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Sample records for michigan sleeping bear

  1. INVESTIGATION OF VERTICAL DISTRIUBTION AND MORPHO- LOGY OF INDIGENOUS ORGANIC MATTER AT SLEEPING BEAR SITE, MICHIGAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluates the nature and origin of particulate organic carbon and organic coatings on aquifer sands upgradient from a fuel spill site near the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore in Michigan. The distribution of carbon was found to be highly complex due to the occur...

  2. Investigation of vertical distribution and morphology of indigenous organic matter at Sleeping Bear site, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, C. C.; Lyon, W. G.; Ross, D. L.; Pennington, L. K.

    1994-11-01

    This study evaluates the nature and origin of particulate organic carbon and organic coatings on aquifer sands upgradient from a fuel spill site near the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore in Michigan. The distribution of carbon was found to be highly complex due to the occurrence of high organic carbon horizons, bounded above and below by high carbonate sediments. The organic coatings on the sands were examined using white light and fluorescence microscopy and by scanning electron microscopy. Core samples were analyzed for organic and inorganic carbon, solution pH, humic/fulvic acid ratios, and insoluble organic matter content (that is, humin) as a function of depth from the ground surface. The organic geochemistry of the soil profile at this site was found to be significantly influenced by the carbonates producing a sharp boundary of precipitated organic matter. This boundary was followed by coatings of predominantly fulvic acid salts on mineral grains deeper in the soil column. The coatings extended into the aquifer. The existence of native organic films on sand grains is well documented in the soils literature. The study reported here was greatly aided by this information and provides the framework for future studies concerning the influence of carbon distribution, chemical identity, and morphology on contaminant fate and transport processes.

  3. Detection of microcystin and other cyanotoxins in lakes at Isle Royale National Park, Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, and Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, northern Michigan, 2012–13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Lori M.; Brennan, Angela K.; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Loftin, Keith A.; Johnson, Heather E.; VanderMeulen, David D.; Lafrancois, Brenda Moraska

    2017-12-05

    Although cyanotoxins released during algal blooms have become an increasing concern in surface waters across the United States, the presence of cyanotoxins in northern Michigan lakes had not been evaluated in detail. The U.S. Geological Survey and National Park Service (NPS) led a 2-year study (2012 and 2013) to determine the presence of microcystin and other algal toxins in several inland lakes at Isle Royale National Park (hereafter referred to as ISRO, Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore (hereafter referred to as PIRO), and Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore (hereafter referred to as SLBE). Samples also were collected at four sites in Lake Michigan within the SLBE. The two analytical techniques used in the study were enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for microcystin, cylindrospermopsin, and saxitoxin; and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) for a larger suite of algal toxins. Neither cylindrospermopsin nor saxitoxin were detected in the 211 samples. Microcystin was detected in 31 percent of samples (65 of 211 samples) analyzed by the ELISA method, but no sample results exceeded the World Health Organization recreational health advisory standard for microcystin (10 micrograms per liter [µg/L]). However, about 10 percent of the samples (21 of 211 samples) that were collected from PIRO and SLBE and were analyzed by ELISA for microcystin had concentrations greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking water 10-day health advisory of 0.3 µg/L for children preschool age and younger (less than 6-years old). One sample collected in 2012 from SLBE exceeded the EPA drinking water 10-day health advisory of 1.6 µg/L for school-age children through adults (6-years old and older). In 2012, the highest concentration of 2.7 µg/L was detected in Florence Lake within SLBE. Many visitors enjoy recreation in or on the water and camp in the backcountry at these national parks where the most common source of drinking water

  4. Spatial Distribution of Black Bear Incident Reports in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden-Hiller, Jamie E; Beyer, Dean E; Belant, Jerrold L

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between humans and carnivores have existed for centuries due to competition for food and space. American black bears are increasing in abundance and populations are expanding geographically in many portions of its range, including areas that are also increasing in human density, often resulting in associated increases in human-bear conflict (hereafter, bear incidents). We used public reports of bear incidents in Michigan, USA, from 2003-2011 to assess the relative contributions of ecological and anthropogenic variables in explaining the spatial distribution of bear incidents and estimated the potential risk of bear incidents. We used weighted Normalized Difference Vegetation Index mean as an index of primary productivity, region (i.e., Upper Peninsula or Lower Peninsula), primary and secondary road densities, and percentage land cover type within 6.5-km2 circular buffers around bear incidents and random points. We developed 22 a priori models and used generalized linear models and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) to rank models. The global model was the best compromise between model complexity and model fit (w = 0.99), with a ΔAIC 8.99 units from the second best performing model. We found that as deciduous forest cover increased, the probability of bear incident occurrence increased. Among the measured anthropogenic variables, cultivated crops and primary roads were the most important in our AIC-best model and were both positively related to the probability of bear incident occurrence. The spatial distribution of relative bear incident risk varied markedly throughout Michigan. Forest cover fragmented with agriculture and other anthropogenic activities presents an environment that likely facilitates bear incidents. Our map can help wildlife managers identify areas of bear incident occurrence, which in turn can be used to help develop strategies aimed at reducing incidents. Researchers and wildlife managers can use similar mapping techniques to

  5. Spatial Distribution of Black Bear Incident Reports in Michigan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie E McFadden-Hiller

    Full Text Available Interactions between humans and carnivores have existed for centuries due to competition for food and space. American black bears are increasing in abundance and populations are expanding geographically in many portions of its range, including areas that are also increasing in human density, often resulting in associated increases in human-bear conflict (hereafter, bear incidents. We used public reports of bear incidents in Michigan, USA, from 2003-2011 to assess the relative contributions of ecological and anthropogenic variables in explaining the spatial distribution of bear incidents and estimated the potential risk of bear incidents. We used weighted Normalized Difference Vegetation Index mean as an index of primary productivity, region (i.e., Upper Peninsula or Lower Peninsula, primary and secondary road densities, and percentage land cover type within 6.5-km2 circular buffers around bear incidents and random points. We developed 22 a priori models and used generalized linear models and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC to rank models. The global model was the best compromise between model complexity and model fit (w = 0.99, with a ΔAIC 8.99 units from the second best performing model. We found that as deciduous forest cover increased, the probability of bear incident occurrence increased. Among the measured anthropogenic variables, cultivated crops and primary roads were the most important in our AIC-best model and were both positively related to the probability of bear incident occurrence. The spatial distribution of relative bear incident risk varied markedly throughout Michigan. Forest cover fragmented with agriculture and other anthropogenic activities presents an environment that likely facilitates bear incidents. Our map can help wildlife managers identify areas of bear incident occurrence, which in turn can be used to help develop strategies aimed at reducing incidents. Researchers and wildlife managers can use similar mapping

  6. 36 CFR 7.80 - Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore. 7.80 Section 7.80 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.80 Sleeping Bear Dunes National...

  7. Groundwater flux and nutrient loading in the northeast section of Bear Lake, Muskegon County, Michigan, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, Alexander R.; Maurer, Jessica A.; Duris, Joseph W.

    2017-11-30

    Bear Lake in North Muskegon, Michigan, is listed as part of the Muskegon Lake area of concern as designated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This area of concern was designated as a result of eutrophication and beneficial use impairments. On the northeast end of Bear Lake, two man-made retention ponds (Willbrandt Pond East and Willbrandt Pond West), formerly used for celery farming, may contribute nutrients to Bear Lake. Willbrandt Ponds (East and West) were previously muck fields that were actively used for celery farming from the early 1900s until 2002. The restoration and reconnection of the Willbrandt Ponds into Bear Lake prompted concerns of groundwater nutrient loading into Bear Lake. Studies done by the State of Michigan and Grand Valley State University revised initial internal phosphorus load estimates and indicated an imbalance in the phosphorus budget in Bear Lake. From June through November 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) did an investigative study to quantify the load of nutrients from shallow groundwater around the Willbrandt Ponds in an effort to update the phosphorus budget to Bear Lake. Seven sampling locations were established, including five shallow groundwater wells and two surface-water sites, in the Willbrandt pond study area and Bear Lake. A total of 12 nutrient samples and discrete water-level measurements were collected from each site from June through November 2015. Continuous water-level data were recorded for both surface-water monitoring locations for the entire sampling period.Water-level data indicated that Willbrandt Pond West had the highest average water-level elevation of all sites monitored, which indicated the general direction of flux is from Willbrandt Pond West to Bear Lake. Nutrient and chloride loading from Willbrandt Pond West to Bear Lake was calculated using two distinct methods: Dupuit and direct seepage methods. Shallow groundwater loading calculations were determined by using groundwater levels to

  8. 78 FR 11981 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... Lakeshore (SLBE or Lakeshore) was established in 1970 ``for the benefit, inspiration, education, recreation... home destination. SLBE offers visitors recreational activities such as hiking, backpacking, kayaking...-Benefit and Regulatory Flexibility Analyses Leelanau Scenic Heritage Route Trailway, Sleeping Bear Dunes...

  9. Sleep pattern and locomotor activity are impaired by doxorubicin in non-tumor-bearing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Fabio Santos; Esteves, Andrea Maculano; Pimentel, Gustavo Duarte; Rosa, José Cesar; Frank, Miriam Kannebley; Mariano, Melise Oliveira; Budni, Josiane; Quevedo, João; Santos, Ronaldo Vagner Dos; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2016-01-01

    We sought explore the effects of doxorubicin on sleep patterns and locomotor activity. To investigate these effects, two groups were formed: a control group and a Doxorubicin (DOXO) group. Sixteen rats were randomly assigned to either the control or DOXO groups. The sleep patterns were examined by polysomnographic recording and locomotor activity was evaluated in an open-field test. In the light period, the total sleep time and slow wave sleep were decreased, while the wake after sleep onset and arousal were increased in the DOXO group compared with the control group (plocomotor activity.

  10. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schey, Stephen [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-11-01

    This report focuses on the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore (SLBE) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into the agencies’ fleets. Individual observations of these selected vehicles provide the basis for recommendations related to electric vehicle adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles, or PEVs) can fulfill the mission requirements.

  11. Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Institute (NHLBI). 1 Mood. Sleep affects your mood. Insufficient sleep can cause irritability that can lead to trouble with relationships, ... basics/understanding_sleep.htm#dynamic_activity Centers for Disease ... insufficient rest or sleep among adults—United States, 2008. MMWR, 58 (42), ...

  12. Michigan has a sleeping giant

    CERN Multimedia

    Brock, Raymond; Nichols, Sue

    2007-01-01

    "That giant is 750 miles of fiber optic cable that lassoes its three biggest research universities and Van Andel Institute to the future. Its mission: to uncover the nature of the Big Bang by connecton U.S. physicists to their huge experiment ATLAS in Geneva.." (4 pages)

  13. Sleep Sleeping Patch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Sleep Sleeping Patch is a new kind of external patch based on modern sleep medicine research achievements, which uses the internationally advanced transdermal therapeutic system (TTS). The Sleep Sleeping Patch transmits natural sleep inducers such as peppermint and liquorice extracts and melatonin through the skin to induce sleep. Clinical research proves that the Sleep Sleeping Patch can effectively improve insomnia and the quality of sleep. Highly effective: With the modern TTS therapy,

  14. Observations of cocooned Hydrobaenus (Diptera: Chironomidae) larvae in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Taaja R.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Riley, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Larvae of the family Chironomidae have developed a variety of ways to tolerate environmental stress, including the formation of cocoons, which allows larvae to avoid unfavorable temperature conditions, drought, or competition with other chironomids. Summer cocoon formation by younger instars of the genus Hydrobaenus Fries allows persistence through increased temperatures and/or intermittent dry periods in arid regions or temporary habitats, but this behavior was not observed in the Great Lakes until the current study. Cocoon-aestivating Hydrobaenus sp. larvae were found in benthic grab samples collected in 2010–2013 near Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore in northern Lake Michigan with densities up to 7329/m2. The aestivating species was identified as Hydrobaenus johannseni (Sublette, 1967), and the associated chironomid community was typical for an oligotrophic nearshore system. Hydrobaenus cocoon formation in the Great Lakes was likely previously unnoticed due to the discrepancies between the genus' life history and typical benthos sampling procedures which has consequences for describing chironomid communities where Hydrobaenus is present.

  15. Bathymetry of Lake Michigan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Michigan has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  16. Empirical yield tables for Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerold T. Hahn; Joan M. Stelman

    1984-01-01

    Describes the tables derived from the 1980 Forest Survey of Michigan and presents ways the tables can be used. These tables are broken down according to Michigan's four Forest Survey Units, 14 forest types, and 5 site-index classes.

  17. Michigan forest statistics, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard K. Raile; W. Brad Smith

    1983-01-01

    The fourth inventory of the timber resource of Michigan shows a 7% decline in commercial forest area and a 27% gain in growing-stock volume between 1966 and 1980. Highlights and statistics are presented on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, and biomass.

  18. Notes on Michigan Boletaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Alexander H.

    1973-01-01

    Studies have continued on the diversity of the Michigan bolete flora. During the season of 1972 a variety of Boletus affinis Peck having a reticulate stipe was discovered and abundant material of Boletus bicolor var. subreticulatus Smith & Thiers was obtained. Boletus hortonii Smith & Thiers was

  19. Bearing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapich, Davorin D.

    1987-01-01

    A bearing system includes backup bearings for supporting a rotating shaft upon failure of primary bearings. In the preferred embodiment, the backup bearings are rolling element bearings having their rolling elements disposed out of contact with their associated respective inner races during normal functioning of the primary bearings. Displacement detection sensors are provided for detecting displacement of the shaft upon failure of the primary bearings. Upon detection of the failure of the primary bearings, the rolling elements and inner races of the backup bearings are brought into mutual contact by axial displacement of the shaft.

  20. Michigan's Forests 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott A. Pugh; Lawrence D. Pedersen; Douglas C. Heym; Ronald J. Piva; Christopher W. Woodall; Charles J. Barnett; Cassandra M. Kurtz; W. Keith. Moser

    2012-01-01

    The seventh inventory of Michigan's forests, completed in 2009, describes more than 19.9 million acres of forest land. The data in this report are based on visits to 7,516 forested plots from 2005 to 2009. Timberland accounts for 97 percent of this forest land, and 62 percent is privately owned. The sugar maple/beech/yellow birch forest type accounts for 18...

  1. Michigan's forests 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott A. Pugh; Mark H. Hansen; Lawrence D. Pedersen; Douglas C. Heym; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Dacia Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; David E. Haugen; Christopher Woodall; Ed Jepsen

    2009-01-01

    The first annual inventory of Michigan's forests, completed in 2004, covers more than 19.3 million acres of forest land. The data in this report are based on visits to 10,355 forested plots from 2000 to 2004. In addition to detailed information on forest attributes, this report includes data on forest health, biomass, land-use change, and timber-product outputs....

  2. Whiting in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Satellites provide a view from space of changes on the Earth's surface. This series of images from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) aboard the Orbview-2 satellite shows the dramatic change in the color of Lake Michigan during the summer. The bright color that appears in late summer is probably caused by calcium carbonate-chalk-in the water. Lake Michigan always has a lot of calcium carbonate in it because the floor of the lake is limestone. During most of the year the calcium carbonate remains dissolved in the cold water, but at the end of summer the lake warms up, lowering the solubility of calcium carbonate. As a result, the calcium carbonate precipitates out of the water, forming clouds of very small solid particles that appear as bright swirls from above. The phenomenon is appropriately called a whiting event. A similar event occured in 1999, but appears to have started later and subsided earlier. It is also possible that a bloom of the algae Microcystis is responsible for the color change, but unlikely because of Lake Michigan's depth and size. Microcystis blooms have occured in other lakes in the region, however. On the shore of the lake it is possible to see the cities of Chicago, Illinois, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Both appear as clusters of gray-brown pixels. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  3. Michigan E85 Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, Matthew M.

    2012-03-30

    This is the final report for a grant-funded project to financially assist and otherwise provide support to projects that increase E85 infrastructure in Michigan at retail fueling locations. Over the two-year project timeframe, nine E85 and/or flex-fuel pumps were installed around the State of Michigan at locations currently lacking E85 infrastructure. A total of five stations installed the nine pumps, all providing cost share toward the project. By using cost sharing by station partners, the $200,000 provided by the Department of Energy facilitated a total project worth $746,332.85. This project was completed over a two-year timetable (eight quarters). The first quarter of the project focused on project outreach to station owners about the incentive on the installation and/or conversion of E85 compatible fueling equipment including fueling pumps, tanks, and all necessary electrical and plumbing connections. Utilizing Clean Energy Coalition (CEC) extensive knowledge of gasoline/ethanol infrastructure throughout Michigan, CEC strategically placed these pumps in locations to strengthen the broad availability of E85 in Michigan. During the first and second quarters, CEC staff approved projects for funding and secured contracts with station owners; the second through eighth quarters were spent working with fueling station owners to complete projects; the third through eighth quarters included time spent promoting projects; and beginning in the second quarter and running for the duration of the project was spent performing project reporting and evaluation to the US DOE. A total of 9 pumps were installed (four in Elkton, two in Sebewaing, one in East Lansing, one in Howell, and one in Whitmore Lake). At these combined station locations, a total of 192,445 gallons of E85, 10,786 gallons of E50, and 19,159 gallons of E30 were sold in all reporting quarters for 2011. Overall, the project has successfully displaced 162,611 gallons (2,663 barrels) of petroleum, and reduced

  4. MICHIGAN: Cyclotron conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    A sense of excitement was in the air as cyclotron physicists and engineers from 17 countries convened on 30 April for the opening of the Tenth International Conference on Cyclotrons and Their Applications. Some 50 years after its invention, the redoubtable cyclotron remains a topic of compelling current interest. Cyclotron experts gathered at Michigan State University's Kellogg Center to hear of latest developments, of progress and successes on new machines which had come into operation, of new projects which were underway, and of dreams which lay ahead

  5. MICHIGAN: Cyclotron conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1984-10-15

    A sense of excitement was in the air as cyclotron physicists and engineers from 17 countries convened on 30 April for the opening of the Tenth International Conference on Cyclotrons and Their Applications. Some 50 years after its invention, the redoubtable cyclotron remains a topic of compelling current interest. Cyclotron experts gathered at Michigan State University's Kellogg Center to hear of latest developments, of progress and successes on new machines which had come into operation, of new projects which were underway, and of dreams which lay ahead.

  6. Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the day, even if you have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard time falling or staying asleep Sleep apnea - breathing interruptions during sleep Restless legs syndrome - ...

  7. Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Sleep Problems Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... 101 KB) En Español Medicines to Help You Sleep Tips for Better Sleep Basic Facts about Sleep ...

  8. 75 FR 41895 - Inteva Products, LLC Adrian, Michigan; Inteva Products, LLC Troy, Michigan; Amended Certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... Products, LLC Adrian, Michigan; Inteva Products, LLC Troy, Michigan; Amended Certification Regarding... time period at the Troy, Michigan location of Inteva Products, LLC. The Troy, Michigan location.... Accordingly, the Department is amending the certification to include workers of the Troy, Michigan location of...

  9. Journal bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, John R.; Boeker, Gilbert F.

    1976-05-11

    1. An improved journal bearing comprising in combination a non-rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a first bearing surface, a rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a confronting second bearing surface having a plurality of bearing elements, a source of lubricant adjacent said bearing elements for supplying lubricant thereto, each bearing element consisting of a pair of elongated relatively shallowly depressed surfaces lying in a cylindrical surface co-axial with the non-depressed surface and diverging from one another in the direction of rotation and obliquely arranged with respect to the axis of rotation of said rotatable member to cause a flow of lubricant longitudinally along said depressed surfaces from their distal ends toward their proximal ends as said bearing members are rotated relative to one another, each depressed surface subtending a radial angle of less than 360.degree., and means for rotating said rotatable bearing member to cause the lubricant to flow across and along said depressed surfaces, the flow of lubricant being impeded by the non-depressed portions of said second bearing surface to cause an increase in the lubricant pressure.

  10. Sleep Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek Kornum, Birgitte; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    mediates circadian regulation of sleep. Misalignment with the rhythm of the sun results in circadian disorders and jet lag. The molecular basis of homeostatic sleep regulation is mostly unknown. A network of mutually inhibitory brain nuclei regulates sleep states and sleep-wake transitions. Abnormalities...... in these networks create sleep disorders, including rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, sleep walking, and narcolepsy. Physiological changes associated with sleep can be imbalanced, resulting in excess movements such as periodic leg movements during sleep or abnormal breathing in obstructive sleep apneas....... As every organ in the body is affected by sleep directly or indirectly, sleep and sleep-associated disorders are frequent and only now starting to be understood....

  11. GAS BEARING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstrom, C.W.

    1960-09-01

    A gas lubricated bearing for a rotating shaft is described. The assembly comprises a stationary collar having an annular member resiliently supported thereon. The collar and annular member are provided with cooperating gas passages arranged for admission of pressurized gas which supports and lubricates a bearing block fixed to the rotatable shaft. The resilient means for the annular member support the latter against movement away from the bearing block when the assembly is in operation.

  12. Grizzly bear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, C.C.; Miller, S.D.; Haroldson, M.A.; Feldhamer, G.; Thompson, B.; Chapman, J.

    2003-01-01

    The grizzly bear inspires fear, awe, and respect in humans to a degree unmatched by any other North American wild mammal. Like other bear species, it can inflict serious injury and death on humans and sometimes does. Unlike the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) of the sparsely inhabited northern arctic, however, grizzly bears still live in areas visited by crowds of people, where presence of the grizzly remains physically real and emotionally dominant. A hike in the wilderness that includes grizzly bears is different from a stroll in a forest from which grizzly bears have been purged; nighttime conversations around the campfire and dreams in the tent reflect the presence of the great bear. Contributing to the aura of the grizzly bear is the mixture of myth and reality about its ferocity. unpredictable disposition, large size, strength, huge canines, long claws, keen senses, swiftness, and playfulness. They share characteristics with humans such as generalist life history strategies. extended periods of maternal care, and omnivorous diets. These factors capture the human imagination in ways distinct from other North American mammals. Precontact Native American legends reflected the same fascination with the grizzly bear as modern stories and legends (Rockwell 1991).

  13. Sleep Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Sleep Quiz Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents ... on. Photo: iStock Take the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research Sleep Quiz TRUE OR FALSE ? _____1. ...

  14. Creating a Better Funding System for Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    In 1994, Michigan voters approved a ballot initiative that transferred the power in Michigan's education system from local communities to the state. Proposal A succeeded in slowing the growth of local property taxes and narrowing the gap between the richest and poorest districts in Michigan. However, due to a decade of sluggish economic growth,…

  15. A reactive nitrogen budget for Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reactive nitrogen budget for Lake Michigan was reviewed and updated, making use of recent estimates of watershed and atmospheric nitrogen loads. The updated total N load to Lake Michigan was approximately double the previous estimate from the Lake Michigan Mass Balance study ...

  16. Pollutant transformations over Lake Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkezweeny, A.J.; Arbuthnot, D.R.; Busness, K.M.; Easter, R.C.; Hales, J.M.; Lee, R.N.; Young, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    An aircraft, a chartered boat, and a constant altitude balloon were used to study pollutant transformations over Lake Michigan in a Lagrangian frame of reference. The experiments were conducted during the summer under strong atmospheric stability where diffusion and dry deposition of pollutants can be neglected

  17. Michigan School Privatization Survey 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman, James M.; Fryzelka, Evan E.

    2014-01-01

    Many of Michigan's public school districts are under substantial fiscal pressures from a combination of declining enrollment and increasing costs, particularly related to employee benefits, but most districts are responding to these challenges. One of the ways that districts can stretch their resources further is through competitive contracting…

  18. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-22

    Energy used by Michigan single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  19. The copper deposits of Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, B.S.; Burbank, W.S.

    1929-01-01

    The copper district of Keweenaw Point, in the northern peninsula of Michigan, is the second largest producer of copper in the world.  The output of the district since 1845 has been more than 7,500,000,000 pounds and showed a rather steady and consistent increase from the beginning of production to the end of the World War in 1918, since which there has been a marked decrease.

  20. Active Traffic Management in Michigan

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Pat

    2018-01-01

    The US 23 Flex Route is the first active traffic management (ATM) project in the state of Michigan. This route utilizes overhead lane control gantries equipped with various intelligent transportation system (ITS) equipment to facilitate the following ATM strategies: dynamic shoulder use, dynamic lane control, variable speed advisories, and queue warning. The focus of this presentation is how the project team overcame several challenges during the planning, design, and system management phases...

  1. Hydrodynamic bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Bonneau, Dominique; Souchet, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    This Series provides the necessary elements to the development and validation of numerical prediction models for hydrodynamic bearings. This book describes the rheological models and the equations of lubrication. It also presents the numerical approaches used to solve the above equations by finite differences, finite volumes and finite elements methods.

  2. Electric industry restructuring in Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This Staff Report suggests a modified approach designed to significantly increase the ability of all customer classes to participate and share in the benefits of competition. The concepts discussed in this Report are designed to ensure that rates are not increased for any customers as a result of restructuring and, where possible, rates are reduced through the use of rate reduction bonds. The program outlined in this Report is designed to fulfill five objectives. First, it protects the interests of smaller customers, including low-income residential customers and senior citizens. Second, the program provides opportunities to strengthen Michigan's business community. Third, the program includes funding for employee retraining to assure that utility employees are not negatively impacted by restructuring. Fourth, the phase-in program provides the utilities with the opportunity to prepare for competition so that they remain Michigan-based companies. Fifth, the program is designed to foster competition upon a level playing field. The Commission has jurisdiction over all investor electric utilities and rural electric cooperatives in Michigan. Municipal electric utilities are not subject to Commission jurisdiction. Although this Report discusses details regarding Consumers Power and Detroit Edison, its concepts and principles are intended to apply to all jurisdictional electric utilities

  3. Healthy Sleep Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sleep Apnea Testing CPAP Healthy Sleep Habits Healthy Sleep Habits Your behaviors during the day, and especially ... team at an AASM accredited sleep center . Quick Sleep Tips Follow these tips to establish healthy sleep ...

  4. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a ... find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a ...

  5. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a ... find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a ...

  6. Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea is a common disorder that causes your breathing to stop or get very shallow. Breathing ... an hour. The most common type is obstructive sleep apnea. It causes your airway to collapse or ...

  7. Bearing structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.S.; Preece, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    A hydrostatic bearing for the lower end of the vertical shaft of a sodium pump comprises a support shell encircling the shaft and a bush located between the shell and shaft. Liquid sodium is fed from the pump outlet to the bush/shaft and bush/shell interfaces to provide hydrostatic support. The bush outer surface and the shell inner surface are of complementary part-spherical shape and the bush floats relative to the shaft so that the bush can align itself with the shaft axis. Monitoring of the relative rotational speed of the bush with respect to the shaft (such rotation being induced by the viscous drag forces present) is also performed for the purposes of detecting abnormal operation of the bearing or partial seizure, at least one magnet is rotatable with the bush, and a magnetic sensor provides an output having a frequency related to the speed of the bush. (author)

  8. Journal Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Brancati

    1999-01-01

    determined after acquiring and analysing the orbits described by the journal axis for assigned unbalance values in different operating conditions. Analysis of the results shows some particular operating features that were not entirely predicted by the theoretical model and which may give rise to malfunctions in the rotor-tilting pad bearings system. The tests were carried out in the rotor dynamics laboratory of the Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica per l'Energetica at the University of Naples.

  9. Camshaft bearing arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoi, K.; Ozawa, T.

    1986-06-10

    A bearing arrangement is described for the camshaft of an internal combustion engine or the like which camshaft is formed along its length in axial order with a first bearing surface, a first cam lobe, a second bearing surface, a second cam lobe, a third bearing surface, a third cam lobe and a fourth bearing surface, the improvement comprising first bearing means extending around substantially the full circumference of the first bearing surface and journaling the first bearing surface, second bearing means extending around substantially less than the circumference of the second bearing surface and journaling the second bearing surface, third bearing means extending around substantially less than the circumference of the third bearing surface and journaling the third bearing surface, and fourth bearing means extending around substantially the full circumference of the fourth bearing surface and journaling the first bearing surface.

  10. Economic impacts of wine tourism in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi-Kyung Kim; Seung Hyun Kim

    2003-01-01

    In Michigan, wine tourism is perceived as increasingly important concept because more and more tourists visit wineries and wine tasting rooms annually. However there have been few studies conducted concerning the economic impacts of wineries in Michigan even though the industry has been recognized as having significant economic impact potential. The primary purpose of...

  11. Mammalian sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, Hugh

    2005-05-01

    This review examines the biological background to the development of ideas on rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep), so-called paradoxical sleep (PS), and its relation to dreaming. Aspects of the phenomenon which are discussed include physiological changes and their anatomical location, the effects of total and selective sleep deprivation in the human and animal, and REM sleep behavior disorder, the latter with its clinical manifestations in the human. Although dreaming also occurs in other sleep phases (non-REM or NREM sleep), in the human, there is a contingent relation between REM sleep and dreaming. Thus, REM is taken as a marker for dreaming and as REM is distributed ubiquitously throughout the mammalian class, it is suggested that other mammals also dream. It is suggested that the overall function of REM sleep/dreaming is more important than the content of the individual dream; its function is to place the dreamer protagonist/observer on the topographical world. This has importance for the developing infant who needs to develop a sense of self and separateness from the world which it requires to navigate and from which it is separated for long periods in sleep. Dreaming may also serve to maintain a sense of ‘I’ness or “self” in the adult, in whom a fragility of this faculty is revealed in neurological disorders.

  12. Sleep disorders - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insomnia; Narcolepsy; Hypersomina; Daytime sleepiness; Sleep rhythm; Sleep disruptive behaviors; Jet lag ... excessive daytime sleepiness) Problems sticking to a regular sleep schedule (sleep rhythm problem) Unusual behaviors during sleep ( ...

  13. Central sleep apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea - central; Obesity - central sleep apnea; Cheyne-Stokes - central sleep apnea; Heart failure - central sleep apnea ... Central sleep apnea results when the brain temporarily stops sending signals to the muscles that control breathing. The condition ...

  14. Sleep Apnea (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Obstructive Sleep Apnea KidsHealth / For Parents / Obstructive Sleep Apnea What's ... How Is Sleep Apnea Treated? Print What Is Sleep Apnea? Brief pauses in breathing during sleep are ...

  15. Fish impingement at Lake Michigan power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.K.; Freeman, R.F.; Spigarelli, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    A study was initiated in 1974 to survey the magnitude and to evaluate the impact of fish impingement at 20 power plants on the Great Lakes. Data on impingement rates, site characteristics, intake designs and operational features have been collected and analyzed. Interpretive analyses of these data are in progress. The objectives of this study were: to summarize fish impingement data for Lake Michigan (16/20 plants surveyed are on Lake Michigan); to assess the significance of total and source-related mortalities on populations of forage and predator species; and to expand the assessment of power plant impingement to include all water intakes on Lake Michigan. Data are tabulated

  16. Michigan transportation facts & figures : public transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-16

    This on-line document is part of a series, Transportation Facts & Figures, by the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT). The Public Transit section of Transportation Facts & Figures cover such topics as intercity bus service, intercity rail se...

  17. Bear-baiting may exacerbate wolf-hunting dog conflict.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K Bump

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The influence of policy on the incidence of human-wildlife conflict can be complex and not entirely anticipated. Policies for managing bear hunter success and depredation on hunting dogs by wolves represent an important case because with increasing wolves, depredations are expected to increase. This case is challenging because compensation for wolf depredation on hunting dogs as compared to livestock is less common and more likely to be opposed. Therefore, actions that minimize the likelihood of such conflicts are a conservation need. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used data from two US states with similar wolf populations but markedly different wolf/hunting dog depredation patterns to examine the influence of bear hunting regulations, bear hunter to wolf ratios, hunter method, and hunter effort on wolf depredation trends. Results indicated that the ratio of bear hunting permits sold per wolf, and hunter method are important factors affecting wolf depredation trends in the Upper Great Lakes region, but strong differences exist between Michigan and Wisconsin related in part to the timing and duration of bear-baiting (i.e., free feeding. The probability that a wolf depredated a bear-hunting dog increases with the duration of bear-baiting, resulting in a relative risk of depredation 2.12-7.22× greater in Wisconsin than Michigan. The net effect of compensation for hunting dog depredation in Wisconsin may also contribute to the difference between states. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results identified a potential tradeoff between bear hunting success and wolf/bear-hunting dog conflict. These results indicate that management options to minimize conflict exist, such as adjusting baiting regulations. If reducing depredations is an important goal, this analysis indicates that actions aside from (or in addition to reducing wolf abundance might achieve that goal. This study also stresses the need to better understand the relationship

  18. Bear-baiting may exacerbate wolf-hunting dog conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bump, Joseph K; Murawski, Chelsea M; Kartano, Linda M; Beyer, Dean E; Roell, Brian J

    2013-01-01

    The influence of policy on the incidence of human-wildlife conflict can be complex and not entirely anticipated. Policies for managing bear hunter success and depredation on hunting dogs by wolves represent an important case because with increasing wolves, depredations are expected to increase. This case is challenging because compensation for wolf depredation on hunting dogs as compared to livestock is less common and more likely to be opposed. Therefore, actions that minimize the likelihood of such conflicts are a conservation need. We used data from two US states with similar wolf populations but markedly different wolf/hunting dog depredation patterns to examine the influence of bear hunting regulations, bear hunter to wolf ratios, hunter method, and hunter effort on wolf depredation trends. Results indicated that the ratio of bear hunting permits sold per wolf, and hunter method are important factors affecting wolf depredation trends in the Upper Great Lakes region, but strong differences exist between Michigan and Wisconsin related in part to the timing and duration of bear-baiting (i.e., free feeding). The probability that a wolf depredated a bear-hunting dog increases with the duration of bear-baiting, resulting in a relative risk of depredation 2.12-7.22× greater in Wisconsin than Michigan. The net effect of compensation for hunting dog depredation in Wisconsin may also contribute to the difference between states. These results identified a potential tradeoff between bear hunting success and wolf/bear-hunting dog conflict. These results indicate that management options to minimize conflict exist, such as adjusting baiting regulations. If reducing depredations is an important goal, this analysis indicates that actions aside from (or in addition to) reducing wolf abundance might achieve that goal. This study also stresses the need to better understand the relationship among baiting practices, the effect of compensation on hunter behavior, and depredation

  19. MICHIGAN FARM DATABASE NEW DIRECTIONS FOR 1995

    OpenAIRE

    Nott, Sherrill B.; Hepp, Ralph E.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide financial and production performance data for Michigan farms in 1995. Separate sections report on the farm types of Cash Grain, Dairy, Fruit, General Crop, General Livestock, and Swine. This data can be used as a comparative data base for individual farmers to conduct a financial analysis of their own farm to identify strengths and weaknesses. This report can also provide information to those interested in the financial well being of Michigan agricultur...

  20. Medicines for sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzodiazepines; Sedatives; Hypnotics; Sleeping pills; Insomnia - medicines; Sleep disorder - medicines ... are commonly used to treat allergies. While these sleep aids are not addictive, your body becomes used ...

  1. Healthy Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quality sleep, ask yourself Do you have trouble getting up in the morning? Do you have trouble focusing during the day? Do you doze off during the day? If you answered yes to these three questions, you should work on ...

  2. Bovine tuberculosis in free-ranging carnivores from Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning-Fann, C S; Schmitt, S M; Fitzgerald, S D; Fierke, J S; Friedrich, P D; Kaneene, J B; Clarke, K A; Butler, K L; Payeur, J B; Whipple, D L; Cooley, T M; Miller, J M; Muzo, D P

    2001-01-01

    During a survey of carnivores and omnivores for bovine tuberculosis conducted in Michigan (USA) since 1996, Mycobacterium bovis was cultured from lymph nodes pooled from six coyotes (Canis latrans) (four adult female, two adult male), two adult male raccoons (Procyon lotor), one adult male red fox (Vulpes vulpes), and one 1.5-yr-old male black bear (Ursus americanus). One adult, male bobcat (Felis rufus) with histologic lesions suggestive of tuberculosis was negative on culture but positive for organisms belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex when tested by polymerase chain reaction. All the tuberculous animals were taken from three adjoining counties where M. bovis is known to be endemic in the free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) population. There were two coyotes, one raccoon, one red fox, and one bobcat infected in Alpena county. Montmorency County had two coyotes and one raccoon with M. bovis. Two coyotes and a bear were infected from Alcona County. These free-ranging carnivores/omnivores probably became infected with M. bovis through consumption of tuberculous deer. Other species included in the survey were opossum (Didelphis virginiana), gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), and badger (Taxidea taxus); these were negative for M. bovis.

  3. Pediatric sleep apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea - pediatric; Apnea - pediatric sleep apnea syndrome; Sleep-disordered breathing - pediatric ... Untreated pediatric sleep apnea may lead to: High blood pressure Heart or lung problems Slow growth and development

  4. Changing your sleep habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... falling asleep; Sleep hygiene References American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Insomnia. Updated March 4, 2015. SleepEducation.org. sleepeducation. ... T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 86. ...

  5. Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cheyne-Stokes respiration), obstructive sleep apnoea and mixed or complex sleep apnoea.1. Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is the most common of these three disorders and is defined as airway obstruction during sleep, accompanied by at least ...

  6. Snoring and Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Snoring and Sleep Apnea Snoring and Sleep Apnea Patient Health Information ... newsroom@entnet.org . Insight into sleeping disorders and sleep apnea Forty-five percent of normal adults snore ...

  7. Special Engineering Services to Establish Inspection Criteria for Bearings to Improve Life Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    ll i . -- II 53 I V. REFERENCES 1. Barton, J. R., "Early Fatigue Damage Detection in 4140 Steel Tubes", Proc. Fifth Annual Symposium on NDE of...34Advanced Non- destructive Testing Methods for Bearing Inspection", SAE Paper No. 720172, Automotive Engineering Congress, Detroit, Michigan, January

  8. Sleep in Othello

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimsdale, Joel E.

    2009-01-01

    Some of our best descriptions of sleep disorders come from literature. While Shakespeare is well known for his references to insomnia and sleep walking, his works also demonstrate a keen awareness of many other sleep disorders. This paper examines sleep themes in Shakespeare's play Othello. The play indicates Shakespeare's astute eye for sleep deprivation, sexual parasomnias, and effects of stress and drugs on sleep. Citation: Dimsdale JE. Sleep in Othello. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(3):280-281. PMID:19960651

  9. Sleep Tips: 7 Steps to Better Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn every night. Consider simple tips for better sleep, from setting a sleep schedule to including physical activity in your daily ... factors that can interfere with a good night's sleep — from work stress and family responsibilities to unexpected ...

  10. Passive magnetic bearing configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard F [Walnut Creek, CA

    2011-01-25

    A journal bearing provides vertical and radial stability to a rotor of a passive magnetic bearing system when the rotor is not rotating and when it is rotating. In the passive magnetic bearing system, the rotor has a vertical axis of rotation. Without the journal bearing, the rotor is vertically and radially unstable when stationary, and is vertically stable and radially unstable when rotating.

  11. Hydrologic environment of the Silurian salt deposits in parts of Michigan, Ohio, and New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Stanley E.

    1978-01-01

    The aggregate thickness of evaporites (salt, gypsum, and anhydrite) in the Silurian Salina sequence in Michigan exceeds 1200 feet in areas near the periphery of the Michigan basin, where the salt beds are less than 3000 feet below land surface. In northeast Ohio the aggregate thickness of salt beds is as much as 200 feet in places, and in western New York it is more than 500 feet, where th beds are less than 3000 feet deep. The salt-bearing rocks dip regionally on the order of 50 feet per mile; those in Michigan dip toward the center of the Michigan basin, and those in Ohio and New York, in the Appalachian basin, dip generally southward. The rocks in both basins thicken downdip. Minor folds and faults occur in the salt-bearing rocks in all three states. Some of this defrmation has been attenuated or absorbed bo the salt beds. Occuring near the middle of thick sedimentary sequences, the salt beds are bounded aboe and below by beds containing water having dissolved-solids concentrations several times that seawter. The brines occur commonly in discrete zones of high permeability at specific places in the stratigraphic sequence. In northeast Ohio two prominent brine zones are recognized by the driller, the Devonian Oriskany Sandstone, or 'first water' zone, above the Salina Formation, and the Newburg or 'second water' zone below the Salina. In each aquifer there is a vertical component of hydraulic head, but little brine probably moves through the salt beds because their permeability is extremely low. Also, ther is little evidence of dissolution of the salt in areas distant from the outcrop, suggesting that if brine does move through the salt, movement is at a slow enough rate so that, in combination with the saturated or near-saturated condition of the water, it precludes significant dissolution. Principal brine movement is probably in the permeable zones in the direction of the hydraulic gradient. Two areas in Michigan and one area each in Ohio and New York appear

  12. Sleep in Othello

    OpenAIRE

    Dimsdale, Joel E.

