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Sample records for michigan jack pine

  1. Mosaic Stunting in jack pine seedlings in a northern Michigan bareroot nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynette Potvin; R. Kasten Dumroese; Martin F. Jurgensen; Dana Richter

    2010-01-01

    Mosaic, or patchy, stunting of bareroot conifer seedlings is thought to be caused by deficiencies of mycorrhizal fungi following fumigation, resulting in reduced nutrient uptake, particularly phosphorus. Mosaic stunting of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) seedlings was observed in 2005 at the USDA Forest Service JW Toumey Nursery in Watersmeet, MI. We initiated a study to...

  2. Heritability and intertrait correlations in breeding subpopulations of jack pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don E. Riemenschneider

    1985-01-01

    Twenty breeding populations of jack pine were established in 1979 and 1980 in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan. Four populations were index populations and were each established at 4 locations by research cooperators. Sixteen populations were applied breeding populations and were established at single locations by public and private cooperators. Combined analysis of...

  3. Manager's handbook for jack pine in the north central states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Benzie

    1977-01-01

    Provides a key for the resource manager to use in choosing silvicultural practices for the management of jack pine. Control of stand composition, growth, and stand establishment for timber production, water, wildlife, and recreation are discussed.

  4. Geographic variation of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung Oh Hyun

    1977-01-01

    Ten traits were measured on 10-year-old jack pine grown at Cloquet, Minnesota, from seed collected from 90 provenances. The traits were examined by using analysis of variance and computing correlations for all combinations of 9 traits plus latitude , longitude, and elevation of the seed sources and cluster analyses using the D2 values from the...

  5. Forest Modeling of Jack Pine Trees for BOREAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghhadam, Mahta; Saatchi, Sasan

    1994-01-01

    As a part of the intensive field campaign for the Boreal forest ecosystem-atmosphere research (BOREAS) project in August 1993, the NASA/JPL AIRSAR covered an area of about 100 km by 100 km near the Prince Albert National Park in Saskatchewan, Canada. At the same time, ground-truth measurements were made in several stands which have been selected as the primary study sites, as well as in some auxiliary sites. This paper focuses on an area including Jack Pine stands in the Nipawin area near the park.

  6. Using Black Light to Find Jack-Pine Budworm Egg Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel T. Jennings

    1968-01-01

    Jack pine foliage infested with jack-pine budworm egg masses was examined under two kinds of light -- black light and a combination of natural and fluorescent light. Black light significantly increased the accuracy of count but not the efficiency of examination.

  7. The Effect of Water Limitation on Volatile Emission, Tree Defense Response, and Brood Success of Dendroctonus ponderosae in Two Pine Hosts, Lodgepole, and Jack Pine

    OpenAIRE

    Lusebrink, Inka; Erbilgin, Nadir; Evenden, Maya L.

    2016-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) has recently expanded its range from lodgepole pine forest into the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, within which it has attacked pure jack pine. This study tested the effects of water limitation on tree defense response of mature lodgepole and jack pine (Pinus contorta and Pinus banksiana) trees in the field. Tree defense response was initiated by inoculation of trees with the MPB-associated fungus Grosmannia clavig...

  8. The effect of water limitation on volatile emission, tree defense response, and brood success of Dendroctonus ponderosae in two pine hosts, lodgepole and jack pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inka eLusebrink

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae has recently expanded its range from lodgepole pine forest into the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, within which it has attacked pure jack pine. This study tested the effects of water limitation on tree defense response of mature lodgepole and jack pine (Pinus contorta and Pinus banksiana trees in the field. Tree defense response was initiated by inoculation of trees with the MPB-associated fungus Grosmannia clavigera and measured through monoterpene emission from tree boles and concentration of defensive compounds in phloem, needles, and necrotic tissues. Lodgepole pine generally emitted higher amounts of monoterpenes than jack pine; particularly from fungal-inoculated trees. Compared to non-inoculated trees, fungal inoculation increased monoterpene emission in both species, whereas water treatment had no effect on monoterpene emission. The phloem of both pine species contains (--α-pinene, the precursor of the beetle’s aggregation pheromone, however lodgepole pine contains two times as much as jack pine. The concentration of defensive compounds was 70-fold greater in the lesion tissue in jack pine, but only 10-fold in lodgepole pine compared to healthy phloem tissue in each species, respectively. Water-deficit treatment inhibited an increase of L-limonene as response to fungal inoculation in lodgepole pine phloem. The amount of myrcene in jack pine phloem was higher in water-deficit trees compared to ambient trees. Beetles reared in jack pine were not affected by either water or biological treatment, whereas beetles reared in lodgepole pine benefited from fungal inoculation by producing larger and heavier female offspring. Female beetles that emerged from jack pine bolts contained more fat than those that emerged from lodgepole pine, even though lodgepole pine phloem had a higher nitrogen content than jack pine phloem. These results suggest that jack pine chemistry

  9. Transcriptome resources and functional characterization of monoterpene synthases for two host species of the mountain pine beetle, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) across an area of more than 18 million hectares of pine forests in western Canada, and is a threat to the boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest. Defence of pines against MPB and associated fungal pathogens, as well as other pests, involves oleoresin monoterpenes, which are biosynthesized by families of terpene synthases (TPSs). Volatile monoterpenes also serve as host recognition cues for MPB and as precursors for MPB pheromones. The genes responsible for terpene biosynthesis in jack pine and lodgepole pine were previously unknown. Results We report the generation and quality assessment of assembled transcriptome resources for lodgepole pine and jack pine using Sanger, Roche 454, and Illumina sequencing technologies. Assemblies revealed transcripts for approximately 20,000 - 30,000 genes from each species and assembly analyses led to the identification of candidate full-length prenyl transferase, TPS, and P450 genes of oleoresin biosynthesis. We cloned and functionally characterized, via expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli, nine different jack pine and eight different lodgepole pine mono-TPSs. The newly identified lodgepole pine and jack pine mono-TPSs include (+)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-β-pinene synthases, (+)-3-carene synthases, and (-)-β-phellandrene synthases from each of the two species. Conclusion In the absence of genome sequences, transcriptome assemblies are important for defence gene discovery in lodgepole pine and jack pine, as demonstrated here for the terpenoid pathway genes. The product profiles of the functionally annotated mono-TPSs described here can account for the major monoterpene metabolites identified in lodgepole pine and jack pine. PMID:23679205

  10. Transcriptome resources and functional characterization of monoterpene synthases for two host species of the mountain pine beetle, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dawn E; Yuen, Macaire M S; Jancsik, Sharon; Quesada, Alfonso Lara; Dullat, Harpreet K; Li, Maria; Henderson, Hannah; Arango-Velez, Adriana; Liao, Nancy Y; Docking, Roderick T; Chan, Simon K; Cooke, Janice Ek; Breuil, Colette; Jones, Steven Jm; Keeling, Christopher I; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2013-05-16

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) across an area of more than 18 million hectares of pine forests in western Canada, and is a threat to the boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest. Defence of pines against MPB and associated fungal pathogens, as well as other pests, involves oleoresin monoterpenes, which are biosynthesized by families of terpene synthases (TPSs). Volatile monoterpenes also serve as host recognition cues for MPB and as precursors for MPB pheromones. The genes responsible for terpene biosynthesis in jack pine and lodgepole pine were previously unknown. We report the generation and quality assessment of assembled transcriptome resources for lodgepole pine and jack pine using Sanger, Roche 454, and Illumina sequencing technologies. Assemblies revealed transcripts for approximately 20,000 - 30,000 genes from each species and assembly analyses led to the identification of candidate full-length prenyl transferase, TPS, and P450 genes of oleoresin biosynthesis. We cloned and functionally characterized, via expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli, nine different jack pine and eight different lodgepole pine mono-TPSs. The newly identified lodgepole pine and jack pine mono-TPSs include (+)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-β-pinene synthases, (+)-3-carene synthases, and (-)-β-phellandrene synthases from each of the two species. In the absence of genome sequences, transcriptome assemblies are important for defence gene discovery in lodgepole pine and jack pine, as demonstrated here for the terpenoid pathway genes. The product profiles of the functionally annotated mono-TPSs described here can account for the major monoterpene metabolites identified in lodgepole pine and jack pine.

  11. Characterizing the physical and genetic structure of the lodgepole pine × jack pine hybrid zone: mosaic structure and differential introgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullingham, Catherine I; James, Patrick M A; Cooke, Janice E K; Coltman, David W

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the physical and genetic structure of hybrid zones can illuminate factors affecting their formation and stability. In north-central Alberta, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb) form a complex and poorly defined hybrid zone. Better knowledge of this zone is relevant, given the recent host expansion of mountain pine beetle into jack pine. We characterized the zone by genotyping 1998 lodgepole, jack pine, and hybrids from British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Ontario, and Minnesota at 11 microsatellites. Using Bayesian algorithms, we calculated genetic ancestry and used this to model the relationship between species occurrence and environment. In addition, we analyzed the ancestry of hybrids to calculate the genetic contribution of lodgepole and jack pine. Finally, we measured the amount of gene flow between the pure species. We found the distribution of the pine classes is explained by environmental variables, and these distributions differ from classic distribution maps. Hybrid ancestry was biased toward lodgepole pine; however, gene flow between the two species was equal. The results of this study suggest that the hybrid zone is complex and influenced by environmental constraints. As a result of this analysis, range limits should be redefined.

  12. Structure and biomass production of one- to seven-year-old intensively cultured jack pine plantation in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Zavitkovski; David H. Dawson

    1978-01-01

    Spacing and rotation length effects were studied for 7 years in intensively cultured jack pine stands. Production culminated at age 5 in the densest planting and progressively later in more open spacing. Biomass production was two to several times higher than in jack pine plantations grown under traditional silvicultural systems.

  13. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L. Clark

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC, where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle’s historic range (central BC to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC and one population of jack pine (AB were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels – a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle – were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the

  14. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Erin L; Pitt, Caitlin; Carroll, Allan L; Lindgren, B Staffan; Huber, Dezene P W

    2014-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC), where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle's historic range (central BC) to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB) in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC) and one population of jack pine (AB) were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels - a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle - were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the insect to persist in

  15. Population structure of a lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and jack pine (P. banksiana) complex as revealed by random amplified polymorphic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Terrance Z; Yang, Rong-Cai; Yeh, Francis C

    2002-06-01

    We studied the population structure of a lodgepole (Pinus contorta Dougl.) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) complex in west central Alberta and neighboring areas by assessing random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) variability in 23 lodgepole pine, 9 jack pine, and 8 putative hybrid populations. Of 200 random primers screened, 10 that amplified 39 sharp and reproducible RAPDs were chosen for the study. None of the 39 RAPDs were unique to the parental species. RAPD diversity ranged from 0.085 to 0.190 among populations and averaged 0.143 for lodgepole pine, 0.156 for jack pine, 0.152 for hybrids, and 0.148 for all 40 populations. The estimated population differentiation based on G(ST) was 0.168 for hybrids, 0.162 for lodgepole pine, 0.155 for jack pine, and 0.247 across all 40 populations. Cluster analysis of genetic distances generally separated jack pine from lodgepole pine and hybrids, but no division could be identified that further separated lodgepole pine from hybrids. The observed weak to mild trend of "introgression by distance" in the complex and neighbouring areas was consistent with the view that introgressive hybridization between lodgepole and jack pines within and outside the hybrid zone may have been through secondary contact and primary intergradation, respectively.

  16. The lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in Alberta, Canada: a stepping stone for the mountain pine beetle on its journey East across the boreal forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusebrink, Inka; Erbilgin, Nadir; Evenden, Maya L

    2013-09-01

    Historical data show that outbreaks of the tree killing mountain pine beetle are often preceded by periods of drought. Global climate change impacts drought frequency and severity and is implicated in the range expansion of the mountain pine beetle into formerly unsuitable habitats. Its expanded range has recently reached the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, Canada, which could act as a transition from its historical lodgepole pine host to a jack pine host present in the boreal forest. This field study tested the effects of water limitation on chemical defenses of mature trees against mountain pine beetle-associated microorganisms and on beetle brood success in lodgepole × jack pine hybrid trees. Tree chemical defenses as measured by monoterpene emission from tree boles and monoterpene concentration in needles were greater in trees that experienced water deficit compared to well-watered trees. Myrcene was identified as specific defensive compound, since it significantly increased upon inoculation with dead mountain pine beetles. Beetles reared in bolts from trees that experienced water deficit emerged with a higher fat content, demonstrating for the first time experimentally that drought conditions benefit mountain pine beetles. Further, our study demonstrated that volatile chemical emission from tree boles and phloem chemistry place the hybrid tree chemotype in-between lodgepole pine and jack pine, which might facilitate the host shift from lodgepole pine to jack pine.

  17. Height and seasonal growth pattern of jack pine full-sib families

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    Don E. Riemenschneider

    1981-01-01

    Total tree height, seasonal shoot elongation, dates of growth initiation and cessation, and mean daily growth rate were measured and analyzed for a population of jack pine full-sib families derived from inter-provenance crosses. Parental provenance had no effect on these variables although this may have been due to small sample size. Progenies differed significantly...

  18. Impacts of fiber orientation and milling on observed crystallinity in jack pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Sally A. Ralph; Richard S. Reiner; Roderquita K. Moore; Carlos Baez

    2014-01-01

    Influences of fiber orientation and milling on wood cellulose crystallinity were studied using jack pine wood. The fiber orientation effects were measured by sampling rectangular wood blocks in radial, tangential, and cross-sectional orientations. The influence of milling was studied by analyzing the unsieved and sieved milled wood fractions (all

  19. Survey of foliar monoterpenes across the range of jack pine reveal three widespread chemotypes: implications to host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer eTaft

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The secondary compounds of pines (Pinus can strongly affect the physiology, ecology and behaviors of the bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae that feed on sub-cortical tissues of hosts. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana has a wide natural distribution range in North America (Canada and USA and thus variations in its secondary compounds, particularly monoterpenes, could affect the host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, which has recently expanded its range into the novel jack pine boreal forest. We investigated monoterpene composition of 601 jack pine trees from natural and provenance forest stands representing 63 populations from Alberta to the Atlantic coast. Throughout its range, jack pine exhibited three chemotypes characterized by high proportions of α-pinene, β-pinene, or limonene. The frequency with which the α-pinene and β-pinene chemotypes occurred at individual sites was correlated to climatic variables, such as continentality and mean annual precipitation, as were the individual α-pinene and β-pinene concentrations. However, other monoterpenes were generally not correlated to climatic variables or geographic distribution. Finally, while the enantiomeric ratios of β-pinene and limonene remained constant across jack pine’s distribution, (‒:(+-α-pinene exhibited two separate trends, thereby delineating two α-pinene phenotypes, both of which occurred across jack pine’s range. These significant variations in jack pine monoterpene composition may have cascading effects on the continued eastward spread and success of D. ponderosae in the Canadian boreal forest.

  20. Secondary vegetation succession on jack pine (Pinus banksiana) cutovers in northeastern Ontario, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiveau, Daniel

    2000-07-01

    The effects of different harvesting and site preparation methods on competing vegetation were studied in nine jack pine (Pinus banksiana) cutovers in northeastern Ontario, Canada. Six different treatments plus glyphosate herbiciding and no herbiciding were applied: 1) tree-length harvesting followed by trenching, and full-tree harvesting followed by five site preparations, 2) no site preparation, 3) trenching and 4) blading and compaction as well as blading followed by two planting densities, 5) 1.2m and 6) 2m. Competing vegetation was assessed preharvest and years 1, 2, 3, and 5 postharvest. Data was also available from nine juvenile sites as well as nine semimature sites. Data collection consisted of coverage values of each species as well as structural data for main life forms in height classes. Growth and health data of the planted jack pine seedlings were also available. The data was analyzed using detrended correspondence analysis (DCA), diversity indices and tabular analysis. Three years after the herbicide application there is no difference between the total coverage in the halfplots that have received herbiciding and those that have not, but an alteration of the relative abundance of species groups has developed; glyphosate herbiciding promotes grasses over shrubs. When no site preparation is applied, shrubs increase and compete with the seedlings, whose growth is cut in half compared to the ones that have been site prepared by trenching. Five years after blading, and blading plus compaction, there is still very little vegetation in the research plots, but there is no reduction of the survival rate and growth of the jack pine seedlings. More dense planting after this treatment leads to more competing vegetation, probably due to increased availability of moisture. Grasses do not seem to be affected by compaction and pioneer mosses are promoted by this treatment but compaction leads to a significant reduction of the total coverage of competing vegetation

  1. Influence of mycorrhizal associations on paper birch and jack pine seedlings when exposed to elevated copper, nickel or aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, M.D.; Browning, M.H.R.; Hutchinson, T.C.

    1986-10-01

    Acid deposition may adversely affect northern forest ecosystems by increasing the concentration of metals in the soil solution. This study investigates the effects of ectomycorrhizal fungi on paper birch and jack pine seedlings exposed to elevated Cu, Ni or Al in sand culture. One of four mycorrhizal fungi, Scleroderma flavidum, was able to reduce Ni toxicity to the birch seedlings. It did this by reducing transport of Ni to the stems. None of the fungi affected Cu toxicity in birch. In separate experiments, jack pine seedlings were exposed to combinations of Al and Ca. Infection with Rhizopogon rubescens increased seedling susceptibility to Al. Seedlings inoculated with Suillus tomentosus showed a greater growth stimulation by Ca than uninoculated jack pines. Thus, for both tree species, the mycorrhizal association could alter the response of seedlings to high concentrations of certain metals, although this varied with fungal species. 8 references.

  2. Effects of introgression on the genetic population structure of two ecologically and economically important conifer species: lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullingham, Catherine I; Cooke, Janice E K; Coltman, David W

    2013-10-01

    Forest trees exhibit a remarkable range of adaptations to their environment, but as a result of frequent and long-distance gene flow, populations are often only weakly differentiated. Lodgepole and jack pine hybridize in western Canada, which adds the opportunity for introgression through hybridization to contribute to population structure and (or) adaptive variation. Access to large sample size, high density SNP datasets for these species would improve our ability to resolve population structure, parameterize introgression, and separate the influence of demography from adaptation. To accomplish this, 454 transcriptome reads for lodgepole and jack pine were assembled using Newbler and MIRA, the assemblies mined for SNPs, and 1536 SNPs were selected for typing on lodgepole pine, jack pine, and their hybrids (N = 536). We identified population structure using both Bayesian clustering and discriminate analysis of principle components. Introgressed SNP loci were identified and their influence on observed population structure was assessed. We found that introgressed loci resulted in increased differentiation both within lodgepole and jack pine populations. These findings are timely given the recent mountain pine beetle population expansion in the hybrid zone, and will facilitate future studies of adaptive traits in these ecologically important species.

  3. Effect of average growing season temperature on seedling germination, survival and growth in jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. David; E. Humenberger

    2017-01-01

    Because jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) is serotinous, it retains multiple years of cones until environmental conditions are favorable for releasing seed. These cones, which contain seed cohorts that developed under a variety of growing seasons, can be accurately aged using bud scale scars on twigs and branches. By calculating the average daily...

  4. Fatty Acid Composition of Novel Host Jack Pine Do Not Prevent Host Acceptance and Colonization by the Invasive Mountain Pine Beetle and Its Symbiotic Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishangulyyeva, Guncha; Najar, Ahmed; Curtis, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids are major components of plant lipids and can affect growth and development of insect herbivores. Despite a large literature examining the roles of fatty acids in conifers, relatively few studies have tested the effects of fatty acids on insect herbivores and their microbial symbionts. Particularly, whether fatty acids can affect the suitability of conifers for insect herbivores has never been studied before. Thus, we evaluated if composition of fatty acids impede or facilitate colonization of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) by the invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and its symbiotic fungus (Grosmannia clavigera). This is the first study to examine the effects of tree fatty acids on any bark beetle species and its symbiotic fungus. In a novel bioassay, we found that plant tissues (hosts and non-host) amended with synthetic fatty acids at concentrations representative of jack pine were compatible with beetle larvae. Likewise, G. clavigera grew in media amended with lipid fractions or synthetic fatty acids at concentrations present in jack pine. In contrast, fatty acids and lipid composition of a non-host were not suitable for the beetle larvae or the fungus. Apparently, concentrations of individual, rather than total, fatty acids determined the suitability of jack pine. Furthermore, sampling of host and non-host tree species across Canada demonstrated that the composition of jack pine fatty acids was similar to the different populations of beetle’s historical hosts. These results demonstrate that fatty acids composition compatible with insect herbivores and their microbial symbionts can be important factor defining host suitability to invasive insects. PMID:27583820

  5. Ecological Responses to Five Years of Experimental Nitrogen Application in an Upland Jack-pine Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaschenko, N.; Berryman, S.; Straker, J.; Berg, K.; McDonough, A.; Watmough, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    A five-year experimental study was conducted to evaluate the response of an upland jack-pine (Pinus banksiana) forest to elevated levels of nitrogen (N) deposition in Northern Alberta. N deposition in the region is expected to increase with industrial expansion of oil sands activity, and there is regional interest to set N critical loads for sensitive ecosystems. In this study, N was applied as NH4NO3 above a jack-pine canopy via helicopter, annually for five years (2010-2015) at dosages equivalent to 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Approximately 35% of the applied N was retained in the canopy while 65% reached understory vegetation dominated by lichens and mosses. We measured a significant increase in tissue N concentrations of common ground lichens (Cladonia mitis and C. stellaris) and ground moss (Pleurozium schreberi) as well as epiphytic lichens (Hypogymnia physodes and Evernia mesomorpha). On an annual basis, the applied N was primarily captured in the lichen and moss understory, dominated by C. mitis. In the highest treatments, N concentrations in C. mitis were 1.5-2.5 times greater than pre-treatment values. Peak N concentrations in the ground moss Pleurozium schreberi (1.4%) indicate that a threshold of N saturation was reached by year 3. We observed no changes in community composition of vascular and non-vascular plants, or changes in vascular plant tissue N. Chlorophyll levels in C. mitis increased with N treatment, but there was no indication of toxicity or changes to decomposition and growth. After five years of N application, only Peltigera polydactylon, a ground cyanolichen, appeared to be negatively impacted where the thalli showed necrosis at deposition loads >10kg N ha-1 yr-1. No changes to biomass or N ecosystem processes were observed. Based on these observations, we provide evidence that the first adverse ecological effects of N deposition in jack-pine stands occurred at deposition rates of 10 kg N ha-1 yr-1.

  6. Preliminary report and design of using Jack Pines for the phytoremediation of diesel-contaminated soils in northern Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, L.; Ireland, J.; Hohn, S.; Herman, L.; Hanna, A.

    1999-01-01

    A study is being conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using Jack Pines for the phytoremediation of diesel-contaminated soils in northern Saskatchewan. The sites have some level of diesel contamination from spills associated with generators belonging to SaskTel. The first phase of the study was conducted under controlled conditions in a greenhouse. Seedlings of Jack Pine were planted in sand with a range of diesel concentrations. A control planting of seedlings with no diesel was also conducted. The study also included control pots of sand with diesel and no seedlings for comparison of diesel degradation. The results from this first phase will help determine the feasibility of performing more extensive testing of phytoremediation on site in northern Saskatchewan. Results will be conclusive in August 2000. So far, the results show that Jack Pines can survive in soil highly contaminated with hydrocarbons. The second phase will include field trials. Diesel concentrations at the sites range from 0 ppm to 30,000 ppm. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  7. Preliminary report and design of using Jack Pines for the phytoremediation of diesel-contaminated soils in northern Saskatchewan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, L; Ireland, J; Hohn, S; Herman, L [ERIN Consulting Ltd., Regina, SK (Canada); Hanna, A [SaskTel, Regina, SK (Canada)

    1999-01-01

    A study is being conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using Jack Pines for the phytoremediation of diesel-contaminated soils in northern Saskatchewan. The sites have some level of diesel contamination from spills associated with generators belonging to SaskTel. The first phase of the study was conducted under controlled conditions in a greenhouse. Seedlings of Jack Pine were planted in sand with a range of diesel concentrations. A control planting of seedlings with no diesel was also conducted. The study also included control pots of sand with diesel and no seedlings for comparison of diesel degradation. The results from this first phase will help determine the feasibility of performing more extensive testing of phytoremediation on site in northern Saskatchewan. Results will be conclusive in August 2000. So far, the results show that Jack Pines can survive in soil highly contaminated with hydrocarbons. The second phase will include field trials. Diesel concentrations at the sites range from 0 ppm to 30,000 ppm. 4 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  8. Fire Regime in Marginal Jack Pine Populations at Their Southern Limit of Distribution, Riding Mountain National Park, Central Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques C. Tardif

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In central Canada, long fire history reconstructions are rare. In a context where both anthropogenic and climate influences on fire regime have changed, Parks Canada has a mandate to maintain ecological integrity. Here we present a fire history derived from fire-scarred jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb. trees growing at their southern distribution limit in Riding Mountain National Park (RMNP. In Lake Katherine Fire Management Unit (LKFMU, a subregion within the park, fire history was reconstructed from archival records, tree-ring records, and charcoal in lake sediment. From about 1450 to 1850 common era (CE the fire return intervals varied from 37 to 125 years, according to models. During the period 1864–1930 the study area burned frequently (Weibull Mean Fire Intervals between 2.66 and 5.62 years; this period coincided with the end of First Nations occupation and the start of European settlement. Major recruitment pulses were associated with the stand-replacing 1864 and 1894 fires. This period nevertheless corresponded to a reduction in charcoal accumulation. The current fire-free period in LKFMU (1930–today coincides with RMNP establishment, exclusion of First Nations land use and increased fire suppression. Charcoal accumulation further decreased during this period. In the absence of fire, jack pine exclusion in LKFMU is foreseeable and the use of prescribed burning is advocated to conserve this protected jack pine ecosystem, at the southern margins of its range, and in the face of potential climate change.

  9. Within crown variation in the relationship between foliage biomass and sapwood area in jack pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Robert; Berninger, Frank; Ung, Chhun-Huor; Mäkelä, Annikki; Swift, D Edwin; Zhang, S Y

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between sapwood area and foliage biomass is the basis for a lot of research on eco-phyisology. In this paper, foliage biomass change between two consecutive whorls is studied, using different variations in the pipe model theory. Linear and non-linear mixed-effect models relating foliage differences to sapwood area increments were tested to take into account whorl location, with the best fit statistics supporting the non-linear formulation. The estimated value of the exponent is 0.5130, which is significantly different from 1, the expected value given by the pipe model theory. When applied to crown stem sapwood taper, the model indicates that foliage biomass distribution influences the foliage biomass to sapwood area at crown base ratio. This result is interpreted as being the consequence of differences in the turnover rates of sapwood and foliage. More importantly, the model explains previously reported trends in jack pine sapwood area at crown base to tree foliage biomass ratio.

