian along a treed street may experience poorer air quality than one living on highrise building, despite proximity to vegetation. There are thus interactions between climate, weather and urban context, which lead to spatial heterogeneity over

  2. Characterization of urban air pollution by total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmeling, Martina

    2004-01-01

    Besides photochemical smog, particulate air pollution is a constantly growing problem in urban areas. The particulate matter present in pollution events contains often toxic or health impacting elements and is responsible for low visibility, might be triggering respiratory diseases like asthma, and can play an important role in formation or duration of smog events. To characterize particulate pollution in two different cities, samples were taken during intensive field campaigns in Chicago, IL, in 2002 and Phoenix, AZ, in 2001. Both cities experience regularly photochemical smog events as well as particulate pollution, but show very different meteorological and topographical conditions. Therefore it is expected that the particulate composition varies significantly, providing information about different pollution forms. Sampling took place in both cases at elevated locations and had a temporal resolution of 1.5 h and 1 h, respectively. The samples were analyzed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence after digestion of the filter matrix. As expected the elemental composition of particulate matter varied between both cities substantially with Phoenix showing a higher abundance of crustal elements, and Chicago enrichment in anthropogenically produced ones. In both cities diurnal patterns were found, exerting maxima in the morning and minima in the early afternoon. The diurnal pattern was much more regularly and also more strongly pronounced in Phoenix. Phoenix's valley location permits for a more stable nocturnal boundary layer to build up during the night thus trapping particulates efficiently during this time, until mixing occurs in the early morning hours and the residual layer lifts. In Chicago, the diurnal variation was less extreme, but another pattern determines the situation with the lake breeze. The lake breeze corresponds to a shift in wind direction towards the east, i.e. from Lake Michigan during the late morning. It was found that certain elemental species

  3. Estimating the Impact of Urbanization on Air Quality in China Using Spatial Regression Models

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Chuanglin; Liu, Haimeng; Li, Guangdong; Sun, Dongqi; Miao, Zhuang

    2015-01-01

    Urban air pollution is one of the most visible environmental problems to have accompanied China’s rapid urbanization. Based on emission inventory data from 2014, gathered from 289 cities, we used Global and Local Moran’s I to measure the spatial autorrelation of Air Quality Index (AQI) values at the city level, and employed Ordinary Least Squares (OLS), Spatial Lag Model (SAR), and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) to quantitatively estimate the comprehensive impact and spatial variati...

  4. An Argument for the Keyhole Template for Close Air Support on the Urban Battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-04

    An Argument for the Keyhole Template for Close Air Support on the Urban Battlefield Captain BT Taggart Major RC... Keyhole Template for Close Air Support on the Urban Battlefield 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...graphic (GRG). Using the target building as the keyhole , or center of the engagement area, Lightning 62 requested a laser guided Maverick to destroy

  5. Analyzing the cost effectiveness of Santiago, Chile's policy of using urban forests to improve air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco J. Escobedo; John E. Wagner; David J. Nowak; Carmen Luz De la Maza; Manuel Rodriguez; Daniel E. Crane

    2008-01-01

    Santiago, Chile has the distinction of having among the worst urban air pollution problems in Latin America. As part of an atmospheric pollution reduction plan, the Santiago Regional Metropolitan government defined an environmental policy goal of using urban forests to remove particulate matter less than 10 µm (PM10) in the Gran...

  6. The Impacts of Urbanization on Meteorology and Air Quality in the Los Angeles Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Zhang, J.; Sailor, D.; Ban-Weiss, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    Urbanization has a profound influence on regional meteorology in mega cities like Los Angeles. This influence is driven by changes in land surface physical properties and urban processes, and their corresponding influence on surface-atmosphere coupling. Changes in meteorology from urbanization in turn influences air quality through weather-dependent chemical reaction, pollutant dispersion, etc. Hence, a real-world representation of the urban land surface properties and urban processes should be accurately resolved in regional climate-chemistry models for better understanding the role of urbanization on changing urban meteorology and associated pollutant dynamics. By incorporating high-resolution land surface data, previous research has improved model-observation comparisons of meteorology in urban areas including the Los Angeles basin, and indicated that historical urbanization has increased urban temperatures and altered wind flows significantly. However, the impact of urban expansion on air quality has been less studied. Thus, in this study, we aim to evaluate the effectiveness of resolving high-resolution heterogeneity in urban land surface properties and processes for regional weather and pollutant concentration predictions. We coupled the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry to the single-layer Urban Canopy Model to simulate a typical summer period in year 2012 for Southern California. Land cover type and urban fraction were determined from National Land Cover Data. MODIS observations were used to determine satellite-derived albedo, green vegetation fraction, and leaf area index. Urban morphology was determined from GIS datasets of 3D building geometries. An urban irrigation scheme was also implemented in the model. Our results show that the improved model captures the diurnal cycle of 2m air temperature (T2) and Ozone (O3) concentrations. However, it tends to overestimate wind speed and underestimate T2, which leads to an underestimation of O

  7. URBAN MORPHOLOGY AND AIR QUALITY IN DENSE RESIDENTIAL ENVIRONMENTS: CORRELATIONS BETWEEN MORPHOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND AIR POLLUTION AT STREET-LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRIYANTHA EDUSSURIYA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is the second part of the series that identifies whether site-specific urban morphological parameters are correlated with air quality. This study aims to identify the most important urban morphological parameters that affects air quality at street level that affect air quality in metropolis like Hong Kong through field measurements and statistical analyses. The study considers 20 urban residential areas in five major districts of Hong Kong and real-time street level air pollutant and microclimatic data are collected from these areas. 21 morphological variables are identified and calculated based on the geometry of the urban fabric. Using principal component analyses, it is shown that out of the many urban morphological factors, only five morphological variables (plan area density, occlusivity, aerodynamic roughness height, mean built volume, compactness factor and four land development factors (aspect ratio, distance between building, mean building height and standard deviation of building height correlate with particulate matter. Besides mineralisation factor, contiguity and canyon ratio marginally correlate with particulate matter. On the other hand, nine variables (plan area density, compactness factor, occlusivity, aerodynamic roughness height, average size of building volume, aspect ratio, distance between buildings, mean building height and standard deviations of building heights correlate with NOx. All others play insignificant roles in street-level pollution effect. Moreover statistical analyses show little correlation between CO and ozone with urban morphological parameters. It is also established that the key microclimatic variables that connects PM and NOx with the urban morphological factors are northerly wind, relative humidity and temperature, which in turn translates to affecting the street-level air pollution.

  8. Simulating urban-scale air pollutants and their predicting capabilities over the Seoul metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Il-Soo; Lee, Suk-Jo; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Yoo, Chul; Lee, Yong-Hee

    2004-06-01

    Urban-scale air pollutants for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter > or = 10 microm, and ozone (O3) were simulated over the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea, during the period of July 2-11, 2002, and their predicting capabilities were discussed. The Air Pollution Model (TAPM) and the highly disaggregated anthropogenic and the biogenic gridded emissions (1 km x 1 km) recently prepared by the Korean Ministry of Environment were applied. Wind fields with observational nudging in the prognostic meteorological model TAPM are optionally adopted to comparatively examine the meteorological impact on the prediction capabilities of urban-scale air pollutants. The result shows that the simulated concentrations of secondary air pollutant largely agree with observed levels with an index of agreement (IOA) of >0.6, whereas IOAs of approximately 0.4 are found for most primary pollutants in the major cities, reflecting the quality of emission data in the urban area. The observationally nudged wind fields with higher IOAs have little effect on the prediction for both primary and secondary air pollutants, implying that the detailed wind field does not consistently improve the urban air pollution model performance if emissions are not well specified. However, the robust highest concentrations are better described toward observations by imposing observational nudging, suggesting the importance of wind fields for the predictions of extreme concentrations such as robust highest concentrations, maximum levels, and >90th percentiles of concentrations for both primary and secondary urban-scale air pollutants.

  9. Impact of urbanization level on urban air quality: a case of fine particles (PM(2.5)) in Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lijian; Zhou, Weiqi; Li, Weifeng; Li, Li

    2014-11-01

    We examined and compared PM2.5 concentrations in urban and the surrounding regions, and further investigated the impact of urbanization on urban PM2.5 concentrations at the Chinese prefectures. Annual PM2.5 concentrations in most prefectures were greater than 10 μg/m(3), the air quality guideline of the World Health Organization. Those prefectures were mainly distributed along the east coast and southeast of Sichuan province; The urban PM2.5 concentrations ( [Formula: see text] ) in 85 cities were greater than (>10 μg/m(3)) those in the surrounding area. Those cities were mainly located in the Beijing-Sichuan and Shanghai-Guangxi belts. In addition, [Formula: see text] was less than (urban population (R(2) = 0.99, P urban second industry fraction (R(2) = 0.71, P urbanization had considerable impact on PM2.5 concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Urban Landscape Characterization Using Remote Sensing Data For Input into Air Quality Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Crosson, William; Khan, Maudood

    2005-01-01

    The urban landscape is inherently complex and this complexity is not adequately captured in air quality models that are used to assess whether urban areas are in attainment of EPA air quality standards, particularly for ground level ozone. This inadequacy of air quality models to sufficiently respond to the heterogeneous nature of the urban landscape can impact how well these models predict ozone pollutant levels over metropolitan areas and ultimately, whether cities exceed EPA ozone air quality standards. We are exploring the utility of high-resolution remote sensing data and urban growth projections as improved inputs to meteorological and air quality models focusing on the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area as a case study. The National Land Cover Dataset at 30m resolution is being used as the land use/land cover input and aggregated to the 4km scale for the MM5 mesoscale meteorological model and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling schemes. Use of these data have been found to better characterize low density/suburban development as compared with USGS 1 km land use/land cover data that have traditionally been used in modeling. Air quality prediction for future scenarios to 2030 is being facilitated by land use projections using a spatial growth model. Land use projections were developed using the 2030 Regional Transportation Plan developed by the Atlanta Regional Commission. This allows the State Environmental Protection agency to evaluate how these transportation plans will affect future air quality.

  11. Proposed methodology for estimating the impact of highway improvements on urban air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The aim of this methodology is to indicate the expected change in ambient air quality in the vicinity of a highway improvement and in the total background level of urban air pollution resulting from the highway improvement. Both the jurisdiction in w...

  12. Vegetation and other development options for mitigating urban air pollution impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Baldauf; David J. Nowak

    2014-01-01

    While air pollution control devices and programs are the primary method of reducing emissions, urban air pollution can be further mitigated through planning and design strategies, including vegetation preservation and planting, building design and development, installing roadside and near-source structures, and modifying surrounding terrain features.

  13. Quantifying air pollution attenuation within urban parks: An experimental approach in Shanghai, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Shan; Shen Zhemin; Zhou Pisheng; Zou Xiaodong; Che Shengquan; Wang Wenhua

    2011-01-01

    Parks with various types of vegetations played an important role in ameliorating air quality in urban areas. However, the attenuation effect of urban vegetation on levels of air pollution was rarely been experimentally estimated. This study, using seasonal monitoring data of total suspended particles (TSP), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) from six parks in Pudong District, Shanghai, China, demonstrated vegetations in parks can remove large amount of airborne pollutants. In addition, crown volume coverage (CVC) was introduced to characterize vegetation conditions in parks and a mixed-effects model indicated that CVC and the pollution diffusion distance were key predictors influencing pollutants removal rate. Therefore, it could be estimated by regression analysis that in summer, urban vegetations in Pudong District could contribute to 9.1% of TSP removal, 5.3% of SO 2 and 2.6% of NO 2 . The results could be considered for a better park planning and improving air quality. - Highlights: → We examined markedly air pollution decline in urban vegetation patches by field experiments. → Crown volume coverage (CVC) served to characterize vegetation condition among different species. → CVC and pollutants diffusion distance were key predictors affecting air pollution attenuation within parks. - Crown volume coverage (CVC) and pollutants diffusion distance had been proved as key predictors influencing attenuation effect on levels of air pollutants in urban parks.

  14. Sustainability Challenges from Climate Change and Air Conditioning Use in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Lundgren

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change increases heat loads in urban areas causing health and productivity risks for millions of people. Inhabitants in tropical and subtropical urban areas are at especial risk due to high population density, already high temperatures, and temperature increases due to climate change. Air conditioning is growing rapidly, especially in South and South-East Asia due to income growth and the need to protect from high heat exposures. Studies have linked increased total hourly electricity use to outdoor temperatures and humidity; modeled future predictions when facing additional heat due to climate change, related air conditioning with increased street level heat and estimated future air conditioning use in major urban areas. However, global and localized studies linking climate variables with air conditioning alone are lacking. More research and detailed data is needed looking at the effects of increasing air conditioning use, electricity consumption, climate change and interactions with the urban heat island effect. Climate change mitigation, for example using renewable energy sources, particularly photovoltaic electricity generation, to power air conditioning, and other sustainable methods to reduce heat exposure are needed to make future urban areas more climate resilient.

  15. Quantifying air pollution attenuation within urban parks: An experimental approach in Shanghai, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Shan [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Rd, Shanghai 200240 (China); Institute of Urban and Regional Development, University of California, 316 Wurster Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Shen Zhemin [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Rd, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhou Pisheng [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Rd, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zou Xiaodong [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Rd, Shanghai 200240 (China); Che Shengquan [School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Rd, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wang Wenhua, E-mail: whwang@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Rd, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Parks with various types of vegetations played an important role in ameliorating air quality in urban areas. However, the attenuation effect of urban vegetation on levels of air pollution was rarely been experimentally estimated. This study, using seasonal monitoring data of total suspended particles (TSP), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) from six parks in Pudong District, Shanghai, China, demonstrated vegetations in parks can remove large amount of airborne pollutants. In addition, crown volume coverage (CVC) was introduced to characterize vegetation conditions in parks and a mixed-effects model indicated that CVC and the pollution diffusion distance were key predictors influencing pollutants removal rate. Therefore, it could be estimated by regression analysis that in summer, urban vegetations in Pudong District could contribute to 9.1% of TSP removal, 5.3% of SO{sub 2} and 2.6% of NO{sub 2}. The results could be considered for a better park planning and improving air quality. - Highlights: > We examined markedly air pollution decline in urban vegetation patches by field experiments. > Crown volume coverage (CVC) served to characterize vegetation condition among different species. > CVC and pollutants diffusion distance were key predictors affecting air pollution attenuation within parks. - Crown volume coverage (CVC) and pollutants diffusion distance had been proved as key predictors influencing attenuation effect on levels of air pollutants in urban parks.

  16. Urban and peri-urban precipitation and air temperature trends in mega cities of the world using multiple trend analysis methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajaaj, Aws A.; Mishra, Ashok K.; Khan, Abdul A.

    2018-04-01

    Urbanization plays an important role in altering local to regional climate. In this study, the trends in precipitation and the air temperature were investigated for urban and peri-urban areas of 18 mega cities selected from six continents (representing a wide range of climatic patterns). Multiple statistical tests were used to examine long-term trends in annual and seasonal precipitation and air temperature for the selected cities. The urban and peri-urban areas were classified based on the percentage of land imperviousness. Through this study, it was evident that removal of the lag-k serial correlation caused a reduction of approximately 20 to 30% in significant trend observability for temperature and precipitation data. This observation suggests that appropriate trend analysis methodology for climate studies is necessary. Additionally, about 70% of the urban areas showed higher positive air temperature trends, compared with peri-urban areas. There were not clear trend signatures (i.e., mix of increase or decrease) when comparing urban vs peri-urban precipitation in each selected city. Overall, cities located in dry areas, for example, in Africa, southern parts of North America, and Eastern Asia, showed a decrease in annual and seasonal precipitation, while wetter conditions were favorable for cities located in wet regions such as, southeastern South America, eastern North America, and northern Europe. A positive relationship was observed between decadal trends of annual/seasonal air temperature and precipitation for all urban and peri-urban areas, with a higher rate being observed for urban areas.

  17. A Numerical Simulation of Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposures in Urban Street Canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Fu, X.; Tao, S.

    2016-12-01

    Urban street canyons are usually associated with intensive vehicle emissions. However, the high buildings successively along both sides of a street block the dispersion of traffic-generated air pollutants, which enhances human exposure and adversely affects human health. In this study, an urban scale traffic pollution dispersion model is developed with the consideration of street distribution, canyon geometry, background meteorology, traffic assignment, traffic emissions and air pollutant dispersion. Vehicle exhausts generated from traffic flows will first disperse inside a street canyon along the micro-scale wind field (generated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model) and then leave the street canyon and further disperse over the urban area. On the basis of this model, the effects of canyon geometry on the distribution of NOx and CO from traffic emissions were studied over the center of Beijing, China. We found that an increase of building height along the streets leads to higher pollution levels inside streets and lower pollution levels outside, resulting in higher domain-averaged concentrations over the area. In addition, street canyons with equal (or highly uneven) building heights on two sides of a street tend to lower the urban-scale air pollution concentrations at pedestrian level. Our results indicate that canyon geometry strongly influences human exposure to traffic pollutants in the populated urban area. Carefully planning street layout and canyon geometry in consideration of traffic demand as well as local weather pattern may significantly reduce the chances of unhealthy air being inhaled by urban residents.

  18. Metropolitan transportation management center : a case study : Michigan intelligent transportation system : improving safety and air quality while reducing stress for motorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    The following case study provides a snapshot of Michigan's Intelligent Transportation Systems transportation management center (MITSC). It follows the outline provided in the companion document, Metropolitan Transportation Management Center Concepts ...

  19. Impact of energy consumption on urban warming and air pollution in Tokyo metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, T.S.; Hoshi, H.

    1995-01-01

    The rapid progress of industrialization and urbanization due to economic growth and concentration of social function in the urban areas in Japan have had an adverse effect on the urban environment. In most cities, it has become evident that the increase in energy consumption is causing environmental problems, including a temperature rise in the urban atmosphere (urban heat island) and air pollution. This paper reports the results of field observations and three dimensional simulations of the urban heat island using a three-dimensional modelling vorticity-velocity vector potential formation, in the Tokyo metropolitan area. According to the simulation for urban warming in the study area for the year 2031, the maximum temperature of a summer evening (18:00) would exceed 43 degrees celsius, indicating that Tokyo would no longer be comfortable for its inhabitants. It is concluded that in the near future, the problem of the urban heat island will become a more important issue than that of global warming because the rate of urban warming is greater. For this reason, the urban heat island could be fatal to humans unless resolved in the near future. (author). 1 tab., 11 figs., 18 refs

  20. Public Perception of Urban Air Pollution: An Exploratory Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sala, R.; Oltra, C.; Goncalves, L.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the results of a qualitative study using focus groups aimed at understanding the beliefs and attitudes of the population towards air pollution, its levels, causes, health impacts and possible mitigation and protection actions. The study sample consisted of members of the general population, between 18 and 65 years living in Barcelona. The analysis of the group discussion indicates that there is little awareness among participants about air pollution risks. The causes of air pollution are relatively known but there is little knowledge about pollution levels and types of pollutants. We found a low level of perceived personal risk associated to air pollution that coexists with a general awareness of the health impacts of air pollution, a low level of concern about the problem and a low level of personal involvement in mitigation and self protection measures. Participants reported no use of existing information services about air pollution. (Author)

  1. Urban Air Pollution in Taiwan before and after the Installation of a Mass Rapid Transit System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Pei-Hsiou; Wang, Gen-Shuh; Chen, Bing-Yu; Wan, Gwo-Hwa

    2016-09-01

    Urbanization causes air pollution in metropolitan areas, coupled with meteorological factors that affect air quality. Although previous studies focused on the relationships of urbanization, air pollution, and climate change in Western countries, this study evaluated long-term variations of air quality and meteorological factors in Taiwanese metropolitan areas (Taipei area, Taichung City, and Kaohsiung City) and a rural area (Hualien County) between 1993 and 2012. The influence of a mass rapid transit (MRT) system on air quality was also evaluated. Air pollutant concentrations and meteorology data were collected from Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (TEPA) air monitoring stations and Central Weather Bureau stations in the surveyed areas, respectively. Analyses indicate that levels of air pollution in metropolitan areas were greater than in the rural area. Kaohsiung City had the highest levels of O, SO, and particulate matter 2.5 or 10 µm in diameter (PM and PM). Clear downward trends for CO, NO, PM, PM, and especially SO concentrations were found in the surveyed areas, whereas O showed no decrease. Both O and PM concentrations showed similar bimodal seasonal distributions. Taiwan's air quality has improved significantly since 1993, indicating the effectiveness of promoting air pollution strategies and policies by the TEPA. Air pollution had an obvious improvement in Taipei area after the MRT system began operations in 1996. Because global climate may potentially affect urban air pollution in Taiwan, further study to clarify the mechanisms by which air pollution may affect human health and other biological effects is warranted. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  2. Developing effective urban air quality management systems in the United Kingdom. Case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsom, D.M.; Crabbe, H. [Oxford Brookes Univ. (United Kingdom). Geography Unit

    1995-12-31

    During the past few years an increasing number of local authorities have expressed concern about the ambient levels of nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, benzene and fine particulates that residents may be experiencing in traffic-congested parts of towns and cities. Although recent legislation is intended to reduce vehicle emissions (e.g. stricter exhaust emission standards requiring new cars to be equipped with catalytic converters), the growth in the number of motor vehicles, their frequency of use and the congestion they are causing in urban centres have resulted in little or no improvement in air quality. Although total vehicle emissions of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are expected to fall significantly during the next ten years, air quality will still remain a problem in some urban areas. Clearly, not all local air quality problems can be eliminated by the use of national legislation. For several years, local authorities and environmental organisations (e.g. National Society for Clean Air and Environmental Protection) have argued for local authorities to be given a statutory duty, together with appropriate funding from central government, to produce local air quality management plans which assess the seriousness of any air quality problems and which, if necessary, set out how poor air quality can be improved. This presentation examines the progress towards urban air quality management in the UK. (author)

  3. Developing effective urban air quality management systems in the United Kingdom. Case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsom, D M; Crabbe, H [Oxford Brookes Univ. (United Kingdom). Geography Unit

    1996-12-31

    During the past few years an increasing number of local authorities have expressed concern about the ambient levels of nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, benzene and fine particulates that residents may be experiencing in traffic-congested parts of towns and cities. Although recent legislation is intended to reduce vehicle emissions (e.g. stricter exhaust emission standards requiring new cars to be equipped with catalytic converters), the growth in the number of motor vehicles, their frequency of use and the congestion they are causing in urban centres have resulted in little or no improvement in air quality. Although total vehicle emissions of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are expected to fall significantly during the next ten years, air quality will still remain a problem in some urban areas. Clearly, not all local air quality problems can be eliminated by the use of national legislation. For several years, local authorities and environmental organisations (e.g. National Society for Clean Air and Environmental Protection) have argued for local authorities to be given a statutory duty, together with appropriate funding from central government, to produce local air quality management plans which assess the seriousness of any air quality problems and which, if necessary, set out how poor air quality can be improved. This presentation examines the progress towards urban air quality management in the UK. (author)

  4. Urban compaction vs city sprawl: impact of road traffic on air quality in the greater Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etuman Arthur, Elessa; Isabelle, Coll; Vincent, Viguie; Nicolas, Coulombel; Julie, Prud'homme

    2017-04-01

    Urban pollution remains a major sanitary and economic concern. In France, particulate pollution is known to cause 48,000 premature deaths every year (Santé Publique France, 2016), while the economic cost of air pollution reaches almost 25 billion euros per year (CGDD, 2012). In the Greater Paris, despite strengthened emission standards, restricted traffic areas, car-sharing and incentives for electric vehicle use, road transport plays a substantial role in the exposure of inhabitants to high levels of pollutants. In this context, urban planning could possibly constitute an innovative strategy to reduce emissions from road traffic, through its actions on transport demand, travel distances, modal shift (public transportation, cycling, walking...) or even proximity to emitters. We have developed a multi-scalar modeling of urban pollution by coupling an urban economic growth model NEDUM (CIRED), a model for urban mobility (LISA), a traffic emission model (LISA) and the CHIMERE Chemistry-Transport model (CTM) for air quality simulation (LISA). The innovative aspect of this modeling system is to integrate into a classic CTM the mechanisms underlying the dynamics of an urban system. This way, we establish a quantitative and comprehensive link between a given urban scenario, the associated public and individual transport matrix, and local air quality. We then make it possible to highlight the levers of energy consumption reductions inside compact or sprawled cities. We have been working on the Ile de France region (centered on the Paris agglomeration) which relies on a broad urban structure of megacity, a high density of housing and an expanding urban peripheral zone, clearly raising the issue of transport demand, mobility and traffic congestion. Two scenarios, considering opposite urban development policies from the 1960s to 2010, have been simulated over the whole modelling chain. The first one promotes a dense and compact city while the second favors city spread

  5. Obtaining traffic information by urban air quality inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federico, G; Simone, A.; Simone, A.; Traverso, M.; Nicolosi, S.

    2006-01-01

    Transportation and its environmental impacts are a major component of urban environmental management. At the same time, transportation and mobility are an important part of urban economics and quality of life. To analyze urban transportation and its environmental impacts, a comprehensive, interdisciplinary approach is needed. Unfortunately, theoretical works about traffic flow and pollutant dynamic have independently evolved, rarely meeting contact points. Our works aims to provide a contribution in linking traffic flow and pollutant dynamic by proponing a new traffic model, able to calculate the number of running vehicles, once the ground level of an arbitrary pollutant concentration is know. The validation and simulation of this model is made possible by the training of an adaptive.(Author)

  6. Characterizing Urban Air Quality to Provide Actionable Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lary, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    The urbanization of national and global populations is associated with increasing challenges to creation of sustainable and livable communities. In urban environments, there is currently a lack of accurate actionable information on atmospheric composition on fine spatial and temporal scales. There is a pressing need to better characterize the complex spatial distribution of environmental features of cityscapes and improve understanding of their relationship to health and quality of life. This talk gives an overview of integrating sensing of atmospheric composition on multiple scales using a wide range of devices from distributed low cost-sensors, to aerial vehicles, to satellites. Machine learning plays a key role in providing both the cross-calibration and turning the exposure dosimetry into actionable insights for urban environments.

  7. Urban air pollution, climate and its impact on asthma morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Vasilievna Veremchuk

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: We determined that asthma morbidity depends from general air pollution (in the range of 18.3%. It was detected that the highest age-specific dependence is associated with the content of particulate matter, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide in air.

  8. Sustainability Challenges from Climate Change and Air Conditioning Use in Urban Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Lundgren, Karin; Kjellström, Tord

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change increases heat loads in urban areas causing health and productivity risks for millions of people. Inhabitants in tropical and subtropical urban areas are at especial risk due to high population density, already high temperatures, and temperature increases due to climate change. Air conditioning is growing rapidly, especially in South and South-East Asia due to income growth and the need to protect from high heat exposures. Studies have linked increased total hourly elect...

  9. Urban Heat Island Versus Air Quality - a Numerical Modelling Study for a European City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallmann, J.; Forkel, R.; Emeis, S.

    2014-12-01

    In 2050 70% of the global population is expected to live in urban areas. Climate change will render these areas more vulnerable to heat waves, which often are accompanied by severe air pollution problems. The Urban Heat Island (UHI) is a feature that adds to the general temperature increase that is expected. Decreasing the UHI can impact air quality as well, because heat influences atmospheric dynamics and accelerates air chemical processes and often also increases the emission of primary pollutants due to increased demand of energy. The goal of this study is to investigate the effect of, e.g., high reflective surfaces and urban greening on mitigating the UHI and the related impact on air quality. A multi-layer urban canopy model is coupled to the mesoscale model WRF-Chem and the urban area of Stuttgart (South-West Germany) is taken as one example. Different scenario runs are executed for short time periods and are compared to a control run. The results show that the UHI effect can be substantially reduced when changing the albedo of roof surfaces, whereas the effect of urban greening is minor. Both scenarios have in common, that they evoke changes in secondary circulation patterns. The effects of these mitigation strategies on chemical composition of the urban atmosphere are complex, attributed to both chemical and dynamical features. Increasing the reflectivity of roof surfaces in the model results in a net decrease of the surface ozone concentration, because ozone formation is highly correlated to temperature. With regard to primary pollutants, e.g. NO, CO and PM10 concentrations are increased when increasing reflectivity. This effect primarily can be ascribed to a reduction of turbulent motion, convection and a decrease of the boundary layer height, coming along with lower temperatures in the urban canopy layer due to increased reflectivity. The table below shows the effect on grid cell mean concentrations for different chemical species and scenarios.

  10. Applicability of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index for Quantification of Residential Mold Contamination in an Air Pollution Health Effects Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS) investigating the respiratory health impacts of traffic-related air pollutants on asthmatic children in Detroit, Michigan, residential dust samples were collected to quantify mold exposure. Sett...

  11. Urban air pollution, poverty, violence and health--Neurological and immunological aspects as mediating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansson, Marianne; Sörman, Karolina; Tekwe, Carmen; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2015-07-01

    Rapid rural-urban migration has created overcrowded areas characterized by concentrated poverty and increases in indoor and outdoor air pollutants. These "hotspots" constitute an increased risk of violence and disease outbreaks. We hypothesize that the effects of poverty and associated air pollution-related stress on impaired cognitive skills are mediated by inflammatory cytokines. A research framework is proposed, encompassing (i) an epidemiological investigation of associations between poverty, high concentrations of air pollutants, violence and health, (ii) a longitudinal follow-up of working memory capacities and inflammatory markers, and (iii) intervention programs aiming to strengthen employability and decreased exposures to toxic air pollutants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in occupational vs. urban environmental air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branisteanu, R.; Aiking, H.

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the balance between occupational and environmental exposure to suspended particulate matter (SPM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), comparison measurements were performed in a coal-fired power plant and the urban atmosphere from the town nearby. Methods: The

  13. Modelling the influence of peri-urban trees in the air quality of Madrid region (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Rocio; Vivanco, Marta G.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Ignacio; Bermejo, Victoria; Palomino, Inmaculada; Garrido, Juan Luis; Elvira, Susana; Salvador, Pedro; Artinano, Begona

    2011-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) is considered one of the most important air pollutants affecting human health. The role of peri-urban vegetation in modifying O 3 concentrations has been analyzed in the Madrid region (Spain) using the V200603par-rc1 version of the CHIMERE air quality model. The 3.7 version of the MM5 meteorological model was used to provide meteorological input data to the CHIMERE. The emissions were derived from the EMEP database for 2003. Land use data and the stomatal conductance model included in CHIMERE were modified according to the latest information available for the study area. Two cases were considered for the period April-September 2003: (1) actual land use and (2) a fictitious scenario where El Pardo peri-urban forest was converted to bare-soil. The results show that El Pardo forest constitutes a sink of O 3 since removing this green area increased O 3 levels over the modified area and over down-wind surrounding areas. - Highlights: → Role of peri-urban vegetation in modifying O 3 pollution in Madrid (Spain). → The CHIMERE air quality model was adapted to Mediterranean conditions. → Preserving the peri-urban forest lowers O 3 concentrations over the surrounding areas. → Evergreen broadleaf and deciduous forests removed more atmospheric O 3 than conifers. - Peri-urban forests contribute to ameliorate ozone air pollution.

  14. Impacts of urban land-surface forcing on ozone air quality in the Seoul metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-H. Ryu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Modified local meteorology owing to heterogeneities in the urban–rural surface can affect urban air quality. In this study, the impacts of urban land-surface forcing on ozone air quality during a high ozone (O3 episode in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea, are investigated using a high-resolution chemical transport model (CMAQ. Under fair weather conditions, the temperature excess (urban heat island significantly modifies boundary layer characteristics/structures and local circulations. The modified boundary layer and local circulations result in an increase in O3 levels in the urban area of 16 ppb in the nighttime and 13 ppb in the daytime. Enhanced turbulence in the deep urban boundary layer dilutes pollutants such as NOx, and this contributes to the elevated O3 levels through the reduced O3 destruction by NO in the NOx-rich environment. The advection of O3 precursors over the mountains near Seoul by the prevailing valley-breeze circulation in the mid- to late morning results in the build-up of O3 over the mountains in conjunction with biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC emissions there. As the prevailing local circulation in the afternoon changes to urban-breeze circulation, the O3-rich air masses over the mountains are advected over the urban area. The urban-breeze circulation exerts significant influences on not only the advection of O3 but also the chemical production of O3 under the circumstances in which both anthropogenic and biogenic (natural emissions play important roles in O3 formation. As the air masses that are characterized by low NOx and high BVOC levels and long OH chain length are advected over the urban area from the surroundings, the ozone production efficiency increases in the urban area. The relatively strong vertical mixing in the urban boundary layer embedded in the

  15. Impact of urbanization on the air pollution “holiday effect” in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Pei-Hua; Chou, Chia; Chou, Charles C.-K.

    2013-05-01

    The spatio-temporal characteristics of the “holiday effect”, defined as the difference in air pollutant concentrations between the holiday (Chinese New Year) and non-holiday periods during 1994-2008, and its association with the degree of urbanization in Taiwan are examined. Daily surface measurements of six major pollutants from 54 monitoring stations of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration are used. Holiday effects are found for almost all air pollutants in all divisions and individual stations. A widespread holiday effect with consistent signs suggests a high degree of urbanization over Taiwan. Holiday effects are stronger in the west than in the east, due to urban-rural differences, and have a distinct north-south difference in the west, due to different emission sources. In the spatial distribution, as the population (motor vehicle) number in the division increases, holiday effects of NOx, CO and NMHC are intensified. Holiday effects of pollutants can also be stronger when the associated dominant anthropogenic sources in the division have larger emissions. Both imply the association of a stronger holiday effect with a higher degree of urbanization in the division. In the temporal variation, on the other hand, holiday effects and pollutant concentrations tend to weaken and reduce in almost all the urban divisions for all six pollutants except O3. These weakening trends imply possible contributions of other effects, such as the mature state of urbanization for the urban division, the effective pollution-control measures and behavioral pattern changes.

  16. Remote Sensing Characterization of the Urban Landscape for Improvement of Air Quality Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Khan, Maudood

    2005-01-01

    The urban landscape is inherently complex and this complexity is not adequately captured in air quality models, particularly the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model that is used to assess whether urban areas are in attainment of EPA air quality standards, primarily for ground level ozone. This inadequacy of the CMAQ model to sufficiently respond to the heterogeneous nature of the urban landscape can impact how well the model predicts ozone pollutant levels over metropolitan areas and ultimately, whether cities exceed EPA ozone air quality standards. We are exploring the utility of high-resolution remote sensing data and urban growth projections as improved inputs to the meteorology component of the CMAQ model focusing on the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area as a case study. These growth projections include "business as usual" and "smart growth" scenarios out to 2030. The growth projections illustrate the effects of employing urban heat island mitigation strategies, such as increasing tree canopy and albedo across the Atlanta metro area, in moderating ground-level ozone and air temperature, compared to "business as usual" simulations in which heat island mitigation strategies are not applied. The National Land Cover Dataset at 30m resolution is being used as the land use/land cover input and aggregated to the 4km scale for the MM5 mesoscale meteorological model and the (CMAQ) modeling schemes. Use of these data has been found to better characterize low densityhburban development as compared with USGS 1 km land use/land cover data that have traditionally been used in modeling. Air quality prediction for fiture scenarios to 2030 is being facilitated by land use projections using a spatial growth model. Land use projections were developed using the 2030 Regional Transportation Plan developed by the Atlanta Regional Commission, the regional planning agency for the area. This allows the state Environmental Protection agency to evaluate how these

  17. Ecohealth Chair on Urban Air Pollution and Non-Communicable ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    communicable diseases, including cardiorespiratory diseases, asthma, and bronco-pulmonary cancer. In West Africa in particular, air pollution is not given sufficient consideration in the development of policies to prevent these diseases. Significant ...

  18. Effects of Compact Urban Development on Air Pollution: Empirical Evidence from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Sun Cho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of compact urban development on air pollution, taking into account both the spatial distribution of pollutants resulting from an increase in inner urban densities and the dispersion of pollutants associated with an increase in outer green open spaces. The empirical analysis is based upon a panel data model covering 17 cities in Korea from 1996–2009; this approach is used because urban air pollution is influenced by spatial and temporal changes. Measuring the air pollution level by distance from city centers demonstrates that the spatial concentration of emission sources does not necessarily increase air pollution levels. The two-way fixed effects model, which is employed to control both individual (regional and time effects, shows that SO2 decreases as the proportion of green area increases, while a rise in net density leads to an increase of NO2. Both effects are observed in the case of CO dispersion by green area as well as emission source concentration by high densities. Therefore, there is no clear impact of compact urban development on air quality, which is instead related to pollutant-specific characteristics and the emission source.

  19. Urban Air Pollution by Nanoparticles in Ostrava Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zdenka, Kalicáková; Pavel, Danihelka; Vladimír, Mícka; Karel, Lach

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution harms human health and the environment. Ostrava's agglomeration and its immediate vicinity suffer regular exceeding of air pollution limits due to its geomorphologic location and present heavy industry. Maximum exceedances of air quality standards and especially PM10 which 24 hour limit value is in EU 50μg.m-3, must not be exceeded more than 35 days per year. This limit is being still often exceeded. In the year 2011 such as situation occurred 126 times. It is very important then for identify sources of air pollution to find out maximum information about air borne dust, like size distribution, chemical composition of individual size fractions, morphology of particulate matter together with other parameters like meteorological conditions, year season etc. Our measurement started two years ago. We focus on the critical situation when there are values of PM10 over a long period above the limit. In winter season it is so called inversion. By default, during the campaign it is measured size distribution of air born dust in range 5.6 nm −560nm by FMPS and using the sampler NanoId are collected samples in range 1nm – 35μm in 12 size fractions for chemical analysis and morphological observations. This contribution deals with results of size distributions only.

  20. EMMA model: an advanced operational mesoscale air quality model for urban and regional environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jose, R.S.; Rodriguez, M.A.; Cortes, E.; Gonzalez, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Mesoscale air quality models are an important tool to forecast and analyse the air quality in regional and urban areas. In recent years an increased interest has been shown by decision makers in these types of software tools. The complexity of such a model has grown exponentially with the increase of computer power. Nowadays, medium workstations can run operational versions of these modelling systems successfully. Presents a complex mesoscale air quality model which has been installed in the Environmental Office of the Madrid community (Spain) in order to forecast accurately the ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide air concentrations in a 3D domain centred on Madrid city. Describes the challenging scientific matters to be solved in order to develop an operational version of the atmospheric mesoscale numerical pollution model for urban and regional areas (ANA). Some encouraging results have been achieved in the attempts to improve the accuracy of the predictions made by the version already installed. (Author)

  1. Health status and air pollution related socioeconomic concerns in urban China

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao, Kaishan; Xu, Mengjia; Liu, Meng

    2018-01-01

    Background China is experiencing environmental issues and related health effects due to its industrialization and urbanization. The health effects associated with air pollution are not just a matter of epidemiology and environmental science research, but also an important social science issue. Literature about the relationship of socioeconomic factors with the environment and health factors is inadequate. The relationship between air pollution exposure and health effects in China was investig...

  2. Research project on “A Study in Urban Air Pollution Improvement in Asia”

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    This final report of the joint research project “A study in urban air pollution improvement in Asia” is submitted by the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) on behalf of the project team following the contract between AIT and the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) for the project period of March 2015 - December 2017. Technical support is provided by the Asia Center for Air Pollution Research (ACAP) Japan and the operational support is provided by the Pollution Control Department (P...

  3. Over-urbanization and air pollution: a cross-country analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Raufan Salahodajev

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of overurbanization on different measures of air pollution in a diverse sample of developed and developing countries. The main finding is that overurbanization increases greenhouse gas emissions, measured by CO2, NOx and SO2 emissions per capita. This effect is robust to controlling for various antecedents of air pollution. Our findings provide a contribution to the ongoing debate over the role of urbanization in environmental changes.

  4. Review on urban vegetation and particle air pollution - Deposition and dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janhäll, Sara

    2015-03-01

    Urban vegetation affects air quality through influencing pollutant deposition and dispersion. Both processes are described by many existing models and experiments, on-site and in wind tunnels, focussing e.g. on urban street canyons and crossings or vegetation barriers adjacent to traffic sources. There is an urgent need for well-structured experimental data, including detailed empirical descriptions of parameters that are not the explicit focus of the study. This review revealed that design and choice of urban vegetation is crucial when using vegetation as an ecosystem service for air quality improvements. The reduced mixing in trafficked street canyons on adding large trees increases local air pollution levels, while low vegetation close to sources can improve air quality by increasing deposition. Filtration vegetation barriers have to be dense enough to offer large deposition surface area and porous enough to allow penetration, instead of deflection of the air stream above the barrier. The choice between tall or short and dense or sparse vegetation determines the effect on air pollution from different sources and different particle sizes.

  5. On the feasibility of measuring urban air pollution by wireless distributed sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moltchanov, Sharon; Levy, Ilan; Etzion, Yael; Lerner, Uri; Broday, David M; Fishbain, Barak

    2015-01-01

    Accurate evaluation of air pollution on human-wellbeing requires high-resolution measurements. Standard air quality monitoring stations provide accurate pollution levels but due to their sparse distribution they cannot capture the highly resolved spatial variations within cities. Similarly, dedicated field campaigns can use tens of measurement devices and obtain highly dense spatial coverage but normally deployment has been limited to short periods of no more than few weeks. Nowadays, advances in communication and sensory technologies enable the deployment of dense grids of wireless distributed air monitoring nodes, yet their sensor ability to capture the spatiotemporal pollutant variability at the sub-neighborhood scale has never been thoroughly tested. This study reports ambient measurements of gaseous air pollutants by a network of six wireless multi-sensor miniature nodes that have been deployed in three urban sites, about 150 m apart. We demonstrate the network's capability to capture spatiotemporal concentration variations at an exceptional fine resolution but highlight the need for a frequent in-situ calibration to maintain the consistency of some sensors. Accordingly, a procedure for a field calibration is proposed and shown to improve the system's performance. Overall, our results support the compatibility of wireless distributed sensor networks for measuring urban air pollution at a sub-neighborhood spatial resolution, which suits the requirement for highly spatiotemporal resolved measurements at the breathing-height when assessing exposure to urban air pollution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Thia-arenes as source apportionment tracers for urban air particulate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarry, B.E.; Allan, L.M.; Mehta, S.; Marvin, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    Over sixty respirable air particulate samples were selected from a large number of filters collected in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Depending on the wind direction these sites were either predominantly upwind or predominantly downwind of the industrial sources. The sixty filters were extracted and analyzed using GC-MS for a range of PAH and sulfur-containing PAH (thia-arenes). Various reference standards (coal tar, diesel exhaust, urban air particulate) and source samples (coke oven condensate) were analyzed as well. A set of air particulate samples collected in another city alongside a highway provided an urban vehicular air sample. Unique thia-arene profiles were noted in the reference and source samples which provided the basis for this source apportionment work; two main approaches were used: (1) analysis of alkylated derivatives of thia-arenes with a molecular mass of 184 amu and (2) analysis of 234 amu isomers. The diesel exhaust and urban vehicular samples gave identical profiles while the coal tar and coke oven samples also had identical profiles but in different respects. The air samples collected at samplers located upwind of the coke ovens showed thia-arene profiles which were similar to the profile observed with a diesel exhaust reference material. However, air samples collected downwind of the coke ovens were heavily loaded samples and resembled the coal tar coke and oven condensate samples

  7. Unified Data Model of Urban Air Pollution Dispersion and 3D Spatial City Models: Groundwork Assessment towards Sustainable Urban Development for Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ujang, Uznir; Anton, François; Rahman, Alias Abdul

    2013-01-01

    air pollution in urban areas encompasses sophisticated air quality modeling and data acquisition. However, rapid developments in major cities cause difficulties in acquiring the city geometries. The existing method in acquiring city geometries data via ground or space measurement inspection....... Therefore this paper aims is to perform groundwork assessment and discuss on the current scenario in Malaysia in the aspect of current policies towards SUD, air quality monitoring stations, scale model and detail discussion on air pollution dispersion model used called the Operational Street Pollution Model......Understanding the behavior of urban air pollution is important en route for sustainable urban development (SUD). Malaysia is on its mission to be a developed country by year 2020 comprehends dealing with air pollution is one of the indicators headed towards it. At present monitoring and managing...

  8. Sensitivity of a complex urban air quality model to input data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seigneur, C.; Tesche, T.W.; Roth, P.M.; Reid, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    In recent years, urban-scale photochemical simulation models have been developed that are of practical value for predicting air quality and analyzing the impacts of alternative emission control strategies. Although the performance of some urban-scale models appears to be acceptable, the demanding data requirements of such models have prompted concern about the costs of data acquistion, which might be high enough to preclude use of photochemical models for many urban areas. To explore this issue, sensitivity studies with the Systems Applications, Inc. (SAI) Airshed Model, a grid-based time-dependent photochemical dispersion model, have been carried out for the Los Angeles basin. Reductions in the amount and quality of meteorological, air quality and emission data, as well as modifications of the model gridded structure, have been analyzed. This paper presents and interprets the results of 22 sensitivity studies. A sensitivity-uncertainty index is defined to rank input data needs for an urban photochemical model. The index takes into account the sensitivity of model predictions to the amount of input data, the costs of data acquistion, and the uncertainties in the air quality model input variables. The results of these sensitivity studies are considered in light of the limitations of specific attributes of the Los Angeles basin and of the modeling conditions (e.g., choice of wind model, length of simulation time). The extent to which the results may be applied to other urban areas also is discussed

  9. The impact of traffic-flow patterns on air quality in urban street canyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaker, Prashant; Gokhale, Sharad

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of different urban traffic-flow patterns on pollutant dispersion in different winds in a real asymmetric street canyon. Free-flow traffic causes more turbulence in the canyon facilitating more dispersion and a reduction in pedestrian level concentration. The comparison of with and without a vehicle-induced-turbulence revealed that when winds were perpendicular, the free-flow traffic reduced the concentration by 73% on the windward side with a minor increase of 17% on the leeward side, whereas for parallel winds, it reduced the concentration by 51% and 29%. The congested-flow traffic increased the concentrations on the leeward side by 47% when winds were perpendicular posing a higher risk to health, whereas reduced it by 17–42% for parallel winds. The urban air quality and public health can, therefore, be improved by improving the traffic-flow patterns in street canyons as vehicle-induced turbulence has been shown to contribute significantly to dispersion. - Highlights: • CFD is used to study impact of traffic-flow patterns on urban air quality. • Facilitating free-flow patterns induce more turbulence in street canyons. • Traffic-generated turbulence alters pollutant levels in urban street canyons. - This study investigates the effect of vehicle-induced-turbulence generated during free-flow traffic pattern in reduction of air pollutant concentrations in urban street canyons.

  10. Estimation of the Impact of Traveler Information Apps on Urban Air Quality Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenke Huang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth of vehicle population and vehicle miles traveled, automobile emission has become a severe issue in the metropolitan cities of China. There are policies that concentrate on the management of emission sources. However, improving the operation of the transportation system through apps on mobile devices, especially navigation apps, may have a unique role in promoting urban air quality. Real-time traveler information can not only help travelers avoid traffic congestion, but also advise them to adjust their departure time, mode, or route, or even to cancel trips. Will such changes in personal travel patterns have a significant impact in decreasing emissions? If so, to what extent will they impact urban air quality? The aim of this study is to determine how urban traffic emission is affected by the use of navigation apps. With this work, we attempt to answer the question of whether the real-time traffic information provided by navigation apps can help to improve urban air quality. Some of these findings may provide references for the formulation of urban traffic and environmental policies. Keywords: Real-time traffic information, Mobile devices, Environmental benefits, Agent-based model

  11. Research on Value Assessment and Compensation for Health Hazards of Urban Air Pollution-A Case Study of Urumqi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT With the acceleration of urbanization and industrialization, urban air pollution has become a serious threat to the health of urban residents. In this study, to investigate health hazards caused by air pollution for urban residents, concentrations of main air pollutants and annual coal consumption amounts during the period from 2000 to 2013 were analyzed. Our results showed that economic losses of Urumqi caused by air pollution amounted to 63.155 million yuan in 2013, accounting for 0.2 ‰ of its GDP and 5.7% of public utility expenditures for that year. The compensation mechanism analysis suggested that it is necessary to further improve the health care system and increase corporate environmental taxes. More environmental health protection taxes should be levied on key monitoredenterprises in Urumqi to achieve effective compensations for urban residents affected by air pollution-related health hazards.