    2009-01-01

    Some of our best descriptions of sleep disorders come from literature. While Shakespeare is well known for his references to insomnia and sleep walking, his works also demonstrate a keen awareness of many other sleep disorders. This paper examines sleep themes in Shakespeare's play Othello. The play indicates Shakespeare's astute eye for sleep deprivation, sexual parasomnias, and effects of stress and drugs on sleep.

  13. Developing Representative Michigan Truck Configurations for Bridge Load Rating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-28

    The objective of this study is to recommend a rating process representative of Michigan load effects for legal and extended permit vehicles. For this study, high fidelity WIM data from 20 Michigan sites were analyzed. Using vehicle weight and configu...

  14. 27 CFR 9.79 - Lake Michigan Shore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Michigan Shore. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lake Michigan... southeast along the winding course of the Kalamazoo River for approximately 35 miles until it intersects the...

  15. Effects of daytime food intake on memory consolidation during sleep or sleep deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Herzog

    Full Text Available Sleep enhances memory consolidation. Bearing in mind that food intake produces many metabolic signals that can influence memory processing in humans (e.g., insulin, the present study addressed the question as to whether the enhancing effect of sleep on memory consolidation is affected by the amount of energy consumed during the preceding daytime. Compared to sleep, nocturnal wakefulness has been shown to impair memory consolidation in humans. Thus, a second question was to examine whether the impaired memory consolidation associated with sleep deprivation (SD could be compensated by increased daytime energy consumption. To these aims, 14 healthy normal-weight men learned a finger tapping sequence (procedural memory and a list of semantically associated word pairs (declarative memory. After the learning period, standardized meals were administered, equaling either ∼50% or ∼150% of the estimated daily energy expenditure. In the morning, after sleep or wakefulness, memory consolidation was tested. Plasma glucose was measured both before learning and retrieval. Polysomnographic sleep recordings were performed by electroencephalography (EEG. Independent of energy intake, subjects recalled significantly more word pairs after sleep than they did after SD. When subjects stayed awake and received an energy oversupply, the number of correctly recalled finger sequences was equal to those seen after sleep. Plasma glucose did not differ among conditions, and sleep time in the sleep conditions was not influenced by the energy intake interventions. These data indicate that the daytime energy intake level affects neither sleep's capacity to boost the consolidation of declarative and procedural memories, nor sleep's quality. However, high energy intake was followed by an improved procedural but not declarative memory consolidation under conditions of SD. This suggests that the formation of procedural memory is not only triggered by sleep but is also

  16. Effects of daytime food intake on memory consolidation during sleep or sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Nina; Friedrich, Alexia; Fujita, Naoko; Gais, Steffen; Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Oltmanns, Kerstin M; Benedict, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Sleep enhances memory consolidation. Bearing in mind that food intake produces many metabolic signals that can influence memory processing in humans (e.g., insulin), the present study addressed the question as to whether the enhancing effect of sleep on memory consolidation is affected by the amount of energy consumed during the preceding daytime. Compared to sleep, nocturnal wakefulness has been shown to impair memory consolidation in humans. Thus, a second question was to examine whether the impaired memory consolidation associated with sleep deprivation (SD) could be compensated by increased daytime energy consumption. To these aims, 14 healthy normal-weight men learned a finger tapping sequence (procedural memory) and a list of semantically associated word pairs (declarative memory). After the learning period, standardized meals were administered, equaling either ∼50% or ∼150% of the estimated daily energy expenditure. In the morning, after sleep or wakefulness, memory consolidation was tested. Plasma glucose was measured both before learning and retrieval. Polysomnographic sleep recordings were performed by electroencephalography (EEG). Independent of energy intake, subjects recalled significantly more word pairs after sleep than they did after SD. When subjects stayed awake and received an energy oversupply, the number of correctly recalled finger sequences was equal to those seen after sleep. Plasma glucose did not differ among conditions, and sleep time in the sleep conditions was not influenced by the energy intake interventions. These data indicate that the daytime energy intake level affects neither sleep's capacity to boost the consolidation of declarative and procedural memories, nor sleep's quality. However, high energy intake was followed by an improved procedural but not declarative memory consolidation under conditions of SD. This suggests that the formation of procedural memory is not only triggered by sleep but is also sensitive to the

  17. Market Barriers to Solar in Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, E.; Nobler, E.; Wolf, C.; Doris, E.

    2012-08-01

    The solar industry in the United States is at a turning point; the cost of PV hardware has declined substantially in recent years, placing new attention on reducing the balance of system (BOS) costs of solar that now contribute to a growing percentage of installation expenses. How states address these costs through the creation of a favorable policy and regulatory environment is proving to be a critical determinant of a thriving statewide solar market. This report addresses the permitting and tax issues that may stimulate the solar market growth in Michigan. By making PV installations easier to complete through reduced BOS costs, Michigan would become a more attractive location for manufacturers and installers. As PV module costs decline and BOS costs make up a greater share of the cost of solar, action taken today on these issues will prove beneficial in the long term, providing Michigan an opportunity to establish a leadership position in the solar industry.

  18. Alternaria leaf spot in Michigan and fungicide sensitivity issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 2010 there has been an increase in identification of Alternaria leaf spot on sugar beet in Michigan and other growing regions in the US and Canada. In 2016, the disease was severe enough to cause economic losses in the Michigan growing region. Michigan isolates from sugar beet were examined ...

  19. Sleep Disturbances in Newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Yasova Barbeau, Daphna; Weiss, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to serve as an introduction to understanding sleep in the fetus, the preterm neonate and the term neonate. Sleep appears to have numerous important roles, particularly in the consolidation of new information. The sleep cycle changes over time, neonates spend the most time in active sleep and have a progressive shortening of active sleep and lengthening of quiet sleep. Additionally, the sleep cycle is disrupted by many things including disease state and environmen...

  20. The University of Michigan, Kellogg Building Expansion & Renovation, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Design Cost Data, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents design, construction, and cost data for the University of Michigan's Kellogg Building expansion and renovation project. A list of project manufacturers and suppliers is provided along with four photographs and four floor plans. (GR)

  1. Sleep Applications to Assess Sleep Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fietze, Ingo

    2016-12-01

    This article highlights the potential uses that smartphone applications may have for helping those with sleep problems. Applications in smartphones offer the promised possibility of detection of sleep. From the author's own experience, one can also conclude that sleep applications are approximately as good as polysomnography in detection of sleep time, similar to the conventional wearable actimeters. In the future, sleep applications will help to further enhance awareness of sleep health and to distinguish those who actually poorly and only briefly sleep from those who suffer more likely from paradox insomnia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Operability and location of Michigan's timber resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark H. Hansen; Jerold T. Hahn

    1987-01-01

    Operability is the ease or difficulty of managing or harvesting timber because of physical conditions in the stand or on the site. Data collected during the 1980 Michigan statewide forest inventory were used to examine operability of the timber resource based on seven operability components.

  3. Michigan's forests, 2004: statistics and quality assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott A. Pugh; Mark H. Hansen; Gary Brand; Ronald E. McRoberts

    2010-01-01

    The first annual inventory of Michigan's forests was completed in 2004 after 18,916 plots were selected and 10,355 forested plots were visited. This report includes detailed information on forest inventory methods, quality of estimates, and additional tables. An earlier publication presented analyses of the inventoried data (Pugh et al. 2009).

  4. Trypanosomes of Bufo americanus from northern Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, J K; Davis, J S; Slaght, K S

    1988-10-01

    Two hundred one American toads (Bufo americanus) from northern Michigan were examined for blood trypanosomes. Three species, Trypanosoma bufophlebotomi, T. schmidti-like sp. and T. pseudopodia, had prevalences of 27, 16 and 1%, respectively. Cross experimental inoculations showed that T. bufophlebotomi from toads is not the same as T. ranarum found in frogs of the family Ranidae of this region.

  5. Private timberland owners of Michigan, 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl C. Leatherberry; Neal P. Kingsley; Thomas W. Birch

    1998-01-01

    Identifies and profiles Michigan's private timberland owners. Estimates the number and distribution of private timberland owners by owner attitudes and objectives concerning forest ownership, management, and use. Provides 45 tables relating to owner and property characteristics for the state and its four survey units.

  6. Demographic characteristics and motivations of Michigan agritourists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah Che; Ann Veeck; Gregory Veeck

    2007-01-01

    Michigan agricultural producers, faced with declining commodity prices, rising production costs, and increased global competition, have looked at agritourism as a way to save the farm as well as provide customers with personalized service; high-quality, fresh food; and farm, nature, and family experiences. While previous research on agritourism indicates that it taps...

  7. Sleep walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sleepwalking. In: Chokroverty S, Thomas RJ, eds. Atlas of Sleep Medicine . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:380- ... of Clinical Neurology, SUNY Stony Brook, School of Medicine, Stony Brook, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare ... NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more ...

  8. Teddy Bear Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo; Caldas-Coulthardt, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a semiotic analysis of a key cultural artefact, the teddy bear. After introducing the iconography of the teddy bear, it analyses different kinds of stories to show how teddy bears are endowed with meaning in everyday life: stories from children's books, reminiscenses by adults...... bears have traditionally centred on interpersonal relations within the nuclear family, but have recently been institutionalized and commercialized....

  9. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Sleep Disorders and Reporting of Trouble Sleeping Among Women of Childbearing Age in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyx, Melissa; Xiong, Xu; Xie, Yiqiong; Buekens, Pierre

    2017-02-01

    Objectives Whether racial/ethnic differences in prevalence/reporting of sleep disorders exist in pregnant women/women of child-bearing age is unknown. Study objectives were to estimate prevalence of sleep disorders and to examine racial/ethnic differences in sleep disorders, reporting of sleep issues, and amount of sleep among women of child-bearing age (15-44 years) in the US. Methods Through a secondary analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2010 (3175 non-pregnant, 432 pregnant women in main analysis), prevalence of sleep disorders, reporting of sleep disorders to a physician/health professional, and amount of sleep were estimated overall, by pregnancy status, and by race/ethnicity stratified by pregnancy status. Racial/ethnic differences in reporting of trouble sleeping by pregnancy status were examined using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results Prevalence of diagnosed sleep disorders among women of childbearing age was 4.9 % [3.9 % pregnant; 5.1 % non-pregnant (p sleep (7-8 h) than non-Hispanic white (white) women (p sleeping were significantly higher for white compared to black (aOR 0.47 [95 % CI 0.36, 0.61]) or Mexican-American women (aOR 0.29 [95 % CI 0.21, 0.41]); non-pregnant minority women were also significantly less likely to report trouble sleeping than white women when controlling for amount of sleep. Among pregnant women, these same trends were found. Discussion Compared to white women, minority women, despite reporting less adequate sleep, are less likely to report trouble sleeping, providing evidence of an important health disparity.

  10. Sleep and Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sleep and Newborns KidsHealth / For Parents / Sleep and Newborns ... night it is. How Long Will My Newborn Sleep? Newborns should get 14 to 17 hours of ...

  11. Sleep Apnea Information Page

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Sleep Apnea Information Page Sleep Apnea Information Page What research is being done? ... Institutes of Health (NIH) conduct research related to sleep apnea in laboratories at the NIH, and also ...

  12. Side Effects: Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep problems are a common side effect during cancer treatment. Learn how a polysomnogram can assess sleep problems. Learn about the benefits of managing sleep disorders in men and women with cancer.

  13. Sleep Eduction: Treatment & Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find a Sleep Center Use the following fields to locate sleep centers in your area. Search radius (in miles): 10 25 50 Share: Essentials in Sleep Insomnia Overview & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis & Self Tests ...

  14. Sleep Disorders (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types of Cancer Treatment Surgery Radiation Therapy External Beam Radiation Internal Radiation Therapy Side Effects Chemotherapy Immunotherapy ... asleep, sleeping, or waking from sleep, such as walking, talking, or eating. Sleep disorders keep you from ...

  15. Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Disorders » Patient & Caregiver Education Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep Anatomy of Sleep Sleep Stages ... t form or maintain the pathways in your brain that let you learn and create new memories, ...

  16. Prevalence and correlates of sleep-related problems in adults receiving medical cannabis for chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford, James A; Arnedt, J Todd; Conroy, Deirdre A; Bohnert, Kipling M; Bourque, Carrie; Blow, Frederic C; Ilgen, Mark

    2017-11-01

    To examine the prevalence and correlates of sleep problems in a sample of medical cannabis patients. Adults ages 21 and older (N=801,M age=45.8) who were seeking medical cannabis certification (either for the first time or as a renewal) for chronic pain at medical cannabis clinics in southern Michigan completed baseline measures of cannabis use, sleep, pain, and other related constructs. Over half of the sample (59%) met criteria for past 1-month sleep disturbance, defined as at least one sleep problem occurring on 15 or more nights in the past month. Most participants (86%) reported that sleep problems were due to their current pain. Approximately 80% of participants reported using cannabis in the past 6 months to improve sleep and, among these participants, cannabis was rated as helpful for improving sleep. Sleep-related cannabis side effects were rare (35%), but sleep-related cannabis withdrawal symptoms were relatively common (65%). Statistically significant correlates of past 1-month sleep disturbance included a) being female, b) being white, c) being on disability, d) not having a medical cannabis card, and e) frequency of using cannabis to help sleep. Sleep problems are highly prevalent and frequent in medical cannabis patients and are closely tied to pain. Sleep-related cannabis withdrawal symptoms are relatively common but their clinical relevance is unknown. The association between frequency of cannabis use to help sleep with higher odds of sleep problems will need to be clarified by longitudinal studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mapping Lake Michigan Fish Catch Data

    OpenAIRE

    Wodd, Jacob; Doucette, Jarrod; Höök, Tomas O.

    2014-01-01

    The only Great Lake completely contained in the U.S., Lake Michigan offers an abundance of recreational fishing. This project takes 20 years’ worth of salmonid fish catch data, and uses GIS to organize and visually represent the data in a way that is meaningful and helpful to local fisherman and researchers. Species represented included Brown Trout, Lake Trout, Rainbow Trout, Chinook Salmon, and Coho Salmon. The species are organized by both decadal and yearly spans, as well as catch per t...

  18. Plutonium and americium in Lake Michigan sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgington, D.N.; Alberts, J.J.; Wahlgren, M.A.; Karttunen, J.O.; Reeve, C.A.

    1975-01-01

    The vertical distributions of 239 , 240 Pu, 238 Pu, and 137 Cs have been measured in sediment cores taken from Lake Michigan. Sections from a limited number of cores have been analyzed for 241 Am. In addition, grab samples from ten locations in the southern basin of the lake have been analyzed for phase distribution of 239 , 240 Pu using a sequential extraction technique. The results indicate that the 239 , 240 Pu, 238 Pu, and 137 Cs from weapons testing, and the 241 Am formed in situ are concentrated in the sediments. A comparison of the total deposition of 239 , 240 Pu and 137 Cs indicates that 137 Cs may be valuable as a monitor for 239 , 240 Pu deposition in the sediments. Values of the 238 Pu/ 239 , 240 Pu ratio are in agreement with values reported in Lake Ontario sediments (and Lake Michigan plankton) and show little variation with depth. 241 Am data support the concept of in situ production with little preferential mobility after formation. Studies of sedimentary phase distributions show that 239 , 240 Pu is associated with hydrous oxide phases which are chemically stable under the prevailing conditions in lake sediments. Since Lake Michigan sediments remain aerobic, relatively little 239 , 240 Pu is available for chemical mobilization from the hydrous oxide or organic phases present in the sediments

  19. Synthetic musk fragrances in Lake Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Aaron M; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2004-01-15

    Synthetic musk fragrances are added to a wide variety of personal care and household products and are present in treated wastewater effluent. Here we report for the first time ambient air and water measurements of six polycyclic musks (AHTN, HHCB, ATII, ADBI, AHMI, and DPMI) and two nitro musks (musk xylene and musk ketone) in North America. The compounds were measured in the air and water of Lake Michigan and in the air of urban Milwaukee, WI. All of the compounds except DPMI were detected. HHCB and AHTN were found in the highest concentrations in all samples. Airborne concentrations of HHCB and AHTN average 4.6 and 2.9 ng/m3, respectively, in Milwaukee and 1.1 and 0.49 ng/m3 over the lake. The average water concentration of HHCB and AHTN in Lake Michigan was 4.7 and 1.0 ng/L, respectively. A lake-wide annual mass budget shows that wastewater treatment plant discharge is the major source (3470 kg/yr) of the synthetic musks while atmospheric deposition contributes less than 1%. Volatilization and outflow through the Straits of Mackinac are major loss mechanisms (2085 and 516 kg/yr for volatilization and outflow, respectively). Concentrations of HHCB are about one-half the predicted steady-state water concentrations in Lake Michigan.

  20. Sleep physiology and sleep disorders in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Shakankiry HM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hanan M El ShakankiryKing Fahd University Hospital, Al Dammam University, Al Khobar, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Sleep has long been considered as a passive phenomenon, but it is now clear that it is a period of intense brain activity involving higher cortical functions. Overall, sleep affects every aspect of a child's development, particularly higher cognitive functions. Sleep concerns are ranked as the fifth leading concern of parents. Close to one third of all children suffer from sleep disorders, the prevalence of which is increased in certain pediatric populations, such as children with special needs, children with psychiatric or medical diagnoses and children with autism or pervasive developmental disorders. The paper reviews sleep physiology and the impact, classification, and management of sleep disorders in the pediatric age group.Keywords: sleep physiology, sleep disorders, childhood, epilepsy

  1. Sleep: A Health Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyster, Faith S.; Strollo, Patrick J.; Zee, Phyllis C.; Walsh, James K.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic sleep deficiency, defined as a state of inadequate or mistimed sleep, is a growing and underappreciated determinant of health status. Sleep deprivation contributes to a number of molecular, immune, and neural changes that play a role in disease development, independent of primary sleep disorders. These changes in biological processes in response to chronic sleep deficiency may serve as etiological factors for the development and exacerbation of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and, ultimately, a shortened lifespan. Sleep deprivation also results in significant impairments in cognitive and motor performance which increase the risk of motor vehicle crashes and work-related injuries and fatal accidents. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine and the Sleep Research Society have developed this statement to communicate to national health stakeholders the current knowledge which ties sufficient sleep and circadian alignment in adults to health. Citation: Luyster FS; Strollo PJ; Zee PC; Walsh JK. Sleep: a health imperative. SLEEP 2012;35(6):727-734. PMID:22654183

  2. Sleep for cognitive enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne eDiekelmann

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is essential for effective cognitive functioning. Loosing even a few hours of sleep can have detrimental effects on a wide variety of cognitive processes such as attention, language, reasoning, decision making, learning and memory. While sleep is necessary to ensure normal healthy cognitive functioning, it can also enhance performance beyond the boundaries of the normal condition. This article discusses the enhancing potential of sleep, mainly focusing on the domain of learning and memory. Sleep is known to facilitate the consolidation of memories learned before sleep as well as the acquisition of new memories to be learned after sleep. According to a widely held model this beneficial effect of sleep relies on the neuronal reactivation of memories during sleep that is associated with sleep-specific brain oscillations (slow oscillations, spindles, ripples as well as a characteristic neurotransmitter milieu. Recent research indicates that memory processing during sleep can be boosted by (i cueing memory reactivation during sleep, (ii stimulating sleep-specific brain oscillations, and (iii targeting specific neurotransmitter systems pharmacologically. Olfactory and auditory cues can be used, for example, to increase reactivation of associated memories during post-learning sleep. Intensifying neocortical slow oscillations (the hallmark of slow wave sleep by electrical or auditory stimulation and modulating specific neurotransmitters such as noradrenaline and glutamate likewise facilitates memory processing during sleep. With this evidence in mind, this article concludes by discussing different methodological caveats and ethical issues that should be considered when thinking about using sleep for cognitive enhancement in everyday applications.

  3. Polar bears, Ursus maritimus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Karyn D.; Stirling, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Polar bears are the largest of the eight species of bears found worldwide and are covered in a pigment-free fur giving them the appearance of being white. They are the most carnivorous of bear species consuming a high-fat diet, primarily of ice-associated seals and other marine mammals. They range throughout the circumpolar Arctic to the southernmost extent of seasonal pack ice.

  4. Fast-Food Consumption and Obesity Among Michigan Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Beth; Lyon-Callo, Sarah; Fussman, Christopher; Imes, Gwendoline; Rafferty, Ann P.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Consumption of meals eaten away from home, especially from fast-food restaurants, has increased in the United States since the 1970s. The main objective of this study was to examine the frequency and characteristics of fast-food consumption among adults in Michigan and obesity prevalence. Methods We analyzed data from 12 questions about fast-food consumption that were included on the 2005 Michigan Behavioral Risk Factor Survey, a population-based telephone survey of Michigan adul...

  5. EcoBears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nick; Pedersen, Sandra Bleuenn; Sørensen, Jens Ager

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the EcoBears concept that aims to augment household appliances with functional and aesthetic features to promote their "use'' and "longevity of use'' to prevent their disposal. The EcoBears also aim to support the communication of environmental issues in the home setting....... We present our initial design and implementation of the EcoBears that consist of two bear modules (a mother and her cub). We also present our preliminary concept validations and lessons learned to be considered for future directions....

  6. Bearing restoration by grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanau, H.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Chen, S. M.; Bull, H. L.

    1976-01-01

    A joint program was undertaken by the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Army Aviation Systems Command to restore by grinding those rolling-element bearings which are currently being discarded at aircraft engine and transmission overhaul. Three bearing types were selected from the UH-1 helicopter engine (T-53) and transmission for the pilot program. No bearing failures occurred related to the restoration by grinding process. The risk and cost of a bearing restoration by grinding programs was analyzed. A microeconomic impact analysis was performed.

  7. Polar bears at risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, S.; Rosentrater, L.; Eid, P.M. [WWF International Arctic Programme, Oslo (Norway)

    2002-05-01

    Polar bears, the world's largest terrestrial carnivore, spend much of their lives on the arctic sea ice. This is where they hunt and move between feeding, denning, and resting areas. The world population, estimated at 22,000 bears, is made up of 20 relatively distinct populations varying in size from a few hundred to a few thousand animals. About 60 per cent of all polar bears are found in Canada. In general, the status of this species is stable, although there are pronounced differences between populations. Reductions in the extent and thickness of sea ice has lead the IUCN Polar Bear Specialist Group to describe climate change as one of the major threats facing polar bears today. Though the long-term effects of climate change will vary in different areas of the Arctic, impacts on the condition and reproductive success of polar bears and their prey are likely to be negative. Longer ice-free periods resulting from earlier break-up of sea ice in the spring and later formation in the fall is already impacting polar bears in the southern portions of their range. In Canada's Hudson Bay, for example, bears hunt on the ice through the winter and into early summer, after which the ice melts completely, forcing bears ashore to fast on stored fat until freeze-up in the fall. The time bears have on the ice to hunt and build up their body condition is cut short when the ice melts early. Studies from Hudson Bay show that for every week earlier that ice break-up occurs, bears will come ashore 10 kg lighter and in poorer condition. It is likely that populations of polar bears dividing their time between land and sea will be severely reduced and local extinctions may occur as greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise and sea ice melts. Expected changes in regional weather patterns will also impact polar bears. Rain in the late winter can cause maternity dens to collapse before females and cubs have departed, thus exposing occupants to the elements and to predators. Such

  8. Adolescents' Sleep Behaviors and Perceptions of Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Heather; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph; Telljohann, Susan K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sleep duration affects the health of children and adolescents. Shorter sleep durations have been associated with poorer academic performance, unintentional injuries, and obesity in adolescents. This study extends our understanding of how adolescents perceive and deal with their sleep issues. Methods: General education classes were…

  9. Positron Emission Tomography-Scanner at Children`s Hospital of Michigan at Detroit, Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    The Department of Energy has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0795, to support the DOE decision to provide a grant of $7,953,600 to be used in support of a proposed Positron Emission Tomography Scanner at Children`s Hospital of Michigan at Detroit, Michigan. Based upon the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affected the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  10. Positron Emission Tomography-Scanner at Children's Hospital of Michigan at Detroit, Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Energy has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0795, to support the DOE decision to provide a grant of $7,953,600 to be used in support of a proposed Positron Emission Tomography Scanner at Children's Hospital of Michigan at Detroit, Michigan. Based upon the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affected the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  11. Lake Michigan Offshore Wind Feasibility Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boezaart, Arnold [GVSU; Edmonson, James [GVSU; Standridge, Charles [GVSU; Pervez, Nahid [GVSU; Desai, Neel [University of Michigan; Williams, Bruce [University of Delaware; Clark, Aaron [GVSU; Zeitler, David [GVSU; Kendall, Scott [GVSU; Biddanda, Bopi [GVSU; Steinman, Alan [GVSU; Klatt, Brian [Michigan State University; Gehring, J. L. [Michigan State University; Walter, K. [Michigan State University; Nordman, Erik E. [GVSU

    2014-06-30

    The purpose of this project was to conduct the first comprehensive offshore wind assessment over Lake Michigan and to advance the body of knowledge needed to support future commercial wind energy development on the Great Lakes. The project involved evaluation and selection of emerging wind measurement technology and the permitting, installation and operation of the first mid-lake wind assessment meteorological (MET) facilities in Michigan’s Great Lakes. In addition, the project provided the first opportunity to deploy and field test floating LIDAR and Laser Wind Sensor (LWS) technology, and important research related equipment key to the sitting and permitting of future offshore wind energy development in accordance with public participation guidelines established by the Michigan Great Lakes Wind Council (GLOW). The project created opportunities for public dialogue and community education about offshore wind resource management and continued the dialogue to foster Great Lake wind resource utilization consistent with the focus of the GLOW Council. The technology proved to be effective, affordable, mobile, and the methods of data measurement accurate. The public benefited from a substantial increase in knowledge of the wind resources over Lake Michigan and gained insights about the potential environmental impacts of offshore wind turbine placements in the future. The unique first ever hub height wind resource assessment using LWS technology over water and development of related research data along with the permitting, sitting, and deployment of the WindSentinel MET buoy has captured public attention and has helped to increase awareness of the potential of future offshore wind energy development on the Great Lakes. Specifically, this project supported the acquisition and operation of a WindSentinel (WS) MET wind assessment buoy, and associated research for 549 days over multiple years at three locations on Lake Michigan. Four research objectives were defined for the

  12. 76 FR 36152 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ...: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI; Correction AGENCY: National Park... human remains and associated funerary objects. Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology... may contact the Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology. Disposition of the human...

  13. 76 FR 28077 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ...: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology, has completed... contact the Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology. Disposition of the human remains to...

  14. 76 FR 36149 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ...: Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology, Kalamazoo, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology, has completed... contact the Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology. Disposition of the human remains and...

  15. Black Bear Reactions to Venomous and Non-venomous Snakes in Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Lynn L; Mansfield, Susan A; Hornby, Kathleen; Hornby, Stewart; Debruyn, Terry D; Mize, Malvin; Clark, Rulon; Burghardt, Gordon M

    2014-01-01

    Bears are often considered ecological equivalents of large primates, but the latter often respond with fear, avoidance, and alarm calls to snakes, both venomous and non-venomous, there is sparse information on how bears respond to snakes. We videotaped or directly observed natural encounters between black bears (Ursus americanus) and snakes. Inside the range of venomous snakes in Arkansas and West Virginia, adolescent and adult black bears reacted fearfully in seven of seven encounters upon becoming aware of venomous and non-venomous snakes; but in northern Michigan and Minnesota where venomous snakes have been absent for millennia, black bears showed little or no fear in four encounters with non-venomous snakes of three species. The possible roles of experience and evolution in bear reactions to snakes and vice versa are discussed. In all areas studied, black bears had difficulty to recognize non-moving snakes by smell or sight. Bears did not react until snakes moved in 11 of 12 encounters with non-moving timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) and four species of harmless snakes. However, in additional tests in this study, bears were repulsed by garter snakes that had excreted pungent anal exudates, which may help explain the absence of snakes, both venomous and harmless, in bear diets reported to date. PMID:25635152

  16. [Treatment of sleep disorders in children with a psychiatric diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbout, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Health sciences suffer from insomnia: experts too often concentrate their efforts on the wake state. Fortunately enough, some of them have taken the road towards the "Dark Third of Life": sleep. This article gives an historical account of the development of the first Canadian sleep disorders laboratory and clinic specifically and selectively designed for children and adolescents with a psychiatric diagnosis. It then stresses the importance of sleep in children bearing a psychiatric diagnosis and summarizes therapeutic strategies. Data-on-file and selective review of literature. An innovative scheme matching sleep psychologists and psychiatrists with expertise in neurodevelopmental disorders led to the creation of a sleep research laboratory on mental health disorders. The initial research projects on the sleep and dreams of patients with schizophrenia and persons with autism are summarized. The Sleep Disorders Clinic for Children and Adolescents was then created at the Hôpital Rivière-des-Prairies, leading to much needed activities focused on youth. Indeed, sleep disorders show a high prevalence in children with a psychiatric diagnosis and the literature shows that these children have an increased sensitivity for diurnal effects of poor sleep. The main sleep-relevant issues at stake are reviewed, including the high frequency of sleep disorders in pedopsychiatric patients. Clinical challenges are described and the operating mode of the Sleep Disorders Clinic is illustrated. Sleep disorders and their effects on daytime functioning need to be assessed in children with a psychiatric diagnosis in order to generate a full clinical picture. Appropriate tools and know-how are readily available in order to achieve this goal.

  17. Are You Sleep Deprived?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Sleep Disorders Are You Sleep Deprived? Past Issues / Summer 2015 Table of Contents ... even if you think you've had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. There are ...

  18. The Sleeping Cerebellum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canto, Cathrin B; Onuki, Yoshiyuki; Bruinsma, Bastiaan; van der Werf, Ysbrand D; De Zeeuw, Chris I

    2017-01-01

    We sleep almost one-third of our lives and sleep plays an important role in critical brain functions like memory formation and consolidation. The role of sleep in cerebellar processing, however, constitutes an enigma in the field of neuroscience; we know little about cerebellar sleep-physiology,

  19. [Natural factors influencing sleep].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkowski, Marek K; Bobek-Billewicz, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Sleep is a universal phenomenon of human and animal lives, although the importance of sleep for homeo-stasis is still unknown. Sleep disturbances influence many behavioral and physiologic processes, leading to health complications including death. On the other hand, sleep improvement can beneficially influence the course of healing of many disorders and can be a prognostic of health recovery. The factors influencing sleep have different biological and chemical origins. They are classical hormones, hypothalamic releasing and inhibitory hormones, neuropeptides, peptides and others as cytokines, prostaglandins, oleamid, adenosine, nitric oxide. These factors regulate most physiologic processes and are likely elements integrating sleep with physiology and physiology with sleep in health and disorders.

  20. Sleep and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deak, Maryann C; Stickgold, Robert

    2010-07-01

    Sleep is a complex physiologic state, the importance of which has long been recognized. Lack of sleep is detrimental to humans and animals. Over the past decade, an important link between sleep and cognitive processing has been established. Sleep plays an important role in consolidation of different types of memory and contributes to insightful, inferential thinking. While the mechanism by which memories are processed in sleep remains unknown, several experimental models have been proposed. This article explores the link between sleep and cognition by reviewing (1) the effects of sleep deprivation on cognition, (2) the influence of sleep on consolidation of declarative and non-declarative memory, and (3) some proposed models of how sleep facilitates memory consolidation in sleep. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Sleep disorders in children

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Paul; Dunne, Danielle

    2007-01-01

    Sleep disorders may affect 20-30% of young children, and include excessive daytime sleepiness, problems getting to sleep (dysomnias), or undesirable phenomena during sleep (parasomnias), such as sleep terrors, and sleepwalking. Children with physical or learning disabilities are at increased risk of sleep disorders. Other risk factors include the child being the first born, having a difficult temperament or having had colic, and increased maternal responsiveness.

  2. Sleep disorders in children

    OpenAIRE

    Bruni, Oliveiero; Novelli, Luana

    2010-01-01

    Sleep disorders may affect between 20% and 30% of young children, and include problems getting to sleep (dyssomnias) or undesirable phenomena during sleep (parasomnias), such as sleep terrors and sleepwalking. Children with physical or learning disabilities are at increased risk of sleep disorders. Other risk factors include the child being the first born, having a difficult temperament or having had colic, and increased maternal responsiveness.

  3. Ostriches sleep like platypuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Lesku

    Full Text Available Mammals and birds engage in two distinct states of sleep, slow wave sleep (SWS and rapid eye movement (REM sleep. SWS is characterized by slow, high amplitude brain waves, while REM sleep is characterized by fast, low amplitude waves, known as activation, occurring with rapid eye movements and reduced muscle tone. However, monotremes (platypuses and echidnas, the most basal (or 'ancient' group of living mammals, show only a single sleep state that combines elements of SWS and REM sleep, suggesting that these states became temporally segregated in the common ancestor to marsupial and eutherian mammals. Whether sleep in basal birds resembles that of monotremes or other mammals and birds is unknown. Here, we provide the first description of brain activity during sleep in ostriches (Struthio camelus, a member of the most basal group of living birds. We found that the brain activity of sleeping ostriches is unique. Episodes of REM sleep were delineated by rapid eye movements, reduced muscle tone, and head movements, similar to those observed in other birds and mammals engaged in REM sleep; however, during REM sleep in ostriches, forebrain activity would flip between REM sleep-like activation and SWS-like slow waves, the latter reminiscent of sleep in the platypus. Moreover, the amount of REM sleep in ostriches is greater than in any other bird, just as in platypuses, which have more REM sleep than other mammals. These findings reveal a recurring sequence of steps in the evolution of sleep in which SWS and REM sleep arose from a single heterogeneous state that became temporally segregated into two distinct states. This common trajectory suggests that forebrain activation during REM sleep is an evolutionarily new feature, presumably involved in performing new sleep functions not found in more basal animals.

  4. Comparative analysis of discharges into Lake Michigan, Phase I - Southern Lake Michigan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Elcock, D.; Gasper, J. R.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-06-30

    BP Products North America Inc. (BP) owns and operates a petroleum refinery located on approximately 1,700 acres in Whiting, East Chicago, and Hammond, Indiana, near the southern tip of Lake Michigan. BP provided funding to Purdue University-Calumet Water Institute (Purdue) and Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct studies related to wastewater treatment and discharges. Purdue and Argonne are working jointly to identify and characterize technologies that BP could use to meet the previous discharge permit limits for total suspended solids (TSS) and ammonia after refinery modernization. In addition to the technology characterization work, Argonne conducted a separate project task, which is the subject of this report. In Phase I of a two-part study, Argonne estimated the current levels of discharge to southern Lake Michigan from significant point and nonpoint sources in Illinois, Indiana, and portions of Michigan. The study does not consider all of the chemicals that are discharged. Rather, it is narrowly focused on a selected group of pollutants, referred to as the 'target pollutants'. These include: TSS, ammonia, total and hexavalent chromium, mercury, vanadium, and selenium. In Phase II of the study, Argonne will expand the analysis to cover the entire Lake Michigan drainage basin.

  5. Project '80, Rural Michigan Now and in 1980; Michigan's Outdoor Recreation and Tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milstein, David N.

    Michigan is widely recognized as a traditional leader in outdoor recreation and tourism. Its location and resources provide many comparative advantages toward attracting visitors. State spending for outdoor recreation amounted to $95 million over the decade ending in 1960. State and Federal policies and programs are likely to emphasize outdoor…

  6. Adolescents' sleep behaviors and perceptions of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Heather; Price, James H; Dake, Joseph; Telljohann, Susan K

    2009-05-01

    Sleep duration affects the health of children and adolescents. Shorter sleep durations have been associated with poorer academic performance, unintentional injuries, and obesity in adolescents. This study extends our understanding of how adolescents perceive and deal with their sleep issues. General education classes were randomly selected from a convenience sample of three high schools in the Midwest. Three hundred eighty-four ninth- to twelfth-grade students (57%) completed a self-administered valid and reliable questionnaire on sleep behaviors and perceptions of sleep. Most respondents (91.9%) obtained inadequate sleep (sleep each week night. The majority indicated that not getting enough sleep had the following effects on them: being more tired during the day (93.7%), having difficulty paying attention (83.6%), lower grades (60.8%), increase in stress (59.0%), and having difficulty getting along with others (57.7%). Some students reported engaging in harmful behaviors to help them sleep: taking sleeping pills (6.0%), smoking a cigarette to relax (5.7%), and drinking alcohol in the evening (2.9%). Students who received fewer hours of sleep were significantly more likely to report being stressed (p = .02) and were more likely to be overweight (p = .04). Inadequate sleep time may be contributing to adolescent health problems such as increased stress and obesity. Findings indicate a need for sleep hygiene education for adolescents and their parents. A long-term solution to chronic sleep deprivation among high school students could include delaying high school start times, such as was done successfully in the Minneapolis Public School District.

  7. Evaporite karst of northern lower Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Michigan has three main zones of evaporite karst: collapse breccia in Late Silurian deposits of the Mackinac Straits region; breccia, collapse sinks, and mega-block collapse in Middle Devonian deposits of Northern Lower Michigan, which overlaps the preceding area; and areas of soil swallows in sinks of Mississippian deposits between Turner and Alabaster in Arenac and Iosco counties, and near Grand Rapids in Kent County. The author has focused his study on evaporite karst of the Middle Devonian deposits. The Middle Devonian depos its are the Detroit River Group: a series consisting of limestone, dolomite, shale, salt, gypsum, and anhydrite. The group occurs from subcrop, near the surface, to nearly 1400 feet deep from the northern tip of the Southern Peninsula to the south edge of the "solution front" Glacial drift is from zero to 350 feet thick. Oil and gas exploration has encountered some significant lost-circulation zones throughout the area. Drilling without fluid returns, casing-seal failures, and lost holes are strong risks in some parts of the region. Lost fluid returns near the top of the group in nearby areas indicate some karst development shortly after deposition. Large and irregular lost-circulation zones, linear and patch trends of large sink holes, and 0.25 mile wide blocks of down-dropped land in the northern Lower Peninsula of Michigan were caused by surface- and ground-water movement along faults into the Detroit River Group. Glaciation has removed some evidence of the karst area at the surface. Sinkhole development, collapse valleys, and swallows developed since retreat of the glacier reveal an active solution front in the Detroit River Group.

  8. Mortality Rates Among Arab Americans in Michigan

    OpenAIRE

    Dallo, Florence J.; Schwartz, Kendra; Ruterbusch, Julie J.; Booza, Jason; Williams, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) calculate age-specific and age-adjusted cause-specific mortality rates for Arab Americans; and (2) compare these rates with those for blacks and whites. Mortality rates were estimated using Michigan death certificate data, an Arab surname and first name list, and 2000 U.S. Census data. Age-specific rates, age-adjusted all-cause and cause-specific rates were calculated. Arab Americans (75+) had higher mortality rates than whites and blacks. Among men, ...

  9. Creating Safe and Healthy Futures: Michigan Youth Violence Prevention Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Reischl, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Youth are in the cross-fire of gun violence, and the highest rate in the nation is in Flint, Michigan. This article highlights six innovative strategies that prepare youth to solve problems at home and in their communities in peaceful ways. The Michigan Youth Violence Prevention Center (MI-YVPC) works with community groups to strengthen…

  10. Education Inputs, Student Performance and School Finance Reform in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Latika

    2009-01-01

    This paper estimates the impact of the Michigan school finance reform, "Proposal A," on education inputs and test scores. Using a difference-in-difference estimation strategy, I find that school districts in Michigan used the increase in educational spending generated through "Proposal A" to increase teacher salaries and reduce…

  11. Lake Michigan lake trout PCB model forecast post audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scenario forecasts for total PCBs in Lake Michigan (LM) lake trout were conducted using the linked LM2-Toxics and LM Food Chain models, supported by a suite of additional LM models. Efforts were conducted under the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study and the post audit represents th...