  10. Differential effects of plant ontogeny and damage type on phloem and foliage monoterpenes in jack pine (Pinus banksiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbilgin, Nadir; Colgan, L Jessie

    2012-08-01

    Coniferous trees have both constitutive and inducible defences that deter or kill herbivores and pathogens. We investigated constitutive and induced monoterpene responses of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) to a number of damage types: a fungal associate of the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), Grosmannia clavigera (Robinson-Jeffrey & R.W. Davidson); two phytohormones, methyl jasmonate (MJ) and methyl salicylate (MS); simulated herbivory; and mechanical wounding. We only included the fungal, MJ and mechanical wounding treatments in the field experiments while all treatments were part of the greenhouse studies. We focused on both constitutive and induced responses between juvenile and mature jack pine trees and differences in defences between phloem and needles. We found that phytohormone applications and fungal inoculation resulted in the greatest increase in monoterpenes in both juvenile and mature trees. Additionally, damage types differentially affected the proportions of individual monoterpenes: MJ-treated mature trees had higher myrcene and β-pinene than fungal-inoculated mature trees, while needles of juveniles inoculated with the fungus contained higher limonene than MJ- or MS-treated juveniles. Although the constitutive monoterpenes were higher in the phloem of juveniles than mature jack pine trees, the phloem of mature trees had a much higher magnitude of induction. Further, induced monoterpene concentrations in juveniles were higher in phloem than in needles. There was no difference in monoterpene concentration between phytohormone applications and G. clavigera inoculation in mature trees, while in juvenile trees MJ was different from both G. clavigera and simulated herbivory in needle monoterpenes, but there was no difference between phytohormone applications and simulated herbivory in the phloem.

  11. Burn Severity Dominates Understory Plant Community Response to Fire in Xeric Jack Pine Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley D. Pinno

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fire is the most common disturbance in northern boreal forests, and large fires are often associated with highly variable burn severities across the burnt area. We studied the understory plant community response to a range of burn severities and pre-fire stand age four growing seasons after the 2011 Richardson Fire in xeric jack pine forests of northern Alberta, Canada. Burn severity had the greatest impact on post-fire plant communities, while pre-fire stand age did not have a significant impact. Total plant species richness and cover decreased with disturbance severity, such that the greatest richness was in low severity burns (average 28 species per 1-m2 quadrat and plant cover was lowest in the high severity burns (average 16%. However, the response of individual plant groups differed. Lichens and bryophytes were most common in low severity burns and were effectively eliminated from the regenerating plant community at higher burn severities. In contrast, graminoid cover and richness were positively related to burn severity, while forbs did not respond significantly to burn severity, but were impacted by changes in soil chemistry with increased cover at pH >4.9. Our results indicate the importance of non-vascular plants to the overall plant community in this harsh environment and that the plant community is environmentally limited rather than recruitment or competition limited, as is often the case in more mesic forest types. If fire frequency and severity increase as predicted, we may see a shift in plant communities from stress-tolerant species, such as lichens and ericaceous shrubs, to more colonizing species, such as certain graminoids.

  12. Automated detection and mapping of crown discolouration caused by jack pine budworm with 2.5 m resolution multispectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckie, Donald G.; Cloney, Ed; Joyce, Steve P.

    2005-05-01

    Jack pine budworm ( Choristoneura pinus pinus (Free.)) is a native insect defoliator of mainly jack pine ( Pinus banksiana Lamb.) in North America east of the Rocky Mountains. Periodic outbreaks of this insect, which generally last two to three years, can cause growth loss and mortality and have an important impact ecologically and economically in terms of timber production and harvest. The jack pine budworm prefers to feed on current year needles. Their characteristic feeding habits cause discolouration or reddening of the canopy. This red colouration is used to map the distribution and intensity of defoliation that has taken place that year (current defoliation). An accurate and consistent map of the distribution and intensity of budworm defoliation (as represented by the red discolouration) at the stand and within stand level is desirable. Automated classification of multispectral imagery, such as is available from airborne and new high resolution satellite systems, was explored as a viable tool for objectively classifying current discolouration. Airborne multispectral imagery was acquired at a 2.5 m resolution with the Multispectral Electro-optical Imaging Sensor (MEIS). It recorded imagery in six nadir looking spectral bands specifically designed to detect discolouration caused by budworm and a near-infrared band viewing forward at 35° was also used. A 2200 nm middle infrared image was acquired with a Daedalus scanner. Training and test areas of different levels of discolouration were created based on field observations and a maximum likelihood supervized classification was used to estimate four classes of discolouration (nil-trace, light, moderate and severe). Good discrimination was achieved with an overall accuracy of 84% for the four discolouration levels. The moderate discolouration class was the poorest at 73%, because of confusion with both the severe and light classes. Accuracy on a stand basis was also good, and regional and within stand

  13. Evolution of Conifer Diterpene Synthases: Diterpene Resin Acid Biosynthesis in Lodgepole Pine and Jack Pine Involves Monofunctional and Bifunctional Diterpene Synthases1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dawn E.; Zerbe, Philipp; Jancsik, Sharon; Quesada, Alfonso Lara; Dullat, Harpreet; Madilao, Lina L.; Yuen, Macaire; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Diterpene resin acids (DRAs) are major components of pine (Pinus spp.) oleoresin. They play critical roles in conifer defense against insects and pathogens and as a renewable resource for industrial bioproducts. The core structures of DRAs are formed in secondary (i.e. specialized) metabolism via cycloisomerization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) by diterpene synthases (diTPSs). Previously described gymnosperm diTPSs of DRA biosynthesis are bifunctional enzymes that catalyze the initial bicyclization of GGPP followed by rearrangement of a (+)-copalyl diphosphate intermediate at two discrete class II and class I active sites. In contrast, similar diterpenes of gibberellin primary (i.e. general) metabolism are produced by the consecutive activity of two monofunctional class II and class I diTPSs. Using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, we discovered 11 diTPS from jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). Three of these were orthologous to known conifer bifunctional levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthases. Surprisingly, two sets of orthologous PbdiTPSs and PcdiTPSs were monofunctional class I enzymes that lacked functional class II active sites and converted (+)-copalyl diphosphate, but not GGPP, into isopimaradiene and pimaradiene as major products. Diterpene profiles and transcriptome sequences of lodgepole pine and jack pine are consistent with roles for these diTPSs in DRA biosynthesis. The monofunctional class I diTPSs of DRA biosynthesis form a new clade within the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d3 subfamily that evolved from bifunctional diTPS rather than monofunctional enzymes (TPS-c and TPS-e) of gibberellin metabolism. Homology modeling suggested alterations in the class I active site that may have contributed to their functional specialization relative to other conifer diTPSs. PMID:23370714

  14. Evolution of conifer diterpene synthases: diterpene resin acid biosynthesis in lodgepole pine and jack pine involves monofunctional and bifunctional diterpene synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dawn E; Zerbe, Philipp; Jancsik, Sharon; Quesada, Alfonso Lara; Dullat, Harpreet; Madilao, Lina L; Yuen, Macaire; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2013-02-01

    Diterpene resin acids (DRAs) are major components of pine (Pinus spp.) oleoresin. They play critical roles in conifer defense against insects and pathogens and as a renewable resource for industrial bioproducts. The core structures of DRAs are formed in secondary (i.e. specialized) metabolism via cycloisomerization of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) by diterpene synthases (diTPSs). Previously described gymnosperm diTPSs of DRA biosynthesis are bifunctional enzymes that catalyze the initial bicyclization of GGPP followed by rearrangement of a (+)-copalyl diphosphate intermediate at two discrete class II and class I active sites. In contrast, similar diterpenes of gibberellin primary (i.e. general) metabolism are produced by the consecutive activity of two monofunctional class II and class I diTPSs. Using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, we discovered 11 diTPS from jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). Three of these were orthologous to known conifer bifunctional levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthases. Surprisingly, two sets of orthologous PbdiTPSs and PcdiTPSs were monofunctional class I enzymes that lacked functional class II active sites and converted (+)-copalyl diphosphate, but not GGPP, into isopimaradiene and pimaradiene as major products. Diterpene profiles and transcriptome sequences of lodgepole pine and jack pine are consistent with roles for these diTPSs in DRA biosynthesis. The monofunctional class I diTPSs of DRA biosynthesis form a new clade within the gymnosperm-specific TPS-d3 subfamily that evolved from bifunctional diTPS rather than monofunctional enzymes (TPS-c and TPS-e) of gibberellin metabolism. Homology modeling suggested alterations in the class I active site that may have contributed to their functional specialization relative to other conifer diTPSs.

  15. Population increase in Kirtland's warbler and summer range expansion to Wisconsin and Michigan's Upper Peninsula, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Probst; Deahn Donner; Carol I. Bocetti; Steve Sjogren

    2003-01-01

    The threatened Kirtland`s warbler Dendroica kirtlandii breeds in stands of young jack pine Pinus banksiana growing on well-drained soils in Michigan, USA. We summarize information documenting the range expansion of Kirtland`s warbler due to increased habitat management in the core breeding range in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan...

  16. Comparative toxic effects of some xenobiotics on the germination and early seedling growth of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb. ) and white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberger, P; Vladut, R

    1981-12-01

    Seeds of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) and white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) were germinated in homogeneous emulsions or aqueous tank-mix solutions of fenitrothion or Matacil and their respective adjuvants: Atlox and Aerotex, or diluent oil No. 585 and nonylphenol. Percentage and peak germination values, water uptake, sprout length, ATP content, and morphological modifications were recorded from 0 to 14 or 21 days. Apart from 100 ppm fenitrothion which stimulated germination values, germination in jack pine was only marginally affected by any of the treatments; in contrast, white birch was negatively affected by all treatments. The most sensitive parameters of toxicity were the sprout length and ATP content after 14 days growth. Aberrant hypocotyl/root length ratios were evidenced in pine seeds after exposure to xenobiotic treatments which did not affect the germinative capacity of seeds. ATP content in the 14-day-old pine and birch seedlings was consistently higher than controls in all treatment sets. (Refs. 29).

  17. Effects of soil temperature and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on gas exchange, in vivo carboxylation and chlorophyll fluorescence in jack pine and white birch seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S.; Dang, Q-L.

    2005-01-01

    The interactive effects of soil temperature and elevated carbon dioxide on the photosynthetic functions of white birch and jack pine were investigated. Elevated carbon dioxide was found to significantly decrease the allocation of electron transport to photorespiration in both species by increasing electron allocation to Rubisco carboxylation. Photosynthetic down-regulation occurred in both species after four months in elevated carbon dioxide as evidenced by decreases in maximal carboxylation rate which were unaffected by soil temperature. 50 refs., 5 figs

  18. Tree rings provide early warning signals of jack pine mortality across a moisture gradient in the southern boreal forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamet, S. D.; Chun, K. P.; Metsaranta, J. M.; Barr, A. G.; Johnstone, J. F.

    2015-08-01

    Recent declines in productivity and tree survival have been widely observed in boreal forests. We used early warning signals (EWS) in tree ring data to anticipate premature mortality in jack pine (Pinus banksiana)—an extensive and dominant species occurring across the moisture-limited southern boreal forest in North America. We sampled tree rings from 113 living and 84 dead trees in three soil moisture regimes (subxeric, submesic, subhygric) in central Saskatchewan, Canada. We reconstructed annual increments of tree basal area to investigate (1) whether we could detect EWS related to mortality of individual trees, and (2) how water availability and tree growth history may explain the mortality warning signs. EWS were evident as punctuated changes in growth patterns prior to transition to an alternative state of reduced growth before dying. This transition was likely triggered by a combination of severe drought and insect outbreak. Higher moisture availability associated with a soil moisture gradient did not appear to reduce tree sensitivity to stress-induced mortality. Our results suggest tree rings offer considerable potential for detecting critical transitions in tree growth, which are linked to premature mortality.

  19. Soil respiration and photosynthetic uptake of carbon dioxide by ground-cover plants in four ages of jack pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegl, Robert G.; Wickland, K.P.

    2001-01-01

    Soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emission (soil respiration), net CO2 exchange after photosynthetic uptake by ground-cover plants, and soil CO2 concentration versus depth below land surface were measured at four ages of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) forest in central Saskatchewan. Soil respiration was smallest at a clear-cut site, largest in an 8-year-old stand, and decreased with stand age in 20-year-old and mature (60-75 years old) stands during May-September 1994 (12.1, 34.6, 31.5, and 24.9 mol C??m-2, respectively). Simulations of soil respiration at each stand based on continuously recorded soil temperature were within one standard deviation of measured flux for 48 of 52 measurement periods, but were 10%-30% less than linear interpolations of measured flux for the season. This was probably due to decreased soil respiration at night modeled by the temperature-flux relationships, but not documented by daytime chamber measurements. CO2 uptake by ground-cover plants ranged from 0 at the clear-cut site to 29, 25, and 9% of total growing season soil respiration at the 8-year, 20-year, and mature stands. CO2 concentrations were as great as 7150 ppmv in the upper 1 m of unsaturated zone and were proportional to measured soil respiration.

  20. Influences of vegetation structure and elevation on CO2 uptake in a mature jack pine forest in Saskatchewan, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chasmer, L.; McCaughey, H.; Treitz, P.

    2008-01-01

    Eddy covariance (EC) is often used to measure the movement and direction of energy and trace gas concentrations in ecosystems. Data from EC networks are often combined with remote sensing data and ecosystem models in order to assess the spatial and temporal variability of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) exchanges within specific areas of interest. This study presented a new method of determining changes in the structural characteristics of biomass and elevation. Lidar was used within the contours of half-hourly flux footprint areas to characterize vegetation structure and elevation. The influences of vegetation structure and elevation on CO 2 concentrations were measured by EC and Lidar measurements for 3 mature growing periods at a mature jack pine site in Saskatchewan. Mensuration data were collected over 2 periods. Meteorological, CO 2 , and H2O flux measurements were collected for 30 minute periods each day. Statistical analyses were conducted to determine the influence of meteorological variables on vegetation structure. Footprint contour lines were then layered onto the canopy height models derived by the lidar data. Multiple regression equations were used to determine net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) using meteorological variables, canopy fractional cover; and elevation, as well as the results obtained from a Landsberg equation. The study showed that differences in NEP variability were influenced by differences in canopy and ground surface characteristics within the site. EC measurements underestimated gross CO 2 fluxes by 5 per cent as the biomass was lower within the immediate vicinity of the EC network. It was concluded that canopy structures and elevation are important factors for determining annual carbon balances. 36 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs

  1. Variability in Light Use Efficiency With Changes in Vegetation Structure and Understory, Using a Temporally Changing Flux Footprint at the BERMS Old Jack Pine Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasmer, L.; Barr, A.; Black, A.; Hopkinson, C.; Kljun, N.; McCaughey, H.; Treitz, P.; Shashkov, A.; Zha, T.

    2006-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing algorithms of vegetation gross primary productivity (GPP) often include a light use efficiency (LUE) term that varies depending on meteorological constraints and biome type. LUE is defined as the carbon fixed per mole of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) absorbed by the canopy (APAR). LUE estimated using GPP from eddy covariance data is complex and changes over short time periods as the available resources (soil moisture, light, temperature, and nitrogen) vary. An understanding of the variability in LUE will improve local to regional estimates of GPP within complex vegetated land cover types using the variety of remote sensing technologies now available. This study examines variability in LUE and GPP at a mature jack pine site within the Fluxnet-Canada BERMS (Boreal Ecosystem Research and Monitoring Sites) study area using a flux footprint model (Kljun et al. 2004) and airborne lidar data (e.g. Chasmer et al. 2006). Three separate weeks of high frequency eddy covariance data are analyzed for June, July, and August 2002 to capture changes in photosynthesis and carbon uptake through the growing season with variations in precipitation and soil moisture. Footprint estimates are derived in half-hourly resolution to provide information on the spatial and temporal variation of the sources of measured C-fluxes. Airborne lidar directly samples ground topography and vegetation structure (i.e., canopy and understory height, gaps between trees, base of canopy), and may provide information on soil moisture and drainage at the ground surface via absorbed and reflected laser pulse energy. Two questions will be addressed specific to net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of the site as a whole, including parts of the ecosystem that may not be properly represented using eddy covariance techniques. These are: 1. How does C uptake and respiration spatially and temporally vary across the jack pine site? 2. How do vegetation characteristics vary with

  2. Interaction of an invasive bark beetle with a native forest pathogen: Potential effect of dwarf mistletoe on range expansion of mountain pine beetle in jack pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Klutsch; Nadir Erbilgin

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, climate change has facilitated shifts in species ranges that have the potential to significantly affect ecosystem dynamics and resilience. Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is expanding east from British Columbia, where it has killed millions of pine trees, primarily lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta...

  3. Increased air temperature during simulated autumn conditions does not increase photosynthetic carbon gain but affects the dissipation of excess energy in seedlings of the evergreen conifer Jack pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Florian; Hüner, Norman P A; Ensminger, Ingo

    2007-03-01

    Temperature and daylength act as environmental signals that determine the length of the growing season in boreal evergreen conifers. Climate change might affect the seasonal development of these trees, as they will experience naturally decreasing daylength during autumn, while at the same time warmer air temperature will maintain photosynthesis and respiration. We characterized the down-regulation of photosynthetic gas exchange and the mechanisms involved in the dissipation of energy in Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) in controlled environments during a simulated summer-autumn transition under natural conditions and conditions with altered air temperature and photoperiod. Using a factorial design, we dissected the effects of daylength and temperature. Control plants were grown at either warm summer conditions with 16-h photoperiod and 22 degrees C or conditions representing a cool autumn with 8 h/7 degrees C. To assess the impact of photoperiod and temperature on photosynthesis and energy dissipation, plants were also grown under either cold summer (16-h photoperiod/7 degrees C) or warm autumn conditions (8-h photoperiod/22 degrees C). Photosynthetic gas exchange was affected by both daylength and temperature. Assimilation and respiration rates under warm autumn conditions were only about one-half of the summer values but were similar to values obtained for cold summer and natural autumn treatments. In contrast, photosynthetic efficiency was largely determined by temperature but not by daylength. Plants of different treatments followed different strategies for dissipating excess energy. Whereas in the warm summer treatment safe dissipation of excess energy was facilitated via zeaxanthin, in all other treatments dissipation of excess energy was facilitated predominantly via increased aggregation of the light-harvesting complex of photosystem II. These differences were accompanied by a lower deepoxidation state and larger amounts of beta-carotene in the warm autumn

  4. Effects of Initial Stand Density and Climate on Red Pine Productivity within Huron National Forest, Michigan, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph O'Brien

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in climate are predicted to significantly affect the productivity of trees in the Great Lakes region over the next century. Forest management decisions, such as initial stand density, can promote climatic resiliency and moderate decreased productivity through the reduction of tree competition. The influences of climate (temperature and precipitation and forest management (initial stand density on the productivity of red pine (Pinus resinosa across multiple sites within Huron National Forest, Michigan, were examined using dendrochronological methods. Two common planting regimes were compared in this analysis; low initial density (1977 trees per hectare. Low initial density stands were found to have a higher climatic resilience by combining equal or greater measures of productivity, while having a reduced sensitivity to monthly and seasonal climate, particularly to summer drought.

  5. Recollections of Jack Michael and the Application of Skinner's Analysis of Verbal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Mark L.

    2017-01-01

    Jack Michael offered a course on verbal behavior almost every year throughout his teaching career. Jack was also interested in the application of Skinner's work and in 1976 began to offer a graduate course at Western Michigan University titled Verbal Behavior Applications. Jack and his students pursued the application of Skinner's work on verbal…

  6. Increased air temperature during simulated autumn conditions does not increase photosynthetic carbon gain but affects the dissipation of excess energy in seedlings of the evergreen Conifer Jack Pine

    OpenAIRE

    Busch, F.; Huner, N.; Ensminger, I.

    2007-01-01

    Temperature and daylength act as environmental signals that determine the length of the growing season in boreal evergreen conifers. Climate change might affect the seasonal development of these trees, as they will experience naturally decreasing daylength during autumn, while at the same time warmer air temperature will maintain photosynthesis and respiration. We characterized the down-regulation of photosynthetic gas exchange and the mechanisms involved in the dissipation of energy in Jack ...

  7. Increased Air Temperature during Simulated Autumn Conditions Does Not Increase Photosynthetic Carbon Gain But Affects the Dissipation of Excess Energy in Seedlings of the Evergreen Conifer Jack Pine1[OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Florian; Hüner, Norman P.A.; Ensminger, Ingo

    2007-01-01

    Temperature and daylength act as environmental signals that determine the length of the growing season in boreal evergreen conifers. Climate change might affect the seasonal development of these trees, as they will experience naturally decreasing daylength during autumn, while at the same time warmer air temperature will maintain photosynthesis and respiration. We characterized the down-regulation of photosynthetic gas exchange and the mechanisms involved in the dissipation of energy in Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) in controlled environments during a simulated summer-autumn transition under natural conditions and conditions with altered air temperature and photoperiod. Using a factorial design, we dissected the effects of daylength and temperature. Control plants were grown at either warm summer conditions with 16-h photoperiod and 22°C or conditions representing a cool autumn with 8 h/7°C. To assess the impact of photoperiod and temperature on photosynthesis and energy dissipation, plants were also grown under either cold summer (16-h photoperiod/7°C) or warm autumn conditions (8-h photoperiod/22°C). Photosynthetic gas exchange was affected by both daylength and temperature. Assimilation and respiration rates under warm autumn conditions were only about one-half of the summer values but were similar to values obtained for cold summer and natural autumn treatments. In contrast, photosynthetic efficiency was largely determined by temperature but not by daylength. Plants of different treatments followed different strategies for dissipating excess energy. Whereas in the warm summer treatment safe dissipation of excess energy was facilitated via zeaxanthin, in all other treatments dissipation of excess energy was facilitated predominantly via increased aggregation of the light-harvesting complex of photosystem II. These differences were accompanied by a lower deepoxidation state and larger amounts of β-carotene in the warm autumn treatment as well as by changes in

  8. Pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Plomion; D. Chagne; D. Pot; S. Kumar; P.L. Wilcox; R.D. Burdon; D. Prat; D.G. Peterson; J. Paiva; P. Chaumeil; G.G. Vendramin; F. Sebastiani; C.D. Nelson; C.S. Echt; O. Savolainen; T.L. Kubisiak; M.T. Cervera; N. de Maria; M.N. Islam-Faridi

    2007-01-01

    Pinus is the most important genus within the Family Pinaceae and also within the gymnosperms by the number of species (109 species recognized by Farjon 2001) and by its contribution to forest ecosystems. All pine species are evergreen trees or shrubs. They are widely distributed in the northern hemisphere, from tropical areas to northern areas in America and Eurasia....

  9. Jack St. Clair Kilby

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    the modern history of science and technology is highlighted by the fact that Jack ... Missouri, a traditional mid-western state in the United States of. America. ... his engineering education got interrupted when the second world war intensified ...

  10. Effects of Defatted Jack Bean Flour and Jack Bean Protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effects of substituting wheat flour with defatted Jack bean flour and Jack bean protein concentrate on bread quality. Jack bean flour milled from the seed nibs was defatted with n-hexane and part of the defatted flour (DJF) extracted in acid medium (pH; 4.5) for protein concentrate (JPC). Both the DJF ...

  11. Sennar Jacks (Equus asinus)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out with an objective of evaluating the breeding soundness and sexual behavior of Sennar jackasses. ... score of 7 for the breeding and 4.8 for the working jacks. The mean (iSE) of height at wither,the ..... Equine Reproductive Physiology, Breeding and Stud Manage- ment, 2ndEdn. Farming Press ...

  12. Jack Michael's Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel, Caio F.

    2013-01-01

    Among many of Jack Michael's contributions to the field of behavior analysis is his behavioral account of motivation. This paper focuses on the concept of motivating operation (MO) by outlining its development from Skinner's (1938) notion of drive. Conceptually, Michael's term helped us change our focus on how to study motivation by shifting its origins from the organism to the environment. Michael's account also served to stimulate applied research and to better understand behavioral functio...

  13. Happy birthday, Jack Steinberger

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2016-01-01

    Even if he’s recently stopped coming to CERN on his bike, Jack Steinberger and his piercing blue eyes are still regular visitors to our corridors. As he celebrates his 95th birthday, we pay tribute to one of CERN’s greatest scientists.   Jack Steinberger in 2008, pictured on the occasion of the "Accelerating Nobel" exhibition. (Image: Claudia Marcelloni/CERN) Jack emigrated from Germany to the United States in 1934 to escape the persecution of the Jews. He later went on to study under Enrico Fermi in Chicago and in the 1950s, he contributed to the development of bubble chambers. Using this new detection apparatus, he was involved in the myriad discoveries and results that led to the construction of the Standard Model. In 1961, while at Columbia University (New York), he took part in the first experiment with a high-energy neutrino beam, which gave rise to the discovery of the muon neutrino. This discovery was awarded the&a...

  14. From Jack to Double Jack Polynomials via the Supersymmetric Bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Luc; Mathieu, Pierre

    2015-07-01

    The Calogero-Sutherland model occurs in a large number of physical contexts, either directly or via its eigenfunctions, the Jack polynomials. The supersymmetric counterpart of this model, although much less ubiquitous, has an equally rich structure. In particular, its eigenfunctions, the Jack superpolynomials, appear to share the very same remarkable combinatorial and structural properties as their non-supersymmetric version. These super-functions are parametrized by superpartitions with fixed bosonic and fermionic degrees. Now, a truly amazing feature pops out when the fermionic degree is sufficiently large: the Jack superpolynomials stabilize and factorize. Their stability is with respect to their expansion in terms of an elementary basis where, in the stable sector, the expansion coefficients become independent of the fermionic degree. Their factorization is seen when the fermionic variables are stripped off in a suitable way which results in a product of two ordinary Jack polynomials (somewhat modified by plethystic transformations), dubbed the double Jack polynomials. Here, in addition to spelling out these results, which were first obtained in the context of Macdonal superpolynomials, we provide a heuristic derivation of the Jack superpolynomial case by performing simple manipulations on the supersymmetric eigen-operators, rendering them independent of the number of particles and of the fermionic degree. In addition, we work out the expression of the Hamiltonian which characterizes the double Jacks. This Hamiltonian, which defines a new integrable system, involves not only the expected Calogero-Sutherland pieces but also combinations of the generators of an underlying affine {widehat{sl}_2} algebra.

  15. Jacks--A Study of Simple Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Ralph

    This vocational physics individualized student instructional module on jacks (simple machines used to lift heavy objects) contains student prerequisites and objectives, an introduction, and sections on the ratchet bumper jack, the hydraulic jack, the screw jack, and load limitations. Designed with a laboratory orientation, each section consists of…

  16. Jack Stenner: The Lexile King.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Linda J.

    2000-01-01

    Traces the career of Jack Stenner. Stenner made the empirical discovery that observable readability could be entirely predicted from word familiarity and sentence length, and applied this "Lexile Framework"(R) to books and readers. Discusses the use of the Lexile Framework as a way to target specific readers. (SLD)

  17. John B. "Jack" Townshend (1927-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Finn, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    Jack Townshend, geophysicist and dedicated public servant, died on 13 August 2012 in Fairbanks, Alaska. He was 85. Jack's career with the federal government, most of it with the national magnetic observatory program, spanned more than six solar cycles of time, and he retired only days before his death. The duration of Jack's career encompassed an important period in the history of the advancement of our understanding of the Earth. Jack's career of contributions, his life, and his personality are worthy of retrospective celebration.

  18. Long-term impact of shoot blight disease on red pine saplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda M. Haugen; Michael E. Ostry

    2013-01-01

    Damage from Sirococcus and Diplodia shoot blights of red pine is widespread and periodically severe in the Lake States. An outbreak of shoot blight occurred in red pine sapling plantations across northern Wisconsin, northern Minnesota, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan in 1993. We established monitoring plots in red pine sapling...