  12. Mitigation of severe urban haze pollution by a precision air pollution control approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shaocai; Li, Pengfei; Wang, Liqiang; Wu, Yujie; Wang, Si; Liu, Kai; Zhu, Tong; Zhang, Yuanhang; Hu, Min; Zeng, Liming; Zhang, Xiaoye; Cao, Junji; Alapaty, Kiran; Wong, David C; Pleim, Jon; Mathur, Rohit; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Seinfeld, John H

    2018-05-25

    Severe and persistent haze pollution involving fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) concentrations reaching unprecedentedly high levels across many cities in China poses a serious threat to human health. Although mandatory temporary cessation of most urban and surrounding emission sources is an effective, but costly, short-term measure to abate air pollution, development of long-term crisis response measures remains a challenge, especially for curbing severe urban haze events on a regular basis. Here we introduce and evaluate a novel precision air pollution control approach (PAPCA) to mitigate severe urban haze events. The approach involves combining predictions of high PM 2.5 concentrations, with a hybrid trajectory-receptor model and a comprehensive 3-D atmospheric model, to pinpoint the origins of emissions leading to such events and to optimize emission controls. Results of the PAPCA application to five severe haze episodes in major urban areas in China suggest that this strategy has the potential to significantly mitigate severe urban haze by decreasing PM 2.5 peak concentrations by more than 60% from above 300 μg m -3 to below 100 μg m -3 , while requiring ~30% to 70% less emission controls as compared to complete emission reductions. The PAPCA strategy has the potential to tackle effectively severe urban haze pollution events with economic efficiency.

  13. Analysis of the Impact of Urban Microclimate on Air Conditioning Load Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Xiaoqing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the presence of urban heat island effect (UHIE, high humidity and other urban microclimate, temperature of city central area rises. This causes that the actual air-conditioning energy consumption (ACEC in the urban central area is much higher than that in the suburbs. Load control of air-conditioners (ACs is considered to be equivalent to a power plant of the same capacity, and it can greatly reduce the system pressure to peak load shift. In this paper, a simplified second order transfer function control model of ACs is presented, and its parameters will be influenced by the ambient temperature and urban microclimate. The temperature is obtained by using the temperature inversion algorithm of the heat island effect. Then, the heat index is calculated by combining temperature and humidity. The ambient temperature index of urban central area is modified based on the above microclimate, and the second order linear time invariant model of aggregated ACs is upgraded to the linear time varying model. Furthermore, the consequent parameter changes of the second order transfer function model are studied and the influence of urban microclimate on AC load control is analyzed. The proposed method is verified on numerical examples

  14. Differential embryotoxicity of the organic pollutants in rural and urban air particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, Sofia R.; Drooge, Barend L. van; Oliveira, Eva; Grimalt, Joan O.; Barata, Carlos; Vieira, Natividade; Guimarães, Laura; Piña, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) is a recognized risk factor for human populations. Here we assessed the toxic potential of the organic constituents from PM collected in urban and rural sites during warm and cold periods of 2012/2013, and fractionated into 6 size fractions. The finest PM fraction (<0.5 μm) showed the highest biological activity (dioxin-like activity and fish embryotoxicity) in all samples, and the maximal activity was observed in rural samples from the cold period. Zebrafish embryo transcriptome analysis showed a strong induction of the AhR signaling pathway correlated to PAH concentrations. Oxidative stress-related genes and pancreatic and eye-lens gene markers appeared de-regulated in embryos exposed to urban extracts, whereas exposure to rural extracts affected genes implicated in basic cellular functions. The observed effects can be directly related to air pollution-related human disorders, suggesting different potential adverse outcomes for human populations exposed to air pollution from specific sources. - Highlights: • Embryotoxicity of airborne organic compounds collected in urban and rural areas. • Ultrafine particles (<0.5 μm) accumulated most of the observed toxicity. • Strong seasonal differences in rural areas, probably linked to wood combustion. • Rural and urban samples showed quantitative and qualitative differences in toxicity. • At least one independent toxic modes of action especially linked to urban emissions. - Quantitative and qualitative differences in embryotoxic effects of airborne particulate matter from urban and rural areas.

  15. Air Pollution Abatement Performances of Green Infrastructure in Different Urban Environments – A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensifying the proportion of urban green infrastructure has been considered as one of the remedies for air pollution levels in cities, yet the impact of numerous vegetation types deployed in different built environments has to be fully synthesised and quantified. This review ex...

  16. Urban air quality improvement by using a CNG lean burn engine for city buses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merétei, T.; Ling, J.A.N. van; Havenith, C.

    1998-01-01

    The use of compressed natural gas (CNG)-fuelled lean-burn city bus engines has a significant potential for air quality improvement in urban areas. Particularly important is the reduction of NO, as well as particulate and non regulated HC-emissions. For this reason, a CNG-fuelled, lean-burn,

  17. Mosses as indicators of the air pollution by radionuclides in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovic, D.; Popovic, D.; Ajtic, J.; Todorovic, D.)

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents preliminary results on the contents of radionuclides in mosses exposed to air pollution in central urban area (a Belgrade city park). Activity of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides ( 40 K, 210 Pb, 137 Cs, 7 Be) was determined on two HPGe detectors (Canberra, relative efficiency 20% and 23%) by standard gamma spectrometry. (author) [sr

  18. Urban air quality assessment using monitoring data of fractionized aerosol samples, chemometrics and meteorological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotova, Galina I; Tsitouridou, Roxani; Tsakovski, Stefan L; Simeonov, Vasil D

    2016-01-01

    The present article deals with assessment of urban air by using monitoring data for 10 different aerosol fractions (0.015-16 μm) collected at a typical urban site in City of Thessaloniki, Greece. The data set was subject to multivariate statistical analysis (cluster analysis and principal components analysis) and, additionally, to HYSPLIT back trajectory modeling in order to assess in a better way the impact of the weather conditions on the pollution sources identified. A specific element of the study is the effort to clarify the role of outliers in the data set. The reason for the appearance of outliers is strongly related to the atmospheric condition on the particular sampling days leading to enhanced concentration of pollutants (secondary emissions, sea sprays, road and soil dust, combustion processes) especially for ultra fine and coarse particles. It is also shown that three major sources affect the urban air quality of the location studied-sea sprays, mineral dust and anthropogenic influences (agricultural activity, combustion processes, and industrial sources). The level of impact is related to certain extent to the aerosol fraction size. The assessment of the meteorological conditions leads to defining of four downwind patterns affecting the air quality (Pelagic, Western and Central Europe, Eastern and Northeastern Europe and Africa and Southern Europe). Thus, the present study offers a complete urban air assessment taking into account the weather conditions, pollution sources and aerosol fractioning.

  19. Crowdsourcing urban air temperatures through smartphone battery temperatures in São Paulo, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droste, A.M.; Pape, J.J.; Overeem, A.; Leijnse, H.; Steeneveld, G.J.; Delden, van A.J.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2017-01-01

    Crowdsourcing as a method to obtain and apply vast datasets is rapidly becoming prominent in meteorology, especially for urban areas where routine weather observations are scarce. Previous studies showed that smartphone battery temperature readings can be used to estimate the daily and citywide air

  20. Assessing the genotoxicity of urban air pollutants using two in situ plant bioassays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villarini, M.; Fatigoni, C.; Dominici, L.; Maestri, S. [Department of Medical-Surgical Specialties and Public Health, University of Perugia, I-06126 (Italy); Ederli, L.; Pasqualini, S. [Department of Applied Biology, University of Perugia, I-06121 (Italy); Monarca, S. [Department of Medical-Surgical Specialties and Public Health, University of Perugia, I-06126 (Italy); Moretti, M., E-mail: massimo.moretti@unipg.i [Department of Medical-Surgical Specialties and Public Health, University of Perugia, I-06126 (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    Genotoxicity of urban air has been analysed almost exclusively in airborne particulates. We monitored the genotoxic effects of airborne pollutants in the urban air of Perugia (Central Italy). Two plant bioindicators with different genetic endpoints were used: micronuclei in meiotic pollen mother cells using Tradescantia-micronucleus bioassay (Trad-MCN) and DNA damage in nuclei of Nicotiana tabacum leaves using comet assay (Nicotiana-comet). Buds of Tradescantia clone no. 4430 and young N. tabacum cv. Xanthi plants were exposed for 24 h at three sites with different pollution levels. One control site (indoor control) was also used. The two bioassays showed different sensitivities toward urban pollutants: Trad-MCN assay was the most sensitive, but DNA damage in N. tabacum showed a better correlation with the pollutant concentrations. In situ biomonitoring of airborne genotoxins using higher plants combined with chemical analysis is thus recommended for characterizing genotoxicity of urban air. - Plant bioassays used to explore in situ the correlation between air pollution and genotoxicity.

  1. Assessing the genotoxicity of urban air pollutants using two in situ plant bioassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villarini, M.; Fatigoni, C.; Dominici, L.; Maestri, S.; Ederli, L.; Pasqualini, S.; Monarca, S.; Moretti, M.

    2009-01-01

    Genotoxicity of urban air has been analysed almost exclusively in airborne particulates. We monitored the genotoxic effects of airborne pollutants in the urban air of Perugia (Central Italy). Two plant bioindicators with different genetic endpoints were used: micronuclei in meiotic pollen mother cells using Tradescantia-micronucleus bioassay (Trad-MCN) and DNA damage in nuclei of Nicotiana tabacum leaves using comet assay (Nicotiana-comet). Buds of Tradescantia clone no. 4430 and young N. tabacum cv. Xanthi plants were exposed for 24 h at three sites with different pollution levels. One control site (indoor control) was also used. The two bioassays showed different sensitivities toward urban pollutants: Trad-MCN assay was the most sensitive, but DNA damage in N. tabacum showed a better correlation with the pollutant concentrations. In situ biomonitoring of airborne genotoxins using higher plants combined with chemical analysis is thus recommended for characterizing genotoxicity of urban air. - Plant bioassays used to explore in situ the correlation between air pollution and genotoxicity.

  2. Review of urban and industrial air quality. Assessments at the Finnish meteorological institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohjola, V.; Pesonen, R.; Karstastenpaeae, R.; Rantakrans, E.; Kukkonen, J.; Jokinen, J.; Maekinen, E.; Saari, H.; Hiltunen, V. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Air Quality Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality in urban and industrial environments has been investigated at the Finnish Meteorological Institute since the early 1970`s. The studies have included emission surveys, air quality measurements, dispersion model computations and bioindicator surveys A substantial fraction of these studies has been done as commissioned work for communities, public institutions, industrial establishments and private enterprises Major resources have also been committed to the development of methods and expertise. The studies in the 1970` s were mainly dispersion model computations and air pollution measurements In the 1980`s research activities increased rapidly due to the national Clean Air Act (coming into force in 1982) and the adoption of national ambient air quality standards (1984). Since the year 1980. About 90 separate air pollution assessments have been conducted; and model computations have been made for most Finnish cities and major communities In many of the surveys in the 1980` s and the 1990`s. Integrated studies of local air quality, which contain the results obtained with emission surveys, dispersion model computations, air quality measurements and bioindicator methods have been conducted. This integrated approach provides more versatile and reliable results on the state of the environment. For instance, the reliability and accuracy of computations can be directly analysed using simultaneous air quality measurements. An overview of the experimental and computational methods used in the air quality surveys is presented here. To illustrate the application of the methods, some selected results from an air quality investigation conducted in a major city in central Finland are discussed. (author)

  3. Review of urban and industrial air quality. Assessments at the Finnish meteorological institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohjola, V; Pesonen, R; Karstastenpaeae, R; Rantakrans, E; Kukkonen, J; Jokinen, J; Maekinen, E; Saari, H; Hiltunen, V [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Air Quality Dept.

    1996-12-31

    Air quality in urban and industrial environments has been investigated at the Finnish Meteorological Institute since the early 1970`s. The studies have included emission surveys, air quality measurements, dispersion model computations and bioindicator surveys A substantial fraction of these studies has been done as commissioned work for communities, public institutions, industrial establishments and private enterprises Major resources have also been committed to the development of methods and expertise. The studies in the 1970` s were mainly dispersion model computations and air pollution measurements In the 1980`s research activities increased rapidly due to the national Clean Air Act (coming into force in 1982) and the adoption of national ambient air quality standards (1984). Since the year 1980. About 90 separate air pollution assessments have been conducted; and model computations have been made for most Finnish cities and major communities In many of the surveys in the 1980` s and the 1990`s. Integrated studies of local air quality, which contain the results obtained with emission surveys, dispersion model computations, air quality measurements and bioindicator methods have been conducted. This integrated approach provides more versatile and reliable results on the state of the environment. For instance, the reliability and accuracy of computations can be directly analysed using simultaneous air quality measurements. An overview of the experimental and computational methods used in the air quality surveys is presented here. To illustrate the application of the methods, some selected results from an air quality investigation conducted in a major city in central Finland are discussed. (author)

  4. Urban air pollution induces micronuclei in peripheral erythrocytes of mice in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, S.R.C.; Bueno-Guimaraes, H.M.; Ferreira, C.M.; Rivero, D.H.R.F.; Castro, I. de; Garcia, M.L.B.; Saldiva, P.H.N.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we explored the role of chronic exposure to urban air pollution in causing DNA damage (micronuclei frequency in peripheral erythrocytes) in rodents in vivo. Mice (n=20) were exposed to the urban atmosphere of Sao Paulo for 120 days (February to June 1999) and compared to animals (n=20) maintained in the countryside (Atibaia) for the same period. Daily levels of inhalable particles (PM10), CO, NO 2 , and SO 2 , were available for Sao Paulo. Occasional measurements of CO and O 3 were made in Atibaia, showing negligible levels of pollution in the area. The frequency of micronuclei (repeated-measures ANOVA) increased with aging, the highest values obtained for the 90th day of experiment (P 2 (P<0.001), and PM10 (P<0.001). Our results support the concept that urban levels of air pollution may cause somatic mutations

  5. Public’s Health Risk Awareness on Urban Air Pollution in Chinese Megacities: The Cases of Shanghai, Wuhan and Nanchang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojun; Zhu, Hui; Hu, Yongxin; Feng, Sha; Chu, Yuanyuan; Wu, Yanyan; Wang, Chiyu; Zhang, Yuxuan; Yuan, Zhaokang; Lu, Yuanan

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the public’s health risk awareness of urban air pollution triggered by three megacities in China, and the data are the responses from a sample size of 3868 megacity inhabitants from Shanghai, Nanchang and Wuhan. Descriptive analyses were used to summarize the respondents’ demographics, perceived health risks from air pollution and sources of health-related knowledge on urban air pollution. Chi-square tests were used to examine if participants’ demographics were associated with participant’s general attitudes towards current air quality and the three perceived highest health risks due to urban air pollution. We found low rate of satisfaction of current urban air quality as well as poor knowledge of air pollution related indicator. Participants’ gender, age and travel experience were found to be associated with the satisfaction of current air quality. The knowledge of air pollution related indicator was significantly affected by respondents’ education, monthly income, health status, and sites of study. As many as 46.23% of the participants expressed their feelings of anxiety when exposed to polluted air, especially females, older adults and those with poor health conditions. Most participants believed that coughs/colds, eye problems and skin allergies were the three highest health risks due to urban air pollution based on public education through television/radio, internet and newspaper/magazine. Further public health education is needed to improve public awareness of air pollution and its effects. PMID:27571088

  6. Health status and air pollution related socioeconomic concerns in urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Kaishan; Xu, Mengjia; Liu, Meng

    2018-02-05

    China is experiencing environmental issues and related health effects due to its industrialization and urbanization. The health effects associated with air pollution are not just a matter of epidemiology and environmental science research, but also an important social science issue. Literature about the relationship of socioeconomic factors with the environment and health factors is inadequate. The relationship between air pollution exposure and health effects in China was investigated with consideration of the socioeconomic factors. Based on nationwide survey data of China in 2014, we applied the multilevel mixed-effects model to evaluate how socioeconomic status (represented by education and income) contributed to the relationship between self-rated air pollution and self-rated health status at community level and individual level. The findings indicated that there was a non-linear relationship between the community socioeconomic status and community air pollution in urban China, with the highest level of air pollution presented in the communities with moderate socioeconomic status. In addition, health effects associated air pollution in different socioeconomic status groups were not equal. Self-rated air pollution had the greatest impact on self-rated health of the lower socioeconomic groups. With the increase of socioeconomic status, the effect of self-rated air pollution on self-rated health decreased. This study verified the different levels of exposure to air pollution and inequality in health effects among different socioeconomic groups in China. It is imperative for the government to urgently formulate public policies to enhance the ability of the lower socioeconomic groups to circumvent air pollution and reduce the health damage caused by air pollution.

  7. Diurnal variation of on-road air pollution in an urban street canyon in Seoul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Woo, Sung; Lee, Seung-Bok; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Sunwoo, Young; Ma, Young-Il; Han, Dokyoung; Song, Sanghoo

    2014-05-01

    Motor vehicles are a major source of CO, NOx and particulate matters. Especially, in the surroundings of high-raised buildings, so-called an urban street canyon, air pollution levels increase due to limited dispersion of vehicle emissions. In this study, a mobile laboratory was used to measure diurnal variation of on-road concentrations of air pollutants such as NOx, particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, black carbon and particle number in the urban street canyon on the Teheran road with eight lanes in Seoul, Korea from 5th to 8th November 2013. Each traveling distance was about 3.3km. Traveling vehicle at the middle of the Teheran road was recorded by video camera, and then the car counting by vehicle types. On road measurements conducted for 3~6 hours per day. Hourly average of air pollutant concentration in morning rush hour more than two times higher than those at the daybreak. We will analyze the correlation between air pollution levels and traffic volume by vehicle types. We will discuss about spatial characteristics of on-road air pollution levels in the urban street canyon.

  8. Analysis of tree bark samples for air pollution biomonitoring of an urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Ana Paula G.; Negri, Elnara M.; Saldiva, Paulo H.N.

    2009-01-01

    Air pollution is receiving much attention as a public health problem around the world due to its adverse health effects from exposures by urban populations. Within this context, the use of vegetal biomonitoring to evaluate air quality has been investigated throughout the world. Air pollutant levels are high in the city of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil and being the vehicle emissions its main source. The aim of this study was to evaluate concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, S, Sb and Zn in tree bark samples used as biomonitor of urban air pollution. Concentrations of these elements were determined in barks collected in trees of the Ibirapuera Park, one of the biggest and most visited parks of the city of Sao Paulo city. Samples of tree barks were also collected in a site outside the city of Sao Paulo, in a rural area of Embu-Guacu, considered as a control site. The element concentrations were determined by the methods of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and of Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (EDXRF). The findings of this study showed that tree bark samples may be used as biomonitors of urban air pollution in a micro scale, and both techniques, INAA and EDXRF, can be used to evaluate element concentrations in tree bark samples. (author)

  9. Air quality high resolution simulations of Italian urban areas with WRF-CHIMERE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falasca, Serena; Curci, Gabriele

    2017-04-01

    The new European Directive on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe (2008/50/EC) encourages the use of modeling techniques to support the observations in the assessment and forecasting of air quality. The modelling system based on the combination of the WRF meteorological model and the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model is used to perform simulations at high resolution over the main Italian cities (e.g. Milan, Rome). Three domains covering Europe, Italy and the urban areas are nested with a decreasing grid size up to 1 km. Numerical results are produced for a winter month and a summer month of the year 2010 and are validated using ground-based observations (e.g. from the European air quality database AirBase). A sensitivity study is performed using different physics options, domain resolution and grid ratio; different urban parameterization schemes are tested using also characteristic morphology parameters for the cities considered. A spatial reallocation of anthropogenic emissions derived from international (e.g. EMEP, TNO, HTAP) and national (e.g. CTN-ACE) emissions inventories and based on the land cover datasets (Global Land Cover Facility and GlobCover) and the OpenStreetMap tool is also included. Preliminary results indicate that the introduction of the spatial redistribution at high-resolution allows a more realistic reproduction of the distribution of the emission flows and thus the concentrations of the pollutants, with significant advantages especially for the urban environments.

  10. Air quality in urban, industrial and rural areas of France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroebel, R. [Agence de l`Environnement et de la Maitrise de l`Energie, Paris (France)

    1995-12-31

    With the financial support of the parafiscal tax on air pollution and with a view to better appraise both the nationwide traffic exhausts and the photochemical air pollution, the national ambient air monitoring equipment is in the process of being renewed. Some networks have been recently created other networks have been thoroughly modernized. The commissioning of new equipments, supplemented by the measurement quality-assurance programme implemented by the National Central Network Laboratory, lead to both a better coverage of the nationwide surveillance and more reliable data. The monitoring programme still has to be enlarged as numerous airborne substances (aromatics, organic micropollutants, heavy metals) are not still systematically measured nowadays. The average concentrations of pollutants in 1992 are similar to the levels recorded in 1991, although the peak levels are slightly lower in 1992. The meteorological conditions have not exhibited winter or summer excess liable to bring about large air pollution episodes. The decrease in SO{sub 2} concentrations, originating mainly from combustion, is noticeable in 1992. The concentrations dropped by 12 % between 1991 and 1992. For the first time in many years, NO{sub x} and CO emissions are levelling off. The peak NO{sub 2} and CO concentrations are lower in 1992 compared to 1991. Partly due to short measurement data sets, it is not possible to identify any clear-cut trend pattern of ozone concentrations. In fact, most of the ozone monitoring stations are in the process of being relocalized and the density of the measurement sites is being strengthened

  11. Urban air quality of kathmandu valley "Kingdom of Nepal"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, C. K.

    The oval shaped tectonic basin of Kathmandu valley, occupying about 656 sq.km is situated in the middle sector of Himalayan range. There are three districts in the valley, i.e. Kathmandu, Lalitpur and Bhaktapur. Out of the three, the most populated is Kathmandu city (the capital of Kingdom of Nepal) which has a population of 668,00 in an area of approximately 50 km 2. The energy consumption of the city population is about 1/3 of the total import to Nepal of gasoline, diesel, kerosene, furnace oil and cooking gas. This has resulted heavy pollution of air in the city leading to bronchitis, and throat and chest diseases. Vehicles have increased several fold in recent months and there are 100,000 in number on the road and they have 900 km of road, out of which only 25% is metalled. Most of the two and three wheelers are polluting the air by emission of gases as well as dust particulate. SO 2 has been found to go as high as 202 μg cm -3 and NO 2 to 126 μg cm -3 particularly in winter months when a thick layer of fog covers the valley up to 10 am in the morning. All the gases are mixed within the limited air below the fog and the ground. This creates the problem. Furthermore, municipal waste of 500 m 3 a day and also liquid waste dumped directly into the Bagmati river at the rate of 500,000 ℓ d -1 makes the city ugly and filthy. Unless pollution of air, water and lard are controlled in time, Nepal will lose much of its foreign exchange earnings from the tourist industry. It is found that tourist arrivals have considerably reduced in recent years and most of hotels occupancy is 50-60% in peak time. Nepal is trying to introduce a legal framework for pollution control but it will take time to become effective.

  12. Olfactory dysfunction, olfactory bulb pathology and urban air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Osnaya, Norma; González-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Villarreal-Calderon, Rafael; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Keefe, Sheyla; Palacios-Moreno, Juan; Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo; Aiello-Mora, Mario; Maronpot, Robert R.; Doty, Richard L

    2010-01-01

    Mexico City (MC) residents are exposed to severe air pollution and exhibit olfactory bulb inflammation. We compared the olfactory function of individuals living under conditions of extreme air pollution to that of controls from a relatively clean environment and explore associations between olfaction scores, apolipoprotein E (APOE) status, and pollution exposure. The olfactory bulbs (OBs) of 35 MC and 9 controls 20.8 ± 8.5 y were assessed by light and electron microscopy. The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) was administered to 62 MC / 25 controls 21.2 ±2.7 y. MC subjects had significantly lower UPSIT scores: 34.24 ± 0.42 versus controls 35.76 ± 0.40, p=0.03. Olfaction deficits were present in 35.5% MC and 12% of controls. MC APOE ε 4 carriers failed 2.4 ± 0.54 items in the 10-item smell identification scale from the UPSIT related to Alzheimer's disease, while APOE 2/3 and 3/3 subjects failed 1.36 ± 0.16 items, p = 0.01. MC residents exhibited OB endothelial hyperplasia, neuronal accumulation of particles (2/35), and immunoreactivity to beta amyloid βA42 (29/35) and/or α-synuclein (4/35) in neurons, glial cells and/or blood vessels. Ultrafine particles were present in OBs endothelial cytoplasm and basement membranes. Control OBs were unremarkable. Air pollution exposure is associated with olfactory dysfunction and OB pathology, APOE 4 may confer greater susceptibility to such abnormalities, and ultrafine particles could play a key role in the OB pathology. This study contributes to our understanding of the influences of air pollution on olfaction and its potential contribution to neurodegeneration. PMID:19297138

  13. Air quality in urban, industrial and rural areas of France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroebel, R [Agence de l` Environnement et de la Maitrise de l` Energie, Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    With the financial support of the parafiscal tax on air pollution and with a view to better appraise both the nationwide traffic exhausts and the photochemical air pollution, the national ambient air monitoring equipment is in the process of being renewed. Some networks have been recently created other networks have been thoroughly modernized. The commissioning of new equipments, supplemented by the measurement quality-assurance programme implemented by the National Central Network Laboratory, lead to both a better coverage of the nationwide surveillance and more reliable data. The monitoring programme still has to be enlarged as numerous airborne substances (aromatics, organic micropollutants, heavy metals) are not still systematically measured nowadays. The average concentrations of pollutants in 1992 are similar to the levels recorded in 1991, although the peak levels are slightly lower in 1992. The meteorological conditions have not exhibited winter or summer excess liable to bring about large air pollution episodes. The decrease in SO{sub 2} concentrations, originating mainly from combustion, is noticeable in 1992. The concentrations dropped by 12 % between 1991 and 1992. For the first time in many years, NO{sub x} and CO emissions are levelling off. The peak NO{sub 2} and CO concentrations are lower in 1992 compared to 1991. Partly due to short measurement data sets, it is not possible to identify any clear-cut trend pattern of ozone concentrations. In fact, most of the ozone monitoring stations are in the process of being relocalized and the density of the measurement sites is being strengthened

  14. Urban air pollution in Sub-Saharan Africa: Time for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amegah, A Kofi; Agyei-Mensah, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Air quality in cities of Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries has deteriorated with the situation driven by rapid population growth and its attendant increased vehicle ownership, increased use of solid fuels for cooking and heating, and poor waste management practices. Industrial expansion in these cities is also a major contributor to the worsening air pollution. Exposure to ambient air pollution is a major threat to human health in SSA with 176,000 deaths and 626,000 DALYs in the region attributable to ambient air pollution exposure. These estimates are however likely to be much higher than reported due to the limited data emanating from the region. Recently, the adoption of the World Health Assembly resolution on air pollution and health, and Sustainable Development Goals are a welcome boost for urban air pollution control efforts in SSA. In this article, we have outlined within the broad framework of these international policy instruments, measures for addressing urban air pollution and its associated health impacts in SSA sustainably. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Environmental Justice and Health Effects of Urban Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John A; Mitchell, Mark A; Edgerton, Victor S; VanCott, Robert

    2015-02-01

    Minority communities often bear the burden of "hosting" pollution sources. This report assesses whether there are any health effects from living near such pollution sources and whether health effects of pollution vary by sex, ethnicity, or income. The air pollution emissions from Hartford area, point sources are modeled and exposures are estimated for the residents who participated in a geographically-based health survey. The pollution intensities and other individual and neighborhood characteristics are used to predict an individual's reported respiratory problems. The results indicate that respiratory problems are correlated significantly with pollution levels, especially sulfur dioxide from the local trash-to-energy incinerator-the fifth largest one in the U.S. The effects of a given pollution level tend to be more serious for specific subgroups based upon sex, ethnicity, poverty, and age. Even when controlling for other factors, air pollution levels are significantly correlated with health problems, especially for Hispanics. This air pollution may contribute to health disparities. © 2015 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Calibration of low-cost gas sensors for an urban air quality monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, A.; Kelley, C.; He, C.; Ghugare, P.; Lehman, A.; Benish, S.; Stratton, P.; Dickerson, R. R.; Zuidema, C.; Azdoud, Y.; Ren, X.

    2017-12-01

    In a warming world, environmental pollution may be exacerbated by anthropogenic activities, such as climate change and the urban heat island effect, as well as natural phenomena such as heat waves. However, monitoring air pollution at federal reference standards (approximately 1 part per billion or ppb for ambient ozone) is cost-prohibitive in heterogeneous urban areas as many expensive devices are required to fully capture a region's geo-spatial variability. Innovation in low-cost sensors provide a potential solution, yet technical challenges remain to overcome possible imprecision in the data. We present the calibrations of ozone and nitrous dioxide from a low-cost air quality monitoring device designed for the Baltimore Open Air Project. The sensors used in this study are commercially available thin film electrochemical sensors from SPEC Sensor, which are amperometric, meaning they generate current proportional to volumetric fraction of gas. The results of sensor calibrations in the laboratory and field are presented.

  17. Relation between lead in air and in petrol in two urban areas of Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattenden, N. J.; Branson, J. R.

    The recent reduction in the lead content of petrol in the United Kingdom, following government legislation, has been used to investigate the relationship between lead in petrol and in outside air in urban environments. In parts of London and Manchester, the airborne lead concentration closely followed the petrol lead concentration, within a time resolution of about 1 month. These results indicate that, in these areas, the petrol lead content has a fairly direct and prompt effect on the urban air lead concentration, i.e. any environmental lead reservoirs in the pathway from petrol to air (and hence to man by inhalation) are not significant on this timescale. A small component of the airborne lead, apparently independent of the petrol lead, was also observed.

  18. Air Quality Deterioration of Urban Areas Caused by Wildfires in a Natural Reservoir Forest of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Carbajal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many regions of the world suffer loss of vegetation and reduced air quality due to wildfires. Studies on aerosol emissions by wildfires often discuss the negative effects of atmospheric contaminants from a regional or mesoscale perspective. The occurrence of wildfires reveals that a high percentage takes place close to large urban areas. Very high concentration of pollutants and PM10 particulate matter reach urban zones and millions of inhabitants. These events of high pollutant concentrations are seasonally recurrent. There are many large urban areas in the world that often undergo severe air deterioration due to wildfires smoke. We document the extreme impact of wildfire that occurs in the Protected Area of Flora and Fauna La Primavera located in neighborhood of Guadalajara, a large urban zone in Mexico. The simultaneous emissions of aerosols by 60 wildfires were simulated and compared with observed data. The plume generated by the wildfires reached large areas of the central part of Mexico. The principal characteristics of smog emissions (CO, NO2, and PM10 over the urban area were acceptably reproduced. Observed and modeled CO, PM10, and NO2 data indicated that aerosol plumes generated by the wildfires increased notably the concentrations over the metropolitan zone of Guadalajara.

  19. Higher plants as biomonitors of radionuclides in urban air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajtic, J.; Todorovic, D.; Popovic, D.; Nikolic, J.

    2011-01-01

    Two deciduous tree genera, linden (Tilia tomentosa L. and Tilia cordata Mill.) and chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.), are analysed as biomonitors of 210 Pb and 7 Be in air. In a multi year study (2002 - 2009), conducted in three city parks in Belgrade, the content of 210 Pb and 7 Be in samples of leaves of linden and chestnut trees, and aerosols was determined on an HPGe detector by standard gamma spectrometry. The differences seen in the radionuclides' activities across the measurement sites and between the tree genera are not significant, suggesting that the micro climate, level of air pollution and physiological characteristics of the trees have a negligible effect on the radionuclides' activities in leaves. Linear Pearson's correlation coefficients are used to correlate the 210 Pb and 7 Be activities in aerosols and in leaves. The results show that linden could be used as a 210 Pb biomonitor which provides information on the recent history of exposure. No large positive correlation is found for the 7 Be activities in leaves and aerosols, indicating that higher plants are not a suitable biomonitor for this radionuclide. [sr

  20. Air quality perception of pedestrians in an urban outdoor Mediterranean environment: A field survey approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantavou, Katerina; Lykoudis, Spyridon; Psiloglou, Basil

    2017-01-01

    Perception plays a significant role on people's response to preventive measures. In the view of public awareness, the aim of this study was to explore factors that affect air quality perception and to reveal its potential patterns. Air quality perception of individuals, in terms of dust and overall air quality, was examined in relation to air pollutants concentrations, meteorological variables, personal characteristics as well as their thermal sensation and health condition. The data used were obtained from environmental measurements, in situ and from stations, and questionnaire surveys conducted in an outdoor urban Mediterranean area, Athens, Greece. The participants were asked to report their air quality perception and thermal sensation based on predefined scales. A thermal index, Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET), was estimated to obtain an objective measure of thermal sensation. Particulate matter (PM 10 ) and nitrogen oxide (NO) were associated with dust perception. Nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and carbon monoxide (CO) were associated to air quality perception. Age, area of residence, health symptoms and thermal sensation also affected the perception of air quality. Dusty or poor air quality conditions were more likely to be reported when pollutants' concentrations were increased. Younger people, participants residing in the city center, experiencing health symptoms or warm thermal sensation showed a trend towards reporting more unfavorable air quality conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Lidar system for air-pollution monitoring over urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalenko, Irina V.; Shcheglov, Djolinard A.; Molodtsov, Nikolai A.

    1997-05-01

    The atmospheric environmental situation over the urban area of a large city is determined by a complex combination of anthropogenic pollution and meteorological factors. The efficient way to provide three-dimensional mapping of gaseous pollutants over wide areas is utilization of lidar systems employing tunable narrowband transmitters. The paper presented describes activity of RRC 'Kurchatov Institute' in the field of lidar atmospheric monitoring. The project 'mobile remote sensing system based on tunable laser transmitter for environmental monitoring' is developed under financial support of International Scientific and Technology Center (Moscow). The objective of the project is design, construction and field testing of a DIAL-technique system. The lidar transmitter consists of an excimer laser pumping dye laser, BBO crystal frequency doubler, and scanning flat mirror. Sulfur dioxide and atomic mercury have been selected as pollutants for field tests of the lidar system under development. A recent large increase in Moscow traffic stimulated taking into consideration also the remote sensing of lower troposphere ozone because of the photochemical smog problem. The status of the project is briefly discussed. The current activity includes also collecting of environmental data relevant to lidar remote sensing. Main attention is paid to pollutant concentration levels over Moscow city and Moscow district areas.

  2. Impacts of Realistic Urban Heating. Part II: Air Quality and City Breathability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarian, Negin; Martilli, Alberto; Norford, Leslie; Kleissl, Jan

    2018-03-01

    Urban morphology and inter-building shadowing result in a non-uniform distribution of surface heating in urban areas, which can significantly modify the urban flow and thermal field. In Part I, we found that in an idealized three-dimensional urban array, the spatial distribution of the thermal field is correlated with the orientation of surface heating with respect to the wind direction (i.e. leeward or windward heating), while the dispersion field changes more strongly with the vertical temperature gradient in the street canyon. Here, we evaluate these results more closely and translate them into metrics of "city breathability," with large-eddy simulations coupled with an urban energy-balance model employed for this purpose. First, we quantify breathability by, (i) calculating the pollutant concentration at the pedestrian level (horizontal plane at z≈ 1.5 -2 m) and averaged over the canopy, and (ii) examining the air exchange rate at the horizontal and vertical ventilating faces of the canyon, such that the in-canopy pollutant advection is distinguished from the vertical removal of pollution. Next, we quantify the change in breathability metrics as a function of previously defined buoyancy parameters, horizontal and vertical Richardson numbers (Ri_h and Ri_v , respectively), which characterize realistic surface heating. We find that, unlike the analysis of airflow and thermal fields, consideration of the realistic heating distribution is not crucial in the analysis of city breathability, as the pollutant concentration is mainly correlated with the vertical temperature gradient (Ri_v ) as opposed to the horizontal (Ri_h ) or bulk (Ri_b ) thermal forcing. Additionally, we observe that, due to the formation of the primary vortex, the air exchange rate at the roof level (the horizontal ventilating faces of the building canyon) is dominated by the mean flow. Lastly, since Ri_h and Ri_v depend on the meteorological factors (ambient air temperature, wind speed, and

  3. Urban political ecologies of informal recyclers׳ health in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parizeau, Kate

    2015-05-01

    Buenos Aires׳ informal recyclers (cartoneros) confront multiple health hazards in their work. Based in a survey with (n=397) informal recyclers, this study establishes that these workers experience uneven health landscapes as evidenced through their health outcomes, the social determinants of their health, and their living and working environments. I argue that the analytical framework of urban political ecology can provide insights to the ways that the urban environments where cartoneros live and work are socially-constructed phenomena, drawing on concepts of crisis, metabolism, and multi-scalar analyses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Air pollution prevention through urban heat island mitigation: An update on the urban heat island pilot project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorsevski, V.; Taha, H.; Quattrochi, D.; Luvall, J.

    1998-07-01

    Urban heat islands increase the demand for cooling energy and accelerate the formation of smog. They are created when natural vegetation is replaced by heat-absorbing surfaces such as building roofs and walls, parking lots, and streets. Through the implementation of measures designed to mitigate the urban heat island, communities can decrease their demand for energy and effectively cool the metropolitan landscape. In addition to the economic benefits, using less energy leads to reductions in emission of CO{sub 2}--a greenhouse gas--as well as ozone (smog) precursors such as NOx and VOCs. Because ozone is created when NOx and VOCs photochemically combine with heat and solar radiation, actions taken to lower ambient air temperature can significantly reduce ozone concentrations in certain areas. Measures to reverse the urban heat island include afforestation and the widespread use of highly reflective surfaces. To demonstrate the potential benefits of implementing these measures, EPA has teamed up with NASA and LBNL to initiate a pilot project with three US cities. As part of the pilot, NASA will use remotely-sensed data to quantify surface temperature, albedo, the thermal response number and NDVI vegetation of each city. This information will be used by scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) along with other data as inputs to model various scenarios that will help quantify the potential benefits of urban heat island mitigation measures in terms of reduced energy use and pollution. This paper will briefly describe this pilot project and provide an update on the progress to date.

  5. Impacts of Lowered Urban Air Temperatures on Precursor Emission and Ozone Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Haider; Konopacki, Steven; Akbari, Hashem

    1998-09-01

    Meteorological, photochemical, building-energy, and power plant simulations were performed to assess the possible precursor emission and ozone air quality impacts of decreased air temperatures that could result from implementing the "cool communities" concept in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). Two pathways are considered. In the direct pathway, a reduction in cooling energy use translates into reduced demand for generation capacity and, thus, reduced precursor emissions from electric utility power plants. In the indirect pathway, reduced air temperatures can slow the atmospheric production of ozone as well as precursor emission from anthropogenic and biogenic sources. The simulations suggest small impacts on emissions following implementation of cool communities in the SoCAB. In summer, for example, there can be reductions of up to 3% in NO x emissions from in-basin power plants. The photochemical simulations suggest that the air quality impacts of these direct emission reductions are small. However, the indirect atmospheric effects of cool communities can be significant. For example, ozone peak concentrations can decrease by up to 11% in summer and population-weighted exceedance exposure to ozone above the California and National Ambient Air Quality Standards can decrease by up to 11 and 17%, respectively. The modeling suggests that if these strategies are combined with others, such as mobile-source emission control, the improvements in ozone air quality can be substantial.

  6. Influence of Urban Microclimate on Air-Conditioning Energy Needs and Indoor Thermal Comfort in Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Chi Liao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A long-term climate measurement was implemented in the third largest city of Taiwan, for the check of accuracy of morphing approach on generating the hourly data of urban local climate. Based on observed and morphed meteorological data, building energy simulation software EnergyPlus was used to simulate the cooling energy consumption of an air-conditioned typical flat and the thermal comfort level of a naturally ventilated typical flat. The simulated results were used to quantitatively discuss the effect of urban microclimate on the energy consumption as well as thermal comfort of residential buildings. The findings of this study can serve as a reference for city planning and energy management divisions to study urban sustainability strategies in the future.

  7. Indoor air quality of houses located in the urban environment of Agra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Ajay; Saini, Renuka; Masih, Amit

    2008-10-01

    Increased concern over the adverse health effects of air pollution has highlighted the need for air-pollution measurements, especially in urban areas, where many sources of air pollutants are normally monitored outdoors as part of obligations under the National Air Quality Strategies. Very little is known about air pollution indoors. In fact, the largest exposure to health-damaging indoor pollution probably occurs in the developing world, not in households, schools, and offices of developed countries where most research and control efforts have been focused to date. As a result much of the health impacts from air pollution worldwide seem to occur among the poorest and most vulnerable populations. The authors in their earlier studies have confirmed the importance of ambient air in determining the quality of air indoors. In this study an observation of air quality indoors and outdoors of domestic homes located in an urban environment from October 2004 to December 2005 in Agra, north central India, is performed. The purpose of this study was to characterize the indoor/outdoor (I/O) relationship of airborne pollutants and recognize their probable source in all three seasons, that is, winter, summer, and rainy season. Concentrations of SO(2), NO(2), CO(2), Cl(2), H(2)S, NH(3), RSPM, and PAH were monitored simultaneously and I/O ratios were calculated. In order to investigate the effect of seasonality on indoor and ambient air quality, winter to summer and winter to monsoon average ratios were calculated. It is apparent that there is a general pattern of increasing levels from monsoon to summer to winter, and similarly from outdoor to indoor air. Regressions analysis had been done to further investigate the influence of outdoor air-pollutant concentrations on indoor concentrations. The most probable categories of sources for these pollutants have been identified by using principal-component analysis. Indoor air pollution is a complex function of energy housing and

  8. Public engagement on urban air pollution: an exploratory study of two interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltra, Christian; Sala, Roser; Boso, Àlex; Asensio, Sergi López

    2017-06-01

    The use of portable sensors to measure air quality is a promising approach for the management of urban air quality given its potential to improve public participation in environmental issues and to promote healthy behaviors. However, not all the projects that use air quality mobile sensors consider the potential effects of their use on the attitudes and behaviors of non-expert individuals. This study explores the experiences, perceptions, attitudes, and behavioral intentions of 12 participants who used a real-time NO 2 sensor over a period of 7 days in the metropolitan area of Barcelona and compares them with 16 participants who did not have access to the device but rather to documentary information. The study design is based on recombined focus groups who met at the beginning and end of a 7-day activity. The results suggest that the experience with the sensors, in comparison with the traditional information, generates greater motivation among participants. Also, that the use of the sensor seems to support a more specific awareness of the problem of air pollution. In relation to risk perception, the textual and visual information seems to generate stronger beliefs of severity among participants. In both groups, beliefs of low controllability and self-efficacy are observed. Neither using the sensor nor reading the documentary information seems to contribute positively in this sense. The results of the study aim to contribute to the design of public involvement strategies in urban air pollution.

  9. The power of perception: Health risk attributed to air pollution in an urban industrial neighborhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, S.J.; Cole, D.C.; Krueger, P.; Voorberg, N.; Wakefield, S.

    1999-08-01

    This paper describes a multi-stakeholder process designed to assess the potential health risks associated with adverse air quality in an urban industrial neighborhood. The paper briefly describes the quantitative health risk assessment conducted by scientific experts, with input by a grassroots community group concerned about the impacts of adverse air quality on their health and quality of life. In this case, rather than accept the views of the scientific experts, the community used their powers of perception to advantage by successfully advocating for a professionally conducted community health survey. This survey was designed to document, systematically and rigorously, the health risk perceptions community members associated with exposure to adverse air quality in their neighborhood. This paper describes the instructional and community contexts within which the research is situated as well as the design, administration, analysis, and results of the community health survey administered to 402 households living in an urban industrial neighborhood in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. These survey results served to legitimate the community's concerns about air quality and to help broaden operational definitions of health. In addition, the results of both health risk assessment exercises served to keep issues of air quality on the local political agenda. Implications of these findings for their understanding of the environmental justice process as well as the ability of communities to influence environmental health policy are discussed.

  10. Respiratory alterations due to urban air pollution: An experimental study in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldiva, P.H.N.; King, M.; Delmonte, V.L.C.; Macchione, M.; Parada, M.A.C.; Daliberto, M.L.; Sakae, R.S.; Criado, P.M.P.; Silveira, P.L.P.; Zin, W.A.; Boehm, G.M.

    1992-01-01

    In order to assess the adverse effects of urban levels of air pollution, rats were used as biological indicators in a chronic exposure experiment. Animals were housed for 6 months in the center of Sao Paulo and were compared to controls kept for the same period in a clean area. Pollution levels were obtained from a State air pollution monitoring station, 200 m distant from the exposure place, which provided the levels of CO, SO 2 , particulates, and ozone. The animals were submitted to several tests focusing on the respiratory system, comprising pulmonary function tests, studies on mucociliary clearance and mucus rheology, histochemical evaluation of airways, bronchoalveolar lavage, and ultrastructural studies of the epithelium of the airways. Rats exposed to air pollution developed secretory cell hyperplasia in the airways, ultrastructural ciliary alterations, and a more rigid mucus, changes that caused mucociliary clearance impairment. In addition, nasal resistance and the number of inflammatory cells recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage were increased in air pollution exposed animals. The results obtained in the present investigation suggest that chronic exposure to urban levels of air pollution may cause respiratory lesions in rats

  11. Evaluation of Urban air quality models for regulatory use: Refinement of an approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downton, M.W.; Dennis, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Statistical measures for evaluating the performance of urban air quality models have recently been strongly recommended by several investigators. Problems that were encountered in the use of recommended performance measures in an evaluation of three versions of an urban photochemical model are described. The example demonstrates the importance of designing an evaluation to take into account the way in which the model will be used in regulatory practice, and then choosing performance measures on the basis of that design. The evaluation illustrates some limitations and possible pitfalls in the use and interpretation of statistical measures of model performance. Drawing on this experience, a procedure for evaluation of air quality models for regulatory use is suggested

  12. The sources and fate of (210)Po in the urban air: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Długosz-Lisiecka, Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    The origin of (210)Po activity and its fluctuations in the air are discussed in this paper. In the case of atmospheric aerosol samples, a comparison of the (210)Po/(210)Pb and (210)Bi/(210)Pb activity ratios makes it possible not only to determine aerosol residence times but also to appraise the contribution of the unsupported (210)Po coming from other sources than (222)Rn decay, such as human industrial activities, especially coal combustion. A simple mathematical method makes it possible to observe the seasonal fluctuations of the anthropogenic excess of (210)Po in the urban air. The average doses of (210)Po intake with food (including drinking water) and inhalation of urban aerosols are usually lower than those from (210)Po intake by cigarette smokers and negligible in comparison to total natural radiation exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of different statistical modelling approaches for deriving spatial air temperature patterns in an urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Annette; Beck, Christoph; Breitner, Susanne; Cyrys, Josef; Geruschkat, Uta; Jacobeit, Jucundus; Kühlbach, Benjamin; Kusch, Thomas; Richter, Katja; Schneider, Alexandra; Umminger, Robin; Wolf, Kathrin

    2017-04-01

    Frequently spatial variations of air temperature of considerable magnitude occur within urban areas. They correspond to varying land use/land cover characteristics and vary with season, time of day and synoptic conditions. These temperature differences have an impact on human health and comfort directly by inducing thermal stress as well as indirectly by means of affecting air quality. Therefore, knowledge of the spatial patterns of air temperature in cities and the factors causing them is of great importance, e.g. for urban planners. A multitude of studies have shown statistical modelling to be a suitable tool for generating spatial air temperature patterns. This contribution presents a comparison of different statistical modelling approaches for deriving spatial air temperature patterns in the urban environment of Augsburg, Southern Germany. In Augsburg there exists a measurement network for air temperature and humidity currently comprising 48 stations in the city and its rural surroundings (corporately operated by the Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health and the Institute of Geography, University of Augsburg). Using different datasets for land surface characteristics (Open Street Map, Urban Atlas) area percentages of different types of land cover were calculated for quadratic buffer zones of different size (25, 50, 100, 250, 500 m) around the stations as well for source regions of advective air flow and used as predictors together with additional variables such as sky view factor, ground level and distance from the city centre. Multiple Linear Regression and Random Forest models for different situations taking into account season, time of day and weather condition were applied utilizing selected subsets of these predictors in order to model spatial distributions of mean hourly and daily air temperature deviations from a rural reference station. Furthermore, the different model setups were

  14. Influence of cetane improvers on the air quality in an urban street canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Akutsu, Y.; Arai, M.; Tamura, M.