  12. Estimating Cause: Teacher Turnover and School Effectiveness in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesler, Venessa; Schneider, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is investigate issues related to within-school teacher supply and school-specific teacher turnover within the state of Michigan using state administrative data on Michigan's teaching force. This paper 1) investigates the key predictors of teacher turnover and mobility, 2) develops a profile of schools that are likely to…

  13. Unemployment Insurance Fund Insolvency and Debt in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaustein, Saul J.

    Without changes in Michigan's unemployment insurance law, the state's unemployment insurance debt will probably reach $3.8 billion by the end of 1985. Currently, Michigan's employers pay unemployment insurance tax rates that vary from 1 to 9 percent, depending upon the amount of benefits charged against their accounts. Beginning with the federal…

  14. The Sleeping Cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto, Cathrin B; Onuki, Yoshiyuki; Bruinsma, Bastiaan; van der Werf, Ysbrand D; De Zeeuw, Chris I

    2017-05-01

    We sleep almost one-third of our lives and sleep plays an important role in critical brain functions like memory formation and consolidation. The role of sleep in cerebellar processing, however, constitutes an enigma in the field of neuroscience; we know little about cerebellar sleep-physiology, cerebro-cerebellar interactions during sleep, or the contributions of sleep to cerebellum-dependent memory consolidation. Likewise, we do not understand why cerebellar malfunction can lead to changes in the sleep-wake cycle and sleep disorders. In this review, we evaluate how sleep and cerebellar processing may influence one another and highlight which scientific routes and technical approaches could be taken to uncover the mechanisms underlying these interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ultra-precision bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Wardle, F

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-precision bearings can achieve extreme accuracy of rotation, making them ideal for use in numerous applications across a variety of fields, including hard disk drives, roundness measuring machines and optical scanners. Ultraprecision Bearings provides a detailed review of the different types of bearing and their properties, as well as an analysis of the factors that influence motion error, stiffness and damping. Following an introduction to basic principles of motion error, each chapter of the book is then devoted to the basic principles and properties of a specific type of bearin

  16. Agreement Between Michigan State University and Lodge 141, Fraternal Order of Police, Michigan State University Division, July 1, 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing.

    This agreement, entered into July 1, 1974, is between the Board of Trustees of Michigan State University and Lodge 141 of the Fraternal Order of Police, Michigan State University Division. It is the intent and purpose of this agreement to assure sound and mutually beneficial working and economic relationships between the parties, to provide an…

  17. Recruitment variability of alewives in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, C.P.; Hook, T.O.; Rutherford, E.S.; Mason, D.M.; Croley, T.E.; Szalai, E.B.; Bence, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    We used a long-term series of observations on alewife Alosa pseudoharengus abundance that was based on fall bottom-trawl catches to assess the importance of various abiotic and biotic factors on alewife recruitment in Lake Michigan during 1962–2002. We first fit a basic Ricker spawner–recruit model to the lakewide biomass estimates of age-3 recruits and the corresponding spawning stock size; we then fit models for all possible combinations of the following four external variables added to the basic model: an index of salmonine predation on an alewife year-class, an index for the spring–summer water temperatures experienced by alewives during their first year in the lake, an index of the severity of the first winter experienced by alewives in the lake, and an index of lake productivity during an alewife year-class's second year in the lake. Based on an information criterion, the best model for alewife recruitment included indices of salmonine predation and spring–summer water temperatures as external variables. Our analysis corroborated the contention that a decline in alewife abundance during the 1970s and early 1980s in Lake Michigan was driven by salmonine predation. Furthermore, our findings indicated that the extraordinarily warm water temperatures during the spring and summer of 1998 probably led to a moderately high recruitment of age-3 alewives in 2001, despite abundant salmonines.

  18. Sleep from an islamic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed S BaHammam

    2011-01-01

    Sleep medicine is a relatively new scientific specialty. Sleep is an important topic in Islamic literature, and the Quran and Hadith discuss types of sleep, the importance of sleep, and good sleep practices. Islam considers sleep as one of the signs of the greatness of All?h (God) and encourages followers to explore this important sign. The Quran describes different types of sleep, and these correspond with sleep stages identified by modern science. The Quran discusses the beneficial effects ...

  19. Sleep and sleep disorders in Don Quixote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranzo, Alex; Santamaria, Joan; de Riquer, Martín

    2004-01-01

    In Don Quijote de la Mancha, Miguel de Cervantes presents Don Quixote as an amazing character of the 17th century who suffers from delusions and illusions, believing himself to be a medieval knight errant. Besides this neuropsychiatric condition, Cervantes included masterful descriptions of several sleep disorders such as insomnia, sleep deprivation, disruptive loud snoring and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. In addition, he described the occurrence of physiological, vivid dreams and habitual, post-prandial sleepiness--the siesta. Cervantes' concept of sleep as a passive state where all cerebral activities are almost absent is in conflict with his description of abnormal behaviours during sleep and vivid, fantastic dreams. His concept of sleep was shared by his contemporary, Shakespeare, and could have been influenced by the reading of the classical Spanish book of psychiatry Examen de Ingenios (1575).

  20. Roller bearing geometry design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, M.; Pinkston, B. H. W.

    1976-01-01

    A theory of kinematic stabilization of rolling cylinders is extended and applied to the design of cylindrical roller bearings. The kinematic stabilization mechanism puts a reverse skew into the rolling elements by changing the roller taper. Twelve basic bearing modification designs are identified amd modeled. Four have single transverse convex curvature in their rollers while eight have rollers which have compound transverse curvature made up of a central cylindrical band surrounded by symmetric bands with slope and transverse curvature. The bearing designs are modeled for restoring torque per unit axial displacement, contact stress capacity, and contact area including dynamic loading, misalignment sensitivity and roller proportion. Design programs are available which size the single transverse curvature roller designs for a series of roller slopes and load separations and which design the compound roller bearings for a series of slopes and transverse radii of curvature. The compound rollers are proportioned to have equal contact stresses and minimum size. Design examples are also given.

  1. DW_BEAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Subset of BEAR (Bi-Weekly Examination Analysis and Reporting) data used for financial audit remediation reporting within the Coast Guard Business Intelligence (CGBI)...

  2. Rolling bearing analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Tedric A

    2001-01-01

    One of the most well-known experts in the field brings cutting-edge research to practitioners in the new edition of this important reference. Covers the improved mathematical calculations for rolling bearing endurance developed by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Society of Lubrication and Tribology Engineers. Updated with new material on Condition-Based Maintenance, new testing methods, and new bearing materials.

  3. Gear bearing drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor); Weinberg, Brian (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.

  4. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Somogyi, Dezso; Dietle, Lannie L.

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  5. Sleep disturbances in Parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenasy, J J M

    2003-02-01

    The present article is meant to suggest an approach to the guidelines for the therapy of sleep disturbances in Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients.The factors affecting the quality of life in PD patients are depression, sleep disturbances and dependence. A large review of the literature on sleep disturbances in PD patients, provided the basis for the following classification of the sleep-arousal disturbances in PD patients. We suggest a model based on 3 steps in the treatment of sleep disturbances in PD patients. This model allowing the patient, the spouse or the caregiver a quiet sleep at night, may postpone the retirement and the institutionalization of the PD patient. I. Correct diagnosis of sleep disorders based on detailed anamnesis of the patient and of the spouse or of the caregiver. One week recording on a symptom diary (log) by the patient or the caregiver. Correct diagnosis of sleep disorders co morbidities. Selection of the most appropriate sleep test among: polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), multiple wake latency test (MWLT), Epworth Sleepiness Scale, actigraphy or video-PSG. II. The nonspecific therapeutic approach consists in: a) Checking the sleep effect on motor performance, is it beneficial, worse or neutral. b) Psycho-physical assistance. c) Dopaminergic adjustment is necessary owing to the progression of the nigrostriatal degeneration and the increased sensitivity of the terminals, which alter the normal modulator mechanisms of the motor centers in PD patients. Among the many neurotransmitters of the nigro-striatal pathway one can distinguish two with a major influence on REM and NonREM sleep. REM sleep corresponds to an increased cholinergic receptor activity and a decreased dopaminergic activity. This is the reason why REM sleep deprivation by suppressing cholinergic receptor activity ameliorates PD motor symptoms. L-Dopa and its agonists by suppressing cholinergic receptors suppress REM sleep. The permanent adjustment

  6. Ecosystem transformations of the Laurentian Great Lake Michigan by nonindigenous biological invaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuhel, Russell L; Aguilar, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Lake Michigan, a 58,000-km(2) freshwater inland sea, is large enough to have persistent basin-scale circulation yet small enough to enable development of approximately balanced budgets for water, energy, and elements including carbon and silicon. Introduction of nonindigenous species-whether through invasion, intentional stocking, or accidental transplantation-has transformed the lake's ecosystem function and habitat structure. Of the 79 nonindigenous species known to have established reproductive populations in the lake, only a few have brought considerable ecological pressure to bear. Four of these were chosen for this review to exemplify top-down (sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus), middle-out (alewife, Alosa pseudoharengus), and bottom-up (the dreissenid zebra and quagga mussels, Dreissena polymorpha and Dreissena rostriformis bugensis, respectively) transformations of Lake Michigan ecology, habitability, and ultimately physical environment. Lampreys attacked and extirpated indigenous lake trout, the top predator. Alewives outcompeted native planktivorous fish and curtailed invertebrate populations. Dreissenid mussels-especially quagga mussels, which have had a much greater impact than the preceding zebra mussels-moved ecosystem metabolism basin-wide from water column to bottom dominance and engineered structures throughout the lake. Each of these non indigenous species exerted devastating effects on commercial and sport fisheries through ecosystem structure modification.

  7. Environmental status of the Lake Michigan region. Volume 6. Zoobenthos of Lake Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozley, S.C.; Howmiller, R.P.

    1977-09-01

    This report summarizes Lake Michigan zoobenthic studies up to 1974, including reports of power-plant surveys. It describes ecologies of macroinvertebrate species and some microfauna, partly through use of data from other Great Lakes. The following are discussed: methodology of field surveys; zoobenthic indicators of pollution; zoobenthic effects on sediment-water exchanges; and numbers, biomass, and production of total macroinvertebrates. Prominent features of Lake Michigan zoobenthos include predominance of the amphipod Pontoporeia affinis, usefulness of tubificid oligochaetes in mapping environmental quality, and pronounced qualitative gradients in zoobenthos in relation to depth. Further research is needed on sampling methods, energy flow rates and pathways through benthic communities, factors limiting distribution of species near shore, and effects of macroinvertebrates on sediment chemistry and structure.

  8. Safe Sleep for Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Safe Sleep for Babies Eliminating hazards Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Page Problem Every year, there are thousands of sleep-related deaths among babies. View large image and ...

  9. Teenagers and sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000872.htm Teenagers and sleep To use the sharing features on this page, ... need. What Makes it Hard for Teens to Sleep? Several factors make it hard for teens to ...

  10. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OSA causes daytime drowsiness that can result in accidents, lost productivity and relationship problems. The National Sleep ... 30 apneas during a seven-hour sleep. In severe cases, periods of not breathing may last for ...

  11. Isolated sleep paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 103. ... Blaivas, DO, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, VA New Jersey Health Care System, Clinical Assistant ...

  12. Problems sleeping during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 156. Ibrahim S, Foldvary-Shaefer N. Sleep disorders in pregnancy: implications, evaluation, and treatment. Neurologic ...

  13. Sleep Apnea Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include being overweight and having a large neck. Losing even 10 percent of body weight can help reduce the number of times a person with sleep apnea stops breathing during sleep. African-Americans, Pacific ...

  14. Sleep and Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Kelly C; Spaeth, Andrea; Hopkins, Christina M

    2016-10-01

    Insomnia is related to an increased risk of eating disorders, while eating disorders are related to more disrupted sleep. Insomnia is also linked to poorer treatment outcomes for eating disorders. However, over the last decade, studies examining sleep and eating disorders have relied on surveys, with no objective measures of sleep for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, and only actigraphy data for binge eating disorder. Sleep disturbance is better defined for night eating syndrome, where sleep efficiency is reduced and melatonin release is delayed. Studies that include objectively measured sleep and metabolic parameters combined with psychiatric comorbidity data would help identify under what circumstances eating disorders and sleep disturbance produce an additive effect for symptom severity and for whom poor sleep would increase risk for an eating disorder. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia may be a helpful addition to treatment of those with both eating disorder and insomnia.

  15. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The National Sleep Foundation estimates that 18 million adults have obstructive sleep apnea and it is likely ... Maxillofacial Surgeon (OMS). An estimated 18-20 million adults in the US suffer from OSA. What Is ...

  16. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SM. Obstructive sleep apnea: clinical features, evaluation, and principles of management. In: Kryger M, Roth T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  17. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sleep apnea (OSA) is a serious and even life-threatening condition. The risks of undiagnosed OSA are ... sleep apnea (OSA) is a serious and even life-threatening condition. The risks of undiagnosed OSA are ...

  18. Sleeping during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sleeping During Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Sleeping During Pregnancy What's in ...

  19. Climate Drives Polar Bear Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    In their provocative analysis of northern bears (“Nuclear genomic sequences reveal that polar bears are an old and distinct bear lineage,” Reports, 20 April, p. 344), F. Hailer et al. use independent nuclear loci to show that polar bears originated during the middle Pleistocene, rather than during t...

  20. Watchable Wildlife: The Black Bear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn L. Rogers

    1992-01-01

    Black bears are the bears people most often encounter. Black bears live in forests over much of North America, unlike grizzlies that live only in Alaska, northern and western Canada, and the northern Rocky Mountains. This brochure presents the latest information on black bear life and how this species responds to an ever-increasing number of campers, hikers, and...

  1. Sleep and Metabolism: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep and its disorders are increasingly becoming important in our sleep deprived society. Sleep is intricately connected to various hormonal and metabolic processes in the body and is important in maintaining metabolic homeostasis. Research shows that sleep deprivation and sleep disorders may have profound metabolic and cardiovascular implications. Sleep deprivation, sleep disordered breathing, and circadian misalignment are believed to cause metabolic dysregulation through myriad pathways involving sympathetic overstimulation, hormonal imbalance, and subclinical inflammation. This paper reviews sleep and metabolism, and how sleep deprivation and sleep disorders may be altering human metabolism.

  2. The Functions of Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Z Assefa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is a ubiquitous component of animal life including birds and mammals. The exact function of sleep has been one of the mysteries of biology. A considerable number of theories have been put forward to explain the reason(s for the necessity of sleep. To date, while a great deal is known about what happens when animals sleep, there is no definitive comprehensive explanation as to the reason that sleep is an inevitable part of animal functioning. It is well known that sleep is a homeostatically regulated body process, and that prolonged sleep deprivation is fatal in animals. In this paper, we present some of the theories as to the functions of sleep and provide a review of some hypotheses as to the overall physiologic function of sleep. To better understand the purpose for sleeping, we review the effects of sleep deprivation on physical, neurocognitive and psychic function. A better understanding of the purpose for sleeping will be a great advance in our understanding of the nature of the animal kingdom, including our own.

  3. Treatments for Sleep Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contributing medical factors Non-drug strategies Medications Common sleep changes Many people with Alzheimer’s experience changes in ... at night. Subscribe now Non-drug treatments for sleep changes Non-drug treatments aim to improve sleep ...

  4. Sleep Talking (Somniloquy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radius (in miles): 10 25 50 Share: Essentials in Sleep Insomnia Overview & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis & Self Tests Treatment ... Sleep talking is very common. It is reported in 50% of young children. About 5% of adults are reported to talk in their sleep. It ...

  5. Sarcoptic mange in raccoons in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Scott D; Cooley, Thomas M; Murphy, Alice; Cosgrove, Melinda K; King, Betty A

    2004-04-01

    Sarcoptic mange is a cause of pruritic skin disease in domestic dogs and a wide range of wildlife species. We describe sarcoptic mange in free-ranging raccoons (Procyon lotor). Three adult raccoons from upper Wayne County, Michigan (USA), were captured, killed, and submitted for diagnostic evaluation. The animals were intensely pruritic, and two had advanced alopecic and crusting lesions over their dorsum and hind limbs. Skin scrapings and skin biopsies revealed crusting and hyperkeratotic dermatitis with high numbers of Sarcoptes scabiei adults, larvae, nymphs, and eggs. These raccoons were not otherwise debilitated, with minimal internal parasites, good body condition, and no evidence of infectious bacterial or viral diseases. Because sarcoptic mange is highly contagious and affects many species, including humans, transiently, it is important that wildlife biologists and rehabilitators include sarcoptic mange in their differential list for raccoons exhibiting pruritus and alopecia.

  6. Thermal discharge residence by Lake Michigan Salmonids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romberg, G.P.; Prepejchal, W.

    1975-01-01

    Lake Michigan salmon and trout were tagged with a thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) temperature tag to estimate their thermal exposure and residence time at a warm water discharge. Fish were collected, tagged, and released at the Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Two Rivers, Wisconsin, in the fall of 1973 and 1974. Tags were recovered during the same season, primarily from fish recaptured at Point Beach. Average uniform temperature exposure and maximum possible discharge residence time were determined. Appropriate hourly intake and discharge temperatures were averaged to calculate mean temperature exposure for the case of maximum discharge residence. Lowest discharge temperature not included within the period of maximum residence was identified to serve as a possible indicator of avoidance temperature. Mean values for the above parameters were calculated for fish species for each tagging year and are reported with the accompanying range of intake and discharge temperatures

  7. Tribology of alternative bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John; Jin, Zhongmin; Tipper, Joanne; Stone, Martin; Ingham, Eileen

    2006-12-01

    The tribological performance and biological activity of the wear debris produced has been compared for highly cross-linked polyethylene, ceramic-on-ceramic, metal-on-metal, and modified metal bearings in a series of in vitro studies from a single laboratory. The functional lifetime demand of young and active patients is 10-fold greater than the estimated functional lifetime of traditional polyethylene. There is considerable interest in using larger diameter heads in these high demand patients. Highly cross-linked polyethylene show a four-fold reduction in functional biological activity. Ceramic-on-ceramic bearings have the lowest wear rates and least reactive wear debris. The functional biological activity is 20-fold lower than with highly cross-linked polyethylene. Hence, ceramic-on-ceramic bearings address the tribological lifetime demand of highly active patients. Metal-on-metal bearings have substantially lower wear rates than highly cross-linked polyethylene and wear decreases with head diameter. Bedding in wear is also lower with reduced radial clearance. Differential hardness ceramic-on-metal bearings and the application of ceramic-like coatings reduce metal wear and ion levels.

  8. Sleep disorders in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa e Silva, Jorge Alberto

    2006-10-01

    Sleep is an active state that is critical for our physical, mental, and emotional well-being. Sleep is also important for optimal cognitive functioning, and sleep disruption results in functional impairment. Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in psychiatry. At any given time, 50% of adults are affected with 1 or more sleep problems such as difficulty in falling or staying asleep, in staying awake, or in adhering to a consistent sleep/wake schedule. Narcolepsy affects as many individuals as does multiple sclerosis or Parkinson disease. Sleep problems are especially prevalent in schizophrenia, depression, and other mental illnesses, and every year, sleep disorders, sleep deprivation, and sleepiness add billions to the national health care bill in industrialized countries. Although psychiatrists often treat patients with insomnia secondary to depression, most patients discuss their insomnia with general care physicians, making it important to provide this group with clear guidelines for the diagnosis and management of insomnia. Once the specific medical, behavioral, or psychiatric causes of the sleep problem have been identified, appropriate treatment can be undertaken. Chronic insomnia has multiple causes arising from medical disorders, psychiatric disorders, primary sleep disorders, circadian rhythm disorders, social or therapeutic use of drugs, or maladaptive behaviors. The emerging concepts of sleep neurophysiology are consistent with the cholinergic-aminergic imbalance hypothesis of mood disorders, which proposes that depression is associated with an increased ratio of central cholinergic to aminergic neurotransmission. The characteristic sleep abnormalities of depression may reflect a relative predominance of cholinergic activity. Antidepressant medications presumably reduce rapid eye movement (REM) sleep either by their anticholinergic properties or by enhancing aminergic neurotransmission. Intense and prolonged dreams often accompany abrupt withdrawal

  9. Surficial geologic map of Berrien County, Michigan, and the adjacent offshore area of Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Byron D.; Kincare, Kevin A.; O'Leary, Dennis W.; Newell, Wayne L.; Taylor, Emily M.; Williams, Van S.; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Abraham, Jared E.; Powers, Michael H.

    2017-12-13

    The surficial geologic map of Berrien County, southwestern Michigan (sheet 1), shows the distribution of glacial and postglacial deposits at the land surface and in the adjacent offshore area of Lake Michigan. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Drill-hole information correlated in cross sections provides details of typical stratigraphic sequences that compose one or more penetrated geologic map units. A new bedrock geologic map (on sheet 2) includes contours of the altitude of the eroded top of bedrock and shows the distribution of middle Paleozoic shale and carbonate units in the subcrop. A sediment thickness map (also on sheet 2) portrays the extent of as much as 150 meters of surficial materials that overlie the bedrock surface.The major physical features of the county are related principally to deposits of the last Laurentide ice sheet that advanced and then retreated back through the region from about 19,000 to 14,000 radiocarbon years before present. Glacial and postglacial deposits underlie the entire county; shale bedrock crops out only in the adjacent offshore area on the bottom of Lake Michigan. All glacial deposits and glacial meltwater deposits in Berrien County are related to the late Wisconsinan glacial advances of the Lake Michigan ice lobe and its three regional recessional moraines, which cross the county as three north-northeast-trending belts.From east to west (oldest to youngest), the three moraine belts are known as the Kalamazoo, Valparaiso, and Lake Border morainic systems. The till-ridge morainic systems (Lake Border and local Valparaiso morainic systems) consist of multiple, elongate moraine ridges separated by till plains and lake-bottom plains. Tills in ground and end moraines in Berrien County are distinguished as informal units, and are correlated with three proposed regional till units in southwestern Michigan

  10. Partial tooth gear bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

  11. Sleep and Metabolism: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Sunil; Kavuru, Mani

    2010-01-01

    Sleep and its disorders are increasingly becoming important in our sleep deprived society. Sleep is intricately connected to various hormonal and metabolic processes in the body and is important in maintaining metabolic homeostasis. Research shows that sleep deprivation and sleep disorders may have profound metabolic and cardiovascular implications. Sleep deprivation, sleep disordered breathing, and circadian misalignment are believed to cause metabolic dysregulation through myriad pathways i...

  12. Lake Michigan Fish Acoustic Data from 2011 to 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Each line in the file “Lake Michigan fish acoustic data from 2011 to 2016.csv” represents the acoustic data and estimated fish density for a single depth layer of...

  13. Michigan 2008 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the MI coasts of Lake Superior, Lake Michigan and...

  14. Pavement subgrade MR design values for Michigan's seasonal changes : appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-22

    The resilient modulus (MR) of roadbed soil plays an integral role in the design of pavement systems. Currently, the various regions of the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT) use different procedures to determine the MR values. Most of these...

  15. Lake-wide distribution of Dreissena in Lake Michigan, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Guy W.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Holuszko, Jeffrey D.

    2001-01-01

    The Great Lakes Science Center has conducted lake-wide bottom trawl surveys of the fish community in Lake Michigan each fall since 1973. These systematic surveys are performed at depths of 9 to 110 m at each of seven index sites around Lake Michigan. Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) populations have expanded to all survey locations and at a level to sufficiently contribute to the bottom trawl catches. The quagga (Dreissena bugensis), recently reported in Lake Michigan, was likely in the catches though not recognized. Dreissena spp. biomass ranged from about 0.6 to 15 kg/ha at the various sites in 1999. Dreissenid mussels were found at depths of 9 to 82 m, with their peak biomass at 27 to 46 m. The colonization of these exotic mussels has ecological implications as well as potential ramifications on the ability to sample fish consistently and effectively with bottom trawls in Lake Michigan.

  16. Willow Run Laboratories: Separating from the University of Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John

    1972-01-01

    Outlines the reasons for, and the problems involved in, separation of a research center from the University of Michigan in order to become an independent research organization contracting for private and military research. (AL)

  17. Sleep and Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew M

    Sleep is an essential component of health and well-being, with significant impacts on physical development, emotional regulation, cognitive performance, and quality of life. Along with being an integral part of the recovery and adaptive process between bouts of exercise, accumulating evidence suggests that increased sleep duration and improved sleep quality in athletes are associated with improved performance and competitive success. In addition, better sleep may reduce the risk of both injury and illness in athletes, not only optimizing health but also potentially enhancing performance through increased participation in training. Despite this, most studies have found that athletes fail to obtain the recommended amount of sleep, threatening both performance and health. Athletes face a number of obstacles that can reduce the likelihood of obtaining proper sleep, such as training and competition schedules, travel, stress, academic demands, and overtraining. In addition, athletes have been found to demonstrate poor self-assessment of their sleep duration and quality. In light of this, athletes may require more careful monitoring and intervention to identify individuals at risk and promote proper sleep to improve both performance and overall health. This review attempts to highlight the recent literature regarding sleep issues in athletes, the effects of sleep on athletic performance, and interventions to enhance proper sleep in athletes.

  18. Sleep and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Karlson, Bernt; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present chapter was to analyze whether measures of cortisol in saliva were associated with measures of sleep and to explore if divergent results were related to underlying differences in theoretic assumptions and methods. Measures of sleep quality included sleep duration, overall...... sleep quality, difficulty falling asleep, disturbed sleep, and sleep deprivation. Twenty-three papers were found to fulfill the inclusion criteria. Cortisol measures were grouped into single time points at different times during the day, deviations at different time periods during the day, reactivity...... and recovery after a standardized laboratory test, area under the curve and response to dexamethasone test. A large proportion of the studies included showed non-significant findings, which, in several cases, may be a result of low power. The most consistent results were a positive association between sleep...

  19. Sleep and psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Vivien C.; Guilleminault, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders constitute 15.4% of the disease burden in established market economies. Many psychiatric disorders are associated with sleep disturbances, and the relationship is often bidirectional. This paper reviews the prevalence of various psychiatric disorders, their clinical presentation, and their association with sleep disorders. Among the psychiatric disorders reviewed are affective disorders, psychosis, anxiety disorders (including post-traumatic stress disorder), substance abuse disorders, eating disorders, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders. The spectrum of associated sleep disorders includes insomnia, hypersomnia, nocturnal panic, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, restless legs/periodic limb movements of sleep, obstructive sleep apnea, and parasomnias. The effects on sleep of various psychotropic medications utilized to treat the above psychiatric disorders are summarized. PMID:16416705

  20. Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Group: The University of Michigan Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    2931 alhawary@umich.edu Stephanie Daignault, MS, Biostatistician, Biostatistics Core University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center NI8D11...Consortium; The Cancer Institute of New Jersey/University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ; Robert Wood Johnson Medical School...University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ; University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI; University of Wisconsin Carbone

  1. Cardiac surgeons and the quality movement: the Michigan experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, Richard L; Armenti, Frederick R; Bassett, Joseph S; Bell, Gail F; Drake, Daniel; Hanson, Eric C; Heiser, John C; Johnson, Scott H; Plasman, F B; Shannon, Francis L; Share, David; Theurer, Patty; Williams, Jaelene

    2009-01-01

    The Michigan Society of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeons created a voluntary quality collaborative with all the cardiac surgeons in the state and all hospitals doing adult cardiac surgery. Utilizing this collaborative over the last 3 years and creating a unique relationship with a payor, an approach to processes and outcomes has produced improvements in the quality of care for cardiac patients in the state of Michigan.

  2. Sleep and Sleep Problems: From Birth to 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Mond, Courtney; Mindell, Jodi A.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep is an important aspect of a child's early development and is essential to family well-being. During their first 3 years, infants and toddlers spend more than 50% of their lives sleeping. However, concerns about sleep and sleep problems are among the most common issues brought to the attention of pediatricians. Although sleep is one of the…

  3. Magnetically leviated superconducting bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Bernard R.; Lynds, Jr., Lahmer

    1993-01-01

    A magnetically levitated superconducting bearing includes a magnet (2) mounted on a shaft (12) that is rotatable around an axis of rotation and a Type II superconductor (6) supported on a stator (14) in proximity to the magnet (2). The superconductor (6) is positioned so that when it is cooled to its superconducting state in the presence of a magnetic field, it interacts with the magnet (2) to produce an attractive force that levitates the magnet (2) and supports a load on the shaft (12). The interaction between the superconductor (6) and magnet(2) also produces surface screening currents (8) that generate a repulsive force perpendicular to the load. The bearing also has means for maintaining the superconductor at a temperature below its critical temperature (16, 18). The bearing could also be constructed so the magnet (2) is supported on the stator (14) and the superconductor (6) is mounted on the shaft (12). The bearing can be operated by cooling the superconductor (6) to its superconducting state in the presence of a magnetic field.

  4. HEALTH EFFECTS OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION ON NURSES WORKING SHIFTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanojevic, Cedomirka; Simic, Svetlana; Milutinovic, Dragana

    2016-10-01

    Atypical work schedules cause reduced sleep, leading to drowsiness, fatigue, decline of cognitive performance and health problems among the members of the nursing staff. The study was aimed at reviewing current knowledge and attitudes concerning the impact of sleep disorders on health and cognitive functions among the members of the nursing staff. Sleep and Interpersonal Relations in Modern Society. The modern 24-hour society involves more and more employees (health services, police departments, public transport) in non-standard forms of work. In European Union countries, over 50% of the nursing staff work night shifts, while in the United States of America 55% of nursing staff work more than 40 hours a week, and 30-70% of nurses sleep less than six hours before their shift. Cognitive Effects of Sleep Deprivation. Sleep deprivation impairs the performance of tasks that require intensive and prolonged attention which increases the number of errors in patients care, and nurses are subject to incre- ased risk of traffic accidents. Sleep Deprivation and Health Disorders. Sleep deprived members of the nursing staff are at risk of obesity, diabetes, gastrointestinal disorders and cardiovascular disease. The risk factors for breast cancer are increased by 1.79 times. and there is a significantly higher risk for colorectal carcinoma. Too long or repeated shifts reduce the opportunity for sleep, shorten recovery time in nurses, thus endangering their safety and health as well as the quality of care and patients' safety. Bearing in mind the significance of the problerm it is necessary to conduct the surveys of sleep quality and health of nurses in the Republic of Serbia as well in order to tackle this issue which is insufficiently recognized.

  5. Sleep from an Islamic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahammam, Ahmed S

    2011-10-01

    Sleep medicine is a relatively new scientific specialty. Sleep is an important topic in Islamic literature, and the Quran and Hadith discuss types of sleep, the importance of sleep, and good sleep practices. Islam considers sleep as one of the signs of the greatness of Allνh (God) and encourages followers to explore this important sign. The Quran describes different types of sleep, and these correspond with sleep stages identified by modern science. The Quran discusses the beneficial effects of sleep and emphasizes the importance of maintaining a pattern of light and darkness. A mid-day nap is an important practice for Muslims, and the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him (pbuh) promoted naps as beneficial. In accordance with the practice and instructions of Muhammad (pbuh), Muslims have certain sleep habits and these sleep habits correspond to some of the sleep hygiene rules identified by modern science. Details during sleep include sleep position, like encouraging sleep on the right side and discouraging sleep in the prone position. Dream interpretation is an established science in the Islamic literature and Islamic scholars have made significant contributions to theories of dream interpretation. We suggest that sleep scientists examine religious literature in general and Islamic literature in particular, to understand the views, behaviors, and practices of ancient people about the sleep and sleep disorders. Such studies may help to answer some unresolved questions in sleep science or lead to new areas of inquiry.

  6. Chronic sleep reduction in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewald-Kaufmann, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Based on the results of this thesis, it can be concluded that sleep problems and chronic sleep reduction have a high impact on adolescents’ daytime functioning. Additionally, this research shows that gradual sleep extension can improve adolescents’ sleep and especially their chronic sleep reduction.

  7. Sleep from an islamic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S BaHammam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep medicine is a relatively new scientific specialty. Sleep is an important topic in Islamic literature, and the Quran and Hadith discuss types of sleep, the importance of sleep, and good sleep practices. Islam considers sleep as one of the signs of the greatness of Allβh (God and encourages followers to explore this important sign. The Quran describes different types of sleep, and these correspond with sleep stages identified by modern science. The Quran discusses the beneficial effects of sleep and emphasizes the importance of maintaining a pattern of light and darkness. A mid-day nap is an important practice for Muslims, and the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him (pbuh promoted naps as beneficial. In accordance with the practice and instructions of Muhammad (pbuh, Muslims have certain sleep habits and these sleep habits correspond to some of the sleep hygiene rules identified by modern science. Details during sleep include sleep position, like encouraging sleep on the right side and discouraging sleep in the prone position. Dream interpretation is an established science in the Islamic literature and Islamic scholars have made significant contributions to theories of dream interpretation. We suggest that sleep scientists examine religious literature in general and Islamic literature in particular, to understand the views, behaviors, and practices of ancient people about the sleep and sleep disorders. Such studies may help to answer some unresolved questions in sleep science or lead to new areas of inquiry.

  8. Genetic Dissociation of Daily Sleep and Sleep Following Thermogenetic Sleep Deprivation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowy, Christine; Moravcevic, Katarina; Yue, Zhifeng; Wan, Joy Y; Van Dongen, Hans P A; Sehgal, Amita

    2016-05-01

    Sleep rebound-the increase in sleep that follows sleep deprivation-is a hallmark of homeostatic sleep regulation that is conserved across the animal kingdom. However, both the mechanisms that underlie sleep rebound and its relationship to habitual daily sleep remain unclear. To address this, we developed an efficient thermogenetic method of inducing sleep deprivation in Drosophila that produces a substantial rebound, and applied the newly developed method to assess sleep rebound in a screen of 1,741 mutated lines. We used data generated by this screen to identify lines with reduced sleep rebound following thermogenetic sleep deprivation, and to probe the relationship between habitual sleep amount and sleep following thermogenetic sleep deprivation in Drosophila. To develop a thermogenetic method of sleep deprivation suitable for screening, we thermogenetically stimulated different populations of wake-promoting neurons labeled by Gal4 drivers. Sleep rebound following thermogenetically-induced wakefulness varies across the different sets of wake-promoting neurons that were stimulated, from very little to quite substantial. Thermogenetic activation of neurons marked by the c584-Gal4 driver produces both strong sleep loss and a substantial rebound that is more consistent within genotypes than rebound following mechanical or caffeine-induced sleep deprivation. We therefore used this driver to induce sleep deprivation in a screen of 1,741 mutagenized lines generated by the Drosophila Gene Disruption Project. Flies were subjected to 9 h of sleep deprivation during the dark period and released from sleep deprivation 3 h before lights-on. Recovery was measured over the 15 h following sleep deprivation. Following identification of lines with reduced sleep rebound, we characterized baseline sleep and sleep depth before and after sleep deprivation for these hits. We identified two lines that consistently exhibit a blunted increase in the duration and depth of sleep after

  9. Social network analysis of mating patterns in American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jennifer A; Xu, Ran; Frank, Kenneth; Draheim, Hope; Scribner, Kim T

    2015-08-01

    Nonrandom mating can structure populations and has important implications for population-level processes. Investigating how and why mating deviates from random is important for understanding evolutionary processes as well as informing conservation and management. Prior to the implementation of parentage analyses, understanding mating patterns in solitary, elusive species like bears was virtually impossible. Here, we capitalize on a long-term genetic data set collected from black bears (Ursus americanus) (N = 2422) in the Northern Lower Peninsula (NLP) of Michigan, USA. We identified mated pairs using parentage analysis and applied logistic regression (selection) models that controlled for features of the social network, to quantify the effects of individual characteristics, and spatial and population demographic factors on mating dynamics. Logistic regression models revealed that black bear mating was associated with spatial proximity of mates, male age, the time a pair had coexisted, local population density and relatedness. Mated pairs were more likely to contain older males. On average, bears tended to mate with nearby individuals to whom they were related, which does not support the existence of kin recognition in black bears. Pairwise relatedness was especially high for mated pairs containing young males. Restricted dispersal and high male turnover from intensive harvest mortality of NLP black bears are probably the underlying factors associated with younger male bears mating more often with female relatives. Our findings illustrate how harvest has the potential to disrupt the social structure of game species, which warrants further attention for conservation and management. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The effects of sleep extension on sleep and cognitive performance in adolescents with chronic sleep reduction: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewald-Kaufmann, J.F.; Oort, F.J.; Meijer, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of gradual sleep extension in adolescents with chronic sleep reduction. Outcome variables were objectively measured sleep and cognitive performance. Methods: Participants were randomly assigned to either a sleep extension group (gradual sleep extension by

  11. Mortality rates among Arab Americans in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallo, Florence J; Schwartz, Kendra; Ruterbusch, Julie J; Booza, Jason; Williams, David R

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) calculate age-specific and age-adjusted cause-specific mortality rates for Arab Americans; and (2) compare these rates with those for blacks and whites. Mortality rates were estimated using Michigan death certificate data, an Arab surname and first name list, and 2000 U.S. Census data. Age-specific rates, age-adjusted all-cause and cause-specific rates were calculated. Arab Americans (75+) had higher mortality rates than whites and blacks. Among men, all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates for Arab Americans were in the range of whites and blacks. However, Arab American men had lower mortality rates from cancer and chronic lower respiratory disease compared to both whites and blacks. Among women, Arab Americans had lower mortality rates from heart disease, cancer, stroke, and diabetes than whites and blacks. Arab Americans are growing in number. Future study should focus on designing rigorous separate analyses for this population.

  12. Actuators for Active Magnetic Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H. Maslen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The literature of active magnetic bearing (AMB technology dates back to at least 1937 when the earliest work that clearly describes an active magnetic bearing system was published by Jesse Beams [...

  13. Common Sleep Problems (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Common Sleep Problems KidsHealth / For Teens / Common Sleep Problems What's ... have emotional problems, like depression. What Happens During Sleep? You don't notice it, of course, but ...

  14. Sleep disorders in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000064.htm Sleep disorders in older adults To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Sleep disorders in older adults involve any disrupted sleep ...

  15. Healthy People 2020: Sleep Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improve health, productivity, wellness, quality of life, and safety on roads and in the workplace. Overview Poor sleep health ... adopt strategies that reduce risks to health and safety. Without sleep health education, individuals often prioritize other activities over sleep and ...

  16. [Sleep disorders and epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Ryo; Ito, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    It has been reported that patients with epilepsy often have insomnia and/or daytime sleepiness; the symptomatologic features differ in seizure types. Not only the administration of anti-epileptics, but also inappropriate sleep hygiene cause daytime sleepiness. In subjective assessment of sleepiness, we need to pay attention if it can correctly assess or not. The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in patients with epilepsy is approximately 10-30%. Sleep apnea deteriorates the seizure control because of worsen sleep condition by sleep apnea, especially in elderly patients. Some researchers report that continuous positive airway pressure was effective for seizure control. Patients with epilepsy occasionally have REM sleep behavior disorder as comorbidity. Examination using polysomnography is required for differential diagnosis.

  17. Delayed child-bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jo-Ann; Tough, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    To provide an overview of delayed child-bearing and to describe the implications for women and health care providers. Delayed child-bearing, which has increased greatly in recent decades, is associated with an increased risk of infertility, pregnancy complications, and adverse pregnancy outcome. This guideline provides information that will optimize the counselling and care of Canadian women with respect to their reproductive choices. Maternal age is the most important determinant of fertility, and obstetric and perinatal risks increase with maternal age. Many women are unaware of the success rates or limitations of assisted reproductive technology and of the increased medical risks of delayed child-bearing, including multiple births, preterm delivery, stillbirth, and Caesarean section. This guideline provides a framework to address these issues. Studies published between 2000 and August 2010 were retrieved through searches of PubMed and the Cochrane Library using appropriate key words (delayed child-bearing, deferred pregnancy, maternal age, assisted reproductive technology, infertility, and multiple births) and MeSH terms (maternal age, reproductive behaviour, fertility). The Internet was also searched using similar key words, and national and international medical specialty societies were searched for clinical practice guidelines and position statements. Data were extracted based on the aims, sample, authors, year, and results. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Women who delay child-bearing are at increased risk of infertility. Prospective parents, especially women, should know that their fecundity and fertility begin to decline significantly after 32 years of age. Prospective parents should know that assisted reproductive technologies cannot guarantee a live birth or completely

  18. Government Risk-Bearing

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    The u.s. government bulks large in the nation's financial markets. The huge volume of government-issued and -sponsored debt affects the pricing and volume ofprivate debt and, consequently, resource allocation between competing alternatives. What is often not fully appreciated is the substantial influence the federal government wields overresource allocation through its provisionofcreditandrisk-bearing services to the private economy. Because peopleand firms generally seekto avoid risk, atsomeprice they are willing to pay another party to assume the risk they would otherwise face. Insurance companies are a class of private-sector firms one commonly thinks of as providing these services. As the federal government has expanded its presence in the U.S. economy during this century, it has increasingly developed programs aimed at bearing risks that the private sector either would not take on at any price, or would take on but atapricethoughtto besogreatthatmostpotentialbeneficiarieswouldnotpurchase the coverage. To...