  19. The Alignment Jacks of the LHC Cryomagnets

    CERN Document Server

    Dwivedi, J; Goswami, S G; Madhumurthy, V; Parma, V; Soni, H C

    2004-01-01

    The precise alignment of the 1232 dipoles, 474 Short Straight Sections (SSS) and some other components of the LHC collider, requires the use of 6800 jacks. The specific requirements and the need for a cost-effective solution for this large production, justified the development and industrialisation of a dedicated mechanical jack. The jack was developed, and is now being produced by Centre for Advanced Technology, India, in the framework of a collaboration between CERN and the Department of Atomic Energy in India. Three jacks support each of the 32-ton heavy, 15-meter long cryo-dipole of LHC, and provide the required alignment features. Identical jacks support the lighter LHC Short Straight Sections. Presently, the mass production of 6800 jacks is in progress with two Indian manufacturers, and 3545 jacks have already been delivered to CERN by April 2004. Considering the successful performance of the jacks, it is now envisaged to extend their use, with some modifications, for even higher-demanding alignment of ...

  20. Spatial and population genetic structure of microsatellites in white pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula E. Marquardt; Bryan K. Epperson

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the population genetic structure of seven microsatellite loci for old growth and second growth populations of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus). From each population, located within Hartwick Pines State Park, Grayling, Michigan, USA, 120-122 contiguous trees were sampled for genetic analysis. Within each population, genetic diversity...

  1. Jack Reeves and his science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lorna G; Grover, Robert F

    2006-04-28

    John T. (Jack) Reeves' science is reviewed across the 37 years of his research career at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, a period which occupied approximately half his remarkable life. His contributions centered on understanding the inter-relatedness as well as the underlying mechanisms controlling the various components of the O(2) transport system. We review here his studies on exercise performance; these encompassed about half his scientific output with the other half being devoted to the study of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Early studies concerned cardiac output, showing how it was a balance between O(2) uptake and O(2) extraction, and that cardiac output during exercise at high altitude was reduced, most likely because of decreased plasma volume and left ventricular filling. Jack's many studies addressed virtually every aspect of the O(2) transport system -- adding significantly to our understanding of the syndromes of altitude illness, the mechanisms by which ventilatory sensitivity to hypoxia and hypercapnia influenced ventilatory acclimatization, and the contributions of the various limbs of the autonomic nervous system on systemic blood pressure, vascular resistance and substrate utilization. His scientific career ended abruptly in 2004 when struck by a car while biking to work, but his legacy remains in his more than 385+ research articles or chapters, the 40+ fellows he trained, and the countless number of younger (and older) scientists for whom he served as a role model for learning how to scrutinize their data and present their findings in clear and sometimes bold prose. An integral man, he is sorely missed.

  2. Jack superpolynomials: physical and combinatorial definitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desrosiers, P.; Mathieu, P.; Lapointe, L.

    2004-01-01

    Jack superpolynomials are eigenfunctions of the supersymmetric extension of the quantum trigonometric Calogero-Moser-Sutherland Hamiltonian. They are orthogonal with respect to the scalar product, dubbed physical, that is naturally induced by this quantum-mechanical problem. But Jack superpolynomials can also be defined more combinatorially, starting from the multiplicative bases of symmetric superpolynomials, enforcing orthogonality with respect to a one-parameter deformation of the combinatorial scalar product. Both constructions turn out to be equivalent. (author)

  3. Jack Michael's Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Caio F.

    2013-01-01

    Among many of Jack Michael's contributions to the field of behavior analysis is his behavioral account of motivation. This paper focuses on the concept of "motivating operation" (MO) by outlining its development from Skinner's (1938) notion of "drive." Conceptually, Michael's term helped us change our focus on…

  4. Jack in the Box, Unit 1A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard Nielsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    In the assignment known as ‘JACK- in-the-box’ the aim is to foster col- laborative situations through man- aging a complex architectural issue. The aim is to conduct an integrat- ed teaching course that extends from an introductory outline pro- cess through to the project devel- opment phase...

  5. The Interacting controls of pyrolysis temperature and plant taxa on pyrogenic organic matter stability and decomposition in a Northern Michigan forest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, C. D.; Filley, T. R.; Bird, J. A.; Hatton, P. J.; Stark, R. E.; Nadelhoffer, K. J.

    2017-12-01

    Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) produced during forest fires is considered a large sink of stable soil organic matter (SOM) in boreal-temperate forest ecotones, where fire frequency and intensity is growing with changing climate. Understanding how changes in fire regime and predicted shifts in plant taxa will interact to affect PyOM dynamics in soil is imperative to assessing the impact of climate change on SOM maintenance. The stability of PyOM in soil may be co-determined by the physiochemical structure imparted on PyOM during pyrolysis and by its initial taxa-dependent wood chemistry and anatomy. To determine PyOM-C turnover rates in soil, we followed the fate of 13C-enriched wood or PyOM (200, 300, 450, or 600°C) derived from red maple (RM) or jack pine (JP) wood in soil from a recently burned forest in northern Michigan, USA. We found that pyrolysis temperature-controlled physiochemical changes influenced, with threshold dynamics, PyOM stability resulting in mean residence times of 2 (PyOM 200°C) to 450 years for both taxa, confirming that most PyOM (wood taxa did affect PyOM C MRT, in part due to differences in the amount of water soluble C released by PyOM during the initial decomposition dynamics in soil.

  6. Reproductive aspects of Jack mackerel Trachurus murphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Perea

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The time series of monthly gonadosomatic index (GSI and biannual size at first maturity of Jack mackerel Trachurus murphyiNichols 1920 in Peru between 1967 and 2012 is analyzed and discussed. The annual and interannual variation of the reproductive cycle was determined. It is shown that in Peru T. murphyihas a single relatively extended spawning period with a maximum in November each year. It is also shown that for more than four decades T. murphyi has spawned regularly every year in Peruvian waters. The reproductive activity of T. murphyi has a greater variability off Peru and the spawning period has peaks of lesser magnitude but extend longer than observed in the spawning occurring off Chile. The analyses of the sizes at first maturity of Jack mackerel in Peruvian waters did not show significant changes throughout the entire period observed.

  7. 'Weightless' acrylic painting by Jack Kroehnke

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    'Weightless' acrylic painting by Jack Kroehnke depicts STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) David C. Hilmers participating in extravehicular activity (EVA) simulation in JSC Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. In the payload bay (PLB) mockup, Hilmers, wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), holds onto the mission-peculiar equipment support structure in foreground while SCUBA-equipped diver monitors activity overhead and camera operator records EVA procedures. Copyrighted art work for use by NASA.

  8. Bathymetry of Lake Michigan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathymetry of Lake Michigan has been compiled as a component of a NOAA project to rescue Great Lakes lake floor geological and geophysical data and make it more...

  9. Automatic Hydraulic Jack Inbuilt In A Four Wheeler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parth M. Patel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With increasing levels of technology efforts being put to increase the comfort and safety. These can be done by implementation of better design. This paper describes Implementation of Automatic hydraulic jack Mechanism in a four wheeler itself. The jack will be powered by the battery. So at a time of puncture to replace the wheel one has to just press the button and the jack which is fitted in the car itself will lift the car.

  10. Empirical yield tables for Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerold T. Hahn; Joan M. Stelman

    1984-01-01

    Describes the tables derived from the 1980 Forest Survey of Michigan and presents ways the tables can be used. These tables are broken down according to Michigan's four Forest Survey Units, 14 forest types, and 5 site-index classes.

  11. Transitional Experiences of Post-16 Sports Education: Jack's Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldous, David C. R.; Sparkes, Andrew C.; Brown, David H. K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the layered transitional experiences of a semi-professional athlete named Jack (a pseudonym) between the fields of professional sport and further and higher education. Our analysis is framed by the quadripartite framework of structuration and focuses on Jack's "in-situ" practices at his college and university in order…

  12. Michigan forest statistics, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard K. Raile; W. Brad Smith

    1983-01-01

    The fourth inventory of the timber resource of Michigan shows a 7% decline in commercial forest area and a 27% gain in growing-stock volume between 1966 and 1980. Highlights and statistics are presented on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, and biomass.

  13. Notes on Michigan Boletaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Alexander H.

    1973-01-01

    Studies have continued on the diversity of the Michigan bolete flora. During the season of 1972 a variety of Boletus affinis Peck having a reticulate stipe was discovered and abundant material of Boletus bicolor var. subreticulatus Smith & Thiers was obtained. Boletus hortonii Smith & Thiers was

  14. Michigan's Forests 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott A. Pugh; Lawrence D. Pedersen; Douglas C. Heym; Ronald J. Piva; Christopher W. Woodall; Charles J. Barnett; Cassandra M. Kurtz; W. Keith. Moser

    2012-01-01

    The seventh inventory of Michigan's forests, completed in 2009, describes more than 19.9 million acres of forest land. The data in this report are based on visits to 7,516 forested plots from 2005 to 2009. Timberland accounts for 97 percent of this forest land, and 62 percent is privately owned. The sugar maple/beech/yellow birch forest type accounts for 18...

  15. Michigan's forests 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott A. Pugh; Mark H. Hansen; Lawrence D. Pedersen; Douglas C. Heym; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Dacia Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; David E. Haugen; Christopher Woodall; Ed Jepsen

    2009-01-01

    The first annual inventory of Michigan's forests, completed in 2004, covers more than 19.3 million acres of forest land. The data in this report are based on visits to 10,355 forested plots from 2000 to 2004. In addition to detailed information on forest attributes, this report includes data on forest health, biomass, land-use change, and timber-product outputs....

  16. Whiting in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Satellites provide a view from space of changes on the Earth's surface. This series of images from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) aboard the Orbview-2 satellite shows the dramatic change in the color of Lake Michigan during the summer. The bright color that appears in late summer is probably caused by calcium carbonate-chalk-in the water. Lake Michigan always has a lot of calcium carbonate in it because the floor of the lake is limestone. During most of the year the calcium carbonate remains dissolved in the cold water, but at the end of summer the lake warms up, lowering the solubility of calcium carbonate. As a result, the calcium carbonate precipitates out of the water, forming clouds of very small solid particles that appear as bright swirls from above. The phenomenon is appropriately called a whiting event. A similar event occured in 1999, but appears to have started later and subsided earlier. It is also possible that a bloom of the algae Microcystis is responsible for the color change, but unlikely because of Lake Michigan's depth and size. Microcystis blooms have occured in other lakes in the region, however. On the shore of the lake it is possible to see the cities of Chicago, Illinois, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Both appear as clusters of gray-brown pixels. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  17. Generalized Jack and Macdonald polynomials arising from AGT conjecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, Y.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the existence and the orthogonality of the generalized Jack symmetric functions which play an important role in the AGT relations. We show their orthogonality by deforming them to the generalized Macdonald symmetric functions.

  18. In conversation with Nobel Laureate Jack Steinberger

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Awarded the 1988 Nobel Prize for Physics for his discovery of the muon neutrino, Jack Steinberger has been part of the CERN establishment for almost 50 years. He recently celebrated his 90th birthday and can still be found in his CERN office on an almost daily basis. If you happened to have a coffee with him… this is what he would tell you: his recollections, and thoughts about the present and future of particle physics.   I’ve been at CERN for 45 years, and I’ve seen this organisation go through a lot. Experiments have grown significantly and so have the aspirations of particle physics. When I did my thesis 64 years ago, I could do it alone in just 6 months and I could get worldwide interesting results. Now, experiments at CERN are made up of hundreds, if not thousands of people, working for 20 years to get a result. My thesis advisor was Enrico Fermi, and in 1953 – unless it was 1952, I’d done my thesis a few years before - he was asked to be t...

  19. Michigan E85 Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstrom, Matthew M.

    2012-03-30

    This is the final report for a grant-funded project to financially assist and otherwise provide support to projects that increase E85 infrastructure in Michigan at retail fueling locations. Over the two-year project timeframe, nine E85 and/or flex-fuel pumps were installed around the State of Michigan at locations currently lacking E85 infrastructure. A total of five stations installed the nine pumps, all providing cost share toward the project. By using cost sharing by station partners, the $200,000 provided by the Department of Energy facilitated a total project worth $746,332.85. This project was completed over a two-year timetable (eight quarters). The first quarter of the project focused on project outreach to station owners about the incentive on the installation and/or conversion of E85 compatible fueling equipment including fueling pumps, tanks, and all necessary electrical and plumbing connections. Utilizing Clean Energy Coalition (CEC) extensive knowledge of gasoline/ethanol infrastructure throughout Michigan, CEC strategically placed these pumps in locations to strengthen the broad availability of E85 in Michigan. During the first and second quarters, CEC staff approved projects for funding and secured contracts with station owners; the second through eighth quarters were spent working with fueling station owners to complete projects; the third through eighth quarters included time spent promoting projects; and beginning in the second quarter and running for the duration of the project was spent performing project reporting and evaluation to the US DOE. A total of 9 pumps were installed (four in Elkton, two in Sebewaing, one in East Lansing, one in Howell, and one in Whitmore Lake). At these combined station locations, a total of 192,445 gallons of E85, 10,786 gallons of E50, and 19,159 gallons of E30 were sold in all reporting quarters for 2011. Overall, the project has successfully displaced 162,611 gallons (2,663 barrels) of petroleum, and reduced

  20. MICHIGAN: Cyclotron conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    A sense of excitement was in the air as cyclotron physicists and engineers from 17 countries convened on 30 April for the opening of the Tenth International Conference on Cyclotrons and Their Applications. Some 50 years after its invention, the redoubtable cyclotron remains a topic of compelling current interest. Cyclotron experts gathered at Michigan State University's Kellogg Center to hear of latest developments, of progress and successes on new machines which had come into operation, of new projects which were underway, and of dreams which lay ahead

  1. MICHIGAN: Cyclotron conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1984-10-15

    A sense of excitement was in the air as cyclotron physicists and engineers from 17 countries convened on 30 April for the opening of the Tenth International Conference on Cyclotrons and Their Applications. Some 50 years after its invention, the redoubtable cyclotron remains a topic of compelling current interest. Cyclotron experts gathered at Michigan State University's Kellogg Center to hear of latest developments, of progress and successes on new machines which had come into operation, of new projects which were underway, and of dreams which lay ahead.

  2. 75 FR 41895 - Inteva Products, LLC Adrian, Michigan; Inteva Products, LLC Troy, Michigan; Amended Certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... Products, LLC Adrian, Michigan; Inteva Products, LLC Troy, Michigan; Amended Certification Regarding... time period at the Troy, Michigan location of Inteva Products, LLC. The Troy, Michigan location.... Accordingly, the Department is amending the certification to include workers of the Troy, Michigan location of...

  3. JACK - ANTHROPOMETRIC MODELING SYSTEM FOR SILICON GRAPHICS WORKSTATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B.

    1994-01-01

    JACK is an interactive graphics program developed at the University of Pennsylvania that displays and manipulates articulated geometric figures. JACK is typically used to observe how a human mannequin interacts with its environment and what effects body types will have upon the performance of a task in a simulated environment. Any environment can be created, and any number of mannequins can be placed anywhere in that environment. JACK includes facilities to construct limited geometric objects, position figures, perform a variety of analyses on the figures, describe the motion of the figures and specify lighting and surface property information for rendering high quality images. JACK is supplied with a variety of body types pre-defined and known to the system. There are both male and female bodies, ranging from the 5th to the 95th percentile, based on NASA Standard 3000. Each mannequin is fully articulated and reflects the joint limitations of a normal human. JACK is an editor for manipulating previously defined objects known as "Peabody" objects. Used to describe the figures as well as the internal data structure for representing them, Peabody is a language with a powerful and flexible mechanism for representing connectivity between objects, both the joints between individual segments within a figure and arbitrary connections between different figures. Peabody objects are generally comprised of several individual figures, each one a collection of segments. Each segment has a geometry represented by PSURF files that consist of polygons or curved surface patches. Although JACK does not have the capability to create new objects, objects may be created by other geometric modeling programs and then translated into the PSURF format. Environment files are a collection of figures and attributes that may be dynamically moved under the control of an animation file. The animation facilities allow the user to create a sequence of commands that duplicate the movements of a

  4. Ponderosa pine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell T. Graham; Theresa B. Jain

    2005-01-01

    Ponderosa pine is a wide-ranging conifer occurring throughout the United States, southern Canada, and northern Mexico. Since the 1800s, ponderosa pine forests have fueled the economies of the West. In western North America, ponderosa pine grows predominantly in the moist and dry forests. In the Black Hills of South Dakota and the southern portion of its range, the...

  5. Lodgepole Pine Dwarf Mistletoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank G. Hawksworth; Oscar J. Dooling

    1984-01-01

    Lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum Nutt. ex Engelm.) is a native, parasitic, seed plant that occurs essentially throughout the range of lodgepole pine in North America. It is the most damaging disease agent in lodgepole pine, causing severe growth loss and increased tree mortality. Surveys in the Rocky Mountains show that the parasite is found in...

  6. Environmental Assessment of Alternate Training Area Jack Pine Flats Idaho Department of Lands Near Coolin, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    habitats within the proposed permit/lease area are not suitable for full support of these species, particularly reproduction and are not considered...restricting harvest has a more substantial positive effect on bull trout reproduction and survival over any other factor. Hence, the proposed action will...growth mesic conifer forests. They are known to use other habitat types such as openings and riparian areas. Populations in Idaho have decreased from

  7. Germinant size of jack pine in relation to seed size and geographic origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.W. Yeatman

    1966-01-01

    The initial size of conifer seedlings is closely related to seed size (Hadders 1963), and seed size is a maternal characteristic that is highly subject to environmental modification (Mergen et al. 1964; Righter 1945). The effect of seed weight must be accounted for in critical studies of seedlings which attempt to attribute differences in growth to specific genetic or...

  8. The Authority and Charismas of Jack Ma's Leadership

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈希

    2014-01-01

    Jack Ma is the top manager of Ali Baba group, with a strong leadership. He mixes autocratic leadership and charismatic leadership together. The powers he used are from his position, the reward system of the company and the charismas to gain his leading power. In addition, he uses his charismas and his achievements to win the trust of the employees, which develop his leadership.

  9. Book Review: Jack Simons: Teacher, Scholar, Comrade: A Jacana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Title: Jack Simons: Teacher, Scholar, Comrade: A Jacana Pocket Biography. Book Author: Hugh Macmillan. Jacana: Auckland Park, 2016. 167 pp. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  10. JACK LONDON ETNÓLOGO AMATEUR DEL PUGILISMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Wacquant

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available De los relatos que Jack London ha consagrado al boxeo, A Piece of Steak es sin dudas aquel que merece hoy nuestra mayor atención, e incluso un lugar en el panteón de los textos literarios sobre el Noble Arte, y junto a él otros tres títulos...

  11. Functional properties of unmodified and modified Jack bean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The native Jack bean (Canavalia eniformis) starch was chemically modified through oxidation and acetylation. Proximate composition analysis revealed higher moisture, protein, fat and ash contents 'native unmodified than modified starches and higher yield in modified starches. Swelling capacity and solubility of all the ...

  12. Psychoanalysis of Jack London's "The Call of the Wild" and "White Fang"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongyan

    2015-01-01

    "The Call of the Wild" and "White Fang" both are masterpieces of Jack London. The protagonists Buck and White Fang are the incarnation of Jack himself to some extent for the two novels reveal a great deal of the writer. This essay aims at psychoanalyzing Jack London's creative process, the Oedipus complex and the confliction…

  13. Creating a Better Funding System for Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    In 1994, Michigan voters approved a ballot initiative that transferred the power in Michigan's education system from local communities to the state. Proposal A succeeded in slowing the growth of local property taxes and narrowing the gap between the richest and poorest districts in Michigan. However, due to a decade of sluggish economic growth,…

  14. A reactive nitrogen budget for Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reactive nitrogen budget for Lake Michigan was reviewed and updated, making use of recent estimates of watershed and atmospheric nitrogen loads. The updated total N load to Lake Michigan was approximately double the previous estimate from the Lake Michigan Mass Balance study ...

  15. Mountain Pine Beetle Fecundity and Offspring Size Differ Among Lodgepole Pine and Whitebark Pine Hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Donovan

    2008-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelmann) is a treeline species in the central Rocky Mountains. Its occupation of high elevations previously protected whitebark pine from long-term mountain pine beetle outbreaks. The mountain pine beetle, however, is currently reaching outbreaks of record magnitude in high-elevation whitebark pine. We used a factorial laboratory experiment to compare mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) life history characteristics between a typical host, ...

  16. Footprint study in children during the Jack test

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, José Antonio; Saito, Edgar; Lira Neto, Ozório Almeida; Rowinski, Sérgio; Blumetti, Francesco Camara; Dobashi, Eiffel Tsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar as impressões plantares durante o teste de Jack em crianças quantificando e observando os resultados numa faixa etária crítica para a formação do arco plantar. MÉTODO: Avaliamos 60 crianças brancas (120 pés) sendo 35 meninos e 25 meninas com idades entre 2 e 5 anos, sem queixas ortopédicas. Simulamos o teste de Jack com uma órtese em cunha de 45º apoiada sob o hálux. Obtivemos impressões em apoio monopodálico bilateralmente utilizando um pedígrafo. O exame dividiu-se em dua...

  17. Inflatable Indian travel pillow as a pneumatic patient jack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalakrishna A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Indian travel pillow readily available in the market has been utilized as a patient jack in the operation theatre. This has been used to raise the shoulders of an anaesthetized patient for surgery in the head and neck region and a set of two pillows have been used to prop-up a prone anaesthetized patient. This allows smooth positioning of the patient after intubation without disturbance to the airway with minimal manpower.

  18. Pollutant transformations over Lake Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkezweeny, A.J.; Arbuthnot, D.R.; Busness, K.M.; Easter, R.C.; Hales, J.M.; Lee, R.N.; Young, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    An aircraft, a chartered boat, and a constant altitude balloon were used to study pollutant transformations over Lake Michigan in a Lagrangian frame of reference. The experiments were conducted during the summer under strong atmospheric stability where diffusion and dry deposition of pollutants can be neglected

  19. Michigan School Privatization Survey 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman, James M.; Fryzelka, Evan E.

    2014-01-01

    Many of Michigan's public school districts are under substantial fiscal pressures from a combination of declining enrollment and increasing costs, particularly related to employee benefits, but most districts are responding to these challenges. One of the ways that districts can stretch their resources further is through competitive contracting…

  20. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-22

    Energy used by Michigan single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  1. Seeing is believing -- SpyJack system investigates field problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Meara, D.

    1998-01-01

    The SpyJack Remote Monitoring System, a stand-alone, single-site remote well monitoring system that works off its own embedded controller is described. The supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) unit, developed by CORE Technologies Inc., has an integrated voice/alarm system, monitoring sensors installed at remote well sites continuously 24 hours a day with a digital camera, with 300 degrees of visual confirmation capability. It can also be used as a surveillance tool against terrorism as has been shown in the case of some recent debilitating attacks on remote wells in Alberta. SpyJack monitors flow rates and pressures, pumpjack stroke rates, sucker rod temperature, load cell and engine shut-off relay, as well as ambient temperature, tank levels, and motion detection. At the office, SpyJack Well Management Interface uses nine drop-down screens to take users through the remote monitoring and control of each site. The screens include production sensors, line sensors, dyno chart, environmental/safety sensors and sensor information and set up. Currently under development is the unsolicited dial-out capability. When implemented the system will send out information at pre-determined times, such as every four hours, or at specific times during the day. Compressing images to enable speedier downloading is also being planned

  2. Hurricane Katrina winds damaged longleaf pine less than loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Johnsen; John R. Butnor; John S. Kush; Ronald C. Schmidtling; C. Dana. Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Some evidence suggests that longleaf pine might be more tolerant of high winds than either slash pine (Pinus elliotii Englem.) or loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). We studied wind damage to these three pine species in a common garden experiment in southeast Mississippi following Hurricane Katrina,...

  3. Pine weevil (Hylobius abietis) antifeedants from lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratt, K; Sunnerheim, K; Nordenhem, H; Nordlander, G; Langström, B

    2001-11-01

    Pine weevils (Hylobius abietis) fed less on bark of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) than on bark of Scots pine (P. sylvestris). Two pine weevil antifeedants, ethyl trans-cinnamate and ethyl 2,3-dibromo-3-phenyl-propanoate, were isolated from bark of lodgepole pine. These two compounds significantly reduced pine weevil feeding in a laboratory bioassay. In field assays, the second compound significantly decreased pine weevil damage on planted seedlings. Ethyl 2,3-dibromo-3-phenylpropanoate has not previously been reported as a natural product.

  4. Whitebark pine planting guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward McCaughey; Glenda L. Scott; Kay L. Izlar

    2009-01-01

    This article incorporates new information into previous whitebark pine guidelines for planting prescriptions. Earlier 2006 guidelines were developed based on review of general literature, research studies, field observations, and standard US Forest Service survival surveys of high-elevation whitebark pine plantations. A recent study of biotic and abiotic factors...

  5. Sugar pine and its hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield; B. B. Kinloch

    1986-01-01

    Unlike most white pines, sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) is severely restricted in its ability to hybridize with other species. It has not been successfully crossed with any other North American white pine, nor with those Eurasian white pines it most closely resembles. Crosses with the dissimilar P. koraiensis and P....

  6. Students Learning Physics While Lifting Themselves: A Simple Analysis of a Scissors Jack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Ole Anton

    2017-01-01

    Every time I have to jack up my car, I am a bit surprised by how slowly the scissors jack works the higher I raise it, and close to maximum height I need very little force to turn the crank. This agrees well with the principle of simple machines. Since I have to jack up my car at least twice a year to change between winter tires and summer tires,…

  7. The copper deposits of Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, B.S.; Burbank, W.S.

    1929-01-01

    The copper district of Keweenaw Point, in the northern peninsula of Michigan, is the second largest producer of copper in the world.  The output of the district since 1845 has been more than 7,500,000,000 pounds and showed a rather steady and consistent increase from the beginning of production to the end of the World War in 1918, since which there has been a marked decrease.

  8. Active Traffic Management in Michigan

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Pat

    2018-01-01

    The US 23 Flex Route is the first active traffic management (ATM) project in the state of Michigan. This route utilizes overhead lane control gantries equipped with various intelligent transportation system (ITS) equipment to facilitate the following ATM strategies: dynamic shoulder use, dynamic lane control, variable speed advisories, and queue warning. The focus of this presentation is how the project team overcame several challenges during the planning, design, and system management phases...