    2000-01-01

    The concentration distributions of NO x , PM, HC and CO in an urban street canyon have been estimated using a two-dimensional air quality numerical model based on the k-e turbulent model and the atmospheric convection diffusion equation when various cetane improvers were used in diesel fuels. A wind vortex can be found within the street canyon, and the pollutants emitted from the bottom of the street canyon tend to follow the course of the wind field, moving circularly. The addition of cetane improvers can improve the air quality in a street canyon, all of the pollutants were found to decrease with increasing cetane number. (Author)

  15. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF AN INVERSE PROBLEM ORIGINATED IN PHENOMENON OF POLLUTION AIR URBAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal Coronel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the calibration study of a two - dimensional mathematical model for the problem of urban air pollution. It is mainly assumed that air pollution is afected by wind convection, diffusion and chemical reactions of pollutants. Consequently, a convection-diffusion-reaction equation is obtained as a direct problem. In the inverse problem, the determination of the diffusion is analyzed, assuming that one has an observation of the pollutants in a nite time. To solve it numerically the nite volume method is used, the least squares function is considered as cost function and the gradient is calculated with the sensitivity method.

  16. Evaluation of different numerical methodologies for dispersion of air pollutants in an urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumovic, D.; Crowther, J.M.; Stevanovic, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled but meanwhile the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10. In that same period the fraction of people living in urban areas has increased by a factor of 4. Apart from large point-sources of local air pollution, traffic induced pollution is now the most significant contributor to urban air quality in city centres, particularly for carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen and fine particulate matter. Until recently, pollutant dispersion in urban areas has usually been numerically investigated by using empirical models, such as the Gaussian plume model, or by extensions of this technique to line sources and multiple sources. More recently, advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations have been attempted but have been mainly two-dimensional and often encompassing only a single street canyon. This paper provides a comprehensive, critical evaluation of dispersion of pollutants in urban areas. A three-dimensional flow model has been set-up for a staggered crossroad, using the Navier-Stokes equations and the conservation equation for species concentration. The effect of using several different turbulence models, including the k-ε model, modifications and extensions, has been investigated. Cartesian coordinates have been used in connection with the Partial Solution Algorithm (PARSOL) and Body Fitted Coordinates (BFC). The effects of several different numerical algorithms for discretization of differential equations have also been studied. More than thirty cases are analysed, and the main results are compared with wind tunnel experiments. The numerical results are presented as non-dimensional values to facilitate comparison between experimental and numerical studies. It has been shown that the numerical studies have been able to simulate the air-flow in urban areas and confirm, qualitatively, the previous field observations and wind tunnel results. This success encouraged the authors to extend such

  17. Evaluation of different numerical methodologies for dispersion of air pollutants in an urban environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumovic, D.; Crowther, J.M. [Glasgow Caledonian Univ., School of Built and Natural Environment, Glasgow (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: dmumov10@caledonian.ac.uk; Stevanovic, Z. [Univ. of Belgrade, Inst. of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2003-07-01

    Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled but meanwhile the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10. In that same period the fraction of people living in urban areas has increased by a factor of 4. Apart from large point-sources of local air pollution, traffic induced pollution is now the most significant contributor to urban air quality in city centres, particularly for carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen and fine particulate matter. Until recently, pollutant dispersion in urban areas has usually been numerically investigated by using empirical models, such as the Gaussian plume model, or by extensions of this technique to line sources and multiple sources. More recently, advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations have been attempted but have been mainly two-dimensional and often encompassing only a single street canyon. This paper provides a comprehensive, critical evaluation of dispersion of pollutants in urban areas. A three-dimensional flow model has been set-up for a staggered crossroad, using the Navier-Stokes equations and the conservation equation for species concentration. The effect of using several different turbulence models, including the k-{epsilon} model, modifications and extensions, has been investigated. Cartesian coordinates have been used in connection with the Partial Solution Algorithm (PARSOL) and Body Fitted Coordinates (BFC). The effects of several different numerical algorithms for discretization of differential equations have also been studied. More than thirty cases are analysed, and the main results are compared with wind tunnel experiments. The numerical results are presented as non-dimensional values to facilitate comparison between experimental and numerical studies. It has been shown that the numerical studies have been able to simulate the air-flow in urban areas and confirm, qualitatively, the previous field observations and wind tunnel results. This success encouraged the authors to extend

  18. Assessing the ecosystem service of air pollutant removal by urban trees in Guangzhou (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim, C Y; Chen, Wendy Y

    2008-09-01

    In Chinese cities, air pollution has become a serious and aggravating environmental problem undermining the sustainability of urban ecosystems and the quality of urban life. Besides technical solutions to abate air pollution, urban vegetation is increasingly recognized as an alternative ameliorative method by removing some pollutants mainly through dry deposition process. This paper assesses the capability and monetary value of this ecosystem service in Guangzhou city in South China. The results indicated an annual removal of SO(2), NO(2) and total suspended particulates at about 312.03 Mg, and the benefits were valued at RMB90.19 thousand (US$1.00=RMB8.26). More removal was realized by recreational land use due to a higher tree cover. Higher concentration of pollutants in the dry winter months induced more removal. The lower cost of pollution abatement in China generated a relatively subdued monetary value of this environmental benefit in comparison with developed countries. Younger districts with more extensive urban trees stripped more pollutants from the air, and this capacity was anticipated to increase further as their trees gradually reach final dimensions and establish a greater tree cover. Tree cover and pollutant concentration constitute the main factors in pollutant removal by urban trees. The efficiency of atmospheric cleansing by trees in congested Chinese cities could be improved by planting more trees other than shrubs or grass, diversifying species composition and biomass structure, and providing sound green space management. The implications for greenery design were discussed with a view to maximizing this ecosystem service in Chinese cities and other developing metropolises.

  19. Background air pollution studies in urban and rural areas in Bangladesh. Appendix 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaliquzzaman, M.; Biswas, S.K.; Tarafdar, S.A.; Islam, A.; Khan, A.H.

    1995-01-01

    Air particulate matter at two size fractions have been collected at an urban station (Dhaka) in Bangladesh for one year using a 'Gent' PM-10 stacked filter unit (SFU). Of the samples collected, 73 sets of samples (coarse and fine fractions) extending over a period of six months have been analyzed to find elemental concentrations using PIXE. These results of the analyses are presented and discussed. (author)

  20. Ventilation and Air Quality in City Blocks Using Large-Eddy Simulation—Urban Planning Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Kurppa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Buildings and vegetation alter the wind and pollutant transport in urban environments. This comparative study investigates the role of orientation and shape of perimeter blocks on the dispersion and ventilation of traffic-related air pollutants, and the street-level concentrations along a planned city boulevard. A large-eddy simulation (LES model PALM is employed over a highly detailed representation of the urban domain including street trees and forested areas. Air pollutants are represented by massless and passive particles (non-reactive gases, which are released with traffic-related emission rates. High-resolution simulations for four different city-block-structures are conducted over a 8.2 km 2 domain under two contrasting inflow conditions with neutral and stable atmospheric stratification corresponding the general and wintry meteorological conditions. Variation in building height together with multiple cross streets along the boulevard improves ventilation, resulting in 7–9% lower mean concentrations at pedestrian level. The impact of smaller scale variability in building shape was negligible. Street trees further complicate the flow and dispersion. Notwithstanding the surface roughness, atmospheric stability controls the concentration levels with higher values under stably stratified inflow. Little traffic emissions are transported to courtyards. The results provide urban planners direct information to reduce air pollution by proper structural layout of perimeter blocks.

  1. Mixing layer height as an indicator for urban air quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Geiß

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The mixing layer height (MLH is a measure for the vertical turbulent exchange within the boundary layer, which is one of the controlling factors for the dilution of pollutants emitted near the ground. Based on continuous MLH measurements with a Vaisala CL51 ceilometer and measurements from an air quality network, the relationship between MLH and near-surface pollutant concentrations has been investigated. In this context the uncertainty of the MLH retrievals and the representativeness of ground-based in situ measurements are crucial. We have investigated this topic by using data from the BAERLIN2014 campaign in Berlin, Germany, conducted from June to August 2014. To derive the MLH, three versions of the proprietary software BL-VIEW and a novel approach COBOLT were compared. It was found that the overall agreement is reasonable if mean diurnal cycles are considered. The main advantage of COBOLT is the continuous detection of the MLH with a temporal resolution of 10 min and a lower number of cases when the residual layer is misinterpreted as mixing layer. We have calculated correlations between MLH as derived from the different retrievals and concentrations of pollutants (PM10, O3 and NOx for different locations in the metropolitan area of Berlin. It was found that the correlations with PM10 are quite different for different sites without showing a clear pattern, whereas the correlation with NOx seems to depend on the vicinity of emission sources in main roads. In the case of ozone as a secondary pollutant, a clear correlation was found. We conclude that the effects of the heterogeneity of the emission sources, chemical processing and mixing during transport exceed the differences due to different MLH retrievals. Moreover, it seems to be unrealistic to find correlations between MLH and near-surface pollutant concentrations representative for a city like Berlin (flat terrain, in particular when traffic emissions are dominant. Nevertheless it is

  2. Research on the Coupling Coordination Relationship between Urbanization and the Air Environment: A Case Study of the Area of Wuhan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ding

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available China’s high-speed socioeconomic development has been characterized by rapid urbanization and a series of ecological environment issues, especially air pollution. This paper proposed a comprehensive indicator system for the evaluation of urbanization and the air environment in Wuhan, a metropolis in central China, and then investigated the relationship between urbanization and the air environment from the perspective of coupling coordination theory. Furthermore, a coupling coordination degree model (CCDM was constructed to estimate the relationship by using panel data collected from 1996–2013. The results showed the following: (1 Spatial urbanization and air environment quality make the greatest contributions to the compound system compared to other first grade indicators, indicating that they are critical factors to consider when the government is making relevant decisions about urban sprawl. (2 The comprehensive level of the air environment initially decreased from 1996–1998 and then increased with fluctuations in Wuhan, with several inflection points, meaning that the variation process of the air environment is unstable and repetitive, and efforts to improve the air environment must persist over a long period of time. Lastly, (3 the degree of coordinated coupling between urbanization and the air environment exhibited an S-shaped curve, indicating that Wuhan changed from having slightly unbalanced development to barely balanced development and then entered into a period of superiorly balanced development, with the air environment lagging. Thus, the ambient urban air quality has been subject to great pressure, and the government should continue to take effective action to improve it.

  3. Contribution of ecosystem services to air quality and climate change mitigation policies: the case of urban forests in Barcelona, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baró, Francesc; Chaparro, Lydia; Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Langemeyer, Johannes; Nowak, David J; Terradas, Jaume

    2014-05-01

    Mounting research highlights the contribution of ecosystem services provided by urban forests to quality of life in cities, yet these services are rarely explicitly considered in environmental policy targets. We quantify regulating services provided by urban forests and evaluate their contribution to comply with policy targets of air quality and climate change mitigation in the municipality of Barcelona, Spain. We apply the i-Tree Eco model to quantify in biophysical and monetary terms the ecosystem services "air purification," "global climate regulation," and the ecosystem disservice "air pollution" associated with biogenic emissions. Our results show that the contribution of urban forests regulating services to abate pollution is substantial in absolute terms, yet modest when compared to overall city levels of air pollution and GHG emissions. We conclude that in order to be effective, green infrastructure-based efforts to offset urban pollution at the municipal level have to be coordinated with territorial policies at broader spatial scales.

  4. Chemical characterization of urban air particulate matter of Kuala Lumpur 2002-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wee Boon Siong; Ab. Khalik Bin Haji Wood

    2006-01-01

    Urban air particulate samples of Kuala Lumpur ambient air have been collected characterize according to fine and coarse airborne particulates. The air filters containing particulate matter were collected using GENT stack filter unit fitted with appropriate polycarbonate filters. The sampling location site (Lat: 03deg 10'30''; Long: 101deg 43'24.2'') is approximately 1 km from the Kuala Lumpur city center. All the sampling conducted from January 2002 until October 2004 was included in the analysis and results were reported. The mass loading for finest air particulate matter (PM 2.5) in Kuala Lumpur are 199±55 μg (2002), 171±53 μg (2003), and 171±61 μg (2004), respectively. The mass loading for coarse air particulate matter (PM 10) in Kuala Lumpur were 125±29 μg (2002), 134±48 μg (2003), and 137 ± 57 μg (2004), respectively. The elemental concentration of the air filters were determined using INAA technique utilizing both short and long irradiation facilities at MINT's TRIGA MKII reactor. Upon irradiation the air filters were counted at suitable counting time using HPGe gamma-ray detectors. The elements reported for this monitoring are Al, As, Br, Co, Cr, K, Lu, Mn, Na, Sb, Sc, Ti, V, and Zn. Certified reference materials were also included in the sample analysis function as quality control materials. (author)

  5. Modeling Effects of Climate Change on Air Quality and Population Exposure in Urban Planning Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Gidhagen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We employ a nested system of global and regional climate models, linked to regional and urban air quality chemical transport models utilizing detailed inventories of present and future emissions, to study the relative impact of climate change and changing air pollutant emissions on air quality and population exposure in Stockholm, Sweden. We show that climate change only marginally affects air quality over the 20-year period studied. An exposure assessment reveals that the population of Stockholm can expect considerably lower NO2 exposure in the future, mainly due to reduced local NOx emissions. Ozone exposure will decrease only slightly, due to a combination of increased concentrations in the city centre and decreasing concentrations in the suburban areas. The increase in ozone concentration is a consequence of decreased local NOx emissions, which reduces the titration of the long-range transported ozone. Finally, we evaluate the consequences of a planned road transit project on future air quality in Stockholm. The construction of a very large bypass road (including one of the largest motorway road tunnels in Europe will only marginally influence total population exposure, this since the improved air quality in the city centre will be complemented by deteriorated air quality in suburban, residential areas.

  6. The impact of Michigan's Dr Ron Davis smoke-free air law on levels of cotinine, tobacco-specific lung carcinogen and severity of self-reported respiratory symptoms among non-smoking bar employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Teri; Shamo, Farid; Boynton, Katherine; Kiley, Janet

    2012-11-01

    To determine the impact on bar employee's health and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) before and after the implementation of Michigan's Dr Ron Davis smoke-free air law that went into effect on 1 May 2010, prohibiting smoking in places of work, including bars. This study used a pre/postintervention experimental design. The setting was bars in 12 Michigan counties. Subjects were bar employees, recruited through flyers and individual discussions with local health department staff. Participants completed a screening questionnaire to determine eligibility. A total of 40 eligible employees completed a demographic survey, provided urine samples for analysis of cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and completed questionnaires on respiratory and general health status 6 weeks before and 6-10 weeks after the law went into effect. The main outcome measures were urine samples for total cotinine and total NNAL and data from a self-administered respiratory and general health status questionnaire collected during the pre-law and post-law study periods. There was a significant decrease in the mean cotinine levels from 35.9 ng/ml to a non-quantifiable value (plevel from 0.086 pmol/ml to 0.034 pmol/ml (plaw. There was also a significant improvement in all six self-reported respiratory symptoms (plaw is protecting bar employee health.

  7. Assessing the Future Vehicle Fleet Electrification: The Impacts on Regional and Urban Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Wenwei; Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming

    2017-01-17

    There have been significant advancements in electric vehicles (EVs) in recent years. However, the different changing patterns in emissions at upstream and on-road stages and complex atmospheric chemistry of pollutants lead to uncertainty in the air quality benefits from fleet electrification. This study considers the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region in China to investigate whether EVs can improve future air quality. The Community Multiscale Air Quality model enhanced by the two-dimensional volatility basis set module is applied to simulate the temporally, spatially, and chemically resolved changes in PM 2.5 concentrations and the changes of other pollutants from fleet electrification. A probable scenario (Scenario EV1) with 20% of private light-duty passenger vehicles and 80% of commercial passenger vehicles (e.g., taxis and buses) electrified can reduce average PM 2.5 concentrations by 0.4 to 1.1 μg m -3 during four representative months for all urban areas of YRD in 2030. The seasonal distinctions of the air quality impacts with respect to concentration reductions in key aerosol components are also identified. For example, the PM 2.5 reduction in January is mainly attributed to the nitrate reduction, whereas the secondary organic aerosol reduction is another essential contributor in August. EVs can also effectively assist in mitigating NO 2 concentrations, which would gain greater reductions for traffic-dense urban areas (e.g., Shanghai). This paper reveals that the fleet electrification in the YRD region could generally play a positive role in improving regional and urban air quality.

  8. Acute symptoms related to air pollution in urban areas: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forouzanfar Mohammad

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The harmful effects of urban air pollution on general population in terms of annoying symptoms are not adequately evaluated. This is in contrast to the hospital admissions and short term mortality. The present study protocol is designed to assess the association between the level of exposure to certain ambient air pollutants and a wide range of relevant symptoms. Awareness of the impact of pollution on the population at large will make our estimates of the pertinent covert burden imposed on the society more accurate. Methods/design A cross sectional study with spatial analysis for the addresses of the participants was conducted. Data were collected via telephone interviews administered to a representative sample of civilians over age four in the city. Households were selected using random digit dialling procedures and randomization within each household was also performed to select the person to be interviewed. Levels of exposure are quantified by extrapolating the addresses of the study population over the air pollution matrix of the city at the time of the interview and also for different lag times. This information system uses the data from multiple air pollution monitoring stations in conjunction with meteorological data. General linear models are applied for statistical analysis. Discussion The important limitations of cross-sectional studies on acute effects of air pollution are personal confounders and measurement error for exposure. A wide range of confounders in this study are controlled for in the statistical analysis. Exposure error may be minimised by employing a validated geographical information system that provides accurate estimates and getting detailed information on locations of individual participants during the day. The widespread operation of open air conditioning systems in the target urban area which brings about excellent mixing of the outdoor and indoor air increases the validity of outdoor pollutants

  9. AN ASSESSMENT OF URBAN SPACE EXPANSION AND ITS IMPACT ON AIR QUALITY USING GEOSPATIAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita P. Dadhich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development oriented growth and accelerated industrializati on had been rapidly worsening the environmental quality of urban centers. Jaipur, c apital of Rajasthan India, the 10 th largest metropolitan city of India, is also facing the increas ing pressure on land due to urbanization and de mographic factors. Therefore, in this study an integrated approach of remote sensing and GIS (Geographic Infor mation System was applied to examine the relationship among spatial variables suc h as impervious area, land consumption rate and air po llutants concentration within a n urban context of Jaipur city. The urban sprawl over the period of five years (20 08–2013 is determined by computing the impervious area or built up area using IRS (In dian Remote Sensing Resourcesat 2 satellite data for Jaipur urban region. Thereafte r, Land Consumption Rate (LCR and Land Absorption Coefficient (LAC were quantifie d to evaluate the impervious area growth in differe nt wards of the Jaipur city. T he temporal variations in gaseous and particulate pollutants were also investigated to as certain the degree of association between air pollutants and impervious area. It has been observed that there is 74.89% increase in impervious area during 2008 to 2013.The z onal distribution of impervious area clearly indicates the increase in number of war ds under Zone 5 (80- 100% category from 2008 to 2013. The spatial distribution of L CR reveals very high land consumption rate (>0.012 in outskirts of the city ie. Vid hyadhar Nagar, Jhotwara and Jagatpura area. The LAC is zero in wards of Kishanpole area and high (>0.06 for the wards of Civil lines, Jagatpura, and Jhotwara area of the c ity. The urban air quality pattern (2008-2013 results indicate that PM 10 and SPM concentration have the greatest effects on the air environment in comparison to gaseous polluta nts (SO 2 and NO x . The association between particulate pollution and impervious area i ndicate strong correlation

  10. The role of a peri-urban forest on air quality improvement in the Mexico City megalopolis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgardner, Darrel; Varela, Sebastian; Escobedo, Francisco J.; Chacalo, Alicia; Ochoa, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Air quality improvement by a forested, peri-urban national park was quantified by combining the Urban Forest Effects (UFORE) and the Weather Research and Forecasting coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) models. We estimated the ecosystem-level annual pollution removal function of the park’s trees, shrub and grasses using pollution concentration data for carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O 3 ), and particulate matter less than 10 microns in diameter (PM 10 ), modeled meteorological and pollution variables, and measured forest structure data. Ecosystem-level O 3 and CO removal and formation were also analyzed for a representative month. Total annual air quality improvement of the park’s vegetation was approximately 0.02% for CO, 1% for O 3, and 2% for PM 10 , of the annual concentrations for these three pollutants. Results can be used to understand the air quality regulation ecosystem services of peri-urban forests and regional dynamics of air pollution emissions from major urban areas. - Highlights: ► Air quality regulation functions and ecosystem structure of a peri-urban forest in Mexico were quantified. ► Air pollution removal-formation dynamics were estimated using the UFORE and WRF-Chem models. ► Peri-urban forests positively contributed to air qualtiy improvement in Mexico City. ► Results can be used to quantify the ecosystem services of peri-urban forests. - Coupled models estimated air quality improvement and pollution removal-formation by peri-urban forest ecosystems in the Mexico City airshed.

  11. Contribution of ecosystem services to air quality and climate change mitigation policies: The case of urban forests in Barcelona, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesc Baró; Lydia Chaparro; Erik Gómez-Baggethun; Johannes Langemeyer; David J. Nowak; Jaume. Terradas

    2014-01-01

    Mounting research highlights the contribution of ecosystem services provided by urban forests to quality of life in cities, yet these services are rarely explicitly considered in environmental policy targets. We quantify regulating services provided by urban forests and evaluate their contribution to comply with policy targets of air quality and climate change...

  12. Study of the air quality in the surroundings of an urban park: A micrometeorological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre, Mariano; Yagüe, Carlos; Arrillaga, Jon A.; Román-Cascón, Carlos; Maqueda, Gregorio; Artíñano, Begoña; Díaz-Ramiro, Elías; Gómez-Moreno, Francisco J.; Barreiro, Marcos; Borge, Rafael; Narros, Adolfo; Pérez, Javier; Quaassdorff, Christina

    2017-04-01

    In this work we study the differences showed by two types of pollutants, particulate matter (PM) and NOx, by comparing ambient concentration measurements within an urban park versus the corresponding values nearby (but outside) it. The results are linked to both proximity to emission sources, such as road traffic, and the microscale atmospheric conditions. The work is motivated by the fact that poor air quality is a crucial issue of current cities. For some of them it is not uncommon to face this problem with occasional traffic restrictions when high concentrations of pollutants are reached. These events occur more frequently with specific large-scale atmospheric conditions, for example when a strong anticyclone is present. As the meteorological conditions may significantly influence the pollutants concentrations, the research project TECNAIRE-CM (Innovative technologies for the assessment and improvement of urban air quality) aims to provide new approaches to obtain proper descriptions of the urban pollution and its dynamics at different spatial and temporal scales, not only the synoptic scale. So far, a few field campaigns have been developed within TECNAIRE-CM at two locations in the city of Madrid, which are considered hot spots according to the air quality network records. Here we use the data from a field campaign carried out during summer 2016, which consider standard pollution and meteorological measurements, as well as sonic anemometer data. The latter help to include atmospheric turbulence as a significant agent for air quality characterization. The instrumentation was deployed at a location with considerable traffic density, but nearby a border of the main urban park of the city, so that its influence might be investigated. Supplementary data considered for this work correspond to permanent instrumentation within the park. With this extra information we can compare both measurements inside and outside the park. Therefore, we study the effect on wind

  13. Monitoring of volatile and non-volatile urban air genotoxins using bacteria, human cells and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceretti, E; Zani, C; Zerbini, I; Viola, G; Moretti, M; Villarini, M; Dominici, L; Monarca, S; Feretti, D

    2015-02-01

    Urban air contains many mutagenic pollutants. This research aimed to investigate the presence of mutagens in the air by short-term mutagenicity tests using bacteria, human cells and plants. Inflorescences of Tradescantia were exposed to air in situ for 6h, once a month from January to May, to monitor volatile compounds and micronuclei frequency was computed. On the same days PM10 was collected continuously for 24h. Half of each filter was extracted with organic solvents and studied by means of the Ames test, using Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains, and the comet assay on human leukocytes. A quarter of each filter was extracted with distilled water in which Tradescantia was exposed. PM10 concentration was particularly high in the winter season (> 50 μg/m(3)). In situ exposure of inflorescences to urban air induced a significant increase in micronuclei frequency at all the sites considered, but only in January (p bacteria, human cells and plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bathymetry of Lake Michigan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Michigan has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  15. Characterization and biological effect of Buenos Aires urban air particles on mice lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Susana; Dawidowski, Laura; Mandalunis, Patricia; Cereceda-Balic, Francisco; Tasat, Deborah Ruth

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to increased levels of ambient air particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Its association with adverse health effects and the still unclear mechanisms of action are of concern worldwide. Our objective was to analyze air PM from downtown Buenos Aires (UAP-BA), and evaluate its biological impact on normal airways. We studied the inflammatory response to intranasal instillation of UAP-BA in a short-term-exposure mouse model. We analyzed UAP-BA morphology by scanning electron microscopy and characterized particle chemical composition by energy dispersive X-ray analysis and capillary gas chromatography. We evaluated lung changes by histomorphometry and histochemical methods. Regarding size, surface area and distribution, UAP-BA proved to be small spherical ultrafine particles: free, in clusters and associated to a matrix. The particles contained polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls and almost no metal traces. Histologically, UAP-BA induced the recruitment of phagocytes, a reduction in air spaces, an increase in mucous PAS positive cells and weak incomplete elastic fiber network. Our results demonstrate that UAP-BA causes adverse biological effects on the respiratory tract generating inflammation that, in turn, may cause tissue injury or organ dysfunction and may contribute to the pathogenesis of lung diseases

  16. Role of urbanization and air pollution in adolescent asthma: a mass screening in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, R S; Sung, F C; Huang, S L; Gou, Y L; Ko, Y C; Gou, H W; Shaw, C K

    2001-10-01

    The prevalence of asthma in school children in Taiwan is increasing. This study used mass screening among middle school children in Taiwan to determine the prevalence of asthma and related factors. Data were collected from parents using a self-reported questionnaire and from children using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) video questionnaire. Six study teams conducted the survey nationwide in 1995-1996, with the assistance of middle school nurses and teachers. Among the 1,018,031 students at 795 middle schools who returned questionnaires, 8.5% had a history of asthma (ranging in prevalence from 4.2% to 13% in 25 areas). The prevalence of asthma was higher in boys than in girls (10.0% vs 7%) and was highest in more urbanized areas (11.2%), followed by moderately urbanized areas (7.4%) and less urbanized and rural areas (6.5%). Controlling for age, family smoking, family incense burning, and parental education level, multivariate logistic regression models indicated that children living in an area with heavy air pollution were more likely to have asthma than those in an area with no or light pollution (odds ratio, OR = 2.01 and 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.94-2.09 based on parental ranking of pollution level, or OR = 1.30 and 95% CI = 1.18-1.42 based on pollution level reported by the Environmental Protection Administration). Adolescent asthma in Taiwan is most prevalent in the most urbanized areas and decreases in prevalence in less urbanized areas. This study also found that higher parental education level and higher area air pollution were associated with higher adolescent asthma prevalence.

  17. Can TiO2-based photocatalytic textiles be used to improve the urban air quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ródenas, Mila; Fages, Eduardo; Fatarella, Enrico; Herrero, David; Castagnoli, Lidia; Borràs, Esther; Vera, Teresa; Gómez, Tatiana; Catota, Marlon; Carreño, Javier; Hernández, Daniel; Gimeno, Cristina; López, Ramón; Muñoz, Amalia

    2017-04-01

    Despite current legislation and efforts made to improve urban air quality, significant negative effects still persist. That is the case of traffic, which impact on air pollution is a growing problem. For this reason, depollution measures are necessary to reach safer air quality levels. Recently, the use of titanium dioxide (TiO2) based photocatalytic self-cleaning and de-polluting materials has been considered to remove air pollutants, especially NOx. TiO2 can be found in the market under different formats for environmental purposes, and its effectiveness depends not only on the support (concrete, paints, etc) but also on the impregnation method (layer, embedded, etc). By combining laboratory and field campaigns, the LIFE PHOTOCITYTEX project was conceived to demonstrate the effectiveness of using TiO2-based photocatalytic nanomaterials in textiles as a way of alleviating the air pollution in urban areas. Within the project, which is already within its last year, two one-year extensive passive dosimetric campaigns have already been completed to assess their impact on the selected urban sites, measuring before and after the installation of the photocatalytic textile prototypes, respectively. Also, intensive active measurement campaigns (using active dosimetry, monitors and instrumentation for physical parameters) have been conducted to account for winter and summer conditions. Besides, lab-tests have been concluded to determine optimal photocatalytic formulations on textiles, and these have been tested at the EUPHORE simulation chambers under typical environmental conditions of various European cities. Besides the effect on NOx, which has been the main focus of the study, VOCs formation and abatement has been assessed, yielding in a better overall understanding of the whole process and its implications. Very promising results on the deep reduction of NOx have been observed at EUPHORE. From the calculation of the uptake coefficient, a mathematical model tool foresees

  18. Problems of protection of urban ambient air pollution from industrial dust emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azarov Valeriy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of large cities accompanied by the development of the industry hashistorically led to the fact that now residential areas are located side by side with the industrial production. For instance, exactly this situation has developed in the city of Volgograd, as well as in other Russian cities, where sometimes the distance from large enterprises to a living area is 100 m or less. In addition, small-scale entrepreneurs usually place their production directly in their past places of residence. As a result, the content of harmful substances in the air of city blocks is much higher than the standards of hygiene require. It is obvious that the current situation can be improved through the use of modern, more advanced technologies. However, increasing the efficiency of air systems to protect the city from pollution and industrial emissions is an urgent task. The authors propose a version of the system layout, designed to reduce dust emissions in urban air.

  19. Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land-use ANalysis: Temperature and Air quality): A Study of how the Urban Landscape Affects Meteorology and Air Quality Through Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G.; Lo, C. P.; Kidder, Stanley Q.; Hafner, Jan; Taha, Haider; Bornstein, Robert D.; Gillies, Robert R.; Gallo, Kevin P.

    1998-01-01

    It is our intent through this investigation to help facilitate measures that can be Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land-use ANalysis: applied to mitigate climatological or air quality Temperature and Air-quality) is a NASA Earth degradation, or to design alternate measures to sustain Observing System (EOS) Interdisciplinary Science or improve the overall urban environment in the future. investigation that seeks to observe, measure, model, and analyze how the rapid growth of the Atlanta. The primary objectives for this research effort are: 1) To In the last half of the 20th century, Atlanta, investigate and model the relationship between Atlanta Georgia has risen as the premier commercial, urban growth, land cover change, and the development industrial, and transportation urban area of the of the urban heat island phenomenon through time at southeastern United States. The rapid growth of the nested spatial scales from local to regional; 2) To Atlanta area, particularly within the last 25 years, has investigate and model the relationship between Atlanta made Atlanta one of the fastest growing metropolitan urban growth and land cover change on air quality areas in the United States. The population of the through time at nested spatial scales from local to Atlanta metropolitan area increased 27% between 1970 regional; and 3) To model the overall effects of urban and 1980, and 33% between 1980-1990 (Research development on surface energy budget characteristics Atlanta, Inc., 1993). Concomitant with this high rate of across the Atlanta urban landscape through time at population growth, has been an explosive growth in nested spatial scales from local to regional. Our key retail, industrial, commercial, and transportation goal is to derive a better scientific understanding of how services within the Atlanta region. This has resulted in land cover changes associated with urbanization in the tremendous land cover change dynamics within the Atlanta area, principally in transforming

  20. Amelioration of Indian urban air pollution phytotoxicity in Beta vulgaris L. by modifying NPK nutrients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Anoop; Agrawal, S.B.; Rathore, Dheeraj

    2005-01-01

    Air pollution levels are increasing at an alarming rate in many developing countries, including India and causing a potential threat to crop production. Field experiments were conducted to examine the impact of urban air pollutants on biomass (yield) and some physiological and biochemical parameters of palak (Beta vulgaris L. var. All Green) that grew from germination to maturity at seven periurban sites of Allahabad city having different concentrations of air pollutants under different levels of nutrients. The 6 h daily mean NO 2 , SO 2 and O 3 concentrations varied from 2.5 to 42.5, 10.6 to 65 and 3.5 to 30.8 μg m -3 , respectively at different locations. Levels of air pollution showed significant negative correlations with photosynthetic pigments, protein, ascorbic acid and starch contents and catalase activity of palak leaves. A significant negative correlation was found for total biomass with SO 2 (r = -0.92), NO 2 (r = -0.85) and O 3 (r = -0.91) concentrations. The increased fertilizer application (N, P and K) over the recommended dose resulted in a positive response by reducing losses in photosynthetic pigments and total biomass. This study proved that ambient air pollution of Allahabad city is influencing negatively to the growth and yield of palak plants. - Air pollution caused adverse impact on growth and biomass accumulation of Beta vulgaris L. plants while higher fertility levels showed reduced yield losses

  1. Addressing equity in interventions to reduce air pollution in urban areas: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmarhnia, Tarik; Rey, Lynda; Cartier, Yuri; Clary, Christelle M; Deguen, Séverine; Brousselle, Astrid

    2014-12-01

    We did a systematic review to assess quantitative studies investigating the association between interventions aiming to reduce air pollution, health benefits and equity effects. Three databases were searched for studies investigating the association between evaluated interventions aiming to reduce air pollution and heath-related benefits. We designed a two-stage selection process to judge how equity was assessed and we systematically determined if there was a heterogeneous effect of the intervention between subgroups or subareas. Of 145 identified articles, 54 were reviewed in-depth with eight satisfying the inclusion criteria. This systematic review showed that interventions aiming to reduce air pollution in urban areas have a positive impact on air quality and on mortality rates, but the documented effect on equity is less straightforward. Integration of equity in evidence-based public health is a great challenge nowadays. In this review we draw attention to the importance of considering equity in air pollution interventions. We also propose further methodological and theoretical challenges when assessing equity in interventions to reduce air pollution and we present opportunities to develop this research area.

  2. Effects of air pollution on meteorological parameters during Deepawali festival over an Indian urban metropolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Upal; Talukdar, Shamitaksha; Jana, Soumyajyoti; Maitra, Animesh

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric pollutants (NO2, SO2, PM10, BC, CO, surface O3), emitted during fireworks display, have significant effects on meteorological parameters like air temperature, relative humidity, lapse rate and visibility in air over Kolkata (22°65‧ N, 88°45‧ E), a metropolitan city near the land-ocean boundary, on the eve of Deepawali festival when extensive fireworks are burnt. Long-term trend (2005-2013), indicates that the yearly average concentrations of both primary and secondary air pollutants have increased, exceeding the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) limit, on the respective Deepawali days. Short-term study (2012-2013) during the festival shows that the average pollutant concentrations have increased too compared to normal days. This study also reveals the immediate effects of the increased air pollutants on the boundary layer meteorology. PM10 has been found to be the most dominant atmospheric pollutants during this period. As a result of an increase in atmospheric heat content with elevated surface air temperature, a significant increase in the environmental lapse rate bears a signature of the influence of pollutants on the boundary layer temperature profile. A change in the diurnal pattern of relative humidity as well as in the vertical temperature profile is due to the change of the lapse rate during the festival days. Thus, the atmospheric pollutants during this festival over the urban region have significant effect on the boundary layer meteorology with bearings on environmental hazards.

  3. Indoor air quality in urban and rural kindergartens: short-term studies in Silesia, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaszczyk, Ewa; Rogula-Kozłowska, Wioletta; Klejnowski, Krzysztof; Kubiesa, Piotr; Fulara, Izabela; Mielżyńska-Švach, Danuta

    2017-01-01

    More than 80% of people living in urban areas who monitor air pollution are exposed to air quality levels that exceed limits defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). Although all regions of the world are affected, populations in low-income cities are the most impacted. According to average annual levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5, ambient particles with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less) presented in the urban air quality database issued by WHO in 2016, as many as 33 Polish cities are among the 50 most polluted cities in the European Union (EU), with Silesian cities topping the list. The aim of this study was to characterize the indoor air quality in Silesian kindergartens based on the concentrations of gaseous compounds (SO 2 , NO 2 ), PM2.5, and the sum of 15 PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), including PM2.5-bound benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), as well as the mutagenic activity of PM2.5 organic extracts in Salmonella assay (strains: TA98, YG1024). The assessment of the indoor air quality was performed taking into consideration the pollution of the atmospheric air (outdoor). I/O ratios (indoor/outdoor concentration) for each investigated parameter were also calculated. Twenty-four-hour samples of PM2.5, SO 2 , and NO 2 were collected during spring in two sites in southern Poland (Silesia), representing urban and rural areas. Indoor samples were taken in naturally ventilated kindergartens. At the same time, in the vicinity of the kindergarten buildings, the collection of outdoor samples of PM2.5, SO 2 , and NO 2 was carried out. The content of BaP and the sum of 15 studied PAHs was determined in each 24-h sample of PM2.5 (indoor and outdoor). In the urban site, statistically lower concentrations of SO 2 and NO 2 were detected indoors compared to outdoors, whereas in the rural site, such a relationship was observed only for NO 2 . No statistically significant differences in the concentrations of PM2.5, PM2.5-bound BaP, and Σ15 PAHs

  4. Effects of canyon geometry on the distribution of traffic-related air pollution in a large urban area: Implications of a multi-canyon air pollution dispersion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiangwen; Liu, Junfeng; Ban-Weiss, George A.; Zhang, Jiachen; Huang, Xin; Ouyang, Bin; Popoola, Olalekan; Tao, Shu

    2017-09-01

    Street canyons are ubiquitous in urban areas. Traffic-related air pollutants in street canyons can adversely affect human health. In this study, an urban-scale traffic pollution dispersion model is developed considering street distribution, canyon geometry, background meteorology, traffic assignment, traffic emissions and air pollutant dispersion. In the model, vehicle exhausts generated from traffic flows first disperse inside street canyons along the micro-scale wind field generated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Then, pollutants leave the street canyon and further disperse over the urban area. On the basis of this model, the effects of canyon geometry on the distribution of NOx and CO from traffic emissions were studied over the center of Beijing. We found that an increase in building height leads to heavier pollution inside canyons and lower pollution outside canyons at pedestrian level, resulting in higher domain-averaged concentrations over the area. In addition, canyons with highly even or highly uneven building heights on each side of the street tend to lower the urban-scale air pollution concentrations at pedestrian level. Further, increasing street widths tends to lead to lower pollutant concentrations by reducing emissions and enhancing ventilation simultaneously. Our results indicate that canyon geometry strongly influences human exposure to traffic pollutants in the populated urban area. Carefully planning street layout and canyon geometry while considering traffic demand as well as local weather patterns may significantly reduce inhalation of unhealthy air by urban residents.

  5. Generation of hydroxyl radicals by urban suspended particulate air matter. The role of iron ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valavanidis, Athanasios; Salika, Anastasia; Theodoropoulou, Anna

    Recent epidemiologic studies showed statistical associations between particulate air pollution in urban areas and increased morbidity and mortality, even at levels well within current national air quality standards. Inhalable particulate matter (PM 10) can penetrate into the lower airways where they can cause acute and chronic lung injury by generating toxic oxygen free radicals. We tested inhalable total suspended particulates (TSP) from the Athens area, diesel and gasoline exhaust particles (DEP and GED), and urban street dusts, by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). All particulates can generate hydroxyl radicals (HO ṡ), in aqueous buffered solutions, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Results showed that oxidant generating activity is related with soluble iron ions. Leaching studies showed that urban particulate matter can release large amounts of Fe 3+ and lesser amounts of Fe 2+, as it was shown from other studies. Direct evidence of HO ṡ was confirmed by spin trapping with DMPO and measurement of DMPO-OH adduct by EPR. Evidence was supported with the use of chelator (EDTA), which increases the EPR signal, and the inhibition of the radical generating activity by desferrioxamine or/and antioxidants ( D-mannitol, sodium benzoate).

  6. Particulate Matter Air Pollution in an Urban Area : a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Holnicki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many European agglomerations suffer from high concentrations of particulate matter (PM, which is now one of the most detrimental pollutants characterizing the urban atmospheric environment. This paper addresses the problem of PM10 pollution in the Warsaw metropolitan area, including very harmful fine fractions (PM2.5, and also some heavy metals. The analysis of air quality in the Warsaw agglomeration discussed in this study is based on results from computer modeling presented elsewhere, and refers to emission and meteorological data for the year 2012. The range of emissions considered in this analysis includes the main sectors of municipal activity: energy generation, industry, urban transport, residential sector. The trans-boundary inflow of the main pollutants coming from distant sources is also taken into account. The regional scale computer model CALPUFF was used to assess the annual mean concentrations of major pollutants in the urban area. The results show the regions where the air quality limits are exceeded and indicate the dominant sources of emission which are responsible for these violations (source apportionment. These are the key data required to implement efficient regulatory actions. (original abstract

  7. Statistical Analysis of Spatiotemporal Heterogeneity of the Distribution of Air Quality and Dominant Air Pollutants and the Effect Factors in Qingdao Urban Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangwei Zhao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has impacted people’s lives in urban China, and the analysis of the distribution and driving factors behind air quality has become a current research focus. In this study, the temporal heterogeneity of air quality (AQ and the dominant air pollutants across the four seasons were analyzed based on the Kruskal-Wallis rank-sum test method. Then, the spatial heterogeneity of AQ and the dominant air pollutants across four sites were analyzed based on the Wilcoxon signed-rank test method. Finally, the copula model was introduced to analyze the effect of relative factors on dominant air pollutants. The results show that AQ and dominant air pollutants present significant spatiotemporal heterogeneity in the study area. AQ is worst in winter and best in summer. PM10, O3, and PM2.5 are the dominant air pollutants in spring, summer, and winter, respectively. The average concentration of dominant air pollutants presents significant and diverse daily peaks and troughs across the four sites. The main driving factors are pollutants such as SO2, NO2, and CO, so pollutant emission reduction is the key to improving air quality. Corresponding pollution control measures should account for this heterogeneity in terms of AQ and the dominant air pollutants among different urban zones.

  8. Impact of height and shape of building roof on air quality in urban street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Mohamed F.

    2011-09-01

    A building's roof shape and roof height play an important role in determining pollutant concentrations from vehicle emissions and its complex flow patterns within urban street canyons. The impact of the roof shape and height on wind flow and dispersion of gaseous pollutants from vehicle exhaust within urban canyons were investigated numerically using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model. Two-dimensional flow and dispersion of gaseous pollutants were analyzed using standard κ- ɛ turbulence model, which was numerically solved based on Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The diffusion fields in the urban canyons were examined with three roof heights ( Z H/ H = 0.17, 0.33 and 0.5) and five roof shapes: (1) flat-shaped roof, (2) slanted-shaped roof, (3) downwind wedge-shaped roof, (4) upwind wedge-shaped roof, and (5) trapezoid-shaped roof. The numerical model was validated against the wind tunnels results in order to optimize the turbulence model. The numerical simulations agreed reasonably with the wind tunnel results. The results obtained indicated that the pollutant concentration increased as the roof height decreases. It also decreased with the slanted and trapezoid-shaped roofs but increased with the flat-shaped roof. The pollutant concentration distributions simulated in the present work, indicated that the variability of the roof shapes and roof heights of the buildings are important factors for estimating air quality within urban canyons.

  9. Severity and Susceptibility Beliefs Associated with Urban Air Pollution: Results of a Qualitative Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oltra, C.; Sala, R.

    2015-01-01

    In this report we present the results of a qualitative study based on recombined focus groups with lay citizens. The main objective is to analyze individuals’ beliefs on urban air pollution and perceived benefits and barriers of some self-protective actions, such as using special masks, avoidance of polluted streets, etc. The analytical framework on which the study is based is the Health Belief Model, whose basic idea is that it is more likely that individuals take actions to protect themselves if they think they are potentially susceptible to a serious threat to your health, if they think adopting certain actions has advantages, and if they think there are no significant barriers for such conduct. A secondary objective is to explore the perception of different existing materials to inform the public about air pollution. The results of the study are intended to contribute to the design of interventions aimed at reducing health impacts of urban air pollution and, specifically, to the design of messages in the context of information campaigns on health and environmental risk.

  10. Co-control of urban air pollutants and greenhouse gases in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J Jason; Osnaya, Patricia; Laguna, Israel; Martínez, Julia; Fernández, Adrián

    2004-07-01

    This study addresses the synergies of mitigation measures to control urban air pollutant and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, in developing integrated "co-control" strategies for Mexico City. First, existing studies of emissions reduction measures--PROAIRE (the air quality plan for Mexico City) and separate GHG studies--are used to construct a harmonized database of options. Second, linear programming (LP) is developed and applied as a decision-support tool to analyze least-cost strategies for meeting co-control targets for multiple pollutants. We estimate that implementing PROAIRE measures as planned will reduce 3.1% of the 2010 metropolitan CO2 emissions, in addition to substantial local air pollutant reductions. Applying the LP, PROAIRE emissions reductions can be met at a 20% lower cost, using only the PROAIRE measures, by adjusting investments toward the more cost-effective measures; lower net costs are possible by including cost-saving GHG mitigation measures, but with increased investment. When CO2 emission reduction targets are added to PROAIRE targets, the most cost-effective solutions use PROAIRE measures for the majority of local pollutant reductions, and GHG measures for additional CO2 control. Because of synergies, the integrated planning of urban-global co-control can be beneficial, but we estimate that for Mexico City these benefits are often small.

  11. Characteristics and transport of organochlorine pesticides in urban environment: air, dust, rain, canopy throughfall, and runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Ye, Youbin; Hu, Dan; Ou, Langbo; Wang, Xuejun

    2010-11-01

    Characteristics and transport of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in urban multiple environments, including air, dust, rain, canopy throughfall, and runoff water, are explored in this study. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) dominated in both air and rain water, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) related substances showed a higher affinity to dust. Relatively high concentrations of DDT and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in air, rain and dust imply that technical DDT in the environment has been degrading, and there may be unknown local or regional emission sources that contain DDTs in the study area. Source identification showed that DDTs in Beijing urban environments with a fresh signature may originate from the atmospheric transport from remote areas. The ratio of α-/γ-HCH in dust, rain, canopy throughfall and runoff were close to 1, indicating the possible use of lindane. OCPs in runoff were transported from various sources including rain, dust, and canopy throughfall. In runoff, DDTs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were mainly transported from dust, and HCHs were mainly from rain and canopy throughfall.