  19. Passive magnetic bearing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard F.

    2014-09-02

    An axial stabilizer for the rotor of a magnetic bearing provides external control of stiffness through switching in external inductances. External control also allows the stabilizer to become a part of a passive/active magnetic bearing system that requires no external source of power and no position sensor. Stabilizers for displacements transverse to the axis of rotation are provided that require only a single cylindrical Halbach array in its operation, and thus are especially suited for use in high rotation speed applications, such as flywheel energy storage systems. The elimination of the need of an inner cylindrical array solves the difficult mechanical problem of supplying support against centrifugal forces for the magnets of that array. Compensation is provided for the temperature variation of the strength of the magnetic fields of the permanent magnets in the levitating magnet arrays.

  20. Environmental status of the Lake Michigan region. Volume 3. Chemistry of Lake Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrey, M S

    1976-05-01

    The report is a synoptic review of data collected over the past twenty years on the chemistry of Lake Michigan. Changes in water quality and sediment chemistry, attributable to cultural and natural influences, are considered in relation to interacting processes and factors controlling the distribution and concentration of chemical substances within the Lake. Temperature, light, and mixing processes are among the important natural influences that affect nutrient cycling, dispersal of pollutants, and fate of materials entering the Lake. Characterization of inshore-offshore and longitudinal differences in chemical concentrations and sediment chemistry for the main body of the Lake is supplemented by discussion of specific areas such as Green Bay and Grand Traverse Bay. Residues, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, major and trace nutrients, and contaminants are described in the following context: biological essentiality and/or toxicity, sources to the Lake, concentrations in the water column and sediments, chemical forms, seasonal variations and variation with depth. A summary of existing water quality standards, statutes, and criteria applicable to Lake Michigan is appended.

  1. Environmental status of the Lake Michigan region. Volume 14. Birds of the Lake Michigan drainage basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, G.J.

    1977-07-01

    This report characterizes the bird life found in 100 counties of the four states peripheral to Lake Michigan. It discusses major habitats (the Lake Michigan shoreline, inland lakes, rivers and streams, marshes, fields and open spaces, and woodlots) and associates specific birds with habitats according to preferences for space and food. It also discusses the special attributes of state parks and lakeshores, refuges and sanctuaries, and other special areas which are attractive to avifauna. Patterns of historical occurrence and abundance, and the influence of pesticides and pollution, disease, and hunting pressure are explored to place present occurrence in a modern perspective. Migration patterns are discussed to explain increases and decreases which occur in nonresident avifauna of the Basin. The distribution and habits of birds that occur regularly in the Basin are described in an annotated list; a more complete list is presented in a table which encapsulates data for rapid and convenient reference. Separate sections deal with extinct, extirpated, and introduced species, and with endangered, threatened, and declining species.

  2. Stacked magnet superconducting bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigney, T.K. II; Saville, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    A superconducting bearing is described, comprising: a plurality of permanent magnets magnetized end-to-end and stacked side-by-side in alternating polarity, such that flux lines flow between ends of adjacent magnets; isolating means, disposed between said adjacent magnets, for reducing flux leakage between opposing sides of said adjacent magnets; and a member made of superconducting material having at least one surface in communication with said flux lines

  3. Radium bearing waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tope, W.G.; Nixon, D.A.; Smith, M.L.; Stone, T.J.; Vogel, R.A.; Schofield, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    Fernald radium bearing ore residue waste, stored within Silos 1 and 2 (K-65) and Silo 3, will be vitrified for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A comprehensive, parametric evaluation of waste form, packaging, and transportation alternatives was completed to identify the most cost-effective approach. The impacts of waste loading, waste form, regulatory requirements, NTS waste acceptance criteria, as-low-as-reasonably-achievable principles, and material handling costs were factored into the recommended approach

  4. Magnetic translator bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockney, Richard L. (Inventor); Downer, James R. (Inventor); Eisenhaure, David B. (Inventor); Hawkey, Timothy J. (Inventor); Johnson, Bruce G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A magnetic bearing system for enabling translational motion includes a carriage and a shaft for movably supporting the carriage; a first magnetic bearing fixed to one of the carriage and shaft and slidably received in a first channel of the other of the carriage and shaft. The first channel is generally U shaped with two side walls and a back wall. The magnetic bearing includes a pair of spaced magnetic pole pieces, each pole piece having a pair of electromagnetic coils mounted on poles on opposite ends of the pole piece proximate the side walls, and a third electromagnetic coil mounted on a pole of the pole piece proximate the backwall; a motion sensor for sensing translational motion along two axes and rotationally about three axes of the carriage and shaft relative to each other; and a correction circuit responsive to the sensor for generating a correction signal to drive the coils to compensate for any misalignment sensed between the carriage and the shaft.

  5. Sleep, Memory & Brain Rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Brendon O; Buzsáki, György

    2015-01-01

    Sleep occupies roughly one-third of our lives, yet the scientific community is still not entirely clear on its purpose or function. Existing data point most strongly to its role in memory and homeostasis: that sleep helps maintain basic brain functioning via a homeostatic mechanism that loosens connections between overworked synapses, and that sleep helps consolidate and re-form important memories. In this review, we will summarize these theories, but also focus on substantial new information regarding the relation of electrical brain rhythms to sleep. In particular, while REM sleep may contribute to the homeostatic weakening of overactive synapses, a prominent and transient oscillatory rhythm called "sharp-wave ripple" seems to allow for consolidation of behaviorally relevant memories across many structures of the brain. We propose that a theory of sleep involving the division of labor between two states of sleep-REM and non-REM, the latter of which has an abundance of ripple electrical activity-might allow for a fusion of the two main sleep theories. This theory then postulates that sleep performs a combination of consolidation and homeostasis that promotes optimal knowledge retention as well as optimal waking brain function.

  6. Sleep Apnea Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contributors Sponsors Sponsorship Opportunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep ...

  7. [Sleep disorders in epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotova, O V; Akarachkova, E S

    2014-01-01

    The review of the literature on sleep disorders in epilepsy over the last two decades is presented. Paroxysmal phenomena of epileptic origin, nonepileptic paroxysms, antiepileptic drugs, polypragmasia and comorbid depression may affect sleep in epilepsy.Shortening of sleep time may cause seizures, hallucinations and depression because sleep plays an important role in the regulation of excitatory and inhibitory processes in the brain both in healthy people and in patients with epilepsy. According to the literature data, drugs (short treatment courses of hypnotics) or nonpharmacological methods should be used for treatment insomnia inpatients with epilepsy.

  8. Sleep Disorders: Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Deepa

    2017-09-01

    Insomnia is the most common type of sleep disorder in the family medicine population. It is defined as a persistent difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep, or a report of nonrestorative sleep, accompanied by related daytime impairment. Insomnia is a significant public health problem because of its high prevalence and management challenges. There is increasing evidence of a strong association between insomnia and various medical and psychiatric comorbidities. Diagnosis of insomnia and treatment planning rely on a thorough sleep history to address contributing and precipitating factors as well as maladaptive behaviors resulting in poor sleep. Using a sleep diary or sleep log is more accurate than patient recall to determine sleep patterns. A sleep study is not routinely indicated for evaluation of insomnia. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is the mainstay of treatment and is a safe and effective approach. The key challenge of CBT-I is the lack of clinicians to implement it. The newer generation nonbenzodiazepines (eg, zolpidem, zaleplon) are used as first-line pharmacotherapy for chronic insomnia. Newer drugs active on targets other than the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor are now available, but clear treatment guidelines are needed. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  9. Sleep and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Pregnancy Cognitive Development parenting poor sleep Work stress Time change beds School Symptoms mental fatigue Headache mortality pain Apetite Technology Telemedicine Movies Imported Diagnostics ...

  10. Predictors of children's sleep onset and maintenance problems after road traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Lutz; Zehnder, Daniel; Jenni, Oskar G; Landolt, Markus A

    2012-01-01

    Sleep onset and maintenance problems are a frequent complaint after traumatic events in children. However, the association of traumatic experiences and disturbed sleep remains to be explained. To examine the incidence of sleep onset and maintenance problems in children after road traffic accidents and identify potential predictors of sleep onset and maintenance problems, including putative psychopathological mechanisms as well as stressors affecting the family system. In 33 children treated for injuries after road traffic accidents, sleep and measures of psychopathology were assessed 10 days, 2 months, and 6 months after hospital admission. The predictive value of four clusters of predictor variables for children's sleep onset and maintenance problems was prospectively tested by multiple regression analyses. These clusters included socio-demographic, injury- and accident-related, and psychopathological variable clusters as well as factors reflecting stressors concerning mothers and family. Children suffering from posttraumatic stress reported a prolonged subjective sleep latency. The severity of sleep onset and maintenance problems was predicted by female sex and the child's as well as mothers' posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity. Sleep onset and maintenance problems in children after trauma appear to result from a complex interaction of multiple factors. Our findings support the transactional model of sleep-wake regulation that bears implications for the development of adequate intervention strategies.

  11. Bearing for liquid metal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, R.J.; Pennell, W.E.; Wasko, J.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid metal pump bearing support comprises a series of tangentially oriented spokes that connect the bearing cylinder to the pump internals structure. The spokes may be arranged in a plurality of planes extending from the bearing cylinder to the pump internals with the spokes in one plane being arranged alternately with those in the next plane. The bearing support structure provides the pump with sufficient lateral support for the bearing structure together with the capability of accommodating differential thermal expansion without adversely affecting pump performance

  12. Effect of Daytime Exercise on Sleep Eeg and Subjective Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazawa, Y.; Kawada, T.; Kiryu, Y.

    1997-08-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of daytime physical exercise on the quality of objective and subjective sleep by examining all-night sleep EEGs. The subjects were five male students, aged 19 to 20 years, who were in the habit of performing regular daytime exercise. The sleep polygraphic parameters in this study were sleep stage time as a percentage of total sleep time (%S1, %S2, %S(3+4), %SREM, %MT), time in bed (TIB), sleep time (ST), total sleep time (TST), sleep onset latency (SOL), waking from sleep, sleep efficiency, number of awakenings, number of stage shifts, number of spindles, and percentages of α and δ waves, all of which were determined by an automatic computer analysis system. The OSA questionnaire was used to investigate subjective sleep. The five scales of the OSA used were sleepiness, sleep maintenance, worry, integrated sleep feeling, and sleep initiation. Each sleep parameter was compared in the exercise and the non-exercise groups. Two-way analysis of variance was applied using subject factor and exercise factor. The main effect of the subject was significant in all parameters and the main effect of exercise in %S(3+4), SOL and sleep efficiency, among the objective sleep parameters. The main effects of the subject, except sleepiness, were significant, as was the main effect of exercise on sleep initiation, among the subjective sleep parameters. These findings suggest that daytime exercise shortened sleep latency and prolonged slow-wave sleep, and that the subjects fell asleep more easily on exercise days. There were also significant individual differences in both the objective and subjective sleep parameters.

  13. Unihemispheric sleep and asymmetrical sleep: behavioral, neurophysiological, and functional perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascetti GG

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gian Gastone Mascetti Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy Abstract: Sleep is a behavior characterized by a typical body posture, both eyes' closure, raised sensory threshold, distinctive electrographic signs, and a marked decrease of motor activity. In addition, sleep is a periodically necessary behavior and therefore, in the majority of animals, it involves the whole brain and body. However, certain marine mammals and species of birds show a different sleep behavior, in which one cerebral hemisphere sleeps while the other is awake. In dolphins, eared seals, and manatees, unihemispheric sleep allows them to have the benefits of sleep, breathing, thermoregulation, and vigilance. In birds, antipredation vigilance is the main function of unihemispheric sleep, but in domestic chicks, it is also associated with brain lateralization or dominance in the control of behavior. Compared to bihemispheric sleep, unihemispheric sleep would mean a reduction of the time spent sleeping and of the associated recovery processes. However, the behavior and health of aquatic mammals and birds does not seem at all impaired by the reduction of sleep. The neural mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep are unknown, but assuming that the neural structures involved in sleep in cetaceans, seals, and birds are similar to those of terrestrial mammals, it is suggested that they involve the interaction of structures of the hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and brain stem. The neural mechanisms promoting wakefulness dominate one side of the brain, while those promoting sleep predominates the other side. For cetaceans, unihemispheric sleep is the only way to sleep, while in seals and birds, unihemispheric sleep events are intermingled with bihemispheric and rapid eye movement sleep events. Electroencephalogram hemispheric asymmetries are also reported during bihemispheric sleep, at awakening, and at sleep onset, as well as being associated with a use

  14. MICHIGAN/INDIANA: Siberian Snakes strike again

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Siberian snakes are showing themselves to be even more deadly than expected in killing their prey, the depolarizing resonances which would make it very difficult to accelerate polarized protons to TeV energies at accelerators such as the Tevatron, UNK, LHC, and SSC. The snake concept was proposed in the mid-1970s by Siberians Yaroslav Derbenev and Anatoly Kondratenko at Novosibirsk, but the snakes lay almost dormant until Owen Chamberlain, Ernest Courant, Alan Krisch, and the late Kent Terwilliger organized the 1985 Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) polarized beam workshop in Ann Arbor, which highlighted the need to test the concept. The idea is to rotate the spin through 180° on each turn in the ring. With such successive spin flips, the depolarizing effects seen in one turn should be cancelled by an equal and opposite perturbation on the subsequent turn. The new Cooler Ring at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility then seemed an excellent test site for these eager but untested serpents. The Michigan/lndiana/Brookhaven team led by Krisch constructed the world's first snake and found that it could easily overcome its initial enemy, the imperfection depolarizing resonances caused by ring magnet imperfections (January/February 1990, page 20). In the next few years the growing team of ''herpetologists'' showed that Siberian snakes could overcome all kinds of depolarizing resonances, including the intrinsic kind (caused by the vertical betatron oscillations which keep the beam focused) and the synchrotron resonances (caused by synchrotron oscillations in energy). The team also discovered a new type of snake that was inadvertently built into the cooling section. This socalled type-3 snake rotates the spin around the vertical direction. A full type-1 snake (such as the team's superconducting solenoid magnet) rotates the spin by 180° around the beam direction; a type-2 snake rotates the spin around the radial direction

  15. Flood of April 1975 at Williamston, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutilla, R.L.; Swallow, L.A.

    1975-01-01

    On April 18 between 5 p.m. and 12 p.m. the city of Williamston experienced an intense rain storm that caused the Red Cedar River and the many small streams in the area to overflow their banks and resulted in the most devastating flood since at least 1904. Local officials estimated a loss of \\$775,000 in property damage. Damage from flooding by the Red Cedar River was caused primarily by inundation, rather than by water moving at high velocity, as is common when many streams are flooded. During the flood of April 1975 many basements were flooded as well as the lower floors of some homes in the flood plain. Additional damage occurred in places when sewers backed up and flooded basements, and when ground water seeped through basement walls and floors—situations that affected many homes including those that were well outside of the flood plain.During the time of flooding the U.S. Geological Survey obtained aerial photography and data on a streamflow to document the disaster. This report shows on a photomosaic base map the extent of flooding along the Red Cedar River at Williamston, during the flood. It also presents data obtained at stream-gaging stations near Williamston, as well as the results of peak-flow discharge measurements made on the Red Cedar River at Michigan State Highway M-52 east of the city. Information on the magnitude of the flood can guide in making decisions pertaining to the use of flood-plains in the area. It is one of a series of reports on the April 1975 flood in the Lansing metropolitan area.

  16. Bearing construction for refrigeration compresssor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Marc G.; Nelson, Richard T.

    1988-01-01

    A hermetic refrigeration compressor has a cylinder block and a crankshaft rotatable about a vertical axis to reciprocate a piston in a cylinder on the cylinder block. A separate bearing housing is secured to the central portion of the cylinder block and extends vertically along the crankshaft, where it carries a pair of roller bearings to journal the crankshaft. The crankshaft has a radially extending flange which is journaled by a thrust-type roller bearing above the bearing housing to absorb the vertical forces on the crankshaft so that all three of the roller bearings are between the crankshaft and the bearing housing to maintain and control the close tolerances required by such bearings.

  17. 76 FR 36145 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ...: Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology, Kalamazoo, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology, has completed..., Department of Anthropology. Disposition of the human remains and associated funerary objects to the Indian...

  18. 75 FR 67998 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... objects in the possession of Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI. The... anthropologist in the Anthropology Department at Western Michigan University, studied the remains. Native...

  19. 75 FR 5105 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... objects in the possession of Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI. The... analysis. Dr. Robert Sundick, a physical anthropologist in the Anthropology Department at Western Michigan...

  20. 76 FR 28078 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ...: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, has completed an... University, Anthropology Department. Disposition of the human remains and associated funerary objects to the...

  1. 75 FR 36671 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... objects in the possession of Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI. The... funerary objects should contact LouAnn Wurst, Department of Anthropology, Western Michigan University, 1005...

  2. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Michigan. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Michigan.

  3. 77 FR 70423 - Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC; Notice of..., 2012, Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC, sole licensee (transferor) and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC (transferees) filed an application for the partial the transfer of licenses...

  4. Sleep disorders and work performance: findings from the 2008 National Sleep Foundation Sleep in America poll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Leslie M; Arnedt, J Todd; Rosekind, Mark R; Belenky, Gregory; Balkin, Thomas J; Drake, Christopher

    2011-09-01

    Chronic sleep deprivation is common among workers, and has been associated with negative work outcomes, including absenteeism and occupational accidents. The objective of the present study is to characterize reciprocal relationships between sleep and work. Specifically, we examined how sleep impacts work performance and how work affects sleep in individuals not at-risk for a sleep disorder; assessed work performance outcomes for individuals at-risk for sleep disorders, including insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and restless legs syndrome (RLS); and characterized work performance impairments in shift workers (SW) at-risk for shift work sleep disorders relative to SW and day workers. One-thousand Americans who work 30 h per week or more were asked questions about employment, work performance and sleep in the National Sleep Foundation's 2008 Sleep in America telephone poll. Long work hours were associated with shorter sleep times, and shorter sleep times were associated with more work impairments. Thirty-seven percent of respondents were classified as at-risk for any sleep disorder. These individuals had more negative work outcomes as compared with those not at-risk for a sleep disorder. Presenteeism was a significant problem for individuals with insomnia symptoms, OSA and RLS as compared with respondents not at-risk. These results suggest that long work hours may contribute to chronic sleep loss, which may in turn result in work impairment. Risk for sleep disorders substantially increases the likelihood of negative work outcomes, including occupational accidents, absenteeism and presenteeism. © 2010 European Sleep Research Society.

  5. Cyclic alternating pattern and interictal epileptiform discharges during morning sleep after sleep deprivation in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgi, Filippo Sean; Maestri, Michelangelo; Guida, Melania; Carnicelli, Luca; Caciagli, Lorenzo; Ferri, Raffaele; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Bonanni, Enrica

    2017-08-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) increases the occurrence of interictal epileptiform discharges (IED) compared to basal EEG in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In adults, EEG after SD is usually performed in the morning after SD. We aimed to evaluate whether morning sleep after SD bears additional IED-inducing effects compared with nocturnal physiological sleep, and whether changes in sleep stability (described by the cyclic alternating pattern-CAP) play a significant role. Adult patients with TLE underwent in-lab night polysomnography (n-PSG) and, within 7days from n-PSG, they underwent also a morning EEG after night SD (SD-EEG). We included only TLE patients in which both recordings showed IED. SD-EEG consisted of waking up patients at 2:00 AM and performing video EEG at 8:00 AM. For both recordings, we obtained the following markers for the first sleep cycle: IED/h (Spike Index, SI), sleep macrostructure, microstructure (NREM CAP rate; A1, A2 and A3 Indices), and SI association with CAP variables. The macrostructure of the first sleep cycle was similar in n-PSG and morning SD-EEG, whereas CAP rate and SI were significantly higher in SD-EEG. SI increase was selectively associated with CAP phases. SD increases the instability of morning recovery sleep compared with n-PSG, and particularly enhances CAP A1 phases, which are associated with the majority of IED. Thus, higher instability of morning recovery sleep may account at least in part for the increased IED yield in SD-EEG in TLE patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Biology of REM Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peever, John; Fuller, Patrick M.

    2018-01-01

    Considerable advances in our understanding of the mechanisms and functions of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep have occurred over the past decade. Much of this progress can be attributed to the development of new neuroscience tools that have enabled high-precision interrogation of brain circuitry linked with REM sleep control, in turn revealing how REM sleep mechanisms themselves impact processes such as sensorimotor function. This review is intended to update the general scientific community about the recent mechanistic, functional and conceptual developments in our current understanding of REM sleep biology and pathobiology. Specifically, this review outlines the historical origins of the discovery of REM sleep, the diversity of REM sleep expression across and within species, the potential functions of REM sleep (e.g., memory consolidation), the neural circuits that control REM sleep, and how dysfunction of REM sleep mechanisms underlie debilitating sleep disorders such as REM sleep behaviour disorder and narcolepsy. PMID:26766231

  7. Introgressive hybridization: brown bears as vectors for polar bear alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailer, Frank

    2015-03-01

    The dynamics and consequences of introgression can inform about numerous evolutionary processes. Biologists have therefore long been interested in hybridization. One challenge, however, lies in the identification of nonadmixed genotypes that can serve as a baseline for accurate quantification of admixture. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Cahill et al. (2015) analyse a genomic data set of 28 polar bears, eight brown bears and one American black bear. Polar bear alleles are found to be introgressed into brown bears not only near a previously identified admixture zone on the Alaskan Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof (ABC) Islands, but also far into the North American mainland. Elegantly contrasting admixture levels at autosomal and X chromosomal markers, Cahill and colleagues infer that male-biased dispersal has spread these introgressed alleles away from the Late Pleistocene contact zone. Compared to a previous study on the ABC Island population in which an Alaskan brown bear served as a putatively admixture-free reference, Cahill et al. (2015) utilize a newly sequenced Swedish brown bear as admixture baseline. This approach reveals that brown bears have been impacted by introgression from polar bears to a larger extent (up to 8.8% of their genome), than previously known, including the bear that had previously served as admixture baseline. No evidence for introgression of brown bear into polar bear is found, which the authors argue could be a consequence of selection. Besides adding new exciting pieces to the puzzle of polar/brown bear evolutionary history, the study by Cahill and colleagues highlights that wildlife genomics is moving from analysing single genomes towards a landscape genomics approach. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. BDNF in sleep, insomnia, and sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Karen; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Eckert, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The protein brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors involved in plasticity of neurons in several brain regions. There are numerous evidence that BDNF expression is decreased by experiencing psychological stress and that, accordingly, a lack of neurotrophic support causes major depression. Furthermore, disruption in sleep homeostatic processes results in higher stress vulnerability and is often associated with stress-related mental disorders. Recently, we reported, for the first time, a relationship between BDNF and insomnia and sleep deprivation (SD). Using a biphasic stress model as explanation approach, we discuss here the hypothesis that chronic stress might induce a deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system. In the long-term it leads to sleep disturbance and depression as well as decreased BDNF levels, whereas acute stress like SD can be used as therapeutic intervention in some insomniac or depressed patients as compensatory process to normalize BDNF levels. Indeed, partial SD (PSD) induced a fast increase in BDNF serum levels within hours after PSD which is similar to effects seen after ketamine infusion, another fast-acting antidepressant intervention, while traditional antidepressants are characterized by a major delay until treatment response as well as delayed BDNF level increase. Key messages Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of stress-related mood disorders. The interplay of stress and sleep impacts on BDNF level. Partial sleep deprivation (PSD) shows a fast action on BDNF level increase.

  9. Geology and salt deposits of the Michigan Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.S.; Gonzales, S.

    1976-07-01

    The Silurian-age Salina salt, one of the greatest deposits of bedded rock salt in the world, underlies most of the Michigan basin and parts of the Appalachian basin in Ohio. Pennsylvania, New York, and West Virginia. Interest in this salt deposit has increased in recent years because there may be one or more areas where it could be used safely as a repository for the underground storage of high-level radioactive wastes. The general geology of the Michigan basin is summarized and the major salt deposits are described in the hope that these data will be useful in determining whether there are any areas in the basin that are sufficiently promising to warrant further detailed study. Distribution of the important salt deposits in the basin is limited to the Southern Peninsula of Michigan

  10. Unihemispheric sleep and asymmetrical sleep: behavioral, neurophysiological, and functional perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascetti, Gian Gastone

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is a behavior characterized by a typical body posture, both eyes' closure, raised sensory threshold, distinctive electrographic signs, and a marked decrease of motor activity. In addition, sleep is a periodically necessary behavior and therefore, in the majority of animals, it involves the whole brain and body. However, certain marine mammals and species of birds show a different sleep behavior, in which one cerebral hemisphere sleeps while the other is awake. In dolphins, eared seals, and manatees, unihemispheric sleep allows them to have the benefits of sleep, breathing, thermoregulation, and vigilance. In birds, antipredation vigilance is the main function of unihemispheric sleep, but in domestic chicks, it is also associated with brain lateralization or dominance in the control of behavior. Compared to bihemispheric sleep, unihemispheric sleep would mean a reduction of the time spent sleeping and of the associated recovery processes. However, the behavior and health of aquatic mammals and birds does not seem at all impaired by the reduction of sleep. The neural mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep are unknown, but assuming that the neural structures involved in sleep in cetaceans, seals, and birds are similar to those of terrestrial mammals, it is suggested that they involve the interaction of structures of the hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and brain stem. The neural mechanisms promoting wakefulness dominate one side of the brain, while those promoting sleep predominates the other side. For cetaceans, unihemispheric sleep is the only way to sleep, while in seals and birds, unihemispheric sleep events are intermingled with bihemispheric and rapid eye movement sleep events. Electroencephalogram hemispheric asymmetries are also reported during bihemispheric sleep, at awakening, and at sleep onset, as well as being associated with a use-dependent process (local sleep).

  11. Schizophrenia, Sleep and Acupuncture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.P.C.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den

    2008-01-01

    This book is an introduction for professionals in Western medicine and for acupuncturists on the use of acupuncture in treatment of schizophrenia and sleep disorders. Acupuncture has long been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in mental health and sleep disorders. This book aims to build a

  12. Sleep regulation and insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Someren, E.J.W.; Cluydts, R.; Pfaff, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    For years, the subject of sleep failed to generate much interest from either the field of medicine or that of psychology - a curious fact, as a 60-year-old has spent some 20 years out of those 60 sleeping. In fact, up until the age of approximately three years, a child spends more time asleep than

  13. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Download Download the ebook for further information Obstructive sleep ... high blood pressure, heart disease and decreased libido. In addition, OSA causes daytime ...

  14. Sleep and Your Preschooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... minutes beforehand. Keep consistent playtimes and mealtimes. Avoid stimulants, such as caffeine, near bedtime. Make the bedroom quiet, cozy, and perfect for sleeping. Use the bed only for sleeping — not for playing or watching TV. Limit food and drink before bedtime. Allow your child to ...

  15. Sleep and metabolic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli, Lisa L; Guyon, Aurore; Spiegel, Karine

    2012-01-01

    Evidence for the role of sleep on metabolic and endocrine function has been reported more than four decades ago. In the past 30 years, the prevalence of obesity and diabetes has greatly increased in industrialized countries, and self-imposed sleep curtailment, now very common, is starting to be recognized as a contributing factor, alongside with increased caloric intake and decreased physical activity. Furthermore, obstructive sleep apnea, a chronic condition characterized by recurrent upper airway obstruction leading to intermittent hypoxemia and sleep fragmentation, has also become highly prevalent as a consequence of the epidemic of obesity and has been shown to contribute, in a vicious circle, to the metabolic disturbances observed in obese patients. In this article, we summarize the current data supporting the role of sleep in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and the hormones involved in the regulation of appetite. We also review the results of the epidemiologic and laboratory studies that investigated the impact of sleep duration and quality on the risk of developing diabetes and obesity, as well as the mechanisms underlying this increased risk. Finally, we discuss how obstructive sleep apnea affects glucose metabolism and the beneficial impact of its treatment, the continuous positive airway pressure. In conclusion, the data available in the literature highlight the importance of getting enough good sleep for metabolic health.

  16. Sleep and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenzhao Ding

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rising global prevalence and incidence of obesity lead to increased cardiovascular-renal complications and cancers. Epidemiological studies reported a worldwide trend towards suboptimal sleep duration and poor sleep quality in parallel with this obesity epidemic. From rodents and human models, it is highly plausible that abnormalities in sleep, both quantity and quality, impact negatively on energy metabolism. While excess dietary intake and physical inactivity are the known drivers of the obesity epidemic, promotion of healthy sleep habits has emerged as a new target to combat obesity. In this light, present review focuses on the existing literature examining the relationship between sleep physiology and energy homeostasis. Notably, sleep dysregulation perturbs the metabolic milieu via alterations in hormones such as leptin and ghrelin, eating behavior, neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous systems. In addition, shift work and trans-meridian air travel may exert a negative influence on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and trigger circadian misalignment, leading to impaired glucose tolerance and increased fat accumulation. Amassing evidence has also suggested that uncoupling of the circadian clock can increase the risk of adverse metabolic health. Given the importance of sleep in maintaining energy homeostasis and that it is potentially modifiable, promoting good sleep hygiene may create new avenues for obesity prevention and treatment.

  17. Sleep Terrors in Twins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to clarify the genetic and environmental causes of sleep terrors in childhood, reasearchers in Canada followed 390 pairs of monozygotic and dizygotic twins by assessing the frequency of sleep terrors at 18 and 30 months of age using a questionnaire administered to the biological mothers.

  18. Sleep Terrors in Twins

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-01-01

    In an attempt to clarify the genetic and environmental causes of sleep terrors in childhood, reasearchers in Canada followed 390 pairs of monozygotic and dizygotic twins by assessing the frequency of sleep terrors at 18 and 30 months of age using a questionnaire administered to the biological mothers.

  19. Obstructive sleep apnea therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekema, A.; Stegenga, B.; Wijkstra, P. J.; van der Hoeven, J. H.; Meinesz, A. F.; de Bont, L. G. M.

    In clinical practice, oral appliances are used primarily for obstructive sleep apnea patients who do not respond to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. We hypothesized that an oral appliance is not inferior to CPAP in treating obstructive sleep apnea effectively. We randomly assigned

  20. Stress, arousal, and sleep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanford, Larry D.; Suchecki, Deborah; Meerlo, Peter; Meerlo, Peter; Benca, Ruth M.; Abel, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Stress is considered to be an important cause of disrupted sleep and insomnia. However, controlled and experimental studies in rodents indicate that effects of stress on sleep-wake regulation are complex and may strongly depend on the nature of the stressor. While most stressors are associated with

  1. Adenosine and sleep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanik, G.M. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Behavioral and biochemical approaches have been used to determine the relative contribution of endogenous adenosine and adenosine receptors to the sleep-wake cycle in the rat. Adenosine concentrations in specific areas of the rat brain were not affected by 24 hours of total sleep deprivation, or by 24 or 48 hours of REM sleep deprivation. In order to assess the effect of REM sleep deprivation on adenosine A 1 receptors, 3 H-L-PIA binding was measured. The Bmax values for 3 H-L-PIA binding to membrane preparations of the cortices and corpus striata from 48 hour REM sleep-deprived animals were increased 14.8% and 23%, respectively. These increases were not maintained following the cessation of sleep deprivation and recovered within 2 hours. The results of a 96 hour REM deprivation experiment were similar to those of the 48 hour REM sleep deprivation experiment. However, these increases were not evident in similar structures taken from stress control animals, and conclusively demonstrated that the changes in 3 H-L-PIA binding resulted from REM sleep deprivation and not from stress

  2. Sleep, Exercise, and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

    The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers…

  3. Sleep deprivation and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsenga, Simon

    1992-01-01

    The association between depression and sleep disturbances is perhaps as old as makind. In view of the longstanding experience with this association it is amazing that only some 20 years ago, a few depressed patients attracted attention to the fact that Total Sleep Deprivation (TSD) had

  4. Study of Sleep Habits and Sleep Problems Among Medical Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Good quality sleep and adequate amount of sleep are important in order to have better cognitive performance and avoid health problems and psychiatric disorders. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe sleep habits and sleep problems in a population of undergraduates, interns and postgraduate students ...

  5. Shining evolutionary light on human sleep and sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Charles L; Samson, David R; Krystal, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is essential to cognitive function and health in humans, yet the ultimate reasons for sleep-i.e. 'why' sleep evolved-remain mysterious. We integrate findings from human sleep studies, the ethnographic record, and the ecology and evolution of mammalian sleep to better understand sleep along the human lineage and in the modern world. Compared to other primates, sleep in great apes has undergone substantial evolutionary change, with all great apes building a sleeping platform or 'nest'. Further evolutionary change characterizes human sleep, with humans having the shortest sleep duration, yet the highest proportion of rapid eye movement sleep among primates. These changes likely reflect that our ancestors experienced fitness benefits from being active for a greater portion of the 24-h cycle than other primates, potentially related to advantages arising from learning, socializing and defending against predators and hostile conspecifics. Perspectives from evolutionary medicine have implications for understanding sleep disorders; we consider these perspectives in the context of insomnia, narcolepsy, seasonal affective disorder, circadian rhythm disorders and sleep apnea. We also identify how human sleep today differs from sleep through most of human evolution, and the implications of these changes for global health and health disparities. More generally, our review highlights the importance of phylogenetic comparisons in understanding human health, including well-known links between sleep, cognitive performance and health in humans. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.

  6. [The NHG guideline 'Sleep problems and sleeping pills'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen-van Beek, Z.; Lucassen, P.L.; Gorgels, W.J.M.J.; Smelt, A.F.; Knuistingh Neven, A.; Bouma, M.

    2015-01-01

    - The Dutch College of General Practitioners' (NHG) guideline 'Sleep problems and sleeping pills' provides recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of the most prevalent sleep problems and for the management of chronic users of sleeping pills.- The preferred approach for sleeplessness is not

  7. Shining evolutionary light on human sleep and sleep disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Krystal, Andrew; Nunn, CL; Samson, DR; Krystal, AD

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is essential to cognitive function and health in humans, yet the ultimate reasons for sleep-i.e. 'why' sleep evolved-remain mysterious. We integrate findings from human sleep studies, the ethnographic record, and the ecology and evolution of mammalia

  8. Fast-food consumption and obesity among Michigan adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Beth; Rafferty, Ann P; Lyon-Callo, Sarah; Fussman, Christopher; Imes, Gwendoline

    2011-07-01

    Consumption of meals eaten away from home, especially from fast-food restaurants, has increased in the United States since the 1970s. The main objective of this study was to examine the frequency and characteristics of fast-food consumption among adults in Michigan and obesity prevalence. We analyzed data from 12 questions about fast-food consumption that were included on the 2005 Michigan Behavioral Risk Factor Survey, a population-based telephone survey of Michigan adults, using univariate and bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression, and compared these data with data on Michigan obesity prevalence. Approximately 80% of Michigan adults went to fast-food restaurants at least once per month and 28% went regularly (≥2 times/wk). Regular fast-food consumption was higher among younger adults (mostly men) but was not significantly associated with household income, education, race, or urbanicity (in a multivariate framework). The prevalence of obesity increased consistently with frequenting fast-food restaurants, from 24% of those going less than once a week to 33% of those going 3 or more times per week. The predominant reason for choosing fast food was convenience. Although hypothetically 68% of adults who go to fast-food restaurants would choose healthier fast-food items when available, only 16% said they ever use nutritional information when ordering. The prevalence of fast-food consumption is high in Michigan across education, income, and racial groups and is strongly associated with obesity. Making nutritional information at fast-food restaurants more readily available and easier to use may help consumers to order more healthful or lower-calorie items.

  9. Self lubricating fluid bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapich, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    The invention concerns self lubricating fluid bearings, which are used in a shaft sealed system extending two regions. These regions contain fluids, which have to be isolated. A first seal is fluid tight for the first region between the carter shaft and the shaft. The second seal is fluid tight between the carter and the shaft, it communicates with the second region. The first fluid region is the environment surrounding the shaft carter. The second fluid region is a part of a nuclear reactor which contains the cooling fluid. The shaft is conceived to drive a reactor circulating and cooling fluid [fr

  10. Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Akinci

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The circadian rhythm sleep disorders define the clinical conditions where sleep and ndash;wake rhythm is disrupted despite optimum environmental and social conditions. They occur as a result of the changes in endogenous circadian hours or non-compatibility of environmental factors or social life with endogenous circadian rhythm. The sleep and ndash;wake rhythm is disrupted continuously or in repeating phases depending on lack of balance between internal and external cycles. This condition leads to functional impairments which cause insomnia, excessive sleepiness or both in people. Application of detailed sleep anamnesis and sleep diary with actigraphy record, if possible, will be sufficient for diagnosis. The treatment aims to align endogenous circadian rhythm with environmental conditions. The purpose of this article is to review pathology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of circadian rhythm disorder. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(2: 178-189

  11. The Function of Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Barone

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of sleep can be ascertained by noting the effects of its loss, which tends to be chronic and partial, on cognition, mood, alertness, and overall health. Many theories have been put forth to explain the function of sleep in humans, including proposals based on energy conservation, ecological adaptations, neurocognitive function, neural plasticity, nervous system and physical health, and performance. Most account for only a portion of sleep behavior and few are based on strong experimental support. In this review, we present theories proposing why sleep is necessary and supporting data demonstrating the effects of inadequate sleep, with the intention of gleaning further information as to its necessity, which remains one of the most perplexing mysteries in biology.

  12. 40 CFR 81.67 - Lake Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.67 Lake Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Menominee-Escanaba (Michigan)-Marinette (Wisconsin) Interstate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Lake Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Wisconsin) and revised to consist of the territorial area...

  13. 76 FR 28068 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Cultural Items: Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI AGENCY: National Park Service... Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, that meet the definition of unassociated... funerary objects should contact Carla Sinopoli, Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor...

  14. 78 FR 45057 - Safety Zone; Alpena Area HOG Rally Fireworks, Alpena, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Alpena Area HOG Rally Fireworks, Alpena, Michigan AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... rally in Alpena, Michigan with a fireworks display. Fireworks will be launched near the end of Mason Street, South of State Avenue, approximately 50 yards west of Thunder Bay in Alpena, Michigan. The...

  15. HR diagrams derived from the Michigan Spectral Catalogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houk, N.; Fesen, R.

    1978-01-01

    The authors present some HR diagrams constructed using data from the Michigan Spectral Catalogues. Houk (1975) has been systematically reclassifying the Henry Draper stars on the MK system, from the south pole northward. Objective-prism plates, with a reciprocal dispersion of 108 A/mm, have been taken with the Michigan Curtis Schmidt telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. The spectra are classified visually from the plates, and the results are put onto IBM cards and magnetic tape from which the catalogues are produced. (Auth.)