  9. Visit at PFAFF Silberblau for follow -up of mechanical jacks fabrication for HF

    CERN Multimedia

    Hubert Gerwig

    2000-01-01

    The HF detctor is sitting on either side of the CMS experiment at a height of the beam, 8.79m This detector weighs 220 tons will be lifted in 4 steps on its working position. 4 mechanical jacks with 100t force each will act on each corner of rectangle of 5600mm x 3200mm. The individual main pieces of the jacks are shown here. Next step is the assembly of the jacks by putting together housing, groundplate, spindle, gear, worm gear etc. Delivery of the first 4 jacks in dec.2000

  10. Electric industry restructuring in Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This Staff Report suggests a modified approach designed to significantly increase the ability of all customer classes to participate and share in the benefits of competition. The concepts discussed in this Report are designed to ensure that rates are not increased for any customers as a result of restructuring and, where possible, rates are reduced through the use of rate reduction bonds. The program outlined in this Report is designed to fulfill five objectives. First, it protects the interests of smaller customers, including low-income residential customers and senior citizens. Second, the program provides opportunities to strengthen Michigan's business community. Third, the program includes funding for employee retraining to assure that utility employees are not negatively impacted by restructuring. Fourth, the phase-in program provides the utilities with the opportunity to prepare for competition so that they remain Michigan-based companies. Fifth, the program is designed to foster competition upon a level playing field. The Commission has jurisdiction over all investor electric utilities and rural electric cooperatives in Michigan. Municipal electric utilities are not subject to Commission jurisdiction. Although this Report discusses details regarding Consumers Power and Detroit Edison, its concepts and principles are intended to apply to all jurisdictional electric utilities

  11. The influence of musical cadence into aquatic jumping jacks kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Mário J; Oliveira, Cristiana; Teixeira, Genoveva; Marinho, Daniel A; Silva, António J; Barbosa, Tiago M

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between the head-out aquatic exercise "Jumping jacks" kinematics and the musical cadence in healthy and fit subjects. Five young women, with at least one year of experience conducting head- out aquatic programs were videotaped in the frontal plane, with a pair of cameras providing a double projection (above and below the water surface). Subjects performed an incremental protocol of five bouts (120 b·min(-1), 135 b·min(-1), 150 b·min(-1), 165 b·min(-1) and 180 b·min(-1)) with 16 full cycles of the "Jumping jacks" exercise. Data processing and calculation of upper limbs' (i.e. hands), lower limbs' (i.e. feet) and center of mass' 2D linear velocity and displacement were computed with the software Ariel Performance Analysis System and applying the 2D-DLT algorithm. Subjects decreased the cycle period during the incremental protocol. Significant and negative relationships with the musical cadence were verified for the center of mass and upper limbs vertical displacement. On the other hand, for the lower limbs lateral velocity, a significant and positive relationship was observed. It is concluded that expert and fit subjects increase the lower limb's velocity to maintain the range of motion, while the upper limb's displacement is reduced to coupe the music cadence. Key pointsWhile performing the Jumping Jacks, expert and fit subjects increase their lower limbs segmental velocity to maintain the range of motion.The upper limbs displacement is reduced to maintain the music cadence.Expert and fit subjects present similar response for alternating or simultaneously head-out aquatic exercises when increasing the music cadence.

  12. Destructive Cholangitis in an Adult Jack Russell Terrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Kodama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 4-year-old female Jack Russell terrier dog exhibited vomiting and severe jaundice of the visible mucous membranes and skin. Ultrasonography revealed diffuse areas of high echogenicity and focal areas of low echogenicity in the left lobe of the liver. On macroscopic observation of the biopsied liver specimen, many scattered irregularly shaped red spots were observed on the liver surface and on the cut surface. Histopathologically, there was loss of the interlobular bile duct and cholangitis accompanied by infiltration of pigment-laden macrophages in the Glisson’s capsule. Therefore, in the present case the dog was diagnosed with destructive cholangitis.

  13. CoJACK: A High-Level Cognitive Architecture with Demonstrations of Moderators, Variability, and Implications for Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    defined, to CoJACK (Ritter, Reifers, Klein, & Schoelles, 2007) based on task appraisal theory (e.g., Cannon, 1932; Lazarus & Folkman , 1984; Selye...Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Lazarus , R. S., & Folkman , S. (1984). Stress, appraisal and coping. New York: Springer Publishing. Lovett, M. C., Daily, L...promising. 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 Java JACK Default CoJack CoJack Caffeine CoJack Challenged CoJack Threatened Agent Type Ta n k s D es tr o y e d

  14. Resinosis Inhibits Monochamus spp. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) Colonization of Healthy Shortleaf Pines in Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethington, Matthew W; Galligan, Larry D; Stephen, Fred M

    2018-05-14

    The genus Monochamus Dejean (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) includes large, woodboring, longhorned beetles, which colonize pine trees in North America. Many authors have classified the genus as saprophagous, but one recent study reported successful colonization of standing jack pine trees (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) (Pinales: Pinaceae) following severe wind disturbance in Minnesota. We tested whether two Monochamus species native to the southeastern United States (M. titillator (Fabricius) and M. carolinensis (Olivier)) could successfully colonize healthy shortleaf pines (Pinus echinata Mill.) (Pinales: Pinaceae) in recently harvested stands without coincident abiotic or biotic stressors, such as lightning strikes or bark beetle attacks. We attached commercially available semiochemical lures, including monochamol, ethanol, and ipsenol, to healthy shortleaf pine trees and observed Monochamus spp. oviposition response. Egg development was monitored following oviposition by harvesting attacked trees and dissecting oviposition pits. High numbers of oviposition pits were observed on trees treated with lures containing the bark beetle pheromone ipsenol and pits were highly concentrated on the tree bole near lures. Although egg deposition occurred, pit dissection revealed large amounts of resin present in almost all dissected pits and that egg hatch and subsequent larval development were rare. Our results demonstrate that southeastern Monochamus spp. are unlikely to be primary pests of healthy shortleaf pines due to resinosis. To better understand the host finding behavior of these two Monochamus species, we also conducted trapping trials with several semiochemical combinations. Both species and sexes demonstrated similar attraction to compounds, and the most attractive lure combined host volatiles, pheromone, and sympatric insect kairomone.

  15. Comparison of Sparse and Jack-knife partial least squares regression methods for variable selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karaman, Ibrahim; Qannari, El Mostafa; Martens, Harald

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare two different techniques of variable selection, Sparse PLSR and Jack-knife PLSR, with respect to their predictive ability and their ability to identify relevant variables. Sparse PLSR is a method that is frequently used in genomics, whereas Jack-knife PL...

  16. Investigating the Jack the Ripper Case: Engaging Students in a Criminal Investigations Class through Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Daniel; Kazmi, Syed

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines the utilization of a class project involving the Jack the Ripper murders. Students enrolled in a criminal investigations class were required to investigate the five canonical murders associated with the infamous serial killer known as Jack the Ripper and the murders that occurred in London during 1888. This paper…

  17. Economic impacts of wine tourism in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi-Kyung Kim; Seung Hyun Kim

    2003-01-01

    In Michigan, wine tourism is perceived as increasingly important concept because more and more tourists visit wineries and wine tasting rooms annually. However there have been few studies conducted concerning the economic impacts of wineries in Michigan even though the industry has been recognized as having significant economic impact potential. The primary purpose of...

  18. Should ponderosa pine be planted on lodgepole pine sites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.H. Cochran

    1984-01-01

    Repeated radiation frosts caused no apparent harm to the majority of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) seedlings planted on a pumice flat in south-central Oregon. For most but not all of the ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl.) seedlings planted with the lodgepole pine, however, damage from radiation frost resulted in...

  19. The characters God and Hamlet by Jack Miles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania de Fátima da Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the book “God - A Biography,” Jack Miles aims to introduce ourselves Creator-God as a literary character. Miles developed a narrative based on concept aristotelian, in other words, the structure of the work is made from beginning to end. This procedure established a harmony arising from the interaction between the parties, which contributes to scrutinize the precise details of the story of the main protagonist. We decided to highlight that time some characteristics of the main character of the work and compare them to the character Hamlet, by William Shakespeare, because from the beginning of the narrative to completion Miles calls the reader’s attention to the play Shakespeare.

  20. Applying the vantage PDMS to jack-up drilling ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Peng; Chen, Yuan-Ming; Cui, Tong-Kai; Wang, Zi-Shen; Gong, Li-Jiang; Yu, Xiang-Fen

    2009-09-01

    The plant design management system (PDMS) is an integrated application which includes a database and is useful when designing complex 3-D industrial projects. It could be used to simplify the most difficult part of a subsea oil extraction project—detailed pipeline design. It could also be used to integrate the design of equipment, structures, HVAC, E-ways as well as the detailed designs of other specialists. This article mainly examines the applicability of the Vantage PDMS database to pipeline projects involving jack-up drilling ships. It discusses the catalogue (CATA) of the pipeline, the spec-world (SPWL) of the pipeline, the bolt tables (BLTA) and so on. This article explains the main methods for CATA construction as well as problem in the process of construction. In this article, the authors point out matters needing attention when using the Vantage PDMS database in the design process and discuss partial solutions to these questions.

  1. Whitebark pine mortality related to white pine blister rust, mountain pine beetle outbreak, and water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Erin; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Thoma, David P.; Wilmoth, Siri K.; Ray, Andrew; Legg, Kristin; Shovic, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) forests in the western United States have been adversely affected by an exotic pathogen (Cronartium ribicola, causal agent of white pine blister rust), insect outbreaks (Dendroctonus ponderosae, mountain pine beetle), and drought. We monitored individual trees from 2004 to 2013 and characterized stand-level biophysical conditions through a mountain pine beetle epidemic in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Specifically, we investigated associations between tree-level variables (duration and location of white pine blister rust infection, presence of mountain pine beetle, tree size, and potential interactions) with observations of individual whitebark pine tree mortality. Climate summaries indicated that cumulative growing degree days in years 2006–2008 likely contributed to a regionwide outbreak of mountain pine beetle prior to the observed peak in whitebark mortality in 2009. We show that larger whitebark pine trees were preferentially attacked and killed by mountain pine beetle and resulted in a regionwide shift to smaller size class trees. In addition, we found evidence that smaller size class trees with white pine blister rust infection experienced higher mortality than larger trees. This latter finding suggests that in the coming decades white pine blister rust may become the most probable cause of whitebark pine mortality. Our findings offered no evidence of an interactive effect of mountain pine beetle and white pine blister rust infection on whitebark pine mortality in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Interestingly, the probability of mortality was lower for larger trees attacked by mountain pine beetle in stands with higher evapotranspiration. Because evapotranspiration varies with climate and topoedaphic conditions across the region, we discuss the potential to use this improved understanding of biophysical influences on mortality to identify microrefugia that might contribute to successful whitebark pine conservation

  2. Kirtland's Warbler (Setophaga kirtlankii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Probst; Deahn M. Donner

    2011-01-01

    Spring travelers from around the world are attracted to the young jack pine forests of Michigan for a chance to hear the loud distinct song of the endangered Kirtland's Warbler. This blue-gray-backed warbler with a yellow underside can be heard singing from its perch in the tops of standing snags or jack pine trees, or seen hopping from tree to tree or to the...

  3. Fish impingement at Lake Michigan power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.K.; Freeman, R.F.; Spigarelli, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    A study was initiated in 1974 to survey the magnitude and to evaluate the impact of fish impingement at 20 power plants on the Great Lakes. Data on impingement rates, site characteristics, intake designs and operational features have been collected and analyzed. Interpretive analyses of these data are in progress. The objectives of this study were: to summarize fish impingement data for Lake Michigan (16/20 plants surveyed are on Lake Michigan); to assess the significance of total and source-related mortalities on populations of forage and predator species; and to expand the assessment of power plant impingement to include all water intakes on Lake Michigan. Data are tabulated

  4. Michigan transportation facts & figures : public transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-16

    This on-line document is part of a series, Transportation Facts & Figures, by the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT). The Public Transit section of Transportation Facts & Figures cover such topics as intercity bus service, intercity rail se...

  5. MICHIGAN FARM DATABASE NEW DIRECTIONS FOR 1995

    OpenAIRE

    Nott, Sherrill B.; Hepp, Ralph E.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide financial and production performance data for Michigan farms in 1995. Separate sections report on the farm types of Cash Grain, Dairy, Fruit, General Crop, General Livestock, and Swine. This data can be used as a comparative data base for individual farmers to conduct a financial analysis of their own farm to identify strengths and weaknesses. This report can also provide information to those interested in the financial well being of Michigan agricultur...

  6. Does bristlecone pine senesce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.M Lanner; Kristina F. Connor

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated hypotheses of senscence in old trees by comparing putative biomarkers of aging in great basin bristlecone pine ( Pinus longaeva) ranging in age from 23 to 4713 years. To teast a hypothesis that water and nutrient conduction is impaired in old trees we examined cambial products in the xylem and phloem. We found no statiscally significant...

  7. Diseases of lodgepole pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank G. Hawksworth

    1964-01-01

    Diseases are a major concern to forest managers throughout the lodgepole pine type. In many areas, diseases constitute the primary management problem. As might be expected for a tree that has a distribution from Baja California, Mexico to the Yukon and from the Pacific to the Dakotas, the diseases of chief concern vary in different parts of the tree's range. For...

  8. Smoke hardiness of pines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelz, E

    1958-01-01

    It has been determined in East Germany that some species of pines are more susceptible to the damaging effects of sulfates than others. On sites that are deficient in nutrients, the trees were found to be more susceptible to injuries. Pinus nigra was the most resistant, then Pinus strobus was next, and Pinus sylvestris was the most sensitive.

  9. A-jacks and Aquawrap installations in Utah : scour revetment performance evaluation, final report, December 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This is a performance evaluation report for A-Jacks, an articulated concrete block designed to protect bridge elements exposed to the river scouring forces, and for Aquawrap, a glass fiber reinforced polymer designed to protect and strengthen bridge ...

  10. Léon Lederman, Mel Schwartz and Jack Steinberger wre awarded the 1988 Nobel Physics Prize.

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1988-01-01

    Léon Lederman (left), Mel Schwartz (right) and Jack Steinberger were awarded the 1988 Nobel Physics Prize for their 1962 experiment at Brookhaven which showed that neutrinos come in more than one kind.

  11. TOPOLOGICAL STRUCTURE AND MOBILITY OF THE MECHANISMS USED IN CAR MECHANICAL JACKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica VELIȘCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a structural analysis of the mechanism of high topological type jack - screw and translator rectilinear- patina and mobility mechanism analysis using various generally applicable formulas.

  12. Jacking mechanism for upper internals structure of a liquid metal nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillett, J.E.; Wineman, A.L.

    1983-01-01

    A jacking mechanism for raising the upper internals structure of a liquid metal nuclear reactor which jacking mechanism uses a system of gears and drive shafts to transmit force from a single motor to four mechanically synchronized ball jacks to raise and lower support columns which support the upper internals structure. The support columns each have a pin which rides in a slot in a housing fixed to the reactor head. The pin has two locking plates which can be rotated around the pin to bring the locking plates into engagement with the housing in a raised or a lowered position of the support column such that the support column is then supported by the locking plate and not by the ball screw jacks. (author)

  13. Teistsugune vaade juhtide tasustamisele / Jack Welch, Suzy Welch ; intervjueerinud Stefan Eiselin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Welch, Jack

    2010-01-01

    USA juhtimisspetsialistide Jack ja Suzy Welchi hinnangul võib tippjuhtidele makstava palga ümber kerkinud poleemika üks võimalikke põhjuseid lisaks halvale kommunikatsioonile olla ka ideoloogiate kokkusobimatus

  14. Topological color codes on Union Jack lattices: a stable implementation of the whole Clifford group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzgraber, Helmut G.; Bombin, H.; Andrist, Ruben S.; Martin-Delgado, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    We study the error threshold of topological color codes on Union Jack lattices that allow for the full implementation of the whole Clifford group of quantum gates. After mapping the error-correction process onto a statistical mechanical random three-body Ising model on a Union Jack lattice, we compute its phase diagram in the temperature-disorder plane using Monte Carlo simulations. Surprisingly, topological color codes on Union Jack lattices have a similar error stability to color codes on triangular lattices, as well as to the Kitaev toric code. The enhanced computational capabilities of the topological color codes on Union Jack lattices with respect to triangular lattices and the toric code combined with the inherent robustness of this implementation show good prospects for future stable quantum computer implementations.

  15. An experimental study of the mechanism of failure of rocks under borehole jack loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, T. K.; Goodman, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    Laboratory and field tests with an experimental jack and an NX-borehole jack are reported. The following conclusions were made: Under borehole jack loading, a circular opening in a brittle solid fails by tensile fracturing when the bearing plate width is not too small. Two proposed contact stress distributions can explain the mechanism of tensile fracturing. The contact stress distribution factor is a material property which can be determined experimentally. The borehole tensile strength is larger than the rupture flexural strength. Knowing the magnitude and orientation of the in situ stress field, borehole jack test results can be used to determine the borehole tensile strength. Knowing the orientation of the in situ stress field and the flexural strength of the rock substance, the magnitude of the in situ stress components can be calculated. The detection of very small cracks is essential for the accurate determination of the failure loads which are used in the calculation of strengths and stress components.

  16. JackEx: The new digital manufacturing resource for optimization of Exoskeleton-based factory environments

    OpenAIRE

    Constantinescu, Carmen; Mureșan, Paul Cristian; Simon, Gabriel-Marian

    2016-01-01

    The employment of Exoskeletons for manual handling work in manufacturing industries aims at increased employment, productivity, safety and security at workplace. This paper highlights several challenges, current results and future steps of our work in optimization of Exoskeleton based factory environments. “JackEx” is the enhancement of the standard digital humanoid “Jack” with concepts and elements of passive Exoskeletons. For the development of JackEx, a new digital manufacturing resource, ...

  17. A Group Interview about Publishing with Professor Jack Zipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Louise Parfitt

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The conversation piece is the product of a group interview with Professor Jack Zipes and provides useful insights about publishing for early career researchers across disciplines. Based on his wider experiences as academic and writer, Professor Zipes answered questions from PhD researchers about: writing books, monographs and edited collections; turning a PhD thesis into a monograph; choosing and approaching publishers; and the advantages of editing books and translations. It presents some general advice for writing and publishing aimed at postgraduate students. Professor Zipes is an Emeritus Professor at the University of Minnesota Twin Cities, United States, a world expert on fairy tales and storytelling highlighting the social and historical dimensions of them. Zipes has forty years of experience publishing academic and mass-market books, editing anthologies, and translating work from French, German and Italian. His best known books are Breaking the Magic Spell (1979, Fairy Tales and the Art of Subversion (1983, The Irresistible Fairy Tale: The Cultural and Social History of a Genre (2012, and The Original Folk and Fairy Tales of the Brothers Grimm (2014.

  18. Multi-function magnetic jack control drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, L.R.; Crawford, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    A multi-function magnetic jack control drive mechanism is described for controlling a nuclear reactor comprising: an elongate pressure housing; closely-spaced drive rods located in the pressure housing, the drive rod being connected to a reactor rod which is insertable in a reactor core; electrochemical stationary latch means which are selectively actuatable for holding a respective one of the drive rods stationary with respect to the pressure housing, the plurality of stationary latch means including at least one coil located about the pressure housing; longitudinally spaced electromechanical movable latch means, individually associated with one of the drive rods and each including a base for the drive rod associated therewith, for, when actuated, holding the associated drive rod stationary with respect to the base associated therewith, the movable latch means including an associated coil located about the pressure housing; and longitudinally spaced electromechanical lift means, individually associated with the base, for, when actuated, moving an associated base longitudinally along the pressure housing from a first position to a second position to thereby enable movement of one or more of the other drive rods longitudinally independently of the other drive rods in response to sequential and repeated operation of the electromechanical means, the lift means including an associated coil located about the pressure housing

  19. Chemical similarity between historical and novel host plants promotes range and host expansion of the mountain pine beetle in a naïve host ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbilgin, Nadir; Ma, Cary; Whitehouse, Caroline; Shan, Bin; Najar, Ahmed; Evenden, Maya

    2014-02-01

    Host plant secondary chemistry can have cascading impacts on host and range expansion of herbivorous insect populations. We investigated the role of host secondary compounds on pheromone production by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (MPB) and beetle attraction in response to a historical (lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and a novel (jack pine, Pinus banksiana) hosts, as pheromones regulate the host colonization process. Beetles emit the same pheromones from both hosts, but more trans-verbenol, the primary aggregation pheromone, was emitted by female beetles on the novel host. The phloem of the novel host contains more α-pinene, a secondary compound that is the precursor for trans-verbenol production in beetle, than the historical host. Beetle-induced emission of 3-carene, another secondary compound found in both hosts, was also higher from the novel host. Field tests showed that the addition of 3-carene to the pheromone mixture mimicking the aggregation pheromones produced from the two host species increased beetle capture. We conclude that chemical similarity between historical and novel hosts has facilitated host expansion of MPB in jack pine forests through the exploitation of common host secondary compounds for pheromone production and aggregation on the hosts. Furthermore, broods emerging from the novel host were larger in terms of body size. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Jacking mechanism for upper internals structure of a liquid metal nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillett, J.E.; Wineman, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    A jacking mechanism is described for raising the upper internals structure of a liquid metal nuclear reactor which jacking mechanism uses a system of gears and drive shafts to transmit force from a single motor to four mechanically synchronized ball jacks to raise and lower support columns which support the upper internals structure. The support columns have a pin structure which rides up and down in a slot in a housing fixed to the reactor head. The pin has two locking plates which can be rotated around the pin to bring bolt holes through the locking plates into alignment with a set of bolt holes in the housing, there being a set of such housing bolt holes corresponding to both a raised and a lowered position of the support column. When the locking plate is so aligned, a surface of the locking plate mates with a surface in the housing such that the support column is then supported by the locking plate and not by the ball jacks. Since the locking plates are to be installed and bolted to the housing during periods of reactor operation, the ball jacks need not be sized to react the large forces which occur or potentially could occur on the upper internals structure of the reactor during operation. The locking plates react these loads. The ball jacks, used only during refueling, can be smaller, which enable conventionally available equipment to fulfill the precision requirements for the task within available space

  1. Pine Creek uranium province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, M.B.; Needham, R.S.; Page, R.W.; Stuart-Smith, P.G.; Wyborn, L.A.I.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this project is to help establish a sound geological framework of the Pine Creek region through regional geological, geochemical and geophysical studies. Uranium ore at the Coronation Hill U-Au mine is confined to a wedge of conglomerate in faulted contact with altered volcanics. The uranium, which is classified as epigenetic sandstone type, is derived from a uranium-enriched felsic volcanic source

  2. Mountain pine beetle infestations in relation to lodgepole pine diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter E. Cole; Gene D. Amman

    1969-01-01

    Tree losses resulting from infestation by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) were measured in two stands of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) where the beetle population had previously been epidemic. Measurement data showed that larger diameter trees were infested and killed first. Tree losses...

  3. Developing Representative Michigan Truck Configurations for Bridge Load Rating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-28

    The objective of this study is to recommend a rating process representative of Michigan load effects for legal and extended permit vehicles. For this study, high fidelity WIM data from 20 Michigan sites were analyzed. Using vehicle weight and configu...

  4. 27 CFR 9.79 - Lake Michigan Shore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Michigan Shore. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Lake Michigan... southeast along the winding course of the Kalamazoo River for approximately 35 miles until it intersects the...

  5. Market Barriers to Solar in Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, E.; Nobler, E.; Wolf, C.; Doris, E.

    2012-08-01

    The solar industry in the United States is at a turning point; the cost of PV hardware has declined substantially in recent years, placing new attention on reducing the balance of system (BOS) costs of solar that now contribute to a growing percentage of installation expenses. How states address these costs through the creation of a favorable policy and regulatory environment is proving to be a critical determinant of a thriving statewide solar market. This report addresses the permitting and tax issues that may stimulate the solar market growth in Michigan. By making PV installations easier to complete through reduced BOS costs, Michigan would become a more attractive location for manufacturers and installers. As PV module costs decline and BOS costs make up a greater share of the cost of solar, action taken today on these issues will prove beneficial in the long term, providing Michigan an opportunity to establish a leadership position in the solar industry.

  6. Climate influences on whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polly C. Buotte; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Haiganoush K. Preisler; John T. Abatzoglou; Kenneth F. Raffa; Jesse A. Logan

    2016-01-01

    Extensive mortality of whitebark pine, beginning in the early to mid-2000s, occurred in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) of the western USA, primarily from mountain pine beetle but also from other threats such as white pine blister rust. The climatic drivers of this recent mortality and the potential for future whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle...

  7. Stress analysis of jacks, frame and bearing connections, and drill rod for core sampler truck No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziada, H.H.

    1995-01-01

    This analysis evaluates the structural design adequacy of several components and connections for the rotary mode core sampler truck (RMCST) No. 2. This analysis was requested by the Characterization Equipment Group (WHC 1994a). The components addressed in this report are listed below: front jack assembly and connection to the truck chassis; rear jack assembly and connection to the truck chassis; center outrigger jacks and connection to the truck chassis; lower frame assembly and connection to the truck chassis; bolt connections for bearing plate assembly (for path of maximum load); traverse slide brackets and mounting of the traverse jack cylinders; and drill rod (failure loads)

  8. Black-tailed jack rabbit movements and habitat utilization at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory radioactive waste management complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    In June 1982, a study of black-tailed jack rabbit (Lepus californicus) ecology was initiated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). This study will provide data necessary to evaluate the role of jack rabbits in radionuclide transport away from the Subsurface Disposal Area of the RWMC. Primary goals are to document radionuclide concentrations in jack rabbit tissues, and determine population size, movement patterns, habitat use, and food habits of jack rabbits inhabiting the RWMC area. Study design and prelimianry results are discussed

  9. Perry Pinyon Pines Protection Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel McCarthy

    2012-01-01

    Fuel reduction treatments around pinyon pine trees began as a simple project but ended in something more complex, enjoyable, and rewarding. The project eventually led to pinyon species (Pinus monophylla and P. quadrifolia) reforestation efforts, something that has been tried in the past with disappointing results. The Perry Pinyon Pines Protection Project and current...

  10. Alternaria leaf spot in Michigan and fungicide sensitivity issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 2010 there has been an increase in identification of Alternaria leaf spot on sugar beet in Michigan and other growing regions in the US and Canada. In 2016, the disease was severe enough to cause economic losses in the Michigan growing region. Michigan isolates from sugar beet were examined ...

  11. The Austrian x red pine hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. B. Critchfield

    1963-01-01

    The genetic improvement of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) presents tree breeders with one of their most difficult problems. Not only is this valuable species remarkably uniform, but until 1955 it resisted all attempts to cross it with other pines. In that year red pine and Austrian pine (P. nigra var. austriaca [...

  12. Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli Peacher

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB) is the most destructive forest insect in the South. The SPB attacks all species of southern pine, but loblolly and shortleaf are most susceptible. The Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS) is the computerized database used by the national forests in the Southern Region for tracking individual southern pine beetle infestations....

  13. Carbon sequestration and natural longleaf pine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph S. Meldahl; John S. Kush

    2006-01-01

    A fire-maintained longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystem may offer the best option for carbon (C) sequestration among the southern pines. Longleaf is the longest living of the southern pines, and products from longleaf pine will sequester C longer than most since they are likely to be solid wood products such as structural lumber and poles....

  14. Silvicultural treatments for converting loblolly pine to longleaf pine dominance: Effects on planted longleaf pine seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huifeng Hu; G.Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker; Benjamin O. Knapp

    2012-01-01

    A field study was installed to test silvicultural treatments for establishing longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill) in loblolly pine (P. taeda L.) stands. Harvesting was used to create seven canopy treatments, four with uniformly distributed canopies at different residual basal areas [Control (16.2 m2/ha),...

  15. The University of Michigan, Kellogg Building Expansion & Renovation, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Design Cost Data, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents design, construction, and cost data for the University of Michigan's Kellogg Building expansion and renovation project. A list of project manufacturers and suppliers is provided along with four photographs and four floor plans. (GR)

  16. An Analytical Method for Jack-Up Riser’s Fatigue Life Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengde Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine whether a special sea area and its sea state are available for the jack-up riser with surface blowout preventers, an analytical method is presented to estimate the jack-up riser’s wave loading fatigue life in this study. In addition, an approximate formula is derived to compute the random wave force spectrum of the small-scale structures. The results show that the response of jack-up riser is a narrow band random vibration. The infinite water depth dispersion relation between wavenumber and wave frequency can be used to calculate the wave force spectrum of small-scale structures. The riser’s response mainly consists of the additional displacement response. The fatigue life obtained by the formula proposed by Steinberg is less than that of the Bendat method.