  12. Participatory measurements of individual exposure to air pollution in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madelin, Malika; Duché, Sarah; Dupuis, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution is a major environmental issue in urban areas. Chronic and high concentration exposure presents a health risk with cardiovascular and respiratory problems and longer term nervous, carcinogenic and endocrine problems. In addition to the estimations based on simulations of both background and regional pollution and of the pollution induced by the traffic, knowing exposure of each individual is a key issue. This exposure reflects the high variability of pollution at fine spatial and time scales, according to the proximity of emission sources and the urban morphology outside. The emergence of citizen science and the progress of miniaturized electronics, low-cost and accessible to (almost) everyone, offers new opportunities for the monitoring of air pollution, but also for the citizens' awareness of their individual exposure to air pollution. In this communication, we propose to present a participatory research project 'What is your air?' (project funded by the Île-de-France region), which aims at raising awareness on the theme of air quality, its monitoring with sensors assembled in a FabLab workshop and an online participatory mapping. Beyond the discussion on technical choices, the stages of manufacture or the sensor calibration procedures, we discuss the measurements made, in this case the fine particle concentration measurements, which are dated and georeferenced (communication via a mobile phone). They show high variability between the measurements (in part linked to the substrates, land use, traffic) and low daily contrasts. In addition to the analysis of the measurements and their comparison with the official data, we also discuss the choice of representation of information, including mapping, and therefore the message about pollution to communicate.

  13. Heavy metal contamination in an urban stream fed by contaminated air-conditioning and stormwater discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Aisling; Wicke, Daniel; Cochrane, Tom

    2012-03-01

    Urban waterways are impacted by diffuse stormwater runoff, yet other discharges can unintentionally contaminate them. The Okeover stream in Christchurch, New Zealand, receives air-conditioning discharge, while its ephemeral reach relies on untreated stormwater flow. Despite rehabilitation efforts, the ecosystem is still highly disturbed. It was assumed that stormwater was the sole contamination source to the stream although water quality data were sparse. We therefore investigated its water and sediment quality and compared the data with appropriate ecotoxicological thresholds from all water sources. Concentrations of metals (Zn, Cu and Pb) in stream baseflow, stormwater runoff, air-conditioning discharge and stream-bed sediments were quantified along with flow regimes to ascertain annual contaminant loads. Metals were analysed by ICP-MS following accredited techniques. Zn, Cu and Pb concentrations from stormflow exceeded relevant guidelines for the protection of 90% of aquatic species by 18-, 9- and 5-fold, respectively, suggesting substantial ecotoxicity potential. Sporadic copper (Cu) inputs from roof runoff exceeded these levels up to 3,200-fold at >4,000 μg L⁻¹ while Cu in baseflow from air-conditioning inputs exceeded them 5.4-fold. There was an 11-fold greater annual Cu load to the stream from air-conditioning discharge compared to stormwater runoff. Most Zn and Cu were dissolved species possibly enhancing metal bioavailability. Elevated metal concentrations were also found throughout the stream sediments. Environmental investigations revealed unsuspected contamination from air-conditioning discharge that contributed greater Cu annual loads to an urban stream compared to stormwater inputs. This discovery helped reassess treatment strategies for regaining ecological integrity in the ecosystem.

  14. Socioeconomic and urban-rural differentials in exposure to air pollution and mortality burden in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojevic, Ai; Niedzwiedz, Claire L; Pearce, Jamie; Milner, James; MacKenzie, Ian A; Doherty, Ruth M; Wilkinson, Paul

    2017-10-06

    Socioeconomically disadvantaged populations often have higher exposures to particulate air pollution, which can be expected to contribute to differentials in life expectancy. We examined socioeconomic differentials in exposure and air pollution-related mortality relating to larger scale (5 km resolution) variations in background concentrations of selected pollutants across England. Ozone and particulate matter (sub-divided into PM 10 , PM 2.5 , PM 2.5-10 , primary, nitrate and sulphate PM 2.5 ) were simulated at 5 km horizontal resolution using an atmospheric chemistry transport model (EMEP4UK). Annual mean concentrations of these pollutants were assigned to all 1,202,578 residential postcodes in England, which were classified by urban-rural status and socioeconomic deprivation based on the income and employment domains of the 2010 English Index of Multiple Deprivation for the Lower-level Super Output Area of residence. We used life table methods to estimate PM 2.5 -attributable life years (LYs) lost in both relative and absolute terms. Concentrations of the most particulate fractions, but not of nitrate PM 2.5 or ozone, were modestly higher in areas of greater socioeconomic deprivation. Relationships between pollution level and socioeconomic deprivation were non-linear and varied by urban-rural status. The pattern of PM 2.5 concentrations made only a small contribution to the steep socioeconomic gradient in LYs lost due to PM 2.5 per 10 3 population, which primarily was driven by the steep socioeconomic gradient in underlying mortality rates. In rural areas, the absolute burden of air pollution-related LYs lost was lowest in the most deprived deciles. Air pollution shows modest socioeconomic patterning at 5 km resolution in England, but absolute attributable mortality burdens are strongly related to area-level deprivation because of underlying mortality rates. Measures that cause a general reduction in background concentrations of air pollution may modestly

  15. Incorporating wind availability into land use regression modelling of air quality in mountainous high-density urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuan; Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun; Ng, Edward

    2017-08-01

    Urban air quality serves as an important function of the quality of urban life. Land use regression (LUR) modelling of air quality is essential for conducting health impacts assessment but more challenging in mountainous high-density urban scenario due to the complexities of the urban environment. In this study, a total of 21 LUR models are developed for seven kinds of air pollutants (gaseous air pollutants CO, NO 2 , NO x , O 3 , SO 2 and particulate air pollutants PM 2.5 , PM 10 ) with reference to three different time periods (summertime, wintertime and annual average of 5-year long-term hourly monitoring data from local air quality monitoring network) in Hong Kong. Under the mountainous high-density urban scenario, we improved the traditional LUR modelling method by incorporating wind availability information into LUR modelling based on surface geomorphometrical analysis. As a result, 269 independent variables were examined to develop the LUR models by using the "ADDRESS" independent variable selection method and stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR). Cross validation has been performed for each resultant model. The results show that wind-related variables are included in most of the resultant models as statistically significant independent variables. Compared with the traditional method, a maximum increase of 20% was achieved in the prediction performance of annual averaged NO 2 concentration level by incorporating wind-related variables into LUR model development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Impacts of urbanization and agricultural development on observed changes in surface air temperature over mainland China from 1961 to 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Songjun; Tang, Qiuhong; Xu, Di; Yang, Zhiyong

    2018-03-01

    A large proportion of meteorological stations in mainland China are located in or near either urban or agricultural lands that were established throughout the period of rapid urbanization and agricultural development (1961-2006). The extent of the impacts of urbanization and agricultural development on observed air temperature changes across different climate regions remains elusive. This study evaluates the surface air temperature trends observed by 598 meteorological stations in relation to the urbanization and agricultural development over the arid northwest, semi-arid intermediate, and humid southeast regions of mainland China based on linear regressions of temperature trends on the fractions of urban and cultivated land within a 3-km radius of the stations. In all three regions, the stations surrounded by large urban land tend to experience rapid warming, especially at minimum temperature. This dependence is particularly significant in the southeast region, which experiences the most intense urbanization. In the northwest and intermediate regions, stations surrounded by large cultivated land encounter less warming during the main growing season, especially at the maximum temperature changes. These findings suggest that the observed surface warming has been affected by urbanization and agricultural development represented by urban and cultivated land fractions around stations in with land cover changes in their proximity and should thus be considered when analyzing regional temperature changes in mainland China.

  17. Health impact of urban air pollution: the case of the metropolitan Paris area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myrto, V.; Menut, L.; Chatignoux, E.

    2011-01-01

    Urban meteorology and atmospheric composition has become an issue of great public concern. Mega-cities are areas of great population density and also of high rates of gaseous and particulate matter emission. The health of the residents of such large agglomerations will potentially be influenced by the local air-pollution, its formation and dispersion. Efforts are made to link air-pollution and health. Several questions are open: what is the relative contribution of the ambient air-pollution compared to all other exposure factors? What is the 'real' level of exposure reaching the individuals of a population? Can we distinguish the health effects of multiple- pollutants? To answer to these questions we have developed a modeling framework that maps the exposure of the Parisian population to ozone, nitrogen dioxide and fine particles at hourly resolution. This integrated model incorporates a meteorological model, a three-dimensional Eulerian air-quality model and a human exposure module. The first results of this modeling effort suggest new epidemiological evidence of the relationship between ambient air pollution levels and mortality over the city of Paris. (authors)

  18. Ischemic cardiovascular disease in workers occupationally exposed to urban air pollution - A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchis, Paola; Verso, Maria Gabriella; Tramuto, Fabio; Amodio, Emanuele; Picciotto, Diego

    2018-03-14

    Cardiovascular disease is the first cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Among several known risk factors, researchers also focus their attention on the chronic exposure to air pollution. There is much evidence that exposure to air pollution, especially to ultrafine particles, can damage the endothelium and can favour cardiovascular diseases in the general population. Occupational exposition could be an additive risk factor for the cardiovascular system. This article presents a scientific review of the linkage between occupational exposure to air pollution and ischemic heart disease. A scientific review was undertaken, followed by PRISMA Statements. Observational studies were selected from several scientific databases, likesuch as Pubmed, Google Scholar, Nioshtic-2 and Reserchgate, searching for selected key words: police workers, professional drivers, mail carriers, filling station attendants, road cleaners, garage workers, motor vehicles and engine maintenance. All the key words were combined with "Boolean Operators" with the following words: cardiovascular (or cardiac) disease, cardiovascular function, cardiovascular system, ischemic heart disease, coronary disease, myocardial infarction. During the systematic research, the focus was on retrospective and prospective studies from January 1990 - December 2014. Both the retrospective and prospective studies showed an increased risk of ischemic heart disease in occupationally occupied people exposed to air pollution. Only one study presented a ly minor risk. The findings of this systematic review suggest a possible linkage between occupational exposure to urban air pollution, especially to motor exhaust and particulate, and ischemic heart disease.

  19. Potential Cardiovascular and Total Mortality Benefits of Air Pollution Control in Urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen; Moran, Andrew E; Coxson, Pamela G; Yang, Xueli; Liu, Fangchao; Cao, Jie; Chen, Kai; Wang, Miao; He, Jiang; Goldman, Lee; Zhao, Dong; Kinney, Patrick L; Gu, Dongfeng

    2017-10-24

    Outdoor air pollution ranks fourth among preventable causes of China's burden of disease. We hypothesized that the magnitude of health gains from air quality improvement in urban China could compare with achieving recommended blood pressure or smoking control goals. The Cardiovascular Disease Policy Model-China projected coronary heart disease, stroke, and all-cause deaths in urban Chinese adults 35 to 84 years of age from 2017 to 2030 if recent air quality (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm, PM 2.5 ) and traditional cardiovascular risk factor trends continue. We projected life-years gained if urban China were to reach 1 of 3 air quality goals: Beijing Olympic Games level (mean PM 2.5 , 55 μg/m 3 ), China Class II standard (35 μg/m 3 ), or World Health Organization standard (10 μg/m 3 ). We compared projected air pollution reduction control benefits with potential benefits of reaching World Health Organization hypertension and tobacco control goals. Mean PM 2.5 reduction to Beijing Olympic levels by 2030 would gain ≈241,000 (95% uncertainty interval, 189 000-293 000) life-years annually. Achieving either the China Class II or World Health Organization PM 2.5 standard would yield greater health benefits (992 000 [95% uncertainty interval, 790 000-1 180 000] or 1 827 000 [95% uncertainty interval, 1 481 00-2 129 000] annual life-years gained, respectively) than World Health Organization-recommended goals of 25% improvement in systolic hypertension control and 30% reduction in smoking combined (928 000 [95% uncertainty interval, 830 000-1 033 000] life-years). Air quality improvement in different scenarios could lead to graded health benefits ranging from 241 000 life-years gained to much greater benefits equal to or greater than the combined benefits of 25% improvement in systolic hypertension control and 30% smoking reduction. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Optimal redistribution of an urban air quality monitoring network using atmospheric dispersion model and genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yufang; Xie, Shaodong

    2018-03-01

    Air quality monitoring networks play a significant role in identifying the spatiotemporal patterns of air pollution, and they need to be deployed efficiently, with a minimum number of sites. The revision and optimal adjustment of existing monitoring networks is crucial for cities that have undergone rapid urban expansion and experience temporal variations in pollution patterns. The approach based on the Weather Research and Forecasting-California PUFF (WRF-CALPUFF) model and genetic algorithm (GA) was developed to design an optimal monitoring network. The maximization of coverage with minimum overlap and the ability to detect violations of standards were developed as the design objectives for redistributed networks. The non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm was applied to optimize the network size and site locations simultaneously for Shijiazhuang city, one of the most polluted cities in China. The assessment on the current network identified the insufficient spatial coverage of SO2 and NO2 monitoring for the expanding city. The optimization results showed that significant improvements were achieved in multiple objectives by redistributing the original network. Efficient coverage of the resulting designs improved to 60.99% and 76.06% of the urban area for SO2 and NO2, respectively. The redistributing design for multi-pollutant including 8 sites was also proposed, with the spatial representation covered 52.30% of the urban area and the overlapped areas decreased by 85.87% compared with the original network. The abilities to detect violations of standards were not improved as much as the other two objectives due to the conflicting nature between the multiple objectives. Additionally, the results demonstrated that the algorithm was slightly sensitive to the parameter settings, with the number of generations presented the most significant effect. Overall, our study presents an effective and feasible procedure for air quality network optimization at a city scale.

  1. Regional/Urban Air Quality Modeling Assessment over China Using the Models-3/CMAQ System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, J. S.; Jang, C. C.; Streets, D. G.; Li, Z.; Wang, L.; Zhang, Q.; Woo, J.; Wang, B.

    2004-12-01

    China is the world's most populous country with a fast growing economy that surges in energy comsumption. It has become the second largest energy consumer after the United States although the per capita level is much lower than those found in developed or developing countries. Air pollution has become one of the most important problems of megacities such as Beijing and Shanghai and has serious impacts on public health, causes urban and regional haze. The Models-3/CMAQ modeling application that has been conducted to simulate multi-pollutants in China is presented. The modeling domains cover East Asia (36-kmx36-km) including Japan, South Korea, Korea DPR, Indonesia, Thailand, India and Mongolia, East China (12-kmx12-km) and Beijing/Tianjing, Shanghai (4-kmx4-km). For this study, the Asian emission inventory based on the emission estimates of the year 2000 that supported the NASA TRACE-P program is used. However, the TRACE-P emission inventory was developed for a different purpose such as global modeling. TRACE-P emission inventory may not be practical in urban area. There is no China national emission inventory available. Therefore, TRACE-P emission inventory is used on the East Asia and East China domains. The 8 districts of Beijing and Shanghai local emissions inventory are used to replace TRACE-P in 4-km domains. The meteorological data for the Models-3/CMAQ run are extracted from MM5. The model simulation is performed during the period January 1-20 and July 1-20, 2001 that presented the winter and summer time for China areas. The preliminary model results are shown O3 concentrations are in the range of 80 -120 ppb in the urban area. Lower urban O3 concentrations are shown in Beijing areas, possibly due to underestimation of urban man-made VOC emissions in the TRACE-P inventory and local inventory. High PM2.5 (70ug/m3 in summer and 150ug/m3 in winter) were simulated over metropolitan & downwind areas with significant secondary constituents. More comprehensive

  2. Factors influencing indoor air quality in an urban high rise apartment building (retitled as "Air Pollution and air exchange in an urban high rise apartment building")

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division (HEASD) conducts research in support of EPA mission to protect human health and the environment. HEASD research program supports Goal 1 (Clean Air) and Goal 4 (Healthy People) of EP...

  3. Modeling Air Temperature/Water Temperature Relations Along a Small Mountain Stream Under Increasing Urban Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedders, E. R.; Anderson, W. P., Jr.; Hengst, A. M.; Gu, C.

    2017-12-01

    Boone Creek is a headwater stream of low to moderate gradient located in Boone, North Carolina, USA. Total impervious surface coverage in the 5.2 km2 catchment drained by the 1.9 km study reach increases from 13.4% in the upstream half of the reach to 24.3% in the downstream half. Other markers of urbanization, including culverting, lack of riparian shade vegetation, and bank armoring also increase downstream. Previous studies have shown the stream to be prone to temperature surges on short timescales (minutes to hours) caused by summer runoff from the urban hardscaping. This study investigates the effects of urbanization on the stream's thermal regime at daily to yearly timescales. To do this, we developed an analytical model of daily average stream temperatures based on daily average air temperatures. We utilized a two-part model comprising annual and biannual components and a daily component consisting of a 3rd-order Markov process in order to fit the thermal dynamics of our small, gaining stream. Optimizing this model at each of our study sites in each studied year (78 total site-years of data) yielded annual thermal exchange coefficients (K) for each site. These K values quantify the strength of the relationship between stream and air temperature, or inverse thermal stability. In a uniform, pristine catchment environment, K values are expected to decrease downstream as the stream gains discharge volume and, therefore, thermal inertia. Interannual average K values for our study reach, however, show an overall increase from 0.112 furthest upstream to 0.149 furthest downstream, despite a near doubling of stream discharge between these monitoring points. K values increase only slightly in the upstream, less urban, half of the reach. A line of best fit through these points on a plot of reach distance versus K value has a slope of 2E-6. But the K values of downstream, more urbanized sites increase at a rate of 2E-5 per meter of reach distance, an order of magnitude

  4. Passive air exchanges between building and urban canyon via openings in a single facade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrios, K.; Hunt, G.R.

    2008-01-01

    The results of an experimental study examining the steady exchange of air and heat between a building and an urban canyon are presented. The focus is on the effect of the canyon aspect ratio on the airflow through openings made exclusively in one side of the building. The interaction of the external wind flow and the internal thermally-driven flow was shown to depend upon the ratio of the building height H b to the canyon width W (distance between buildings forming the canyons). The trends observed as this aspect ratio (H b /W) was varied allow for identification of canyon geometries that yield reduced or enhanced building ventilation airflow rates

  5. The effect of transport on air quality in urban areas of Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almasri, Radwan; Muneer, Tariq; Cullinane, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Statistics show that the number of cars per capita in Syria is still low, but that the figure has more than doubled since 2004. Syria also suffers from inadequate public transport provision, poor infrastructure and the absence of suitable traffic management systems, with the average speed of road transport in Damascus at about 4-5 km/h. Only until very recently, a comprehensive network for the continuous monitoring of air pollutants has been lacking. This paper reviews, collates and synthesises the results of numerous studies of Syrian road transport, with an emphasis on air pollution from Syria's transport and energy production sectors. It is revealed that what studies that have been done show that the air quality in Syrian urban areas falls below established national air quality standards, especially during winter when the demand for heating is high. The paper proposes a number of suggestions to improve air quality in Syria by using greener and more public transport, promoting and incentivising rational and efficient energy consumption in all sectors, taking advantage of available renewable energy resources, establishing an active network for routine measurement of pollution, setting local emissions standards that are in line with international standards and which are supported by the imposition of penalties, fines or taxation on polluting agents. - Highlights: → Car ownership in Syria is low, but has more than doubled since 2004. → Air pollution from Syria's transport and energy production sectors are analysed. → Air quality can be improved by using greener and more public transport. → Policy should incentivise efficient energy consumption in all sectors. → The use of renewable energy resources should be promoted.

  6. Association of ambient air quality with children`s lung function in urban and rural Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asgari, M.M.; Dubois, A.; Beckett, W.S. [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Asgari, M. [Shaheed Beheshti Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gent, J. [John B. Pierce Lab., New Haven, CT (United States)

    1998-05-01

    During the summer of 1994, a cross-sectional epidemiological study, in which the pulmonary function of children in Tehran was compared with pulmonary function in children in a rural town in Iran, was conducted. Four hundred children aged 5--11 y were studied. Daytime ambient nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter were measured with portable devices, which were placed in the children`s neighborhoods on the days of study. Levels of these ambient substances were markedly higher in urban Tehran than in rural areas. Children`s parents were questioned about home environmental exposures (including heating source and environmental tobacco smoke) and the children`s respiratory symptoms. Pulmonary function was assessed, both by spirometry and peak expiratory flow meter. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity--as a percentage of predicted for age, sex and height--were significantly lower in urban children than in rural children. Both measurements evidenced significant reverse correlations with levels of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter. Differences in spirometric lung function were not explained by nutritional status, as assessed by height and weight for age, or by home environmental exposures. Reported airway symptoms were higher among rural children, whereas reported physician diagnosis of bronchitis and asthma were higher among urban children. The association between higher pollutant concentrations and reduced pulmonary function in this urban-rural comparison suggests that there is an effect of urban air pollution on short-term lung function and/or lung growth and development during the preadolescent years.

  7. Biomonitoring of genotoxic effects and elemental accumulation derived from air pollution in community urban gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato-Lourenco, Luís Fernando; Lobo, Debora Jã A; Guimarães, Eliane T; Moreira, Tiana Carla Lopes; Carvalho-Oliveira, Regiani; Saiki, Mitiko; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Mauad, Thais

    2017-01-01

    Urban gardening is a growing global phenomenon with a positive impact on society. Despite several associated benefits, growing vegetables in urban gardens that are localized in highly polluted areas poses questions about the safety of the produced food. Therefore, the identification of risk factors that result in possible deleterious effects to human health is important for realizing all of the benefits to society. We evaluated the use of two biomonitoring methods in ten urban gardens of Sao Paulo city and one control site: the micronuclei frequencies for early tetrads of Tradescantia pallida (Rose) Hunt. cv. "Purpurea" Boom (hereafter, Trad-MCN) as a short-term indicator of genotoxic response and tree barks to quantify the accumulation of traffic-related chemical elements as a long-term biomarker of air pollution in urban gardens. Mature plants of Tradescantia pallida were exposed in each garden, and their inflorescences were sampled over three months. A random set of 300 early tetrads in 13 to 21 slides per garden were evaluated for micronuclei frequencies. Elemental concentrations in 428 tree barks samples from 107 different trees in the areas surrounding urban gardens were quantified using an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. The frequency of Trad-MCN has a significant correlation with traffic variables and chemical elements related to road dust and tailpipe emissions deposited in tree barks. Negative associations between Trad-MCN and both the distance through traffic and the presence of vertical obstacles were observed in the community gardens. The Mn/Zn concentrations in tree barks were associated with increased Trad-MCN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Empirical yield tables for Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerold T. Hahn; Joan M. Stelman

    1984-01-01

    Describes the tables derived from the 1980 Forest Survey of Michigan and presents ways the tables can be used. These tables are broken down according to Michigan's four Forest Survey Units, 14 forest types, and 5 site-index classes.

  9. Air quality lichen monitoring at three selected urban areas in the Southern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković, S.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of a study using epiphytic lichens as bioindicators, on teritory of three different urban areas in the Southern Serbia (Leskovac, Vlasotince, Lebane are reported. The analysis of samples from 142 investigated points indicates presence of 53 lichens taxa. The aim of the study is to present the difference in air quality over a certain time interval. Using the Index of Atmospheric Purity- IAP values, it has been found that there are different air pollution zones: „normal“ zone, „struggle“ zone and „lichen desert“ zone. The comparison of the results obtained in 2002 and 2013 in Vlasotince indicates the presence of „normal“ zone in 2002 but, in 2013, the „normal zone“ area was completely replaced with the „struggle“ zone. In Leskovac, unlike the previous studies, a slightly narrowing “lichen desert" zone is noticed. In Lebane, there is a presence of all lichen zones.

  10. Exposure to urban air pollution and bone health in clinically healthy six-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Francolira, Maricela; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Peña-Cruz, Bernardo; Palacios-López, Carolina; Zhu, Hongtu; Kong, Linglong; Mendoza-Mendoza, Nicolás; Montesinoscorrea, Hortencia; Romero, Lina; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; Kavanaugh, Michael; Frenk, Silvestre

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution induces systemic inflammation, as well as respiratory, myocardial and brain inflammation in children. Peak bone mass is influenced by environmental factors. We tested the hypothesis that six-year-olds with lifetime exposures to urban air pollution will have alterations in inflammatory markers and bone mineral density (BMD) as opposed to low-polluted city residents when matched for BMI, breast feeding history, skin phototype, age, sex and socioeconomic status. This pilot study included 20 children from Mexico City (MC) (6.17 years ± 0.63 years) and 15 controls (6.27 years ± 0.76 years). We performed full paediatric examinations, a history of outdoor exposures, seven-day dietary recalls, serum inflammatory markers and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Children in MC had significantly higher concentrations of IL-6 (p=0.001), marked reductions in total blood neutrophils (p= 0.0002) and an increase in monocytes (p=0.005). MC children also had an insufficient Vitamin D intake and spent less time outdoors than controls (p<0.001) in an environment characterized by decreased UV light, with ozone and fine particulates concentrations above standard values. There were no significant differences between the cohorts in DXA Z scores. The impact of systemic inflammation, vitamin D insufficiency, air pollution, urban violence and poverty may have long-term bone detrimental outcomes in exposed paediatric populations as they grow older, increasing the risk of low bone mass and osteoporosis. The selection of reference populations for DXA must take into account air pollution exposures.

  11. CFD modelling of the aerodynamic effect of trees on urban air pollution dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, J H; Rodrigues, V; Tavares, R; Valente, J; Borrego, C

    2013-09-01

    The current work evaluates the impact of urban trees over the dispersion of carbon monoxide (CO) emitted by road traffic, due to the induced modification of the wind flow characteristics. With this purpose, the standard flow equations with a kε closure for turbulence were extended with the capability to account for the aerodynamic effect of trees over the wind field. Two CFD models were used for testing this numerical approach. Air quality simulations were conducted for two periods of 31h in selected areas of Lisbon and Aveiro, in Portugal, for distinct relative wind directions: approximately 45° and nearly parallel to the main avenue, respectively. The statistical evaluation of modelling performance and uncertainty revealed a significant improvement of results with trees, as shown by the reduction of the NMSE from 0.14 to 0.10 in Lisbon, and from 0.14 to 0.04 in Aveiro, which is independent from the CFD model applied. The consideration of the plant canopy allowed to fulfil the data quality objectives for ambient air quality modelling established by the Directive 2008/50/EC, with an important decrease of the maximum deviation between site measurements and CFD results. In the non-aligned wind situation an average 12% increase of the CO concentrations in the domain was observed as a response to the aerodynamic action of trees over the vertical exchange rates of polluted air with the above roof-level atmosphere; while for the aligned configuration an average 16% decrease was registered due to the enhanced ventilation of the street canyon. These results show that urban air quality can be optimised based on knowledge-based planning of green spaces. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Land-Use Regression Modelling of Intra-Urban Air Pollution Variation in China: Current Status and Future Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baihuiqian He

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization in China is leading to substantial adverse air quality issues, particularly for NO2 and particulate matter (PM. Land-use regression (LUR models are now being applied to simulate pollutant concentrations with high spatial resolution in Chinese urban areas. However, Chinese urban areas differ from those in Europe and North America, for example in respect of population density, urban morphology and pollutant emissions densities, so it is timely to assess current LUR studies in China to highlight current challenges and identify future needs. Details of twenty-four recent LUR models for NO2 and PM2.5/PM10 (particles with aerodynamic diameters <2.5 µm and <10 µm are tabulated and reviewed as the basis for discussion in this paper. We highlight that LUR modelling in China is currently constrained by a scarcity of input data, especially air pollution monitoring data. There is an urgent need for accessible archives of quality-assured measurement data and for higher spatial resolution proxy data for urban emissions, particularly in respect of traffic-related variables. The rapidly evolving nature of the Chinese urban landscape makes maintaining up-to-date land-use and urban morphology datasets a challenge. We also highlight the importance for Chinese LUR models to be subject to appropriate validation statistics. Integration of LUR with portable monitor data, remote sensing, and dispersion modelling has the potential to enhance derivation of urban pollution maps.

  13. Air quality public policies and their implications for densely populated urban areas in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos de Moura Xavier

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the current growth of the Brazilian population income and energy consumption and an increase in the population density in urban areas, air quality in the crowded Brazilian cities is being questioned. In searching for a solution we analyzed both the Brazilian and Regional (São Paulo state public policies of air quality that have been issued since 1981 by confronting them to the air quality official indexes. Following the growth of the national vehicle fleet, 48.8 million in 2012 from 9.3 million in 1980, the total carbon dioxide emissions tripled. At regional level, PM2.5 measurements have been carried out systematically since 1999 in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo city, the largest Brazilian city, with 19.7 million inhabitants, and more than 7 million vehicles powered mainly by fossil fuels. Although the numbers are still above the state standard to be reached (10µg.m-3, there was a decrease on the annual average in 2008-2015 compared with 2001-2007. This was partially due to the limits established for new vehicles by federal programs. The analysis indicated that the reduction of air pollutants emission will be more easily achieved based on strategies that combine policies supported by current laws, government and private sector agreements and the community engagement.

  14. Characteristics of selected elements of the air quality management system in urban areas in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sówka, Izabela; Kobus, Dominik; Chlebowska Styś, Anna; Zathey, Maciej

    2017-11-01

    Most of Europeans living in cities are exposed to concentrations of air pollutants in excess of the thresholds given in the WHO guidelines and EU legislation. Due to this fact, for the urban air quality systems, the mechanisms of proper information and warning of the inhabitants as well as legal, economic and spatial planning instruments should be improved. The analysis of Polish air quality management system and its' selected components (exemplary measures, information-spreading methods, spatial planning instruments) in four selected Polish cities (Wroclaw, Warsaw, Poznan and Cracow) indicated the need to develop effective solutions, among others, in terms of: emission requirements for combustion of fuels of power of up to 1 MW; admission of high emission fuels on the market; legal and coordination issues at the level of implementation of the area development policy and coordination of activities covering issues within the scope of the structure of planning documents including mainly: ambient air protection programs, spatial developments plans in communes and voivodeships, low emission economy plans, plans of sustainable development of public transport, plans of providing heat, electric power and gas fuels to communes, acts of regional parliaments, introducing limitations based on the Environmental Protection Act and strategies of voivodeship.

  15. A Low-Cost Sensing System for Cooperative Air Quality Monitoring in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Brienza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Air quality in urban areas is a very important topic as it closely affects the health of citizens. Recent studies highlight that the exposure to polluted air can increase the incidence of diseases and deteriorate the quality of life. Hence, it is necessary to develop tools for real-time air quality monitoring, so as to allow appropriate and timely decisions. In this paper, we present uSense, a low-cost cooperative monitoring tool that allows knowing, in real-time, the concentrations of polluting gases in various areas of the city. Specifically, users monitor the areas of their interest by deploying low-cost and low-power sensor nodes. In addition, they can share the collected data following a social networking approach. uSense has been tested through an in-field experimentation performed in different areas of a city. The obtained results are in line with those provided by the local environmental control authority and show that uSense can be profitably used for air quality monitoring.

  16. The NYC native air sampling pilot project: using HVAC filter data for urban biological incident characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackelsberg, Joel; Leykam, Frederic M; Hazi, Yair; Madsen, Larry C; West, Todd H; Faltesek, Anthony; Henderson, Gavin D; Henderson, Christopher L; Leighton, Terrance

    2011-09-01

    Native air sampling (NAS) is distinguished from dedicated air sampling (DAS) devices (eg, BioWatch) that are deployed to detect aerosol disseminations of biological threat agents. NAS uses filter samples from heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in commercial properties for environmental sampling after DAS detection of biological threat agent incidents. It represents an untapped, scientifically sound, efficient, widely distributed, and comparably inexpensive resource for postevent environmental sampling. Calculations predict that postevent NAS would be more efficient than environmental surface sampling by orders of magnitude. HVAC filter samples could be collected from pre-identified surrounding NAS facilities to corroborate the DAS alarm and delineate the path taken by the bioaerosol plume. The New York City (NYC) Native Air Sampling Pilot Project explored whether native air sampling would be acceptable to private sector stakeholders and could be implemented successfully in NYC. Building trade associations facilitated outreach to and discussions with property owners and managers, who expedited contact with building managers of candidate NAS properties that they managed or owned. Nominal NAS building requirements were determined; procedures to identify and evaluate candidate NAS facilities were developed; data collection tools and other resources were designed and used to expedite candidate NAS building selection and evaluation in Manhattan; and exemplar environmental sampling playbooks for emergency responders were completed. In this sample, modern buildings with single or few corporate tenants were the best NAS candidate facilities. The Pilot Project successfully demonstrated that in one urban setting a native air sampling strategy could be implemented with effective public-private collaboration.

  17. Benzene levels in ambient air and breath of smokers and nonsmokers in urban and pristine environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wester, R.C.; Maibach, H.I.; Gruenke, L.D.; Craig, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Benzene levels in human breath and in ambient air were compared in the urban area of San Francisco (SF) and in a more remote coastal pristine setting of Stinson Beach, Calif. (SB). Benzene analysis was done by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Ambient benzene levels were sevenfold higher in SF (2.6 +/- 1.3 ppb, n = 25) than SB (0.38 +/- 0.39 ppb, n = 21). In SF, benzene in smokers' breath (6.8 +/- 3.0 ppb) was greater than in nonsmokers' breath (2.5 +/- 0.8 ppb) and smokers' ambient air (3.3 +/- 0.8 ppb). In SB the same pattern was observed: benzene in smokers' breath was higher than in nonsmokers' breath and ambient air. Benzene in SF nonsmokers' breath was greater than in SB nonsmokers' breath. Marijuana-only smokers had benzene breath levels between those of smokers and nonsmokers. There was little correlation between benzene in breath and number of cigarettes smoked, or with other benzene exposures such as diet. Of special interest was the finding that benzene in breath of SF nonsmokers (2.5 +/- 0.8 ppb) was greater than that in nonsmokers ambient air (1.4 +/- 0.1 ppb). The same was true in SB, where benzene in nonsmokers breath was greater than ambient air (1.8 +/- 0.2 ppb versus 1.0 +/- 0.1 ppb on d 1 and 1.3 +/- 0.3 ppb versus 0.23 +/- 0.18 ppb on d 2). This suggests an additional source of benzene other than outdoor ambient air.

  18. Reduced Ultrafine Particle Concentration in Urban Air: Changes in Nucleation and Anthropogenic Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Provat K; Robinson, Ellis S; Shah, Rishabh U; Zimmerman, Naomi; Apte, Joshua S; Robinson, Allen L; Presto, Albert A

    2018-06-19

    Nucleation is an important source of ambient ultrafine particles (UFP). We present observational evidence of the changes in the frequency and intensity of nucleation events in urban air by analyzing long-term particle size distribution measurements at an urban background site in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania during 2001-2002 and 2016-2017. We find that both frequency and intensity of nucleation events have been reduced by 40-50% over the past 15 years, resulting in a 70% reduction in UFP concentrations from nucleation. On average, the particle growth rates are 30% slower than 15 years ago. We attribute these changes to dramatic reductions in SO 2 (more than 90%) and other pollutant concentrations. Overall, UFP concentrations in Pittsburgh have been reduced by ∼48% in the past 15 years, with a ∼70% reduction in nucleation, ∼27% in weekday local sources (e.g., weekday traffic), and 49% in the regional background. Our results highlight that a reduction in anthropogenic emissions can considerably reduce nucleation events and UFP concentrations in a polluted urban environment.

  19. Road traffic impact on urban water quality: a step towards integrated traffic, air and stormwater modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah Shorshani, Masoud; Bonhomme, Céline; Petrucci, Guido; André, Michel; Seigneur, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Methods for simulating air pollution due to road traffic and the associated effects on stormwater runoff quality in an urban environment are examined with particular emphasis on the integration of the various simulation models into a consistent modelling chain. To that end, the models for traffic, pollutant emissions, atmospheric dispersion and deposition, and stormwater contamination are reviewed. The present study focuses on the implementation of a modelling chain for an actual urban case study, which is the contamination of water runoff by cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in the Grigny urban catchment near Paris, France. First, traffic emissions are calculated with traffic inputs using the COPERT4 methodology. Next, the atmospheric dispersion of pollutants is simulated with the Polyphemus line source model and pollutant deposition fluxes in different subcatchment areas are calculated. Finally, the SWMM water quantity and quality model is used to estimate the concentrations of pollutants in stormwater runoff. The simulation results are compared to mass flow rates and concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn measured at the catchment outlet. The contribution of local traffic to stormwater contamination is estimated to be significant for Pb and, to a lesser extent, for Zn and Cd; however, Pb is most likely overestimated due to outdated emissions factors. The results demonstrate the importance of treating distributed traffic emissions from major roadways explicitly since the impact of these sources on concentrations in the catchment outlet is underestimated when those traffic emissions are spatially averaged over the catchment area.

  20. Effects of Roof-Edge Roughness on Air Temperature and Pollutant Concentration in Urban Canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliabadi, Amir A.; Krayenhoff, E. Scott; Nazarian, Negin; Chew, Lup Wai; Armstrong, Peter R.; Afshari, Afshin; Norford, Leslie K.

    2017-08-01

    The influence of roof-edge roughness elements on airflow, heat transfer, and street-level pollutant transport inside and above a two-dimensional urban canyon is analyzed using an urban energy balance model coupled to a large-eddy simulation model. Simulations are performed for cold (early morning) and hot (mid afternoon) periods during the hottest month of the year (August) for the climate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. The analysis suggests that early in the morning, and when the tallest roughness elements are implemented, the temperature above the street level increases on average by 0.5 K, while the pollutant concentration decreases by 2% of the street-level concentration. For the same conditions in mid afternoon, the temperature decreases conservatively by 1 K, while the pollutant concentration increases by 7% of the street-level concentration. As a passive or active architectural solution, the roof roughness element shows promise for improving thermal comfort and air quality in the canyon for specific times, but this should be further verified experimentally. The results also warrant a closer look at the effects of mid-range roughness elements in the urban morphology on atmospheric dynamics so as to improve parametrizations in mesoscale modelling.

  1. Effectiveness of green infrastructure for improvement of air quality in urban street canyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Thomas A M; Mackenzie, A Robert; Whyatt, J Duncan; Hewitt, C Nicholas

    2012-07-17

    Street-level concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and particulate matter (PM) exceed public health standards in many cities, causing increased mortality and morbidity. Concentrations can be reduced by controlling emissions, increasing dispersion, or increasing deposition rates, but little attention has been paid to the latter as a pollution control method. Both NO(2) and PM are deposited onto surfaces at rates that vary according to the nature of the surface; deposition rates to vegetation are much higher than those to hard, built surfaces. Previously, city-scale studies have suggested that deposition to vegetation can make a very modest improvement (street canyons. This study shows that increasing deposition by the planting of vegetation in street canyons can reduce street-level concentrations in those canyons by as much as 40% for NO(2) and 60% for PM. Substantial street-level air quality improvements can be gained through action at the scale of a single street canyon or across city-sized areas of canyons. Moreover, vegetation will continue to offer benefits in the reduction of pollution even if the traffic source is removed from city centers. Thus, judicious use of vegetation can create an efficient urban pollutant filter, yielding rapid and sustained improvements in street-level air quality in dense urban areas.

  2. Monitoring urban transport air pollution and energy demand in Rawalpindi and Islamabad using leap model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabbir, Rabia; Ahmad, Sheikh Saeed [Department of Environmental Sciences, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi (Pakistan)

    2010-05-15

    A research associated with urban transportation was carried out in Rawalpindi and Islamabad to analyze the status of emission of air pollutants and energy demands. The study included a discussion of past trends and future scenarios in order to reduce the future emissions. A simple model of passenger transport has been developed using computer based software called Long-Range Energy Alternatives Planning System (LEAP). The LEAP model was used to estimate total energy demand and the vehicular emissions for the base year 2000 and extrapolated till 2030 for the future predictions. Transport database in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, together with fuel consumption values for the vehicle types and emission factors of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and PM{sub 10} corresponding to the actual vehicle types, formed the basis of the transport demand, energy consumption and total emission calculations. Apart from base scenario, the model was run under three alternative scenarios to study the impact of different urban transport policy initiatives that would reduce energy demand and emissions in transport sector of Rawalpindi and Islamabad. The prime objective was to arrive at an optimal transport policy, which limits the future growth of fuel consumption as well as air pollution. (author)

  3. Ice-nucleating particle concentrations unaffected by urban air pollution in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Wu, Zhijun; Augustin-Bauditz, Stefanie; Grawe, Sarah; Hartmann, Markus; Pei, Xiangyu; Liu, Zirui; Ji, Dongsheng; Wex, Heike

    2018-03-01

    Exceedingly high levels of PM2.5 with complex chemical composition occur frequently in China. It has been speculated whether anthropogenic PM2.5 may significantly contribute to ice-nucleating particles (INP). However, few studies have focused on the ice-nucleating properties of urban particles. In this work, two ice-nucleating droplet arrays have been used to determine the atmospheric number concentration of INP (NINP) in the range from -6 to -25 °C in Beijing. No correlations between NINP and either PM2.5 or black carbon mass concentrations were found, although both varied by more than a factor of 30 during the sampling period. Similarly, there were no correlations between NINP and either total particle number concentration or number concentrations for particles with diameters > 500 nm. Furthermore, there was no clear difference between day and night samples. All these results indicate that Beijing air pollution did not increase or decrease INP concentrations in the examined temperature range above values observed in nonurban areas; hence, the background INP concentrations might not be anthropogenically influenced as far as urban air pollution is concerned, at least in the examined temperature range.

  4. Tool for assessing health and equity impacts of interventions modifying air quality in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, Yuri; Benmarhnia, Tarik; Brousselle, Astrid

    2015-12-01

    Urban outdoor air pollution (AP) is a major public health concern but the mechanisms by which interventions impact health and social inequities are rarely assessed. Health and equity impacts of policies and interventions are questioned, but managers and policy agents in various institutional contexts have very few practical tools to help them better orient interventions in sectors other than the health sector. Our objective was to create such a tool to facilitate the assessment of health impacts of urban outdoor AP interventions by non-public health experts. An iterative process of reviewing the academic literature, brainstorming, and consultation with experts was used to identify the chain of effects of urban outdoor AP and the major modifying factors. To test its applicability, the tool was applied to two interventions, the London Low Emission Zone and the Montréal BIXI public bicycle-sharing program. We identify the chain of effects, six categories of modifying factors: those controlling the source of emissions, the quantity of emissions, concentrations of emitted pollutants, their spatial distribution, personal exposure, and individual vulnerability. Modifiable and non-modifiable factors are also identified. Results are presented in the text but also graphically, as we wanted it to be a practical tool, from pollution sources to emission, exposure, and finally, health effects. The tool represents a practical first step to assessing AP-related interventions for health and equity impacts. Understanding how different factors affect health and equity through air pollution can provide insight to city policymakers pursuing Health in All Policies. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Morbidity Forecast in Cities: A Study of Urban Air Pollution and Respiratory Diseases in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Fabio Teodoro

    2018-05-29

    In the last two decades, urbanization has intensified, and in Brazil, about 90% of the population now lives in urban centers. Atmospheric patterns have changed owing to the high growth rate of cities, with negative consequences for public health. This research aims to elucidate the spatial patterns of air pollution and respiratory diseases. A data-based model to aid local urban management to improve public health policies concerning air pollution is described. An example of data preparation and multivariate analysis with inventories from different cities in the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba was studied. A predictive model with outstanding accuracy in prediction of outbreaks was developed. Preliminary results describe relevant relations among morbidity scales, air pollution levels, and atmospheric seasonal patterns. The knowledge gathered here contributes to the debate on social issues and public policies. Moreover, the results of this smaller scale study can be extended to megacities.

  6. Impacts of land use and land cover on surface and air temperature in urban landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, S.; Jenerette, D.

    2015-12-01

    Accelerating urbanization affects regional climate as the result of changing land cover and land use (LCLU). Urban land cover composition may provide valuable insight into relationships among urbanization, air, and land-surface temperature (Ta and LST, respectively). Climate may alter these relationships, where hotter climates experience larger LULC effects. To address these hypotheses we examined links between Ta, LST, LCLU, and vegetation across an urban coastal to desert climate gradient in southern California, USA. Using surface temperature radiometers, continuously measuring LST on standardized asphalt, concrete, and turf grass surfaces across the climate gradient, we found a 7.2°C and 4.6°C temperature decrease from asphalt to vegetated cover in the coast and desert, respectively. There is 131% more temporal variation in asphalt than turf grass surfaces, but 37% less temporal variation in concrete than turf grass. For concrete and turf grass surfaces, temporal variation in temperature increased from coast to desert. Using ground-based thermal imagery, measuring LST for 24 h sequences over citrus orchard and industrial use locations, we found a 14.5°C temperature decrease from industrial to orchard land use types (38.4°C and 23.9°C, respectively). Additionally, industrial land use types have 209% more spatial variation than orchard (CV=0.20 and 0.09, respectively). Using a network of 300 Ta (iButton) sensors mounted in city street trees throughout the region and hyperspectral imagery data we found urban vegetation greenness, measured using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), was negatively correlated to Ta at night across the climate gradient. Contrasting previous findings, the closest coupling between NDVI and Ta is at the coast from 0000 h to 0800 h (highest r2 = 0.6, P urbanized regions of southern California, USA decrease Ta and LST and spatial variation in LST, while built surfaces and land uses have the opposite effect. Furthermore

  7. Michigan forest statistics, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard K. Raile; W. Brad Smith

    1983-01-01

    The fourth inventory of the timber resource of Michigan shows a 7% decline in commercial forest area and a 27% gain in growing-stock volume between 1966 and 1980. Highlights and statistics are presented on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, and biomass.

  8. Notes on Michigan Boletaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Alexander H.

    1973-01-01

    Studies have continued on the diversity of the Michigan bolete flora. During the season of 1972 a variety of Boletus affinis Peck having a reticulate stipe was discovered and abundant material of Boletus bicolor var. subreticulatus Smith & Thiers was obtained. Boletus hortonii Smith & Thiers was

  9. Air pollution assessment based on elemental concentration of leaves tissue and foliage dust along an urbanization gradient in Vienna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Edina; Braun, Mihály; Vidic, Andreas; Bogyó, Dávid; Fábián, István; Tóthmérész, Béla

    2011-05-01

    Foliage dust contains heavy metal that may have harmful effects on human health. The elemental contents of tree leaves and foliage dust are especially useful to assess air environmental pollution. We studied the elemental concentrations in foliage dust and leaves of Acer pseudoplatanus along an urbanization gradient in Vienna, Austria. Samples were collected from urban, suburban and rural areas. We analysed 19 elements in both kind of samples: aluminium, barium, calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphor, sulphur, strontium and zinc. We found that the elemental concentrations of foliage dust were significantly higher in the urban area than in the rural area for aluminium, barium, iron, lead, phosphor and selenium. Elemental concentrations of leaves were significantly higher in urban than in rural area for manganese and strontium. Urbanization changed significantly the elemental concentrations of foliage dust and leaves and the applied method can be useful for monitoring the environmental load. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Urban air pollution produces up-regulation of myocardial inflammatory genes and dark chocolate provides cardioprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Reed, William; Palacios-Moreno, Juan; Keefe, Sheyla; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2012-05-01

    Air pollution is a serious environmental problem. Elderly subjects show increased cardiac morbidity and mortality associated with air pollution exposure. Mexico City (MC) residents are chronically exposed to high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) and PM-associated lipopolysaccharides (PM-LPS). To test the hypothesis that chronic exposure to urban pollution produces myocardial inflammation, female Balb-c mice age 4 weeks were exposed for 16 months to two distinctly different polluted areas within MC: southwest (SW) and northwest (NW). SW mice were given either no treatment or chocolate 2g/9.5 mg polyphenols/3 times per week. Results were compared to mice kept in clean air. Key inflammatory mediator genes: cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and the LPS receptor CD14 (cluster of differentiation antigen 14) were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Also explored were target NFκB (nuclear factor κB), oxidative stress and antioxidant defense genes. TNF-α, IL-6, and COX-2 were significantly increased in both NW and SWMC mice (p=0.0001). CD14 was up-regulated in SW mice in keeping with the high exposures to particulate matter associated endotoxin. Chocolate administration resulted in a significant down-regulation of TNF-α (p<0.0001), IL-6 (p=0.01), and IL-1β (p=0.02). The up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and the down-regulation of potent oxidases, toll-like receptors, and pro-apoptotic signaling genes completed the protective profile. Exposure to air pollution produces up-regulation of inflammatory myocardial genes and endotoxin plays a key role in the inflammatory response. Regular consumption of dark chocolate may reduce myocardial inflammation and have cardioprotective properties in the setting of air pollution exposures. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Porphyrin pattern and methemoglobin levels in Columba livia applied to assess toxicological risk by air pollution in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicolo, Matteo; Tringali, Maria; Orsi, Federica; Santagostino, Angela

    2009-11-01

    The study has explored two conservative biomarkers, porphyrin pattern in guano and methemoglobin levels in blood of Columba livia, in order to assay their potential use for monitoring toxic effects induced by exposure to urban air pollution. Fieldwork was conducted between October 2003 and June 2005 in the city of Milan, Italy, by sampling the pigeons in different areas almost twice a week. Six air contaminants, CO, PM10, NO(2), O(3), SO(2), and C(6)H(6), plus polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fine particles, temperature, and UV index, were considered. Protoporphyrins from pigeon excreta sampled outdoors were always higher than in indoor animals, particularly in winter. A positive correlation (p urban air showed significant differences from season to season but only in summer and autumn did the outdoor pigeons show higher values than indoor animals. In summer, a regression model with a positive correlation between O(3) and benzene was determined (p urban air pollution as well as for detecting complex interactions between contaminants in the urban air pollutant mixture was discussed.