  16. Michigan Health & Hospital Association Keystone Obstetrics: a statewide collaborative for perinatal patient safety in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Kathleen Rice; Knox, G Eric; Martin, Morgan; George, Chris; Watson, Sam R

    2011-12-01

    Preventable harm to mothers and infants during labor and birth is a significant patient safety and professional liability issue. A Michigan Health & Hospital Association Keystone Center for Patient Safety & Quality Obstetric Collaborative Project involved perinatal teams from 15 Michigan hospitals during an 11-month period in 2009. The purpose of the project was to promote safe care practices during labor and birth using the Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program (CUSP). Consistent with the CUSP model, this project's components included assessing and promoting a culture of safety; interdisciplinary team building; case review; learning from defects through multiple methods of education; team and individual coaching and peer encouragement; administrative support for the establishment of a fundamental safety infrastructure; and ongoing evaluation of care processes and outcomes. Study measures included 32 components of a perinatal patient infrastructure, 6 care processes during labor and birth, and 4 neonatal outcomes. Significant improvements were found in the safety culture (Safety Attitudes Questionnaire), the perinatal patient safety infrastructure components, and all care processes. Although the project was successful, getting buy-in from all members of the clinical team in each hospital for all of the measures was challenging at times. There was initial resistance to some of the measures and their various expected aspects of care. For example, some of the clinicians were initially reluctant to adopt the recommended standardized oxytocin protocol. Peer encouragement and unit-based feedback on progress in minimizing early elective births proved useful in many hospitals. A CUSP in obstetrics can be beneficial in improving the care of mothers and infants during labor and birth.

  17. The role of the father in child sleep disturbance: child, parent, and parent-child relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millikovsky-Ayalon, Maaian; Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Meiri, Gal

    2015-01-01

    The majority of studies on child sleep problems focus primarily on mothers, neglecting paternal influences. Guided by the transactional framework, we explored how child temperament, paternal and maternal stress, and the parent-child interactions differ between families having children with sleep disturbances and a selected comparison group. The role of paternal involvement in child caregiving as a moderator of these differences was assessed. The sample consisted of 51 children (1-3 years old) and their mothers and fathers. Data were collected during home visits, when mothers and fathers completed questionnaires and were interviewed. In addition, mother-child and father-child interactions were videotaped. Results indicate that compared to the comparison group, fathers rated children with sleep disturbances as fussier, both their mothers and fathers experienced higher levels of stress, and reported using more bedtime interactions that interfere with child's sleep-wake self-regulation. In addition, their fathers were less sensitive during father-child interaction and less involved in child caregiving. Finally, paternal involvement moderated the group differences seen in maternal stress, suggesting that high paternal involvement acted as a buffer to protect parents of children with sleep disturbances from experiencing parental stress. The important role of fathers in families having children with sleep disturbances is discussed. © 2014 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  18. Diagnostic approaches to respiratory sleep disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Riha, Renata L.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) comprises a number of breathing disturbances occurring during sleep including snoring, the obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS), central sleep apnoea (CSA) and hypoventilation syndromes. This review focuses on sleep disordered breathing and diagnostic approaches in adults, in particular clinical assessment and overnight assessment during sleep. Although diagnostic approaches to respiratory sleep disorders are reasonably straightforward, they do r...

  19. The experience of sleep in chronic fatigue syndrome: A qualitative interview study with patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotts, Zoe M; Newton, Julia L; Ellis, Jason G; Deary, Vincent

    2016-02-01

    Sleep disturbances are common in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), and one of the key symptom complaints, yet it has been neglected by previous qualitative research. The aim was to explore the specific role of sleep in patients' experience of their illness. A qualitative semi-structured interview format facilitated a detailed and open exploration of sleep, and the extent to which its management and problems were linked to the lived experience of CFS. Eleven semi-structured interviews were conducted with individuals with CFS. Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically, to explore and describe patients' experience of their sleep, and its impact on their condition. Sleep emerged as a key aspect of the illness experience, and its management and effect on daytime functioning was a central pre-occupation for all 11 participants; all of them saw sleep as playing a critical role in their illness through either maintaining or exacerbating existing symptoms. Exploration of individual experiences presented three overarching themes: (1) sleep pattern variability over illness course and from day to day; (2) effect of sleep on daytime functioning; and (3) attempts at coping and sleep management. Each patient with CFS has a unique experience of sleep. Despite the differing narratives regarding the role of sleep in CFS, all participants held the belief that sleep is a vital process for health and well-being which has had a direct bearing on the course and progression of their CFS. Also, every participant regarded their sleep as in some way 'broken' and in need of management/repair. Patients' insights demonstrate sleep-specific influences on their CFS, and the impact of disturbed sleep should be a consideration for clinical and research work. What is already known on this subject? Sleep disturbances are common in CFS, and one of the key symptom complaints, yet it has been neglected by previous qualitative research. Ontology of CFS is a matter of dispute, with models

  20. Nanoprecipitation in bearing steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, A.T.W.; Rivera-Diaz-del-Castillo, P.E.J.

    2011-01-01

    θ-phase is the main hardening species in bearing steels and appears in both martensitically and bainitically hardened microstructures. This work presents a survey of the microstrucural features accompanying nanoprecipitation in bearing steels. Nanoprecipitate structures formed in 1C-1.5Cr wt.% with additions of Cr, Mn, Mo, Si and Ni are studied. The work is combined with thermodynamic calculations and neural networks to predict the expected matrix composition, and whether this will transform martensitically or bainitically. Martensite tetragonality, composition and the amount of retained austenite are related to hardness and the type of nanoprecipitate structures in martensitic grades. The θ-phase volume fraction, the duration of the bainite to austenite transformation and the amount of retained austenite are related to hardness and a detailed quantitative description of the precipitate nanostructures. Such description includes compositional studies using energy-dispersive spectroscopy, which shows that nanoprecipitate formation takes place under paraequilibrium. Special attention is devoted to a novel two-step bainite tempering process which shows maximum hardness; we prove that this is the most effective process for incorporating solute into the precipitates, which are finer than those resulting from one-step banitic transformation processes.

  1. Superconducting bearings in flywheels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, T.A.; Campbell, A.M.; Ganney, I.; Lo, W. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Superconductivity (IRC); Twardowski, T. [International Energy Systems, Chester High Road, Neston, South Wirral (United Kingdom); Dawson, B. [British Nuclear Fuels, Capenhurst, South Wirral (United Kingdom)

    1998-05-01

    Investigations are being carried out into the use of superconducting magnetic bearings to levitate energy storage flywheels. In a planned program of work, Cambridge University are aiming to produce a practical bearing system for Pirouette(TM). The Pirouette(TM) system is designed to provide 5 kWh of recoverable energy which is currently recoverable at a rate of 5 kW (future revisions will provide up to 50 kW). IES (a British Nuclear Fuels subsidiary) the owners of the Pirouette(TM) machine have supplied Cambridge with a flywheel. This flywheel weighs >40 kg and is being levitated using an Evershed-type arrangement in which the superconductor is being used to stabilize the interaction between two magnets. To date we have demonstrated stable levitation in static and low speed tests in a rig designed for low speeds of rotation in air. A second rig which is currently under construction at BNFL will run in vacuum at speeds of up to 50 (orig.) 5 refs.

  2. Sleep and the endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Dionne; Tsai, Sheila C

    2015-07-01

    In this article, the effect of sleep and sleep disorders on endocrine function and the influence of endocrine abnormalities on sleep are discussed. Sleep disruption and its associated endocrine consequences in the critically ill patient are also reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. All about Sleep (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... day after sleeping for only 9 hours. Still, sleep is very important to kids' well-being. The link between a ... to kids not getting the sleep they need. Sleep-deprived kids can become hyper or ... still important to have a consistent bedtime, especially on school ...

  4. Are You Getting Enough Sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bliwise DL, Buxton OM, Buysse D, et al. Recommended amount of sleep for a healthy adult: a joint consensus statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society. Sleep. 2015;38(6):843–844. Features Media ...

  5. The Neuroprotective Aspects of Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene, Andy R; Masiak, Jolanta

    2015-03-01

    Sleep is an important component of human life, yet many people do not understand the relationship between the brain and the process of sleeping. Sleep has been proven to improve memory recall, regulate metabolism, and reduce mental fatigue. A minimum of 7 hours of daily sleep seems to be necessary for proper cognitive and behavioral function. The emotional and mental handicaps associated with chronic sleep loss as well as the highly hazardous situations which can be contributed to the lack of sleep is a serious concern that people need to be aware of. When one sleeps, the brain reorganizes and recharges itself, and removes toxic waste byproducts which have accumulated throughout the day. This evidence demonstrates that sleeping can clear the brain and help maintain its normal functioning. Multiple studies have been done to determine the effects of total sleep deprivation; more recently some have been conducted to show the effects of sleep restriction, which is a much more common occurrence, have the same effects as total sleep deprivation. Each phase of the sleep cycle restores and rejuvenates the brain for optimal function. When sleep is deprived, the active process of the glymphatic system does not have time to perform that function, so toxins can build up, and the effects will become apparent in cognitive abilities, behavior, and judgment. As a background for this paper we have reviewed literature and research of sleep phases, effects of sleep deprivation, and the glymphatic system of the brain and its restorative effect during the sleep cycle.

  6. Sleep Disturbances in Mood Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, Meredith E; White, Kaitlin Hanley; Benca, Ruth M

    2015-12-01

    The article provides an overview of common and differentiating self-reported and objective sleep disturbances seen in mood-disordered populations. The importance of considering sleep disturbances in the context of mood disorders is emphasized, because a large body of evidence supports the notion that sleep disturbances are a risk factor for onset, exacerbation, and relapse of mood disorders. In addition, potential mechanisms for sleep disturbance in depression, other primary sleep disorders that often occur with mood disorders, effects of antidepressant and mood-stabilizing drugs on sleep, and the adjunctive effect of treating sleep in patients with mood disorders are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Computational design of rolling bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen-Schäfer, Hung

    2016-01-01

    This book comprehensively presents the computational design of rolling bearings dealing with many interdisciplinary difficult working fields. They encompass elastohydrodynamics (EHD), Hertzian contact theory, oil-film thickness in elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL), bearing dynamics, tribology of surface textures, fatigue failure mechanisms, fatigue lifetimes of rolling bearings and lubricating greases, Weibull distribution, rotor balancing, and airborne noises (NVH) in the rolling bearings. Furthermore, the readers are provided with hands-on essential formulas based on the up-to-date DIN ISO norms and helpful examples for computational design of rolling bearings. The topics are intended for undergraduate and graduate students in mechanical and material engineering, research scientists, and practicing engineers who want to understand the interactions between these working fields and to know how to design the rolling bearings for automotive industry and many other industries.

  8. Collaboration between the University of Michigan Taubman Health Sciences library and the University of Michigan Medical School Office of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Christine; Harris, Bethany; Mahraj, Katy; Schnitzer, Anna Ercoli; Rosenzweig, Merle

    2013-01-01

    Librarians have traditionally facilitated research development resulting in grants through performing biomedical literature searches for researchers. The librarians at the Taubman Health Sciences Library of the University of Michigan have taken additional steps forward by instituting a proactive approach to assisting investigators. To accomplish this, the librarians have taken part in a collaborative effort with the University of Michigan Medical School Office of Research. Through this partnership, both units have created and adopted various techniques intended to facilitate the submission of grants, thus allowing researchers more time to conduct their primary activities.

  9. Grease lubrication in rolling bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Lugt, Piet M

    2012-01-01

    The definitive book on the science of grease lubrication for roller and needle bearings in industrial and vehicle engineering. Grease Lubrication in Rolling Bearings provides an overview of the existing knowledge on the various aspects of grease lubrication (including lubrication systems) and the state of the art models that exist today. The book reviews the physical and chemical aspects of grease lubrication, primarily directed towards lubrication of rolling bearings. The first part of the book covers grease composition, properties and rheology, including thermal

  10. Insomnia and sleep misperception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, C H; Ceklic, T; St-Hilaire, P; Desmarais, F; Pérusse, A D; Lefrançois, J; Pedneault-Drolet, M

    2014-10-01

    Sleep misperception is often observed in insomnia individuals (INS). The extent of misperception varies between different types of INS. The following paper comprised sections which will be aimed at studying the sleep EEG and compares it to subjective reports of sleep in individuals suffering from either psychophysiological insomnia or paradoxical insomnia and good sleeper controls. The EEG can be studied without any intervention (thus using the raw data) via either PSG or fine quantitative EEG analyses (power spectral analysis [PSA]), identifying EEG patterns as in the case of cyclic alternating patterns (CAPs) or by decorticating the EEG while scoring the different transient or phasic events (K-Complexes or sleep spindles). One can also act on the on-going EEG by delivering stimuli so to study their impact on cortical measures as in the case of event-related potential studies (ERPs). From the paucity of studies available using these different techniques, a general conclusion can be reached: sleep misperception is not an easy phenomenon to quantify and its clinical value is not well recognized. Still, while none of the techniques or EEG measures defined in the paper is available and/or recommended to diagnose insomnia, ERPs might be the most indicated technique to study hyperarousal and sleep quality in different types of INS. More research shall also be dedicated to EEG patterns and transient phasic events as these EEG scoring techniques can offer a unique insight of sleep misperception. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydrostatic and hybrid bearing design

    CERN Document Server

    Rowe, W B

    1983-01-01

    Hydrostatic and Hybrid Bearing Design is a 15-chapter book that focuses on the bearing design and testing. This book first describes the application of hydrostatic bearings, as well as the device pressure, flow, force, power, and temperature. Subsequent chapters discuss the load and flow rate of thrust pads; circuit design, flow control, load, and stiffness; and the basis of the design procedures and selection of tolerances. The specific types of bearings, their design, dynamics, and experimental methods and testing are also shown. This book will be very valuable to students of engineering des

  12. Michigan field artillery's 'Blackjacks' training in Latvia > National Guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles Smith, 1st Battalion, 119th Field Artillery, Michigan Army National Guard, set up the M67 GLPS for 24 years. 1st. Lt. Brice Masterson, and Sgt. 1st Class Charles Smith, 1st Battalion, 119th Field , Lithuania and the United States will participate in the exercise. The exercise takes place at Adazi Training

  13. Commentary on the Discovery of the Beautiful Style Michigan Madonna

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlobil, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 64, 3/4 (2016), s. 256-260 ISSN 0049-5123 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : gothic sculpture * Bohemian Beautiful Style * Madonna-torso * Museum Ann Arbor * Michigan ( USA ) Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  14. Timber resource of Michigan's Southern Lower Peninsula Unit, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerold T. Hahn

    1982-01-01

    The fourth inventory of the timber resource of Michigan's Southern Lower Peninsula Survey Unit shows a 12% decline in commercial forest area and a 26% gain in growing-stock volume between 1966 and 1980. Presented are highlights and statistics on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, and biomass.

  15. The changing veneer and plywood industry of Michigan and Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary R. Lindell; Lewis T. Hendricks

    1972-01-01

    Analyzes trends in the hardwood veneer and plywood industry of Michigan and Wisconsin between 1964 and 1969. In that period, red oak and hard maple replaced yellow birch as the major species used. Log supplies were adequate. Wall paneling was the major end market with doorskins next. Excess plywood producing capacity is a chronic problem.

  16. Understanding public opinion regarding transit in southeast Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report presents findings from a study on public opinion regarding transit in Southeast Michigan. The overall goals of this : study were to assess the nature of public opinion regarding regional transit and to understand its relation to socio-dem...

  17. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Iron River Quadrangle, Michigan and Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frishman, D

    1982-09-01

    No area within the Iron River 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ Quadrangle, Michigan and Wisconsin, appears to be favorable for the existence of a minimum of 100 tons of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ at a grade of 0.01 percent or better.

  18. Digital Learning Compass: Distance Education State Almanac 2017. Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Julia E.; Seaman, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This brief report uses data collected under the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Fall Enrollment survey to highlight distance education data in the state of Michigan. The sample for this analysis is comprised of all active, degree-granting…

  19. A post-Calumet shoreline along southern Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, D.K.; Thompson, T.A.; Booth, R.K.

    2007-01-01

    The southern shore of Lake Michigan is the type area for many of ancestral Lake Michigan's late Pleistocene lake phases, but coastal deposits and features of the Algonquin phase of northern Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, and Lake Superior are not recognized in the area. Isostatic rebound models suggest that Algonquin phase deposits should be 100 m or more below modern lake level. A relict shoreline, however, exists along the lakeward margin of the Calumet Beach that was erosional west of Deep River and depositional east of the river. For this post-Calumet shoreline, the elevation of basal foreshore deposits east of Deep River and the base of the scarp west of Deep River indicate a slightly westward dipping water plane that is centered at ???184 m above mean sea level. Basal foreshore elevations also indicate that lake level fell ???2 m during the development of the shoreline. The pooled mean of radiocarbon dates from the surface of the peat below post-Calumet shoreline foreshore deposits indicate that the lake transgressed over the peat at 10,560 ?? 70 years B.P. Pollen assemblages from the peat are consistent with this age. The elevation and age of the post-Calumet shoreline are similar to the Main Algonquin phase of Lake Huron. Recent isostatic rebound models do not adequately address a high-elevation Algonquin-age shoreline along the southern shore of Lake Michigan, but the Goldthwait (1908) hinge-line model does. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  20. An Interdisciplinary International Business Degree at Eastern Michigan University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, David A.

    2008-01-01

    In January 2006, the College of Business at Eastern Michigan University (EMU) instituted a cross-disciplinary program in international business (IB). Business communication is a major component of the program. Moreover, the need for business communication in other languages contributed greatly to the cross-disciplinary nature of the program. This…

  1. Importance-performance analysis: an application to Michigan's natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria Sanders; Erin White; Lori Pennington-Gray

    2001-01-01

    In the state of Michigan, the nature-based tourist is becoming an increasingly important target market for providers of natural resources. To meet the demands of this growing market segment, evaluation strategies for nature-based sites are needed to maintain and improve customer satisfaction and loyalty. Evaluation strategies that incorporate consumer input can help to...

  2. Post Audit of Lake Michigan Lake Trout PCB Model Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lake Michigan (LM) Mass Balance Study was conducted to measure and model polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other anthropogenic substances to gain a better understanding of the transport, fate, and effects of these substances within the system and to aid managers in the env...

  3. Michigan Physicians' Conference on Elder Abuse. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengstock, Mary C.; O'Brien, James G.

    The final report describes the Michigan Physicians' Conference on Elder Abuse project. The project conference had four major content areas, including: a general introduction to the problem of elder abuse; clinical symptoms of abuse; legal issues; and referral and case management techniques. Training techniques included lectures, group discussion,…

  4. Grip and Pinch Strength Norms for Michigan Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M. Phillips M.S., OTRL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to create a norm reference of current grip and pinch strength norms for working-age Michigan adults. This normative study included a convenience sample of 179 volunteers who were employees at car plants in South East Michigan or hospital sites in West Michigan. Participants’ ages ranged from between 20 and 62 years of age with a mean age of 49.15 years. There were 78 females (44% and 101 males (56%. Subjects were classified by gender and in the age categories of ages 20 to 49 years and ages 50-62 years. Grip and pinch strength norms were collected following the American Society of Hand Therapy protocol. The norms from these working adults were calculated with descriptive statistics for males and females in two age classifications: ages 20 to 49 and ages 50 to 62 years. Standard Errors (SE are better than the 1985 norms for both males and females ages 20 to 49 years. SEs are higher than the ages 20 to 49 years’ norms for the ages 50 to 62 years age categories in both males and females. These norms offer a point of comparison for clinicians to use for clients in Michigan who are ages 20 to 62 years and who have a goal to improve their grip strength. Clients’ grip and pinch strength could be compared to their age level or gender norms using the comparison for one standard deviation above, below, or at the means.

  5. Selected Collective Bargaining Agreements of Michigan Two-Year Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    Collective bargaining agreements of 19 selected Michigan two-year colleges are presented, representing contracts in effect in 1987. Contracts for the following colleges are included: Alpena Community College, Bay de Noc Community College, Gogebic Community College, Grand Rapids Junior College, Kalamazoo Valley Community College, Kellogg Community…

  6. Telecommuting for Original Cataloging at the Michigan State University Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Leah; Hyslop, Colleen

    1995-01-01

    Working conditions in library technical services departments can be a problem for catalogers in need of a quiet work environment. Based on a successful program for indexers at the National Agriculture Library, a proposal for an experimental telecommuting program for original cataloging at the Michigan State University Libraries was developed and…

  7. Environmental indices for common Michigan trees and shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary J. Brand

    1985-01-01

    Plants are indicators of environmental factors like moisture, nutrients, heat, and light. Semi-quantitative indices for these four factors were developed for 90 Michigan trees and shrubs. The indices and a tally of species present provide a simple evaluation of the environment of a forest stand and a useful management aid.

  8. The University of Michigan's Computer-Aided Engineering Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, D. E.; Olsen, Leslie A.

    1986-01-01

    Presents an overview of the Computer-Aided Engineering Network (CAEN) of the University of Michigan. Describes its arrangement of workstations, communication networks, and servers. Outlines the factors considered in hardware and software decision making. Reviews the program's impact on students. (ML)

  9. Processing United Nations Documents in the University of Michigan Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolper, Gertrude

    This guide provides detailed instructions for recording documents in the United Nations (UN) card catalog which provides access to the UN depository collection in the Harlan Hatcher Graduate Library at the University of Michigan. Procedures for handling documents when they are received include stamping, counting, and sorting into five categories:…

  10. Sleep and Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Bopparaju

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep apnea is clinically recognized as a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by recurrent apnea and/or hypopnea. Its prevalence ranges from 4% to 24%. It has been implicated as an independent risk factor for several conditions such as hypertension, stroke, arrhythmia, and myocardial infarction. Recently data has been emerging which suggests an independent association of obstructive sleep apnea with several components of the metabolic syndrome, particularly insulin resistance and abnormalities in lipid metabolism. We hereby review the salient features of the association between sleep and diabetes.

  11. Sleep-inducing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Fabio; Acosta-Peña, Eva; Venebra-Muñoz, Arturo; Murillo-Rodríguez, Eric

    2009-08-01

    Kuniomi Ishimori and Henri Piéron were the first researchers to introduce the concept and experimental evidence for a chemical factor that would presumably accumulate in the brain during waking and eventually induce sleep. This substance was named hypnotoxin. Currently, the variety of substances which have been shown to alter sleep includes peptides, cytokines, neurotransmitters and some substances of lipidic nature, many of which are well known for their involvement in other biological activities. In this chapter, we describe the sleep-inducing properties of the vasoactive intestinal peptide, prolactin, adenosine and anandamide.

  12. Unraveling the Neurobiology of Sleep and Sleep Disorders Using Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarti, L; Moscato, E H; Kayser, M S

    2017-01-01

    Sleep disorders in humans are increasingly appreciated to be not only widespread but also detrimental to multiple facets of physical and mental health. Recent work has begun to shed light on the mechanistic basis of sleep disorders like insomnia, restless legs syndrome, narcolepsy, and a host of others, but a more detailed genetic and molecular understanding of how sleep goes awry is lacking. Over the past 15 years, studies in Drosophila have yielded new insights into basic questions regarding sleep function and regulation. More recently, powerful genetic approaches in the fly have been applied toward studying primary human sleep disorders and other disease states associated with dysregulated sleep. In this review, we discuss the contribution of Drosophila to the landscape of sleep biology, examining not only fundamental advances in sleep neurobiology but also how flies have begun to inform pathological sleep states in humans. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sleep Habits and Sleep Problems in Healthy Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, C L Srinivasa; Bharti, Bhavneet; Malhi, Prahbhjot; Khadwal, Alka

    2015-07-01

    To describe the sleep patterns and problems in children aged between 12 and 36 mo of age. This cross sectional survey was collected over a span of 1 y in Advanced Pediatric Centre, PGIMER, Chandigarh and crèches of Chandigarh. Children in the age group of 12 to 36 mo were included in study. Children with chronic illness, developmental delay, seizure disorder and lack of consent were excluded. A total of 368 children were enrolled. Main outcome measures were sleep duration over 1 to 3 y of life; sleep behavior at onset, during and waking of sleep and parent reported sleep problems and their predictors. The average duration of sleep was 12.5 h (S.D = 1.9). The mean total sleep duration and mean day time sleep duration decreased, while mean night time sleep increased as the age advanced from 12 to 36 mo. Following were the frequency of sleep habits seen in the index study; bed time routine was seen only in 68(18.5 %), a regular bed time ritual was seen in 281(76.4 %), 329(89.4 %) children frequently required 0-20 min time to fall asleep, 11(3 %) parents used sleep inducing drugs. Night waking (1 to 3 times a night) was seen in 297(80.7 %) and its frequency declined with age. Parent reported sleep problems were seen in 12.8 % (47/368). Lack of co-sleeping and night waking were considered as strongest predictors of parent reported sleep problems. Toddlers' sleep duration, night waking behavior, and day time naps decrease as the age progress while night time sleep duration increases with age. Lack of co-sleeping and night waking are considered as strongest predictors of parent reported sleep problems.

  14. I sleep, because we sleep: a synthesis on the role of culture in sleep behavior research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airhihenbuwa, C O; Iwelunmor, J I; Ezepue, C J; Williams, N J; Jean-Louis, G

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesize the literature on the cultural aspects of sleep and their relevance to behavioral sleep research. A narrative synthesis of the existing literature on sleep was conducted with a focus on its biological, sociological, political, and anthropological aspects. This synthesis was guided by the PEN-3 cultural model, developed by the primary author. The findings highlight the cross-cultural contexts within which people sleep and the role of varied sleeping arrangements in influencing sleep behavior and perspectives. Furthermore, the contexts in which sleep occurs, coupled with the influence of the family, and the positive aspects of sleep helped illustrate why cultural aspects of sleep are vital for a broader understanding of sleep. The authors conclude by highlighting the need to integrate studies on the biological, sociological, and political aspects of sleep. Our examination of the literature strongly suggests that careful assessment of epidemiological and clinical sleep data should consider the cultural aspects of sleep as well as the context in which sleep occurs, the role of the family, and positive aspects of sleep. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. National Sleep Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Macedonian Malay Maltese Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swahili Swedish Thai Turkish ... Relieve Ear Pressure While Traveling for Better Sleep Learn how to keep your ears happy so you ...

  16. What Is Sleep Apnea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and cognitive and behavioral disorders. Explore this Health Topic to learn more about sleep apnea, our role in research ... apnea can be caused by a person’s physical structure or medical conditions. These include obesity, large ...

  17. Sleep Terrors (Night Terrors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... terrors or other family members Lead to safety concerns or injury Result in daytime symptoms of excessive sleepiness or problems functioning Continue beyond the teen years or start in adulthood Causes Sleep terrors ...

  18. Getting Enough Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are getting enough sleep: Do you have trouble getting up in the morning? Do you have trouble focusing? Do you sometimes fall asleep during class? If you answered yes to these questions, try using the tips above ...

  19. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral Surgeries Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Injury / Trauma Surgery Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Oral, Head and Neck Pathology TMJ and Facial Pain Wisdom Teeth Management Procedures Anesthesia Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are ...

  20. Sleep and Chronic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... regulates appetite and the expenditure of energy. 3 Depression The relationship between sleep and depression is complex. ... Promotion , Division of Population Health Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs ...

  1. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Who We ... It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Obstructive Sleep ...

  2. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... These disruptions impair your ability to reach the desired deep, restful phases of sleep, and you'll ... of memory problems, morning headaches, mood swings or feelings of depression, and a need to urinate frequently ...

  3. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also affects 2% to 3% of children. Yet, people who have OSA may not be aware they ... initiates impulses from the brain to wake the person just enough to restart the breathing process. Sleep ...

  4. Sleep after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg-Adamsen, S; Skarbye, M; Wildschiødtz, G

    1996-01-01

    .01). SWS was absent in four of the patients after operation, whereas in six patients it was within the normal range (5-20% of the night). The proportion of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep was not significantly changed after operation. There were no changes in arterial oxygen saturation on the postoperative...... compared with the preoperative night. Comparison of our results with previous studies on SWS and REM sleep disturbances after open laparotomy, suggests that the magnitude of surgery or administration of opioids, or both, may be important factors in the development of postoperative sleep disturbances.......The sleep pattern and oxygenation of 10 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were studied on the night before operation and the first night after operation. Operations were performed during general anaesthesia and postoperative analgesia was achieved without the administration...

  5. Sleep Issues and Sundowning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here What You Need to Know Online ...

  6. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... include heart attack, stroke, irregular heartbeat, high blood pressure, heart disease and decreased libido. In addition, OSA causes daytime drowsiness that can result in accidents, lost productivity and relationship problems. The National Sleep Foundation ...

  7. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about by these factors initiates impulses from the brain to wake the person just enough to restart the breathing process. Sleep apnea is generally defined as the presence of ...

  8. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Apnea (OSA) Download Download the ebook for further information Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a serious and ... that can create the necessary air passageway. The information provided here is not intended as a substitute ...

  9. Snoring and Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... performance and makes him or her a hazardous driver or equipment operator. Untreated obstructive sleep apnea increases ... self-help remedies: • Adopt a healthy and athletic lifestyle to develop good muscle tone and lose weight. • ...

  10. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that can result in accidents, lost productivity and relationship problems. The National Sleep Foundation estimates that 18 ... at several points and check for any abnormal flow of air from the nose to lungs. An ...

  11. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Who We ... can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Obstructive Sleep ...

  12. Employees with Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syndrome was often 10-15 minutes late for work every day due to amount and quality of sleep. The employer provided this employee with a half an hour flexible start time. Depending on when the employee arrived, ...

  13. [Sleep and sleep disorders in the elderly. Part 2: therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlitzer, J; Heubaum, S; Frohnhofen, H

    2014-11-01

    Sleep disorders need to be treated if they affect the quality of life, lead to functional problems in daily life or unfavorably affect self-sufficiency. The large number of sleep disorders is reflected in the number of different and varied available therapeutic procedures. The basic therapeutic procedure for any sleep disorder is the use of sleep hygiene. Sleeplessness (insomnia) is most effectively treated through behavioral therapy, with stimulus control and sleep restriction as the most effective measures, whereas pharmacotherapy is considerably less effective and has side effects. Sleep-disordered breathing is also the most common cause of hypersomnia in the elderly and is most effectively treated by nocturnal positive pressure breathing.

  14. Superconducting bearings for flywheel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2001-05-01

    A literature study on the application of superconducting bearings in energy storage flywheel systems. The physics of magnetic levitation and superconductors are presented in the first part of the report, followed by a discussion of the literature found on the applications of superconducting bearings in flywheels. (au)

  15. Superconducting bearings for flywheel applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, A.B.

    2001-01-01

    A literature study on the application of superconducting bearings in energy storage flywheel systems. The physics of magnetic levitation and superconductors are presented in the first part of the report, followed by a discussion of the literature found onthe applications of superconducting bearings...

  16. Impaired sleep and allostatic load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Alice Jessie; Dich, Nadya; Lange, Theis

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Understanding the mechanisms linking sleep impairment to morbidity and mortality is important for future prevention, but these mechanisms are far from elucidated. We aimed to determine the relation between impaired sleep, both in terms of duration and disturbed sleep, and allostatic load...... Biobank with comprehensive information on sleep duration, disturbed sleep, objective measures of an extensive range of biological risk markers, and physical conditions. Results: Long sleep (mean difference 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.13, 0.32) and disturbed sleep (0.14; 0.06, 0.22) were associated...... with higher AL as well as with high-risk levels of risk markers from the anthropometric, metabolic, and immune system. Sub-analyses suggested that the association between disturbed sleep and AL might be explained by underlying disorders. Whereas there was no association between short sleep and AL...

  17. Functions and Mechanisms of Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Zielinski

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is a complex physiological process that is regulated globally, regionally, and locally by both cellular and molecular mechanisms. It occurs to some extent in all animals, although sleep expression in lower animals may be co-extensive with rest. Sleep regulation plays an intrinsic part in many behavioral and physiological functions. Currently, all researchers agree there is no single physiological role sleep serves. Nevertheless, it is quite evident that sleep is essential for many vital functions including development, energy conservation, brain waste clearance, modulation of immune responses, cognition, performance, vigilance, disease, and psychological state. This review details the physiological processes involved in sleep regulation and the possible functions that sleep may serve. This description of the brain circuitry, cell types, and molecules involved in sleep regulation is intended to further the reader’s understanding of the functions of sleep.

  18. Sleep in trigeminal autonomic cephalagias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barløse, Mads; Lund, Nunu; Jensen, Rigmor Højland

    2014-01-01

    and eventually to more effective therapeutic regimens. This review aims to evaluate the existing literature on the subject of TACs and sleep. An association between episodic CH and distinct macrostructural sleep phases, especially the relation to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, has been described in some older...... studies but could not be confirmed in other, more recent studies. Investigations into the microstructure of sleep in these patients are lacking. Only a few case reports exist on the relation between sleep and other TACs. SUMMARY: Recent studies do not find an association between CH and REM sleep. One...... older study suggests chronic paroxysmal hemicranias may be locked to REM sleep but otherwise the relation is unknown. Reports indicate that CH and obstructive sleep apnoea are associated in some individuals but results are diverging. Single cases show improvement of CH upon treatment of sleep apnoea...

  19. Sleep as an Occupational Need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester, Nicole J; Foss, Joanne Jackson

    In the same way the human body requires food, hydration, and oxygen, it also requires sleep. Even among healthy people, the amount and quality of sleep substantially influence health and quality of life because sleep helps regulate physiological functioning. Given the impact of sleep on participation, the American Occupational Therapy Association reclassified sleep from an activity of daily living to an occupational domain. Poor sleep is a frequent medical complaint, especially among populations with neurological impairment. Occupational therapy practitioners should consider routinely screening for factors affecting their clients' sleep. By addressing such factors, as well as related routines and habits, practitioners can enhance the effectiveness of rehabilitation, promote health and well-being, and increase engagement and life quality. Practitioners should acknowledge the importance of sleep in practice, and the study of sleep should be prioritized by researchers in the field to meet client needs and establish evidence for interventions. Copyright © 2018 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  20. SLEEP APNOEA!!! : SNORING & BEYOND

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SLEEP APNOEA!!! : SNORING & BEYOND · Slide 2 · Snoring · Introduction · Identifiable causes of hypertension · Crucial areas for Snoring & Obstructive Sleep Apnea · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Epidemiology (contd.) Slide 18 · Am I at risk??? Slide 20.

  1. Sleep and anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Staner, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Sleep disturbances-particularly insomnia - are highly prevalent in anxiety disorders and complaints such as insomnia or nightmares have even been incorporated in some anxiety disorder definitions, such as generalized anxiety disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder. In the first part of this review, the relationship between sleep and anxiety is discussed in terms of adaptive response to stress. Recent studies suggested that the corticotropin-releasing hormone system and the locus ceruleus-a...

  2. Genotyping Sleep Disorders Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kripke, Daniel F.; Shadan, Farhad F.; Dawson, Arthur; Cronin, John W.; Jamil, Shazia M.; Grizas, Alexandra P.; Koziol, James A.; Kline, Lawrence E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The genetic susceptibility factors underlying sleep disorders might help us predict prognoses and responses to treatment. Several candidate polymorphisms for sleep disorders have been proposed, but there has as yet inadequate replication or validation that the candidates may be useful in the clinical setting. Methods To assess the validity of several candidate associations, we obtained saliva deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) samples and clinical information from 360 consenting research p...

  3. Autism and sleep disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Devnani, Preeti A.; Hegde, Anaita U.

    2015-01-01

    “Autism Spectrum Disorders” (ASDs) are neurodevelopment disorders and are characterized by persistent impairments in reciprocal social interaction and communication. Sleep problems in ASD, are a prominent feature that have an impact on social interaction, day to day life, academic achievement, and have been correlated with increased maternal stress and parental sleep disruption. Polysomnography studies of ASD children showed most of their abnormalities related to rapid eye movement (REM) slee...

  4. Exercise Effects on Sleep Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunao eUchida

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review focuses on the effects of exercise on sleep. In its early days, sleep research largely focused on central nervous system (CNS physiology using standardized tabulations of several sleep-specific landmark electroencephalogram (EEG waveforms. Though coarse, this method has enabled the observation and inspection of numerous uninterrupted sleep phenomena. Thus, research on the effects of exercise on sleep began, in the 1960’s, with a focus primarily on sleep EEG (CNS sleep changes. Those early studies found only small effects of exercise on sleep. More recent sleep research has explored not only CNS functioning, but somatic physiology as well. As physical exercise mostly affects somatic functions, endocrine and autonomic nervous system (ANS changes that occur during sleep should be affected by daytime exercise. Since endocrinological, metabolic and autonomic changes can be measured during sleep, it should be possible to assess exercise effects on somatic physiology in addition to CNS sleep quality, building from standard polysomnographic (PSG techniques. Incorporating measures of somatic physiology in the quantitative assessment of sleep could further our understanding of sleep's function as an auto-regulatory, global phenomenon.

  5. Sleep for Kids: Games and Puzzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and puzzles can help you learn more about sleep! Learn about sleep with this fun crossword puzzle! Test your memory and learn how to get better sleep! Find the hidden sleep words! Avoid things that ...

  6. Space Station alpha joint bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everman, Michael R.; Jones, P. Alan; Spencer, Porter A.

    1987-01-01

    Perhaps the most critical structural system aboard the Space Station is the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint which helps align the power generation system with the sun. The joint must provide structural support and controlled rotation to the outboard transverse booms as well as power and data transfer across the joint. The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint is composed of two transition sections and an integral, large diameter bearing. Alpha joint bearing design presents a particularly interesting problem because of its large size and need for high reliability, stiffness, and on orbit maintability. The discrete roller bearing developed is a novel refinement to cam follower technology. It offers thermal compensation and ease of on-orbit maintenance that are not found in conventional rolling element bearings. How the bearing design evolved is summarized. Driving requirements are reviewed, alternative concepts assessed, and the selected design is described.

  7. Flywheel Challenge: HTS Magnetic Bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werfel, F N; Floegel-Delor, U; Riedel, T; Rothfeld, R; Wippich, D; Goebel, B

    2006-01-01

    A 200 mm cylindrical engineering prototype high temperature superconducting (HTS) was designed and fabricated. Measurements show that the 17 kg PM rotor can suspend safely 1000 kg in axial direction and 470 kg radially. The rationale for the bearing performance is to stabilize a 400 kg rotor of a new compact 5 kWh/280 kW flywheel energy storage system (COM - FESS). Measurements of the magnetic bearing force, stiffness and drag-torque are presented indicated the successful targeting a milestone in the HTS bearing technology. The influence of the PM configuration and the YBCO temperature on the bearing performance was experimentally studied, providing high-force or high-stiffness behaviour. The axial stiffness 5 kN/mm at 0.5 mm displacement is the highest value of a HTS bearing we know

  8. Obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven D. Brass

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA affects millions of Americans and is estimated to be as prevalent as asthma and diabetes. Given the fact that obesity is a major risk factor for OSA, and given the current global rise in obesity, the prevalence of OSA will increase in the future. Individuals with sleep apnea are often unaware of their sleep disorder. It is usually first recognized as a problem by family members who witness the apneic episodes or is suspected by their primary care doctor because of the individual’s risk factors and symptoms. The vast majority remain undiagnosed and untreated, despite the fact that this serious disorder can have significant consequences. Individuals with untreated OSA can stop breathing hundreds of times a night during their sleep. These apneic events can lead to fragmented sleep that is of poor quality, as the brain arouses briefly in order for the body to resume breathing. Untreated, sleep apnea can have dire health consequences and can increase the risk of hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, and heart failure. OSA management has also become important in a number of comorbid neurological conditions, including epilepsy, stroke, multiple sclerosis, and headache. Diagnosis typically involves use of screening questionnaires, physical exam, and an overnight polysomnography or a portable home study. Treatment options include changes in lifestyle, positive airway pressure, surgery, and dental appliances.

  9. Sleep Paralysis and Hallucinosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Stores

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sleep paralysis is one of the many conditions of which visual hallucinations can be a part but has received relatively little attention. It can be associated with other dramatic symptoms of a psychotic nature likely to cause diagnostic uncertainty. Methods and results: These points are illustrated by the case of a young man with a severe bipolar affective disorder who independently developed terrifying visual, auditory and somatic hallucinatory episodes at sleep onset, associated with a sense of evil influence and presence. The episodes were not obviously related to his psychiatric disorder. Past diagnoses included nightmares and night terrors. Review provided no convincing evidence of various other sleep disorders nor physical conditions in which hallucinatory experiences can occur. A diagnosis of predormital isolated sleep paralysis was made and appropriate treatment recommended. Conclusions: Sleep paralysis, common in the general population, can be associated with dramatic auxiliary symptoms suggestive of a psychotic state. Less common forms are either part of the narcolepsy syndrome or (rarely they are familial in type. Interestingly, sleep paralysis (especially breathing difficulty features prominently in the folklore of various countries.