  17. The Bildungsroman Tradition: The Philosophical Maturation of Jack Burden in All the King’s Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassam M. Al-Shraah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to sketch out the transformation that Jack Burden—the main character in the novel—had gone through. With all the political leanings in Warren’s All the king’s Men, Jack burden seems to have had developed his own theories of dealing with life and people all through his life. He has always suffered an inferiority complex, rendering himself unworthy of being a real human being. This paper claims that Jack’s philosophical transformation has passed through three distinct phases; he had changed from a carefree idealist to a man of moral responsibility much similar to a Bildungsroman style of character maturation. Difficult times that Jack Burden has gone through caused his awakening at the end of the novel ushering his maturation

  18. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of urease from jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, Anuradha; Ponnuraj, Karthe

    2009-01-01

    Jack bean urease was purified and crystallized and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.05 Å resolution. Plant urease is a seed protein that is common in most legumes. It is also common in many bacteria and fungi and several species of yeast. Urease allows organisms to use exogenous and internally generated urea as a nitrogen source by catalyzing the hydrolysis of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide. Urease from jack bean meal was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity using a series of steps involving acetone precipitation and size-exclusion and ion-exchange chromatography. The jack bean urease was crystallized and the resulting crystals diffracted to 2.05 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystals belonged to the hexagonal space group P6 3 22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 138.57, c = 198.36 Å

  19. Spin-singlet quantum Hall states and Jack polynomials with a prescribed symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estienne, Benoit; Bernevig, B. Andrei

    2012-01-01

    We show that a large class of bosonic spin-singlet Fractional Quantum Hall model wavefunctions and their quasihole excitations can be written in terms of Jack polynomials with a prescribed symmetry. Our approach describes new spin-singlet quantum Hall states at filling fraction ν=(2k)/(2r-1) and generalizes the (k,r) spin-polarized Jack polynomial states. The NASS and Halperin spin-singlet states emerge as specific cases of our construction. The polynomials express many-body states which contain configurations obtained from a root partition through a generalized squeezing procedure involving spin and orbital degrees of freedom. The corresponding generalized Pauli principle for root partitions is obtained, allowing for counting of the quasihole states. We also extract the central charge and quasihole scaling dimension, and propose a conjecture for the underlying CFT of the (k,r) spin-singlet Jack states.

  20. Operability and location of Michigan's timber resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark H. Hansen; Jerold T. Hahn

    1987-01-01

    Operability is the ease or difficulty of managing or harvesting timber because of physical conditions in the stand or on the site. Data collected during the 1980 Michigan statewide forest inventory were used to examine operability of the timber resource based on seven operability components.

  1. Michigan's forests, 2004: statistics and quality assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott A. Pugh; Mark H. Hansen; Gary Brand; Ronald E. McRoberts

    2010-01-01

    The first annual inventory of Michigan's forests was completed in 2004 after 18,916 plots were selected and 10,355 forested plots were visited. This report includes detailed information on forest inventory methods, quality of estimates, and additional tables. An earlier publication presented analyses of the inventoried data (Pugh et al. 2009).

  2. Trypanosomes of Bufo americanus from northern Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, J K; Davis, J S; Slaght, K S

    1988-10-01

    Two hundred one American toads (Bufo americanus) from northern Michigan were examined for blood trypanosomes. Three species, Trypanosoma bufophlebotomi, T. schmidti-like sp. and T. pseudopodia, had prevalences of 27, 16 and 1%, respectively. Cross experimental inoculations showed that T. bufophlebotomi from toads is not the same as T. ranarum found in frogs of the family Ranidae of this region.

  3. Private timberland owners of Michigan, 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl C. Leatherberry; Neal P. Kingsley; Thomas W. Birch

    1998-01-01

    Identifies and profiles Michigan's private timberland owners. Estimates the number and distribution of private timberland owners by owner attitudes and objectives concerning forest ownership, management, and use. Provides 45 tables relating to owner and property characteristics for the state and its four survey units.

  4. Demographic characteristics and motivations of Michigan agritourists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah Che; Ann Veeck; Gregory Veeck

    2007-01-01

    Michigan agricultural producers, faced with declining commodity prices, rising production costs, and increased global competition, have looked at agritourism as a way to save the farm as well as provide customers with personalized service; high-quality, fresh food; and farm, nature, and family experiences. While previous research on agritourism indicates that it taps...

  5. Estudo da impressão plantar obtida durante o teste de Jack em crianças Footprint study in children during the Jack test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Pinto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as impressões plantares durante o teste de Jack em crianças quantificando e observando os resultados numa faixa etária crítica para a formação do arco plantar. MÉTODO: Avaliamos 60 crianças brancas (120 pés sendo 35 meninos e 25 meninas com idades entre 2 e 5 anos, sem queixas ortopédicas. Simulamos o teste de Jack com uma órtese em cunha de 45º apoiada sob o hálux. Obtivemos impressões em apoio monopodálico bilateralmente utilizando um pedígrafo. O exame dividiu-se em duas etapas: com e sem o uso da órtese. A metodologia de Valenti e Volpon foi utilizada para mensurar as impressões plantares e os dados obtidos foram analisados estatisticamente. RESULTADOS: Os valores dos índices de Valenti e Volpon diminuiram quando a órtese foi utilizada. A diferença entre os índices com ou sem órtese diminuiu gradualmente com a progressão etária. CONCLUSÕES: É possível quantificar o teste de Jack pelwas impressões plantares pelo método de Valenti e Volpon. A variação do seu formato apresentou tendência a ser menor a partir dos 4 anos. O teste de Jack perdeu gradativamente a capacidade de modificar a impressão plantar com a idade, diminuindo sua acuidade como parâmetro de bom prognóstico na formação do arco longitudinal medial. Nível de Evidência: Nível IV, estudo descritivo observacional.OBJECTIVE: To assess the plantar impressions obtained in children during the Jack test, with the aim of quantifying and analyzing their variability in the critical period for plantar foot arch formation. METHOD: A hundred and twenty feet from 60 healthy White children, recruited in an outpatient pediatric clinic, were examined. Our sample included 35 boys and 25 girls, ranging from 2 to 5 years. The Jack test was simulated using a 45o wedge-shaped orthosis applied to the hallux. Bilateral plantar impressions were acquired in the alternate single-foot standing position using a pedigraph. Two plantar impressions were

  6. Modeling of the Jacked Pile Static Load Test with PLAX 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tautvydas Statkus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article jacked pile installation technology and its current processes, altering the base physical and mechanical characteristics are discussed. For the jacked pile static load test simulation Plax 3D software was selected, the opportunities and developments were described. Model building, materials, models, model geometry, finite elements, boundary conditions and assumptions adopted in addressing problems described in detail. Three different tasks formulated and load-settlement dependence a comparison of the results with the experiment given. Conclusions are formulated according to the modeling results.

  7. Jack Michael's Musings on the 60th Anniversary of Skinner's "Verbal Behavior"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Barbara E.; Esch, John W.; Palmer, David C.

    2017-01-01

    When the B. F. Skinner Foundation reprinted Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" in 1992, Jack Michael wrote one of its two forewords, a detailed outline of the book's purpose and scope. On the 60th anniversary of the first publication (1957) of "Verbal Behavior", Jack reflects on the book's impact and its importance to the…

  8. Identifying ponderosa pines infested with mountain pine beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    William F. McCambridge

    1974-01-01

    Trees successfully and unsuccessfully attacked by mountain pine beetles have several symptoms in common, so that proper diagnosis is not always easy. Guidelines presented here enable the observer to correctly distinguish nearly all attacked trees.

  9. Ponderosa pine mortality resulting from a mountain pine beetle outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    William F. McCambridge; Frank G. Hawksworth; Carleton B. Edminster; John G. Laut

    1982-01-01

    From 1965 to 1978, mountain pine beetles killed 25% of the pines taller than 4.5 feet in a study area in north-central Colorado. Average basal area was reduced from 92 to 58 square feet per acre. Mortality increased with tree diameter up to about 9 inches d.b.h. Larger trees appeared to be killed at random. Mortality was directly related to number of trees per acre and...

  10. Pine weevil feeding in Scots pine and Norway spruce regenerations

    OpenAIRE

    Wallertz, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    Damage caused by the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis (L) feeding on conifer seedlings is a major problem in reforested areas in many parts of Europe. The adult weevil feeds on the stem-bark of young seedlings, frequently killing a large proportion of newly planted seedlings. The aims of the studies underlying this thesis were to investigate whether additional food supplies could decrease the damage caused by pine weevil to seedlings, and to determine whether access to extra food might explain w...

  11. Jack Mezirow's Conceptualisation of Adult Transformative Learning: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja, Colin

    2014-01-01

    This paper traces the evolution of Jack Mezirow's transformative learning theory and its conceptualisation. It discusses the three major influences, namely Thomas Khun's philosophical conception of paradigm, Freire's conception of conscientisation and consciousness growth, and Habermas' domains of learning and the discussion of…

  12. "Delays and Vexation": Jack London and the Russo-Japanese War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Michael S.

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on journalism history and censorship by discussing Jack London's efforts as a war correspondent to cover the Russo-Japanese War in Korea and Manchuria in 1904. Focuses on the difficulties he encountered as a result of systematic and highly restrictive censorship by the Japanese. (SR)

  13. Asymptotic theory of generalized estimating equations based on jack-knife pseudo-observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Morten; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Pedersen, Jan

    2017-01-01

    A general asymptotic theory of estimates from estimating functions based on jack-knife pseudo-observations is established by requiring that the underlying estimator can be expressed as a smooth functional of the empirical distribution. Using results in p-variation norms, the theory is applied...

  14. Is the lateral jack-knife position responsible for cases of transient neurapraxia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinares, Diana Margarita; Davis, Timothy T; Fung, Daniel A; Liu, John Chung-Liang; Clark, Stephen; Daily, David; Mok, James M

    2016-01-01

    The lateral jack-knife position is often used during transpsoas surgery to improve access to the spine. Postoperative neurological signs and symptoms are very common after such procedures, and the mechanism is not adequately understood. The objective of this study is to assess if the lateral jack-knife position alone can cause neurapraxia. This study compares neurological status at baseline and after positioning in the 25° right lateral jack-knife (RLJK) and the right lateral decubitus (RLD) position. Fifty healthy volunteers, ages 21 to 35, were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups: Group A (RLD) and Group B (RLJK). Motor and sensory testing was performed prior to positioning. Subjects were placed in the RLD or RLJK position, according to group assignment, for 60 minutes. Motor testing was performed immediately after this 60-minute period and again 60 minutes thereafter. Sensory testing was performed immediately after the 60-minute period and every 15 minutes thereafter, for a total of 5 times. Motor testing was performed by a physical therapist who was blinded to group assignment. A follow-up call was made 7 days after the positioning sessions. Motor deficits were observed in the nondependent lower limb in 100% of the subjects in Group B, and no motor deficits were seen in Group A. Statistically significant differences (p knife positioning for 60 minutes results in neurapraxia of the nondependent lower extremity. Our results support the hypothesis that jack-knife positioning alone can cause postoperative neurological symptoms.

  15. Pandemic Fear and Literature: Observations from Jack London’s The Scarlet Plague

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-18

    Sarah Gregory reads an abridged version of the essay, Pandemic Fear and Literature: Observations from Jack London’s The Scarlet Plague.  Created: 11/18/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/20/2014.

  16. Habitat Preferences, Distribution Pattern, and Root Weight Estimation of Pasak Bumi (Eurycoma longifolia Jack.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Masitoh Kartikawati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pasak bumi (Eurycoma longifolia Jack is one of non timber forest products with “indeterminate” conservation status and commercially traded in West Kalimantan. The research objective was to determine the potential of pasak bumi root per hectare and its ecological condition under natural habitat. Root weight of E. longifolia Jack was estimated using simple linear regression and exponential equation with stem diameter and height as independent variables. The results showed that the individual number of the population was 114 with the majority in seedling stage with 71 individuals (62.28%. The distribution was found in clumped pattern. Conditions of the habitat could be described as follows: daily average temperature of 25.6oC, daily average relative humidity of 73.6%, light intensity of 0.9 klx, and red-yellow podsolic soil with texture ranged from clay to sandy clay. The selected estimator model for E. longifolia Jack root weight used exponential equation with stem height as independent variable using the equation of Y= 21.99T0,010 and determination coefficient of 0.97. After height variable was added, the potential of E. longifolia Jack minimum root weight that could be harvested per hectare was 0.33 kg.Keywords: Eurycoma longifolia, habitat preference, distribution pattern, root weight

  17. Lithium in Jack Hills zircons: Evidence for extensive weathering of Earth's earliest crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushikubo, Takayuki; Kita, Noriko T.; Cavosie, Aaron J.; Wilde, Simon A.; Rudnick, Roberta L.; Valley, John W.

    2008-08-01

    In situ Li analyses of 4348 to 3362 Ma detrital zircons from the Jack Hills, Western Australia by SIMS reveal that the Li abundances (typically 10 to 60 ppm) are commonly over 10,000 times higher than in zircons crystallized from mantle-derived magmas and in mantle-derived zircon megacrysts (typically Jack Hills zircons also have fractionated lithium isotope ratios ( δ7Li = - 19 to + 13‰) about five times more variable than those recorded in primitive ocean floor basalts (2 to 8‰), but similar to continental crust and its weathering products. Values of δ7Li below - 10‰ are found in zircons that formed as early as 4300 Ma. The high Li compositions indicate that primitive magmas were not the source of Jack Hills zircons and the fractionated values of δ7Li suggest that highly weathered regolith was sampled by these early Archean magmas. These new Li data provide evidence that the parent magmas of ancient zircons from Jack Hills incorporated materials from the surface of the Earth that interacted at low temperature with liquid water. These data support the hypothesis that continental-type crust and oceans existed by 4300 Ma, within 250 million years of the formation of Earth and the low values of δ7Li suggest that weathering was extensive in the early Archean.

  18. Jacks-of-all-trades? The effect of balanced skills on team performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosendahl Huber, L.; Sloof, R.; van Praag, M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous empirical studies have shown that solo entrepreneurs benefit from having balanced skills: Jacks-of-All-Trades (JATs) are better entrepreneurs than specialists are. Nowadays however, the majority of entrepreneurs start up and run ventures together in teams. In this paper we test whether the

  19. Uus valem otsustamiseks: 10-10-10 / Jack Welch, Suzy Welch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Welch, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Juhtimisspetsialistid Jack ja Suzy Welch tutvustavad enda loodud valemit 10-10-10, mis on elu juhtimise tööriist aitamaks langetada raskeid otsuseid, hinnates nende mõju 10 minuti, 10 kuu ja 10 aasta pärast

  20. 3-D habitat suitability of jack mackerel Trachurus murphyi in the Southeastern Pacific, a comprehensive study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertrand, A.; Habasque, J.; Hattab, Tarek; Hintzen, N.T.; Ricardo, Oliveros Ramos; Gutierrez, M.; Demarcq, Herve; Gerlotto, F.

    2016-01-01

    South Pacific jack mackerel, Trachurus murphyi, has an ocean-scale distribution, from the South American coastline to New Zealand and Tasmania. This fish, captured by Humans since the Holocene, is nowadays heavily exploited and its population has decreased substantially since the mid-1990s. The

  1. Soil loss by water erosion in areas under maize and jack beans intercropped and monocultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz Terra Lima

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Adequate soil management can create favorable conditions to reduce erosion and water runoff, consequently increase water soil recharge. Among management systems intercropping is highly used, especially for medium and small farmers. It is a system where two or more crops with different architectures and vegetative cycles are explored simultaneously at the same location. This research investigated the effects of maize intercropped with jack bean on soil losses due to water erosion, estimate C factor of Universal Soil Losses Equation (USLE and how it can be affected by soil coverage. The results obtained also contribute to database generation, important to model and estimate soil erosion. Total soil loss by erosion caused by natural rain, at Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were: 4.20, 1.86, 1.38 and 1.14 Mg ha-1, respectively, for bare soil, maize, jack bean and the intercropping of both species, during evaluated period. Values of C factor of USLE were: 0.039, 0.054 and 0.077 Mg ha Mg-1 ha-1 for maize, jack bean and intercropping between both crops, respectively. Maize presented lower vegetation cover index, followed by jack beans and consortium of the studied species. Intercropping between species showed greater potential on soil erosion control, since its cultivation resulted in lower soil losses than single crops cultivation, and this aspect is really important for small and medium farmers in the studied region.

  2. Pivoting output unit control systems activated by jacks. [for controlling aircraft flaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belliere, P.

    1978-01-01

    An invention to be used for controlling aircraft flaps is described. It is applicable to control systems with two coaxial output units which pivot simultaneously with respect to two fixed units and which are activated by two opposed, straight coaxial jacks.

  3. Jack Nicholson: A Reel and Real-Life Contribution to Neurosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Manjul; Purkayastha, Moushumi; Rai, Ashutosh; Mukherjee, Kanchan K

    2017-05-01

    Though primarily considered entertainment, cinema is a mirror of society. The portrayal of neurosciences is common in cinema, but none could do it better than Jack Nicholson. We give a brief overview of his contribution to neurosciences by analyzing his acting skills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Constituents of the essential oils of Cinnamomum parthenoxylon (Jack) Nees from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.X.; Moi, La Dinh; Hung, N.D.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    The essential oils obtained by steam distillation of the root bark and wood of Cinnamomum parthenoxylon (Jack) Nees growing wild in Vietnam were investigated by a combination of GC and GC/MS. More than 30 compounds in the root bark oil, and about 20 components in the wood oil have been identified.

  5. Cadmium accumulation by jack-bean and sorghum in hydroponic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francato Zancheta, Ariana Carramaschi; De Abreu, Cleide Aparecida; Zambrosi, Fernando César Bachiega; de Magalhães Erismann, Norma; Andrade Lagôa, Ana Maria Magalhães

    2015-01-01

    Among the technologies used to recuperate cadmium (Cd) contaminated soils, phytoextraction are particularly important, where the selection of suitable plants is critical to the success of the soil remediation. Thus, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the responses of jack-bean and sorghum to Cd supply and to quantify Cd accumulation by these species grown in hydroponic culture. The plants were subjected to 0, 15, 30, or 60 μmol Cd L(-1) in the nutrient solution, and gas exchange, plant growth and Cd accumulation were measured at 25 days after starting Cd treatments. The Cd supply severely reduced growth of shoots and roots in both species. In jack-bean, Cd decreased photosynthesis by 56-86%, stomatal conductance by 59-85% and transpiration by 48-80%. The concentrations and amounts of Cd accumulated in the plant tissues were proportional to the metal supply in the nutrient solution. Sorghum was more tolerant than jack-bean to Cd toxicity, but the latter showed a greater metal concentration and accumulation in the shoot. Therefore, jack-bean would be more suitable than sorghum for use in Cd phytoremediation programs based on phytoextraction.

  6. Thinning increases climatic resilience of red pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magruder, Matthew; Chhin, Sophan; Palik, Brian; Bradford, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Forest management techniques such as intermediate stand-tending practices (e.g., thinning) can promote climatic resiliency in forest stands by moderating tree competition. Residual trees gain increased access to environmental resources (i.e., soil moisture, light), which in turn has the potential to buffer trees from stressful climatic conditions. The influences of climate (temperature and precipitation) and forest management (thinning method and intensity) on the productivity of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) in Michigan were examined to assess whether repeated thinning treatments were able to increase climatic resiliency (i.e., maintaining productivity and reduced sensitivity to climatic stress). The cumulative productivity of each thinning treatment was determined, and it was found that thinning from below to a residual basal area of 14 m2·ha−1 produced the largest average tree size but also the second lowest overall biomass per acre. On the other hand, the uncut control and the thinning from above to a residual basal area of 28 m2·ha−1 produced the smallest average tree size but also the greatest overall biomass per acre. Dendrochronological methods were used to quantify sensitivity of annual radial growth to monthly and seasonal climatic factors for each thinning treatment type. Climatic sensitivity was influenced by thinning method (i.e., thinning from below decreased sensitivity to climatic stress more than thinning from above) and by thinning intensity (i.e., more intense thinning led to a lower climatic sensitivity). Overall, thinning from below to a residual basal area of 21 m2·ha−1 represented a potentially beneficial compromise to maximize tree size, biomass per acre, and reduced sensitivity to climatic stress, and, thus, the highest level of climatic resilience.

  7. Utilization of the southern pines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, P

    1972-01-01

    After several years out of print, this book is again available. The two-volume reference characterizes the southern pine tree as raw material and describes the process by which it is converted to use. All 10 species are considered. The book is addressed primarily to the incoming generation of researchers and industrial managers in the southern pine industry. Foremen, superintendents, quality control personnel, wood procurement men, forest managers, extension workers, professors, and students of wood technology should find the handbook of value.

  8. IDENTIFIKASI METABOLIT SEKUNDER DAN AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI EKSTRAK DAUN SUNGKAI (Peronema canescens JACK. TERHADAP BEBERAPA BAKTERI PATOGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsyik Ibrahim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A research which identification of secondary metabolites and antibacterial activity test from methanol exstract of leaf Sungkai (Peronema canencens Jack to several pathogens bacterial, which aims to identification of secondary methabolites and determine the antibacterial activity from crude methanol extract of leaf Sungkai (P. canencens Jack. against Streptococcus mutans, Salmonella thyposa, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Material test obtained by maceration with methanol, then tested for activity. Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC value extract was determined by liquid dilution and the followed by scratches on solid media method.  Minimum Kill Concentration (KBM value extracts was determined by agar diffusion method with using paper disks.The results secondary metabolite identify form extracts of leaves P. canencens obtainable derived alkaloid, terpenoids - steroids, flavonoids, and tannin compounds. Methanol extract have the antibacterial activity. Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC value of extract is concentration of 20% for bacteria S. mutans, S.thiposa and S.aureus, while for the B. subtilis is konsentration of 15%. Minimum Kill Concentration (KBM values exstract at a concentration of 5% effective at killing S. mutans and S. thyposa bacteria, while the concentration of 1% effective to bacteria B.subtilis and S.aureus. Key words: P. canencens Jack,  antibacteria activity, S. mutans, S. thiposa, B. subtillis, S. aureus   ABSTRAK   Telah dilakukan penelitian identifikasi metabolit sekunder dan aktivitas antibakteri ekstrak metanol daun Sungkai (P.canencens Jack terhadap beberapa bakteri patogen. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi metabolit sekunder dan mengetahui aktifitas antibakteri dan Kadar Hambat Minimum (KHM dan Nilai Kadar Bunuh Minimum (KBM ekstrak kasar metanol daun Sungkai (P.canencens Jack. terhadap bakteri  Streptococcus mutans, Salmonella thyposa, Bacillus subtilis dan

  9. Mapping Lake Michigan Fish Catch Data

    OpenAIRE

    Wodd, Jacob; Doucette, Jarrod; Höök, Tomas O.

    2014-01-01

    The only Great Lake completely contained in the U.S., Lake Michigan offers an abundance of recreational fishing. This project takes 20 years’ worth of salmonid fish catch data, and uses GIS to organize and visually represent the data in a way that is meaningful and helpful to local fisherman and researchers. Species represented included Brown Trout, Lake Trout, Rainbow Trout, Chinook Salmon, and Coho Salmon. The species are organized by both decadal and yearly spans, as well as catch per t...

  10. Field Tests of Pine Oil as a Repellent for Southern Pine Bark Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.C. Nod; F.L. Hastings; A.S. Jones

    1990-01-01

    An experimental mixture of terpene hydrocarbons derived from wood pulping, BBR-2, sprayed on the lower 6 m of widely separated southern pine trees did not protect nearby trees from southern pine beetle attacks. Whether treated trees were protected from southern pine beetle was inconclusive. The pine oil mixture did not repellpsfrom treated trees or nearby untreated...

  11. A ponderosa pine-lodgepole pine spacing study in central Oregon: results after 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.W. Seidel

    1989-01-01

    The growth response after 20 years from an initial spacing study established in a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) plantation was measured in central Oregon. The study was designed to compare the growth rates of pure ponderosa pine, pure lodgepole pine, and a...

  12. Strategies for managing whitebark pine in the presence of white pine blister rust [Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond J. Hoff; Dennis E. Ferguson; Geral I. McDonald; Robert E. Keane

    2001-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is one of many North American white pine species (Pinus subgenus Strobus) susceptible to the fungal disease white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola). Blister rust has caused severe mortality (often reaching nearly 100 percent) in many stands of white bark pine north of 45° latitude in western North America. The rust is slowly...

  13. Assessing longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) restoration after southern pine beetle kill using a compact experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.-P. Berrill; C.M. Dagley

    2010-01-01

    A compact experimental design and analysis is presented of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) survival and growth in a restoration project in the Piedmont region of Georgia, USA. Longleaf pine seedlings were planted after salvage logging and broadcast burning in areas of catastrophic southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) attacks on even-aged mixed pine-hardwood...

  14. Limber pine forests on the leading edge of white pine blister rust distribution in Northern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer G. Klutsch; Betsy A. Goodrich; Anna W. Schoettle

    2011-01-01

    The combined threats of the current mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, MPB) epidemic with the imminent invasion of white pine blister rust (caused by the non-native fungus Cronartium ribicola, WPBR) in limber pine (Pinus flexilis) forests in northern Colorado threatens the limber pine's regeneration cycle and ecosystem function. Over one million...

  15. Plutonium and americium in Lake Michigan sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgington, D.N.; Alberts, J.J.; Wahlgren, M.A.; Karttunen, J.O.; Reeve, C.A.

    1975-01-01

    The vertical distributions of 239 , 240 Pu, 238 Pu, and 137 Cs have been measured in sediment cores taken from Lake Michigan. Sections from a limited number of cores have been analyzed for 241 Am. In addition, grab samples from ten locations in the southern basin of the lake have been analyzed for phase distribution of 239 , 240 Pu using a sequential extraction technique. The results indicate that the 239 , 240 Pu, 238 Pu, and 137 Cs from weapons testing, and the 241 Am formed in situ are concentrated in the sediments. A comparison of the total deposition of 239 , 240 Pu and 137 Cs indicates that 137 Cs may be valuable as a monitor for 239 , 240 Pu deposition in the sediments. Values of the 238 Pu/ 239 , 240 Pu ratio are in agreement with values reported in Lake Ontario sediments (and Lake Michigan plankton) and show little variation with depth. 241 Am data support the concept of in situ production with little preferential mobility after formation. Studies of sedimentary phase distributions show that 239 , 240 Pu is associated with hydrous oxide phases which are chemically stable under the prevailing conditions in lake sediments. Since Lake Michigan sediments remain aerobic, relatively little 239 , 240 Pu is available for chemical mobilization from the hydrous oxide or organic phases present in the sediments

  16. Synthetic musk fragrances in Lake Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Aaron M; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2004-01-15

    Synthetic musk fragrances are added to a wide variety of personal care and household products and are present in treated wastewater effluent. Here we report for the first time ambient air and water measurements of six polycyclic musks (AHTN, HHCB, ATII, ADBI, AHMI, and DPMI) and two nitro musks (musk xylene and musk ketone) in North America. The compounds were measured in the air and water of Lake Michigan and in the air of urban Milwaukee, WI. All of the compounds except DPMI were detected. HHCB and AHTN were found in the highest concentrations in all samples. Airborne concentrations of HHCB and AHTN average 4.6 and 2.9 ng/m3, respectively, in Milwaukee and 1.1 and 0.49 ng/m3 over the lake. The average water concentration of HHCB and AHTN in Lake Michigan was 4.7 and 1.0 ng/L, respectively. A lake-wide annual mass budget shows that wastewater treatment plant discharge is the major source (3470 kg/yr) of the synthetic musks while atmospheric deposition contributes less than 1%. Volatilization and outflow through the Straits of Mackinac are major loss mechanisms (2085 and 516 kg/yr for volatilization and outflow, respectively). Concentrations of HHCB are about one-half the predicted steady-state water concentrations in Lake Michigan.