  12. Air Pollutants, Climate, and the Prevalence of Pediatric Asthma in Urban Areas of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjuan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prevalence of childhood asthma varies significantly among regions, while its reasons are not clear yet with only a few studies reporting relevant causes for this variation. Objective. To investigate the potential role of city-average levels of air pollutants and climatic factors in order to distinguish differences in asthma prevalence in China and explain their reasons. Methods. Data pertaining to 10,777 asthmatic patients were obtained from the third nationwide survey of childhood asthma in China’s urban areas. Annual mean concentrations of air pollutants and other climatic factors were obtained for the same period from several government departments. Data analysis was implemented with descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation coefficient, and multiple regression analysis. Results. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the situation of childhood asthma was strongly linked with SO2, relative humidity, and hours of sunshine (p<0.05. Multiple regression analysis indicated that, among the predictor variables in the final step, SO2 was found to be the most powerful predictor variable amongst all (β=-19.572, p < 0.05. Furthermore, results had shown that hours of sunshine (β = -0.014, p < 0.05 was a significant component summary predictor variable. Conclusion. The findings of this study do not suggest that air pollutants or climate, at least in terms of children, plays a major role in explaining regional differences in asthma prevalence in China.

  13. Urban air pollution and respiratory health among children with respiratory symptoms in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekkanen, J; Timonen, K L; Salonen, R O; Alm, S; Reponen, A; Jantunen, M; Vahteristo, M [National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland); Ruuskanen, J [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Paerjaelae, E [City of Kuopio (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Many recent studies suggest that urban air pollution, especially thoracic particles (PM{sub 10}), are associated with increased respiratory, mortality and morbidity at lower levels than what has previously been known. During the Finnish winter, the dust formed from asphalt ware by studded auto tyres, street sanding and combustion processes is accumulated on the snow. In the spring, when the snow melts from the streets, part of this dust is resuspended by traffic and wind. This creates spring dust episodes, during which TSP and PM{sub 10} levels exceed air quality guidelines in most Finnish cities. The mechanisms through which PM{sub 10} produces its health effects are largely unknown. It has been suggested that the number of particles, especially that of very small particles in the nanometer range, would be as important as the mass or the chemical composition of the particles. In most previous studies, the particles measured have mostly composed of combustion products. There are only sparse data on the size distribution of particles in the Finnish spring dust episode and no studies on it`s possible health effects. The aim of the PEACE project was to develop a common protocol for research on the short-term relationship between respiratory health and changes in air pollution levels. The present report describes the design and preliminary results of Finnish field work of the PEACE study that was carried out in Kuopio, Eastern Finland. (author)

  14. Urban air pollution and respiratory health among children with respiratory symptoms in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekkanen, J.; Timonen, K.L.; Salonen, R.O.; Alm, S.; Reponen, A.; Jantunen, M.; Vahteristo, M. [National Public Health Inst., Kuopio (Finland); Ruuskanen, J. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Paerjaelae, E. [City of Kuopio (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Many recent studies suggest that urban air pollution, especially thoracic particles (PM{sub 10}), are associated with increased respiratory, mortality and morbidity at lower levels than what has previously been known. During the Finnish winter, the dust formed from asphalt ware by studded auto tyres, street sanding and combustion processes is accumulated on the snow. In the spring, when the snow melts from the streets, part of this dust is resuspended by traffic and wind. This creates spring dust episodes, during which TSP and PM{sub 10} levels exceed air quality guidelines in most Finnish cities. The mechanisms through which PM{sub 10} produces its health effects are largely unknown. It has been suggested that the number of particles, especially that of very small particles in the nanometer range, would be as important as the mass or the chemical composition of the particles. In most previous studies, the particles measured have mostly composed of combustion products. There are only sparse data on the size distribution of particles in the Finnish spring dust episode and no studies on it`s possible health effects. The aim of the PEACE project was to develop a common protocol for research on the short-term relationship between respiratory health and changes in air pollution levels. The present report describes the design and preliminary results of Finnish field work of the PEACE study that was carried out in Kuopio, Eastern Finland. (author)

  15. Gaseous and particulate urban air pollution in the region of Vojvodina (Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinović-Milićević Slavica B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on interpretations of the temporal variations and variations between urban locations of sulfur dioxide (SO2, nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and black smoke (BS during the period 2001-2008 in the Vojvodina Region of Serbia (VR_S. In this study we examined variations of pollutants concentrations during household heating and non-heating seasons and the effect of household heating, traffic, rainfall and wind speed on the air pollution levels of SO2, NO2 and BS in eight locations. The analyses showed that the annual limit values of these pollutants as recommended by the Serbian regulations and recommendations were not exceeded, unlike the daily limits. Higher SO2 concentrations during household heating season in four locations indicate the substantial impact of house­hold heating on air quality. Positive effects of the use of environmentally cleaner fuels were observed in only two locations. The growing impact of traffic on air pollution is shown by the increasing trend of NO2 during both seasons. Calm wind conditions and an absence of rainfall were found to have incremental effects on pollution levels in most locations. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43007: Studying climate change and its influence on the environment: impacts, adaptation and mitigation i br. III 43002: Biosensing Technolo­gies and Global System for Continuous Research and Integrated Management

  16. Use of non vascular plant organisms as indicators of urban air pollution (Tunja, Boyaca, Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simijaca Salcedo, Diego Fernando; Vargas Rojas, Diana Lucia; Morales Puentes, Maria Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Lichens and bryophytes are useful organisms in air quality determination. In the city of Tunja (Boyaca, Colombia), is evident the lack of green areas by the increase of building, which contributes to the detriment of the atmospheric purity making unhealthy conditions to the citizens and habitats and population reduction of cryptogamic plants. Using the index of atmospheric purity (IAP) we identified the greater influence air pollutants areas. Parmotrema austrosinense has the highest frequency; and the normal femenina station with an IAP of 52,2196 is an atmospheric pollutants influenced area; Parque Santander and semaforos, are the most contaminated (IAP 8,5333) with only two species (Heterodermia albicans and Lobariaceae sp.). We highlight the evaluation in the reserva forestal protectora el Malmo with an IAP of 34,0281 and 23 species. IAP values were grouped in isocontamination areas to be represented cartographically. The use of bioindicators organisms is a natural and economic strategy allowing us to mapping urban areas and makes revegetation cities designs, generating the contaminants diminution air impact improving the citizen's life quality.

  17. Greater Baltimore Open Air: an Internet of Things (IoT) approach to citizen science and community-driven climate, air quality, and urban heat island monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, A.; Kelley, C.; Azdoud, Y.; Ambikapathi, R.; Hobson, M.; Lehman, A.; Ghugare, P.; He, C.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Waugh, D.; McCormack, M.; Baja, K.

    2017-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities alter the urban surface and surface atmosphere, generating heat and pollutants that have known detrimental impacts on health. Monitoring these environmental variables in urban environments is made difficult by the spatial heterogeneity of urban environments, meaning that two nearby locations may have significantly different temperatures, humidities, or gas concentrations. Thus, urban monitoring often requires more densely placed monitors than current standards or budgets allow. Recent advances in low-cost sensors and Internet of Things (IoT) enabled hardware offer possible solutions. We present an autonomous wireless, open-source, IoT-enabled environmental monitor called a WeatherCube, developed for the Greater Baltimore Open Air project, funded in part by the EPA SmartCity Challenge. The WeatherCube is suitable for urban monitoring and capable of measuring meteorological variables (temperature and humidity) as well as air quality (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide). The WeatherCube devices were built in collaboration with Johns Hopkins University, local government, and community members, including through an innovative job training program. Monitors are hosted by community partners and libraries throughout Baltimore city and surrounding communities. We present the first wave of data collected by the Greater Baltimore Open Air project and compare it to data collected by the Maryland Department of the Environment (MDE). Additionally, we will provide an overview of our experience engaging with the local makers, citizen scientists, and environmental groups to improve their urban environmental monitoring. By developing low-cost devices tailored for urban environmental monitoring, we present an innovative model for both conducting research and community outreach.

  18. Investigating Ammonia Emission Sources in a Coastal Urban Air Shed Using Stable Isotope Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, A.; Felix, J. D. D.

    2017-12-01

    For nearly 100 years, mankind has met the food demands of a growing population by commercially producing and consuming reactive nitrogen fertilizers. So much so, that now 40-60% of the population relies on them. This increase has drastically altered the global nitrogen (N) cycle. Specifically, ammonia (NH3) emissions to the atmosphere have increased, resulting in wet and dry NHx (NH3 + NH4+) deposition products that can be substantial sources of N to sensitive ecosystems. Excess N can wreak havoc on these environments, causing soil acidification, water body eutrophication, and decreases in biodiversity. Despite these effects, NH3 remains generally unregulated in the U.S. Should policymakers elect to regulate NH3, quantification of NH3 emission sources and transport is essential. This has proven to be particularly difficult in urban regions, where ambient NH3 may result from local urban sources and/or NH3 transport from rural agricultural sources. The presented work investigates potential NH3 emission sources within a South Texas coastal urban air shed, Corpus Christi, TX, U.S.A. Previous work has shown an increasing fine particulate matter (PM2.5) trend within the region, which may be attributable to NH3 emissions from a variety of local sources, including vehicle traffic, shipping traffic, the petrochemical industry, and/or surrounding agricultural cropland and livestock. NH3 was collected monthly at a set of 8 sites within the Corpus Christi air shed, analyzed for NH3 concentration and N isotopic composition (d15N-NH3), and compared to known isotopic compositions of NH3 sources. Low and seasonally variable d15N-NH3 values are associated with varying agricultural sources (fertilizer, livestock waste, etc.), while higher and more seasonally constant d15N-NH3 values are associated with non-agricultural sources (vehicles, industry, etc.). Several other physical and chemical atmospheric components (e.g. SO2, NO2, O3, PM2.5, temperature, relative humidity) were also

  19. Solutions Network Formulation Report. NASA's Potential Contributions for Using Solar Ultraviolet Radiation in Conjunction with Photocatalysis for Urban Air Pollution Mitigation and Increasing Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Lauren; Ryan, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    This Candidate Solution is based on using NASA Earth science research on atmospheric ozone and aerosols data as a means to predict and evaluate the effectiveness of photocatalytically created surfaces (building materials like glass, tile and cement) for air pollution mitigation purposes. When these surfaces are exposed to near UV light, organic molecules, like air pollutants and smog precursors, will degrade into environmentally friendly compounds. U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) is responsible for forecasting daily air quality by using the Air Quality Index (AQI) that is provided by AIRNow. EPA is partnered with AIRNow and is responsible for calculating the AQI for five major air pollutants that are regulated by the Clean Air Act. In this Solution, UV irradiance data acquired from the satellite mission Aura and the OMI Surface UV algorithm will be used to help understand both the efficacy and efficiency of the photocatalytic decomposition process these surfaces facilitate, and their ability to reduce air pollutants. Prediction models that estimate photocatalytic function do not exist. NASA UV irradiance data will enable this capability, so that air quality agencies that are run by state and local officials can develop and implement programs that utilize photocatalysis for urban air pollution control and, enable them to make effective decisions about air pollution protection programs.

  20. How to Design a Park and Its Surrounding Urban Morphology to Optimize the Spreading of Cool Air?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémy Bernard

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Green areas induce smaller increases in the air temperature than built-up areas. They can offer a solution to mitigating the urban heat island impacts during heat waves, since the cool air generated by a park is diffused into its immediate surroundings through forced or natural convection. The purpose of this study is to characterize the effect of several variables (park size, morphology of surrounding urban area, and wind speed on the spreading of cool air. A parametric study is performed to run computational fluid dynamics simulations. The air temperature entering the computational domain was set at 35 °C, and the 2-m high surface included within the 34 °C isotherm was defined as an indicator of cool air spreading. The effects of park shape and orientation were negligible in comparison with size effects. The number of buildings was better correlated with the cooled surface area than the typical urban parameters identified in the literature (i.e., building density, aspect ratio, or mean building height. Since the number of buildings is obviously related to the number of streets, this result suggests that the greater the number of streets around a park, the wider the area that cool air spreads.

  1. Metal concentration in urban park soils of Sao Paulo 2. Buenos AiresPark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gumiero, Felipe C.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Camargo, Sonia P.; Pavese, Arthur; Sigolo, Joel B.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a project which aims metal concentration assessment in urban park soils of Sao Paulo, in the present paper the concentration of the elements As, Ba, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn were determined in surface soil samples (0-5 cm and 0-20 cm) from Buenos Aires park of Sao Paulo. This park is located in central region of the city, and is surrounded by avenues and streets, with different traffic volumes. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and X-ray Fluorescence (FRX) were used for metal analysis. Preliminary results showed concentration levels of the analyzed elements higher than the values considered as reference values for soils in Sao Paulo, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB). These results suggest that these elements have anthropogenic origin and indicate a potential risk for soil quality. (author)

  2. Influence of background particulate matter (PM) on urban air quality in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonen, H; Wigder, N; Jaffe, D

    2013-11-15

    Elevated particulate matter concentrations due to Asian long-range transport (LRT) are frequently observed in the free troposphere (FT) above the Pacific Northwest, U.S. Transport of this aerosol from the FT to the boundary layer (BL) and its effect to local air quality remain poorly constrained. We used data collected at the Mount Bachelor observatory (MBO, 2.8 km a.s.l) and from ground stations in the Pacific Northwest to study transport of fine particulate matter (PM) from the FT to the BL. During Asian LRT episodes PM concentrations were clearly elevated above the corresponding monthly averages at MBO as well as at low elevation sites across Washington and Oregon. Also, a clear correlation between MBO and low elevation sites was observed, indicating that LRT episodes are seen in both the FT and BL. In addition, drum impactor measurements show that the chemical composition of PM at MBO was similar to that measured at the BL sites. Using a simple regression model, we estimate that during springtime, when the transport from Asia is most effective, the contribution of Asian sources to PM2.5 in clean background areas of the Pacific Northwest was on average 1.7 μg m(-3) (representing approximately 50-80% of PM). The influence of LRT PM was also seen in measurement stations situated in the urban and urban background areas. However, the fraction of LRT PM was less pronounced (36-50% of PM) due to larger local emissions in the urban areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of aerosol types over an urban site based on air-mass trajectory classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, G. V.; Devara, P. C. S.; Aher, G. R.

    2015-10-01

    Columnar aerosol properties retrieved from MICROTOPS II Sun Photometer measurements during 2010-2013 over Pune (18°32‧N; 73°49‧E, 559 m amsl), a tropical urban station in India, are analyzed to identify aerosol types in the atmospheric column. Identification/classification is carried out on the basis of dominant airflow patterns, and the method of discrimination of aerosol types on the basis of relation between aerosol optical depth (AOD500 nm) and Ångström exponent (AE, α). Five potential advection pathways viz., NW/N, SW/S, N, SE/E and L have been identified over the observing site by employing the NOAA-HYSPLIT air mass back trajectory analysis. Based on AE against AOD500 nm scatter plot and advection pathways followed five major aerosol types viz., continental average (CA), marine continental average (MCA), urban/industrial and biomass burning (UB), desert dust (DD) and indeterminate or mixed type (MT) have been identified. In winter, sector SE/E, a representative of air masses traversed over Bay of Bengal and Eastern continental Indian region has relatively small AOD (τpλ = 0.43 ± 0.13) and high AE (α = 1.19 ± 0.15). These values imply the presence of accumulation/sub-micron size anthropogenic aerosols. During pre-monsoon, aerosols from the NW/N sector have high AOD (τpλ = 0.61 ± 0.21), and low AE (α = 0.54 ± 0.14) indicating an increase in the loading of coarse-mode particles over Pune. Dominance of UB type in winter season for all the years (i.e. 2010-2013) may be attributed to both local/transported aerosols. During pre-monsoon seasons, MT is the dominant aerosol type followed by UB and DD, while the background aerosols are insignificant.

  4. The impact of traffic-flow patterns on air quality in urban street canyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaker, Prashant; Gokhale, Sharad

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of different urban traffic-flow patterns on pollutant dispersion in different winds in a real asymmetric street canyon. Free-flow traffic causes more turbulence in the canyon facilitating more dispersion and a reduction in pedestrian level concentration. The comparison of with and without a vehicle-induced-turbulence revealed that when winds were perpendicular, the free-flow traffic reduced the concentration by 73% on the windward side with a minor increase of 17% on the leeward side, whereas for parallel winds, it reduced the concentration by 51% and 29%. The congested-flow traffic increased the concentrations on the leeward side by 47% when winds were perpendicular posing a higher risk to health, whereas reduced it by 17-42% for parallel winds. The urban air quality and public health can, therefore, be improved by improving the traffic-flow patterns in street canyons as vehicle-induced turbulence has been shown to contribute significantly to dispersion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Three-Dimensional Mapping of Air Flow at an Urban Canyon Intersection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentieri, Matteo; Robins, Alan G.; Baldi, Sandro

    2009-11-01

    In this experimental work both qualitative (flow visualisation) and quantitative (laser Doppler anemometry) methods were applied in a wind tunnel in order to describe the complex three-dimensional flow field in a real environment (a street canyon intersection). The main aim was an examination of the mean flow, turbulence and flow pathlines characterising a complex three-dimensional urban location. The experiments highlighted the complexity of the observed flows, particularly in the upwind region of the intersection. In this complex and realistic situation some details of the upwind flow, such as the presence of two tall towers, play an important role in defining the flow field within the intersection, particularly at roof level. This effect is likely to have a strong influence on the mass exchange mechanism between the canopy flow and the air aloft, and therefore the distribution of pollutants. This strong interaction between the flows inside and outside the urban canopy is currently neglected in most state-of-the-art local scale dispersion models.

  6. Spatial & temporal variations of PM10 and particle number concentrations in urban air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Christer; Norman, Michael; Gidhagen, Lars

    2007-04-01

    The size of particles in urban air varies over four orders of magnitude (from 0.001 microm to 10 microm in diameter). In many cities only particle mass concentrations (PM10, i.e. particles tires and traction sand on streets during winter; up to 90% of the locally emitted PM10 may be due to road abrasion. PM10 emissions and concentrations, but not PNC, at kerbside are controlled by road moisture. Annual mean urban background PM10 levels are relatively uniformly distributed over the city, due to the importance of long range transport. For PNC local sources often dominate the concentrations resulting in large temporal and spatial gradients in the concentrations. Despite these differences in the origin of PM10 and PNC, the spatial gradients of annual mean concentrations due to local sources are of equal magnitude due to the common source, namely traffic. Thus, people in different areas experiencing a factor of 2 different annual PM10 exposure due to local sources will also experience a factor of 2 different exposure in terms of PNC. This implies that health impact studies based solely on spatial differences in annual exposure to PM10 may not separate differences in health effects due to ultrafine and coarse particles. On the other hand, health effect assessments based on time series exposure analysis of PM10 and PNC, should be able to observe differences in health effects of ultrafine particles versus coarse particles.

  7. Traffic-related air pollution and allergic disease: an update in the context of global urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsten, Christopher; Rider, Christopher F

    2017-04-01

    The review aims to give an update on the literature around traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) and allergic disease in the context of global urbanization, as the most populous countries in the world face severe TRAP exposure challenges. As research continues to show that gene-environment interactions and epigenetics contribute to the TRAP-allergy link, evidence around the links to climate change grows. Greenspace may provide a buffer to adverse effects of traffic on health, overall, but pose risks in terms of allergic disease. The link between traffic-related pollution and allergy continues to strengthen, in terms of supportive observational findings and mechanistic studies. Levels of TRAP across the world, particularly in Asia, continue to dramatically exceed acceptable levels, suggesting that the related adverse health consequences will accelerate. This could be counterbalanced by primary emission control and urban planning. Attention to combined effects of TRAP and allergen exposure is critical to avoiding misleading inferences drawn though examination only of isolated factors.

  8. SmartAQnet: remote and in-situ sensing of urban air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, Matthias; Riedel, Till; Beigl, Michael; Schäfer, Klaus; Emeis, Stefan; Cyrys, Josef; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Philipp, Andreas; Ziegler, Volker; Grimm, Hans; Gratza, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Air quality and the associated subjective and health-related quality of life are among the important topics of urban life in our time. However, it is very difficult for many cities to take measures to accommodate today's needs concerning e.g. mobility, housing and work, because a consistent fine-granular data and information on causal chains is largely missing. This has the potential to change, as today, both large-scale basic data as well as new promising measuring approaches are becoming available. The project "SmartAQnet", funded by the German Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure (BMVI), is based on a pragmatic, data driven approach, which for the first time combines existing data sets with a networked mobile measurement strategy in the urban space. By connecting open data, such as weather data or development plans, remote sensing of influencing factors, and new mobile measurement approaches, such as participatory sensing with low-cost sensor technology, "scientific scouts" (autonomous, mobile smart dust measurement device that is auto-calibrated to a high-quality reference instrument within an intelligent monitoring network) and demand-oriented measurements by light-weight UAVs, a novel measuring and analysis concept is created within the model region of Augsburg, Germany. In addition to novel analytics, a prototypical technology stack is planned which, through modern analytics methods and Big Data and IoT technologies, enables application in a scalable way.

  9. Potential effects of using biodiesel in road-traffic on air quality over the Porto urban area, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Isabel; Monteiro, Alexandra; Lopes, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to assess the impacts of biodiesel blends use in road-traffic on air quality. In this frame, the air quality numerical modelling system WRF-EURAD was applied over Portugal and the Porto urban area, forced by two emission scenarios (including CO, NOx, PM10, PM2.5, NMVOC, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein and benzene): a reference scenario, without biofuels, and a scenario where a B20 fuel (20% biodiesel/80% diesel, v/v) is used by the diesel vehicle fleet. Regarding carbonyl compounds, emission scenarios pointed out that B20 fuel can promote an increase of 20% on formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein emissions, leading to increments on equivalent ozone production. On the other hand, through the air quality modelling exercise, it was verified that the use of B20 helps in controlling air pollution, improving CO and NO2 concentrations in urban airshed in about 20% and 10%, respectively, taking into account a regional simulation grid. However, according to the urban scale simulation, NO2 levels can increase in about 1%, due to the use of B20, over the Porto urban area. For the remaining studied pollutants, namely PM10 and PM2.5, mean concentrations will be reduced all over the territory, however in a negligible amount of <1%.

  10. Multitechnique determination of elemental concentrations in NBS Urban Air Particulate SRM 1648 and evaluation of its use for quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladney, E.S.; Perrin, D.R.; Robinson, R.D.; Trujillo, P.E.

    1984-01-01

    Concentrations of forty-one elements were determined in NBS Urban Air Particulate materials using neutron activation, atomic absorption, and instrumental combustion methods. The usefulness of this reference material is evaluated as a function of composition, certified value availability, matrix format, and cost. (author)

  11. Opportunities for Saving Energy and Improving Air Quality in Urban Heat Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, Hashem

    2007-07-01

    World energy use is the main contributor to atmospheric CO2. In 2002, about 7.0 giga metric tons of carbon (GtC) were emitted internationally by combustion of gas, liquid, and solid fuels (CDIAC, 2006), 2 to 5 times the amount contributed by deforestation (Brown et al., 1988). The share of atmospheric carbon emissions for the United States from fossil fuel combustion was 1.6 GtC. Increasing use of fossil fuel and deforestation together have raised atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration some 25% over the last 150 years. According to global climate models and preliminary measurements, these changes in the composition of the atmosphere have already begun raising the Earth's average temperature. If current energy trends continue, these changes could drastically alter the Earth's temperature, with unknown but potentially catastrophic physical and political consequences. During the last three decades, increased energy awareness has led to conservation efforts and leveling of energy consumption in the industrialized countries. An important byproduct of this reduced energy use is the lowering of CO{sub 2} emissions. Of all electricity generated in the United States, about one-sixth is used to air-condition buildings. The air-conditioning use is about 400 tera-watt-hours (TWh), equivalent to about 80 million metric tons of carbon (MtC) emissions, and translating to about $40 billion (B) per year. Of this $40 B/year, about half is used in cities that have pronounced 'heat islands'. The contribution of the urban heat island to the air-conditioning demand has increased over the last 40 years and it is currently at about 10%. Metropolitan areas in the United States (e.g., Los Angeles, Phoenix, Houston, Atlanta, and New York City) have typically pronounced heat islands that warrant special attention by anyone concerned with broad-scale energy efficiency (HIG, 2006). The ambient air is primarily heated through three processes: direct absorption of solar radiation

  12. Michigan's Forests 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott A. Pugh; Lawrence D. Pedersen; Douglas C. Heym; Ronald J. Piva; Christopher W. Woodall; Charles J. Barnett; Cassandra M. Kurtz; W. Keith. Moser

    2012-01-01

    The seventh inventory of Michigan's forests, completed in 2009, describes more than 19.9 million acres of forest land. The data in this report are based on visits to 7,516 forested plots from 2005 to 2009. Timberland accounts for 97 percent of this forest land, and 62 percent is privately owned. The sugar maple/beech/yellow birch forest type accounts for 18...

  13. Michigan's forests 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott A. Pugh; Mark H. Hansen; Lawrence D. Pedersen; Douglas C. Heym; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Dacia Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; David E. Haugen; Christopher Woodall; Ed Jepsen

    2009-01-01

    The first annual inventory of Michigan's forests, completed in 2004, covers more than 19.3 million acres of forest land. The data in this report are based on visits to 10,355 forested plots from 2000 to 2004. In addition to detailed information on forest attributes, this report includes data on forest health, biomass, land-use change, and timber-product outputs....

  14. A Novel Approach in Quantifying the Effect of Urban Design Features on Local-Scale Air Pollution in Central Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskell, Georgia; Salmond, Jennifer; Longley, Ian; Dirks, Kim N

    2015-08-04

    Differences in urban design features may affect emission and dispersion patterns of air pollution at local-scales within cities. However, the complexity of urban forms, interdependence of variables, and temporal and spatial variability of processes make it difficult to quantify determinants of local-scale air pollution. This paper uses a combination of dense measurements and a novel approach to land-use regression (LUR) modeling to identify key controls on concentrations of ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at a local-scale within a central business district (CBD). Sixty-two locations were measured over 44 days in Auckland, New Zealand at high density (study area 0.15 km(2)). A local-scale LUR model was developed, with seven variables identified as determinants based on standard model criteria. A novel method for improving standard LUR design was developed using two independent data sets (at local and "city" scales) to generate improved accuracy in predictions and greater confidence in results. This revised multiscale LUR model identified three urban design variables (intersection, proximity to a bus stop, and street width) as having the more significant determination on local-scale air quality, and had improved adaptability between data sets.

  15. Influence of roadside hedgerows on air quality in urban street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromke, Christof; Jamarkattel, Nabaraj; Ruck, Bodo

    2016-08-01

    Understanding pollutant dispersion in the urban environment is an important aspect of providing solutions to reduce personal exposure to vehicle emissions. To this end, the dispersion of gaseous traffic pollutants in urban street canyons with roadside hedges was investigated. The study was performed in an atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel using a reduced-scale (M = 1:150) canyon model with a street-width-to-building-height ratio of W/H = 2 and a street-length-to-building-height ratio of L/H = 10. Various hedge configurations of differing height, permeability and longitudinal segmentation (continuous over street length L or discontinuous with clearings) were investigated. Two arrangements were examined: (i) two eccentric hedgerows sidewise of the main traffic lanes and (ii) one central hedgerow between the main traffic lanes. In addition, selected configurations of low boundary walls, i.e. solid barriers, were examined. For a perpendicular approach wind and in the presence of continuous hedgerows, improvements in air quality in the center area of the street canyon were found in comparison to the hedge-free reference scenario. The pollutant reductions were greater for the central hedge arrangements than for the sidewise arrangements. Area-averaged reductions between 46 and 61% were observed at pedestrian head height level on the leeward side in front of the building for the centrally arranged hedges and between 18 and 39% for the two hedges arranged sidewise. Corresponding area-averaged reductions ranging from 39 to 55% and from 1 to 20% were found at the bottom of the building facades on the leeward side. Improvements were also found in the areas at the lateral canyon ends next to the crossings for the central hedge arrangements. For the sidewise arrangements, increases in traffic pollutants were generally observed. However, since the concentrations in the end areas were considerably lower compared to those in the center area, an overall improvement remained

  16. Urban emissions hotspots: Quantifying vehicle congestion and air pollution using mobile phone GPS data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gately, Conor K.; Hutyra, Lucy R.; Peterson, Scott; Sue Wing, Ian

    2017-01-01

    On-road emissions vary widely on time scales as short as minutes and length scales as short as tens of meters. Detailed data on emissions at these scales are a prerequisite to accurately quantifying ambient pollution concentrations and identifying hotspots of human exposure within urban areas. We construct a highly resolved inventory of hourly fluxes of CO, NO 2 , NO x , PM 2.5 and CO 2 from road vehicles on 280,000 road segments in eastern Massachusetts for the year 2012. Our inventory integrates a large database of hourly vehicle speeds derived from mobile phone and vehicle GPS data with multiple regional datasets of vehicle flows, fleet characteristics, and local meteorology. We quantify the ‘excess’ emissions from traffic congestion, finding modest congestion enhancement (3–6%) at regional scales, but hundreds of local hotspots with highly elevated annual emissions (up to 75% for individual roadways in key corridors). Congestion-driven reductions in vehicle fuel economy necessitated ‘excess’ consumption of 113 million gallons of motor fuel, worth ∼ $415M, but this accounted for only 3.5% of the total fuel consumed in Massachusetts, as over 80% of vehicle travel occurs in uncongested conditions. Across our study domain, emissions are highly spatially concentrated, with 70% of pollution originating from only 10% of the roads. The 2011 EPA National Emissions Inventory (NEI) understates our aggregate emissions of NO x , PM 2.5 , and CO 2 by 46%, 38%, and 18%, respectively. However, CO emissions agree within 5% for the two inventories, suggesting that the large biases in NO x and PM 2.5 emissions arise from differences in estimates of diesel vehicle activity. By providing fine-scale information on local emission hotspots and regional emissions patterns, our inventory framework supports targeted traffic interventions, transparent benchmarking, and improvements in overall urban air quality. - Highlights: • A high resolution, bottom-up inventory of

  17. Turbulence and Air Exchange in a Two-Dimensional Urban Street Canyon Between Gable Roof Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garau, Michela; Badas, Maria Grazia; Ferrari, Simone; Seoni, Alessandro; Querzoli, Giorgio

    2018-04-01

    We experimentally investigate the effect of a typical building covering: the gable roof, on the flow and air exchange in urban canyons. In general, the morphology of the urban canopy is very varied and complex, depending on a large number of factors, such as building arrangement, or the morphology of the terrain. Therefore we focus on a simple, prototypal shape, the two-dimensional canyon, with the aim of elucidating some fundamental phenomena driving the street-canyon ventilation. Experiments are performed in a water channel, over an array of identical prismatic obstacles representing an idealized urban canopy. The aspect ratio, i.e. canyon-width to building-height ratio, ranges from 1 to 6. Gable roof buildings with 1:1 pitch are compared with flat roofed buildings. Velocity is measured using a particle-image-velocimetry technique with flow dynamics discussed in terms of mean flow and second- and third-order statistical moments of the velocity. The ventilation is interpreted by means of a simple well-mixed box model and the outflow rate and mean residence time are computed. Results show that gable roofs tend to delay the transition from the skimming-flow to the wake-interference regime and promote the development of a deeper and more turbulent roughness layer. The presence of a gable roof significantly increases the momentum flux, especially for high packing density. The air exchange is improved compared to the flat roof buildings, and the beneficial effect is more significant for narrow canyons. Accordingly, for unit aspect ratio gable roofs reduce the mean residence time by a factor of 0.37 compared to flat roofs, whereas the decrease is only by a factor of 0.9 at the largest aspect ratio. Data analysis indicates that, for flat roof buildings, the mean residence time increases by 30% when the aspect ratio is decreased from 6 to 2, whereas this parameter is only weakly dependent on aspect ratio in the case of gable roofs.

  18. Whiting in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Satellites provide a view from space of changes on the Earth's surface. This series of images from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) aboard the Orbview-2 satellite shows the dramatic change in the color of Lake Michigan during the summer. The bright color that appears in late summer is probably caused by calcium carbonate-chalk-in the water. Lake Michigan always has a lot of calcium carbonate in it because the floor of the lake is limestone. During most of the year the calcium carbonate remains dissolved in the cold water, but at the end of summer the lake warms up, lowering the solubility of calcium carbonate. As a result, the calcium carbonate precipitates out of the water, forming clouds of very small solid particles that appear as bright swirls from above. The phenomenon is appropriately called a whiting event. A similar event occured in 1999, but appears to have started later and subsided earlier. It is also possible that a bloom of the algae Microcystis is responsible for the color change, but unlikely because of Lake Michigan's depth and size. Microcystis blooms have occured in other lakes in the region, however. On the shore of the lake it is possible to see the cities of Chicago, Illinois, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Both appear as clusters of gray-brown pixels. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  19. Urban air quality comparison for bus, tram, subway and pedestrian commutes in Barcelona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Teresa; Reche, Cristina; Rivas, Ioar; Cruz Minguillón, Maria; Martins, Vânia; Vargas, Concepción; Buonanno, Giorgio; Parga, Jesus; Pandolfi, Marco; Brines, Mariola; Ealo, Marina; Sofia Fonseca, Ana; Amato, Fulvio; Sosa, Garay; Capdevila, Marta; de Miguel, Eladio; Querol, Xavier; Gibbons, Wes

    2015-10-01

    Access to detailed comparisons in air quality variations encountered when commuting through a city offers the urban traveller more informed choice on how to minimise personal exposure to inhalable pollutants. In this study we report on an experiment designed to compare atmospheric contaminants inhaled during bus, subway train, tram and walking journeys through the city of Barcelona. Average number concentrations of particles 10-300 nm in size, N, are lowest in the commute using subway trains (N5.0×10(4) cm(-3)), with extreme transient peaks at busy traffic crossings commonly exceeding 1.0×10(5) cm(-3) and accompanied by peaks in Black Carbon and CO. Subway particles are coarser (mode 90 nm) than in buses, trams or outdoors (1200 ppm in crowded buses and trains. There are also striking differences in inhalable particle chemistry depending on the route chosen, ranging from aluminosiliceous at roadsides and near pavement works, ferruginous with enhanced Mn, Co, Zn, Sr and Ba in the subway environment, and higher levels of Sb and Cu inside the bus. We graphically display such chemical variations using a ternary diagram to emphasise how "air quality" in the city involves a consideration of both physical and chemical parameters, and is not simply a question of measuring particle number or mass. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of the air pollution in the urban area of Madrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climent-Font, A.; Swietlicki, E.; Revuelta, A.

    1994-01-01

    An attempt is made to characterize for the first time the urban pollution of Madrid using the combination of conventional gas measurements and an ion beam analytical technique (PIXE) for aerosol monitoring. Different sets of samples were collected selecting different seasons of the year; winter and summer 1992, and also different sampling times; 3 h and 24 h. A group of 18 elements in the mass range from Si to Pb could be analyzed. Concentration of gases in the air was recorded for the following: CO, NO x , NO 2 , SO 2 and C x H y . Four sources contributing to the air pollution were obtained by means of absolute principal component analysis where automotive transport emerges as the dominating one. The combination of aerosol (PIXE) and gas data as input to a receptor model proved to be fruitful for the understanding of the underlying chemical and physical processes governing the observed pollution levels. This is a preliminary study whose results will supply the trends and strategies for a more thorough characterization. (orig.)

  1. Emissions inventories for urban airshed model application in the Philadelphia Aqcr (Air Quality Control Region)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-04-01

    This report documents the procedures used to develop emissions input required by the Urban Airshed photochemical oxidant model. Ambient air quality data were gathered as part of another effort during the summer of 1979 in Philadelphia to be used in the model validation effort. For 1979 and the 1987 projection year, ES compiled hour by hour emissions data for a representative weekday in the oxidant season. The pollutants inventoried are five categories of VOC required by the Airshed model, four categories of VOC defined in RAPS, NO, NO2, CO, SO2, and TSP. Point and area sources were considered with the highway vehicle portion of the inventory being subcontracted to DVRPC. County level area source data were allocated to a 502-cell grid system. Projections were made so that ozone air quality in 1987 could be investigated. ES developed annualized EIS/PandR data and data files containing temporal and VOC/NOx profiles in order to generate the data packets required by the Airshed model.

  2. Air pollution assessment based on elemental concentration of leaves tissue and foliage dust along an urbanization gradient in Vienna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Edina; Braun, Mihaly; Vidic, Andreas; Bogyo, David; Fabian, Istvan; Tothmeresz, Bela

    2011-01-01

    Foliage dust contains heavy metal that may have harmful effects on human health. The elemental contents of tree leaves and foliage dust are especially useful to assess air environmental pollution. We studied the elemental concentrations in foliage dust and leaves of Acer pseudoplatanus along an urbanization gradient in Vienna, Austria. Samples were collected from urban, suburban and rural areas. We analysed 19 elements in both kind of samples: aluminium, barium, calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphor, sulphur, strontium and zinc. We found that the elemental concentrations of foliage dust were significantly higher in the urban area than in the rural area for aluminium, barium, iron, lead, phosphor and selenium. Elemental concentrations of leaves were significantly higher in urban than in rural area for manganese and strontium. Urbanization changed significantly the elemental concentrations of foliage dust and leaves and the applied method can be useful for monitoring the environmental load. - Highlights: → We studied the elements in dust and leaves along an urbanization gradient, Austria. → We analysed 19 elements: Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Pb, S, Sr and Zn. → Elemental concentrations were higher in urban area than in the rural area. → Studied areas were separated by CDA based on the elemental concentrations. → Dust and leaves can be useful for monitoring the environmental load. - Studying the elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, S, Sr, Zn) in dust and leaves along an urbanization gradient in Wien, Austria we found that the elemental concentrations of foliage dust were significantly higher in the urban area than in the rural area for Al, Ba, Fe, Pb, P and Se, and concentrations of leaves were significantly higher in urban than in rural area for Mn and Sr.

  3. Air quality and health effects of biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions from urban green spaces and the mitigation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Yuan; Qu, Zelong; Du, Yuanyuan; Xu, Ronghua; Ma, Danping; Yang, Guofu; Shi, Yan; Fan, Xing; Tani, Akira; Guo, Peipei; Ge, Ying; Chang, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions lead to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and ground-level ozone pollution, and are harmful to human health, especially in urban areas. However, most BVOCs estimations ignored the emissions from urban green spaces, causing inaccuracies in the understanding of regional BVOCs emissions and their environmental and health effects. In this study, we used the latest local vegetation datasets from our field survey and applied an estimation model to analyze the spatial-temporal patterns, air quality impacts, health damage and mitigating strategies of BVOCs emissions in the Greater Beijing Area. Results showed that: (1) the urban core was the hotspot of regional BVOCs emissions for the highest region-based emission intensity (3.0 g C m −2 yr −1 ) among the 11 sub-regions; (2) urban green spaces played much more important roles (account for 62% of total health damage) than rural forests in threating human health; (3) BVOCs emissions from green spaces will more than triple by 2050 due to urban area expansion, tree growth and environmental changes; and (4) adopting proactive management (e.g. adjusting tree species composition) can reduce 61% of the BVOCs emissions and 50% of the health damage related to BVOCs emissions by 2050. - Highlights: • Urban core is the hotspot of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions in the Greater Beijing Area. • Neglecting BVOCs emissions from urban green spaces leads to a 62% underestimation of the related health damage. • BVOCs contribute significantly to ozone pollution while make limited contribution to PM 2.5 pollution. • BVOCs emissions from urban green spaces will triple by 2050, and 61% of these emissions can be reduced through management. - Although BVOCs emissions from urban green spaces make limited contribution to regional emissions, their health impacts could be significant in urban areas.

  4. Air pollution assessment based on elemental concentration of leaves tissue and foliage dust along an urbanization gradient in Vienna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Edina, E-mail: edina.simon@gmail.com [Department of Ecology, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 71 (Hungary); Braun, Mihaly [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 21 (Hungary); Vidic, Andreas [Department fuer Naturschutzbiologie, Vegetations- und Landschaftsoekologie, Universitat Wien, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Wien (Austria); Bogyo, David [Department of Ecology, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 71 (Hungary); Fabian, Istvan [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 21 (Hungary); Tothmeresz, Bela [Department of Ecology, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 71 (Hungary)

    2011-05-15

    Foliage dust contains heavy metal that may have harmful effects on human health. The elemental contents of tree leaves and foliage dust are especially useful to assess air environmental pollution. We studied the elemental concentrations in foliage dust and leaves of Acer pseudoplatanus along an urbanization gradient in Vienna, Austria. Samples were collected from urban, suburban and rural areas. We analysed 19 elements in both kind of samples: aluminium, barium, calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphor, sulphur, strontium and zinc. We found that the elemental concentrations of foliage dust were significantly higher in the urban area than in the rural area for aluminium, barium, iron, lead, phosphor and selenium. Elemental concentrations of leaves were significantly higher in urban than in rural area for manganese and strontium. Urbanization changed significantly the elemental concentrations of foliage dust and leaves and the applied method can be useful for monitoring the environmental load. - Highlights: > We studied the elements in dust and leaves along an urbanization gradient, Austria. > We analysed 19 elements: Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Pb, S, Sr and Zn. > Elemental concentrations were higher in urban area than in the rural area. > Studied areas were separated by CDA based on the elemental concentrations. > Dust and leaves can be useful for monitoring the environmental load. - Studying the elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, S, Sr, Zn) in dust and leaves along an urbanization gradient in Wien, Austria we found that the elemental concentrations of foliage dust were significantly higher in the urban area than in the rural area for Al, Ba, Fe, Pb, P and Se, and concentrations of leaves were significantly higher in urban than in rural area for Mn and Sr.

  5. Effect of Air Pollution and Rural-Urban Difference on Mental Health of the Elderly in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tao; Chen, Yuhuai; Zhu, Jing; Liu, Pengling

    2015-08-01

    China has become an aging society, and the mental health problem of the elderly is increasingly becoming prominent. This paper aimed to analyze the effect of air pollution and rural-urban difference on mental health of the elderly in China. Using the data from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey (CHARLS, 2013), after controlling the social demography variable via Tobit and Probit, a regression analysis of the effect of air pollution and rural-urban difference on mental health and psychological disorder was conducted on 6,630 old people (≧60 yr old) of China from February to April 2015. Mental health and psychological disorder of the elderly were measured by the CES-D score of respondents. Air pollution degree of counties and cities (n=123) were measured by SO2 emission. 27.8% of old people had psychological disorders. Air pollution significantly influenced the mental health of the elderly, showing a positive "U-shaped" curve (Phealth problems. Marriage, education, and social activities had positive effects on the mental health of the elderly. China's local governments should consider the influence of air pollution on the mental health of the elderly during economic development. This paper recommends paying attention to the difference in mental health between the urban and rural elderly when making public health policies. Governments could improve the mental health of the elderly by enriching social activities and increasing employment opportunities of the elderly.

  6. How Can Urban Policies Improve Air Quality and Help Mitigate Global Climate Change: a Systematic Mapping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovic, Anne Dorothée; de Oliveira, Maria Aparecida; Biehl, João; Ribeiro, Helena

    2016-02-01

    Tackling climate change at the global level is central to a growing field of scientific research on topics such as environmental health, disease burden, and its resulting economic impacts. At the local level, cities constitute an important hub of atmospheric pollution due to the large amount of pollutants that they emit. As the world population shifts to urban centers, cities will increasingly concentrate more exposed populations. Yet, there is still significant progress to be made in understanding the contribution of urban pollutants other than CO2, such as vehicle emissions, to global climate change. It is therefore particularly important to study how local governments are managing urban air pollution. This paper presents an overview of local air pollution control policies and programs that aim to reduce air pollution levels in megacities. It also presents evidence measuring their efficacy. The paper argues that local air pollution policies are not only beneficial for cities but are also important for mitigating and adapting to global climate change. The results systematize several policy approaches used around the world and suggest the need for more in-depth cross-city studies with the potential to highlight best practices both locally and globally. Finally, it calls for the inclusion of a more human rights-based approach as a mean of guaranteeing of clean air for all and reducing factors that exacerbate climate change.

  7. Characterization of elemental and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compositions of urban air in Brisbane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, McKenzie C. H.; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Morawska, Lidia

    Characterization of the elemental and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) compositions of urban air was undertaken at three major sites in Brisbane, Australia. 17 elements and 16 US EPA priority PAHs were quantified at the sites. The most commonly detected elements in the TSP and PM 2.5 fractions were Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Si, Sn, Sr and Zn. Compared to the two other sites, PM 2.5 was found to contain higher concentrations of Zr, Mo, V, Al, Mn and Sr at the Queensland University of Technology (QUT) site. In contrast, the Woolloongabba sampling site, which was highly influenced by the vehicular emission and local industrial activities, has higher concentrations of Co, Sn, Cu, Zn and Mg while ANZ site has significantly lower concentration levels of most elements than the other sites; possibly due to the shielding effect of the nearby bush and forest. NAP, PHE, ANT, FLT, PYR and CRY were the most widespread PAHs found in all sites. But only QUT and Woolloongabba bus platform sites had detectable levels of the most carcinogenic US EPA PAH, BAP. The multi-criteria decision making procedures, Preference Ranking Organisation Method for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE) and Geometrical Analysis for Interactive Aid (GAIA) were used to rank the air samples and to identify the sources of the pollutants. Thus Woolloongabba bus platform was ranked as the most polluted site on the basis of the elemental and PAH compositions of its air samples while Woolloongabba bus platform and QUT sites were ranked as the worst polluted sites in terms of PAHs and PM 2.5 elemental contents, respectively.