  10. Obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Matthew L; Brass, Steven D

    2011-11-29

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects millions of Americans and is estimated to be as prevalent as asthma and diabetes. Given the fact that obesity is a major risk factor for OSA, and given the current global rise in obesity, the prevalence of OSA will increase in the future. Individuals with sleep apnea are often unaware of their sleep disorder. It is usually first recognized as a problem by family members who witness the apneic episodes or is suspected by their primary care doctor because of the individual's risk factors and symptoms. The vast majority remain undiagnosed and untreated, despite the fact that this serious disorder can have significant consequences. Individuals with untreated OSA can stop breathing hundreds of times a night during their sleep. These apneic events can lead to fragmented sleep that is of poor quality, as the brain arouses briefly in order for the body to resume breathing. Untreated, sleep apnea can have dire health consequences and can increase the risk of hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, and heart failure. OSA management has also become important in a number of comorbid neurological conditions, including epilepsy, stroke, multiple sclerosis, and headache. Diagnosis typically involves use of screening questionnaires, physical exam, and an overnight polysomnography or a portable home study. Treatment options include changes in lifestyle, positive airway pressure, surgery, and dental appliances.

  11. Obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David P; Younes, Magdy K

    2012-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder characterized by repetitive collapse of the pharyngeal airway during sleep. Control of pharyngeal patency is a complex process relating primarily to basic anatomy and the activity of many pharyngeal dilator muscles. The control of these muscles is regulated by a number of processes including respiratory drive, negative pressure reflexes, and state (sleep) effects. In general, patients with OSA have an anatomically small airway the patency of which is maintained during wakefulness by reflex-driven augmented dilator muscle activation. At sleep onset, muscle activity falls, thereby compromising the upper airway. However, recent data suggest that the mechanism of OSA differs substantially among patients, with variable contributions from several physiologic characteristics including, among others: level of upper airway dilator muscle activation required to open the airway, increase in chemical drive required to recruit the pharyngeal muscles, chemical control loop gain, and arousal threshold. Thus, the cause of sleep apnea likely varies substantially between patients. Other physiologic mechanisms likely contributing to OSA pathogenesis include falling lung volume during sleep, shifts in blood volume from peripheral tissues to the neck, and airway edema. Apnea severity may progress over time, likely due to weight gain, muscle/nerve injury, aging effects on airway anatomy/collapsibility, and changes in ventilatory control stability. © 2012 American Physiological Society

  12. Alcohol and the sleeping brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colrain, Ian M; Nicholas, Christian L; Baker, Fiona C

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol acts as a sedative that interacts with several neurotransmitter systems important in the regulation of sleep. Acute administration of large amounts of alcohol prior to sleep leads to decreased sleep-onset latency and changes in sleep architecture early in the night, when blood alcohol levels are high, with subsequent disrupted, poor-quality sleep later in the night. Alcohol abuse and dependence are associated with chronic sleep disturbance, lower slow-wave sleep, and more rapid-eye-movement sleep than normal, that last long into periods of abstinence and may play a role in relapse. This chapter outlines the evidence for acute and chronic alcohol effects on sleep architecture and sleep electroencephalogram, evidence for tolerance with repeated administration, and possible underlying neurochemical mechanisms for alcohol's effects on sleep. Also discussed are sex differences as well as effects of alcohol on sleep homeostasis and circadian regulation. Evidence for the role of sleep disruption as a risk factor for developing alcohol dependence is discussed in the context of research conducted in adolescents. The utility of sleep-evoked potentials in the assessment of the effects of alcoholism on sleep and the brain and in abstinence-mediated recovery is also outlined. The chapter concludes with a series of questions that need to be answered to determine the role of sleep and sleep disturbance in the development and maintenance of problem drinking and the potential beneficial effects of the treatment of sleep disorders for maintenance of abstinence in alcoholism. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Journal bearing impedance descriptions for rotordynamic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Childs, D.W.; Moes, H.; Leeuwen, van H.J.

    1977-01-01

    Bearing impedance vectors are introduced for plain journal bearings which define the bearing reaction force components as a function of the bearing motion. Impedance descriptions are developed directly for the approximate Ocvirk (short) and Sommerfeld (long) bearing solutions. The impedance vector

  14. Obstructive sleep apnea alters sleep stage transition dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt T Bianchi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced characterization of sleep architecture, compared with routine polysomnographic metrics such as stage percentages and sleep efficiency, may improve the predictive phenotyping of fragmented sleep. One approach involves using stage transition analysis to characterize sleep continuity.We analyzed hypnograms from Sleep Heart Health Study (SHHS participants using the following stage designations: wake after sleep onset (WASO, non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep, and REM sleep. We show that individual patient hypnograms contain insufficient number of bouts to adequately describe the transition kinetics, necessitating pooling of data. We compared a control group of individuals free of medications, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, medical co-morbidities, or sleepiness (n = 374 with mild (n = 496 or severe OSA (n = 338. WASO, REM sleep, and NREM sleep bout durations exhibited multi-exponential temporal dynamics. The presence of OSA accelerated the "decay" rate of NREM and REM sleep bouts, resulting in instability manifesting as shorter bouts and increased number of stage transitions. For WASO bouts, previously attributed to a power law process, a multi-exponential decay described the data well. Simulations demonstrated that a multi-exponential process can mimic a power law distribution.OSA alters sleep architecture dynamics by decreasing the temporal stability of NREM and REM sleep bouts. Multi-exponential fitting is superior to routine mono-exponential fitting, and may thus provide improved predictive metrics of sleep continuity. However, because a single night of sleep contains insufficient transitions to characterize these dynamics, extended monitoring of sleep, probably at home, would be necessary for individualized clinical application.

  15. Sleep, noise and health: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Zaharna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is a physiologic recuperative state that may be negatively affected by factors such as psychosocial and work stress as well as external stimuli like noise. Chronic sleep loss is a common problem in today′s society, and it may have significant health repercussions such as cognitive impairment, and depressed mood, and negative effects on cardiovascular, endocrine, and immune function. This article reviews the definition of disturbed sleep versus sleep deprivation as well as the effects of noise on sleep. We review the various health effects of chronic partial sleep loss with a focus on the neuroendocrine/hormonal, cardiovascular, and mental health repercussions.

  16. Perspective on Sleep and Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A Monjan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong body of data directly interrelating sleep problems with mood disorders. There is a growing data base directly associating sleep disorders with attention and memory problems. Motor disorders, especially involving the dopaminergic system, may produce sleep problems, including a possible association between disordered sleep and nocturnal falls. Sleep disorders may be causal conditions for metabolic diseases and increased risk for morbidity and mortality. Sleep and health are directly interrelated. To further probe these issues, especially as related to the aging process, investigators need to utilize tools and concepts from genomics and epigenetics, proteomics, metabolomics, any future ...omics, molecular neuroimaging, and cognitive neuroscience.

  17. Why does sleep stop migraine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigal, Marcelo E; Hargreaves, Richard J

    2013-10-01

    The relationship between sleep and migraine headaches is complex. Changes in sleep patterns can trigger migraine attacks, and sleep disorders may be associated with increased migraine frequency. Furthermore, migraine patients and their doctors very consistently report that sleep relieves already established migraine attacks. Herein we will try to answer the question, "Why does sleep stop migraine?" Since evidence for this relationship is largely based on empirical clinical observation, we will not provide a clinical review of the association. Instead, we will focus on the pathophysiology of migraine attacks and its intersections with sleep biology.

  18. FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT FOR FORESTRY BIOFUEL STATEWIDE COLLABORATION CENTER (MICHIGAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaCourt, Donna M.; Miller, Raymond O.; Shonnard, David R.

    2012-04-24

    A team composed of scientists from Michigan State University (MSU) and Michigan Technological University (MTU) assembled to better understand, document, and improve systems for using forest-based biomass feedstocks in the production of energy products within Michigan. Work was funded by a grant (DE-EE-0000280) from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and was administered by the Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC). The goal of the project was to improve the forest feedstock supply infrastructure to sustainably provide woody biomass for biofuel production in Michigan over the long-term. Work was divided into four broad areas with associated objectives: • TASK A: Develop a Forest-Based Biomass Assessment for Michigan – Define forest-based feedstock inventory, availability, and the potential of forest-based feedstock to support state and federal renewable energy goals while maintaining current uses. • TASK B: Improve Harvesting, Processing and Transportation Systems – Identify and develop cost, energy, and carbon efficient harvesting, processing and transportation systems. • TASK C: Improve Forest Feedstock Productivity and Sustainability – Identify and develop sustainable feedstock production systems through the establishment and monitoring of a statewide network of field trials in forests and energy plantations. • TASK D: Engage Stakeholders – Increase understanding of forest biomass production systems for biofuels by a broad range of stakeholders. The goal and objectives of this research and development project were fulfilled with key model deliverables including: 1) The Forest Biomass Inventory System (Sub-task A1) of feedstock inventory and availability and, 2) The Supply Chain Model (Sub-task B2). Both models are vital to Michigan’s forest biomass industry and support forecasting delivered cost, as well as carbon and energy balance. All of these elements are important to facilitate investor, operational and policy decisions. All

  19. Delayed Sleep and Sleep Loss in University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lack, Leon C.

    1986-01-01

    A sample of 211 first-year psychology students completed a questionnaire of sleep habits and difficulities. It was discovered that Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome may be a significant problem in university student populations. (Author/JD)

  20. Ecological effects of pipeline construction through deciduous forested wetlands, Midland County, Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zellmer, S.D.; Rastorfer, J.R.; Van Dyke, G.D.

    1991-07-01

    Implementation of recent federal and state regulations promulgated to protect wetlands makes information on effects of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWs) in wetlands essential to the gas pipeline industry. This study is designed to record vegetational changes induced by the construction of a large-diameter gas pipeline through deciduous forested wetlands. Two second-growth forested wetland sites mapped as Lenawee soils, one mature and one subjected to recent selective logging, were selected in Midland County, Michigan. Changes in the adjacent forest and successional development on the ROW are being documented. Cover-class estimates are being made for understory and ROW plant species using 1 x1-m quadrats. Counts are also being made for all woody species with stems < 2 cm in diameter at breast height (dbh) in the same plots used for cover-class estimates. Individual stem diameters and species counts are being recorded for all woody understory and overstory plants with stems ≥2 cm dbh in 10 x 10-m plots. Although analyses of the data have not been completed, preliminary analyses indicate that some destruction of vegetation at the ROW forest edge may have been avoidable during pipeline construction. Rapid regrowth of many native wetland plant species on the ROW occurred because remnants of native vegetation and soil-bearing propagules of existing species survived on the ROW after pipeline construction and seeding operations. 91 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Ecological effects of pipeline construction through deciduous forested wetlands, Midland County, Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Rastorfer, J.R. (Chicago State Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences ANL/CSU Cooperative Herbarium, Chicago, IL (United States)); Van Dyke, G.D. (Trinity Christian Coll., Palos Heights, IL (United States). Dept. of Biology)

    1991-07-01

    Implementation of recent federal and state regulations promulgated to protect wetlands makes information on effects of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWs) in wetlands essential to the gas pipeline industry. This study is designed to record vegetational changes induced by the construction of a large-diameter gas pipeline through deciduous forested wetlands. Two second-growth forested wetland sites mapped as Lenawee soils, one mature and one subjected to recent selective logging, were selected in Midland County, Michigan. Changes in the adjacent forest and successional development on the ROW are being documented. Cover-class estimates are being made for understory and ROW plant species using 1 {times}1-m quadrats. Counts are also being made for all woody species with stems < 2 cm in diameter at breast height (dbh) in the same plots used for cover-class estimates. Individual stem diameters and species counts are being recorded for all woody understory and overstory plants with stems {ge}2 cm dbh in 10 {times} 10-m plots. Although analyses of the data have not been completed, preliminary analyses indicate that some destruction of vegetation at the ROW forest edge may have been avoidable during pipeline construction. Rapid regrowth of many native wetland plant species on the ROW occurred because remnants of native vegetation and soil-bearing propagules of existing species survived on the ROW after pipeline construction and seeding operations. 91 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. The Scholarly Communication Process within the University Research Corridor (Michigan State University, the University of Michigan, and Wayne State University): A Case Study in Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Timothy; Holley, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    The growth of open access publishing, the development of institutional repositories, and the availability of millions of digitized monographs and journals are rapidly changing scholarly communication. This case study looks at the current and possible uses of these tools by Michigan's three largest universities: Michigan State University, the…

  3. Sleep in Elite Athletes and Nutritional Interventions to Enhance Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Halson, Shona L.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has numerous important physiological and cognitive functions that may be particularly important to elite athletes. Recent evidence, as well as anecdotal information, suggests that athletes may experience a reduced quality and/or quantity of sleep. Sleep deprivation can have significant effects on athletic performance, especially submaximal, prolonged exercise. Compromised sleep may also influence learning, memory, cognition, pain perception, immunity and inflammation. Furthermore, chang...

  4. Decrease in monocular sleep after sleep deprivation in the domestic chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerema, AS; Riedstra, B; Strijkstra, AM

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the trade-off between sleep need and alertness, by challenging chickens to modify their monocular sleep. We sleep deprived domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus) to increase their sleep need. We found that in response to sleep deprivation the fraction of monocular sleep within sleep

  5. Complex sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang J

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Juan Wang,1,* Yan Wang,1,* Jing Feng,1,2 Bao-yuan Chen,1 Jie Cao1 1Respiratory Department of Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China; 2Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA *The first two authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Complex sleep apnea syndrome (CompSAS is a distinct form of sleep-disordered breathing characterized as central sleep apnea (CSA, and presents in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA patients during initial treatment with a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP device. The mechanisms of why CompSAS occurs are not well understood, though we have a high loop gain theory that may help to explain it. It is still controversial regarding the prevalence and the clinical significance of CompSAS. Patients with CompSAS have clinical features similar to OSA, but they do exhibit breathing patterns like CSA. In most CompSAS cases, CSA events during initial CPAP titration are transient and they may disappear after continued CPAP use for 4–8 weeks or even longer. However, the poor initial experience of CompSAS patients with CPAP may not be avoided, and nonadherence with continued therapy may often result. Treatment options like adaptive servo-ventilation are available now that may rapidly resolve the disorder and relieve the symptoms of this disease with the potential of increasing early adherence to therapy. But these approaches are associated with more expensive and complicated devices. In this review, the definition, potential plausible mechanisms, clinical characteristics, and treatment approaches of CompSAS will be summarized. Keywords: complex sleep apnea syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea, central sleep apnea, apnea threshold, continuous positive airway pressure, adaptive servo-ventilation

  6. Eastern slopes grizzly bear project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    The cumulative effects of human activities on the grizzly bears in the central Canadian Rockies are not well known. As a result, a project was initiated in 1994 to address the urgent requirement for accurate scientific information on the habitat and populations of grizzly bears in the area of the Banff National Park and Kananaskis Country. This area is probably the most heavily used and developed area where the grizzly still survives. The information gathered throughout the course of this study will be used to better protect and manage the bears and other sensitive carnivores in the region. Using telemetry, researchers are monitoring 25 grizzly bears which were radio-collared in a 22,000 square-kilometer area in the upper Bow Valley drainage of the eastern Alberta slopes. The researchers involved in the project are working with representatives from Husky Oil and Talisman Energy on the sound development of the Moose Mountain oil and gas field without adversely affecting the grizzly bear population. Information collected over seven years indicated that the grizzly bears have few and infrequent offspring. Using the information gathered so far, the location of the Moose Mountain to Jumping Pound pipeline was carefully selected, since the bears recover very slowly from high mortality, and also considering that the food and cover had already been compromised by the high number of roads, trails and other human activities in the area. The status of the population and habitat of the grizzly bear will be assessed upon the conclusion of the field research phase in 2001. Models will be updated using the data obtained during eight years and will assist in the understanding of complex variables that affect grizzly bears.

  7. EFFECT OF BEARING MACROGEOMETRY ON BEARING PERFORMANCE IN ELASTOHYDRODYNAMIC LUBRICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin GÜLLÜ

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available During manufacturing, ideal dimension and mutual positioning of machine elements proposed in project desing can be achieved only within certain range of tolerances. These tolerances, being classified in two groups, related to micro and macro geometry of machine elements, don't have to effect the functioning of these elements. So, as for all machine elements, investigation of the effects of macro and micro tolerances for journal bearings is important. In this study, we have investigated the effect of macro geometric irregularities of journal bearings on performance characteristics. In this regard, we have studied the change of bearing performance in respect to deviation from ideal circle for an elliptic shaft with small ovality rolling in circular journal bearing.

  8. The effect of aromatherapy with Rosa damascena essential oil on sleep quality in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Keyhanmehr

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Sleep disorder is one of the main problems in children. Poor sleep quality can lead to adverse effects on their growth and development. Aromatherapy is a kind of method for improving sleep. In Iranian traditional medicine, inhaling Rosa damascena has been recommended for treating sleep disorder. Due to the side effects of chemical drugs and trend to alternative medicine due to less complication, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aromatherapy with Rosa damascena essential oil on sleep quality in children. Methods: This study was an experimental before and after study that conducted in 30 children with sleep disorder. Children inhaled 5 drops of Rosa damascena essential oil on a cotton ball before sleep for 20 min (2 weeks. Before and after intervention, BEARS questionnaire was asked. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for comparisons by SPSS software. Results: The results of this study showed that resistance to sleep, difficulty waking in the morning, nightmare and waking up during the night in children decreased (p

  9. Neurobiology of Sleep and Sleep Treatment Response in PTSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    conducted in PTSD samples, these sleep measurement methods do not allow the identification of neurobio - logical underpinnings of trauma-related...vided valuable insights into the potential neurobio - logical underpinnings of altered REM and NREM sleep mechanisms following stress exposure PTSD...nightmare patients often report improvements In sleep quality, feeling more rested upon awakening and having more davtime energy , and reduction in

  10. Sleep-dependent memory consolidation in patients with sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolli, Carlo; Mazzetti, Michela; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    Sleep can improve the off-line memory consolidation of new items of declarative and non-declarative information in healthy subjects, whereas acute sleep loss, as well as sleep restriction and fragmentation, impair consolidation. This suggests that, by modifying the amount and/or architecture of sleep, chronic sleep disorders may also lead to a lower gain in off-line consolidation, which in turn may be responsible for the varying levels of impaired performance at memory tasks usually observed in sleep-disordered patients. The experimental studies conducted to date have shown specific impairments of sleep-dependent consolidation overall for verbal and visual declarative information in patients with primary insomnia, for verbal declarative information in patients with obstructive sleep apnoeas, and for visual procedural skills in patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy. These findings corroborate the hypothesis that impaired consolidation is a consequence of the chronically altered organization of sleep. Moreover, they raise several novel questions as to: a) the reversibility of consolidation impairment in the case of effective treatment, b) the possible negative influence of altered prior sleep also on the encoding of new information, and c) the relationships between altered sleep and memory impairment in patients with other (medical, psychiatric or neurological) diseases associated with quantitative and/or qualitative changes of sleep architecture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-contacting "snubber bearing" for passive magnetic bearing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard F

    2017-08-22

    A new non-contacting magnetic "snubber" bearing is provided for application to rotating systems such as vehicular electromechanical battery systems subject to frequent accelerations. The design is such that in the equilibrium position the drag force of the snubber is very small (milliwatts). However in a typical case, if the rotor is displaced by as little as 2 millimeters a large restoring force is generated without any physical contact between the stationary and rotating parts of the snubber bearing.

  12. Bears, Big and Little. Young Discovery Library Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Pierre

    This book is written for children 5 through 10. Part of a series designed to develop their curiosity, fascinate them and educate them, this volume describes: (1) the eight species of bears, including black bear, brown bear, grizzly bear, spectacled bear, sun bear, sloth bear, polar bear, and giant panda; (2) geographical habitats of bears; (3)…

  13. Water resources of the Flint area, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiitala, Sulo Werner; Vanlier, K.E.; Krieger, Robert A.

    1964-01-01

    sand and gravel also fill some of the valleys in the bedrock surface and yield moderate to large supplies of water. Production from public supply wells tapping the drift aquifers in the area ranges from about 50 to 1,200 gpm. The water from the drift aquifer is hard or very hard and commonly contains objectionable amounts of iron.The Saginaw formation is a source of water to wells supplying some of the small communities and industries in the county. The Saginaw, which is the uppermost bedrock formation in the area, underlies most of the county. It is composed of layers of sandstone, shale, and limestone and some beds of coal. The formation is composed principally of sandstone in some areas of the county, and shale in others. Production from wells tapping the Saginaw ranges from a few to about 500 gpm. The water produced is generally moderately hard or hard and commonly contains objectionable amounts of chloride. The quality of the water limits its development for water supply. Overdrafts from the Saginaw result in a lowering of the piezometric surface and commonly cause an upward migration of water high in chloride.The Michigan and Marshall formations are generally not sources of fresh water where they are overlain by the Saginaw formation. In the southern and eastern parts of the county where they are overlain by glacial deposits, they are a source of water of good quality. The quantity of water obtainable from these formations is not fully known. However, the Marshall may be a source of large supplies of water in the southeastern part of the county.An ample supply of water is available in lakes, ponds, and streams in the metropolitan area of Flint to meet requirements for domestic, sanitary, and firefighting use in civil defense emergencies. The extent of emergency use of water from these sources would depend upon the pumping, distribution, and treatment facilities available. Enough private industrial and commercial, and public wells are present in the area normally

  14. Sleep in High Stress Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn-Evans, Erin

    2014-01-01

    High stress occupations are associated with sleep restriction, circadian misalignment and demanding workload. This presentation will provide an overview of sleep duration, circadian misalignment and fatigue countermeasures and performance outcomes during spaceflight and commercial aviation.

  15. Sleep Tips for Sjogren's Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sjögren’s Patients.” Dr. Fisher reminds patients that adequate sleep is especially important for those with Sjögren’s syndrome, saying that sleep deprivation exacerbates daytime fatigue and can affect the ...

  16. Functional neuroimaging of sleep disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Chun; Zhao Jun; Guan Yihui

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disorders may affect the health and normal life of human badly. However, the pathophysiology underlying adult sleep disorders is still unclear. Functional neuroimaging can be used to investigate whether sleep disorders are associated with specific changes in brain structure or regional activity. This paper reviews functional brain imaging findings in major intrinsic sleep disorders (i.e., idiopathic insomnia, narcolepsy, and obstructive sleep apnea) and in abnormal motor behavior during sleep (i.e., periodic limb movement disorder and REM sleep behavior disorder). Metabolic/functional investigations (positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging) are mainly reviewed, as well as neuroanatomical assessments (voxel-based morphometry, magnetic resonance spectroscopy). Meanwhile, here are some brief introduction of different kinds of sleep disorders. (authors)

  17. Sleep and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... activities also affect sleep, so regular exercise and avoidance of napping can greatly improve nighttime sleep. Unfortunately, ... helpful, please consider supporting IFFGD with a small tax- deductible donation. Make Donation Adapted from IFFGD Publication # ...

  18. Sleep-related movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlino, Giovanni; Gigli, Gian Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Several movement disorders may occur during nocturnal rest disrupting sleep. A part of these complaints is characterized by relatively simple, non-purposeful and usually stereotyped movements. The last version of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders includes these clinical conditions (i.e. restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, sleep-related leg cramps, sleep-related bruxism and sleep-related rhythmic movement disorder) under the category entitled sleep-related movement disorders. Moreover, apparently physiological movements (e.g. alternating leg muscle activation and excessive hypnic fragmentary myoclonus) can show a high frequency and severity impairing sleep quality. Clinical and, in specific cases, neurophysiological assessments are required to detect the presence of nocturnal movement complaints. Patients reporting poor sleep due to these abnormal movements should undergo non-pharmacological or pharmacological treatments.

  19. Objective and subjective sleep quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    and subjective sleep quality during benzodiazepine discontinuation and whether sleep variables were associated with benzodiazepine withdrawal. Eligible patients included adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder and long-term use of benzodiazepines in combination...

  20. Human genetics and sleep behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guangsen; Wu, David; Ptáček, Louis J; Fu, Ying-Hui

    2017-06-01

    Why we sleep remains one of the greatest mysteries in science. In the past few years, great advances have been made to better understand this phenomenon. Human genetics has contributed significantly to this movement, as many features of sleep have been found to be heritable. Discoveries about these genetic variations that affect human sleep will aid us in understanding the underlying mechanism of sleep. Here we summarize recent discoveries about the genetic variations affecting the timing of sleep, duration of sleep and EEG patterns. To conclude, we also discuss some of the sleep-related neurological disorders such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and the potential challenges and future directions of human genetics in sleep research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS AND SLEEP QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Robert G.; Uchino, Bert N.; Cribbet, Matthew R.; Bowen, Kimberly; Smith, Timothy W.

    2015-01-01

    Background The quality of social relationships and social support appears to be associated with physical health outcomes and sleep quality. Almost all previous research in this area focuses on positive aspects of relationships. Purpose The present study thus intended to examine the links between supportive, aversive, ambivalent, and indifferent network ties and sleep quality. Methods Relationship data, PSQI-assessed sleep quality, and depression were examined in 175 middle-aged and older adults. Results Consistent with hypotheses, supportive ties were positively related to sleep quality, while aversive ties predicted worse sleep quality; associations that were primarily seen for close relationships. Ambivalent and indifferent ties were not significant predictors of sleep quality. Importantly, depression was found to mediate the link between relationship quality and sleep quality. Conclusions These data suggest the more specific types of social relationships that may be linked to poor sleep quality, and that depression appears to underlie these associations. PMID:25976874

  2. Recent geologic development of Lake Michigan (U.S.A.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, D.L.; Cahill, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The stresses placed on Lake Michigan since the advent of industrialization require knowledge of the sedimentology of the whole lake in order to make informed decisions for environmental planning. Sediment accumulation rates are low: areas of the lake receiving the most sediment average only 1 mm a-1; deep-water basins average 0.1 to 0.5 mm a-1; and large areas are not receiving any sediment. Sediment was deposited rapidly (typically 5 mm a-1), in the form of rock flour, during the deglaciation of both Lake Michigan and Lake Superior Basins. Then the rate of accumulation decreased by 80-90% and has remained relatively constant since final deglaciation. Because active sedimentation occurs mostly in the deep water areas of the lake, the sediment remains undisturbed and contains a record of the chemical history of the lake. ?? 1983 Dr W. Junk Publishers.

  3. Impact of cooling systems on Lake Michigan fishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spigarelli, S.A.; Romberg, G.P.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of data on fish mortalities due to impingement at thermal power plant water intakes on Lake Michigan with available estimates of standing crop biomass, commercial and sport fishery catches, and estimated predation mortality is presented. The striking features of these data are the proportions of total mortality due to predation and the lack of accurate basic population statistics such as standing crop biomass and natural mortality for important forage and human food fishes in Lake Michigan. Although this preliminary assessment would indicate that power plant and total impingement losses constitute an insignificant fraction of total forage biomass, the potentially unstable forage-predator ratios and the apparent high degree of annual fluctuations (year-classes) in alewife, smelt, and perch indicate the need for a more detailed assessment of cooling-system related impact on selected populations

  4. Acid rain stimulation of Lake Michigan phytoplankton growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manny, Bruce A.; Fahnenstiel, G.L.; Gardner, W.S.

    1987-01-01

    Three laboratory experiments demonstrated that additions of rainwater to epilimnetic lake water collected in southeastern Lake Michigan stimulated chlorophyll a production more than did additions of reagent-grade water during incubations of 12 to 20 d. Chlorophyll a production did not begin until 3–5 d after the rain and lake water were mixed. The stimulation caused by additions of rain acidified to pH 3.0 was greater than that caused by additions of untreated rain (pH 4.0–4.5). Our results support the following hypotheses: (1) Acid rain stimulates the growth of phytoplankton in lake water; (2) phosphorus in rain appears to be the factor causing this stimulation. We conclude that acid rain may accelerate the growth of epilimnetic phytoplankton in Lake Michigan (and other similar lakes) during stratification when other sources of bioavailable phosphorus to the epilimnion are limited

  5. Sleep and Premenstrual Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehan, Shazia; Auguste, Evan; Hussain, Mahjabeen; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R.; Brzezinski, Amon; Gupta, Ravi; Attarian, Hrayr; Jean-Louis, Giradin; McFarlane, Samy I.

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is unknown; it may be due to the normal effect of hormones during the menstrual cycle as it occurs in the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.PMS affects women of childbearing age and remits with the onset of menstruation. The menstrual phase is known to influence stage 2 and REM sleep in women, irrespective of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Women with PMDD showed a decreased response to melatonin in their luteal phase as compared to the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. However, melatonin duration or timing of offset in the morning has not been reported to correlate with the mood. Rather, improvement in mood-related symptoms of PMDD has been found to be influenced by sleep deprivation, be it sleep restrictions in early or late night. Sleep disturbance and decreased melatonin secretions due to hormonal fluctuations during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle could explain the sleep complaints of PMDD. PMID:28239684

  6. Sleep in cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barloese, M C J; Jennum, P J; Lund, N T

    2015-01-01

    with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep have been suggested. Sleep in a large, well-characterized population of CH patients was investigated. METHODS: Polysomnography (PSG) was performed on two nights in 40 CH patients during active bout and one night in 25 age, sex and body mass index matched controls...... in hospital. Macrostructure and other features of sleep were analyzed and related to phenotype. Clinical headache characterization was obtained by semi-structured interview. RESULTS: Ninety-nine nights of PSG were analyzed. Findings included a reduced percentage of REM sleep (17.3% vs. 23.0%, P = 0.......0037), longer REM latency (2.0 vs. 1.2 h, P = 0.0012) and fewer arousals (7.34 vs. 14.1, P = 0.003) in CH patients. There was no difference in prevalence of sleep apnea between patients (38%) and matched controls (32%, P = 0.64) although the apnea index in patients was numerically higher (mean apnea...

  7. Sleep in thyrotoxicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G R Sridhar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pattern of sleep in hyperthyroid state / thyrotoxicosis has not been systematically studied. It is being characterized as poor without further elaboration. We analyzed the pattern of sleep in a large sample of individuals with thyrotoxicosis who came to our endocrine center in southern India. Materials and Methods: We identified individuals with the diagnosis of ′thyrotoxicosis′ from our electronic medical record database, and evaluated clinical parameters and pattern of their sleep: difficulty in falling asleep (DFA, difficulty in maintaining sleep (DMS, excess daytime sleepiness. In the first phase, univariate analysis with logistic regression was performed. Multivariate logistic regression was performed in the next phase on variables with a P-value < 0.1: these were considered as potential categories/ variables. Results: In model response variable with DFA, multivariate logistic regression predicted that subjects with abnormal appetite (more 1.7 or less 2.2, change in bowel motion (loose 1.5 or constipation 2.8, in mood (easy loss of temper 3.4, change of voice -- hoarse 7.4 or moderately hoarse 3.1, tended to have higher chances of difficulty in falling asleep (DFA. Patients with tremor (yes = 5.4 had greater likelihood of difficulty in maintaining sleep (DMS. Conclusions: Individuals with hyperthyroidism/thyrotoxicosis principally had difficulty in falling asleep DFA, which was related to hyperkinetic features.

  8. Starting a sleep center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Lawrence J; Valentine, Paul S

    2010-05-01

    The demand for sleep medicine services has grown tremendously during the last decade and will likely continue. To date, growth in demand has been met by growth in the number of new sleep centers. The need for more new centers will be dependent on market drivers that include increasing regulatory requirements, personnel shortages, integration of home sleep testing, changes in reimbursement, a shift in emphasis from diagnostics to treatment, and an increased consumer focus on sleep. The decision to open a new center should be based on understanding the market dynamics, completing a market analysis, and developing a business plan. The business plan should include an overview of the facility, a personnel and organizational structure, an evaluation of the business environment, a financial plan, a description of services provided, and a strategy for obtaining, managing, and extending a referral base. Implementation of the business plan and successful operation require ongoing planning and monitoring of operational parameters. The need for new sleep centers will likely continue, but the shifting market dynamics indicate a greater need for understanding the marketplace and careful planning.

  9. 239 240Pu in Lake Michigan: 1971 to 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlgren, M.A.; Nelson, D.M.; Orlandini, K.A.; Kucera, E.T.

    1978-01-01

    The plutonium concentration data presented previously have consisted primarily of results from studies of short-term variations, i.e., the annual plutonium cycle conducted at Lake Michigan station ANL-5, 12 km SW of Grand Haven, Michigan. In this report, mean annual concentrations of total plutonium in unfiltered water from far off-shore (> 30 km) stations for the period 1971 through 1977, and from station ANL-5 (1975 through 1978) are summarized to establish the long-term trend in plutonium concentration in Lake Michigan. The results presented show that the mean annual concentration in the water column is similar at ANL-5 and at offshore stations and has decreased at the rate of only 6% per year during the period 1972 through 1978. The nearly constant concentration indicates that steady-state equilibria exist between plutonium inputs to the lake and the loss of plutonium from the water column. Observations suggest the existence of an active redox cycle for Pu in Lake Michigan. In this cycle, Pu IV atoms in solution are continually taken up by particulate materials but may be oxidized within microzones of the particles such as freshly deposited manganese coatings and also in solution by agents such as dissolved oxygen. In turn, the concentration of Pu VI in solution may be limited by reaction with reducing constituents of the coloidal-sized fraction (or decomposer organisms such as bacteria or fungi, which might have been present after filtration) and with planktonic organisms in the environment to produce Pu IV and thus maintain the cycle

  10. Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Group: The University of Michigan Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Michigan Cancer Center, Ann Arbor, MI Abstract Disclosures Abstract: Background: Cabozantinib ( Cabo ) is an inhibitor of MET and VEGFR2. MET signaling...promotes tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. Methods: mCRPC patients (pts) with progressive measurable disease (mRECIST) received Cabo at 100 mg...qd PO over a 12 week (wk) lead-in stage. Response was assessed q6 wks. Treatment ≥ wk 12 was based on response: pts with PR continued open-label Cabo

  11. Sustained sleep fragmentation induces sleep homeostasis in mice

    KAUST Repository

    Baud, Maxime O.; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Petit, Jean Marie

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep fragmentation (SF) is an integral feature of sleep apnea and other prevalent sleep disorders. Although the effect of repetitive arousals on cognitive performance is well documented, the effects of long-term SF on electroencephalography (EEG) and molecular markers of sleep homeostasis remain poorly investigated. To address this question, we developed a mouse model of chronic SF and characterized its effect on EEG spectral frequencies and the expression of genes previously linked to sleep homeostasis including clock genes, heat shock proteins, and plasticity-related genes. Design: N/A. Setting: Animal sleep research laboratory. Participants : Sixty-six C57BL6/J adult mice. Interventions: Instrumental sleep disruption at a rate of 60/h during 14 days Measurements and Results: Locomotor activity and EEG were recorded during 14 days of SF followed by recovery for 2 days. Despite a dramatic number of arousals and decreased sleep bout duration, SF minimally reduced total quantity of sleep and did not significantly alter its circadian distribution. Spectral analysis during SF revealed a homeostatic drive for slow wave activity (SWA; 1-4 Hz) and other frequencies as well (4-40 Hz). Recordings during recovery revealed slow wave sleep consolidation and a transient rebound in SWA, and paradoxical sleep duration. The expression of selected genes was not induced following chronic SF. Conclusions: Chronic sleep fragmentation (SF) increased sleep pressure confirming that altered quality with preserved quantity triggers core sleep homeostasis mechanisms. However, it did not induce the expression of genes induced by sleep loss, suggesting that these molecular pathways are not sustainably activated in chronic diseases involving SF.

  12. Sustained sleep fragmentation induces sleep homeostasis in mice

    KAUST Repository

    Baud, Maxime O.

    2015-04-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep fragmentation (SF) is an integral feature of sleep apnea and other prevalent sleep disorders. Although the effect of repetitive arousals on cognitive performance is well documented, the effects of long-term SF on electroencephalography (EEG) and molecular markers of sleep homeostasis remain poorly investigated. To address this question, we developed a mouse model of chronic SF and characterized its effect on EEG spectral frequencies and the expression of genes previously linked to sleep homeostasis including clock genes, heat shock proteins, and plasticity-related genes. Design: N/A. Setting: Animal sleep research laboratory. Participants : Sixty-six C57BL6/J adult mice. Interventions: Instrumental sleep disruption at a rate of 60/h during 14 days Measurements and Results: Locomotor activity and EEG were recorded during 14 days of SF followed by recovery for 2 days. Despite a dramatic number of arousals and decreased sleep bout duration, SF minimally reduced total quantity of sleep and did not significantly alter its circadian distribution. Spectral analysis during SF revealed a homeostatic drive for slow wave activity (SWA; 1-4 Hz) and other frequencies as well (4-40 Hz). Recordings during recovery revealed slow wave sleep consolidation and a transient rebound in SWA, and paradoxical sleep duration. The expression of selected genes was not induced following chronic SF. Conclusions: Chronic sleep fragmentation (SF) increased sleep pressure confirming that altered quality with preserved quantity triggers core sleep homeostasis mechanisms. However, it did not induce the expression of genes induced by sleep loss, suggesting that these molecular pathways are not sustainably activated in chronic diseases involving SF.

  13. Passive solar homes in Michigan's Upper Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindred, G.F. [Garfield Kindred Associates, Hancock, MI (United States)

    2001-07-01

    This paper discussed the construction and design of 3 affordable passive solar homes located in high latitudes: (1) the Kindred house located in a wooded subdivision in Hancock, Michigan; (2) the Autio house located in Laurium, Michigan; and the Mikkola house located in South Range, Michigan. The award-winning houses were part of the United States federal government's Energy Star program. The houses were constructed with common building materials in order to introduce the general public to the principles of energy-conscious passive solar design strategies and sustainable construction technologies. Super-insulation was used to retain solar heat gain in the houses. Air infiltration was minimized through the use of an airtight drywall sealing technique. Large windows were a prominent feature of the southern facades of the houses. The windows used fixed and casement low-e argon-filled insulated glazing. Average bills for the Kindred home are US$960 per year. It was concluded that passive solar design and construction strategies are now being used more often in the area as a result of the positive media coverage that the homes has received. 5 refs.

  14. Water-bearing explosive compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, G M

    1970-12-21

    An explosive water-bearing composition, with high detonation velocity, comprises a mixture of (1) an inorganic oxidizer salt; (2) nitroglycerine; (3) nitrocellulose; (4) water; and (5) a water thickening agent. (11 claims)

  15. Sleep Smart. Get a Life

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is a relatively easy-to-read text, and each page is packed with facts. The book covers a wide variety of subjects surrounding sleep, including sleep disorders, self-help guidance to a healthier sleeping pattern, eating/nutritional information, etc. It is medically and factually sound, and should be easy reading for the general ...

  16. Type 1 Diabetes and Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Farabi, Sarah S.

    2016-01-01

    IN BRIEF In people with type 1 diabetes, sleep may be disrupted as a result of both behavioral and physiological aspects of diabetes and its management. This sleep disruption may negatively affect disease progression and development of complications. This review highlights key research findings regarding sleep in people with type 1 diabetes.

  17. Sleep disturbances and glucose homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barf, R. Paulien; Scheurink, Anton J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep disturbances, induced by either lifestyle, shift work or sleeping disorders, have become more prevalent in our 24/7 Western society. Sleep disturbances are associated with impaired health including metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. The question remains whether there is a

  18. Atypical sexual behavior during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilleminault, Christian; Moscovitch, Adam; Yuen, Kin; Poyares, Dalva

    2002-01-01

    This article reports a case series of atypical sexual behavior during sleep, which is often harmful to patients or bed partners. Eleven subjects underwent clinical evaluation of complaints of sleep-related atypical sexual behavior. Complaints included violent masturbation, sexual assaults, and continuous (and loud) sexual vocalizations during sleep. One case was a medical-legal case. Sleep logs, clinical evaluations, sleep questionnaires, structured psychiatric interviews, polysomnography, actigraphy, home electroencephalographic monitoring during sleep, and clinical electroencephalographic monitoring while awake and asleep were used to determine clinical diagnoses. Atypical sexual behaviors during sleep were associated with feelings of guilt, shame, and depression. Because of these feelings, patients and bed partners often tolerated the abnormal behavior for long periods of time without seeking medical attention. The following pathologic sleep disorders were demonstrated on polysomnography: partial complex seizures, sleep-disordered breathing, stage 3 to 4 non-rapid eye movement (REM) sleep parasomnias, and REM sleep behavior disorder. These findings were concurrent with morning amnesia. The atypical behaviors were related to different syndromes despite the similarity of complaints from bed partners. In most cases the disturbing and often harmful symptoms were controlled when counseling was instituted and sleep disorders were treated. In some cases treatment of seizures or psychiatric disorders was also needed. Clonazepam with simultaneous psychotherapy was the most common successful treatment combination. The addition of antidepressant or antiepileptic medications was required in specific cases.