  17. Fast-Food Consumption and Obesity Among Michigan Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Beth; Lyon-Callo, Sarah; Fussman, Christopher; Imes, Gwendoline; Rafferty, Ann P.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Consumption of meals eaten away from home, especially from fast-food restaurants, has increased in the United States since the 1970s. The main objective of this study was to examine the frequency and characteristics of fast-food consumption among adults in Michigan and obesity prevalence. Methods We analyzed data from 12 questions about fast-food consumption that were included on the 2005 Michigan Behavioral Risk Factor Survey, a population-based telephone survey of Michigan adul...

  18. Nantucket Pine Tip Moth Control and Loblolly Pine Growth in Intensive Pine Culture: Two-Year Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Kulhavy; Jimmie L. Yeiser; L. Allen Smith

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-two treatments replicated four times were applied to planted loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L. on bedded industrial forest land in east Texas for measurement of growth impact of Nantucket pine tip moth (NPTM), Rhyacionia frustrana (Comstock), and effects on pine growth over 2 years. Treatments were combinations of Velpar, Oust, and Arsenal...

  19. Prescribed Burn at Pine Bluff Arsenal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peacock, Lance

    2000-01-01

    .... Abandoned fields grew up in pine or in some cases were planted in pine during the 1930's. The burning of farm stubble and woodlands was a common practice in Arkansas throughout this time period...

  20. Positron Emission Tomography-Scanner at Children`s Hospital of Michigan at Detroit, Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    The Department of Energy has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0795, to support the DOE decision to provide a grant of $7,953,600 to be used in support of a proposed Positron Emission Tomography Scanner at Children`s Hospital of Michigan at Detroit, Michigan. Based upon the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affected the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  1. Positron Emission Tomography-Scanner at Children's Hospital of Michigan at Detroit, Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Energy has prepared an environmental assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0795, to support the DOE decision to provide a grant of $7,953,600 to be used in support of a proposed Positron Emission Tomography Scanner at Children's Hospital of Michigan at Detroit, Michigan. Based upon the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affected the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  2. Lake Michigan Offshore Wind Feasibility Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boezaart, Arnold [GVSU; Edmonson, James [GVSU; Standridge, Charles [GVSU; Pervez, Nahid [GVSU; Desai, Neel [University of Michigan; Williams, Bruce [University of Delaware; Clark, Aaron [GVSU; Zeitler, David [GVSU; Kendall, Scott [GVSU; Biddanda, Bopi [GVSU; Steinman, Alan [GVSU; Klatt, Brian [Michigan State University; Gehring, J. L. [Michigan State University; Walter, K. [Michigan State University; Nordman, Erik E. [GVSU

    2014-06-30

    The purpose of this project was to conduct the first comprehensive offshore wind assessment over Lake Michigan and to advance the body of knowledge needed to support future commercial wind energy development on the Great Lakes. The project involved evaluation and selection of emerging wind measurement technology and the permitting, installation and operation of the first mid-lake wind assessment meteorological (MET) facilities in Michigan’s Great Lakes. In addition, the project provided the first opportunity to deploy and field test floating LIDAR and Laser Wind Sensor (LWS) technology, and important research related equipment key to the sitting and permitting of future offshore wind energy development in accordance with public participation guidelines established by the Michigan Great Lakes Wind Council (GLOW). The project created opportunities for public dialogue and community education about offshore wind resource management and continued the dialogue to foster Great Lake wind resource utilization consistent with the focus of the GLOW Council. The technology proved to be effective, affordable, mobile, and the methods of data measurement accurate. The public benefited from a substantial increase in knowledge of the wind resources over Lake Michigan and gained insights about the potential environmental impacts of offshore wind turbine placements in the future. The unique first ever hub height wind resource assessment using LWS technology over water and development of related research data along with the permitting, sitting, and deployment of the WindSentinel MET buoy has captured public attention and has helped to increase awareness of the potential of future offshore wind energy development on the Great Lakes. Specifically, this project supported the acquisition and operation of a WindSentinel (WS) MET wind assessment buoy, and associated research for 549 days over multiple years at three locations on Lake Michigan. Four research objectives were defined for the

  3. 76 FR 36152 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ...: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI; Correction AGENCY: National Park... human remains and associated funerary objects. Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology... may contact the Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology. Disposition of the human...

  4. 76 FR 28077 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ...: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology, has completed... contact the Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology. Disposition of the human remains to...

  5. 76 FR 36149 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ...: Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology, Kalamazoo, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology, has completed... contact the Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology. Disposition of the human remains and...

  6. Southern Pine Based on Biorefinery Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragauskas, Arthur J. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Singh, Preet [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2013-12-20

    This program seeks to develop an integrated southern pine wood to biofuels/biomaterials processing facility on the Recipient’s campus, that will test advanced integrated wood processing technologies at the laboratory scale, including: The generation of the bioethanol from pines residues and hemicelluloses extracted from pine woodchips; The conversion of extracted woodchips to linerboard and bleach grade pulps; and the efficient conversion of pine residues, bark and kraft cooking liquor into a useful pyrolysis oil.

  7. Are we over-managing longleaf pine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Kush; Rebecca J. Barlow; John C. Gilbert

    2012-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) is not loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) or slash pine (Pinus elliottii L.). There is the need for a paradigmatic shift in our thinking about longleaf pine. All too often we think of longleaf as an intolerant species, slow-grower, difficult to regenerate, and yet it dominated the pre...

  8. Guidelines for whitebark pine planting prescriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenda L. Scott; Ward W. McCaughey; Kay Izlar

    2011-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is a keystone species in high-elevation ecosystems of the western United States. Unfortunately many fragile subalpine ecosystems are losing whitebark pine as a functional community component due to the combined effects of an introduced disease, insects and succession. Planting whitebark pine is one part of a multifaceted restoration...

  9. Comparative analysis of discharges into Lake Michigan, Phase I - Southern Lake Michigan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Elcock, D.; Gasper, J. R.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-06-30

    BP Products North America Inc. (BP) owns and operates a petroleum refinery located on approximately 1,700 acres in Whiting, East Chicago, and Hammond, Indiana, near the southern tip of Lake Michigan. BP provided funding to Purdue University-Calumet Water Institute (Purdue) and Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to conduct studies related to wastewater treatment and discharges. Purdue and Argonne are working jointly to identify and characterize technologies that BP could use to meet the previous discharge permit limits for total suspended solids (TSS) and ammonia after refinery modernization. In addition to the technology characterization work, Argonne conducted a separate project task, which is the subject of this report. In Phase I of a two-part study, Argonne estimated the current levels of discharge to southern Lake Michigan from significant point and nonpoint sources in Illinois, Indiana, and portions of Michigan. The study does not consider all of the chemicals that are discharged. Rather, it is narrowly focused on a selected group of pollutants, referred to as the 'target pollutants'. These include: TSS, ammonia, total and hexavalent chromium, mercury, vanadium, and selenium. In Phase II of the study, Argonne will expand the analysis to cover the entire Lake Michigan drainage basin.

  10. Project '80, Rural Michigan Now and in 1980; Michigan's Outdoor Recreation and Tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milstein, David N.

    Michigan is widely recognized as a traditional leader in outdoor recreation and tourism. Its location and resources provide many comparative advantages toward attracting visitors. State spending for outdoor recreation amounted to $95 million over the decade ending in 1960. State and Federal policies and programs are likely to emphasize outdoor…

  11. Southwestern Surgical Congress Jack A. Barney award competition presenters - Where are they now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Shanu N; Kallies, Kara J

    2017-12-01

    Resident research presentations at surgical conferences may encourage future research endeavors. 2010-2016 SWSC annual meeting programs were reviewed for presenters eligible for the Jack Barney award. Award recipients from 1987 to 2016 were included. There were 100 unique presenters eligible for the Jack Barney award, and 28 unique award recipients. Thirty-six (82%) presenters currently practice in a community setting, 5 (11%) at a university hospital, 2 (5%) internationally, and 1 (2%) in a military hospital. Scholarly articles were published by 41% of presenters. Sixteen of the 28 recipients (57%) practice in community hospitals, and 9 (32%) practice in university settings; 3 are still in training. Twenty recipients (71%) published after residency. Thirty percent and 25% of presenters and recipients are SWSC members, respectively. Peer-reviewed publications were frequent among eligible presenters and award recipients. Encouraging presenters to become SWSC members provides an opportunity for improved retention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cluster analysis on a sphere: Application to magnetizations from metasediments of the Jack Hills, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bono, Richard K.; Tarduno, John A.; Dare, Matthew S.; Mitra, Gautam; Cottrell, Rory D.

    2018-02-01

    Metasediments of the Jack Hills contain the oldest known terrestrial minerals in the form of zircons nearly 4.4 billion years old. Paleointensity data from these zircons provide evidence for a Hadean geodynamo as old as 4.2 billion years old. Given the importance of these zircons for constraining the earliest history of the core, it is vital to understand the fidelity of the zircon record. A fundamental aspect providing context for the preservation of primary magnetic signals is the nature of overprints predicted to have been imparted on rocks of the Jack Hills due to Archean to Proterozoic metamorphic events. To be viable magnetic records of a Hadean geodynamo, zircon magnetization directions should differ from these secondary magnetizations. To evaluate these secondary magnetizations, we report paleomagnetic analyses of a comprehensive sampling of 68 quartzite cobble-sized clasts from the Jack Hills metasediments ∼0.5 to 1.0 km from the Discovery Site (which has yielded the oldest zircons and paleofield estimates). While application of standard paleomagnetic tests suggests that the ensemble of cobble directions cannot be distinguished from those drawn from a random distribution, a new cluster analysis of directions on a sphere and non-parametric resampling approaches reveal significant directions amongst subsets of the data. One, isolated at the lowest temperature analyzed [200 to 300 °C, Declination (Dec.) = 316.8°, Inclination (Inc.) = - 51.1 °] appears to be dominated by the present day field. Another, isolated at higher (but still relatively low unblocking temperatures that we call "intermediate", of ∼350-500 °C, Dec. = 243.8°, Inc. = 9.5°) agrees with a magnetic overprint isolated from the secondary Cr-Fe mica fuchsite isolated from the Jack Hills Discovery site, passing a field test at the 80% confidence level. No evidence is found in our data, or in the data of others collected on similar Jack Hills lithologies, for a widespread 1 Ga

  13. JackIn Head: Immersive Visual Telepresence System with Omnidirectional Wearable Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Shunichi; Nagai, Shohei; Rekimoto, Jun

    2017-03-01

    Sharing one's own immersive experience over the Internet is one of the ultimate goals of telepresence technology. In this paper, we present JackIn Head, a visual telepresence system featuring an omnidirectional wearable camera with image motion stabilization. Spherical omnidirectional video footage taken around the head of a local user is stabilized and then broadcast to others, allowing remote users to explore the immersive visual environment independently of the local user's head direction. We describe the system design of JackIn Head and report the evaluation results of real-time image stabilization and alleviation of cybersickness. Then, through an exploratory observation study, we investigate how individuals can remotely interact, communicate with, and assist each other with our system. We report our observation and analysis of inter-personal communication, demonstrating the effectiveness of our system in augmenting remote collaboration.

  14. Historical wildlife dynamics on Dugway Proving Ground: population and disease trends in jack rabbits over two decades. [Lepus californicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, L.E.; Van Voris, P.

    1986-08-01

    In an effort to determine whether US Army activities on the Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) have had an impact on resident wildlife, intensive studies have been conducted on the biology and ecology of the black-tailed jack rabbit (Lepus californicus) since 1965. in addition, the incidence of endemic diseases in several species of resident wildlife on the DPG have been studied from the late 1950s through the mid-1970s. The objectives of this report are to: (1) compile and summarize the jack rabbit data and some of the disease information that is presently contained only in annual reports; (2) compare the DPG jack rabbit data to data available on other jack rabbit populations; and (3) analyze the data for unusual or unexplained fluctuations in population densities or in incidence of disease.

  15. Seismic analysis of the frame structure reformed by cutting off column and jacking based on stiffness ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J. K.; Xu, X. S.

    2017-11-01

    The cutting off column and jacking technology is a method for increasing story height, which has been widely used and paid much attention in engineering. The stiffness will be changed after the process of cutting off column and jacking, which directly affects the overall seismic performance. It is usually necessary to take seismic strengthening measures to enhance the stiffness. A five story frame structure jacking project in Jinan High-tech Zone was taken as an example, and three finite element models were established which contains the frame model before lifting, after lifting and after strengthening. Based on the stiffness, the dynamic time-history analysis was carried out to research its seismic performance under the EL-Centro seismic wave, the Taft seismic wave and the Tianjin artificial seismic wave. The research can provide some guidance for the design and construction of the entire jack lifting structure.

  16. In Search of the Real Mr. China Jack Perkowski's positive account of his business adventures in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MATTHEW PLOWRIGHT

    2008-01-01

    @@ When former Wall Street banker Jack Perkowski first arrived in Hong Kong in 1990 looking to set up a business, not only did he not speak a word of the language, he had never even tasted Chinese food.

  17. Eesti saab 2018. aasta Londoni raamatumessil erilise tähelepanu osaliseks / Jacks Thomas ; intervjueerinud Priit Hõbemägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Thomas, Jacks

    2017-01-01

    Intervjuu Euroopa ühe suurima, Londoni raamatumessi direktori Jacks Thomasiga, kes külastas Tallinna, et teha ettevalmistusi järgmiseks aastaks, kui Eesti koos teiste Baltimaadega on messi peakülaline

  18. Evaporite karst of northern lower Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Michigan has three main zones of evaporite karst: collapse breccia in Late Silurian deposits of the Mackinac Straits region; breccia, collapse sinks, and mega-block collapse in Middle Devonian deposits of Northern Lower Michigan, which overlaps the preceding area; and areas of soil swallows in sinks of Mississippian deposits between Turner and Alabaster in Arenac and Iosco counties, and near Grand Rapids in Kent County. The author has focused his study on evaporite karst of the Middle Devonian deposits. The Middle Devonian depos its are the Detroit River Group: a series consisting of limestone, dolomite, shale, salt, gypsum, and anhydrite. The group occurs from subcrop, near the surface, to nearly 1400 feet deep from the northern tip of the Southern Peninsula to the south edge of the "solution front" Glacial drift is from zero to 350 feet thick. Oil and gas exploration has encountered some significant lost-circulation zones throughout the area. Drilling without fluid returns, casing-seal failures, and lost holes are strong risks in some parts of the region. Lost fluid returns near the top of the group in nearby areas indicate some karst development shortly after deposition. Large and irregular lost-circulation zones, linear and patch trends of large sink holes, and 0.25 mile wide blocks of down-dropped land in the northern Lower Peninsula of Michigan were caused by surface- and ground-water movement along faults into the Detroit River Group. Glaciation has removed some evidence of the karst area at the surface. Sinkhole development, collapse valleys, and swallows developed since retreat of the glacier reveal an active solution front in the Detroit River Group.

  19. Railway crossings: driving the structure under the railway by means of oleodinamic jacks

    OpenAIRE

    Escribano Méndez, Ramón; López Palomar, Rafael; Ruiz Viedma, Andrés J.

    1991-01-01

    "The best level crossing is a dead crossing", those involved are accustomed to say Yet, until a short time ago, eliminating these conflictive crossings not only implied a great deal of money but prolonged building work, with the all too familiar sequel of precautions, speed restrictions and problems for rail traffic. However, a brand new system, based on using hydraulic jacks to drive the concrete structure of the crossing to a different level in the track embankment, allows the execution in ...

  20. The Jack Wills crowd: towards a sociology of an elite subculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Anthony; Smith, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    British sociologists have long been interested in youth sub-cultures. However British sociologists have tended to focus on working class subcultures and avoided engagement with exclusive sub-cultures of elite social groups. This article seeks to attend to this gap by examining the subculture of a British elite: ex-public school students at select universities in the UK in the twenty-first century. This group consists of a relatively small group of young adults, aged between 18 and 23, who attended public schools, especially one of the nine Clarendon schools (Eton, Winchester, Westminster, St. Paul's, Merchant Taylor's, Shrewsbury, Rugby, Harrow and Charterhouse), and were students at a selective group of British universities, primarily Oxford and Cambridge, Durham, Bristol, Exeter, Bath, Manchester, St Andrews and Edinburgh. The article examines the way in which this group has reconfigured and re-constituted itself in the face of globalizing challenges. Specifically, it examines the way in which participation of ex-public school students in events run by and under the patronage of the high street retailing company, Jack Wills, has played a galvanising role for this group in the last decade. The Jack Wills crowd is an example of how some young adults form exclusive social networks and reproduce prevailing forms of privilege. The social networks built around the Jack Wills subculture is likely to provide them with advantages in the job market through a prodigious network of connections and patrons. The Jack Wills subculture potentially contributions to the socio-economic reproduction of the higher professional middle classes. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  1. Rereading "The Jack-Roller:" Hidden Histories in Sociology and Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ian

    2009-01-01

    I revisit one of the iconic Chicago School studies, Clifford Shaw's "The Jack-Roller". A naive reading of Shaw's book leaves the reader with a sense of having been inducted into a melange of what we now know as "sociology" and "social work," but which to Shaw seems a coherent stance. I suggest that this is close to the heart of how things were,…

  2. Mortality Rates Among Arab Americans in Michigan

    OpenAIRE

    Dallo, Florence J.; Schwartz, Kendra; Ruterbusch, Julie J.; Booza, Jason; Williams, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) calculate age-specific and age-adjusted cause-specific mortality rates for Arab Americans; and (2) compare these rates with those for blacks and whites. Mortality rates were estimated using Michigan death certificate data, an Arab surname and first name list, and 2000 U.S. Census data. Age-specific rates, age-adjusted all-cause and cause-specific rates were calculated. Arab Americans (75+) had higher mortality rates than whites and blacks. Among men, ...

  3. Creating Safe and Healthy Futures: Michigan Youth Violence Prevention Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Reischl, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Youth are in the cross-fire of gun violence, and the highest rate in the nation is in Flint, Michigan. This article highlights six innovative strategies that prepare youth to solve problems at home and in their communities in peaceful ways. The Michigan Youth Violence Prevention Center (MI-YVPC) works with community groups to strengthen…

  4. Education Inputs, Student Performance and School Finance Reform in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Latika

    2009-01-01

    This paper estimates the impact of the Michigan school finance reform, "Proposal A," on education inputs and test scores. Using a difference-in-difference estimation strategy, I find that school districts in Michigan used the increase in educational spending generated through "Proposal A" to increase teacher salaries and reduce…

  5. Lake Michigan lake trout PCB model forecast post audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scenario forecasts for total PCBs in Lake Michigan (LM) lake trout were conducted using the linked LM2-Toxics and LM Food Chain models, supported by a suite of additional LM models. Efforts were conducted under the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study and the post audit represents th...

  6. Estimating Cause: Teacher Turnover and School Effectiveness in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesler, Venessa; Schneider, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is investigate issues related to within-school teacher supply and school-specific teacher turnover within the state of Michigan using state administrative data on Michigan's teaching force. This paper 1) investigates the key predictors of teacher turnover and mobility, 2) develops a profile of schools that are likely to…

  7. Unemployment Insurance Fund Insolvency and Debt in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaustein, Saul J.

    Without changes in Michigan's unemployment insurance law, the state's unemployment insurance debt will probably reach $3.8 billion by the end of 1985. Currently, Michigan's employers pay unemployment insurance tax rates that vary from 1 to 9 percent, depending upon the amount of benefits charged against their accounts. Beginning with the federal…

  8. Effect of slaughter methods on the quality of Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Fei; Huang, Rui-Ji; Liu, Lin; Zhou, Xuxia; Ding, Yu-Ting

    2015-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the influence of slaughter methods on the quality of Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) during refrigerated storage on board. Fishes were slaughtered by asphyxia in air (AA), asphyxia in ice water (AI) or stunning fish heads (SH), and the rigor mortis, pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), trimethylamine (TMA), 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and sensory properties for the fishes were analyzed. On day 0, Chilean jack mackerel samples of AI group displayed higher pH values than those of AA and SH groups. TVB-N, TMA and TBARS values of all samples increased with the storage time, and these values of AI had a lower increase than AA and SH. Moreover, samples of AI had a better sensory score than AA and SH during storage. It can be concluded that slaughter method of asphyxia in ice water for Chilean jack mackerel exhibit the better efficiency on maintaining the fish quality during refrigerated storage on board.

  9. Variation of Time Domain Failure Probabilities of Jack-up with Wave Return Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Ahmad; Harahap, Indra S. H.; Ali, Montassir Osman Ahmed

    2018-04-01

    This study evaluated failure probabilities of jack up units on the framework of time dependent reliability analysis using uncertainty from different sea states representing different return period of the design wave. Surface elevation for each sea state was represented by Karhunen-Loeve expansion method using the eigenfunctions of prolate spheroidal wave functions in order to obtain the wave load. The stochastic wave load was propagated on a simplified jack up model developed in commercial software to obtain the structural response due to the wave loading. Analysis of the stochastic response to determine the failure probability in excessive deck displacement in the framework of time dependent reliability analysis was performed by developing Matlab codes in a personal computer. Results from the study indicated that the failure probability increases with increase in the severity of the sea state representing a longer return period. Although the results obtained are in agreement with the results of a study of similar jack up model using time independent method at higher values of maximum allowable deck displacement, it is in contrast at lower values of the criteria where the study reported that failure probability decreases with increase in the severity of the sea state.

  10. Jack Polynomials as Fractional Quantum Hall States and the Betti Numbers of the ( k + 1)-Equals Ideal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamaere, Christine Berkesch; Griffeth, Stephen; Sam, Steven V.

    2014-08-01

    We show that for Jack parameter α = -( k + 1)/( r - 1), certain Jack polynomials studied by Feigin-Jimbo-Miwa-Mukhin vanish to order r when k + 1 of the coordinates coincide. This result was conjectured by Bernevig and Haldane, who proposed that these Jack polynomials are model wavefunctions for fractional quantum Hall states. Special cases of these Jack polynomials include the wavefunctions of Laughlin and Read-Rezayi. In fact, along these lines we prove several vanishing theorems known as clustering properties for Jack polynomials in the mathematical physics literature, special cases of which had previously been conjectured by Bernevig and Haldane. Motivated by the method of proof, which in the case r = 2 identifies the span of the relevant Jack polynomials with the S n -invariant part of a unitary representation of the rational Cherednik algebra, we conjecture that unitary representations of the type A Cherednik algebra have graded minimal free resolutions of Bernstein-Gelfand-Gelfand type; we prove this for the ideal of the ( k + 1)-equals arrangement in the case when the number of coordinates n is at most 2 k + 1. In general, our conjecture predicts the graded S n -equivariant Betti numbers of the ideal of the ( k + 1)-equals arrangement with no restriction on the number of ambient dimensions.

  11. Pine creek geosyncline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needham, R.S.; Ewers, G.R.; Ferguson, J.

    1988-01-01

    The Pine Creek Geosyncline is a 66,000 km 2 inlier of Early Proterozoic metasediments, mafic and felsic intrusives and minor extrusives, surrounding small late Archaean granitic domes. Economic uranium occurrences cluster into three fields, with the Alligator Rivers field being the most significant. The metasediments are alluvial and reduced shallow-water pelites and psammites. Evaporitic carbonate developed on shallow shelves around Archaean islands. Basin development and sedimentation (c. 2000-1870 Ma) were related to gradual subsidence induced by crustal extension. Facies variations and volcanism were in places controlled by the extensional faults. The rocks were metamorphosed to lower the high grade, complexly folded, and intruded by numerous granitoids from c. 1870 to 1730 Ma. Late orogenic felsic volcanics accumulated in local rift systems. Middle Proterozoic sandstone was deposited on a peneplaned and deeply weathered surface from about 1650 Ma. Uranium is enriched in some Archaean and Proterozoic igneous rocks, but there is no local or regional enrichment of the metasedimentary hosts or of the unconformably overlying sandstone. There is no regional gravity, magnetic or radiometric character attributable to the region's significance as a uranium province; contrasts with surrounding sedimentary basins reflect expected differences in rock properties between a heterogeneous igneous/metamorphic region and relatively homogeneous undeformed and unmineralized sediments. Uranium-enriched Archaean and Proterozoic granitoids and felsic volcanics with labile U are likely though not exclusive source rocks. U was probably transported in oxidized low temperature solutions as uranyl complexes and precipitated in reduced, structurally controlled, low-pressure traps. All uranium occurrences are broadly classified as 'Proterozoic unconformity related'. Greatest potential for further discovery is offered in the Alligator Rivers field, where perhaps at least 3 to 5.5 times the

  12. Pine needle abortion biomarker detected in bovine fetal fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine needle abortion is a naturally occurring condition in free-range cattle caused by the consumption of pine needles from select species of cypress, juniper, pine, and spruce trees. Confirmatory diagnosis of pine needle abortion has previously relied on a combined case history of pine needle cons...

  13. Agreement Between Michigan State University and Lodge 141, Fraternal Order of Police, Michigan State University Division, July 1, 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing.

    This agreement, entered into July 1, 1974, is between the Board of Trustees of Michigan State University and Lodge 141 of the Fraternal Order of Police, Michigan State University Division. It is the intent and purpose of this agreement to assure sound and mutually beneficial working and economic relationships between the parties, to provide an…

  14. Recruitment variability of alewives in Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madenjian, C.P.; Hook, T.O.; Rutherford, E.S.; Mason, D.M.; Croley, T.E.; Szalai, E.B.; Bence, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    We used a long-term series of observations on alewife Alosa pseudoharengus abundance that was based on fall bottom-trawl catches to assess the importance of various abiotic and biotic factors on alewife recruitment in Lake Michigan during 1962–2002. We first fit a basic Ricker spawner–recruit model to the lakewide biomass estimates of age-3 recruits and the corresponding spawning stock size; we then fit models for all possible combinations of the following four external variables added to the basic model: an index of salmonine predation on an alewife year-class, an index for the spring–summer water temperatures experienced by alewives during their first year in the lake, an index of the severity of the first winter experienced by alewives in the lake, and an index of lake productivity during an alewife year-class's second year in the lake. Based on an information criterion, the best model for alewife recruitment included indices of salmonine predation and spring–summer water temperatures as external variables. Our analysis corroborated the contention that a decline in alewife abundance during the 1970s and early 1980s in Lake Michigan was driven by salmonine predation. Furthermore, our findings indicated that the extraordinarily warm water temperatures during the spring and summer of 1998 probably led to a moderately high recruitment of age-3 alewives in 2001, despite abundant salmonines.