  8. Mapping urban air quality in near real-time using observations from low-cost sensors and model information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Philipp; Castell, Nuria; Vogt, Matthias; Dauge, Franck R; Lahoz, William A; Bartonova, Alena

    2017-09-01

    The recent emergence of low-cost microsensors measuring various air pollutants has significant potential for carrying out high-resolution mapping of air quality in the urban environment. However, the data obtained by such sensors are generally less reliable than that from standard equipment and they are subject to significant data gaps in both space and time. In order to overcome this issue, we present here a data fusion method based on geostatistics that allows for merging observations of air quality from a network of low-cost sensors with spatial information from an urban-scale air quality model. The performance of the methodology is evaluated for nitrogen dioxide in Oslo, Norway, using both simulated datasets and real-world measurements from a low-cost sensor network for January 2016. The results indicate that the method is capable of producing realistic hourly concentration fields of urban nitrogen dioxide that inherit the spatial patterns from the model and adjust the prior values using the information from the sensor network. The accuracy of the data fusion method is dependent on various factors including the total number of observations, their spatial distribution, their uncertainty (both in terms of systematic biases and random errors), as well as the ability of the model to provide realistic spatial patterns of urban air pollution. A validation against official data from air quality monitoring stations equipped with reference instrumentation indicates that the data fusion method is capable of reproducing city-wide averaged official values with an R 2 of 0.89 and a root mean squared error of 14.3 μg m -3 . It is further capable of reproducing the typical daily cycles of nitrogen dioxide. Overall, the results indicate that the method provides a robust way of extracting useful information from uncertain sensor data using only a time-invariant model dataset and the knowledge contained within an entire sensor network. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published

  9. Evaluation of Air Pollution Tolerance Index of Plants and Ornamental Shrubs in Enugu City: Implications for Urban Heat Island Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study compared the air pollution tolerance indices (APTI of five plant species and five ornamental shrubs in Enugu Urban Center. Laboratory analysis was performed on the four physiological and biological parameters including leaf relative water content (RWC, ascorbic acid (AA content, total leaf chlorophyll (TCH and leaf extract pH. These parameters were used to develop an air pollution tolerance index. Factor analysis and descriptive statistics were utilized in the analysis to examine the interactions between these parameters. Vegetation monitoring in terms of its APTI acts as a \\'Bioindicator\\' of air pollution. The study also showed the possibility of utilizing APTI as a tool for selecting plants or ornamental shrubs for urban heat Island mitigation in Enugu City. The result of APTI showed order of tolerance for plants as Anacarduim occidentale (23.20, Pinus spp (22.35, Catalpa burgei (22.57, Magifera indica (23.37, and Psidum guajava (24.15.The result of APTI showed increasing order of sensitivity for ornamental shrubs from ixora red (14.32, yellow ficus(12.63, masquerade pine(12.26, Tuja pine(11.000,to Yellow bush(10.60. The APTI of all the plants examined were higher than those of ornamental shrubs. Thus suggesting that plants in general were more tolerant to air pollution than ornamental shrubs. The ornamental shrubs with lower APTI values (sensitive were recommended as bioindicator of poor urban air quality while plants with high APTI values (tolerant are planted around areas anticipated to have high air pollution load. The result of this current study is therefore handy for future planning and as well provides tolerant species for streetscape and urban heat island mitigation.

  10. Imperiling urban environment through varying air pollution rein in measures and mass transit policies - a case study of Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, A.

    2015-01-01

    Gargantuan expansion of big cities has increased motor vehicular tremendously. Lahore, a primitive green city is now gripped with swelling motor vehicular air pollution. Mass public transport, a back bone of city transportation network, due to erroneous running significantly contributes toward motor vehicular air pollution. Policy initiatives of the Government to curb motor vehicular air pollution are merely focused upon reduction of air pollution at source by the use of technology and clean fuel programmes. The policies for introduction of mass transit remained imprecise which lead to rise in transportation demand and increase in surfeit emission; Half-baked policies normally stem out to get political popularity which imperils urban environment. The paper highlights inconsistent policy measures and unsound air pollution control strategies adopted in big cities of Pakistan. Furthermore it gives guidance for sustainable mass transit policy measures. (author)

  11. A Study of the Combined Effects of Physical Activity and Air Pollution on Mortality in Elderly Urban Residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; de Nazelle, Audrey; Mendez, Michelle A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity reduces, whereas exposure to air pollution increases the risk of premature mortality. Physical activity amplifies respiratory uptake and deposition of air pollutants in the lung, which may augment acute harmful effects of air pollution during exercise. OBJECTIVES......: To examine whether benefits of physical activity on mortality are moderated by long-term exposure to high air pollution levels in an urban setting. METHODS: 52,061 subjects (50-65 years) from the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort, living in Aarhus and Copenhagen reported data on physical activity...... exposure (HR = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.54, 1.11 and HR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.55, 1.18, p-interaction = 0.09 and 0.02, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In general, exposure to high levels of traffic-related air pollution did not modify associations indicating beneficial effects of physical activity on mortality. These novel...

  12. The Effect of Increasing Surface Albedo on Urban Climate and Air Quality: A Detailed Study for Sacramento, Houston, and Chicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jandaghian

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing surface reflectivity in urban areas can decrease ambient temperature, resulting in reducing photochemical reaction rates, reducing cooling energy demands and thus improving air quality and human health. The weather research and forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem is coupled with the multi-layer of the urban canopy model (ML-UCM to investigate the effects of surface modification on urban climate in a two-way nested approach over North America focusing on Sacramento, Houston, and Chicago during the 2011 heat wave period. This approach decreases the uncertainties associated with scale separation and grid resolution and equip us with an integrated simulation setup to capture the full impacts of meteorological and photochemical reactions. WRF-ChemV3.6.1 simulated the diurnal variation of air temperature reasonably well, overpredicted wind speed and dew point temperature, underpredicted relative humidity, overpredicted ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations, and underpredicted fine particular matters (PM2.5. The performance of PM2.5 is a combination of overprediction of particulate sulfate and underprediction of particulate nitrate and organic carbon. Increasing the surface albedo of roofs, walls, and pavements from 0.2 to 0.65, 0.60, and 0.45, respectively, resulted in a decrease in air temperature by 2.3 °C in urban areas and 0.7 °C in suburban areas; a slight increase in wind speed; an increase in relative humidity (3% and dew point temperature (0.3 °C; a decrease of PM2.5 and O3 concentrations by 2.7 µg/m3 and 6.3 ppb in urban areas and 1.4 µg/m3 and 2.5 ppb in suburban areas, respectively; minimal changes in PM2.5 subspecies; and a decrease of nitrogen dioxide (1 ppb in urban areas.

  13. Urban emissions hotspots: Quantifying vehicle congestion and air pollution using mobile phone GPS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gately, Conor K; Hutyra, Lucy R; Peterson, Scott; Sue Wing, Ian

    2017-10-01

    On-road emissions vary widely on time scales as short as minutes and length scales as short as tens of meters. Detailed data on emissions at these scales are a prerequisite to accurately quantifying ambient pollution concentrations and identifying hotspots of human exposure within urban areas. We construct a highly resolved inventory of hourly fluxes of CO, NO 2 , NO x , PM 2.5 and CO 2 from road vehicles on 280,000 road segments in eastern Massachusetts for the year 2012. Our inventory integrates a large database of hourly vehicle speeds derived from mobile phone and vehicle GPS data with multiple regional datasets of vehicle flows, fleet characteristics, and local meteorology. We quantify the 'excess' emissions from traffic congestion, finding modest congestion enhancement (3-6%) at regional scales, but hundreds of local hotspots with highly elevated annual emissions (up to 75% for individual roadways in key corridors). Congestion-driven reductions in vehicle fuel economy necessitated 'excess' consumption of 113 million gallons of motor fuel, worth ∼ $415M, but this accounted for only 3.5% of the total fuel consumed in Massachusetts, as over 80% of vehicle travel occurs in uncongested conditions. Across our study domain, emissions are highly spatially concentrated, with 70% of pollution originating from only 10% of the roads. The 2011 EPA National Emissions Inventory (NEI) understates our aggregate emissions of NO x , PM 2.5 , and CO 2 by 46%, 38%, and 18%, respectively. However, CO emissions agree within 5% for the two inventories, suggesting that the large biases in NO x and PM 2.5 emissions arise from differences in estimates of diesel vehicle activity. By providing fine-scale information on local emission hotspots and regional emissions patterns, our inventory framework supports targeted traffic interventions, transparent benchmarking, and improvements in overall urban air quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Indoor-air microbiome in an urban subway network: diversity and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Marcus H Y; Wilkins, David; Li, Ellen K T; Kong, Fred K F; Lee, Patrick K H

    2014-11-01

    Subway systems are indispensable for urban societies, but microbiological characteristics of subway aerosols are relatively unknown. Previous studies investigating microbial compositions in subways employed methodologies that underestimated the diversity of microbial exposure for commuters, with little focus on factors governing subway air microbiology, which may have public health implications. Here, a culture-independent approach unraveling the bacterial diversity within the urban subway network in Hong Kong is presented. Aerosol samples from multiple subway lines and outdoor locations were collected. Targeting the 16S rRNA gene V4 region, extensive taxonomic diversity was found, with the most common bacterial genera in the subway environment among those associated with skin. Overall, subway lines harbored different phylogenetic communities based on α- and β-diversity comparisons, and closer inspection suggests that each community within a line is dependent on architectural characteristics, nearby outdoor microbiomes, and connectedness with other lines. Microbial diversities and assemblages also varied depending on the day sampled, as well as the time of day, and changes in microbial communities between peak and nonpeak commuting hours were attributed largely to increases in skin-associated genera in peak samples. Microbial diversities within the subway were influenced by temperature and relative humidity, while carbon dioxide levels showed a positive correlation with abundances of commuter-associated genera. This Hong Kong data set and communities from previous studies conducted in the United States formed distinct community clusters, indicating that additional work is required to unravel the mechanisms that shape subway microbiomes around the globe. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Wind-Induced Air-Flow Patterns in an Urban Setting: Observations and Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, Ahmed M. A.; Elhakeem, Mohamed; Gerges, Bishoy N.; Gharabaghi, Bahram; Gultepe, Ismail

    2018-04-01

    City planning can have a significant effect on wind flow velocity patterns and thus natural ventilation. Buildings with different heights are roughness elements that can affect the near- and far-field wind flow velocity. This paper aims at investigating the impact of an increase in building height on the nearby velocity fields. A prototype urban setting of buildings with two different heights (25 and 62.5 cm) is built up and placed in a wind tunnel. Wind flow velocity around the buildings is mapped at different heights. Wind tunnel measurements are used to validate a 3D-numerical Reynolds averaged Naviers-Stokes model. The validated model is further used to calculate the wind flow velocity patterns for cases with different building heights. It was found that increasing the height of some buildings in an urban setting can lead to the formation of large horseshoe vortices and eddies around building corners. A separation area is formed at the leeward side of the building, and the recirculation of air behind the building leads to the formation of slow rotation vortices. The opposite effect is observed in the wake (cavity) region of the buildings, where both the cavity length and width are significantly reduced, and this resulted in a pronounced increase in the wind flow velocity. A significant increase in the wind flow velocity in the wake region of tall buildings with a value of up to 30% is observed. The spatially averaged velocities around short buildings also increased by 25% compared to those around buildings with different heights. The increase in the height of some buildings is found to have a positive effect on the wind ventilation at the pedestrian level.

  16. Particle number size distributions in urban air before and after volatilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Birmili

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol particle number size distributions (size range 0.003–10 μm in the urban atmosphere of Augsburg (Germany were examined with respect to the governing anthropogenic sources and meteorological factors. The two-year average particle number concentration between November 2004 and November 2006 was 12 200 cm−3, i.e. similar to previous observations in other European cities. A seasonal analysis yielded twice the total particle number concentrations in winter as compared to summer as consequence of more frequent inversion situations and enhanced particulate emissions. The diurnal variations of particle number were shaped by a remarkable maximum in the morning during the peak traffic hours. After a mid-day decrease along with the onset of vertical mixing, an evening concentration maximum could frequently be observed, suggesting a re-stratification of the urban atmosphere. Overall, the mixed layer height turned out to be the most influential meteorological parameter on the particle size distribution. Its influence was even greater than that of the geographical origin of the prevailing synoptic-scale air mass.

    Size distributions below 0.8 μm were also measured downstream of a thermodenuder (temperature: 300 °C, allowing to retrieve the volume concentration of non-volatile compounds. The balance of particle number upstream and downstream of the thermodenuder suggests that practically all particles >12 nm contain a non-volatile core while additional nucleation of particles smaller than 6 nm could be observed after the thermodenuder as an interfering artifact of the method. The good correlation between the non-volatile volume concentration and an independent measurement of the aerosol absorption coefficient (R2=0.9 suggests a close correspondence of the refractory and light-absorbing particle fractions. Using the "summation method", an average diameter ratio of particles before and after volatilisation could

  17. Volatile methyl siloxanes (VMS) concentrations in outdoor air of several Catalan urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, E.; Perales, J. F.; Roca, F. J.; Guardino, X.; Gadea, E.

    2017-04-01

    Volatile methyl siloxanes (VMS) were evaluated in ten Catalan urban areas with different industrial impacts, such as petrochemical industry, electrical and mechanical equipment, metallurgical and chemical industries, municipal solid waste treatment plant and cement and food industries, during 2013-2015. 24 h samples were taken with LCMA-UPC pump samplers specially designed in our laboratory, with a flow range of 70 ml min-1. A sorbent-based sampling method, successfully developed to collect a wide-range of VOC, was used. The analysis was performed by automatic thermal desorption coupled with capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry detector. The presented methodology allows the evaluation of VMS together with a wide range of other VOC, increasing the number of compounds that can be determined in outdoor air quality assessment of urban areas. This aspect is especially relevant as a restriction of several VMS (D4 and D5) in consumer products has been made by the European Chemicals Agency and US EPA is evaluating to include D4 in the Toxic Substances Control Act, regarding the concern of the possible effects of these compounds in human health and the environment. ΣVMS concentrations (L2-L5, D3-D6 and trimethylsilanol) varied between 0.3 ± 0.2 μg m-3 and 18 ± 12 μg m-3, determined in a hotspot area. Observed VMS concentrations were generally of the same order of magnitude than the previously determined in Barcelona, Chicago and Zurich urban areas, but higher than the published from suburban sites and Arctic locations. Cyclic siloxanes concentrations were up to two-three orders of magnitude higher than those of linear siloxanes, accounting for average contributions to the total concentrations of 97 ± 6% for all samples except for the hotspot area, where cyclic VMS accounted for 99.9 ± 0.1%. D5 was the most abundant siloxane in 5 sampling points; however, differing from the generally observed in previous studies, D3 was the most abundant compound in the

  18. Development of an Urban High-Resolution Air Temperature Forecast System for Local Weather Information Services Based on Statistical Downscaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaeyeon Yi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Korean peninsula has complex and diverse weather phenomena, and the Korea Meteorological Administration has been working on various numerical models to produce better forecasting data. The Unified Model Local Data Assimilation and Prediction System is a limited-area working model with a horizontal resolution of 1.5 km for estimating local-scale weather forecasts on the Korean peninsula. However, in order to numerically predict the detailed temperature characteristics of the urban space, in which surface characteristics change rapidly in a small spatial area, a city temperature prediction model with higher resolution spatial decomposition capabilities is required. As an alternative to this, a building-scale temperature model was developed, and a 25 m air temperature resolution was determined for the Seoul area. The spatial information was processed using statistical methods, such as linear regression models and machine learning. By comparing the accuracy of the estimated air temperatures with observational data during the summer, the machine learning was improved. In addition, horizontal and vertical characteristics of the urban space were better represented, and the air temperature was better resolved spatially. Air temperature information can be used to manage the response to heat-waves and tropical nights in administrative districts of urban areas.

  19. Two-way effect modifications of air pollution and air temperature on total natural and cardiovascular mortality in eight European urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Wolf, Kathrin; Breitner, Susanne; Gasparrini, Antonio; Stafoggia, Massimo; Samoli, Evangelia; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Bero-Bedada, Getahun; Bellander, Tom; Hennig, Frauke; Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Pekkanen, Juha; Hampel, Regina; Cyrys, Josef; Peters, Annette; Schneider, Alexandra

    2018-07-01

    Although epidemiological studies have reported associations between mortality and both ambient air pollution and air temperature, it remains uncertain whether the mortality effects of air pollution are modified by temperature and vice versa. Moreover, little is known on the interactions between ultrafine particles (diameter ≤ 100 nm, UFP) and temperature. We investigated whether the short-term associations of particle number concentration (PNC in the ultrafine range (≤100 nm) or total PNC ≤ 3000 nm, as a proxy for UFP), particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ) and ≤ 10 μm (PM 10 ), and ozone with daily total natural and cardiovascular mortality were modified by air temperature and whether air pollution levels affected the temperature-mortality associations in eight European urban areas during 1999-2013. We first analyzed air temperature-stratified associations between air pollution and total natural (nonaccidental) and cardiovascular mortality as well as air pollution-stratified temperature-mortality associations using city-specific over-dispersed Poisson additive models with a distributed lag nonlinear temperature term in each city. All models were adjusted for long-term and seasonal trend, day of the week, influenza epidemics, and population dynamics due to summer vacation and holidays. City-specific effect estimates were then pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Pooled associations between air pollutants and total and cardiovascular mortality were overall positive and generally stronger at high relatively compared to low air temperatures. For example, on days with high air temperatures (>75th percentile), an increase of 10,000 particles/cm 3 in PNC corresponded to a 2.51% (95% CI: 0.39%, 4.67%) increase in cardiovascular mortality, which was significantly higher than that on days with low air temperatures (air pollution (>50th percentile), both heat- and cold-related mortality risks increased. Our findings showed that

  20. Michigan E85 Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, Matthew M.

    2012-03-30

    This is the final report for a grant-funded project to financially assist and otherwise provide support to projects that increase E85 infrastructure in Michigan at retail fueling locations. Over the two-year project timeframe, nine E85 and/or flex-fuel pumps were installed around the State of Michigan at locations currently lacking E85 infrastructure. A total of five stations installed the nine pumps, all providing cost share toward the project. By using cost sharing by station partners, the $200,000 provided by the Department of Energy facilitated a total project worth $746,332.85. This project was completed over a two-year timetable (eight quarters). The first quarter of the project focused on project outreach to station owners about the incentive on the installation and/or conversion of E85 compatible fueling equipment including fueling pumps, tanks, and all necessary electrical and plumbing connections. Utilizing Clean Energy Coalition (CEC) extensive knowledge of gasoline/ethanol infrastructure throughout Michigan, CEC strategically placed these pumps in locations to strengthen the broad availability of E85 in Michigan. During the first and second quarters, CEC staff approved projects for funding and secured contracts with station owners; the second through eighth quarters were spent working with fueling station owners to complete projects; the third through eighth quarters included time spent promoting projects; and beginning in the second quarter and running for the duration of the project was spent performing project reporting and evaluation to the US DOE. A total of 9 pumps were installed (four in Elkton, two in Sebewaing, one in East Lansing, one in Howell, and one in Whitmore Lake). At these combined station locations, a total of 192,445 gallons of E85, 10,786 gallons of E50, and 19,159 gallons of E30 were sold in all reporting quarters for 2011. Overall, the project has successfully displaced 162,611 gallons (2,663 barrels) of petroleum, and reduced

  1. Estimation of daily maximum and minimum air temperatures in urban landscapes using MODIS time series satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Cheolhee; Im, Jungho; Park, Seonyoung; Quackenbush, Lindi J.

    2018-03-01

    Urban air temperature is considered a significant variable for a variety of urban issues, and analyzing the spatial patterns of air temperature is important for urban planning and management. However, insufficient weather stations limit accurate spatial representation of temperature within a heterogeneous city. This study used a random forest machine learning approach to estimate daily maximum and minimum air temperatures (Tmax and Tmin) for two megacities with different climate characteristics: Los Angeles, USA, and Seoul, South Korea. This study used eight time-series land surface temperature (LST) data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), with seven auxiliary variables: elevation, solar radiation, normalized difference vegetation index, latitude, longitude, aspect, and the percentage of impervious area. We found different relationships between the eight time-series LSTs with Tmax/Tmin for the two cities, and designed eight schemes with different input LST variables. The schemes were evaluated using the coefficient of determination (R2) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) from 10-fold cross-validation. The best schemes produced R2 of 0.850 and 0.777 and RMSE of 1.7 °C and 1.2 °C for Tmax and Tmin in Los Angeles, and R2 of 0.728 and 0.767 and RMSE of 1.1 °C and 1.2 °C for Tmax and Tmin in Seoul, respectively. LSTs obtained the day before were crucial for estimating daily urban air temperature. Estimated air temperature patterns showed that Tmax was highly dependent on the geographic factors (e.g., sea breeze, mountains) of the two cities, while Tmin showed marginally distinct temperature differences between built-up and vegetated areas in the two cities.

  2. Effects of Air Pollution on Hospital Emergency Room Visits for Respiratory Diseases: Urban-Suburban Differences in Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A study on the relationships between ambient air pollutants (PM2.5, SO2 and NO2 and hospital emergency room visits (ERVs for respiratory diseases from 2013 to 2014 was performed in both urban and suburban areas of Jinan, a heavily air-polluted city in Eastern China. This research was analyzed using generalized additive models (GAM with Poisson regression, which controls for long-time trends, the “day of the week” effect and meteorological parameters. An increase of 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5, SO2 and NO2 corresponded to a 1.4% (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.7%, 2.1%, 1.2% (95% CI: 0.5%, 1.9%, and 2.5% (95%: 0.8%, 4.2% growth in ERVs for the urban population, respectively, and a 1.5% (95%: 0.4%, 2.6%, 0.8% (95%: −0.7%, 2.3%, and 3.1% (95%: 0.5%, 5.7% rise in ERVs for the suburban population, respectively. It was found that females were more susceptible than males to air pollution in the urban area when the analysis was stratified by gender, and the reverse result was seen in the suburban area. Our results suggest that the increase in ERVs for respiratory illnesses is linked to the levels of air pollutants in Jinan, and there may be some urban-suburban discrepancies in health outcomes from air pollutant exposure.

  3. Impacts of Roadway Emissions on Urban Fine Particle Exposures: the Nairobi Area Traffic Contribution to Air Pollution (NATCAP) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatari, Michael; Ngo, Nicole; Ndiba, Peter; Kinney, Patrick

    2010-05-01

    Air quality is a serious and worsening problem in the rapidly growing cities of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), due to rapid urbanization, growing vehicle fleets, changing life styles, limited road infrastructure and land use planning, and high per-vehicle emissions. However, the absence of ambient monitoring data, and particularly urban roadside concentrations of particulate matter in SSA cities, severely limits our ability to assess the real extent of air quality problems. Emitted fine particles by on-road vehicles may be particularly important in SSA cities because large concentrations of poorly maintained vehicles operate in close proximity to commercial and other activities of low-income urban residents. This scenario provokes major air quality concerns and its investigation should be of priority interest to policy makers, city planners and managers, and the affected population. As part of collaboration between Columbia University and the University of Nairobi, a PM2.5 air monitoring study was carried out over two weeks in July 2009. The objectives of the study were 1) to assess average daytime PM2.5 concentrations on a range of Nairobi streets that represent important hot-spots in terms of the joint distribution of traffic, commercial, and resident pedestrian activities, 2) to relate those concentrations to motor vehicle counts, 3) to compare urban street concentrations to urban and rural background levels, and 4) to assess vertical and horizontal dispersion of PM2.5 near roadways. Portable, battery-operated PM2.5 samplers were carried by field teams at each of the five sites (three urban, one commuter highway, and one rural site), each of which operated from 7 AM to 7 PM during 10 weekdays in July 2009. Urban background monitoring took place on a rooftop at the University of Nairobi. Preliminary findings suggest highly elevated PM2.5 concentrations at the urban sites where the greatest pedestrian traffic was observed. These findings underscore the need for air

  4. Situation of regional plans for air quality. Acknowledgement of sanitary aspects. Situation of realised impact studies of urban air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Helf, M.; Cassadou, S.

    2005-01-01

    The law on air and use of energy recommended in 1996 the implementation of regional plans for air quality (P.Q.R.A.) that have to rely on an evaluation of air pollution effects on health. 21 P.Q.R.A. have been published and the report gives the situation, their sanitary orientations and their applications. An inquiry lead in the 21 regions, near the different regional actors in the air and health field completes the report. (N.C.)

  5. Mixing layer height measurements determines influence of meteorology on air pollutant concentrations in urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Klaus; Blumenstock, Thomas; Bonn, Boris; Gerwig, Holger; Hase, Frank; Münkel, Christoph; Nothard, Rainer; von Schneidemesser, Erika

    2015-10-01

    Mixing layer height (MLH) is a key parameter to determine the influence of meteorological parameters upon air pollutants such as trace gas species and particulate concentrations near the surface. Meteorology, and MLH as a key parameter, affect the budget of emission source strengths, deposition, and accumulation. However, greater possibilities for the application of MLH data have been identified in recent years. Here, the results of measurements in Berlin in 2014 are shown and discussed. The concentrations of NO, NO2, O3, CO, PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and about 70 volatile organic compounds (anthropogenic and biogenic of origin) as well as particle size distributions and contributions of SOA and soot species to PM were measured at the urban background station of the Berlin air quality network (BLUME) in Nansenstr./Framstr., Berlin-Neukölln. A Vaisala ceilometer CL51, which is a commercial mini-lidar system, was applied at that site to detect the layers of the lower atmosphere in real time. Special software for these ceilometers with MATLAB provided routine retrievals of MLH from vertical profiles of laser backscatter data. Five portable Bruker EM27/SUN FTIR spectrometers were set up around Berlin to detect column averaged abundances of CO2 and CH4 by solar absorption spectrometry. Correlation analyses were used to show the coupling of temporal variations of trace gas compounds and PM with MLH. Significant influences of MLH upon NO, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, PM1 and toluene (marker for traffic emissions) concentrations as well as particle number concentrations in the size modes 70 - 100 nm, 100 - 200 nm and 200 - 500 nm on the basis of averaged diurnal courses were found. Further, MLH was taken as important auxiliary information about the development of the boundary layer during each day of observations, which was required for the proper estimation of CO2 and CH4 source strengths from Berlin on the basis of atmospheric column density measurements.

  6. Dispersion modeling of selected PAHs in urban air: A new approach combining dispersion model with GIS and passive air sampling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sáňka, O.; Melymuk, L.; Čupr, P.; Dvorská, Alice; Klánová, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 90, oct (2014), s. 88-95 ISSN 1352-2310 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : passive air sampling * air dispersion modeling * GIS * polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons * emission inventories Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 3.281, year: 2014

  7. Resolving uncertainties in the urban air quality, climate, and vegetation nexus through citizen science, satellite imagery, and atmospheric modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenerette, D.; Wang, J.; Chandler, M.; Ripplinger, J.; Koutzoukis, S.; Ge, C.; Castro Garcia, L.; Kucera, D.; Liu, X.

    2017-12-01

    Large uncertainties remain in identifying the distribution of urban air quality and temperature risks across neighborhood to regional scales. Nevertheless, many cities are actively expanding vegetation with an expectation to moderate both climate and air quality risks. We address these uncertainties through an integrated analysis of satellite data, atmospheric modeling, and in-situ environmental sensor networks maintained by citizen scientists. During the summer of 2017 we deployed neighborhood-scale networks of air temperature and ozone sensors through three campaigns across urbanized southern California. During each five-week campaign we deployed six sensor nodes that included an EPA federal equivalent method ozone sensor and a suite of meteorological sensors. Each node was further embedded in a network of 100 air temperature sensors that combined a randomized design developed by the research team and a design co-created by citizen scientists. Between 20 and 60 citizen scientists were recruited for each campaign, with local partners supporting outreach and training to ensure consistent deployment and data gathering. We observed substantial variation in both temperature and ozone concentrations at scales less than 4km, whole city, and the broader southern California region. At the whole city scale the average spatial variation with our ozone sensor network just for city of Long Beach was 26% of the mean, while corresponding variation in air temperature was only 7% of the mean. These findings contrast with atmospheric model estimates of variation at the regional scale of 11% and 1%. Our results show the magnitude of fine-scale variation underestimated by current models and may also suggest scaling functions that can connect neighborhood and regional variation in both ozone and temperature risks in southern California. By engaging citizen science with high quality sensors, satellite data, and real-time forecasting, our results help identify magnitudes of climate and

  8. [Individual exposure to air pollution in urban areas: the example of Marseille].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Frédérique; Viala, Alain

    2007-01-01

    We examined the exposure of an urban population to the following air pollutants, in the home and outdoors: nitrogen dioxide, benzene and its derivative BTXE, carbon monoxide, ozone, aldehydes and particulate matter (PM)2,5. Measurements were made continuously during 48-hour periods in summer and in winter, in non-smoking volunteers, using passive and active samplers and appropriate analytical methods. NO2 concentrations were relatively low (lower in summer than in winter). Individual overall exposure correlated strongly with levels in the home. Benzene levels were high both outdoors and in the home, and were higher in winter than in summer; 47% of the volunteers were exposed to mean values up to 5 microg x m(-3) (annual mean value outdoors). Benzene derivative levels were also higher in winter than in summer. Personal exposure to CO was low and related to determinants such as trafic and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Mean concentrations of O3 were low in winter and higher in summer, owing to higher outdoor photochemical pollution. The most abundant aldehydes were formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein ; personal exposure was low. Overall personal exposure to formaldehyde correlated with concentrations in the home. PM2,5 reached high levels in the home in winter and outdoors in summer.

  9. Spatial associations between social groups and ozone air pollution exposure in the Beijing urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinyi; Cheng, Hongguang; He, Siyuan; Cui, Xiangfen; Pu, Xiao; Lu, Lu

    2018-07-01

    Few studies have linked social factors to air pollution exposure in China. Unlike the race or minority concepts in western countries, the Hukou system (residential registration system) is a fundamental reason for the existence of social deprivation in China. To assess the differences in ozone (O 3 ) exposure among social groups, especially groups divided by Hukou status, we assigned estimates of O 3 exposure to the latest census data of the Beijing urban area using a kriging interpolation model. We developed simultaneous autoregressive (SAR) models that account for spatial autocorrelation to identify the associations between O 3 exposure and social factors. Principal component regression was used to control the multicollinearity bias as well as explore the spatial structure of the social data. The census tracts (CTs) with higher proportions of persons living alone and migrants with non-local Hukou were characterized by greater exposure to ambient O 3 . The areas with greater proportions of seniors had lower O 3 exposure. The spatial distribution patterns were similar among variables including migrants, agricultural population and household separation (population status with separation between Hukou and actual residences), which fit the demographic characteristics of the majority of migrants. Migrants bore a double burden of social deprivation and O 3 pollution exposure due to city development planning and the Hukou system. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Chicago Clean Air, Clean Water Project: Environmental Monitoring for a Healthy, Sustainable Urban Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none, none; Tuchman, Nancy [Institute of Environmental Sustainability (IES), Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-11-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy awarded Loyola University Chicago and the Institute of Environmental Sustainability (IES) $486,000.00 for the proposal entitled “Chicago clean air, clean water project: Environmental monitoring for a healthy, sustainable urban future.” The project supported the purchase of analytical instruments for the development of an environmental analytical laboratory. The analytical laboratory is designed to support the testing of field water and soil samples for nutrients, industrial pollutants, heavy metals, and agricultural toxins, with special emphasis on testing Chicago regional soils and water affected by coal-based industry. Since the award was made in 2010, the IES has been launched (fall 2013), and the IES acquired a new state-of-the-art research and education facility on Loyola University Chicago’s Lakeshore campus. Two labs were included in the research and education facility. The second floor lab is the Ecology Laboratory where lab experiments and analyses are conducted on soil, plant, and water samples. The third floor lab is the Environmental Toxicology Lab where lab experiments on environmental toxins are conducted, as well as analytical tests conducted on water, soil, and plants. On the south end of the Environmental Toxicology Lab is the analytical instrumentation collection purchased from the present DOE grant, which is overseen by a full time Analytical Chemist (hired January 2016), who maintains the instruments, conducts analyses on samples, and helps to train faculty and undergraduate and graduate student researchers.

  11. Multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from indoor air of an urban wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Juliana V; Cecílio, Pedro; Gonçalves, Daniela; Vilar, Vítor J P; Pinto, Eugénia; Ferreira, Helena N

    2016-07-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) have been recognized as sources of bioaerosols that may act as vehicles for dissemination of pathogens and multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. The occurrence of MDR Enterobacteriaceae in indoor air of an urban WWTP was investigated. A possible airborne contamination with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae was also explored. Fourteen of 39 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were MDR. These isolates were found at all sampling sites, mainly at the secondary sedimentation settings. The highest levels of resistance were detected in three different species: Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, and Citrobacter freundii. Furthermore, one of the airborne E. coli isolates was phenotypically characterized as an ESBL producer. Additionally, five isolates showed non-susceptibility to at least one carbapenem tested. The presence of genes encoding relevant beta-lactamase types in these ESBL-producing and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates was investigated by PCR. Results showed amplification for bla CTX-M and bla OXA. These findings are relevant both in terms of occupational/public health and of environmental dissemination of MDR bacteria.

  12. OH reactivity of the urban air in Helsinki, Finland, during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praplan, Arnaud P.; Pfannerstill, Eva Y.; Williams, Jonathan; Hellén, Heidi

    2017-11-01

    A new instrument to measure total OH reactivity in ambient air based on the Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM) has been built and characterized at the Finnish Meteorological Institute in Helsinki, Finland. The system is based on the detection of pyrrole by a gas chromatograph with a photoionization detector and designed for long term studies. It was tested in a container close to the SMEAR III semi-urban station in Helsinki during the winter in February 2016. The sampling location next to the delivery area of the institute was influenced by local vehicle emissions and cannot be considered representative of background conditions in Helsinki. However, effects of nitrogen oxides on the measurements could be investigated there. During this campaign, 56 compounds were measured individually by 1) an in-situ gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC/MS) and by 2) off-line sampling in canisters and on adsorbent filled cartridges taken at the container and subsequently analysed by GC-FID and liquid chromatography, respectively. In addition, nitrogen oxides were measured at the same location, while ozone, carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide concentrations have been retrieved from the SMEAR III mast data. The comparison between the total OH reactivity measured and the OH reactivity derived from individual compound measurements are in better agreement for lower reactivity levels. Possible explanations for the differences are discussed in detail.

  13. Urban air pollution in school-related microenvironments in Bogota, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Felipe Franco

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Particle-related pollution (PM10, PM2.5 and soot was measured in both indoor and outdoor microenvironments at four public elementary schools in Bogota, Colombia. Three of these schools were located alongside major urban roads in which different types of public transit systems are used (bus rapid transit system and conventional transit buses. The fourth school was located on a non-congested road (background school. Pollutant levels at schools situated on major-roads were higher than those found at the low-congestion-road school. Outdoor black carbon daily mean concentrations at the schools located near major roads were up to six times higher than those recorded at the background school. Mean particulate matter concentrations at schools near major roads were above international standards, suggesting that school-age children in Bogota are exposed to pollution levels that are considered to be harmful by environmental and public health authorities. Elevated indoor and outdoor pollutant concentrations documented in this study suggested that traffic has a direct impact on air quality regarding the schools’ characterised microenvironments.

  14. Multi-scale modeling of urban air pollution: development of a Street-in-Grid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngseob; Wu, You; Seigneur, Christian; Roustan, Yelva

    2016-04-01

    A new multi-scale model of urban air pollution is presented. This model combines a chemical-transport model (CTM) that includes a comprehensive treatment of atmospheric chemistry and transport at spatial scales greater than 1 km and a street-network model that describes the atmospheric concentrations of pollutants in an urban street network. The street-network model is based on the general formulation of the SIRANE model and consists of two main components: a street-canyon component and a street-intersection component. The street-canyon component calculates the mass transfer velocity at the top of the street canyon (roof top) and the mean wind velocity within the street canyon. The estimation of the mass transfer velocity depends on the intensity of the standard deviation of the vertical velocity at roof top. The effect of various formulations of this mass transfer velocity on the pollutant transport at roof-top level is examined. The street-intersection component calculates the mass transfer from a given street to other streets across the intersection. These mass transfer rates among the streets are calculated using the mean wind velocity calculated for each street and are balanced so that the total incoming flow rate is equal to the total outgoing flow rate from the intersection including the flow between the intersection and the overlying atmosphere at roof top. In the default option, the Leighton photostationary cycle among ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2) is used to represent the chemical reactions within the street network. However, the influence of volatile organic compounds (VOC) on the pollutant concentrations increases when the nitrogen oxides (NOx) concentrations are low. To account for the possible VOC influence on street-canyon chemistry, the CB05 chemical kinetic mechanism, which includes 35 VOC model species, is implemented in this street-network model. A sensitivity study is conducted to assess the uncertainties associated with the use of

  15. An In-Air Passive Acoustic Surveillance System for Urban Threats Detection and Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donisi, D.; Bonamente, M.; Capitanelli, A.; Radziulis, J.; Dąbrowski, R.; Hołubowicz, W.; Simon, G.; Perlepes, L.; Mylonas, G.; Chatzigiannakis, I.; Benders, F.P.A.; Beerens, S.P.

    2013-01-01

    Recent military operations in urban environments are changing the requirements imposed on sensing technologies. The final goal remains threat mapping within the area of operation, but the environmental constraints and the intrinsic nature of urban threats are radically novel. AUDIS (Acoustic Urban

  16. Characterisation of the impact of open biomass burning on urban air quality in Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Congrong; Miljevic, Branka; Crilley, Leigh R; Surawski, Nicholas C; Bartsch, Jennifer; Salimi, Farhad; Uhde, Erik; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Orasche, Jürgen; Ristovski, Zoran; Ayoko, Godwin A; Zimmermann, Ralf; Morawska, Lidia

    2016-05-01

    events, especially prescribed burning, on urban air quality. The current results provide a solid platform for more detailed health and modelling investigations in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Monitoring Pt and Rh in urban aerosols from Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocca, Beatrice; Caimi, Stefano; Caroli, Sergio [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161, Rome (Italy); Smichowski, Patricia; Gomez, Dario [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Unidad de Actividad Quimica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA-San Martin, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2006-04-01

    Vehicular traffic is the main source of platinum group elements (PGEs) in highly populated urban areas like Buenos Aires where a traffic density of 1,500,000 vehicles day{sup -1} (corresponding to 7500 vehicles km{sup -2}) is estimated. Since there is no information on the levels of PGEs in Buenos Aires, a pilot study was undertaken to ascertain the amount of two major PGEs, namely Pt and Rh, in the atmosphere of this city. To this end, 49 samples of PM-10 particulate matter were collected during 7 days in seven representative sampling sites located downtown Buenos Aires and spread over an area of about 30 km{sup 2}. The collection of particulate matter was performed on ash-free glass-fiber filters using high volume samplers with PM-10 sampling heads. Filters loaded with the particulate matter were subjected to microwave (MW)-assisted acid digestion using a combination of HNO{sub 3}, HF and HClO{sub 4}. The resulting solutions were evaporated and then diluted with 0.1 mol l{sup -1} HCl. Analyses were performed by sector field inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS) and special attention was paid to the control of mass interferences. Statistical analysis was performed on the experimental data obtained for the element concentrations taking also into account local meteorological data for the monitored period. The highest concentrations of Pt and Rh were detected at two sites (Hospital Aleman and Casa Rapallini) located in streets with traffic consisting mostly of passenger cars. The Pt content (in pg m{sup -3}) in airborne particulate matter was found to vary from 2.3 to 47.7, with a mean value of 12.9+/-7, and that of Rh from 0.3 to 16.8, with a mean value of 3.9+/-2.8. These concentrations are by far below the levels for which adverse health effects might be expected to occur, i.e., around 100 ng m{sup -3}. On the other hand, monitoring of PGEs should be carried out in a systematic fashion to detect possible dramatic increases from today

  18. NASA's Potential Contributions for Using Solar Ultraviolet Radiation in Conjunction with Photocatalysis for Urban Air Pollution Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, robert E.; Underwood, Lauren W.

    2007-01-01

    More than 75 percent of the U.S. population lives in urban communities where people are exposed to levels of smog or pollution that exceed the EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) safety standards. Urban air quality presents a unique problem because of a number of complex variables, including traffic congestion, energy production, and energy consumption activities, all of which can contribute to and affect air pollution and air quality in this environment. In environmental engineering, photocatalysis is an area of research whose potential for environmental clean-up is rapidly developing popularity and success. Photocatalysis, a natural chemical process, is the acceleration of a photoreaction in the presence of a catalyst. Photocatalytic agents are activated when exposed to near UV (ultraviolet) light (320-400 nm) and water. In recent years, surfaces coated with photocatalytic materials have been extensively studied because pollutants on these surfaces will degrade when the surfaces are exposed to near UV light. Building materials, such as tiles, cement, glass, and aluminum sidings, can be coated with a thin film of a photocatalyst. These coated materials can then break down organic molecules, like air pollutants and smog precursors, into environmentally friendly compounds. These surfaces also exhibit a high affinity for water when exposed to UV light. Therefore, not only are the pollutants decomposed, but this superhydrophilic nature makes the surface self-cleaning, which helps to further increase the degradation rate by allowing rain and/or water to wash byproducts away. According to the Clean Air Act, each individual state is responsible for implementing prevention and regulatory programs to control air pollution. To operate an air quality program, states must adopt and/or develop a plan and obtain approval from the EPA. Federal approval provides a means for the EPA to maintain consistency among different state programs and ensures that they comply with the

  19. The Effects of Urban Form on Ambient Air Pollution and Public Health Risk: A Case Study in Raleigh, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Daniel A.; Huegy, Joseph; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2014-01-01

    Since motor vehicles are a major air pollution source, urban designs that decrease private automobile use could improve air quality and decrease air pollution health risks. Yet, the relationships among urban form, air quality, and health are complex and not fully understood. To explore these relationships, we model the effects of three alternative development scenarios on annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in ambient air and associated health risks from PM2.5 exposure in North Carolina’s Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill area. We integrate transportation demand, land-use regression, and health risk assessment models to predict air quality and health impacts for three development scenarios: current conditions, compact development, and sprawling development. Compact development slightly decreases (−0.2%) point estimates of regional annual average PM2.5 concentrations, while sprawling development slightly increases (+1%) concentrations. However, point estimates of health impacts are in opposite directions: compact development increases (+39%) and sprawling development decreases (−33%) PM2.5-attributable mortality. Further, compactness increases local variation in PM2.5 concentrations and increases the severity of local air pollution hotspots. Hence, this research suggests that while compact development may improve air quality from a regional perspective, it may also increase the concentration of PM2.5 in local hotspots and increase population exposure to PM2.5. Health effects may be magnified if compact neighborhoods and PM2.5 hotspots are spatially co-located. We conclude that compactness alone is an insufficient means of reducing the public health impacts of transportation emissions in automobile-dependent regions. Rather, additional measures are needed to decrease automobile dependence and the health risks of transportation emissions. PMID:25490890

  20. Indoor Air Quality in Urban and Rural Preschools in Upper Silesia, Poland: Particulate Matter and Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainka, Anna; Zajusz-Zubek, Elwira

    2015-07-08

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) in preschools is an important public health challenge. Particular attention should be paid to younger children, because they are more vulnerable to air pollution than higher grade children and because they spend more time indoors. Among air pollutants, particulate matter (PM) is of the greatest interest mainly due to its acute and chronic effects on children's health. In addition, carbon dioxide (CO2) levels indicate ventilation conditions. In this paper, we present the concentrations of PM (PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and total-TSP) and CO2 monitored in four naturally ventilated nursery schools located in the area of Gliwice, Poland. The nursery schools were selected to characterize areas with different degrees of urbanization and traffic densities during the winter season. The results indicate the problem of elevated concentrations of PM inside the examined classrooms, as well as that of high levels of CO2 exceeding 1000 ppm in relation to outdoor air. The characteristics of IAQ were significantly different, both in terms of classroom occupation (younger or older children) and of localization (urban or rural). To evaluate the children's exposure to poor IAQ, indicators based on air quality guidelines were proposed to rank classrooms according to their hazard on the health of children.

  1. Indoor Air Quality in Urban and Rural Preschools in Upper Silesia, Poland: Particulate Matter and Carbon Dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mainka

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air quality (IAQ in preschools is an important public health challenge. Particular attention should be paid to younger children, because they are more vulnerable to air pollution than higher grade children and because they spend more time indoors. Among air pollutants, particulate matter (PM is of the greatest interest mainly due to its acute and chronic effects on children’s health. In addition, carbon dioxide (CO2 levels indicate ventilation conditions. In this paper, we present the concentrations of PM (PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and total—TSP and CO2 monitored in four naturally ventilated nursery schools located in the area of Gliwice, Poland. The nursery schools were selected to characterize areas with different degrees of urbanization and traffic densities during the winter season. The results indicate the problem of elevated concentrations of PM inside the examined classrooms, as well as that of high levels of CO2 exceeding 1000 ppm in relation to outdoor air. The characteristics of IAQ were significantly different, both in terms of classroom occupation (younger or older children and of localization (urban or rural. To evaluate the children’s exposure to poor IAQ, indicators based on air quality guidelines were proposed to rank classrooms according to their hazard on the health of children.

  2. Air pollution monitoring of an urban dust in Daejeon city, Korea by using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong-Sam Chung; Sun-Ha Kim; Jong-Hwa Moon; Hark-Rho Kim; Jong-Myoung Lim; Jin-Hong Lee

    2008-01-01

    For air pollution monitoring, about 1300 airborne particulate matter samples were collected by using a low volume air sampler and a polycarbonate filter at two sampling sites in an urban region, Daejeon, the middle of Korea from 2003 to 2006. Mass concentrations of the black carbon were measured using a smoke stain reflectometer. The concentrations of 24 elements in the collected samples were analyzed by using instrumental neutron activation analysis, and its temporal trends and enrichment factors were investigated under different environmental conditions. Analytical control was carried out by using certified reference materials. (author)

  3. Development and Validation of a Predictive Model to Assess the Impact of Coastal Operations On Urban Scale Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-29

    originating in Los Angeles. The long ridge of ozone in the north east part of Figure 14a is due to polluted air from San Diego area that has undergone...Further north of this small ridge (2 ppbv), we find a decrease in O3 of up to 6ppb (i.e., without DoD emissions, O3 is reduced by 6ppb). This period is...ships on urban air quality. 35 6.0 References Alexis, A., P. Gaffney , C. Garcia, M. Nystrom, and R. Rood (2000), The 1999 California Almanac of

  4. Project ATLANTA (Atlanta Land use Analysis: Temperature and Air Quality): Use of Remote Sensing and Modeling to Analyze How Urban Land Use Change Affects Meteorology and Air Quality Through Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land use ANalysis: Temperature and Air-quality) which is an investigation that seeks to observe, measure, model, and analyze how the rapid growth of the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area since the early 1970's has impacted the region's climate and air quality. The primary objectives for this research effort are: (1) To investigate and model the relationships between land cover change in the Atlanta metropolitan, and the development of the urban heat island phenomenon through time; (2) To investigate and model the temporal relationships between Atlanta urban growth and land cover change on air quality; and (3) To model the overall effects of urban development on surface energy budget characteristics across the Atlanta urban landscape through time. Our key goal is to derive a better scientific understanding of how land cover changes associated with urbanization in the Atlanta area, principally in transforming forest lands to urban land covers through time, has, and will, effect local and regional climate, surface energy flux, and air quality characteristics. Allied with this goal is the prospect that the results from this research can be applied by urban planners, environmental managers and other decision-makers, for determining how urbanization has impacted the climate and overall environment of the Atlanta area. Multiscaled remote sensing data, particularly high resolution thermal infrared data, are integral to this study for the analysis of thermal energy fluxes across the Atlanta urban landscape.

  5. Urban air chemistry and diesel vehicles emissions: Quantifying small and big hydrocarbons by CIMS to improve emission inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, B. T.; Derstroff, B.; Edtbauer, A.; VanderSchelden, G. S.; Williams, J.