  19. Sleep Disorders, Epilepsy, and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malow, Beth A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this review article is to describe the clinical data linking autism with sleep and epilepsy and to discuss the impact of treating sleep disorders in children with autism either with or without coexisting epileptic seizures. Studies are presented to support the view that sleep is abnormal in individuals with autistic spectrum…

  20. Characterizing Sleep Issues Using Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, David J; Hawkins, Jared B; Chunara, Rumi; Chatterjee, Arnaub K; Bhandari, Aman; Fitzgerald, Timothy P; Jain, Sachin H; Brownstein, John S

    2015-06-08

    Sleep issues such as insomnia affect over 50 million Americans and can lead to serious health problems, including depression and obesity, and can increase risk of injury. Social media platforms such as Twitter offer exciting potential for their use in studying and identifying both diseases and social phenomenon. Our aim was to determine whether social media can be used as a method to conduct research focusing on sleep issues. Twitter posts were collected and curated to determine whether a user exhibited signs of sleep issues based on the presence of several keywords in tweets such as insomnia, "can't sleep", Ambien, and others. Users whose tweets contain any of the keywords were designated as having self-identified sleep issues (sleep group). Users who did not have self-identified sleep issues (non-sleep group) were selected from tweets that did not contain pre-defined words or phrases used as a proxy for sleep issues. User data such as number of tweets, friends, followers, and location were collected, as well as the time and date of tweets. Additionally, the sentiment of each tweet and average sentiment of each user were determined to investigate differences between non-sleep and sleep groups. It was found that sleep group users were significantly less active on Twitter (P=.04), had fewer friends (Pcost-effective, and customizable data to be gathered.

  1. Cutaneous warming promotes sleep onset

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raymann, Roy J. E. M.; Swaab, Dick F.; van Someren, Eus J. W.

    2005-01-01

    Sleep occurs in close relation to changes in body temperature. Both the monophasic sleep period in humans and the polyphasic sleep periods in rodents tend to be initiated when core body temperature is declining. This decline is mainly due to an increase in skin blood flow and consequently skin

  2. Cutaneous warming promotes sleep onset.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raymann, R.J.E.M.; Swaab, D.F.; Someren, E.J.W. van

    2005-01-01

    Sleep occurs in close relation to changes in body temperature. Both the monophasic sleep period in humans and the polyphasic sleep periods in rodents tend to be initiated when core body temperature is declining. This decline is mainly due to an increase in skin blood flow and consequently skin

  3. Failure analysis of superconducting bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, Amit; Campbell, A M; Coombs, T A [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-01

    The dynamics of superconductor bearings in a cryogenic failure scenario have been analyzed. As the superconductor warms up, the rotor goes through multiple resonance frequencies, begins to slow down and finally touches down when the superconductor goes through its transition temperature. The bearing can be modelled as a system of springs with axial, radial and cross stiffness. These springs go through various resonant modes as the temperature of the superconductor begins to rise. We have presented possible explanations for such behavio0008.

  4. Superconducting composite for magnetic bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigney, T.K. II.

    1995-01-01

    A composite includes granules of Type II superconducting material and granules of rare-earth permanent magnets that are distributed in a binder. The composite is a two-phase structure that combines the properties of the superconductor and magnets with the flexibility and toughness of a polymeric material. A bearing made from this composite has the load capacity and stiffness of a permanent magnet bearing with added stability from a Type II superconducting material. 7 figs

  5. Psoriasis and Sleep Apnea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Khalid, Usman; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar

    2015-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Psoriasis and sleep apnea are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although both diseases have been linked with systemic inflammation, studies on their potential bidirectional association are lacking. We investigate the potential association between psoriasis...... and sleep apnea. METHODS: All Danish citizens age 18 y or older between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2011 (n = 5,522,190) were linked at individual level in nationwide registries. Incidence rates (IRs) per 10,000 person-years were calculated and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) adjusted for age, sex......, socioeconomic status, smoking history, alcohol abuse, medication, and comorbidity were estimated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: There were 53,290, 6,885, 6,348, and 39,908 incident cases of mild psoriasis, severe psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and sleep apnea, respectively. IRRs (95% confidence interval...

  6. Psoriasis and Sleep Apnea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Khalid, Usman; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar

    2016-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Psoriasis and sleep apnea are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although both diseases have been linked with systemic inflammation, studies on their potential bidirectional association are lacking. We investigate the potential association between psoriasis...... and sleep apnea. METHODS: All Danish citizens age 18 y or older between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2011 (n = 5,522,190) were linked at individual level in nationwide registries. Incidence rates (IRs) per 10,000 person-years were calculated and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) adjusted for age, sex......, socioeconomic status, smoking history, alcohol abuse, medication, and comorbidity were estimated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: There were 53,290, 6,885, 6,348, and 39,908 incident cases of mild psoriasis, severe psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and sleep apnea, respectively. IRRs (95% confidence interval...

  7. Sleep-related laryngospasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio S. Aloe

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Seven patients (mean age 46.6; range 33-58; 6M.1F presented with sleep-related choking episodes and were found to have features in common that distinguished them from other known causes of choking episodes during sleep. The characteristic features include: an awakening from sleep with an acute choking sensation, stridor, panic, tachycardia, short duration of episode Gess than 60 seconds, infrequent episodes (typically less than 1 per month, and absence of any known etiology. The disorder most commonly occurs in middle-aged males who are otherwise healthy. In one patient an episode of laryngospasm was polysomnographically documented to occur during stage 3. The clinical features and the polysomnographic findings suggest spasm of the vocal cords of unknown etiology.

  8. Answers to questions posed by the Michigan Governor's Nuclear Waste Disposal Task Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A general presentation of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program was given on July 26, 1976, to the Michigan Environmental Review Board and the Michigan Governor's Nuclear Waste Disposal Task Force. Following the presentation, Dr. William G. Taylor, Chairman of the Task Force, provided ERDA with a listing of questions which pertained to the NWTS program and ERDA/OWI's interest in northeast Michigan. This document contains copies of the information which was provided to Dr. Taylor in response to his inquiry

  9. Immediate postarousal sleep dynamics: an important determinant of sleep stability in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Magdy; Hanly, Patrick J

    2016-04-01

    Arousability from sleep is increasingly recognized as an important determinant of the clinical spectrum of sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Patients with SDB display a wide range of arousability. The reason for these differences is not known. We hypothesized that differences in the speed with which sleep deepens following arousals/awakenings (postarousal sleep dynamics) is a major determinant of these differences in arousability in patients with SDB. We analyzed 40 preexisting clinical polysomnography records from patients with a range of SDB severity (apnea-hypopnea index 5-135/h). Sleep depth was determined every 3 s using the odds ratio product (ORP) method, a continuous index of sleep depth (0 = deep sleep, 2.5 = full wakefulness) that correlates strongly (r = 0.98) with arousability (Younes M, Ostrowski M, Soiferman M, Younes H, Younes M, Raneri J, and Hanly P. Sleep 38: 641-654, 2015). Time course of ORP was determined from end of arousal until the next arousal. All arousals were analyzed (142 ± 65/polysomnogram). ORP increased from 0.58 ± 0.32 during sleep to 1.67 ± 0.35 during arousals. ORP immediately (first 9 s) following arousals/awakenings (ORP-9) ranged from 0.21(very deep sleep) to 1.71 (highly arousable state) in different patients. In patients with high ORP-9, sleep deepened slowly (over minutes) beyond 9 s but only if no arousals/awakenings recurred. ORP-9 correlated strongly with average non-rapid eye movement sleep depth (r = 0.87, P sleep architecture. We conclude that postarousal sleep dynamics are highly variable among patients with sleep-disordered breathing and largely determine average sleep depth and continuity. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Sleep less and bite more: sleep disorders associated with occlusal loads during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takafumi; Yamaguchi, Taihiko; Okura, Kazuo; Abe, Susumu; Lavigne, Gilles J

    2013-04-01

    Occlusal overload during sleep is a significant clinical issue that has negative impacts on the maintenance of teeth and the longevity of dental prostheses. Sleep is usually viewed as an 'out-of-functional' mode for masticatory muscles. However, orodental structures and prostheses are not free from occlusal loads during sleep since masticatory muscles can be activated at a low level within normal sleep continuity. Thus, an increase in masticatory muscle contractions, by whatever the cause, can be associated with a risk of increased occlusal loads during sleep. Among such conditions, sleep bruxism (SB) is a type of sleep-related movement disorders with potential load challenge to the tooth and orofacial structures. Patients with SB usually report frequent tooth grinding noises during sleep and there is a consecutive increase in number and strength of rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA). Other types of masticatory muscle contractions can be non-specifically activated during sleep, such as brief contractions with tooth tapping, sleep talking, non-rhythmic contractions related to non-specific body movements, etc.; these occur more frequently in sleep disorders. Studies have shown that clinical signs and symptoms of SB can be found in patients with sleep disorders. In addition, sleep becomes compromised with aging process, and a prevalence of most sleep disorders is high in the elderly populations, in which prosthodontic rehabilitations are more required. Therefore, the recognition and understanding of the role of sleep disorders can provide a comprehensive vision for prosthodontic rehabilitations when prosthodontists manage complex orodental cases needing interdisciplinary collaborations between dentistry and sleep medicine. Copyright © 2013 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sleep-Active Neurons: Conserved Motors of Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringmann, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    Sleep is crucial for survival and well-being. This behavioral and physiological state has been studied in all major genetically accessible model animals, including rodents, fish, flies, and worms. Genetic and optogenetic studies have identified several neurons that control sleep, making it now possible to compare circuit mechanisms across species. The “motor” of sleep across animal species is formed by neurons that depolarize at the onset of sleep to actively induce this state by directly inhibiting wakefulness. These sleep-inducing neurons are themselves controlled by inhibitory or activating upstream pathways, which act as the “drivers” of the sleep motor: arousal inhibits “sleep-active” neurons whereas various sleep-promoting “tiredness” pathways converge onto sleep-active neurons to depolarize them. This review provides the first overview of sleep-active neurons across the major model animals. The occurrence of sleep-active neurons and their regulation by upstream pathways in both vertebrate and invertebrate species suggests that these neurons are general and ancient components that evolved early in the history of nervous systems. PMID:29618588

  12. Sleep in elite athletes and nutritional interventions to enhance sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halson, Shona L

    2014-05-01

    Sleep has numerous important physiological and cognitive functions that may be particularly important to elite athletes. Recent evidence, as well as anecdotal information, suggests that athletes may experience a reduced quality and/or quantity of sleep. Sleep deprivation can have significant effects on athletic performance, especially submaximal, prolonged exercise. Compromised sleep may also influence learning, memory, cognition, pain perception, immunity and inflammation. Furthermore, changes in glucose metabolism and neuroendocrine function as a result of chronic, partial sleep deprivation may result in alterations in carbohydrate metabolism, appetite, food intake and protein synthesis. These factors can ultimately have a negative influence on an athlete's nutritional, metabolic and endocrine status and hence potentially reduce athletic performance. Research has identified a number of neurotransmitters associated with the sleep-wake cycle. These include serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid, orexin, melanin-concentrating hormone, cholinergic, galanin, noradrenaline, and histamine. Therefore, nutritional interventions that may act on these neurotransmitters in the brain may also influence sleep. Carbohydrate, tryptophan, valerian, melatonin and other nutritional interventions have been investigated as possible sleep inducers and represent promising potential interventions. In this review, the factors influencing sleep quality and quantity in athletic populations are examined and the potential impact of nutritional interventions is considered. While there is some research investigating the effects of nutritional interventions on sleep, future research may highlight the importance of nutritional and dietary interventions to enhance sleep.

  13. Sleep Deficiency and Sleep Health Problems in Chinese Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Kang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of sleep schedules, sleep health, and the impact on school performance was conducted in 585 adolescents in a high school in China. A high level of early and circadian-disadvantaged sleep/wake schedules during weekdays was observed. Significantly shorter sleep duration on weekdays was reported ( P < 0.0001. Older teenagers slept significantly less than the younger teenagers ( P < 0.0001. Complaints of inadequate sleep and sleepiness during weekdays were prevalent. Night awakenings were reported in 32.2% of students. Students with a sleep length of less than 7 hours, complaint of inadequate sleep, or excessive daytime sleepiness during weekdays were more likely to report an adverse effect of poor sleep on performance. The present observations are qualitatively similar to those reported in our study in American adolescents, particularly with respect to Chinese adolescents exhibiting a similar sleep deficiency on weekdays. We concluded that sleep deficiency and sleep health problems were prevalent in the participating adolescents in China, and were perceived to adversely affect school performance.

  14. Aging induced ER stress alters sleep and sleep homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Marishka K.; Chan, May T.; Zimmerman, John E.; Pack, Allan I.; Jackson, Nicholas E.; Naidoo, Nirinjini

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in the quality, quantity and architecture of baseline and recovery sleep have been shown to occur during aging. Sleep deprivation induces endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress and upregulates a protective signaling pathway termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). The effectiveness of the adaptive UPR is diminished by age. Previously, we showed that endogenous chaperone levels altered recovery sleep in Drosophila melanogaster. We now report that acute administration of the chemical chaperone sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) reduces ER stress and ameliorates age-associated sleep changes in Drosophila. PBA consolidates both baseline and recovery sleep in aging flies. The behavioral modifications of PBA are linked to its suppression of ER stress. PBA decreased splicing of x-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) and upregulation of phosphorylated elongation initiation factor 2 α (p-eIF2α), in flies that were subjected to sleep deprivation. We also demonstrate that directly activating ER stress in young flies fragments baseline sleep and alters recovery sleep. Alleviating prolonged/sustained ER stress during aging contributes to sleep consolidation and improves recovery sleep/ sleep debt discharge. PMID:24444805

  15. Aging induced endoplasmic reticulum stress alters sleep and sleep homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Marishka K; Chan, May T; Zimmerman, John E; Pack, Allan I; Jackson, Nicholas E; Naidoo, Nirinjini

    2014-06-01

    Alterations in the quality, quantity, and architecture of baseline and recovery sleep have been shown to occur during aging. Sleep deprivation induces endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress and upregulates a protective signaling pathway termed the unfolded protein response. The effectiveness of the adaptive unfolded protein response is diminished by age. Previously, we showed that endogenous chaperone levels altered recovery sleep in Drosophila melanogaster. We now report that acute administration of the chemical chaperone sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) reduces ER stress and ameliorates age-associated sleep changes in Drosophila. PBA consolidates both baseline and recovery sleep in aging flies. The behavioral modifications of PBA are linked to its suppression of ER stress. PBA decreased splicing of X-box binding protein 1 and upregulation of phosphorylated elongation initiation factor 2 α, in flies that were subjected to sleep deprivation. We also demonstrate that directly activating ER stress in young flies fragments baseline sleep and alters recovery sleep. Alleviating prolonged or sustained ER stress during aging contributes to sleep consolidation and improves recovery sleep or sleep debt discharge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmental status of the Lake Michigan region. Volume 16. Amphibians and reptiles of the Lake Michigan drainage basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pentecost, E.D.; Vogt, R.C.

    1976-07-01

    The focus of this report is on regional distribution of the herpetofauna of the Lake Michigan Drainage Basin. The introduction includes a brief discussion of plant communities and their associated herpetofauna, and the importance of hibernacula and migration routes. Some aspects of the status, distribution, habitat, and life history of the amphibians and reptiles of the Basin are described in an annotated checklist. Special attention is given to uncommon and endangered species. Species range is shown on distribution maps.

  17. Environmental status of the Lake Michigan region. Volume 16. Amphibians and reptiles of the Lake Michigan drainage basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentecost, E.D.; Vogt, R.C.

    1976-07-01

    The focus of this report is on regional distribution of the herpetofauna of the Lake Michigan Drainage Basin. The introduction includes a brief discussion of plant communities and their associated herpetofauna, and the importance of hibernacula and migration routes. Some aspects of the status, distribution, habitat, and life history of the amphibians and reptiles of the Basin are described in an annotated checklist. Special attention is given to uncommon and endangered species. Species range is shown on distribution maps

  18. Screening for Depression, Sleep-Related Disturbances, and Anxiety in Patients with Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Boyd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Screening for depression, sleep-related disturbances, and anxiety in patients with diagnosed adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Materials and Methods. Patients were evaluated at initial consultation and subsequent visits at the multidisciplinary pancreatic cancer clinic at our University Cancer Center. Cross-sectional and longitudinal psychosocial distress was assessed utilizing Personal Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ9 to screen for depression and monitor symptoms, the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ for generalized anxiety, and the University of Michigan Sleep Questionnaire to monitor sleep symptoms. Results. Twenty-two patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer participated during the 6-month pilot study with longitudinal followup for thirteen patients. In this study, mild-to-moderate depressive symptoms, anxiety, and potential sleep problems were common. The main finding of the study was 23% of the patients who were part of this pilot project screened positive for moderately severe major depressive symptoms, likely anxiety disorder or a potential sleep disorder during the study. One patient screened positive for moderately severe depressive symptoms in longitudinal followup. Conclusions. Depression, anxiety, and sleep problems are evident in patients with pancreatic cancer. Prospective, longitudinal studies, with larger groups of patients, are needed to determine if these comorbid symptoms impact outcome and clinical course.

  19. Ground-water contamination and legal controls in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Morris

    1963-01-01

    The great importance of the fresh ground-water resources of Michigan is evident because 90 percent of the rural and about 70 percent of the total population of the State exclusive of the Detroit metropolitan area are supplied from underground sources. The water-supply and public-health problems that have been caused by some cases of ground-water contamination in the State illustrate the necessity of protecting this vital resource.Manmade and natural contaminants, including many types of chemical and organic matter, have entered many of the numerous aquifers of the State. Aquifers have been contaminated by waste-laden liquids percolating from the surface or from the zone of aeration and by direct injection to the aquifer itself. Industrial and domestic wastes, septic tanks, leaking sewers, flood waters or other poor quality surface waters, mine waters, solids stored or spread at the surface, and even airborne wastes all have been sources of ground-water contamination in Michigan. In addition, naturally occurring saline waters have been induced into other aquifers by overpumping or unrestricted flow from artesian wells, possibly by dewatering operations, and by the deepening of surface stream channels. Vertical migration of saline waters through open holes from formations underlying various important aquifers also has spoiled some of the fresh ground waters in the State. In spite of the contamination that has occurred, however, the total amount of ground water that has been spoiled is only a small part of the total resource. Neither is the contamination so widespread as that of the surface streams of Michigan.Overall legal authority to control most types of ground-water contamination in the State has been assigned by the Michigan Legislature to the Water Resources Commission, although the Department of Conservation and the Health Department also exercise important water-pollution control functions. The Michigan Supreme Court, in an important case upholding the power

  20. Lake Michigan Wind Assessment Analysis, 2012 and 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R Standridge

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to address the wind energy potential over Lake Michigan to support a commercial wind farm.  Lake Michigan is an inland sea in the upper mid-western United States.  A laser wind sensor mounted on a floating platform was located at the mid-lake plateau in 2012 and about 10.5 kilometers from the eastern shoreline near Muskegon Michigan in 2013.  Range gate heights for the laser wind sensor were centered at 75, 90, 105, 125, 150, and 175 meters.  Wind speed and direction were measured once each second and aggregated into 10 minute averages.  The two sample t-test and the paired-t method were used to perform the analysis.  Average wind speed stopped increasing between 105 m and 150 m depending on location.  Thus, the collected data is inconsistent with the idea that average wind speed increases with height. This result implies that measuring wind speed at wind turbine hub height is essential as opposed to using the wind energy power law to project the wind speed from lower heights.  Average speed at the mid-lake plateau is no more that 10% greater than at the location near Muskegon.  Thus, it may be possible to harvest much of the available wind energy at a lower height and closer to the shoreline than previously thought.  At both locations, the predominate wind direction is from the south-southwest.  The ability of the laser wind sensor to measure wind speed appears to be affected by a lack of particulate matter at greater heights.   Keywords: wind assessment, Lake Michigan, LIDAR wind sensor, statistical analysis. Article History: Received June 15th 2016; Received in revised form January 16th 2017; Accepted February 2nd 2017 Available online How to Cite This Article: Standridge, C., Zeitler, D., Clark, A., Spoelma, T., Nordman, E., Boezaart, T.A., Edmonson, J.,  Howe, G., Meadows, G., Cotel, A. and Marsik, F. (2017 Lake Michigan Wind Assessment Analysis, 2012 and 2013. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development

  1. 76 FR 56635 - Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... second zone, which is classified as modified accredited, comprises Alcona, Alpena, Montmorency, Oscoda...) A zone in Michigan that comprises Alcona, Alpena, Montmorency, and Oscoda Counties. * * * * * [[Page...

  2. REM sleep complicates period adding bifurcations from monophasic to polyphasic sleep behavior in a sleep-wake regulatory network model for human sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Kalmbach, K.; Booth, V.; Behn, C. G. Diniz

    2017-01-01

    The structure of human sleep changes across development as it consolidates from the polyphasic sleep of infants to the single nighttime sleep period typical in adults. Across this same developmental period, time scales of the homeostatic sleep drive, the physiological drive to sleep that increases with time spent awake, also change and presumably govern the transition from polyphasic to monophasic sleep behavior. Using a physiologically-based, sleep-wake regulatory network model for human sle...

  3. Sleep Disturbances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson-Shelton, Althea; Malow, Beth A

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are extremely prevalent in children with neurodevelopmental disorders compared to typically developing children. The diagnostic criteria for many neurodevelopmental disorders include sleep disturbances. Sleep disturbance in this population is often multifactorial and caused by the interplay of genetic, neurobiological and environmental overlap. These disturbances often present either as insomnia or hypersomnia. Different sleep disorders present with these complaints and based on the clinical history and findings from diagnostic tests, an appropriate diagnosis can be made. This review aims to provide an overview of causes, diagnosis, and treatment of sleep disturbances in neurodevelopmental disorders that present primarily with symptoms of hypersomnia and/or insomnia.

  4. Sleep disorders in cerebellar ataxias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Pedroso

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar ataxias comprise a wide range of etiologies leading to central nervous system-related motor and non-motor symptoms. Recently, a large body of evidence has demonstrated a high frequency of non-motor manifestations in cerebellar ataxias, specially in autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA. Among these non-motor dysfunctions, sleep disorders have been recognized, although still under or even misdiagnosed. In this review, we highlight the main sleep disorders related to cerebellar ataxias focusing on REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD, restless legs syndrome (RLS, periodic limb movement in sleep (PLMS, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS, insomnia and sleep apnea.

  5. Sleep to implement an intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Wilhelm, Ines; Wagner, Ullrich; Born, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Sleep supports the consolidation of new memories. However, this effect has mainly been shown for memories of past events. Here we investigated the role of sleep for the implementation of intentions for the future. Subjects were instructed on a plan that had to be executed after a delay of 2 days. After plan instruction, subjects were either allowed to sleep or stayed awake for one night (Exp. 1) or had a 3-h sleep period either during the early night (SWS-rich sleep) or late night (REM-rich sleep; Exp. 2). In both experiments, retesting took place 2 days later after one recovery night. Sleep laboratory. A total of 56 healthy young adults participated in the study. N/A. All of the subjects who were allowed to sleep after plan instruction executed the intention 2 days later, whereas only 61% of wake subjects did so (P = 0.004; Exp. 1). Also after early SWS-rich sleep all of the subjects remembered to execute the intention, but only 55% did so after late REM-rich sleep (P = 0.015; Exp. 2). Sleep, especially SWS, plays an important role for the successful implementation of delayed intentions.

  6. Sleep disruption in chronic rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavinia, Mahboobeh; Schleimer, Robert P; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2017-05-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common disease of the upper airways and paranasal sinuses with a marked decline in quality of life (QOL). CRS patients suffer from sleep disruption at a significantly higher proportion (60 to 75%) than in the general population (8-18 %). Sleep disruption in CRS causes decreased QOL and is linked to poor functional outcomes such as impaired cognitive function and depression. Areas covered: A systematic PubMed/Medline search was done to assess the results of studies that have investigated sleep and sleep disturbances in CRS. Expert commentary: These studies reported sleep disruption in most CRS patients. The main risk factors for sleep disruption in CRS include allergic rhinitis, smoking, and high SNOT-22 total scores. The literature is inconsistent with regard to the prevalence of sleep-related disordered breathing (e.g. obstructive sleep apnea) in CRS patients. Although nasal obstruction is linked to sleep disruption, the extent of sleep disruption in CRS seems to expand beyond that expected from physical blockage of the upper airways alone. Despite the high prevalence of sleep disruption in CRS, and its detrimental effects on QOL, the literature contains a paucity of studies that have investigated the mechanisms underlying this major problem in CRS.

  7. Subjective sleep quality in sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse-Henck, Andrea; Wirtz, Hubert; Hinz, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Poor sleep is common among patients with medical disorders. Sleep disturbances can be a cause of fatigue and poor quality of life for patients suffering from sarcoidosis. Studies on subjective sleep quality or prevalence of insomnia have not been reported so far. The aim of this study was to investigate the subjectively reported sleep quality and its relation to psychological and physical factors in sarcoidosis patients. 1197 patients from Germany diagnosed with sarcoidosis were examined using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnea scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI). 802 patients (67%) had PSQI global scores >5, indicating subjectively poor quality of sleep. The mean PSQI score was 7.79 ± 4.00. Women reported a significantly inferior individual quality of sleep than men. The subjective quality of sleep was lowered significantly with increasing dyspnea for men and women. 294 patients (25%) had PSQI global scores >10 usually found in patients with clinically relevant insomnia. In this group 86% had high values for fatigue, 69% for anxiety, and 59% for depression. The prevalence of known sleep apnea was 8.7% and 15.7% for restless legs. Poor subjective sleep quality in sarcoidosis patients is about twice as common as in the general population and is associated with fatigue, anxiety, depression and dyspnea. Questions about sleep complaints should therefore be included in the management of sarcoidosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Rheumatoid arthritis and sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goes, Ana Claudia Janiszewski; Reis, Larissa Aparecida Busatto; Silva, Marilia Barreto G; Kahlow, Barbara Stadler; Skare, Thelma L

    Sleep disturbances are common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and contribute to loss of life quality. To study associations of sleep quality with pain, depression and disease activity in RA. This is a transversal observational study of 112 RA patients submitted to measurement of DAS-28, Epworth scale for daily sleepiness, index of sleep quality by Pittsburg index, risk of sleep apnea by the Berlin questionnaire and degree of depression by the CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale) questionnaire. We also collected epidemiological, clinical, serological and treatment data. Only 18.5% of RA patients had sleep of good quality. In univariate analysis a bad sleep measured by Pittsburg index was associated with daily doses of prednisone (p=0.03), DAS-28 (p=0.01), CES-D (p=0.0005) and showed a tendency to be associated with Berlin sleep apnea questionnaire (p=0.06). In multivariate analysis only depression (p=0.008) and Berlin sleep apnea questionnaire (p=0.004) kept this association. Most of RA patients do not have a good sleep quality. Depression and risk of sleep apnea are independently associated with sleep impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Sleep Dysfunction and Gastrointestinal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanijow, Vikesh; Prakash, Pia; Emsellem, Helene A; Borum, Marie L; Doman, David B

    2015-12-01

    Sleep deprivation and impaired sleep quality have been associated with poor health outcomes. Many patients experience sleep disturbances, which can increase the risk of medical conditions such as hypertension, obesity, stroke, and heart disease as well as increase overall mortality. Recent studies have suggested that there is a strong association between sleep disturbances and gastrointestinal diseases. Proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1, and interleukin-6, have been associated with sleep dysfunction. Alterations in these cytokines have been seen in certain gastrointestinal diseases, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease, inflammatory bowel disease, liver disorders, and colorectal cancer. It is important for gastroenterologists to be aware of the relationship between sleep disorders and gastrointestinal illnesses to ensure good care for patients. This article reviews the current research on the interplay between sleep disorders, immune function, and gastrointestinal diseases.

  10. Leo Tolstoy's theory of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vein, Alla A

    2008-03-01

    Throughout his life, Leo Tolstoy was fascinated by the phenomena of sleep and dreams. He composed a series of observations and judgements that were brought together under "my theory of sleep". Tolstoy was constantly preoccupied with the basic principles of "the theory". It is hard to name a work by him where a description of sleep and/or a dream does not play a vital role in the unfolding of the plot. They testify to Tolstoy's interest in the mechanism of sleep and in the processes of falling asleep and waking up. Tolstoy viewed sleep as a specific state of consciousness, and he subsequently linked the concept of sleep with the concept of death. For him sleep and awakening were experiences emblematic of life and death.

  11. Sleep spindle density in narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Julie Anja Engelhard; Nikolic, Miki; Hvidtfelt, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) show alterations in sleep stage transitions, rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM sleep due to the loss of hypocretinergic signaling. However, the sleep microstructure has not yet been evaluated in these patients. We aimed to evaluate whether...... the sleep spindle (SS) density is altered in patients with NT1 compared to controls and patients with narcolepsy type 2 (NT2). METHODS: All-night polysomnographic recordings from 28 NT1 patients, 19 NT2 patients, 20 controls (C) with narcolepsy-like symptoms, but with normal cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin...... levels and multiple sleep latency tests, and 18 healthy controls (HC) were included. Unspecified, slow, and fast SS were automatically detected, and SS densities were defined as number per minute and were computed across sleep stages and sleep cycles. The between-cycle trends of SS densities in N2...

  12. Economic implications of sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaer, Tracy L; Sclar, David A

    2010-01-01

    Sleep disorders such as insomnia, obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and fatigue, sleep deprivation and restless legs syndrome (RLS) are increasingly seen in clinical practice. Sleep is considered vital for preserving daytime cognitive function and physiological well-being. Sleep insufficiency may have deleterious effects on work-life balance, overall health and safety. The consequential economic burden at both the individual and societal levels is significant. Moreover, sleep disorders are commonly associated with other major medical problems such as chronic pain, cardiovascular disease, mental illness, dementias, gastrointestinal disorders and diabetes mellitus. Thus, in order to properly care for patients presenting with sleep-related morbidity, and to reduce the consequential economic burden, accurate screening efforts and efficacious/cost-effective treatments need to be developed and employed.

  13. Sleep loss and structural plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areal, Cassandra C; Warby, Simon C; Mongrain, Valérie

    2017-06-01

    Wakefulness and sleep are dynamic states during which brain functioning is modified and shaped. Sleep loss is detrimental to many brain functions and results in structural changes localized at synapses in the nervous system. In this review, we present and discuss some of the latest observations of structural changes following sleep loss in some vertebrates and insects. We also emphasize that these changes are region-specific and cell type-specific and that, most importantly, these structural modifications have functional roles in sleep regulation and brain functions. Selected mechanisms driving structural modifications occurring with sleep loss are also discussed. Overall, recent research highlights that extending wakefulness impacts synapse number and shape, which in turn regulate sleep need and sleep-dependent learning/memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 49 CFR 229.69 - Side bearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Side bearings. 229.69 Section 229.69....69 Side bearings. (a) Friction side bearings with springs designed to carry weight may not have more than 25 percent of the springs in any one nest broken. (b) Friction side bearings may not be run in...

  15. The effects of sleep extension on sleep and cognitive performance in adolescents with chronic sleep reduction: an experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewald-Kaufmann, J. F.; Oort, F. J.; Meijer, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of gradual sleep extension in adolescents with chronic sleep reduction. Outcome variables were objectively measured sleep and cognitive performance. Participants were randomly assigned to either a sleep extension group (gradual sleep extension by advancing bedtimes in the

  16. Train hard, sleep well? Perceived training load, sleep quantity and sleep stage distribution in elite level athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knufinke, M.; Nieuwenhuys, A.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Mø st, E.I.S.; Maase, K.; Moen, M.H.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Sleep is essential for recovery and performance in elite athletes. While it is generally assumed that exercise benefits sleep, high training load may jeopardize sleep and hence limit adequate recovery. To examine this, the current study assessed objective sleep quantity and sleep stage

  17. Physical neighborhood and social environment, beliefs about sleep, sleep hygiene behaviors, and sleep quality among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Soohyun; Whittemore, Robin; Jung, Sunyoung; Latkin, Carl; Kershaw, Trace; Redeker, Nancy S

    2018-06-01

    African Americans (AAs) have a higher prevalence of sleep disorders than other racial/ethnic groups. However, little is known about the relationships among individual and neighborhood factors related to sleep quality in AAs. The purposes of this study were to (1) describe beliefs about sleep, sleep hygiene behaviors, and sleep quality among AAs; and (2) examine the relationships among sociodemographic characteristics, neighborhood environment, beliefs about sleep, sleep hygiene behaviors, and sleep quality. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 252 AA men and women in the Greater New Haven, CT, USA community. We assessed their sociodemographic characteristics, neighborhood environment, beliefs about sleep, sleep hygiene, and sleep quality with the following measures, respectively: the Neighborhood Environment Scale, the brief version of Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep, the Sleep Hygiene Practice Scale, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. We performed descriptive statistics, correlations and multiple hierarchical regression. About 72% of the participants (mean age: 53.88 ± 14.17 years, 77.8% women) reported experiencing sleep disturbance. People with poor sleep quality were more likely to report poorer neighborhood social environment (social cohesion), poorer overall neighborhood environment, more dysfunctional beliefs toward sleep, and poorer sleep hygiene than those who had good sleep quality. In the final multivariate model that controlled for a number of chronic comorbid conditions, neighborhood environment, beliefs about sleep, and sleep hygiene behaviors were significantly associated with sleep quality. Future efforts are needed to improve sleep among AAs by considering both the individual's belief about sleep, sleep hygiene behaviors and neighborhood factors. Copyright © 2018 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Obstructive sleep apnea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Tønnesen, Philip; Ibsen, Rikke

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Most studies have used cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) end-points to measure the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), but pre-diagnostic morbidities involve a range of comorbidities that may influence the consequences of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We...

  19. Sleep paralysis and psychopathology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    work accidents, etc. have been found to be at a high risk of psychopathology. ... patient has multiple bodily symptoms, but they are not accounted for by a general ... between sleep paralysis and adverse psychosocial situations,6,9-11 but to our ... treatment for co-morbid physical conditions or were too weak to participate ...

  20. Depression and poor sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez, Connie; Brennum, Lise T; Stórustovu, Signe í

    2007-01-01

    The effects of five antidepressants (escitalopram, paroxetine, duloxetine, venlafaxine, and reboxetine) on the sleep architecture were investigated in freely moving rats in the light phase of a 12:12 h light:dark cycle following a single i.p. dose of antidepressant. Overall, paroxetine and escita...

  1. Sleep in obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of duration and individual characteristics of sleep and chronotype on body weight, eating behavior, anxiety, depression, life quality, metabolic and hormonal parameters of obese patients. Materials and methods: 200 patients with primary obesity were studied: 83 men and 117 women at age from 18 to 61 years old, median age 41,5 years [31,0; 50,0]; body weight 107 kg [94; 128,5], waist circumference 112 cm [102; 124]; neck circumference 41 cm [38; 46], body mass index (BMI 36,9 [32,8; 42,3]. Results: We found an association between sleep duration, chronotype and the emotional eating. Significant sleep reduction (to less than 6 hours was associated with high level of anxiety, depression, emotional eating and insomnia. Younger age, early onset and shorter duration of obesity and brisk weight gain during last is connected to the evening chronotype. The emotional eating associated with hypersomnolence in the absence of statistically significant increase of anxiety and depression in individuals with evening chronotype. Sleep duration and chronotype have no significant effect on the body weight, metabolic, hormonal parameters and the dynamics of body. weight after 7±1 months of treatment of obesity.

  2. Waking the Sleeping Giant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ollenburger, Mary H.; Descheemaeker, Katrien; Crane, Todd A.; Sanogo, Ousmane M.; Giller, Ken E.

    2016-01-01

    The World Bank argued that West Africa's Guinea Savannah zone forms part of “Africa's Sleeping Giant,” where increases in agricultural production could be an engine of economic growth, through expansion of cultivated land in sparsely populated areas. The district of Bougouni, in southern Mali,

  3. Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    listed below; any history of excessive snoring, restless sleep, headaches ... 2014; 56(5):29-32. Open Access article distributed under the terms of the ..... contains 11 different forms of carotenes and 5 different forms of vitamin e. It contains no ...

  4. Sleep apnea syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2012-10-10

    Oct 10, 2012 ... benefited from clinical examination and paraclinical tests including a polygraphy or a ... 59(56.7%) patients had an obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome with a similar prevalence in both sexes. ... Depending on severity, clinical impact and results of investigations, the adequate .... No positional.

  5. Sleep and your health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to perform basic functions. You may find it hard to concentrate or remember things. You may become moody and lash out at ... lead to high blood pressure and inflammation, two things that can ... often make it hard to sleep. They also can become worse after ...

  6. Hypnotherapy for sleep disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Beng-Yeong; Lee, Tih Shih

    2008-08-01

    Hypnosis can be defined as a procedure during which changes in sensations, perceptions, thoughts, feelings or behaviour are suggested. Hypnosis can be used to amplify whatever it is about therapy that makes it therapeutic. It permits a wide range of choices regarding where and how to intervene in the patient's problems. In this paper, we set out to examine the rationale of using hypnotherapy to manage various types of sleep disorders, and to explore the techniques, strategies and hypnotic scripts employed by various hypnotherapists. We also examine the research data available on the efficacy of hypnosis in the treatment of sleep disorders. Acute and chronic insomnia often respond to relaxation and hypnotherapy approaches, along with sleep hygiene instructions. Hypnotherapy has also helped with nightmares and sleep terrors. There are several reports of successful use of hypnotherapy for parasomnias, specifically for head and body rocking, bedwetting and sleepwalking. Hypnosis is a specialised technique, not a therapy itself, and should be used as an adjunctive intervention within a complete psychological and medical treatment package. Most of the literature is limited to case reports or studies with such a small sample that at times it is very difficult to interpret the results. There is a major placebo effect, so uncontrolled trials are of limited value. It is hard to perform a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial to evaluate hypnotherapy given that cooperation and rapport between patient and therapist is needed to achieve a receptive trance state.

  7. Sleep-related laryngospasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurnheer, R; Henz, S; Knoblauch, A

    1997-09-01

    The term "sleep-related laryngospasm" refers to episodic, abrupt interruption of sleep accompanied by feelings of acute suffocation followed by stridor. The condition is included in the diagnostic and coding manual of the American Sleep Disorders Association (ASDA), but there are few references in the peer-reviewed literature. Our description of the distinct clinical picture associated with this condition is based on an analysis of the histories of a series of 10 patients. The patients and their families gave precise, uniform accounts of the dramatic attacks. Diagnostic work-up included pulmonary and gastroenterological assessment. All patients reported sudden awakening from sleep due to feelings of acute suffocation, accompanied by intense fear. Apnoea lasting 5-45 s was followed by stridor. Breathing returned to normal within minutes. Patients were left exhausted by the attacks. Nine of our 10 patients had evidence of gastro-oesophageal reflux and six responded to antireflux therapy. We conclude that the nocturnal choking attacks (and the occasional daytime attacks experienced by some of the patients) are caused by laryngospasm. The pathogenesis of the apparent underlying laryngeal irritability is unknown. The condition may be related to a gastro-oesophageal reflux.