  15. Longleaf Pine: An Updated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    John S. Kush; Ralph S. Meldahl; William D. Boyer; Charles K. McMahon

    1996-01-01

    The longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forest figured prominently in the cultural and economic development of the South. What was once one of the most extensive forest ecosystems in North America has now become critically endangered (6). At the time of European settlement, this ecosystem dominated as much as 92 million acres throughout the...

  16. Fusiform Rust of Southern Pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. R. Phelps; F. L. Czabator

    1978-01-01

    Fusiform rust, caused by the fungus Cronartium fusiforme Hedg. & Hunt ex Cumm., is distributed in the Southern United States from Maryland to Florida and west to Texas and southern Arkansas. Infections by the fungus, which develops at or near the point of infection, result in tapered, spindle-shaped swells, called galls, on branches and stems of pines. (see photo...

  17. Nutrient Management in Pine Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan E. Tiarks

    1999-01-01

    Coastal plain soils are naturally low in fertility and many pine stands will give an economic response to fertilization, especially phosphorus. Maintaining the nutrients that are on the site by limiting displacement of logging slash during and after the harvest can be important in maintaining the productivity of the site and reducing the amount of fertilizer required...

  18. Determining the effect of different cooking methods on the nutritional composition of salmon (Salmo salar and chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi fillets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M Bastías

    Full Text Available The effect of four cooking methods was evaluated for proximate composition, fatty acid, calcium, iron, and zinc content in salmon and Chilean jack mackerel. The moisture content of steamed salmon decreased (64.94% compared to the control (68.05%; a significant decrease was observed in Chilean jack mackerel in all the treatments when compared to the control (75.37%. Protein content in both salmon and Chilean jack mackerel significantly increased under the different treatments while the most significant decrease in lipids was found in oven cooking and canning for salmon and microwaving for Chilean jack mackerel. Ash concentration in both salmon and Chilean jack mackerel did not reveal any significant differences. Iron and calcium content only had significant changes in steaming while zinc did not undergo any significant changes in the different treatments. Finally, no drastic changes were observed in the fatty acid profile in both salmon and Chilean jack mackerel.

  19. Determining the effect of different cooking methods on the nutritional composition of salmon (Salmo salar) and chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) fillets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balladares, Pamela; Acuña, Sergio; Quevedo, Roberto; Muñoz, Ociel

    2017-01-01

    The effect of four cooking methods was evaluated for proximate composition, fatty acid, calcium, iron, and zinc content in salmon and Chilean jack mackerel. The moisture content of steamed salmon decreased (64.94%) compared to the control (68.05%); a significant decrease was observed in Chilean jack mackerel in all the treatments when compared to the control (75.37%). Protein content in both salmon and Chilean jack mackerel significantly increased under the different treatments while the most significant decrease in lipids was found in oven cooking and canning for salmon and microwaving for Chilean jack mackerel. Ash concentration in both salmon and Chilean jack mackerel did not reveal any significant differences. Iron and calcium content only had significant changes in steaming while zinc did not undergo any significant changes in the different treatments. Finally, no drastic changes were observed in the fatty acid profile in both salmon and Chilean jack mackerel. PMID:28686742

  20. Environmental status of the Lake Michigan region. Volume 6. Zoobenthos of Lake Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozley, S.C.; Howmiller, R.P.

    1977-09-01

    This report summarizes Lake Michigan zoobenthic studies up to 1974, including reports of power-plant surveys. It describes ecologies of macroinvertebrate species and some microfauna, partly through use of data from other Great Lakes. The following are discussed: methodology of field surveys; zoobenthic indicators of pollution; zoobenthic effects on sediment-water exchanges; and numbers, biomass, and production of total macroinvertebrates. Prominent features of Lake Michigan zoobenthos include predominance of the amphipod Pontoporeia affinis, usefulness of tubificid oligochaetes in mapping environmental quality, and pronounced qualitative gradients in zoobenthos in relation to depth. Further research is needed on sampling methods, energy flow rates and pathways through benthic communities, factors limiting distribution of species near shore, and effects of macroinvertebrates on sediment chemistry and structure.

  1. Sarcoptic mange in raccoons in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Scott D; Cooley, Thomas M; Murphy, Alice; Cosgrove, Melinda K; King, Betty A

    2004-04-01

    Sarcoptic mange is a cause of pruritic skin disease in domestic dogs and a wide range of wildlife species. We describe sarcoptic mange in free-ranging raccoons (Procyon lotor). Three adult raccoons from upper Wayne County, Michigan (USA), were captured, killed, and submitted for diagnostic evaluation. The animals were intensely pruritic, and two had advanced alopecic and crusting lesions over their dorsum and hind limbs. Skin scrapings and skin biopsies revealed crusting and hyperkeratotic dermatitis with high numbers of Sarcoptes scabiei adults, larvae, nymphs, and eggs. These raccoons were not otherwise debilitated, with minimal internal parasites, good body condition, and no evidence of infectious bacterial or viral diseases. Because sarcoptic mange is highly contagious and affects many species, including humans, transiently, it is important that wildlife biologists and rehabilitators include sarcoptic mange in their differential list for raccoons exhibiting pruritus and alopecia.

  2. Thermal discharge residence by Lake Michigan Salmonids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romberg, G.P.; Prepejchal, W.

    1975-01-01

    Lake Michigan salmon and trout were tagged with a thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) temperature tag to estimate their thermal exposure and residence time at a warm water discharge. Fish were collected, tagged, and released at the Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Two Rivers, Wisconsin, in the fall of 1973 and 1974. Tags were recovered during the same season, primarily from fish recaptured at Point Beach. Average uniform temperature exposure and maximum possible discharge residence time were determined. Appropriate hourly intake and discharge temperatures were averaged to calculate mean temperature exposure for the case of maximum discharge residence. Lowest discharge temperature not included within the period of maximum residence was identified to serve as a possible indicator of avoidance temperature. Mean values for the above parameters were calculated for fish species for each tagging year and are reported with the accompanying range of intake and discharge temperatures

  3. Naturally Occurring Compound Can Protect Pines from the Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    B.L. Strom; R.A. Goyer; J.L. Hayes

    1995-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB), Dendroctonus frontalis, is the most destructive insect pest of southern pine forests. This tiny insect, smaller than a grain of rice, is responsible for killing pine timber worth millions of dollars on a periodic basis in Louisiana.

  4. Monitoring white pine blister rust infection and mortality in whitebark pine in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathie Jean; Erin Shanahan; Rob Daley; Gregg DeNitto; Dan Reinhart; Chuck Schwartz

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for information on the status and trend of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Concerns over the combined effects of white pine blister rust (WPBR, Cronartium ribicola), mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae), and climate change prompted an interagency working group to design and implement...

  5. Establishing Longleaf Pine Seedlings Under a Loblolly Pine Canopy (User’s Guide)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    longleaf pine forests (Figure 1) for the diverse values they provide. These forests afford abundant recreational opportunities like hiking , bird...combined herbicide-fertilizer treatments that might benefit planted longleaf pine seedlings after planting. In addition to measuring longleaf pine

  6. Tip moth control and loblolly pine growth in intensive pine culture: four year results

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Kulhavy; Jimmie L. Yeiser; L. Allen Smith

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-two treatments replicated four times were applied to planted loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., on bedded industrial forest land in east Texas for measurement of growth impact of Nantucket pine tip moth (NPTM), Rhyacionia frustrana Comstock, and effects on pine growth over 2 years. Treatments were combinations of Velpar®,...

  7. Selection for resistance to white pine blister rust affects the abiotic stress tolerances of limber pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick J. Vogan; Anna W. Schoettle

    2015-01-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis) mortality is increasing across the West as a result of the combined stresses of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola; WPBR), mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), and dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium cyanocarpum) in a changing climate. With the continued spread of WPBR, extensive mortality will continue with strong selection...

  8. Validation of on-site job-built guardrails with shoring jack as supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan, A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To protect themselves against fall hazards in a slab-column frame, workers use the row of shoring jacks installed at 1 m from the edge as supports for on-site built guardrails. Inspectors of the Quebec Workers Compensation Board (Commission de la santé et de la sécurité du travail (CSST have expressed concern about the safety and compliance of these on-site built guardrails with the Quebec Safety Code for the Construction Industry (S-2.1, r.4. Some workers have also inquired if the shoring jack can be used as an anchor for a travel restraint system. The present study describes how an evaluation method and a test protocol have been used to verify if guardrails built on-site, with shoring jacks as supports, are safe and comply with the requirements of S-2.1, r.4 and if the shoring jack can be used as an anchor point for a travel restraint system. The results of the study show 1 guardrails built on site with shoring jacks as supports, are safe and comply with S-2.1, r.4 and 2 shoring jacks used as supports for guardrails must not be used as an anchor for a travel restraint system.Para la protección contra el peligro de caída en altura durante la ejecución de la estructura de un edificio, los trabajadores utilizan puntales acodalados a dos forjados y situados a 1 metro del borde de forjado como apoyo de las barandillas de seguridad. Inspectores de la Quebec Workers Compensation Board (Commision de la santé et de la sécurité du travail (CSST han expresado su preocupación por la seguridad y el cumplimiento de estos sistemas de protección en la construcción conforme al Código de Seguridad de Quebec para la industria de la construcción (S-2.1, R.6. Así mismo algunos trabajadores han mostrado su inquietud sobre la utilización de los puntales como sistemas para limitar el desplazamiento. El presente estudio describe un método de evaluación y un procedimiento de ensayo que se han utilizado para verificar si las barandillas de seguridad

  9. Foliar fungi of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)

    OpenAIRE

    Millberg, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is an ecologically and economically important tree species in Fennoscandia. Scots pine needles host a variety of fungi, some with the potential to profoundly influence their host. These fungi can have beneficial or detrimental effects with important implications for both forest health and primary production. In this thesis, the foliar fungi of Scots pine needles were investigated with the aim of exploring spatial and temporal patterns, and development with needle...

  10. Bio-composites made from pine straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse; Jamie Tang

    2004-01-01

    Pine straw is renewable natural resource that is under-utilized. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and mechanical performances of pine straw composites. Three panel density levels (0.8, 0.9, 1.0 g/cm2) and two resin content levels (1% pMDI + 4% UF, 2% pMDI + 4% UF) were selected as treatments. For the pine-straw-bamboo-...

  11. The Cholesterol Lowering Effects of Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali Root Extract in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasak G Faisal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate the effect of Eurycoma longifolia Jack root extract on serum lipids in rats. Methods: Twenty-six mature male albino Wistar rats were used in this study. A group of 18 rats were fed a high fat and high cholesterol diet for 4 weeks, after which their lipid profile was compared to the control group, who were kept on a normal diet. The rats were then further divided into three groups, the Cf group that continued to feed on a high fat and cholesterol diet only, and group A and group B who continued on a high fat diet with the addition of 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg of Eurycoma longifolia Jack root extract respectively for 4 weeks. After the 4 week period, the rat's lipid profiles were analysed again. Results: Group A and B showed significant total cholesterol reduction when compared to the Cf group, 140 ± 7.23, 139.63 ± 7.95, 192.14 ± 8.96 mg/dL respectively (p < 0.001. The total cholesterol/HDL ratio in group A was 5 however there was a sharp increase in group B to a high-risk level of 9.2 indicating a significant drop in HDL levels. The LDL level increased significantly in both group A and B compared to the Cf group. Conclusions: Eurycoma longifolia Jack root extract is effective in lowering total cholesterol, however the dose needs to be adjusted to prevent an excessive decrease in HDL levels.

  12. A sperm-agglutinating lectin from seeds of Jack fruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namjuntra, P; Muanwongyathi, P; Chulavatnatol, M

    1985-04-30

    A lectin specific for N-acetylgalactosamine was isolated from seed extract of Jack fruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) by ammonium sulfate precipitation, followed by affinity chromatography on a Affigel-galactosamine-agarose column. The lectin possessed agglutinating activities for human and rat sperm as well as human red blood cells. It was found to have Mr = 62,000 consisting of two dissimilar subunits of Mr = 18,000 and 13,000. It also cross-reacted with an antibody against the lectin of Osage Orange (Maclura pomifera).

  13. Selected Problems of Sensitivity and Reliability of a Jack-Up Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozmarynowski Bogdan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with sensitivity and reliability applications to numerical studies of an off-shore platform model. Structural parameters and sea conditions are referred to the Baltic jack-up drilling platform. The sudy aims at the influence of particular basic variables on static and dynamic response as well as the probability of failure due to water waves and wind loads. The paper presents the sensitivity approach to a generalized eigenvalue problem and evaluation of the performace functions. The first order time-invariant problems of structural reliability analysis are under concern.

  14. A phyt osociological classification of the vegetation of the Jack Scott Nature Reserve*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Coetzee

    1974-12-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation of the Jack Scott Nature Reserve in the Central Bankenveld Veld Type is classified chiefly by the Braun-Blanquet Table Method. Habitat features, physiognomy, total floristic composition, differentiating species, woody plants and prominent grasses and forbs are presented for each community. Characterizing habitat features, in order of importance for the communities, are: exposure, soil texture, geology, slope, aspect, degree of rockiness and previous ploughing. The classification correlates well with the major physiographic and climatic variation in the Reserve and generally does not cut across main physiognomic types. The communities are potentially homogeneous management units.

  15. Narrativa visual de uma obra beat: os vagabundos iluminados de Jack Kerouac

    OpenAIRE

    TEJERO MARTINEZ, DIANA MARIA

    2014-01-01

    Este trabajo analiza las técnicas narrativas de los "cómics" aplicadas en la adaptación de la novela "Los vagabundos del Dharma" de Jack Kerouac. Se trata de un trabajo de investigación basado en los estudios de los teóricos Will Eisner y Scott McCloud y de la estudiosa de la adaptación Linda Hutcheon. En la inverstigación se exploran las posibilidades de los "cómics" como medio de expressión gráfica y las características de las adaptaciones de algunas obras...

  16. A Comparison Between Measured and Predicted Hydrodynamic Damping for a Jack-Up Rig Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Thomas; Rohbock, Lars; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1996-01-01

    An extensive set of measurements funded by the EU project Large Scale Facilities Program has been carried out on a model of a jack-up rig at the Danish Hydraulic Institute. The test serieswere conducted by MSC and include determination of base shears and overturning moments in both regular...... methods.In the comparison between the model test results and the theoretical predictions, thehydro-dynamic damping proves to be the most important uncertain parameter. It is shown thata relative large hydrodynamic damping must be assumed in the theoretical calculations in orderto predict the measured...

  17. Acheronta movebo. Resilencia y revolución en The Mexican (1911 de Jack London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo González de la Fuente

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo maneja uno de los relatos pugilísticos de Jack London, The Mexican (1911, para explorar el mundo del boxeo como lugar público de conflictos sociales e ideológicos identificados y significados en la proteica figura del boxeador. Así pues, el ring es susceptible de devenir y analizarse como un espacio de práctica política, de antagonismo y debate que, en su reglada exposición de violencias carnales y simbólicas, condensa una particular síntesis efectiva de corporalidades y discursos.

  18. Surficial geologic map of Berrien County, Michigan, and the adjacent offshore area of Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Byron D.; Kincare, Kevin A.; O'Leary, Dennis W.; Newell, Wayne L.; Taylor, Emily M.; Williams, Van S.; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Abraham, Jared E.; Powers, Michael H.

    2017-12-13

    The surficial geologic map of Berrien County, southwestern Michigan (sheet 1), shows the distribution of glacial and postglacial deposits at the land surface and in the adjacent offshore area of Lake Michigan. The geologic map differentiates surficial materials of Quaternary age on the basis of their lithologic characteristics, stratigraphic relationships, and age. Drill-hole information correlated in cross sections provides details of typical stratigraphic sequences that compose one or more penetrated geologic map units. A new bedrock geologic map (on sheet 2) includes contours of the altitude of the eroded top of bedrock and shows the distribution of middle Paleozoic shale and carbonate units in the subcrop. A sediment thickness map (also on sheet 2) portrays the extent of as much as 150 meters of surficial materials that overlie the bedrock surface.The major physical features of the county are related principally to deposits of the last Laurentide ice sheet that advanced and then retreated back through the region from about 19,000 to 14,000 radiocarbon years before present. Glacial and postglacial deposits underlie the entire county; shale bedrock crops out only in the adjacent offshore area on the bottom of Lake Michigan. All glacial deposits and glacial meltwater deposits in Berrien County are related to the late Wisconsinan glacial advances of the Lake Michigan ice lobe and its three regional recessional moraines, which cross the county as three north-northeast-trending belts.From east to west (oldest to youngest), the three moraine belts are known as the Kalamazoo, Valparaiso, and Lake Border morainic systems. The till-ridge morainic systems (Lake Border and local Valparaiso morainic systems) consist of multiple, elongate moraine ridges separated by till plains and lake-bottom plains. Tills in ground and end moraines in Berrien County are distinguished as informal units, and are correlated with three proposed regional till units in southwestern Michigan

  19. Lake Michigan Fish Acoustic Data from 2011 to 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Each line in the file “Lake Michigan fish acoustic data from 2011 to 2016.csv” represents the acoustic data and estimated fish density for a single depth layer of...

  20. Michigan 2008 Lidar Coverage, USACE National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the MI coasts of Lake Superior, Lake Michigan and...

  1. Pavement subgrade MR design values for Michigan's seasonal changes : appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-22

    The resilient modulus (MR) of roadbed soil plays an integral role in the design of pavement systems. Currently, the various regions of the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT) use different procedures to determine the MR values. Most of these...

  2. Lake-wide distribution of Dreissena in Lake Michigan, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Guy W.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Holuszko, Jeffrey D.

    2001-01-01

    The Great Lakes Science Center has conducted lake-wide bottom trawl surveys of the fish community in Lake Michigan each fall since 1973. These systematic surveys are performed at depths of 9 to 110 m at each of seven index sites around Lake Michigan. Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) populations have expanded to all survey locations and at a level to sufficiently contribute to the bottom trawl catches. The quagga (Dreissena bugensis), recently reported in Lake Michigan, was likely in the catches though not recognized. Dreissena spp. biomass ranged from about 0.6 to 15 kg/ha at the various sites in 1999. Dreissenid mussels were found at depths of 9 to 82 m, with their peak biomass at 27 to 46 m. The colonization of these exotic mussels has ecological implications as well as potential ramifications on the ability to sample fish consistently and effectively with bottom trawls in Lake Michigan.

  3. Willow Run Laboratories: Separating from the University of Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John

    1972-01-01

    Outlines the reasons for, and the problems involved in, separation of a research center from the University of Michigan in order to become an independent research organization contracting for private and military research. (AL)

  4. Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Group: The University of Michigan Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    2931 alhawary@umich.edu Stephanie Daignault, MS, Biostatistician, Biostatistics Core University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center NI8D11...Consortium; The Cancer Institute of New Jersey/University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ; Robert Wood Johnson Medical School...University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ; University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI; University of Wisconsin Carbone

  5. Cardiac surgeons and the quality movement: the Michigan experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, Richard L; Armenti, Frederick R; Bassett, Joseph S; Bell, Gail F; Drake, Daniel; Hanson, Eric C; Heiser, John C; Johnson, Scott H; Plasman, F B; Shannon, Francis L; Share, David; Theurer, Patty; Williams, Jaelene

    2009-01-01

    The Michigan Society of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeons created a voluntary quality collaborative with all the cardiac surgeons in the state and all hospitals doing adult cardiac surgery. Utilizing this collaborative over the last 3 years and creating a unique relationship with a payor, an approach to processes and outcomes has produced improvements in the quality of care for cardiac patients in the state of Michigan.

  6. Cross-Reactivity of Polyclonal Antibodies against Canavalia ensiformis (Jack Bean) Urease and Helicobacter pylori Urease Subunit A Fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Zbigniew Jerzy; Relich, Inga; Konieczna, Iwona; Kaca, Wieslaw; Kolesinska, Beata

    2018-01-01

    Overlapping decapeptide fragments of H. pylori urease subunit A (UreA) were synthesized and tested with polyclonal antibodies against Canavalia ensiformis (Jack bean) urease. The linear epitopes of UreA identified using the dot blot method were then examined using epitope mapping. For this purpose, series of overlapping fragments of UreA, frameshifted ± four amino acid residues were synthesized. Most of the UreA epitopes which reacted with the Jack bean urease polyclonal antibodies had been recognized in previous studies by monoclonal antibodies against H. pylori urease. Fragments 11 - 24, 21 - 33, and 31 - 42 were able to interact with the Jack bean urease antibodies, giving stable immunological complexes. However, the lack of recognition by these antibodies of all the components in the peptide map strongly suggests that a non-continuous (nonlinear) epitope is located on the N-terminal domain of UreA. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  7. Manuka honey (Leptospermum scoparium) inhibits jack bean urease activity due to methylglyoxal and dihydroxyacetone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rückriemen, Jana; Klemm, Oliver; Henle, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Manuka honey (Leptospermum scoparium) exerts a strong antibacterial effect. Bacterial enzymes are an important target for antibacterial compounds. The enzyme urease produces ammonia and enables bacteria to adapt to an acidic environment. A new enzymatic assay, based on photometric detection of ammonia with ninhydrin, was developed to study urease activity. Methylglyoxal (MGO) and its precursor dihydroxyacetone (DHA), which are naturally present in manuka honey, were identified as jack bean urease inhibitors with IC 50 values of 2.8 and 5.0mM, respectively. Urease inhibition of manuka honey correlates with its MGO and DHA content. Non-manuka honeys, which lack MGO and DHA, showed significantly less urease inhibition. MGO depletion from manuka honey with glyoxalase reduced urease inhibition. Therefore, urease inhibition by manuka honey is mainly due to MGO and DHA. The results obtained with jack bean urease as a model urease, may contribute to the understanding of bacterial inhibition by manuka honey. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sneaker "jack" males outcompete dominant "hooknose" males under sperm competition in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Brent; Conti, David V; Dean, Matthew D

    2013-12-01

    In a variety of taxa, males deploy alternative reproductive tactics to secure fertilizations. In many species, small "sneaker" males attempt to steal fertilizations while avoiding encounters with larger, more aggressive, dominant males. Sneaker males usually face a number of disadvantages, including reduced access to females and the higher likelihood that upon ejaculation, their sperm face competition from other males. Nevertheless, sneaker males represent an evolutionarily stable strategy under a wide range of conditions. Game theory suggests that sneaker males compensate for these disadvantages by investing disproportionately in spermatogenesis, by producing more sperm per unit body mass (the "fair raffle") and/or by producing higher quality sperm (the "loaded raffle"). Here, we test these models by competing sperm from sneaker "jack" males against sperm from dominant "hooknose" males in Chinook salmon. Using two complementary approaches, we reject the fair raffle in favor of the loaded raffle and estimate that jack males were ∼1.35 times as likely as hooknose males to fertilize eggs under controlled competitive conditions. Interestingly, the direction and magnitude of this skew in paternity shifted according to individual female egg donors, suggesting cryptic female choice could moderate the outcomes of sperm competition in this externally fertilizing species.

  9. Jack-of-all-trades effects drive biodiversity–ecosystem multifunctionality relationships in European forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Plas, Fons; Manning, Peter; Allan, Eric; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Verheyen, Kris; Wirth, Christian; Zavala, Miguel A.; Hector, Andy; Ampoorter, Evy; Baeten, Lander; Barbaro, Luc; Bauhus, Jürgen; Benavides, Raquel; Benneter, Adam; Berthold, Felix; Bonal, Damien; Bouriaud, Olivier; Bruelheide, Helge; Bussotti, Filippo; Carnol, Monique; Castagneyrol, Bastien; Charbonnier, Yohan; Coomes, David; Coppi, Andrea; Bastias, Cristina C.; Muhie Dawud, Seid; De Wandeler, Hans; Domisch, Timo; Finér, Leena; Gessler, Arthur; Granier, André; Grossiord, Charlotte; Guyot, Virginie; Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Jactel, Hervé; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan; Joly, François-Xavier; Jucker, Tommaso; Koricheva, Julia; Milligan, Harriet; Müller, Sandra; Muys, Bart; Nguyen, Diem; Pollastrini, Martina; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Selvi, Federico; Stenlid, Jan; Valladares, Fernando; Vesterdal, Lars; Zielínski, Dawid; Fischer, Markus

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that biodiversity promotes multiple ecosystem functions (multifunctionality), thus ensuring the delivery of ecosystem services important for human well-being. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood, especially in natural ecosystems. We develop a novel approach to partition biodiversity effects on multifunctionality into three mechanisms and apply this to European forest data. We show that throughout Europe, tree diversity is positively related with multifunctionality when moderate levels of functioning are required, but negatively when very high function levels are desired. For two well-known mechanisms, ‘complementarity' and ‘selection', we detect only minor effects on multifunctionality. Instead a third, so far overlooked mechanism, the ‘jack-of-all-trades' effect, caused by the averaging of individual species effects on function, drives observed patterns. Simulations demonstrate that jack-of-all-trades effects occur whenever species effects on different functions are not perfectly correlated, meaning they may contribute to diversity–multifunctionality relationships in many of the world's ecosystems. PMID:27010076

  10. POPULASI DAN HABITAT Nepenthes ampullaria Jack. DI CAGAR ALAM MANDOR, KALIMANTAN BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysarah .

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nepenthes ampullaria Jack. is a species which adapted on the nutrient-poor areas in Mandor nature reserve.  Its could be increasing the quality of Mandor nature reserve as protected area. This research aims to study the population and habitat of N. ampullaria in the Mandor nature reserve. This study was conducted at two habitats, heath forest and peat swamp forest. Observations were made on, population abundance and habitat factors of  N. ampullaria. The results showed that the highest population density of N. ampullaria was in heath forest. Their are growth in groups. Vegetation analysis showed that constituent species habitat of N. ampullaria consist of 69 species from 39 familly. Result of identification to insects showed Formicidae is dominant family that trapped in pitcher of N. ampullaria. Temperature and humidity in N. ampullaria’s habitat has been switable for requirements growth of pitcher plant. Rainfall during the study was normally. Ratio of sand and soil on both affected the improvement of individual N. ampullaria in Mandor nature reserve. Keywords: habitat, Mandor nature reserve, Nepenthes ampullaria Jack, population

  11. The construction of identity in a consumerist society: Delillo’s Jack Gladney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Matković

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the construction of the postmodern identity of Jack Gladney, the main character in Don DeLillo’s White Noise (1985. Employing (postmodern, social psychology, and psychoanalytic theories of Zygmunt Bauman, Erich Fromm, Jean Baudrillard, and Gilles Lipovetsky, it analyzes the construction of Gladney’s character through his social roles as professor, husband, and consumer in the narrow sense of the word in order to deduce that his consumerist practices have spread to all aspects of his life. This reading reveals a new interpretation of Gladney’s fear of death; it shows that Gladney’s thanatophobia represents a consequence of his atheistic worldview. Namely, unable to find a haven in religion, he unsuccessfully seeks the meaning of life and death elsewhere, mainly in consumerism, which is identified as the source of his alienation from himself, people, and God. This paper suggests that numerous problems of postmodern life are caused by the lack of faith in God and proposes a conclusion that religion itself could be the answer to the difficulties faced by postmodern individuals with fragmented identities such as Jack Gladney.