    2017-10-01

    Emissions from vehicles are a major source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in urban environments. Photochemical oxidation of VOCs emitted from vehicle exhaust contributes to O3 and PM2.5 formation, harmful pollutants that major urban areas struggle to control. How will a shift to a diesel engine fleet impact urban air chemistry? Diesel vehicles are a growing fraction of the passenger vehicle fleet in Europe as a result of a deliberate policy to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions from the transportation sector (Sullivan et al., 2004). In countries such as France the diesel passenger fleet was already ∼50% of the total in 2009, up from 20% in 1995. Dunmore et al. (2015) have recently inferred that in London, HO radical loss rates to organic compounds is dominated by diesel engine emissions. In the US, increasingly more stringent vehicles emission standards and requirement for improved energy efficiency means spark ignition passenger vehicle emissions have declined significantly over the last 20 years, resulting in the urban diesel fleet traffic (freight trucks) having a growing importance as a source of vehicle pollution (McDonald et al., 2013). The recent scandal involving a major car manufacturer rigging emission controls for diesel passenger cars is a reminder that real world emissions of VOCs from diesel engines are not well understood nor thoroughly accounted for in air quality modeling.

  6. Uncertainty characterization and quantification in air pollution models. Application to the ADMS-Urban model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debry, E.; Malherbe, L.; Schillinger, C.; Bessagnet, B.; Rouil, L.

    2009-04-01

    Evaluation of human exposure to atmospheric pollution usually requires the knowledge of pollutants concentrations in ambient air. In the framework of PAISA project, which studies the influence of socio-economical status on relationships between air pollution and short term health effects, the concentrations of gas and particle pollutants are computed over Strasbourg with the ADMS-Urban model. As for any modeling result, simulated concentrations come with uncertainties which have to be characterized and quantified. There are several sources of uncertainties related to input data and parameters, i.e. fields used to execute the model like meteorological fields, boundary conditions and emissions, related to the model formulation because of incomplete or inaccurate treatment of dynamical and chemical processes, and inherent to the stochastic behavior of atmosphere and human activities [1]. Our aim is here to assess the uncertainties of the simulated concentrations with respect to input data and model parameters. In this scope the first step consisted in bringing out the input data and model parameters that contribute most effectively to space and time variability of predicted concentrations. Concentrations of several pollutants were simulated for two months in winter 2004 and two months in summer 2004 over five areas of Strasbourg. The sensitivity analysis shows the dominating influence of boundary conditions and emissions. Among model parameters, the roughness and Monin-Obukhov lengths appear to have non neglectable local effects. Dry deposition is also an important dynamic process. The second step of the characterization and quantification of uncertainties consists in attributing a probability distribution to each input data and model parameter and in propagating the joint distribution of all data and parameters into the model so as to associate a probability distribution to the modeled concentrations. Several analytical and numerical methods exist to perform an

  7. 75 FR 41895 - Inteva Products, LLC Adrian, Michigan; Inteva Products, LLC Troy, Michigan; Amended Certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... Products, LLC Adrian, Michigan; Inteva Products, LLC Troy, Michigan; Amended Certification Regarding... time period at the Troy, Michigan location of Inteva Products, LLC. The Troy, Michigan location.... Accordingly, the Department is amending the certification to include workers of the Troy, Michigan location of...

  8. Use of bioindicators to evaluate air quality and genotoxic compounds in an urban environment in Southern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Käffer, Márcia Isabel; Lemos, Andréa T.; Apel, Miriam Anders; Rocha, Jocelita Vaz; Martins, Suzana Maria de Azevedo

    2012-01-01

    Biological indicators are widely used to monitor genotic compounds and air quality in urban environments. Parmotrema tinctorum and Teloschistes exilis have been used to verify the presence of pollutants and analyze morphophysiological alterations in the thallus of species caused by their action. Species were exposed for seven months, in an urban area, in southern Brazil. Mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of PM10 organic extracts were assessed in the Salmonella/microsome assay at two stations. High concentrations of S, Pb, Cr, Zn and Hg were registered in the last period of exposure and more significant morphophysiological damages were verified in the lichens. Generally a higher mutagenic activity is observed in organic extracts of airborne particulate matter during the first months and in the third period of exposure of lichens. In addition, nitro compounds was detected through nitro-sensitive strains. Lichens and mutagenic biomarkers enabled the evaluation of air quality and the presence of environmentally-aggressive compounds. - Highlights: ► Biological indicators are widely used to monitor genotic compounds and air quality in urban environments. ► High concentrations of S and metals were registered in the last period of exposure. ► More significant morphophysiological damages were verified in the lichens in the last period of exposure. ► The results reveals that a set of factors contributed to the morphophysiological alterations of lichens. - Bioindicators are valuable monitors of genotoxic compounds and atmospheric pollution.

  9. High Resolution Aerosol Data from MODIS Satellite for Urban Air Quality Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, A.; Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.; Tang, C.; Schwartz, J.; Koutrakis, P.

    2013-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) provides daily global coverage, but the 10 km resolution of its aerosol optical depth (AOD) product is not suitable for studying spatial variability of aerosols in urban areas. Recently, a new Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm was developed for MODIS which provides AOD at 1 km resolution. Using MAIAC data, the relationship between MAIAC AOD and PM(sub 2.5) as measured by the 27 EPA ground monitoring stations was investigated. These results were also compared to conventional MODIS 10 km AOD retrievals (MOD04) for the same days and locations. The coefficients of determination for MOD04 and for MAIAC are R(exp 2) =0.45 and 0.50 respectively, suggested that AOD is a reasonably good proxy for PM(sub 2.5) ground concentrations. Finally, we studied the relationship between PM(sub 2.5) and AOD at the intra-urban scale (10 km) in Boston. The fine resolution results indicated spatial variability in particle concentration at a sub-10 kilometer scale. A local analysis for the Boston area showed that the AOD-PM(sub 2.5) relationship does not depend on relative humidity and air temperatures below approximately 7 C. The correlation improves for temperatures above 7 - 16 C. We found no dependence on the boundary layer height except when the former was in the range 250-500 m. Finally, we apply a mixed effects model approach to MAIAC aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrievals from MODIS to predict PM(sub 2.5) concentrations within the greater Boston area. With this approach we can control for the inherent day-to-day variability in the AOD-PM(sub 2.5) relationship, which depends on time-varying parameters such as particle optical properties, vertical and diurnal concentration profiles and ground surface reflectance. Our results show that the model-predicted PM(sub 2.5) mass concentrations are highly correlated with the actual observations (out-of-sample R(exp 2) of 0.86). Therefore, adjustment

  10. Characterisation and modelling of mercury speciation in urban air affected by gold mining - assessment of bioavailability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cukrowska E. M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The growing global concern over the release of mercury to the environment has prompted specific inventories that quantify mercury emissions from various sources. Investigations of atmospheric mercury have been mostly done on gaseous species. Although, to assess human expose to mercury, especially in urban areas, the inhalable dust should be included in a study. The Witwatersrand Basin in South Africa is one of the most important gold mining regions in the world. Mercury (Hg, which occurs in gold-bearing ores, was also used for gold recoveries in previous centuries (19th and early 20th century and presently in illegal artisanal mining. The consequences of these mining activities were the release of Hg to the environment, mainly due to AMD from tailings dumps which are presently reprocessed. The city of Johannesburg is a multimillion population exposed strongly to industrial pollution. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude of mercury pollution in this urban area and assess its bioavailability. The gaseous samples were collected by trapping mercury on various gold traps. Dust samples were collected from a ground and on inhalation levels (1–2 m above a ground. They were later separated into different fractions by micro sieving. Bioavailability of mercury in inhalable dust (25 μm was tested by leaching collected samples with artificial lung fluid (ALF, pH 4.5, Gray’s solution (pH 7.4 and water. The leaching conditions were selected to mimic lungs environment (incubator at 30°C, time 24 hrs, rotation of samples 150 rpm. Total concentrations of mercury in dust fractions were also determined after microwave digestion. The results showed extremely high concentration levels of mercury in air and dust in industrial areas. Especially high levels were found around presently reprocessed old gold tailings dumps, up to 900 000 μgl–1. The levels dropped significantly in CBD area but still showing elevated concentrations up to 10 μgl−1

  11. Assessing theEffects of Nitrogen Dioxide in Urban Air on Health of West and Southwest Cities of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zallaghi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 is a corrosive, strong oxidant and a physiologic stimulant of lower respiratory tract. Every human being inhales an average of 10-m3 air per day; therefore, assessment of the effect of inhaled air on health is a vital issue. The main source NO2 in urban regions is intra-urban public transport system. The annual average of determined air quality for NO2 is 40 μg/m3. Objectives The present study aimed to estimate and compare epidemiologic indices attributed to the pollutant NO2 in the urban air of southwest cities of Iran, namely, Ahvaz, Kermanshah, and Bushehr, in 2011. Materials and Methods In the present study, data relevant to the air-pollutant NO2 in 2011 was obtained from the Iranian Department of Environment and meteorological organizations of the studied cities. Raw data processing by Excel software included instruction set correction of averaging, coding, and filtering. Then the meteorological parameters were converted as input file to the Air Q model. Finally, by using epidemiologic formulas, relative risk (RR and attributed part to NO2 in the three studied cites were estimated. Results The results showed that in summer, winter, and the whole year, Kermanshah and Bushehr had on average the maximum and minimum NO2 concentration, respectively, in 2011. In addition, accumulative number of cases attributed to exposure with NO2 in the studied cities was maximum in Kermanshah (21 cases and minimum in Bushehr (one case. The results revealed that approximately, the maximum number of death cases attributed to NO2 were observed in Kermanshah due to heart problems (1.06%, acute infarction (1.8%, and obstructive pulmonary disease (1.9% with concentration > 20 μg/m3. Conclusions Every 10 μg/m3 increase in the concentration of the pollutant NO2 in the studied cities led to increase in the RR of myocardial infarction, cardiovascular diseases, and obstructive pulmonary disease by 0.4%, 0.2%, and 0.4%, respectively, in

  12. Use of CFD modeling for estimating spatial representativeness of urban air pollution monitoring sites and suitability of their locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago, J. L.; Martin, F.

    2015-01-01

    A methodology to estimate the spatial representativeness of air pollution monitoring sites is applied to two urban districts. This methodology is based on high resolution maps of air pollution computed by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling tools. Traffic-emitted NO 2 dispersion is simulated for several meteorological conditions taking into account the effect of the buildings on air flow and pollutant dispersion and using a steady state CFD-RANS approach. From these results, maps of average pollutant concentrations for January -May 2011 are computed as a combination of the simulated scenarios. Two urban districts of Madrid City were simulated. Spatial representativeness areas for 32 different sites within the same district (including the site of the operative air quality stations) have been estimated by computing the portion of the domains with average NO 2 concentration differing less than a 20% of the concentration at each candidate monitoring site. New parameters such as the ratio AR between the representativeness area and the whole domain area or the representativeness index (IR) has been proposed to discuss and compare the representativeness areas. Significant differences between the spatial representativeness of the candidate sites of both studied districts have been found. The sites of the Escuelas Aguirre district have generally smaller representativeness areas than those of the Plaza de Castilla. More stations are needed to cover the Escuelas Aguirre district than for the Plaza de Castilla one. The operative air quality station of the Escuelas Aguirre district is less representative than the station of the Plaza de Castilla district. The cause of these differences seems to be the differences in urban structure of both districts prompting different ventilation. (Author)

  13. Use of CFD modeling for estimating spatial representativeness of urban air pollution monitoring sites and suitability of their locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago, J. L.; Martin, F.

    2015-07-01

    A methodology to estimate the spatial representativeness of air pollution monitoring sites is applied to two urban districts. This methodology is based on high resolution maps of air pollution computed by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling tools. Traffic-emitted NO{sub 2} dispersion is simulated for several meteorological conditions taking into account the effect of the buildings on air flow and pollutant dispersion and using a steady state CFD-RANS approach. From these results, maps of average pollutant concentrations for January -May 2011 are computed as a combination of the simulated scenarios. Two urban districts of Madrid City were simulated. Spatial representativeness areas for 32 different sites within the same district (including the site of the operative air quality stations) have been estimated by computing the portion of the domains with average NO{sub 2} concentration differing less than a 20% of the concentration at each candidate monitoring site. New parameters such as the ratio AR between the representativeness area and the whole domain area or the representativeness index (IR) has been proposed to discuss and compare the representativeness areas. Significant differences between the spatial representativeness of the candidate sites of both studied districts have been found. The sites of the Escuelas Aguirre district have generally smaller representativeness areas than those of the Plaza de Castilla. More stations are needed to cover the Escuelas Aguirre district than for the Plaza de Castilla one. The operative air quality station of the Escuelas Aguirre district is less representative than the station of the Plaza de Castilla district. The cause of these differences seems to be the differences in urban structure of both districts prompting different ventilation. (Author)

  14. Use of CFD modeling for estimating spatial representativeness of urban air pollution monitoring sites and suitability of their locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago, J.L.; Martin, F.

    2015-07-01

    A methodology to estimate the spatial representativeness of air pollution monitoring sites is applied to two urban districts. This methodology is based on high resolution maps of air pollution computed by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling tools. Traffic-emitted NO2 dispersion is simulated for several meteorological conditions taking into account the effect of the buildings on air flow and pollutant dispersion and using a steady state CFD-RANS approach. From these results, maps of average pollutant concentrations for January–May 2011 are computed as a combination of the simulated scenarios. Two urban districts of Madrid City were simulated. Spatial representativeness areas for 32 different sites within the same district (including the site of the operative air quality stations) have been estimated by computing the portion of the domains with average NO2 concentration differing less than a 20% of the concentration at each candidate monitoring site. New parameters such as the ratio AR between the representativeness area and the whole domain area or the representativeness index (IR) has been proposed to discuss and compare the representativeness areas. Significant differences between the spatial representativeness of the candidate sites of both studied districts have been found. The sites of the Escuelas Aguirre district have generally smaller representativeness areas than those of the Plaza de Castilla. More stations are needed to cover the Escuelas Aguirre district than for the Plaza de Castilla one. The operative air quality station of the Escuelas Aguirre district is less representative than the station of the Plaza de Castilla district. The cause of these differences seems to be the differences in urban structure of both districts prompting different ventilation. (Author)

  15. Air quality and health effects of biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions from urban green spaces and the mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yuan; Qu, Zelong; Du, Yuanyuan; Xu, Ronghua; Ma, Danping; Yang, Guofu; Shi, Yan; Fan, Xing; Tani, Akira; Guo, Peipei; Ge, Ying; Chang, Jie

    2017-11-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions lead to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and ground-level ozone pollution, and are harmful to human health, especially in urban areas. However, most BVOCs estimations ignored the emissions from urban green spaces, causing inaccuracies in the understanding of regional BVOCs emissions and their environmental and health effects. In this study, we used the latest local vegetation datasets from our field survey and applied an estimation model to analyze the spatial-temporal patterns, air quality impacts, health damage and mitigating strategies of BVOCs emissions in the Greater Beijing Area. Results showed that: (1) the urban core was the hotspot of regional BVOCs emissions for the highest region-based emission intensity (3.0 g C m -2 yr -1 ) among the 11 sub-regions; (2) urban green spaces played much more important roles (account for 62% of total health damage) than rural forests in threating human health; (3) BVOCs emissions from green spaces will more than triple by 2050 due to urban area expansion, tree growth and environmental changes; and (4) adopting proactive management (e.g. adjusting tree species composition) can reduce 61% of the BVOCs emissions and 50% of the health damage related to BVOCs emissions by 2050. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of Land-Use and Land-Cover Change on urban air quality in representative cities of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L.; Wei, J.; Duan, D. H.; Guo, Y. M.; Yang, D. X.; Jia, C.; Mi, X. T.

    2016-05-01

    The atmospheric particulate pollution in China is getting worse. Land-Use and Land-Cover Change (LUCC) is a key factor that affects atmospheric particulate pollution. Understanding the response of particulate pollution to LUCC is necessary for environmental protection. Eight representative cities in China, Qingdao, Jinan, Zhengzhou, Xi'an, Lanzhou, Zhangye, Jiuquan, and Urumqi were selected to analyze the relationship between particulate pollution and LUCC. The MODIS (MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) aerosol product (MOD04) was used to estimate atmospheric particulate pollution for nearly 10 years, from 2001 to 2010. Six land-use types, water, woodland, grassland, cultivated land, urban, and unused land, were obtained from the MODIS land cover product (MOD12), where the LUCC of each category was estimated. The response of particulate pollution to LUCC was analyzed from the above mentioned two types of data. Moreover, the impacts of time-lag and urban type changes on particulate pollution were also considered. Analysis results showed that due to natural factors, or human activities such as urban sprawl or deforestation, etc., the response of particulate pollution to LUCC shows obvious differences in different areas. The correlation between particulate pollution and LUCC is lower in coastal areas but higher in inland areas. The dominant factor affecting urban air quality in LUCC changes from ocean, to woodland, to urban land, and eventually into grassland or unused land when moving from the coast to inland China.

  17. Results of photochemical modeling sensitivity analyses in the Lake Michigan region: Current status of Lake Michigan Ozone Control Program (LMOP) modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolwick, P.D. [Lake Michigan Air Directors Consortium, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Kaleel, R.J. [Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, Springfield, IL (United States); Majewski, M.A. [Wisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The four states that border Lake Michigan are cooperatively applying a state-of-the-art nested photochemical grid model to assess the effects of potential emission control strategies on reducing elevated tropospheric ozone concentrations in the region to levels below the national ambient air quality standard. In order to provide an extensive database to support the application of the photochemical model, a substantial data collection effort known as the Lake Michigan Ozone Study (LMOS) was completed during the summer of 1991. The Lake Michigan Ozone Control Program (LMOP) was established by the States of Illinois, Wisconsin, Michigan, and Indiana to carry out the application of the modeling system developed from the LMOS, in terms of developing the attainment demonstrations required from this area by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.

  18. Effects of climatic changes and urban air pollution on the rising trends of respiratory allergy and asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades there has been increasing interest in studies regarding effects on human health of climate changes and urban air pollution. Climate change induced by anthropogenic warming of the earth's atmosphere is a daunting problem and there are several observations about the role of urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions and other pollutants, and westernized lifestyle with respect to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries. There is also evidence that asthmatic subjects are at increased risk of developing exacerbations of bronchial obstruction with exposure to gaseous (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide) and particulate inhalable components of air pollution. A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increasing frequency in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, environmental factors such as climate change and indoor and outdoor air pollution may contribute to explain the increasing frequency of respiratory allergy and asthma. Since concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory diseases and bronchial asthma. Scientific societies such as the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, European Respiratory Society and the World Allergy Organization have set up committees and task forces to produce documents to focalize attention on this topic, calling for prevention measures. PMID:22958620

  19. Impact of biomass burning on urban air quality estimated by organic tracers: Guangzhou and Beijing as cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiaoqiao Wang; Min Shao; Ying Liu; Kuster, William; Goldan, Paul; Xiaohua Li; Yuan Liu; Sihua Lu

    2007-01-01

    The impacts of biomass burning have not been adequately studied in China. In this work, chemical compositions of volatile organic compounds and particulate organic matters were measured in August 2005 in Beijing and in October 2004 in Guangzhou city. The performance of several possible tracers for biomass burning is compared by using acetonitrile as a reference compound. The correlations between the possible tracers and acetonitrile show that the use of K + as a tracer could result in bias because of the existence of other K+ sources in urban areas, while chloromethane is not reliable due to its wide use as industrial chemical. The impact of biomass burning on air quality is estimated using acetonitrile and levoglucosan as tracers. The results show that the impact of biomass burning is ubiquitous in both suburban and urban Guangzhou, and the frequencies of air pollution episodes significantly influenced by biomass burning were 100% for Xinken and 58% for downtown Guangzhou city. Fortunately, the air quality in only 2 out of 22 days was partly impacted by biomass burning in August in Beijing, the month that 2008 Olympic games will take place. The quantitative contribution of biomass burning to ambient PM 2.5 concentrations in Guangzhou city was also estimated by the ratio of levoglocusan to PM 2.5 in both the ambient air and biomass burning plumes. The results show that biomass burning contributes 3.02013;16.8% and 4.02013;19.0% of PM 2.5 concentrations in Xinken and Guangzhou downtown, respectively. (Author)

  20. Effects of climatic changes and urban air pollution on the rising trends of respiratory allergy and asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Amato Gennaro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the past two decades there has been increasing interest in studies regarding effects on human health of climate changes and urban air pollution. Climate change induced by anthropogenic warming of the earth's atmosphere is a daunting problem and there are several observations about the role of urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions and other pollutants, and westernized lifestyle with respect to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries. There is also evidence that asthmatic subjects are at increased risk of developing exacerbations of bronchial obstruction with exposure to gaseous (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and particulate inhalable components of air pollution. A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increasing frequency in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, environmental factors such as climate change and indoor and outdoor air pollution may contribute to explain the increasing frequency of respiratory allergy and asthma. Since concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory diseases and bronchial asthma. Scientific societies such as the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, European Respiratory Society and the World Allergy Organization have set up committees and task forces to produce documents to focalize attention on this topic, calling for prevention measures.

  1. Effects of climatic changes and urban air pollution on the rising trends of respiratory allergy and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Gennaro

    2011-02-28

    Over the past two decades there has been increasing interest in studies regarding effects on human health of climate changes and urban air pollution. Climate change induced by anthropogenic warming of the earth's atmosphere is a daunting problem and there are several observations about the role of urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions and other pollutants, and westernized lifestyle with respect to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries.There is also evidence that asthmatic subjects are at increased risk of developing exacerbations of bronchial obstruction with exposure to gaseous (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide) and particulate inhalable components of air pollution.A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increasing frequency in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, environmental factors such as climate change and indoor and outdoor air pollution may contribute to explain the increasing frequency of respiratory allergy and asthma. Since concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory diseases and bronchial asthma.Scientific societies such as the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, European Respiratory Society and the World Allergy Organization have set up committees and task forces to produce documents to focalize attention on this topic, calling for prevention measures.

  2. Real-time dissemination of air quality information using data streams and Web technologies: linking air quality to health risks in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Silvije; Ilić, Jadranka Pečar; Bešlić, Ivan

    2015-06-01

    This article presents a new, original application of modern information and communication technology to provide effective real-time dissemination of air quality information and related health risks to the general public. Our on-line subsystem for urban real-time air quality monitoring is a crucial component of a more comprehensive integrated information system, which has been developed by the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health. It relies on a StreamInsight data stream management system and service-oriented architecture to process data streamed from seven monitoring stations across Zagreb. Parameters that are monitored include gases (NO, NO2, CO, O3, H2S, SO2, benzene, NH3), particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), and meteorological data (wind speed and direction, temperature and pressure). Streamed data are processed in real-time using complex continuous queries. They first go through automated validation, then hourly air quality index is calculated for every station, and a report sent to the Croatian Environment Agency. If the parameter values exceed the corresponding regulation limits for three consecutive hours, the web service generates an alert for population groups at risk. Coupled with the Common Air Quality Index model, our web application brings air pollution information closer to the general population and raises awareness about environmental and health issues. Soon we intend to expand the service to a mobile application that is being developed.

  3. Prenatal Particulate Air Pollution and Asthma Onset in Urban Children. Identifying Sensitive Windows and Sex Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien Leon; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda; Coull, Brent A; Kloog, Itai; Schwartz, Joel; Lee, Alison; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J

    2015-11-01

    The influence of particulate air pollution on respiratory health starts in utero. Fetal lung growth and structural development occurs in stages; thus, effects on postnatal respiratory disorders may differ based on timing of exposure. We implemented an innovative method to identify sensitive windows for effects of prenatal exposure to particulate matter with a diameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm (PM2.5) on children's asthma development in an urban pregnancy cohort. Analyses included 736 full-term (≥37 wk) children. Each mother's daily PM2.5 exposure was estimated over gestation using a validated satellite-based spatiotemporal resolved model. Using distributed lag models, we examined associations between weekly averaged PM2.5 levels over pregnancy and physician-diagnosed asthma in children by age 6 years. Effect modification by sex was also examined. Most mothers were ethnic minorities (54% Hispanic, 30% black), had 12 or fewer years of education (66%), and did not smoke in pregnancy (80%). In the sample as a whole, distributed lag models adjusting for child age, sex, and maternal factors (education, race and ethnicity, smoking, stress, atopy, prepregnancy obesity) showed that increased PM2.5 exposure levels at 16-25 weeks gestation were significantly associated with early childhood asthma development. An interaction between PM2.5 and sex was significant (P = 0.01) with sex-stratified analyses showing that the association exists only for boys. Higher prenatal PM2.5 exposure at midgestation was associated with asthma development by age 6 years in boys. Methods to better characterize vulnerable windows may provide insight into underlying mechanisms.

  4. Vertically resolved characteristics of air pollution during two severe winter haze episodes in urban Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingqing; Sun, Yele; Xu, Weiqi; Du, Wei; Zhou, Libo; Tang, Guiqian; Chen, Chen; Cheng, Xueling; Zhao, Xiujuan; Ji, Dongsheng; Han, Tingting; Wang, Zhe; Li, Jie; Wang, Zifa

    2018-02-01

    We conducted the first real-time continuous vertical measurements of particle extinction (bext), gaseous NO2, and black carbon (BC) from ground level to 260 m during two severe winter haze episodes at an urban site in Beijing, China. Our results illustrated four distinct types of vertical profiles: (1) uniform vertical distributions (37 % of the time) with vertical differences less than 5 %, (2) higher values at lower altitudes (29 %), (3) higher values at higher altitudes (16 %), and (4) significant decreases at the heights of ˜ 100-150 m (14 %). Further analysis demonstrated that vertical convection as indicated by mixing layer height, temperature inversion, and local emissions are three major factors affecting the changes in vertical profiles. Particularly, the formation of type 4 was strongly associated with the stratified layer that was formed due to the interactions of different air masses and temperature inversions. Aerosol composition was substantially different below and above the transition heights with ˜ 20-30 % higher contributions of local sources (e.g., biomass burning and cooking) at lower altitudes. A more detailed evolution of vertical profiles and their relationship with the changes in source emissions, mixing layer height, and aerosol chemistry was illustrated by a case study. BC showed overall similar vertical profiles as those of bext (R2 = 0.92 and 0.69 in November and January, respectively). While NO2 was correlated with bext for most of the time, the vertical profiles of bext / NO2 varied differently for different profiles, indicating the impact of chemical transformation on vertical profiles. Our results also showed that more comprehensive vertical measurements (e.g., more aerosol and gaseous species) at higher altitudes in the megacities are needed for a better understanding of the formation mechanisms and evolution of severe haze episodes in China.

  5. Autonomous Landing and Ingress of Micro-Air-Vehicles in Urban Environments Based on Monocular Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockers, Roland; Bouffard, Patrick; Ma, Jeremy; Matthies, Larry; Tomlin, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Unmanned micro air vehicles (MAVs) will play an important role in future reconnaissance and search and rescue applications. In order to conduct persistent surveillance and to conserve energy, MAVs need the ability to land, and they need the ability to enter (ingress) buildings and other structures to conduct reconnaissance. To be safe and practical under a wide range of environmental conditions, landing and ingress maneuvers must be autonomous, using real-time, onboard sensor feedback. To address these key behaviors, we present a novel method for vision-based autonomous MAV landing and ingress using a single camera for two urban scenarios: landing on an elevated surface, representative of a rooftop, and ingress through a rectangular opening, representative of a door or window. Real-world scenarios will not include special navigation markers, so we rely on tracking arbitrary scene features; however, we do currently exploit planarity of the scene. Our vision system uses a planar homography decomposition to detect navigation targets and to produce approach waypoints as inputs to the vehicle control algorithm. Scene perception, planning, and control run onboard in real-time; at present we obtain aircraft position knowledge from an external motion capture system, but we expect to replace this in the near future with a fully self-contained, onboard, vision-aided state estimation algorithm. We demonstrate autonomous vision-based landing and ingress target detection with two different quadrotor MAV platforms. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of onboard, vision-based autonomous landing and ingress algorithms that do not use special purpose scene markers to identify the destination.

  6. Vertically resolved characteristics of air pollution during two severe winter haze episodes in urban Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We conducted the first real-time continuous vertical measurements of particle extinction (bext, gaseous NO2, and black carbon (BC from ground level to 260 m during two severe winter haze episodes at an urban site in Beijing, China. Our results illustrated four distinct types of vertical profiles: (1 uniform vertical distributions (37 % of the time with vertical differences less than 5 %, (2 higher values at lower altitudes (29 %, (3 higher values at higher altitudes (16 %, and (4 significant decreases at the heights of ∼ 100–150 m (14 %. Further analysis demonstrated that vertical convection as indicated by mixing layer height, temperature inversion, and local emissions are three major factors affecting the changes in vertical profiles. Particularly, the formation of type 4 was strongly associated with the stratified layer that was formed due to the interactions of different air masses and temperature inversions. Aerosol composition was substantially different below and above the transition heights with ∼ 20–30 % higher contributions of local sources (e.g., biomass burning and cooking at lower altitudes. A more detailed evolution of vertical profiles and their relationship with the changes in source emissions, mixing layer height, and aerosol chemistry was illustrated by a case study. BC showed overall similar vertical profiles as those of bext (R2 = 0.92 and 0.69 in November and January, respectively. While NO2 was correlated with bext for most of the time, the vertical profiles of bext ∕ NO2 varied differently for different profiles, indicating the impact of chemical transformation on vertical profiles. Our results also showed that more comprehensive vertical measurements (e.g., more aerosol and gaseous species at higher altitudes in the megacities are needed for a better understanding of the formation mechanisms and evolution of severe haze episodes in China.

  7. Decision-Support System for Urban Air Pollution under Future Climate Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen , Steen ,; Brandt , Jørgen; Hvidberg , Martin; Ketzel , Matthias; Hedegaard , Gitte ,; Christensen , Jens ,

    2011-01-01

    Part 6: Climate Services and Environmental Tools for Urban Planning and Climate Change Applications and Services; International audience; Climate change is expected to influence urban living conditions and challenge the ability of cities to adapt to and mitigate climate change. Urban climates will be faced with elevated temperatures and future climate conditions are expected to cause higher ozone concentrations, increased biogenic emissions from vegetation, changes in the chemistry of the atm...

  8. The impact of urban transportation on air pollution and the role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many scholars believe that air pollution can be defined when it is mixed with technical indicators. Therefore,in his legal dictionary, Garner has defined air pollution as any material and harmful energy that directly or indirectly emit in the air in such as a way that harm the environment, welfare, or public health. Air pollution has ...

  9. A regression-based method for mapping traffic-related air pollution. Application and testing in four contrasting urban environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, D.J.; De Hoogh, C.; Elliot, P.; Gulliver, J.; Wills, J.; Kingham, S.; Smallbone, K.

    2000-01-01

    Accurate, high-resolution maps of traffic-related air pollution are needed both as a basis for assessing exposures as part of epidemiological studies, and to inform urban air-quality policy and traffic management. This paper assesses the use of a GIS-based, regression mapping technique to model spatial patterns of traffic-related air pollution. The model - developed using data from 80 passive sampler sites in Huddersfield, as part of the SAVIAH (Small Area Variations in Air Quality and Health) project - uses data on traffic flows and land cover in the 300-m buffer zone around each site, and altitude of the site, as predictors of NO 2 concentrations. It was tested here by application in four urban areas in the UK: Huddersfield (for the year following that used for initial model development), Sheffield, Northampton, and part of London. In each case, a GIS was built in ArcInfo, integrating relevant data on road traffic, urban land use and topography. Monitoring of NO 2 was undertaken using replicate passive samplers (in London, data were obtained from surveys carried out as part of the London network). In Huddersfield, Sheffield and Northampton, the model was first calibrated by comparing modelled results with monitored NO 2 concentrations at 10 randomly selected sites; the calibrated model was then validated against data from a further 10-28 sites. In London, where data for only 11 sites were available, validation was not undertaken. Results showed that the model performed well in all cases. After local calibration, the model gave estimates of mean annual NO 2 concentrations within a factor of 1.5 of the actual mean (approx. 70-90%) of the time and within a factor of 2 between 70 and 100% of the time. r 2 values between modelled and observed concentrations are in the range of 0.58-0.76. These results are comparable to those achieved by more sophisticated dispersion models. The model also has several advantages over dispersion modelling. It is able, for example, to

  10. Relationship between the merit factor of thermoelectric materials and the air conditioning unit of urban electric cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffet, J.

    1994-01-01

    The main benefit of electric cars is to reduce air pollution in cities that is thus desirable to equip them with non polluting air conditioning units and this rules out frigorific compressors operating with CFC. The planned replacement of CFC by HFC is at best an interim solution. The best solution is certainly to use thermoelectric air conditioning units, which are inherently pollution-free. However, these have a fairly low COPF when compared to traditional compressor units. We study the relationship between the cooling of the interior of urban electric cars and the merit factor of the thermoelectric material in their Peltier unit. This should help provide concrete target properties of future T E materials. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  11. Meteorological and air quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetative cover in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, Haider; Hammer, Hillel; Akbari, Hashem

    2002-01-01

    The study described in this report is part of a project sponsored by the Toronto Atmospheric Fund, performed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, to assess the potential role of surface property modifications on energy, meteorology, and air quality in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada. Numerical models were used to establish the possible meteorological and ozone air-quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetative fraction, i.e., ''cool-city'' strategies that can mitigate the urban heat island (UHI), significantly reduce urban energy consumption, and improve thermal comfort, particularly during periods of hot weather in summer. Mitigation is even more important during critical heat wave periods with possible increased heat-related hospitalization and mortality. The evidence suggests that on an annual basis cool-city strategies are beneficial, and the implementation of such measures is currently being investigated in the U.S. and Canada. We simulated possible scenari os for urban heat-island mitigation in the GTA and investigated consequent meteorological changes, and also performed limited air-quality analysis to assess related impacts. The study was based on a combination of mesoscale meteorological modeling, Lagrangian (trajectory), and photochemical trajectory modeling to assess the potential meteorological and ozone air-quality impacts of cool-city strategies. As available air-quality and emissions data are incompatible with models currently in use at LBNL, our air-quality analysis was based on photochemical trajectory modeling. Because of questions as to the accuracy and appropriateness of this approach, in our opinion this aspect of the study can be improved in the future, and the air-quality results discussed in this report should be viewed as relatively qualitative. The MM5 meteorological model predicts a UHI in the order of 2 to 3 degrees C in locations of maxima, and about 1 degree C as a typical value over most of the urban area

  12. Spatial distribution of ground-level urban background O3 concentrations in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineda Rojas, Andrea L.; Venegas, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a recently developed urban-scale atmospheric dispersion model (DAUMOD-GRS) is applied to evaluate the ground-level ozone (O 3 ) concentrations resulting from anthropogenic area sources of NO x and VOC in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires (MABA). The statistical comparison of model results with observations (including new available data from seventeen sites) shows a good model performance. Estimated summer highest diurnal O 3 1-h concentrations in the MABA vary between 15 ppb in the most urbanised area and 53 ppb in the suburbs. All values are below the air quality standard. Several runs are performed to evaluate the impact of possible future emission reductions on O 3 concentrations. Under all hypothetical scenarios, the maximum diurnal O 3 1-h concentration obtained for the area is slightly reduced (up to 4%). However, maximum diurnal O 3 concentrations could increase at some less urbanised areas of MABA depending on the relative reductions of the emissions of NO x and VOC. -- Highlights: ► A recently developed air quality model reproduces well observed O 3 levels in MABA. ► Modelled summer maximum diurnal O 3 concentrations vary in the area between 15 and 53 ppb. ► All hourly values are below the air quality standard (120 ppb). ► Possible future emission reductions would have small impact on the highest level. -- The distribution of summer maximum diurnal ground-level O 3 concentrations in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires is evaluated applying a recently developed simple urban air quality model

  13. DNA damage in buccal mucosa cells of pre-school children exposed to high levels of urban air pollutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Ceretti

    Full Text Available Air pollution has been recognized as a human carcinogen. Children living in urban areas are a high-risk group, because genetic damage occurring early in life is considered able to increase the risk of carcinogenesis in adulthood. This study aimed to investigate micronuclei (MN frequency, as a biomarker of DNA damage, in exfoliated buccal cells of pre-school children living in a town with high levels of air pollution. A sample of healthy 3-6-year-old children living in Brescia, Northern Italy, was investigated. A sample of the children's buccal mucosa cells was collected during the winter months in 2012 and 2013. DNA damage was investigated using the MN test. Children's exposure to urban air pollution was evaluated by means of a questionnaire filled in by their parents that included items on various possible sources of indoor and outdoor pollution, and the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5 and NO2 in the 1-3 weeks preceding biological sample collection. 181 children (mean age ± SD: 4.3 ± 0.9 years were investigated. The mean ± SD MN frequency was 0.29 ± 0.13%. A weak, though statistically significant, association of MN with concentration of air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5 and NO2 was found, whereas no association was apparent between MN frequency and the indoor and outdoor exposure variables investigated via the questionnaire. This study showed a high MN frequency in children living in a town with heavy air pollution in winter, higher than usually found among children living in areas with low or medium-high levels of air pollution.

  14. The spatial variability of air temperature and nocturnal urban heat island intensity in the city of Brno, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrovolný Petr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to quantify the effects of a number of factors on the nocturnal air temperature field in a medium-sized central European city located in complex terrain. The main data sources consist of mobile air temperature measurements and a geographical database. Temperature measurements were taken along several profiles through the city centre and were made under a clear sky with no advection. Altogether nine sets of detailed measurements, in all seasons, were assembled. Altitude, quantity of vegetation, density of buildings and the structure of the transportation (road system were considered as explanatory variables. The result is that the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and the density of buildings were the most important factors, each of them explaining a substantial part (more than 50% of overall air temperature variability. Mobile measurements with NDVI values as a covariate were used for interpolation of air temperature for the entire study area. The spatial variability of nocturnal air temperature and UHI intensity in Brno is the main output presented. Air temperatures interpolated from mobile measurements and NDVI values indicate that the mean urban heat island (UHI intensity in the early night in summer is at its highest (approximately 5 °C in the city centre and decreases towards the suburban areas.

  15. PHOTOCITYTEX - A LIFE project on the air pollution treatment in European urban environments by means of photocatalytic textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ródenas, Milagros; Fages, Eduardo; Fatarella, Enrico; Herrero, David; Castagnoli, Lidia; Borrás, Esther; Vera, Teresa; Gómez, Tatiana; Carreño, Javier; López, Ramón; Gimeno, Cristina; Catota, Marlon; Muñoz, Amalia

    2016-04-01

    In urban areas, air pollution from traffic is becoming a growing problem. In recent years the use of titanium dioxide (TiO2) based photocatalytic self-cleaning and de-polluting materials has been considered to remove these pollutants. TiO2 is now commercially available and used in construction material or paints for environmental purposes. Further work, however, is still required to clarify the potential impacts from wider TiO2 use. Specific test conditions are required to provide objective and accurate knowledge. Under the LIFE PHOTOCITYTEX project, the effectiveness of using TiO2-based photocatalytic nanomaterials in building textiles as a way of improving the air quality in urban areas will be assessed. Moreover, information on secondary products formed during the tests will be obtained, yielding a better overall understanding of the whole process and its implications. For this purpose, a series of demonstrations are foreseen, comprising 1. lab-test and development of textile prototypes at lab scale, 2. larger scale demonstration of the use of photocatalytic textiles in the depollution of urban environments employing the EUPHORE chambers to simulate a number of environmental conditions of various European cities and 3. field demonstrations installing the photocatalytic textiles in two urban locations in Quart de Poblet, a tunnel and a school. A one-year extensive passive dosimetric campaign has already being carried out to characterize the selected urban sites before the installation of the photocatalytic textile prototypes, and a similar campaign after their installation is ongoing. Also, more comprehensive intensive active measurement campaigns have been conducted to account for winter and summer conditions. In parallel, lab-tests have already been completed to determine optimal photocatalytic formulations on textiles, followed by experiments at EUPHORE. Information on the deployment of the campaigns is given together with laboratory conclusions and first

  16. Fast-food consumption and obesity among Michigan adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Beth; Rafferty, Ann P; Lyon-Callo, Sarah; Fussman, Christopher; Imes, Gwendoline

    2011-07-01

    Consumption of meals eaten away from home, especially from fast-food restaurants, has increased in the United States since the 1970s. The main objective of this study was to examine the frequency and characteristics of fast-food consumption among adults in Michigan and obesity prevalence. We analyzed data from 12 questions about fast-food consumption that were included on the 2005 Michigan Behavioral Risk Factor Survey, a population-based telephone survey of Michigan adults, using univariate and bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression, and compared these data with data on Michigan obesity prevalence. Approximately 80% of Michigan adults went to fast-food restaurants at least once per month and 28% went regularly (≥2 times/wk). Regular fast-food consumption was higher among younger adults (mostly men) but was not significantly associated with household income, education, race, or urbanicity (in a multivariate framework). The prevalence of obesity increased consistently with frequenting fast-food restaurants, from 24% of those going less than once a week to 33% of those going 3 or more times per week. The predominant reason for choosing fast food was convenience. Although hypothetically 68% of adults who go to fast-food restaurants would choose healthier fast-food items when available, only 16% said they ever use nutritional information when ordering. The prevalence of fast-food consumption is high in Michigan across education, income, and racial groups and is strongly associated with obesity. Making nutritional information at fast-food restaurants more readily available and easier to use may help consumers to order more healthful or lower-calorie items.

  17. Mathematical Modeling of Air Flowfield at Urban Environment: the Case of Road Network at the Historical Centre of Kifissia's Municipality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, K.; Belias, C.

    2008-09-01

    The present paper refers to the numerical analysis of air flowfield at urban environments and the conducting thermal comfort after the evaluation of the examined space using CFD methods, taking into account bioclimatic principles at the architectural design. More specially, the paper draws attention to the physical procedures governing air movement at an urban environment (a road network) at Kifissia (a Municipality of north Athens), trying to form them in such way that will lead to the thermal comfort of the area's users. The study presents a mathematical model, implemented in a general computer code that can provide detailed information on velocity, prevailing in three-dimensional spaces of any geometrical complexity. Turbulent flow is simulated and buoyancy effects are taken into account. This simulation procedure is intended to contribute to the effort towards designing urban environments, using thermal comfort criteria at the bioclimatic design. A computer model of this kind will provide the architects or the environmental engineers with powerful and economical means of evaluating alternative spaces' designs.

  18. [Effect of air pollution on respiratory health in school-aged children in the main urban area of Chongqing, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ming-Yue; Tang, Xu; Huang, Wei; Dai, Hua; Liu, Xing-Can; Xia, Yin-Yin; Meng, Pan; Zhang, Rui-Yuan; Guo, Yu-Ming; Cheng, Shu-Qun

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the effect of air pollution on respiratory health in school-aged children in the main urban area of Chongqing, China. The main urban area of Chongqing was divided into polluted area and clean area according to the air pollution data shown on the Environmental Protection Agency Website of Chongqing between 2010 and 2015. A cluster sampling method was used to select 695 third- or fourth-grade children from 2 primary schools in the clean or polluted area as study subjects, with 313 children from the clean area and 382 children from the polluted area. Pulmonary function was examined for all children and a standard American epidemiological questionnaire (ATS-DLD-78-C) was used to investigate the prevalence of respiratory diseases and symptoms. Compared with the clean area, the polluted area had significantly higher concentrations of inhalable particles (PM 10 ), fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), and nitric oxide (NO X ) (Ppolluted area had significantly higher risks of cough (OR=1.644), cough during cold (OR=1.596), expectoration during cold (OR=2.196), persistent expectoration (OR=1.802), and wheezing (OR=2.415). The boys and girls in the clean area had significantly higher forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second than those in the polluted area (PAir pollution in the main urban area of Chongqing is associated with the increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms in school-aged children and has certain effect on children's pulmonary function.

  19. A Method for Estimating Urban Background Concentrations in Support of Hybrid Air Pollution Modeling for Environmental Health Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Arunachalam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Exposure studies rely on detailed characterization of air quality, either from sparsely located routine ambient monitors or from central monitoring sites that may lack spatial representativeness. Alternatively, some studies use models of various complexities to characterize local-scale air quality, but often with poor representation of background concentrations. A hybrid approach that addresses this drawback combines a regional-scale model to provide background concentrations and a local-scale model to assess impacts of local sources. However, this approach may double-count sources in the study regions. To address these limitations, we carefully define the background concentration as the concentration that would be measured if local sources were not present, and to estimate these background concentrations we developed a novel technique that combines space-time ordinary kriging (STOK of observations with outputs from a detailed chemistry-transport model with local sources zeroed out. We applied this technique to support an exposure study in Detroit, Michigan, for several pollutants (including NOx and PM2.5, and evaluated the estimated hybrid concentrations (calculated by combining the background estimates that addresses this issue of double counting with local-scale dispersion model estimates using observations. Our results demonstrate the strength of this approach specifically by eliminating the problem of double-counting reported in previous hybrid modeling approaches leading to improved estimates of background concentrations, and further highlight the relative importance of NOx vs. PM2.5 in their relative contributions to total concentrations. While a key limitation of this approach is the requirement for another detailed model simulation to avoid double-counting, STOK improves the overall characterization of background concentrations at very fine spatial scales.

  20. Spatiotemporal influence of temperature, air quality, and urban environment on cause-specific mortality during hazy days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hung Chak; Wong, Man Sing; Yang, Lin; Shi, Wenzhong; Yang, Jinxin; Bilal, Muhammad; Chan, Ta-Chien

    2018-03-01

    Haze is an extreme weather event that can severely increase air pollution exposure, resulting in higher burdens on human health. Few studies have explored the health effects of haze, and none have investigated the spatiotemporal interaction between temperature, air quality and urban environment that may exacerbate the adverse health effects of haze. We investigated the spatiotemporal pattern of haze effects and explored the additional effects of temperature, air pollution and urban environment on the short-term mortality risk during hazy days. We applied a Poisson regression model to daily mortality data from 2007 through 2014, to analyze the short-term mortality risk during haze events in Hong Kong. We evaluated the adverse effect on five types of cause-specific mortality after four types of haze event. We also analyzed the additional effect contributed by the spatial variability of urban environment on each type of cause-specific mortality during a specific haze event. A regular hazy day (lag 0) has higher all-cause mortality risk than a day without haze (odds ratio: 1.029 [1.009, 1.049]). We have also observed high mortality risks associated with mental disorders and diseases of the nervous system during hazy days. In addition, extreme weather and air quality contributed to haze-related mortality, while cold weather and higher ground-level ozone had stronger influences on mortality risk. Areas with a high-density environment, lower vegetation, higher anthropogenic heat, and higher PM 2.5 featured stronger effects of haze on mortality than the others. A combined influence of haze, extreme weather/air quality, and urban environment can result in extremely high mortality due to mental/behavioral disorders or diseases of the nervous system. In conclusion, we developed a data-driven technique to analyze the effects of haze on mortality. Our results target the specific dates and areas with higher mortality during haze events, which can be used for development of

  1. Differentiating local and regional sources of Chinese urban air pollution based on the effect of the Spring Festival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Zhu, Qiao; Cao, Li-Ming; Zhang, Bin; He, Ling-Yan

    2017-07-01

    The emission of pollutants is extremely reduced during the annual Chinese Spring Festival (SF) in Shenzhen, China. During the SF, traffic flow drops by ˜ 50 % and the industrial plants are almost entirely shut down in Shenzhen. To characterize the variation in ambient air pollutants due to the Spring Festival effect, various gaseous and particulate pollutants were measured in real time in urban Shenzhen over three consecutive winters (2014-2016). The results indicate that the concentrations of NOx, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), black carbon (BC), primary organic aerosols, chloride, and nitrate in submicron aerosols decrease by 50-80 % during SF periods relative to non-Spring Festival periods, regardless of meteorological conditions. This decrease suggests that these pollutants are mostly emitted or secondarily formed from urban local emissions. The concentration variation in species mostly from regional or natural sources, however, is found to be much less, such as for bulk fine particulate matter (PM2. 5). More detailed analysis of the Spring Festival effect reveals an urgent need to reduce emissions of SO2 and VOCs on a regional scale rather than on an urban scale to reduce urban PM2. 5 in Shenzhen, which can also be useful as a reference for other megacities in China.