  8. Information processing during NREM sleep and sleep quality in insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceklic, Tijana; Bastien, Célyne H

    2015-12-01

    Insomnia sufferers (INS) are cortically hyperaroused during sleep, which seems to translate into altered information processing during nighttime. While information processing, as measured by event-related potentials (ERPs), during wake appears to be associated with sleep quality of the preceding night, the existence of such an association during nighttime has never been investigated. This study aims to investigate nighttime information processing among good sleepers (GS) and INS while considering concomitant sleep quality. Following a multistep clinical evaluation, INS and GS participants underwent 4 consecutive nights of PSG recordings in the sleep laboratory. Thirty nine GS (mean age 34.56±9.02) and twenty nine INS (mean age 43.03±9.12) were included in the study. ERPs (N1, P2, N350) were recorded all night on Night 4 (oddball paradigm) during NREM sleep. Regardless of sleep quality, INS presented a larger N350 amplitude during SWS (p=0.042) while GS showed a larger N350 amplitude during late-night stage 2 sleep (p=0.004). Regardless of diagnosis, those who slept objectively well showed a smaller N350 amplitude (p=0.020) while those who slept subjectively well showed a smaller P2 (pInformation processing seems to be associated with concomitant subjective and objective sleep quality for both GS and INS. However, INS show an alteration in information processing during sleep, especially for inhibition processes, regardless of their sleep quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Why Sleep Matters—The Economic Costs of Insufficient Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Marco; Stepanek, Martin; Taylor, Jirka; Troxel, Wendy M.; van Stolk, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States has declared insufficient sleep a “public health problem.” Indeed, according to a recent CDC study, more than a third of American adults are not getting enough sleep on a regular basis. However, insufficient sleep is not exclusively a US problem, and equally concerns other industrialised countries such as the United Kingdom, Japan, Germany, or Canada. According to some evidence, the proportion of people sleeping less than the recommended hours of sleep is rising and associated with lifestyle factors related to a modern 24/7 society, such as psychosocial stress, alcohol consumption, smoking, lack of physical activity and excessive electronic media use, among others. This is alarming as insufficient sleep has been found to be associated with a range of negative health and social outcomes, including success at school and in the labour market. Over the last few decades, for example, there has been growing evidence suggesting a strong association between short sleep duration and elevated mortality risks. Given the potential adverse effects of insufficient sleep on health, well-being and productivity, the consequences of sleep-deprivation have far-reaching economic consequences. Hence, in order to raise awareness of the scale of insufficient sleep as a public-health issue, comparative quantitative figures need to be provided for policy- and decision-makers, as well as recommendations and potential solutions that can help tackling the problem. PMID:28983434

  10. Otolaryngology sleep medicine curriculum objectives as determined by sleep experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cass, Nathan; Kominsky, Alan; Cabrera-Muffly, Cristina

    (1) Ascertain the most important concepts and topics for otolaryngology resident education in sleep medicine and surgery, as determined by faculty who teach sleep medicine to otolaryngology residents. (2) Create learning objectives within the area of otolaryngologic sleep medicine in order to design a sleep medicine curriculum for otolaryngology residents. Two web-based surveys were sent to 163 academic otolaryngologists who teach sleep medicine. The first survey determined the topics, and their relative importance, considered most vital to learn during otolaryngology training. Using the Delphi method, the second clarified questions regarding topics determined by the first survey. Sleep medicine learning objectives for residents were ascertained from responses. The response rate of first and second surveys were 24.5% and 19%, respectively. Topics ranked most important for resident education included upper airway anatomy, polysomnogram interpretation, and understanding the range of medical and surgical therapies used to treat sleep disorders. Respondents listed surgical therapy as the most critical topic that most residents do not understand well. The second survey clarified the specific anatomic features, surgical techniques, and polysomnography data points deemed most critical for resident learning. Academic otolaryngology sleep experts hold opinions regarding relative value of different topics for teaching sleep medicine, which is useful in creating a curriculum for otolaryngology residents. Otolaryngology learning objectives related to sleep medicine identified during this study are being used to create an online curriculum to supplement resident education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Superconductor bearings, flywheels and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werfel, F N; Floegel-Delor, U; Rothfeld, R; Riedel, T; Goebel, B; Wippich, D; Schirrmeister, P

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the present status of high temperature superconductors (HTS) and of bulk superconducting magnet devices, their use in bearings, in flywheel energy storage systems (FESS) and linear transport magnetic levitation (Maglev) systems. We report and review the concepts of multi-seeded REBCO bulk superconductor fabrication. The multi-grain bulks increase the averaged trapped magnetic flux density up to 40% compared to single-grain assembly in large-scale applications. HTS magnetic bearings with permanent magnet (PM) excitation were studied and scaled up to maximum forces of 10 kN axially and 4.5 kN radially. We examine the technology of the high-gradient magnetic bearing concept and verify it experimentally. A large HTS bearing is tested for stabilizing a 600 kg rotor of a 5 kWh/250 kW flywheel system. The flywheel rotor tests show the requirement for additional damping. Our compact flywheel system is compared with similar HTS–FESS projects. A small-scale compact YBCO bearing with in situ Stirling cryocooler is constructed and investigated for mobile applications. Next we show a successfully developed modular linear Maglev system for magnetic train operation. Each module levitates 0.25t at 10 mm distance during one-day operation without refilling LN 2 . More than 30 vacuum cryostats containing multi-seeded YBCO blocks are fabricated and are tested now in Germany, China and Brazil.

  12. Interactions between sleep disorders and oral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, N T; Emami, E; Helman, J I; Chervin, R D

    2014-04-01

    Dental sleep medicine is a rapidly growing field that is in close and direct interaction with sleep medicine and comprises many aspects of human health. As a result, dentists who encounter sleep health and sleep disorders may work with clinicians from many other disciplines and specialties. The main sleep and oral health issues that are covered in this review are obstructive sleep apnea, chronic mouth breathing, sleep-related gastroesophageal reflux, and sleep bruxism. In addition, edentulism and its impact on sleep disorders are discussed. Improving sleep quality and sleep characteristics, oral health, and oral function involves both pathophysiology and disease management. The multiple interactions between oral health and sleep underscore the need for an interdisciplinary clinical team to manage oral health-related sleep disorders that are commonly seen in dental practice. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Noise estimation of oil lubricated journal bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, Byoung Hoo; Kim, Kyung Woong

    2003-01-01

    Noise estimating procedures of oil lubricated journal bearings are presented. Nonlinear analysis of rotor-bearing system including unbalance mass of the rotor is performed in order to obtain acoustical properties of the bearing. Acoustical properties of the bearing are investigated through frequency analysis of the pressure fluctuation of the fluid film calculated from the nonlinear analysis. Noise estimating procedures presented in this paper could aid in the evaluation and understanding of acoustical properties of oil lubricated journal bearings

  14. CAN NON-REM SLEEP BE DEPRESSOGENIC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BEERSMA, DGM; VANDENHOOFDAKKER, RH

    Sleep and mood are clearly interrelated in major depression, as shown by the antidepressive effects of various experiments, such as total sleep deprivation, partial sleep deprivation, REM sleep deprivation, and temporal shifts of the sleep period. The prevailing hypotheses explaining these effects

  15. Can non-REM sleep be depressogenic?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beersma, Domien G.M.; Hoofdakker, Rutger H. van den

    1992-01-01

    Sleep and mood are clearly interrelated in major depression, as shown by the antidepressive effects of various experiments, such as total sleep deprivation, partial sleep deprivation, REM sleep deprivation, and temporal shifts of the sleep period. The prevailing hypotheses explaining these effects

  16. Sleep Problems in Students of Elementary Schools in Kashan in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FS Asgarian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sleep problems are taken into account as a prevalent problem within school-age children that is normally ignored in spite of its high prevalence. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the frequency of sleep problems within elementary students in Kashan. Methods: This study is descriptive-cross sectional, in which 300 children (7-12 years old of Kashan elementary schools were randomly selected via cluster sampling method. The study instruments for data collection involved questions concerning children's age and sex as well as BEAR'S questionnaire, which were filled by the children's mothers. Moreover, the study data were analyzed by descriptive statistics method (mean and standard deviation, independent sample T-test was used to compare mean of sleep duration and Mann-Whitney u test was applied to evaluate the difference between age and sex groups. Results: Totally, 300 children participated in this study, among which 44.3% were boys and 55.7% were girls. The most common sleep problems involved nightmare and resistance against a wakening. Relative frequency of awakening during night was observed to be higher within boys than girls (p<0.05. Conclusion: High frequency of sleep problems in the current study may indicate the significance of taking sleep problems into consideration within students as well as informing healthy sleep patterns in order to promote knowledge level of parents via schools and parent-teacher meetings.

  17. Changes in plain bearing technology

    CERN Document Server

    Koring, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    A unique fusion of theoretical and practical knowledge, Changes in Plain Bearing Technology, by Rolf Koring, covers a meaningful range of expertise in this field.Drawing from years of experience in design development, materials selection, and their correlation to real-life part failure, this title, co-published by SAE International and expert Verlag (Germany), concentrates on hydrodynamic bearings lined with white metals, also known as Babbits.Written under the assumption that even the most mature body of knowledge can be revisited and improved, Changes in Plain Bearing Technology is a courageous and focused approach to questioning accepted test results and looking at alternative material compounds, and their application suitability.The process, which leads to innovative answers on how the technology is transforming itself to respond to new market requirements, shows how interdisciplinary thinking can recognize new potential in long-established industrial modus operandi.Tackling the highly complex issue of co...

  18. 'Dodo' and 'Baby Bear' Trenches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this image on Sol 11 (June 5, 2008), the eleventh day after landing. It shows the trenches dug by Phoenix's Robotic Arm. The trench on the left is informally called 'Dodo' and was dug as a test. The trench on the right is informally called 'Baby Bear.' The sample dug from Baby Bear will be delivered to the Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA. The Baby Bear trench is 9 centimeters (3.1 inches) wide and 4 centimeters (1.6 inches) deep. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. 75 FR 26094 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... establishing a temporary safety zone from Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan. This temporary safety...

  20. Sleep, sport, and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halson, Shona L; Juliff, Laura E

    2017-01-01

    The recognition that sleep is one of the foundations of athlete performance is increasing both in the elite athlete arena as well as applied performance research. Sleep, as identified through sleep deprivation and sleep extension investigations, has a role in performance, illness, injury, metabolism, cognition, memory, learning, and mood. Elite athletes have been identified as having poorer quality and quantity of sleep in comparison to the general population. This is likely the result on training times, competition stress/anxiety, muscle soreness, caffeine use, and travel. Sleep, in particular slow wave sleep, provides a restorative function to the body to recover from prior wakefulness and fatigue by repairing processes and restoring energy. In addition, research in the general population is highlighting the importance of sleep on neurophysiology, cognitive function, and mood which may have implications for elite athlete performance. It is thus increased understanding of both the effects of sleep deprivation and potential mechanisms of influence on performance that may allow scientists and practitioners to positively influence sleep in athletes and ultimately maximize performances. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Caffeine: sleep and daytime sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrs, Timothy; Roth, Thomas

    2008-04-01

    Caffeine is one of the most widely consumed psychoactive substances and it has profound effects on sleep and wake function. Laboratory studies have documented its sleep-disruptive effects. It clearly enhances alertness and performance in studies with explicit sleep deprivation, restriction, or circadian sleep schedule reversals. But, under conditions of habitual sleep the evidence indicates that caffeine, rather then enhancing performance, is merely restoring performance degraded by sleepiness. The sleepiness and degraded function may be due to basal sleep insufficiency, circadian sleep schedule reversals, rebound sleepiness, and/or a withdrawal syndrome after the acute, over-night, caffeine discontinuation typical of most studies. Studies have shown that caffeine dependence develops at relatively low daily doses and after short periods of regular daily use. Large sample and population-based studies indicate that regular daily dietary caffeine intake is associated with disturbed sleep and associated daytime sleepiness. Further, children and adolescents, while reporting lower daily, weight-corrected caffeine intake, similarly experience sleep disturbance and daytime sleepiness associated with their caffeine use. The risks to sleep and alertness of regular caffeine use are greatly underestimated by both the general population and physicians.

  2. Sleep can reduce proactive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Magdalena; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has repeatedly been connected to processes of memory consolidation. While extensive research indeed documents beneficial effects of sleep on memory, little is yet known about the role of sleep for interference effects in episodic memory. Although two prior studies reported sleep to reduce retroactive interference, no sleep effect has previously been found for proactive interference. Here we applied a study format differing from that employed by the prior studies to induce a high degree of proactive interference, and asked participants to encode a single list or two interfering lists of paired associates via pure study cycles. Testing occurred after 12 hours of diurnal wakefulness or nocturnal sleep. Consistent with the prior work, we found sleep in comparison to wake did not affect memory for the single list, but reduced retroactive interference. In addition we found sleep reduced proactive interference, and reduced retroactive and proactive interference to the same extent. The finding is consistent with the view that arising benefits of sleep are caused by the reactivation of memory contents during sleep, which has been suggested to strengthen and stabilise memories. Such stabilisation may make memories less susceptible to competition from interfering memories at test and thus reduce interference effects.

  3. Injectable-antineoplastic-drug practices in Michigan hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I A; Newland, S J; Kirking, D M

    1987-05-01

    Practices related to parenteral (injectable) antineoplastic drugs (PADs) in Michigan hospitals were surveyed. All hospitals in Michigan were surveyed to assess compliance with American Society of Hospital Pharmacists (ASHP) and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommendations related to PADs. Other PAD-related practice issues not covered within those guidelines were also studied. Surveys were mailed to the pharmacy directors of the state's 192 acute-care hospitals. Included were questions concerning policies and procedures for ordering, storing, preparing, handling, labeling, transporting, administering, and disposing of PADs. Questions concerning staff education, spill cleanup, and personnel issues were also included. A total of 169 questionnaires were returned, yielding a response rate of 88%. Of those respondents, 132 indicated that they prepare PAD doses for inpatients. Adherence rates were high for several of the PAD-preparation recommendations, including handwashing (97%) and gloving (98.5%). Rates for gowning (71.2%), labeling of PAD doses as biohazards (chemical hazards) (73.5%), and use of Class II biological-safety cabinets (71.2%) were less favorable. Practice areas with relatively poor adherence rates included use of plastic-backed absorbent pads under PAD preparation areas (53.8%), storing PADs separately from other drugs (48.5%), informing prospective employees of potential risks of handling PADs (36.4%), availability of spill kits (36.4%), and attaching and priming i.v. tubing before adding PADs to i.v. containers (5.4%). Many pharmacy departments in Michigan hospitals can substantially improve their adherence to ASHP and OSHA recommendations related to PADs.

  4. Estimation of alewife biomass in Lake Michigan, 1967-1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Richard W.; Haack, Paul M.; Brown, Edward H.

    1981-01-01

    The buildup of salmonid populations in Lake Michigan through annual stockings of hatchery-reared fish may become limited by the quantity of forage fish, mainly alewives Alosa pseudoharengus, available for food. As a part of a continuing examination of salmonid predator-prey relations in Lake Michigan, we traced changes in alewife biomass estimated from bottom-trawl surveys conducted in late October and early November 1967–1978. Weight of adult alewives trawled per 0.5 hectare of bottom (10-minute drag) at 16 depths along eight transects between 1973 and 1977 formed a skewed distribution: 72 of 464 drags caught no alewives; 89 drags caught less than 1 kg; and 2 drags caught more than 100 kg (maximum 159 kg). Analysis of variance in normalized catch per tow indicated highly significant differences between the main effects of years and depths, and highly significant differences in the interactions of years and transects, years and depths, and transects and depths. Five geographic and depth strata, formed by combining parts of transects wherein mean catch rate did not differ significantly, were the basis for calculating annual estimates of adult alewife biomass (with 90% confidence intervals). Estimated biomass of alewives (±90% confidence limits) in Lake Michigan proper (Green Bay and Grand Traverse Bay excluded) rose gradually from 46,000 (±9,000) t in 1967 to 114,000 (±17,000) t in 1973, declined to 45,000 (±8,000) t in 1977, and rose to 77,000 (±19,000) t in 1978.

  5. Voluntary Sleep Loss in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonk, Marcella; Krueger, James M.; Davis, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Animal sleep deprivation (SDEP), in contrast to human SDEP, is involuntary and involves repeated exposure to aversive stimuli including the inability of the animal to control the waking stimulus. Therefore, we explored intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), an operant behavior, as a method for voluntary SDEP in rodents. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with electroencephalography/electromyography (EEG/EMG) recording electrodes and a unilateral bipolar electrode into the lateral hypothalamus. Rats were allowed to self-stimulate, or underwent gentle handling-induced SDEP (GH-SDEP), during the first 6 h of the light phase, after which they were allowed to sleep. Other rats performed the 6 h ICSS and 1 w later were subjected to 6 h of noncontingent stimulation (NCS). During NCS the individual stimulation patterns recorded during ICSS were replayed. Results: After GH-SDEP, ICSS, or NCS, time in nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep increased. Further, in the 24 h after SDEP, rats recovered all of the REM sleep lost during SDEP, but only 75% to 80% of the NREM sleep lost, regardless of the SDEP method. The magnitude of EEG slow wave responses occurring during NREM sleep also increased after SDEP treatments. However, NREM sleep EEG slow wave activity (SWA) responses were attenuated following ICSS, compared to GH-SDEP and NCS. Conclusions: We conclude that ICSS and NCS can be used to sleep deprive rats. Changes in rebound NREM sleep EEG SWA occurring after ICSS, NCS, and GH-SDEP suggest that nonspecific effects of the SDEP procedure differentially affect recovery sleep phenotypes. Citation: Oonk M, Krueger JM, Davis CJ. Voluntary sleep loss in rats. SLEEP 2016;39(7):1467–1479. PMID:27166236

  6. A Sleep Position Trainer for positional sleep apnea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laub, Rasmus R; Tønnesen, Philip; Jennum, Poul J

    2017-01-01

    We tested the effect of the Sleep Position Trainer, a vibrational device, for positional sleep apnea in an open, randomized controlled trial with 101 patients, where 52 patients were allocated to Sleep Position Trainer and 49 patients to a non-treatment control group for 2 months (Part 1). All...... patients were then followed as a cohort for a period of 6 months with use of the Sleep Position Trainer (Part 2). The participants were assessed with polygraphy at entry, and after 2 and 6 months. The mean apnea-hypopnea index supine was 35 per h (SD, 18) in the Sleep Position Trainer group and 38 per h...... (SD, 15) in the control group at entry. In a per protocol analysis, the mean total apnea-hypopnea index at entry and after 2 months in the Sleep Position Trainer group was 18 per h (SD, 10) and 10 per h (SD, 9; P

  7. Whistler mode startup in the Michigan Mirror Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booske, J.; Getty, W.D.; Gilgenbach, R.M.; Goodman, T.; Whaley, D.; Olivieri, R.; Pitcher, E.; Simonetti, L.

    1985-01-01

    Results of investigations of whistler mode ECRH plasma startup in the Michigan Mirror Machine are presented. Electron-velocity-distribution and plasma-spatial-distribution time evolution are characterized by measurements from axially and radially moveable Langmuir probes, an endloss current detector, an electron cyclotron emission radiometer, a foil-filtered X-ray detector, and a diamagnetic loop at the mirror midplane. Measurements of the buildup of both electron density and perpendicular pressure (nkT/sub perpendicular/) are compared to predictions from various numerical models. Both modeling and data suggest the creation of a highly anisotropic electron velocity distribution function with a ''sloshing electron'' axial density profile

  8. Comparison between polluted and clean air masses over Lake Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkezweeny, A.J.; Laulainen, N.S.

    1981-01-01

    Clean and polluted air masses, advected over Lake Michigan, were studied using instrumental aircraft during the summers of 1976 and 1978. The results show that regardless of the degree of pollution, the particle size distribution is bimodal. The concentrations of sulfate, nitrate and trace metals in a clean air mass are more than an order of magnitude lower than those in polluted air masses. Furthermore, these concentrations are comparable with those measured in remote areas of the world. In clean air the ratio of the total light scattering to Rayleigh scattering is very close to one, indicating very low concentrations of particulates in the optically active size classes

  9. History of the Trenton Albion-Scipio trend of Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beghini, V G; Conroy, T R

    1966-01-01

    This discussion of the history of the Trenton Albion-Scipio trend in Michigan includes the location and development history, geology and reservoir characteristics, drilling and completion methods, production and history of both the Albion and Scipio Fields, production operation, and workover procedure. Maps, illustrations, and graphs of the topics discussed are included. The largest drilling problem encountered was lost circulation causing several blowouts, 2 of which resulted in spectacular fires. Production problems include paraffin deposition, corrosion and brine disposal. Well workovers have been performed in an attempt to correct one or more of 3 problems--high gas- oil ratio, high water cut, and low capacity.

  10. Neutron radiography at the University of Michigan's Phoenix Memorial Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, J.T.; Elam, S.; Koblish, T.; Lee, P.; McAuliffe, D.

    1990-01-01

    Real-time neutron radiography (RTNR) is rapidly becoming a valuable tool for nondestructive testing and basic research with a wide variety of applications. The Phoenix Memorial Laboratory (PML) at the University of Michigan has developed an RTNR facility and has been using this facility to study several phenomena of interest to researchers in many areas. These phenomena include imaging of the internal fluid flow in gas turbine engine nozzles and coking and debris deposition in several gas turbine nozzles. This paper presents a summary of the technique and facilities involved in these applications

  11. Surveillance for work-related skull fractures in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kica, Joanna; Rosenman, Kenneth D

    2014-12-01

    The objective was to develop a multisource surveillance system for work-related skull fractures. Records on work-related skull fractures were obtained from Michigan's 134 hospitals, Michigan's Workers' Compensation Agency and death certificates. Cases from the three sources were matched to eliminate duplicates from more than one source. Workplaces where the most severe injuries occurred were referred to OSHA for an enforcement inspection. There were 318 work related skull fractures, not including facial fractures, between 2010 and 2012. In 2012, after the inclusion of facial fractures, 316 fractures were identified of which 218 (69%) were facial fractures. The Bureau of Labor Statistic's (BLS) 2012 estimate of skull fractures in Michigan, which includes facial fractures, was 170, which was 53.8% of those identified from our review of medical records. The inclusion of facial fractures in the surveillance system increased the percentage of women identified from 15.4% to 31.2%, decreased severity (hospitalization went from 48.7% to 10.6% and loss of consciousness went from 56.5% to 17.8%), decreased falls from 48.2% to 27.6%, and increased assaults from 5.0% to 20.2%, shifted the most common industry from construction (13.3%) to health care and social assistance (15.0%) and the highest incidence rate from males 65+ (6.8 per 100,000) to young men, 20-24 years (9.6 per 100,000). Workplace inspections resulted in 45 violations and $62,750 in penalties. The Michigan multisource surveillance system of workplace injuries had two major advantages over the existing national system: (a) workplace investigations were initiated hazards identified and safety changes implemented at the facilities where the injuries occurred; and (b) a more accurate count was derived, with 86% more work-related skull fractures identified than BLS's employer based estimate. A more comprehensive system to identify and target interventions for workplace injuries was implemented using hospital and

  12. 76 FR 48751 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Lake Michigan Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... Jardine Water Filtration Plant security zone would encompass all U.S. navigable waters of Lake Michigan... areas near shore to Chicago's water filtration plants; the security zones have been designed to allow.... 165.910 Security Zones; Captain of the Port Lake Michigan. (a) * * * (1) Jardine Water Filtration...

  13. 76 FR 80392 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology, Ann Arbor, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ...: University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology, Ann Arbor, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION... Michigan officials and its Museum of Anthropology professional staff in consultation with representatives... accessioned into the Museum of Anthropology. Between 2007 and 2009 the remains were inventoried at the...

  14. 78 FR 34129 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Michigan, Museum of Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-NAGPRA-13042; PPWOCRADN0-PCU00RP14.R50000] Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Michigan, Museum of Anthropology... County, MI. In 1924, these items were sold to the University of Michigan, Museum of Anthropology, by Rev...

  15. Forging New Pathways: The Impact of the Breaking through Initiative in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanker, Jennifer B.; Taylor, Judith C.

    2012-01-01

    The Michigan Center for Student Success commissioned this study to determine whether strategies employed to improve adult students' success at 41 Breaking Through colleges nationwide have taken root at Michigan's original colleges and spread beyond them. A statewide survey revisited four of the colleges profiled in previous publications, and the…

  16. Forging New Pathways: The Impact of the Breaking through Initiative in Michigan. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanker, Jennifer B.; Taylor, Judith C.

    2012-01-01

    The Michigan Center for Student Success commissioned this study to determine whether strategies employed to improve adult students' success at 41 Breaking Through colleges nationwide have taken root at Michigan's original colleges and spread beyond them. A statewide survey revisited four of the colleges profiled in previous publications, and the…

  17. The Michigan high-level radioactive waste program: Final technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report comprises the state of Michigan's final technical report on the location of a proposed high-level radioactive waste disposal site. Included are a list of Michigan's efforts to review the DOE proposal and a detailed report on the application of geographic information systems analysis techniques to the review process

  18. 78 FR 65382 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ....S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory of human remains under the control of the University of....R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Michigan has completed an inventory of human...

  19. 78 FR 65369 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ....S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory of human remains under the control of the University of....R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Michigan has completed an inventory of human...

  20. 78 FR 65366 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ....S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory of human remains under the control of the University of....R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Michigan has completed an inventory of human...

  1. Factors Influencing School Closure and Dismissal Decisions: Influenza A (H1N1), Michigan 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooyema, Carrie A.; Copeland, Daphne; Sinclair, Julie R.; Shi, Jianrong; Wilkins, Melinda; Wells, Eden; Collins, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Background: In fall 2009, many US communities experienced school closures during the influenza A H1N1 pandemic (pH1N1) and the state of Michigan reported 567 closures. We conducted an investigation in Michigan to describe pH1N1-related school policies, practices, and identify factors related to school closures. Methods: We distributed an online…

  2. Michigan State University Extension Educators' Perceptions of the Use of Digital Technology in Their Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Elizabeth Chase

    2009-01-01

    This research study examined Michigan State University Extension educators' perceptions of the use of digital technology in their work. It used a mixed method of research which included a mailed survey and interviews of selected respondents. A census survey using Dillman's Total Design method was sent to 290 field staff of Michigan State…

  3. Lake Michigan lake trout PCB model forecast post audit (oral presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scenario forecasts for total PCBs in Lake Michigan (LM) lake trout were conducted using the linked LM2-Toxics and LM Food Chain models, supported by a suite of additional LM models. Efforts were conducted under the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study and the post audit represents an...

  4. High Energy Theory Workshops and Visitors at the Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics FY16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Aaron [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2017-08-04

    This award provided partial support for the Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics to host two workshops "Beyond the Standard Model 2016" in October 2016, and the "5th MCTP Symposium: Foundations of String Cosmology" in April 2017 on the University of Michigan campus.

  5. First report of Streptomyces stelliscabiei causing potato common scab in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptomyces scabies has been reported as the predominant cause of potato scab in Michigan. In a 2007 survey of common scab in Michigan, however, isolates were collected from a field that did not fit the description for S. scabies. Tests using species-specific PCR primers indicated isolates were S. ...

  6. 78 FR 18336 - Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... and Copper Rule Short Term Revisions, and the Lead and Copper Rule Minor Revisions. These rules better... defined in 18 U.S.C. 1151. By approving these rules, EPA does not intend to affect the rights of federally recognized Indian Tribes in Michigan, nor does it intend to limit existing rights of the State of Michigan...

  7. Improving Michigan STEM Teachers and Teaching: The W.K. Kellogg Foundation's Woodrow Wilson Teaching Fellowship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The W. K. Kellogg Foundation's Woodrow Wilson Michigan Teaching Fellowship successfully addressed the challenge of preparing and supporting effective teachers for Michigan's high-need classrooms, while helping transform teacher education across the state for the long term. This report analyzes the efforts of the W. K. Kellogg Foundation's Woodrow…

  8. Population increase in Kirtland's warbler and summer range expansion to Wisconsin and Michigan's Upper Peninsula, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Probst; Deahn Donner; Carol I. Bocetti; Steve Sjogren

    2003-01-01

    The threatened Kirtland`s warbler Dendroica kirtlandii breeds in stands of young jack pine Pinus banksiana growing on well-drained soils in Michigan, USA. We summarize information documenting the range expansion of Kirtland`s warbler due to increased habitat management in the core breeding range in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan...

  9. Maintenance Dredging of the Federal Navigation Channels in the Saginaw River and Saginaw Bay, Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    contact is Dr. Martha Bigelow, Director, Michigan History Division, Depar=int of State, Lansing, Michigan 48918. Te National Recister shoeuld also be...other low growth. Methylation - Change from an inorganic to an organic form usually as a result of bacterial action. For * example, the metal mercury

  10. 75 FR 32664 - Safety Zone; Milwaukee Air and Water Show, Lake Michigan, Milwaukee, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    .... ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a safety zone on Lake Michigan... of Lake Michigan due to a large-scale air show and a fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is... air show and fireworks display. DATES: This regulation is effective from 12:01 a.m. on June 10, 2010...

  11. Job-Embedded Professional Development Policy in Michigan: Can It Be Successful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Michael A.; Pogodzinski, Ben; Hill, William E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates Michigan's recently implemented job-embedded professional development policy using criteria of relevance, focus, goal orientation and social scope. The authors assert that while Michigan's policy does address all four criteria detailing effective professional development, there are limitations in the policy that may impact the…

  12. 76 FR 63202 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Lake Michigan Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ..., SE., Washington, DC 20590, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal holidays... Filtration Plant security zone will encompass all U.S. navigable waters of Lake Michigan within an arc of a..., Illinois. It encompasses all U.S. navigable waters of Lake Michigan within the arc of a circle with a 100...

  13. Associations between sleep duration, sleep quality and diabetic retinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Y Q Tan

    Full Text Available Abnormal durations of sleep have been associated with risk of diabetes. However, it is not clear if sleep duration is associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR.In a cross-sectional study, we included 1,231 (Malay, n = 395; Indian, n = 836 adults (mean age 64.4 ± 9.0 years, 50.4% female with diabetes from the second visit of two independent population-based cohort studies (2011-15 in Singapore. Self-reported habitual sleep duration was categorized as short (<6 h, normal (6≤ h <8, and long (≥8 h. Questionnaires were administered to detect risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, excessive daytime sleepiness, and insomnia, all of which may indicate poor quality of sleep. The associations between sleep-related characteristics with moderate DR and vision-threatening DR (VTDR were analysed using logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders.Prevalence of moderate DR and VTDR in the study population were 10.5% and 6.3% respectively. The mean duration of sleep was 6.4 ± 1.5 h. Compared to normal sleep duration, both short and long sleep durations were associated with moderate DR with multivariable odds ratio (95% confidence interval of 1.73 (1.03-2.89 and 2.17 (1.28-3.66 respectively. Long sleep duration (2.37 [1.16-4.89], high risk of OSA (2.24 [1.09-4.75], and excessive daytime sleepiness (3.27 [1.02-10.30] were separately associated with VTDR.Sleep duration had a U-shaped association with moderate DR; long sleep duration, excessive daytime sleepiness and high risk of OSA were positively associated with VTDR.

  14. Aging induced ER stress alters sleep and sleep homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Marishka K.; Chan, May T.; Zimmerman, John E.; Pack, Allan I.; Jackson, Nicholas E.; Naidoo, Nirinjini

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in the quality, quantity and architecture of baseline and recovery sleep have been shown to occur during aging. Sleep deprivation induces endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress and upregulates a protective signaling pathway termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). The effectiveness of the adaptive UPR is diminished by age. Previously, we showed that endogenous chaperone levels altered recovery sleep in Drosophila melanogaster. We now report that acute administration of the chemical ...

  15. Results of photochemical modeling sensitivity analyses in the Lake Michigan region: Current status of Lake Michigan Ozone Control Program (LMOP) modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolwick, P.D. [Lake Michigan Air Directors Consortium, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Kaleel, R.J. [Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, Springfield, IL (United States); Majewski, M.A. [Wisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The four states that border Lake Michigan are cooperatively applying a state-of-the-art nested photochemical grid model to assess the effects of potential emission control strategies on reducing elevated tropospheric ozone concentrations in the region to levels below the national ambient air quality standard. In order to provide an extensive database to support the application of the photochemical model, a substantial data collection effort known as the Lake Michigan Ozone Study (LMOS) was completed during the summer of 1991. The Lake Michigan Ozone Control Program (LMOP) was established by the States of Illinois, Wisconsin, Michigan, and Indiana to carry out the application of the modeling system developed from the LMOS, in terms of developing the attainment demonstrations required from this area by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.

  16. Benefits of Sleep Extension on Sustained Attention and Sleep Pressure Before and During Total Sleep Deprivation and Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, Pierrick J; Sauvet, Fabien; Leger, Damien; van Beers, Pascal; Bayon, Virginie; Bougard, Clément; Rabat, Arnaud; Millet, Guillaume Y; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effects of 6 nights of sleep extension on sustained attention and sleep pressure before and during total sleep deprivation and after a subsequent recovery sleep. Subjects participated in two experimental conditions (randomized cross-over design): extended sleep (EXT, 9.8 ± 0.1 h (mean ± SE) time in bed) and habitual sleep (HAB, 8.2 ± 0.1 h time in bed). In each condition, subjects performed two consecutive phases: (1) 6 nights of either EXT or HAB (2) three days in-laboratory: baseline, total sleep deprivation and after 10 h of recovery sleep. Residential sleep extension and sleep performance laboratory (continuous polysomnographic recording). 14 healthy men (age range: 26-37 years). EXT vs. HAB sleep durations prior to total sleep deprivation. Total sleep time and duration of all sleep stages during the 6 nights were significantly higher in EXT than HAB. EXT improved psychomotor vigilance task performance (PVT, both fewer lapses and faster speed) and reduced sleep pressure as evidenced by longer multiple sleep latencies (MSLT) at baseline compared to HAB. EXT limited PVT lapses and the number of involuntary microsleeps during total sleep deprivation. Differences in PVT lapses and speed and MSLT at baseline were maintained after one night of recovery sleep. Six nights of extended sleep improve sustained attention and reduce sleep pressure. Sleep extension also protects against psychomotor vigilance task lapses and microsleep degradation during total sleep deprivation. These beneficial effects persist after one night of recovery sleep. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  17. Infant sleep problems: The sleep characteristics of the "Don't Know" response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shao-Yu; Lee, Chien-Chang; Chen, Li-Chiou; Tung, Yi-Ching

    2018-01-01

    To examine the sleep characteristics of infants with parentally reported sleep problems, with parentally reported no sleep problems and with parentally reported uncertain sleep conditions. Infant sleep problems are recognized as a major health issue worldwide. However, in our daily clinical practices, it is not uncommon for parents not to know whether their infant sleep is problematic. A prospective study conducted between 2012 - 2015 where 219 parents completed questionnaires and infants wore an actigraph monitor for 7 days. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to evaluate the actigraphic and parentally reported infant sleep behaviours between the groups. Thirty-two (14.61%) parents did not know whether their infant sleep was problematic and 118 (53.88%) parents considered their infant sleep a problem. Compared with infants without sleep problems, infants with uncertain sleep conditions had significantly increased odds of having shortened longest sleep duration according to parental report. A significant association was found for infants without sleep problems compared with those with sleep problems who had significantly more wake after sleep onset as measured by actigraphy, as well as reduced longest sleep duration according to parental report. Infants with uncertain sleep conditions have the same problematic sleep behaviours resembling those of children with reported sleep problems. Healthcare professionals should actively disseminate sleep knowledge to help parents interpret infant sleep behaviours and consider possible intervention strategies for improving parental sleep-related knowledge and infant sleep. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Can sleep deprivation studies explain why human adults sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lee K

    2012-11-01

    This review will concentrate on the consequences of sleep deprivation in adult humans. These findings form a paradigm that serves to demonstrate many of the critical functions of the sleep states. The drive to obtain food, water, and sleep constitutes important vegetative appetites throughout the animal kingdom. Unlike nutrition and hydration, the reasons for sleep have largely remained speculative. When adult humans are nonspecifically sleep-deprived, systemic effects may include defects in cognition, vigilance, emotional stability, risk-taking, and, possibly, moral reasoning. Appetite (for foodstuffs) increases and glucose intolerance may ensue. Procedural, declarative, and emotional memory are affected. Widespread alterations of immune function and inflammatory regulators can be observed, and functional MRI reveals profound changes in regional cerebral activity related to attention and memory. Selective deprivation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, on the contrary, appears to be more activating and to have lesser effects on immunity and inflammation. The findings support a critical need for sleep due to the widespread effects on the adult human that result from nonselective sleep deprivation. The effects of selective REM deprivation appear to be different and possibly less profound, and the functions of this sleep state remain enigmatic.

  19. Vascular compliance limits during sleep deprivation and recovery sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Derrick J; Schei, Jennifer L; Rector, David M

    2013-10-01

    Our previous studies showed that evoked hemodynamic responses are smaller during wake compared to sleep; suggesting neural activity is associated with vascular expansion and decreased compliance. We explored whether prolonged activity during sleep deprivation may exacerbate vascular expansion and blunt hemodynamic responses. Evoked auditory responses were generated with periodic 65 dB speaker clicks over a 72-h period and measured with cortical electrodes. Evoked hemodynamic responses were measured simultaneously with optical techniques using three light-emitting diodes, and a photodiode. Animals were housed in separate 30×30×80 cm enclosures, tethered to a commutator system and maintained on a 12-h light/dark cycle. Food and water were available ad libitum. Seven adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Following a 24-h baseline recording, sleep deprivation was initiated for 0 to 10 h by gentle handling, followed by a 24-h recovery sleep recording. Evoked electrical and hemodynamic responses were measured before, during, and after sleep deprivation. Following deprivation, evoked hemodynamic amplitudes were blunted. Steady-state oxyhemoglobin concentration increased during deprivation and remained high during the initial recovery period before returning to baseline levels after approximately 9-h. Sleep deprivation resulted in blood vessel expansion and decreased compliance while lower basal neural activity during recovery sleep may allow blood vessel compliance to recover. Chronic sleep restriction or sleep deprivation could push the vasculature to critical levels, limiting blood delivery, and leading to metabolic deficits with the potential for neural trauma.

  20. 76 FR 44947 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology, Ann...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... Cultural Items: University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology, Ann Arbor, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology, in consultation with... contact the University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology. DATES: Representatives of any Indian tribe that...

  1. 78 FR 17099 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... Guard will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including...

  2. 78 FR 49684 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago... the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

  3. 77 FR 20295 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines...

  4. 78 FR 65874 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago... the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... Guard will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including...

  5. 75 FR 73966 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines...

  6. 76 FR 23524 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago... safety zone from Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan. This proposed safety zone will cover 77.... This TIR established a 77 mile long safety zone from Brandon Road Lock to Lake Michigan in Chicago, IL...

  7. 78 FR 4071 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago... the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... Coast Guard will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan...

  8. 78 FR 36091 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

  9. 77 FR 35854 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines...

  10. 75 FR 64673 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and, Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and, Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and... Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Ship and...: The Coast Guard will enforce Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des...

  11. 78 FR 40635 - Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... Coast Guard will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan...

  12. 78 FR 36092 - Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... Coast Guard will enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan...

  13. 77 FR 65478 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River...

  14. 76 FR 63199 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal...

  15. 76 FR 2829 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines...

  16. 75 FR 64147 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Ship and Sanitary Canal... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Coast Guard will enforce Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan...

  17. 75 FR 52462 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship...; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal... enforce a segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines...

  18. 77 FR 60044 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan Including Des Plaines River, Chicago... the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... segment of the Safety Zone; Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River...

  19. Uranium and thorium occurrences in Precambrian rocks, Upper Peninsula of Michigan and northern Wisconsin, with thoughts on other possible settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalliokoski, J.

    1976-01-01

    The following areas are covered: Precambrian geology of northern Michigan; mode of occurrence of uranium and thorium in the Precambrian rocks of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan; selected stratigraphic relationships, Precambrian rocks of Michigan; mode of occurrence of uranium and thorium in Precambrian rocks of Wisconsin; and background data for geochemical exploration

  20. Infant Sleep Positioners Pose Suffocation Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Do Not Use Infant Sleep Positioners Due to the Risk of Suffocation Share ... to top Safety Advice for Putting Babies to Sleep NEVER use infant sleep positioners. Using this type ...