  2. Characteristics of public concern on haze in China and its relationship with air quality in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yaling; Wang, Yuan; Zuo, Jian; Jiang, Hongqiang; Huang, Dacang; Rameezdeen, Raufdeen

    2018-10-01

    Severe air pollution associated with the rapid urbanization is a pressing issue in China. Moreover, the public awareness of environmental protection in China is awakening, which poses enormous pressure on governments to enforce environmental regulations. The study of environmental problems from the public perspective plays a crucial role in effective environmental governance. The Baidu search engine is the China's largest search engine. The search index of haze based on Baidu search engine reflects the public concern on air quality in China. The aim of this study is to uncover important relationships between public concern and air quality monitoring data based on the case study of haze pollution crisis in China. The results indicate that: (1) the year 2013 is the turning point of the public concern on air quality in China; (2) according to daily data analysis, the search index of haze has increased progressively with increased PM 2.5 concentration with a time lag of 0-4 days and the lag time has a declining tendency from 2013 to 2017; (3) according to annual data analysis, the public concern showed a weak correlation with air quality and they showed an opposite temporal trend. However, when the long-term annual trend was removed, the strong positive correlation emerges between the fluctuation parts of the search index of haze and monitoring data of air quality. This indicates the public is more sensitive to the short-term fluctuation of air quality. The results of this paper provide statistical evidence on the evolution of public concern on air quality from 2013 to 2017. This study will help policy makers to better understand the patterns of the public's perception of environmental problems and consequently improve the government's capability to deal with these challenges. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Modelling the urban air quality in Hamburg with the new city-scale chemistry transport model CityChem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Matthias; Ramacher, Martin; Aulinger, Armin; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Air quality modelling plays an important role by providing guidelines for efficient air pollution abatement measures. Currently, most urban dispersion models treat air pollutants as passive tracer substances or use highly simplified chemistry when simulating air pollutant concentrations on the city-scale. The newly developed urban chemistry-transport model CityChem has the capability of modelling the photochemical transformation of multiple pollutants along with atmospheric diffusion to produce pollutant concentration fields for the entire city on a horizontal resolution of 100 m or even finer and a vertical resolution of 24 layers up to 4000 m height. CityChem is based on the Eulerian urban dispersion model EPISODE of the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU). CityChem treats the complex photochemistry in cities using detailed EMEP chemistry on an Eulerian 3-D grid, while using simple photo-stationary equilibrium on a much higher resolution grid (receptor grid), i.e. close to industrial point sources and traffic sources. The CityChem model takes into account that long-range transport contributes to urban pollutant concentrations. This is done by using 3-D boundary concentrations for the city domain derived from chemistry-transport simulations with the regional air quality model CMAQ. For the study of the air quality in Hamburg, CityChem was set-up with a main grid of 30×30 grid cells of 1×1 km2 each and a receptor grid of 300×300 grid cells of 100×100 m2. The CityChem model was driven with meteorological data generated by the prognostic meteorology component of the Australian chemistry-transport model TAPM. Bottom-up inventories of emissions from traffic, industry, households were based on data of the municipality of Hamburg. Shipping emissions for the port of Hamburg were taken from the Clean North Sea Shipping project. Episodes with elevated ozone (O3) were of specific interest for this study, as these are associated with exceedances of the World

  4. Ambient concentrations and personal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in an urban community with mixed sources of air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHU, XIANLEI; FAN, ZHIHUA (TINA); WU, XIANGMEI; JUNG, KYUNG HWA; OHMAN-STRICKLAND, PAMELA; BONANNO, LINDA J.; LIOY, PAUL J.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of the health risks resulting from exposure to ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is limited by a lack of environmental exposure data among the general population. This study characterized personal exposure and ambient concentrations of PAH in the Village of Waterfront South (WFS), an urban community with many mixed sources of air toxics in Camden, New Jersey, and CopeWood/Davis Streets (CDS), an urban reference area located ~1 mile east of WFS. A total of 54 and 53 participants were recruited from non-smoking households in WFS and CDS, respectively. In all, 24-h personal and ambient air samples were collected simultaneously in both areas on weekdays and weekends during summer and winter. The ambient PAH concentrations in WFS were either significantly higher than or comparable to those in CDS, indicating the significant impact of local sources on PAH pollution in WFS. Analysis of diagnostic ratios and correlation suggested that diesel truck traffic, municipal waste combustion and industrial combustion were the major sources in WFS. In such an area, ambient air pollution contributed significantly to personal PAH exposure, explaining 44–96% of variability in personal concentrations. This study provides valuable data for examining the impact of local ambient PAH pollution on personal exposure and therefore potential health risks associated with environmental PAH pollution. PMID:21364704

  5. Diffusive flux of PAHs across sediment-water and water-air interfaces at urban superfund sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minick, D James; Anderson, Kim A

    2017-09-01

    Superfund sites may be a source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the surrounding environment. These sites can also act as PAH sinks from present-day anthropogenic activities, especially in urban locations. Understanding PAH transport across environmental compartments helps to define the relative contributions of these sources and is therefore important for informing remedial and management decisions. In the present study, paired passive samplers were co-deployed at sediment-water and water-air interfaces within the Portland Harbor Superfund Site and the McCormick and Baxter Superfund Site. These sites, located along the Willamette River (Portland, OR, USA), have PAH contamination from both legacy and modern sources. Diffusive flux calculations indicate that the Willamette River acts predominantly as a sink for low molecular weight PAHs from both the sediment and the air. The sediment was also predominantly a source of 4- and 5-ring PAHs to the river, and the river was a source of these same PAHs to the air, indicating that legacy pollution may be contributing to PAH exposure for residents of the Portland urban center. At the remediated McCormick and Baxter Superfund Site, flux measurements highlight locations within the sand and rock sediment cap where contaminant breakthrough is occurring. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2281-2289. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  6. Land-Air Interactions over Urban-Rural Transects Using Satellite Observations: Analysis over Delhi, India from 1991–2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi Jain

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past four decades Delhi, India, has witnessed rapid urbanization and change in land use land cover (LULC pattern, with most of the cultivable areas and wasteland being converted into built-up areas. Presently around 40% land is under built-up area, a drastic rise of 30% from 1977. The effect of changing LULC, at a local scale, on various variables-land surface temperature (LST, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, emissivity, albedo, evaporation, Bowen ratio, and planetary boundary layer (PBL height, from 1991–2016, is investigated. To assess the spatio-temporal dynamics of land-air interactions, we select two different 100 km transects covering the NE-SW and NW-SE expanse of Delhi and its adjoining areas. High NDVI and emissivity is found for regions with green cover and drastic reduction is noted in built-up area clusters. In both of the transects, land surface variations manifest itself in patterns of LST variation. Parametric and non-parametric correlations are able to statistically establish the land-air interactions in the city. NDVI, an indirect indicator for LULC classes, significantly helps in understanding the modifications in LST and ultimately air temperature. Significant, strong positive relationships exist between skin temperature and evaporation, skin temperature and PBL height, and PBL height and evaporation, providing insights into the meteorological changes that are associated with urbanization.

  7. Where Will Urban High School Teachers for the 21st Century Come From?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follo, Eric; Hoerr, Bill; Vorheis-Sargent, Ann

    2002-01-01

    Describes urban teacher supply problem in Oakland County, Michigan. Reviews literature on urban teacher supply problem nationally. Describes Michigan's alternative teacher-certification program and Oakland University's partnership with the Pontiac School District to prepare teachers for teaching in urban schools. (Contains 50 references.) (PKP)

  8. Monitoring urban air quality using a high-density network of low-cost sensor nodes in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Nuria; Schneider, Philipp; Vogt, Matthias; Dauge, Franck R.; Lahoz, William; Bartonova, Alena

    2017-04-01

    Urban air quality represents a major public health burden and is a long-standing concern to citizens. Air pollution is associated with a range of diseases, symptoms and conditions that impair health and quality of life. In Oslo, traffic, especially exhaust from heavy-duty and private diesel vehicles and dust resuspension from studded tyres, together with wood burning in winter, are the main sources of pollution. Norway, as part of the European Economic Area, is obliged to comply with the European air quality regulations and ensure clean air. Despite this, Oslo has exceeded both the NO2 and PM10 thresholds for health protection defined in the Directive 2008/50/EC. The air quality in the Oslo area is continuously monitored in 12 compliance monitoring stations. These stations provide reliable and accurate data but their density is too low to provide a detailed spatial distribution of air quality. The emergence of low-cost nodes enables observations at high spatial resolution, providing the opportunity to enhance existing monitoring systems. However, the data generated by these nodes is significantly less accurate and precise than the data provided by reference equipment. We have conducted an evaluation of low-cost nodes to monitor NO2 and PM10, comparing the data collected with low-cost nodes against CEN (European Standardization Organization) reference analysers. During January and March 2016, a network of 24 nodes was deployed in Oslo. During January, high NO2 levels were observed for several days in a row coinciding with the formation of a thermal inversion. During March, we observed an episode with high PM10 levels due to road dust resuspension. Our results show that there is a major technical challenge associated with current commercial low-cost sensors, regarding the sensor robustness and measurement repeatability. Despite this, low-cost sensor nodes are able to reproduce the NO2 and PM10 variability. The data from the sensors was employed to generate detailed

  9. Urban air quality modeling with full O 3-NO x-VOC chemistry: Implications for O 3 and PM air quality in a street canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjoong J.; Park, Rokjin J.; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2012-02-01

    We examine transport and chemical transformation of reactive pollutants on an urban street using a computation fluid dynamics (CFD) model coupled with full photochemistry of reactive pollutants. An extensive comparison between simulated results and observations is conducted to evaluate the model, focusing on a field campaign occurred in Dongfeng Middle Street in Guangzhou, China. Observed CO and NO concentrations vary diurnally following traffic volumes. The model captures this observed diurnal variation and magnitudes of CO concentrations successfully. However, simulated NO concentration is three times higher than observation. This high bias is significantly reduced in the sensitivity simulation with lower NO x emissions. We find that oxidation products of O 3 photochemistry such as NO 2 and O 3 vary differently from primary pollutants, indicating important effects of photochemical reactions on their fates. The model appears to reproduce observed O 3 and NO 2 variability with time and altitude. Our analysis shows that high NO x concentrations in the urban street canyon may efficiently produce aerosol nitrate in the presence of NH 3. Simulated inorganic NO 3- aerosol concentration reaches up to 0.3 μg m -3 in July but increases an order of magnitude higher at lower temperature that favors partitioning of gas-phase HNO 3 to aerosol-phase, implying a serious concern for urban air quality in winter.

  10. Geochemical Assessment of Groundwater in the Peri-urban Environment of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, A.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater pollution is a major concern in peri-urban environments. Thus, water quality is being investigated at several domestic wells in Brandsen, 70 km south of Buenos Aires, Argentina. To present, about 20 water sources were sampled in orchards and small farms of the area. There is limited data about the wells construction, although collected information suggests that groundwater is derived from the superficial sandy loams of the Pampean Aquifer. Samples were analysed for major inorganic elements using ion chromatography and ICP-MS. Titration was used to estimate alkalinity. Physical characteristics (EC, pH, temperature) were measured on site. Results show that groundwater pH ranges from 6.5 to 7.8, with a specific conductance of 180 to 255 mS/m. A peak of 360 mS/m in one horticultural parcel is associated to local NO3- concentrations up to 140 mg/L. This value exceeds the maximum recommendations set by the WHO (50 mg/L). Considering that fertilizer inputs in that property are negligible, the high levels of NO3- might be attributed to effluents from a neighbour septic tank. An increase in NO3- (>150mg/L) was also detected in two conventional farms. This increase correlates to elevated SO42- concentrations (>300 mg/L) suggesting thus, fertilizers percolation into the saturated zone. The leaching of these fluids might be exacerbated by irrigation during new planting, and accumulations of fertilizer-solids in the root zones from previous seasons. Chloride concentrations average ~90 mg/L and would not pose a threat to health at the moment. Its main origin would be related to connate waters in the loam matrix, although some anthropogenic inputs might occur in the previously described farms. In general, the rest of the analysed elements fall within acceptable levels for drinking purposes as well. Nevertheless, further work is still necessary to better define the fate of the potential harmful elements and assess seasonal variations in water quality.

  11. Enhanced light absorptivity of black carbon with air pollution development in urban Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Cheng, Y.; Su, H.; He, K.

    2017-12-01

    The impacts of black carbon (BC) aerosols on air quality and climate are dependent on BC light absorptivity. However, the light absorptivity of ambient BC-containing particles remains conflicting. In this work, we investigated the evolution of BC light absorptivity with pollution development in urban Beijing, China. We found that the mass absorption cross-section (MAC) of ambient BC-containing particles measured during the campaign increased with BC mass concentration, which can be attributed to more coating materials on BC surface with pollution development. A single-particle soot photometer (SP2) measurement showed that the coating thickness (CT) of BC-containing particles increased by 48% with PM1 and BC mass concentration increasing from 10 μg m-3 and 0.3 μg m-3 to 230 μg m-3 and 12 μg m-3. Based on Mie calculation, the CT increase could led to light absorption enhancement (Eab) of BC-containing particles increasing by 22%, consistent with the increase of measured MAC. The relationship between growth rate of BC light absorptivity (kEab) and that of PM1 or rBC concentration (kPM1 or krBC) showed that kEab ≈ 4.8% kPM1 or kEab ≈ 2.5% krBC. The analysis of effective emission intensity (EEI) for BC revealed that the enhancement of BC light absorptivity with increasing pollution levels was dominated by regional transport. During the pollution period, 63% of BC over Beijing originated from regional sources. The aging of these regional BC during atmospheric transport controlled the increase of coating materials for BC-containing particles observed in Beijing. As a result of enhanced light absorptivity with pollution development, BC forcing efficiency could increase by 20% during polluted period. Our work identified the importance of BC on radiative forcing under polluted environment, which is determined by not only the increase of BC mass concentration, but also the enhancement of BC forcing efficiency due to more coating materials.

  12. Simulating air temperature in an urban street canyon in all weather conditions using measured data at a reference meteorological station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erell, E.; Williamson, T.

    2006-10-01

    A model is proposed that adapts data from a standard meteorological station to provide realistic site-specific air temperature in a city street exposed to the same meso-scale environment. In addition to a rudimentary description of the two sites, the canyon air temperature (CAT) model requires only inputs measured at standard weather stations; yet it is capable of accurately predicting the evolution of air temperature in all weather conditions for extended periods. It simulates the effect of urban geometry on radiant exchange; the effect of moisture availability on latent heat flux; energy stored in the ground and in building surfaces; air flow in the street based on wind above roof height; and the sensible heat flux from individual surfaces and from the street canyon as a whole. The CAT model has been tested on field data measured in a monitoring program carried out in Adelaide, Australia, in 2000-2001. After calibrating the model, predicted air temperature correlated well with measured data in all weather conditions over extended periods. The experimental validation provides additional evidence in support of a number of parameterisation schemes incorporated in the model to account for sensible heat and storage flux.

  13. First characterization of the endocrine-disrupting potential of indoor gaseous and particulate contamination: comparison with urban outdoor air (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oziol, Lucie; Alliot, Fabrice; Botton, Jérémie; Bimbot, Maya; Huteau, Viviane; Levi, Yves; Chevreuil, Marc

    2017-01-01

    The composition of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) in the ambient air of indoor environments has already been described, but little is known about the inherent endocrine-disrupting potential of indoor air contamination. We therefore aimed to study the distribution of bioactive EDCs in the gaseous and particulate phases of indoor air using a cellular bioassay approach that integrates the interaction effects between chemicals. Organic air extracts, both gaseous and particulate, were taken from three indoor locations (office, apartment, and children's day care) in France and sampled in two different seasons in order to study their interference with the signaling of estrogen, androgen, and thyroid receptors. The experiments were also conducted on aerial extracts from an outdoor site (urban center). We found that gaseous and/or particulate extracts from all locations displayed estrogenicity, anti-androgenicity, and thyroidicity. Overall, indoor air extracts had a higher endocrine-disrupting potential compared to outdoor ones, especially during winter and in the day care. The biological activities were predominant for the gaseous extracts and tended to increase for the particulate extracts in cool conditions. In conclusion, our data confirmed the presence of bioactive EDCs in a gaseous state and highlighted their indoor origin and concentration, especially in the cold season.

  14. Air pollution monitoring in urban areas due to heavy transportation and industries: a case of rawalpindi and islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.; Malik, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    The present study deals with the air pollution caused by Industry and transportation in urban areas of Pakistan. Rawalpindi and Islamabad, the twin cities of Pakistan were considered for this purpose. The concentrations of major air pollutants were taken from different location according their standard time period using Air Quality Monitoring Station. Five major air pollutants were considered i.e., NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, CO, O/sub 3/ and PM/sub 2.5/. The average mean values for all pollutants were taken on monthly and four monthly bases. The concentrations of NO2 and PM2.5 were exceeding the permissible limits as define by Environmental Protection Agency of Pakistan. Other pollutants concentrations were within the standard limits. Geographic Information System was used as a tool for the representation and analysis of Environmental Impacts of air pollution. Passquill and Smith dispersion model was used to calculate the buffer zones. Some mitigation measures were also recommended to assess the environmental and health Impacts because of PM/sub 2.5/ and NO/sub 2/. (author)

  15. Study on the association between ambient air pollution and daily cardiovascular and respiratory mortality in an urban district of Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengying; Li, Liping; Krafft, Thomas; Lv, Jinmei; Wang, Wuyi; Pei, Desheng

    2011-06-01

    The association between daily cardiovascular/respiratory mortality and air pollution in an urban district of Beijing was investigated over a 6-year period (January 2003 to December 2008). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relative importance of the major air pollutants [particulate matter (PM), SO2, NO2] as predictors of daily cardiovascular/respiratory mortality. The time-series studied comprises years with lower level interventions to control air pollution (2003-2006) and years with high level interventions in preparation for and during the Olympics/Paralympics (2007-2008). Concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2, were measured daily during the study period. A generalized additive model was used to evaluate daily numbers of cardiovascular/respiratory deaths in relation to each air pollutant, controlling for time trends and meteorological influences such as temperature and relative humidity. The results show that the daily cardiovascular/respiratory death rates were significantly associated with the concentration air pollutants, especially deaths related to cardiovascular disease. The current day effects of PM10 and NO2 were higher than that of single lags (distributed lags) and moving average lags for respiratory disease mortality. The largest RR of SO2 for respiratory disease mortality was in Lag02. For cardiovascular disease mortality, the largest RR was in Lag01 for PM10, and in current day (Lag0) for SO2 and NO2. NO2 was associated with the largest RRs for deaths from both cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease.

  16. Rural and Urban Differences in Air Quality, 2008-2012, and Community Drinking Water Quality, 2010-2015 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strosnider, Heather; Kennedy, Caitlin; Monti, Michele; Yip, Fuyuen

    2017-06-23

    The places in which persons live, work, and play can contribute to the development of adverse health outcomes. Understanding the differences in risk factors in various environments can help to explain differences in the occurrence of these outcomes and can be used to develop public health programs, interventions, and policies. Efforts to characterize urban and rural differences have largely focused on social and demographic characteristics. A paucity of national standardized environmental data has hindered efforts to characterize differences in the physical aspects of urban and rural areas, such as air and water quality. 2008-2012 for air quality and 2010-2015 for water quality. Since 2002, CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program has collaborated with federal, state, and local partners to gather standardized environmental data by creating national data standards, collecting available data, and disseminating data to be used in developing public health actions. The National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (i.e., the tracking network) collects data provided by national, state, and local partners and includes 21 health outcomes, exposures, and environmental hazards. To assess environmental factors that affect health, CDC analyzed three air-quality measures from the tracking network for all counties in the contiguous United States during 2008-2012 and one water-quality measure for 26 states during 2010-2015. The three air-quality measures include 1) total number of days with fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) levels greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for 24-hour average PM 2.5 (PM 2.5 days); 2) mean annual average ambient concentrations of PM 2.5 in micrograms per cubic meter (mean PM 2.5 ); and 3) total number of days with maximum 8-hour average ozone concentrations greater than the NAAQS (ozone days). The water-quality measure compared the annual mean

  17. Migration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban treatment sludge to the air during PAH removal applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Gizem; Cindoruk, S Siddik; Tasdemir, Yücel

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, the amounts of polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) penetrating into air during PAH removal applications from the urban treatment sludge were investigated. The effects of the temperature, photocatalyst type, and dose on the PAH removal efficiencies and PAH evaporation were explained. The sludge samples were taken from an urban wastewater treatment plant located in the city of Bursa, with 585,000 equivalent population. The ultraviolet C (UV-C) light of 254 nm wavelength was used within the UV applications performed on a specially designed setup. Internal air of the setup was vacuumed through polyurethane foam (PUF) columns in order to collect the evaporated PAHs from the sludge during the PAH removal applications. All experiments were performed with three repetitions. The PAH concentrations were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It was observed that the amounts of PAHs penetrating into the air were increased with increase of temperature, and more than 80% of PAHs migrated to the air consisted of 3-ring compounds during the UV and UV-diethylamine (DEA) experiments at 38 and 53 degrees C. It was determined that 40% decrease was ensured in sigma12 (total of 12) PAH amounts with UV application and 13% of PAHs in sludge penetrated into the air. In the UV-TiO2 applications, a maximum 80% of sigma12 PAH removal was obtained by adding 0.5% TiO2 of dry weight of sludge. The quantity of PAH penetrating into air did not exceed 15%. UV-TiO2 applications ensured high levels of PAH removal in the sludge and also reduced the quantity of PAH penetrating into the air. Within the scope of the samples added with DEA, there was no increase in PAH removal efficiencies and the penetration of PAHs into air was not decreased. In light of these data, it was concluded that UV-TiO2 application is the most suitable PAH removal alternative that restricts the convection of PAH pollution.

  18. Associations between air temperature and cardio-respiratory mortality in the urban area of Beijing, China: a time-series analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Liqun; Breitner, Susanne; Pan, Xiaochuan; Franck, Ulrich; Leitte, Arne Marian; Wiedensohler, Alfred; von Klot, Stephanie; Wichmann, H-Erich; Peters, Annette; Schneider, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Associations between air temperature and mortality have been consistently observed in Europe and the United States; however, there is a lack of studies for Asian countries. Our study investigated the association between air temperature and cardio-respiratory mortality in the urban area of Beijing, China. Methods Death counts for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases for adult residents (≥15 years), meteorological parameters and concentrations of particulate air pollution...

  19. Concentrations and Size Distributions of Trace Metals in Particulate Matter in Urban New Jersey: Preliminary Results from the Newly Established Rutgers Newark Urban Air Quality Observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, O.; Gao, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Particulate air pollution has been associated with health issues in general and respiratory diseases in particular. Some research has shown that higher concentration of fine particulate matter (PM) is found in lungs. However, why and what kind of PM plays the roles affecting the human health still need more investigations, and most of previous and current studies were limited to those focusing on PM2.5 or larger particles. The city of Newark in New Jersey is the largest metropolitan center in the state with dense population; it is a commerce and transportation hub surrounded by many highways and busy airports, in addition to numerous power plants, waste combustion treatment facilities, etc. in the area. Thus, the city is impacted by air pollution emissions In some areas of the city, the elevated records of respiratory illness were reported. Although some PM2.5 concentration studies were done in the past, the enrichment of toxic metals in PM with respect to their sizes have not been fully addressed. The Rutgers Newark Air Quality Observatory (RNAQO) was recently established to address urban air pollution and its impact on human health. During this study, both size-segregated PM and PM2.5 are collected in RNAQO, Newark, New Jersey. The samples are analyzed to evaluate the enrichment of trace metals focusing on Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn in different sizes of PM that will be discussed in this presentation. Such data will be valuable to further investigations into the health effects of fine mode PM. Particularly, this data will be helpful in exploring the relationships between respiratory sickness and fine mode toxic metals' concentrations.

  20. Impact of traffic volume and composition on the air quality and pedestrian exposure in urban street canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowska, Agata; Wong, Ka Chun; Townsend, Thomas; Chan, Ka Lok; Westerdahl, Dane; Ng, Simon; Močnik, Griša; Drinovec, Luka; Ning, Zhi

    2014-12-01

    Vehicle emissions are identified as a major source of air pollution in metropolitan areas. Emission control programs in many cities have been implemented as part of larger scale transport policy interventions to control traffic pollutants and reduce public health risks. These interventions include provision of traffic-free and low emission zones and congestion charging. Various studies have investigated the impact of urban street configurations, such as street canyon in urban centers, on pollutants dispersion and roadside air quality. However, there are few investigations in the literature to study the impact of change of fleet composition and street canyon effects on the on-road pollutants concentrations and associated roadside pedestrian exposure to the pollutants. This study presents an experimental investigation on the traffic related gas and particle pollutants in and near major streets in one of the most developed business districts in Hong Kong, known as Central. Both street canyon and open roadway configurations were included in the study design. Mobile measurement techniques were deployed to monitor both on-road and roadside pollutants concentrations at different times of the day and on different days of a week. Multiple traffic counting points were also established to concurrently collect data on traffic volume and fleet composition on individual streets. Street canyon effects were evident with elevated on-road pollutants concentrations. Diesel vehicles were found to be associated with observed pollutant levels. Roadside black carbon concentrations were found to correlate with their on-road levels but with reduced concentrations. However, ultrafine particles showed very high concentrations in roadside environment with almost unity of roadside/on-road ratios possibly due to the accumulation of primary emissions and secondary PM formation. The results from the study provide useful information for the effective urban transport design and bus route

  1. Outdoor-indoor air pollution in urban environment: Challenges and opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Y.C. eLeung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the continual improvement in our quality of life, indoor air quality has become an important area of concern in the 21st century. Indoor air quality is affected by many factors including the type and running conditions of indoor pollution sources, ventilation conditions, as well as indoor activities. Studies revealed that the outdoor environment is also an important factor that cannot be neglected for indoor air quality studies. In this review, the indoor and outdoor air pollution relationships obtained from different studies are discussed in order to identify the key factors affecting the indoor air quality. As climate change is recognized as imposing impacts on the environment, how it affects the indoor air quality and the health impacts to the occupants will be evaluated in this paper. The major challenges and opportunities in indoor/outdoor air pollution studies will be highlighted.

  2. Hybrid Air Quality Modeling Approach for use in the Hear-road Exposures to Urban air pollutant Study(NEXUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper presents a hybrid air quality modeling approach and its application in NEXUS in order to provide spatial and temporally varying exposure estimates and identification of the mobile source contribution to the total pollutant exposure. Model-based exposure metrics, associa...

  3. Variations in vanadium, nickel and lanthanoid element concentrations in urban air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Teresa; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andres; Rosa, Jesus de la; Sanchez de la Campa, Ana Maria; Minguillon, MariCruz; Pandolfi, Marco; Gonzalez-Castanedo, Yolanda; Monfort, Eliseo; Gibbons, Wes

    2010-01-01

    The emission of trace metal pollutants by industry and transport takes place on a scale large enough to alter atmospheric chemistry and results in measurable differences between the urban background of inhalable particulate matter (PM) in different towns. This is particularly well demonstrated by the technogenic release into the atmosphere of V, Ni, and lanthanoid elements. We compare PM concentrations of these metals in large datasets from five industrial towns in Spain variously influenced by emissions from refinery, power station, shipping, stainless steel, ceramic tiles and brick-making. Increased La/Ce values in urban background inhalable PM, due to La-contamination from refineries and their residual products (fuel oils and petcoke), contrast with Ce-rich emissions from the ceramic related industry, and clearly demonstrate the value of this ratio as a sensitive and reliable tracer for many point source emissions. Similarly, anomalously high V/Ni values (> 4) can detect the influence of nearby high-V petcoke and fuel oil combustion, although the use of this ratio in urban background PM is limited by overlapping values in natural and anthropogenic materials. Geochemical characterisation of urban background PM is a valuable compliment to the physical monitoring of aerosols widely employed in urban areas, especially given the relevance of trace metal inhalation to urban health issues.

  4. Green spaces are not all the same for the provision of air purification and climate regulation services: The case of urban parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Joana; Matos, Paula; Mexia, Teresa; Silva, Patrícia; Lopes, Nuno; Freitas, Catarina; Correia, Otília; Santos-Reis, Margarida; Branquinho, Cristina; Pinho, Pedro

    2018-01-01

    The growing human population concentrated in urban areas lead to the increase of road traffic and artificial areas, consequently enhancing air pollution and urban heat island effects, among others. These environmental changes affect citizen's health, causing a high number of premature deaths, with considerable social and economic costs. Nature-based solutions are essential to ameliorate those impacts in urban areas. While the mere presence of urban green spaces is pointed as an overarching solution, the relative importance of specific vegetation structure, composition and management to improve the ecosystem services of air purification and climate regulation are overlooked. This avoids the establishment of optimized planning and management procedures for urban green spaces with high spatial resolution and detail. Our aim was to understand the relative contribution of vegetation structure, composition and management for the provision of ecosystem services of air purification and climate regulation in urban green spaces, in particular the case of urban parks. This work was done in a large urban park with different types of vegetation surrounded by urban areas. As indicators of microclimatic effects and of air pollution levels we selected different metrics: lichen diversity and pollutants accumulation in lichens. Among lichen diversity, functional traits related to nutrient and water requirements were used as surrogates of the capacity of vegetation to filter air pollution and to regulate climate, and provide air purification and climate regulation ecosystem services, respectively. This was also obtained with very high spatial resolution which allows detailed spatial planning for optimization of ecosystem services. We found that vegetation type characterized by a more complex structure (trees, shrubs and herbaceous layers) and by the absence of management (pruning, irrigation and fertilization) had a higher capacity to provide the ecosystems services of air

  5. Impact of biomass burning on urban air quality estimated by organic tracers: Guangzhou and Beijing as cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiaoqiao Wang; Min Shao; Ying Liu [State Joint Key Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, (China); Kuster, William; Goldan, Paul [Earth System Research Laboratory, U.S. Department of Commerce, Boulder, CO 80305, (United States); Xiaohua Li; Yuan Liu; Sihua Lu [State Joint Key Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, (China)

    2007-12-15

    The impacts of biomass burning have not been adequately studied in China. In this work, chemical compositions of volatile organic compounds and particulate organic matters were measured in August 2005 in Beijing and in October 2004 in Guangzhou city. The performance of several possible tracers for biomass burning is compared by using acetonitrile as a reference compound. The correlations between the possible tracers and acetonitrile show that the use of K{sup +} as a tracer could result in bias because of the existence of other K+ sources in urban areas, while chloromethane is not reliable due to its wide use as industrial chemical. The impact of biomass burning on air quality is estimated using acetonitrile and levoglucosan as tracers. The results show that the impact of biomass burning is ubiquitous in both suburban and urban Guangzhou, and the frequencies of air pollution episodes significantly influenced by biomass burning were 100% for Xinken and 58% for downtown Guangzhou city. Fortunately, the air quality in only 2 out of 22 days was partly impacted by biomass burning in August in Beijing, the month that 2008 Olympic games will take place. The quantitative contribution of biomass burning to ambient PM{sub 2.5} concentrations in Guangzhou city was also estimated by the ratio of levoglocusan to PM{sub 2.5} in both the ambient air and biomass burning plumes. The results show that biomass burning contributes 3.02013;16.8% and 4.02013;19.0% of PM{sub 2.5} concentrations in Xinken and Guangzhou downtown, respectively. (Author)

  6. Impact of biomass burning on urban air quality estimated by organic tracers: Guangzhou and Beijing as cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiaoqiao Wang; Min Shao; Ying Liu [State Joint Key Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, (China); Kuster, William; Goldan, Paul [Earth System Research Laboratory, U.S. Department of Commerce, Boulder, CO 80305, (United States); Xiaohua Li; Yuan Liu; Sihua Lu [State Joint Key Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, (China)

    2007-12-15

    The impacts of biomass burning have not been adequately studied in China. In this work, chemical compositions of volatile organic compounds and particulate organic matters were measured in August 2005 in Beijing and in October 2004 in Guangzhou city. The performance of several possible tracers for biomass burning is compared by using acetonitrile as a reference compound. The correlations between the possible tracers and acetonitrile show that the use of K{sup +} as a tracer could result in bias because of the existence of other K+ sources in urban areas, while chloromethane is not reliable due to its wide use as industrial chemical. The impact of biomass burning on air quality is estimated using acetonitrile and levoglucosan as tracers. The results show that the impact of biomass burning is ubiquitous in both suburban and urban Guangzhou, and the frequencies of air pollution episodes significantly influenced by biomass burning were 100% for Xinken and 58% for downtown Guangzhou city. Fortunately, the air quality in only 2 out of 22 days was partly impacted by biomass burning in August in Beijing, the month that 2008 Olympic games will take place. The quantitative contribution of biomass burning to ambient PM{sub 2.5} concentrations in Guangzhou city was also estimated by the ratio of levoglocusan to PM{sub 2.5} in both the ambient air and biomass burning plumes. The results show that biomass burning contributes 3.02013;16.8% and 4.02013;19.0% of PM{sub 2.5} concentrations in Xinken and Guangzhou downtown, respectively. (Author).

  7. Observing and simulating the impact of growing urbanization on air quality and climate in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakidou, Maria; Myriokefalitakis, Stelios; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Daskalakis, Nikos; Sfakianaki, Maria; Hatziannastassiou, Nikos; Im, Ulas

    2016-07-01

    The Mediterranean, and particularly its east basin, is a crossroad of air masses coming from Europe, Asia and Africa. Over this area, anthropogenic emissions, mainly from Europe, Balkans and the Black Sea, meet with natural emissions from Sahara (Saharan dust), vegetation and the ocean as well as from biomass burning, overall presenting a strong seasonal pattern. As a consequence of its unique location and emissions, the Mediterranean region is climatically very sensitive and often exposed to multiple stresses, such as a simultaneous water shortage and elevated air pollution exposure. During the last decades, the Eastern Mediterranean, following the general trend, has experienced a rapid growth in urbanization, including increased vehicle circulation, and industrialization, all impacting pollutant emissions in the atmosphere. Air pollution is one of the challenging environmental problems for Istanbul and Cairo megacities but also for the whole Eastern Mediterranean region. The recent financial crisis resulted in changes in human habits, energy production and subsequently air pollution. This resulted in changes in tropospheric composition that reflect changes in natural emissions and in human behavior have been detected by satellites and simulated by chemistry transport models. The results are presented and their robustness is discussed.

  8. Establishing an air pollution monitoring network for intra-urban population exposure assessment : a location-allocation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanaroglou, P.S. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). School of Geography and Geology; Jerrett, M.; Beckerman, B.; Arain, M.A. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). School of Geography and Geology]|[McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). McMaster Inst. of Environment and Health; Morrison, J. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). School of Computer Science; Gilbert, N.L. [Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Air Health Effects Div; Brook, J.R. [Meteorological Service of Canada, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-10-01

    A study was conducted to assess the relation between traffic-generated air pollution and health reactions ranging from childhood asthma to mortality from lung cancer. In particular, it developed a formal method of optimally locating a dense network of air pollution monitoring stations in order to derive an exposure assessment model based on the data obtained from the monitoring stations and related land use, population and biophysical information. The method for determining the locations of 100 nitrogen dioxide monitors in Toronto, Ontario focused on land use, transportation infrastructure and the distribution of at-risk populations. The exposure assessment produced reasonable estimates at the intra-urban scale. This method for locating air pollution monitors effectively maximizes sampling coverage in relation to important socio-demographic characteristics and likely pollution variability. The location-allocation approach integrates many variables into the demand surface to reconfigure a monitoring network and is especially useful for measuring traffic pollutants with fine-scale spatial variability. The method also shows great promise for improving the assessment of exposure to ambient air pollution in epidemiologic studies. 19 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  9. Urban bioclimatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, H

    1993-11-15

    This article deals with the part of urban climatology which is of particular relevance to human beings. Presented first is a summary of all human biometerologically effective complexes, as well as other factors which are relevant to urban planning and which depend on atmospheric conditions in urban structures in a direct or indirect manner. Later, methods for human biometerologically significant assessment of thermal and air pollution components of the urban climate are discussed in detail, because these components can be strongly influenced by urban planning. The application of these methods is illustrated by some results of appropriate investigations in urban areas.

  10. Biomagnetic monitoring as a validation tool for local air quality models: a case study for an urban street canyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Jelle; Samson, Roeland

    2014-09-01

    Biomagnetic monitoring of tree leaf deposited particles has proven to be a good indicator of the ambient particulate concentration. The objective of this study is to apply this method to validate a local-scale air quality model (ENVI-met), using 96 tree crown sampling locations in a typical urban street canyon. To the best of our knowledge, the application of biomagnetic monitoring for the validation of pollutant dispersion modeling is hereby presented for the first time. Quantitative ENVI-met validation showed significant correlations between modeled and measured results throughout the entire in-leaf period. ENVI-met performed much better at the first half of the street canyon close to the ring road (r=0.58-0.79, RMSE=44-49%), compared to second part (r=0.58-0.64, RMSE=74-102%). The spatial model behavior was evaluated by testing effects of height, azimuthal position, tree position and distance from the main pollution source on the obtained model results and magnetic measurements. Our results demonstrate that biomagnetic monitoring seems to be a valuable method to evaluate the performance of air quality models. Due to the high spatial and temporal resolution of this technique, biomagnetic monitoring can be applied anywhere in the city (where urban green is present) to evaluate model performance at different spatial scales. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The city model as a tool for participatory urban planning - a case study: The Bilotti open air museum of Cosenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artese, S.

    2014-05-01

    The paper describes the implementation of the 3D city model of the pedestrian area of Cosenza, which in recent years has become the Bilotti Open Air Museum (MAB). For this purpose were used both the data available (regional technical map, city maps, orthophotos) and acquired through several surveys of buildings and "Corso Mazzini" street (photos, topographic measurements, laser scanner point clouds). In addition to the urban scale model, the survey of the statues of the MAB was carried out. By means of data processing, the models of the same statues have been created, that can be used as objects within the city model. The 3D model of the MAB open air museum has been used to implement a Web-GIS allowing the citizen's participation, understanding and suggestions. The 3D city model is intended as a new tool for urban planning, therefore it has been used both for representing the current situation of the MAB and for design purposes, by acknowledging suggestions regarding a possible different location of the statues and a new way to enjoy the museum.

  12. Acute and Subacute Effects of Urban Air Pollution on Cardiopulmonary Emergencies and Mortality: Time Series Studies in Austrian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rabczenko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Daily pollution data (collected in Graz over 16 years and in the Linz over 18 years were used for time series studies (GAM and case-crossover on the relationship with daily mortality (overall and specific causes of death. Diagnoses of patients who had been transported to hospitals in Linz were also available on a daily basis from eight years for time series analyses of cardiopulmonary emergencies. Increases in air pollutant levels over several days were followed by increases in mortality and the observed effects increased with the length of the exposure window considered, up to a maximum of 15 days. These mortality changes in Graz and Linz showed similar patterns like the ones found before in Vienna. A significant association of mortality could be demonstrated with NO2, PM2.5 and PM10 even in summer, when concentrations are lower and mainly related to motor traffic. Cardiorespiratory ambulance transports increased with NO2/PM2.5/PM10 by 2.0/6.1/1.7% per 10 µg/m³ on the same day. Monitoring of NO2 (related to motor traffic and fine particulates at urban background stations predicts acute effects on cardiopulmonary emergencies and extended effects on cardiopulmonary mortality. Both components of urban air pollution are indicators of acute cardiopulmonary health risks, which need to be monitored and reduced, even below current standards.

  13. Severe Urban Outdoor Air Pollution and Children's Structural and Functional Brain Development, From Evidence to Precautionary Strategic Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2018-01-01

    According to the latest estimates, about 2 billion children around the world are exposed to severe urban outdoor air pollution. Transdisciplinary, multi-method findings from epidemiology, developmental neuroscience, psychology, and pediatrics, show detrimental outcomes associated with pre- and postnatal exposure are found at all ages. Affected brain-related functions include perceptual and sensory information processing, intellectual and cognitive development, memory and executive functions, emotion and self-regulation, and academic achievement. Correspondingly, with the breakdown of natural barriers against entry and translocation of toxic particles in the brain, the most common structural changes are responses promoting neuroinflammation and indicating early neurodegenerative processes. In spite of the gaps in current scientific knowledge and the challenges posed by non-scientific issues that influence policy, the evidence invites the conclusion that urban outdoor air pollution is a serious threat to healthy brain development which may set the conditions for neurodegenerative diseases. Such evidence supports the perspective that urgent strategic precautionary actions, minimizing exposure and attenuating its effects, are needed to protect children and their brain development.

  14. Severe Urban Outdoor Air Pollution and Children’s Structural and Functional Brain Development, From Evidence to Precautionary Strategic Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo D’Angiulli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available According to the latest estimates, about 2 billion children around the world are exposed to severe urban outdoor air pollution. Transdisciplinary, multi-method findings from epidemiology, developmental neuroscience, psychology, and pediatrics, show detrimental outcomes associated with pre- and postnatal exposure are found at all ages. Affected brain-related functions include perceptual and sensory information processing, intellectual and cognitive development, memory and executive functions, emotion and self-regulation, and academic achievement. Correspondingly, with the breakdown of natural barriers against entry and translocation of toxic particles in the brain, the most common structural changes are responses promoting neuroinflammation and indicating early neurodegenerative processes. In spite of the gaps in current scientific knowledge and the challenges posed by non-scientific issues that influence policy, the evidence invites the conclusion that urban outdoor air pollution is a serious threat to healthy brain development which may set the conditions for neurodegenerative diseases. Such evidence supports the perspective that urgent strategic precautionary actions, minimizing exposure and attenuating its effects, are needed to protect children and their brain development.

  15. Creating a Better Funding System for Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    In 1994, Michigan voters approved a ballot initiative that transferred the power in Michigan's education system from local communities to the state. Proposal A succeeded in slowing the growth of local property taxes and narrowing the gap between the richest and poorest districts in Michigan. However, due to a decade of sluggish economic growth,…

  16. A reactive nitrogen budget for Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reactive nitrogen budget for Lake Michigan was reviewed and updated, making use of recent estimates of watershed and atmospheric nitrogen loads. The updated total N load to Lake Michigan was approximately double the previous estimate from the Lake Michigan Mass Balance study ...

  17. Objective local weather types with applications on urban air pollution and on mortality with chronicle illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Janos; Ivady, Anett; Fulop, Andrea; Makra, László

    2010-05-01

    stations or months defines that the common optimum number of local weather types is nine. This set of weather types, specified for each station, was used to "explain" the possible portion of local inter-diurnal variance of seven daily urban air quality measurements, i.e. CO, NO, NO2, NOx, O3, SO2 and PM10. Another set of data for testing the types are the mortalities with chronicle illnesses, i.e. cardio-vascular and respiratory illnesses. This set of 35 years data (1971-2005) is layered for capital city (Budapest, 2 million inhabitants) and rest of the countries (max. 200 000 inhab.). The use of complex weather types is likely better than the common use of individual weather elements, e.g. diurnal mean temperature or a kind of bioclimatic index. The ability of the types to decrease the variability is also compared for both sets of target variables to the analogous ability of macrosynoptic classification by Peczely. The results are also discussed by grouping the investigated contaminants according to their origin.

  18. Air flow and pollution in a real, heterogeneous urban street canyon: A field and laboratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karra, Styliani; Malki-Epshtein, Liora; Neophytou, Marina K.-A.

    2017-09-01

    In this work we investigate the influence of real world conditions, including heterogeneity and natural variability of background wind, on the air flow and pollutant concentrations in a heterogeneous urban street canyon using both a series of field measurements and controlled laboratory experiments. Field measurements of wind velocities and Carbon Monoxide (CO) concentrations were taken under field conditions in a heterogeneous street in a city centre at several cross-sections along the length of the street (each cross-section being of different aspect ratio). The real field background wind was in fact observed to be highly variable and thus different Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs) represented by a different mean wind velocity and different wind variability were defined. Observed pollution concentrations reveal high sensitivity to local parameters: there is a bias towards the side closer to the traffic lane; higher concentrations are found in the centre of the street as compared to cross-sections closer to the junctions; higher concentrations are found at 1.5 height from the ground than at 2.5 m height, all of which are of concern regarding pedestrian exposure to traffic-related pollution. A physical model of the same street was produced for the purpose of laboratory experiments, making some geometrical simplifications of complex volumes and extrusions. The physical model was tested in an Atmospheric Boundary Layer water channel, using simultaneously Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF), for flow visualisation as well as for quantitative measurement of concentrations and flow velocities. The wind field conditions were represented by a steady mean approach velocity in the laboratory simulation (essentially representing periods of near-zero wind variability). The laboratory investigations showed a clear sensitivity of the resulting flow field to the local geometry and substantial three-dimensional flow patterns were

  19. Remote Sensing of Urban Thermal Landscape Characteristics and Their Affects on Local and Regional Meteorology and Air Quality: An Overview of NASA EOS-IDS Project Atlanta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    As an entity, the city is a manifestation of human "management" of the land. The act of city-building, however, drastically alters the biophysical environment, which ultimately, impacts local and regional land-atmosphere energy exchange processes. Because of the complexity of both the urban landscape and the attendant energy fluxes that result from urbanization, remote sensing offers the only real way to synoptically quantify these processes. One of the more important land-atmosphere fluxes that occurs over cities relates to the way that thermal energy is partitioned across the heterogeneous urban landscape. The individual land cover and surface material types that comprise the city, such as pavements and buildings, each have their own thermal energy regimes. As the collective urban landscape, the individual thermal energy responses from specific surfaces come together to form the urban heat island phenomena, which prevails as a dome of elevated air temperatures over cities. Although the urban heat island has been known to exist for well over 150 years, it is not understood how differences in thermal energy responses for land covers across the city interact to produce this phenomenon, or how the variability in thermal energy responses from different surface types drive its development. Additionally, it can be hypothesized that as cities grow in size through time, so do their urban heat islands. The interrelationships between urban sprawl and the respective growth of the urban heat island, however, have not been investigated. Moreover, little is known of the consequential effects of urban growth, land cover change, and the urban heat island as they impact local and regional meteorology and air quality.

  20. Land use and air quality in urban environments: Human health risk assessment due to inhalation of airborne particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, A C; Amarillo, A C; Carreras, H A; González, C M

    2018-02-01

    Particle matter (PM) and its associated compounds are a serious problem for urban air quality and a threat to human health. In the present study, we assessed the intraurban variation of PM, and characterized the human health risk associated to the inhalation of particles measured on PM filters, considering different land use areas in the urban area of Cordoba city (Argentina) and different age groups. To assess the intraurban variation of PM, a biomonitoring network of T. capillaris was established in 15 sampling sites with different land use and the bioaccumulation of Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn was quantified. After that, particles were collected by instrumental monitors placed at the most representative sampling sites of each land use category and an inhalation risk was calculated. A remarkable intraurban difference in the heavy metals content measured in the biomonitors was observed, in relation with the sampling site land use. The higher content was detected at industrial areas as well as in sites with intense vehicular traffic. Mean PM 10 levels exceeded the standard suggested by the U.S. EPA in all land use areas, except for the downtown. Hazard Index values were below EPA's safe limit in all land use areas and in the different age groups. In contrast, the carcinogenic risk analysis showed that all urban areas exceeded the acceptable limit (1 × 10 -6 ), while the industrial sampling sites and the elder group presented a carcinogenic risk higher that the unacceptable limit. These findings validate the use of T. capillaris to assess intraurban air quality and also show there is an important intraurban variation in human health risk associated to different land use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prenatal exposure to urban air nanoparticles in mice causes altered neuronal differentiation and depression-like responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Davis

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that excessive exposure to traffic-derived air pollution during pregnancy may increase the vulnerability to neurodevelopmental alterations that underlie a broad array of neuropsychiatric disorders. We present a mouse model for prenatal exposure to urban freeway nanoparticulate matter (nPM. In prior studies, we developed a model for adult rodent exposure to re-aerosolized urban nPM which caused inflammatory brain responses with altered neu