  12. Insects in IBL-4 pine weevil traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    I. Skrzecz

    2003-01-01

    Pipe traps (IBL-4) are used in Polish coniferous plantations to monitor and control the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.). This study was conducted in a one-year old pine plantation established on a reforested clear-cut area in order to evaluate the impact of these traps on non-target insects. Evaluation of the catches indicated that species of

  13. Dynamics of whlte pine in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Leak; J.B. Cullen; Thomas S. Frieswyk

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of growth, regeneration, and quality changes for white pine between the 1970's and 1980's in the six-state New England region. Growth rates seemed comparable among ail states except Rhode Island, where the percentage of growth (1.71%) seemed low. Over all states, the proportion of acreage in seedling/sapling white pine stands averaged too low (8%) to...

  14. Diprionidae sawflies on lodgepole and ponderosa pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight species of Diprionidae feed on lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and ponderosa pine (P. ponderosa) in western United States: Neodiprion burkei Middleton, N. annulus contortae Ross, N. autumnalis Smith, N. fulviceps (Cresson), N. gillettei (Rohwer), N. mundus Rohwer, N. ventralis Ross, and Zadi...

  15. High elevation white pines educational website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna W. Schoettle; Michele Laskowski

    2011-01-01

    The high elevation five-needle white pines are facing numerous challenges ranging from climate change to invasion by a non-native pathogen to escalation of pest outbreaks. This website (http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/highelevationwhitepines/) serves as a primer for managers and the public on the high elevation North American five-needle pines. It presents information on each...

  16. Survey of microsatellite DNA in pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig S. Echt; P. May-Marquardt

    1997-01-01

    A large insert genomic library from eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) was probed for the microsatellite motifs (AC)n and (AG)n, all 10 trinucleotide motifs, and 22 of the 33 possible tetranucleotide motifs. For comparison with a species from a different subgenus, a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) genomic...

  17. Risk Assessment for the Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Birt

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB) causes significant damage (tree mortality) to pine forests. Although this tree mortality has characteristic temporal and spatial patterns, the precise location and timing of damage is to some extent unpredictable. Consequently, although forest managers are able to identify stands that are predisposed to SPB damage, they are unable to...

  18. Grading sugar pine saw logs in trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Henley

    1972-01-01

    Small limbs and small overgrown limbs cause problems when grading saw logs in sugar pine trees. Surface characteristics and lumber recovery information for 426 logs from 64 sugar pine trees were examined. Resulting modifications in the grading specification that allow a grader to ignore small limbs and small limb indicators do not appear to decrease the performance of...

  19. Geographic variation in shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.) - cortical monoterpenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.C. Schmidtling; J.H. Myszewski; C.E. McDaniel

    2005-01-01

    Cortical monoterpenes were assayed in bud tissue from 16 Southwide Southern Pine Seed Source Study (SSPSS) sources and from 6 seed orchard sources fiom across the natural range of the species, to examine geogaphic variation in shortleaf pine. Spruce pine and pond pine were also sampled. The results show geographic differences in all of the major terpenes. There was no...

  20. State of pine decline in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori Eckhardt; Mary Anne Sword Sayer; Don Imm

    2010-01-01

    Pine decline is an emerging forest health issue in the southeastern United States. Observations suggest pine decline is caused by environmental stress arising from competition, weather, insects and fungi, anthropogenic disturbances, and previous management. The problem is most severe for loblolly pine on sites that historically supported longleaf pine, are highly...

  1. The health of loblolly pine stands at Fort Benning, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soung-Ryoul Ryu; G. Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker

    2013-01-01

    Approximately two-thirds of the red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) (RCW) groups at Fort Benning, GA, depend on loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands for nesting or foraging. However, loblolly pine stands are suspected to decline. Forest managers want to replace loblolly pine with longleaf pine (P. palustris...

  2. Forest development and carbon dynamics after mountain pine beetle outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Matthew. Hansen

    2014-01-01

    Mountain pine beetles periodically infest pine forests in western North America, killing many or most overstory pine stems. The surviving secondary stand structure, along with recruited seedlings, will form the future canopy. Thus, even-aged pine stands become multiaged and multistoried. The species composition of affected stands will depend on the presence of nonpines...

  3. Biogeography and diversity of pines in the Madrean Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    George M. Ferguson; Aaron D. Flesch; Thomas R. Van Devender

    2013-01-01

    Pines are important dominants in pine-oak, pine and mixed-conifer forests across the Colorado Plateau, southern Rocky Mountains, Sierra Madre Occidental, and in the intervening Sky Islands of the United States-Mexico borderlands. All 17 native species of pines in the Sky Islands region or their adjacent mountain mainlands reach the northern or southern margins of their...

  4. Length Research Paper The effects of the pine processionary moth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pine processionary moth (PPM), causing significant damage on pine stands in Turkey, affects mainly crimean pine stands within the Ulus vicinity. To determine the damage, 20 sample plots of second site class crimean pine stands were measured; 10 of which were taken as the control sample and 10 of which were ...

  5. Evolutionary relationships of Slash Pine ( Pinus elliottii ) with its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    llozymes in bud tissue and monoterpene contents in xylem oleoresin of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) were analyzed from populations across the natural distribution, as well as those from other species in the AUSTRALES pines. Allozyme diversity measures of slash pine were similar to those found in other southern pines.

  6. White pine blister rust resistance research in Minnesota and Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew David; Paul Berrang; Carrie Pike

    2012-01-01

    The exotic fungus Cronartium ribicola causes the disease white pine blister rust on five-needled pines throughout North America. Although the effects of this disease are perhaps better known on pines in the western portion of the continent, the disease has also impacted regeneration and growth of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L. ...

  7. White pine blister rust in the interior Mountain West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly Burns; Jim Blodgett; Dave Conklin; Brian Geils; Jim Hoffman; Marcus Jackson; William Jacobi; Holly Kearns; Anna Schoettle

    2010-01-01

    White pine blister rust is an exotic, invasive disease of white, stone, and foxtail pines (also referred to as white pines or five-needle pines) in the genus Pinus and subgenus Strobus (Price and others 1998). Cronartium ribicola, the fungus that causes WPBR, requires an alternate host - currants and gooseberries in the genus Ribes and species of Pedicularis...

  8. Mortality rates among Arab Americans in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallo, Florence J; Schwartz, Kendra; Ruterbusch, Julie J; Booza, Jason; Williams, David R

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to: (1) calculate age-specific and age-adjusted cause-specific mortality rates for Arab Americans; and (2) compare these rates with those for blacks and whites. Mortality rates were estimated using Michigan death certificate data, an Arab surname and first name list, and 2000 U.S. Census data. Age-specific rates, age-adjusted all-cause and cause-specific rates were calculated. Arab Americans (75+) had higher mortality rates than whites and blacks. Among men, all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates for Arab Americans were in the range of whites and blacks. However, Arab American men had lower mortality rates from cancer and chronic lower respiratory disease compared to both whites and blacks. Among women, Arab Americans had lower mortality rates from heart disease, cancer, stroke, and diabetes than whites and blacks. Arab Americans are growing in number. Future study should focus on designing rigorous separate analyses for this population.

  9. Scientific designs of pine seeds and pine cones for species conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kahye; Yeom, Eunseop; Kim, Hyejeong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2015-11-01

    Reproduction and propagation of species are the most important missions of every living organism. For effective species propagation, pine cones fold their scales under wet condition to prevent seeds from short-distance dispersal. They open and release their embedded seeds on dry and windy days. In this study, the micro-/macro-scale structural characteristics of pine cones and pine seeds are studied using various imaging modalities. Since the scales of pine cones consist of dead cells, the folding motion is deeply related to structural changes. The scales of pine cones consist of three layers. Among them, bract scales are only involved in collecting water. This makes pine cones reduce the amount of water and minimize the time spent on structural changes. These systems also involve in drying and recovery of pine cones. In addition, pine cones and pine seeds have advantageous structures for long-distance dispersal and response to natural disaster. Owing to these structural features, pine seeds can be released safely and efficiently, and these types of structural advantages could be mimicked for practical applications. This research was financially supported by the Creative Research Initiative of the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (MSIP) and the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea (Contract grant number: 2008-0061991).

  10. Non-Ribes alternate hosts of white pine blister rust: What this discovery means to whitebark pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul J. Zambino; Bryce A. Richardson; Geral I. McDonald; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Mee-Sook. Kim

    2006-01-01

    From early to present-day outbreaks, white pine blister rust caused by the fungus Cronartium ribicola, in combination with mountain pine beetle outbreaks and fire exclusion has caused ecosystem-wide effects for all five-needled pines (McDonald and Hoff 2001). To be successful, efforts to restore whitebark pine will require sound management decisions that incorporate an...

  11. Hybridization in naturally regenerated shortleaf pine as affected by the distance to nearby artificially regenerated stands of loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Stewart; Charles G. Tauer; James M. Guldin; C. Dana Nelson

    2013-01-01

    The natural range of shortleaf pine encompasses 22 states from New York to Texas, second only to eastern white pine in the eastern United States. It is a species of minor and varying occurrence in most of these states usually found in association with other pines, but it is the only naturally occurring pine in the northwestern part of its range in Oklahoma, Arkansas,...

  12. Hybridization Leads to Loss of Genetic Integrity in Shortleaf Pine: Unexpected Consequences of Pine Management and Fire Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles G. Tauer; John F. Stewart; Rodney E. Will; Curtis J. Lilly; James M. Guldin; C. Dana Nelson

    2012-01-01

    Hybridization between shortleaf pine and loblolly pine is causing loss of genetic integrity (the tendency of a population to maintain its genotypes over generations) in shortleaf pine, a species already exhibiting dramatic declines due to land-use changes. Recent findings indicate hybridization has increased in shortleaf pine stands from 3% during the 1950s to 45% for...

  13. Regeneration of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) three decades after stand-replacing fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan D. Coop; Anna W. Schoettle

    2009-01-01

    Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata) and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) are important highelevation pines of the southern Rockies that are forecast to decline due to the recent spread of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola) into this region. Proactive management strategies to promote the evolution of rust resistance and maintain ecosystem function...

  14. Environmental status of the Lake Michigan region. Volume 3. Chemistry of Lake Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrey, M S

    1976-05-01

    The report is a synoptic review of data collected over the past twenty years on the chemistry of Lake Michigan. Changes in water quality and sediment chemistry, attributable to cultural and natural influences, are considered in relation to interacting processes and factors controlling the distribution and concentration of chemical substances within the Lake. Temperature, light, and mixing processes are among the important natural influences that affect nutrient cycling, dispersal of pollutants, and fate of materials entering the Lake. Characterization of inshore-offshore and longitudinal differences in chemical concentrations and sediment chemistry for the main body of the Lake is supplemented by discussion of specific areas such as Green Bay and Grand Traverse Bay. Residues, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, major and trace nutrients, and contaminants are described in the following context: biological essentiality and/or toxicity, sources to the Lake, concentrations in the water column and sediments, chemical forms, seasonal variations and variation with depth. A summary of existing water quality standards, statutes, and criteria applicable to Lake Michigan is appended.

  15. Environmental status of the Lake Michigan region. Volume 14. Birds of the Lake Michigan drainage basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, G.J.

    1977-07-01

    This report characterizes the bird life found in 100 counties of the four states peripheral to Lake Michigan. It discusses major habitats (the Lake Michigan shoreline, inland lakes, rivers and streams, marshes, fields and open spaces, and woodlots) and associates specific birds with habitats according to preferences for space and food. It also discusses the special attributes of state parks and lakeshores, refuges and sanctuaries, and other special areas which are attractive to avifauna. Patterns of historical occurrence and abundance, and the influence of pesticides and pollution, disease, and hunting pressure are explored to place present occurrence in a modern perspective. Migration patterns are discussed to explain increases and decreases which occur in nonresident avifauna of the Basin. The distribution and habits of birds that occur regularly in the Basin are described in an annotated list; a more complete list is presented in a table which encapsulates data for rapid and convenient reference. Separate sections deal with extinct, extirpated, and introduced species, and with endangered, threatened, and declining species.

  16. Kinetics and mechanism of jack bean urease inhibition by Hg2+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Nana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Jack bean urease (EC 3.5.1.5 is a metalloenzyme, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to produce ammonia and carbon dioxide. The heavy metal ions are common inhibitors to control the rate of the enzymatic urea hydrolysis, which take the Hg2+ as the representative. Hg2+ affects the enzyme activity causing loss of the biological function of the enzyme, which threatens the survival of many microorganism and plants. However, inhibitory kinetics of urease by the low concentration Hg2+ has not been explored fully. In this study, the inhibitory effect of the low concentration Hg2+ on jack bean urease was investigated in order to elucidate the mechanism of Hg2+ inhibition. Results According to the kinetic parameters for the enzyme obtained from Lineweaver–Burk plot, it is shown that the Km is equal to 4.6±0.3 mM and Vm is equal to 29.8±1.7 μmol NH3/min mg. The results show that the inhibition of jack bean urease by Hg2+ at low concentration is a reversible reaction. Equilibrium constants have been determined for Hg2+ binding with the enzyme or the enzyme-substrate complexes (Ki =0.012 μM. The results show that the Hg2+ is a noncompetitive inhibitor. In addition, the kinetics of enzyme inhibition by the low concentration Hg2+ has been studied using the kinetic method of the substrate reaction. The results suggest that the enzyme first reversibly and quickly binds Hg2+ and then undergoes a slow reversible course to inactivation. Furthermore, the rate constant of the forward reactions (k+0 is much larger than the rate constant of the reverse reactions (k-0. By combining with the fact that the enzyme activity is almost completely lost at high concentration, the enzyme is completely inactivated when the Hg2+ concentration is high enough. Conclusions These results suggest that Hg2+ has great impacts on the urease activity and the established inhibition kinetics model is suitable.

  17. Healing of the Acutely Injured Anterior Cruciate Ligament: Functional Treatment with the ACL-Jack, a Dynamic Posterior Drawer Brace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Jacobi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The injured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL has a limited healing capacity leading to persisting instability. Hypothesis/Purpose. To study if the application of a brace, producing a dynamic posterior drawer force, after acute ACL injury reduces initial instability. Study Design. Cohort study. Methods. Patients treated with the ACL-Jack brace were compared to controls treated with primary ACL reconstruction und controls treated nonsurgically with functional rehabilitation. Measurements included anterior laxity (Rolimeter, clinical scores (Lysholm, Tegner, and IKDC, and MRI evaluation. Patients were followed up to 24 months. Results. Patients treated with the ACL-Jack brace showed a significant improvement of anterior knee laxity comparable to patients treated with ACL reconstruction, whereas laxity persisted after nonsurgical functional rehabilitation. The failure risk (secondary reconstruction necessary of the ACL-Jack group was however 21% (18 of 86 within 24 months. Clinical scores were similar in all treatment groups. Conclusion. Treatment of acute ACL tears with the ACL-Jack brace leads to improved anterior knee laxity compared to nonsurgical treatment with functional rehabilitation.

  18. Jack Michael's Appointments at the University of Houston and Arizona State University: Reflections from a Former Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabry, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Jack Michael was an early enthusiast for what is now called applied behavior analysis. His many seminal contributions were through early publications in applied behavior analysis and the work of the students he trained (e.g., T. Ayllon, M. M. Wolf). His close mentorship of students earned him acclaim as a teacher along with his many theoretical…

  19. Damage by pathogens and insects to Scots pine and lodgepole pine 25 years after reciprocal plantings in Canada and Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Fries, Anders

    2017-01-01

    A combined species - provenance - family experiment with Scots pine and lodgepole pine was planted in Canada and Sweden. One aim of the experiment was to evaluate the two species' sensitivities to pathogens and insects 25 years after establishment in their non-native continents. In Canada, Scots pine had better average survival than lodgepole pine, but survival rates among trees from the best seed-lots were equal. In Canada only western gall rust infected Scots pine to some extent, and mounta...

  20. Raccoglier lettere. Le “Vico collaborations” di Jack W. Stauffacher e Dennis Letbetter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando, David

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting in the early ’70s the San Francisco printer and typographer Jack W. Stauffacher undertook a graphic exploration of Vico’s works, which continued during the past decade together with the photographer Dennis Letbetter. The aim of this article is to present their experience - which is at the same time poetic and historically attentive, focusing on the relationships between text and images, and on the typographical and physical qualities of 18th century editions - to an audience which includes Italian Vico scholars. The text is composed of a brief introduction and an interview with the two artists, and is followed (pp. 94-180 by a photographic presentation of their "Vico collaborations".

  1. Solving 1D plasmas and 2D boundary problems using Jack polynomials and functional relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fendley, P.; Saleur, H.; Lesage, F.

    1995-01-01

    The general one-dimensional open-quotes log-sineclose quotes gas is defined by restricting the positive and negative charges of a two-dimensional Coulomb gas to live on a circle. Depending on charge constraints, this problem is equivalent to different boundary field theories. We study the electrically neutral case, which is equivalent to a two-dimensional free boson with an impurity cosine potential. We use two different methods: a perturbative one based on Jack symmetric functions, and a non-perturbative one based on the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz and functional relations. The first method allows us to find an explicit series expression for all coefficients in the virial expansion of the free energy and the experimentally measurable conductance. Some results for correlation functions are also presented. The second method gives an expression for the full free energy, which yields a surprising fluctuation-dissipation relation between the conductance and the free energy

  2. Modular jack-up platform debuts in Peru's Amazon jungle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, A.

    1975-08-11

    Robishaw Engineering Inc., Houston, has designed and built a jack-up platform based on a modular flotation and erection system that allows exploratory and development drilling year round in any location that cannot be reached by conventional equipment. All components are light enough to be transported by helicopters rated for 4000-lb loads, yet strong and buoyant enough to serve as working platforms. The pile-supported self-elevating drilling platform consists of H-shaped steel girders joined by pin connectors and tension wires. Deck panels are steel-plated. When elevated on steel pilings, the platform can support loads imposed by rigs capable of drilling to 18,000 ft. One such unit is currently being used in the Peruvian rain forest.

  3. Ficus deltoidea Jack: A Review on Its Phytochemical and Pharmacological Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidun Bunawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ficus deltoidea Jack (Moraceae has had a long history of use in traditional medicine among the Malays to alleviate and heal ailments such as sores, wounds, and rheumatism and as an after-birth tonic and an antidiabetic drug. Modern pharmacological studies demonstrated that this plant has a wide variety of beneficial attributes for human health. Despite its importance, a review of this species has not been published in the scientific literature to date. Here, we review and summarize the historic and current literature concerning the botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological effects, and toxicity of this wonder plant. This summary could be beneficial for future research aiming to exploit the therapeutic potential of this useful, medicinal species.

  4. Multi-gene phylogeny of jacks and pompanos (Carangidae), including placement of monotypic vadigo Campogramma glaycos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damerau, M; Freese, M; Hanel, R

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the phylogenetic trees of jacks and pompanos (Carangidae), an ecologically and morphologically diverse, globally distributed fish family, are inferred from a complete, concatenated data set of two mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase I, cytochrome b) loci and one nuclear (myosin heavy chain 6) locus. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inferences are largely congruent and show a clear separation of Carangidae into the four subfamilies: Scomberoidinae, Trachinotinae, Naucratinae and Caranginae. The inclusion of the carangid sister lineages Coryphaenidae (dolphinfishes) and Rachycentridae (cobia), however, render Carangidae paraphyletic. The phylogenetic trees also show with high statistical support that the monotypic vadigo Campogramma glaycos is the sister to all other species within the Naucratinae. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  5. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of Gastrodia elata Bl. and Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Jacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Mori, A

    1992-12-01

    Gastrodia elata Bl. (GE) and Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Jacks (UR) are two traditional Chinese medicinal herbal drugs, used for the treatment of convulsions and epilepsy. Their antioxidant effects in vivo and their free radical scavenging effects in vitro were investigated. Epileptogenic foci in the lateral brain of the rat were induced by the injection of ferric chloride into the lateral cortex. Both extracts significantly inhibited the increase in levels of lipid peroxide in the ipsilateral cortex, at all times observed. In addition, the two extracts also induced an early increase of activity of superoxide dismutase in the mitochondrial fraction of the ipsilateral cortex. In in vitro experiments, the two extracts exhibited significant dose-dependent scavenging effects on free radicals, using electron spin resonance spectroscopy. These results suggest that the proposed antiepileptic effects of GE and UR may be attributable to the antioxidant activity of the active components in these two medicinal herbs.

  6. Evapotranspiration and crop coefficients of corn in monoculture and intercropped with jack bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário S. P. de Araújo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was carried out to determine the evapotranspiration (ETc and crop coefficients (Kc for four stages of “Caatingueiro” corn under the climate condition of Seropédica, RJ, Brazil, using weighing lysimeters. The field trial occurred in 2015, from March 18 to June 25, in two areas cultivated with “Caatingueiro’ corn intercropped with jack bean and in monoculture. The reference evapotranspiration (ETo was estimated by the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith model and the Kc values were determined by the ratio between ETc and ETo. The Kc values obtained for the intercropping and monoculture systems, were respectively: 0.78 (I; 1.01 (II; 1.10 (III and 1.01 (IV, and 0.62 (I; 0.92 (II; 1.27 (III and 0.81 (IV, and they were different from the values presented by FAO.

  7. Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia Jack): a review on its ethnobotany and pharmacological importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Rajeev; Karim, A A

    2010-10-01

    Eurycoma longifolia Jack is an herbal medicinal plant of South-East Asian origin, popularly recognized as 'Tongkat Ali.' The plant parts have been traditionally used for its antimalarial, aphrodisiac, anti-diabetic, antimicrobial and anti-pyretic activities, which have also been proved scientifically. The plant parts are rich in various bioactive compounds (like eurycomaoside, eurycolactone, eurycomalactone, eurycomanone, and pasakbumin-B) among which the alkaloids and quassinoids form a major portion. Even though toxicity and safety evaluation studies have been pursued, still a major gap exists in providing scientific base for commercial utilization and clearance of the Tongkat Ali products with regard to consumer's safety. The present review aims at reviewing the research works undertaken till date, on this plant in order to provide sufficient baseline information for future works and for commercial exploitation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Malignant narcissism and sexual homicide--exemplified by the Jack Unterweger case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, R

    1999-01-01

    With the syndrome of malignant narcissism, which is characterised by narcissistic personality disorder, anti-social behaviour, sadism and a marked tendency to paranoid reactions, Kernberg (1985, 1996) describes an independent form of pathological narcissism. According to Stone (1996) this is found in many mass-murderers and serial killers. On the basis of the example of Jack Unterweger the connection between malignant narcissism and sexual offence is discussed as to psychodynamic development, personality structure and psychopathology. Unterweger, who was convicted to lifelong imprisonment in 1976 for sadistic sexual murder, became a wellknown writer in prison and was released prematurely in 1990 as the Austria case of successful rehabilitation. As stated in the sentence passed against him he killed 11 prostitutes in Europe and the USA within the next 18 months, but never pleaded guilty. Psychiatric examination revealed numerous elements of malignant narcissism and the constellation of his development and life was typical of serial offenders.

  9. MICHIGAN/INDIANA: Siberian Snakes strike again

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Siberian snakes are showing themselves to be even more deadly than expected in killing their prey, the depolarizing resonances which would make it very difficult to accelerate polarized protons to TeV energies at accelerators such as the Tevatron, UNK, LHC, and SSC. The snake concept was proposed in the mid-1970s by Siberians Yaroslav Derbenev and Anatoly Kondratenko at Novosibirsk, but the snakes lay almost dormant until Owen Chamberlain, Ernest Courant, Alan Krisch, and the late Kent Terwilliger organized the 1985 Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) polarized beam workshop in Ann Arbor, which highlighted the need to test the concept. The idea is to rotate the spin through 180° on each turn in the ring. With such successive spin flips, the depolarizing effects seen in one turn should be cancelled by an equal and opposite perturbation on the subsequent turn. The new Cooler Ring at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility then seemed an excellent test site for these eager but untested serpents. The Michigan/lndiana/Brookhaven team led by Krisch constructed the world's first snake and found that it could easily overcome its initial enemy, the imperfection depolarizing resonances caused by ring magnet imperfections (January/February 1990, page 20). In the next few years the growing team of ''herpetologists'' showed that Siberian snakes could overcome all kinds of depolarizing resonances, including the intrinsic kind (caused by the vertical betatron oscillations which keep the beam focused) and the synchrotron resonances (caused by synchrotron oscillations in energy). The team also discovered a new type of snake that was inadvertently built into the cooling section. This socalled type-3 snake rotates the spin around the vertical direction. A full type-1 snake (such as the team's superconducting solenoid magnet) rotates the spin by 180° around the beam direction; a type-2 snake rotates the spin around the radial direction

  10. Flood of April 1975 at Williamston, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutilla, R.L.; Swallow, L.A.

    1975-01-01

    On April 18 between 5 p.m. and 12 p.m. the city of Williamston experienced an intense rain storm that caused the Red Cedar River and the many small streams in the area to overflow their banks and resulted in the most devastating flood since at least 1904. Local officials estimated a loss of \\$775,000 in property damage. Damage from flooding by the Red Cedar River was caused primarily by inundation, rather than by water moving at high velocity, as is common when many streams are flooded. During the flood of April 1975 many basements were flooded as well as the lower floors of some homes in the flood plain. Additional damage occurred in places when sewers backed up and flooded basements, and when ground water seeped through basement walls and floors—situations that affected many homes including those that were well outside of the flood plain.During the time of flooding the U.S. Geological Survey obtained aerial photography and data on a streamflow to document the disaster. This report shows on a photomosaic base map the extent of flooding along the Red Cedar River at Williamston, during the flood. It also presents data obtained at stream-gaging stations near Williamston, as well as the results of peak-flow discharge measurements made on the Red Cedar River at Michigan State Highway M-52 east of the city. Information on the magnitude of the flood can guide in making decisions pertaining to the use of flood-plains in the area. It is one of a series of reports on the April 1975 flood in the Lansing metropolitan area.

  11. Prevalence, severity, and natural history of jack jumper ant venom allergy in Tasmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Simon G A; Franks, Rodney W; Baldo, Brian A; Heddle, Robert J

    2003-01-01

    The jack jumper ant (Myrmecia pilosula) is responsible for greater than 90% of Australian ant venom allergy. However, deaths have only been recorded in the island of Tasmania. We sought to determine the prevalence, clinical features, natural history, and predictors of severity of M pilosula sting allergy in Tasmania. We performed a random telephone survey supported by serum venom-specific IgE analysis, review of emergency department presentations, and follow-up of allergic volunteers. M pilosula, honeybee (Apis mellifera), and yellow jacket wasp (Vespula germanica) sting allergy prevalences were 2.7%, 1.4%, and 0.6% compared with annual sting exposure rates of 12%, 7%, and 2%, respectively. Similarly, emergency department presentations with anaphylaxis to M pilosula were double those for honeybee. M pilosula allergy prevalence increased with age of 35 years or greater (odds ratio [OR], 2.4) and bee sting allergy (OR, 16.9). Patients 35 years of age or older had a greater risk of hypotensive reactions (OR, 2.9). Mueller reaction grades correlated well with adrenaline use. During follow-up, 79 (70%) of 113 jack jumper stings caused anaphylaxis. Prior worst reaction severity predicted the likelihood and severity of follow-up reactions; only 3 subjects had more severe reactions. Venom-specific IgE levels and other clinical features, including comorbidities, were not predictive of severity. Sting allergy prevalence is determined by age and exposure rate. M pilosula sting exposure in Tasmania is excessive compared with that found in mainland Australia, and there is a high systemic reaction risk in allergic people on re-sting. Prior worst reaction severity (Mueller grade) and age predict reaction severity and might be used to guide management.

  12. Kinetics and Mechanism Study of Competitive Inhibition of Jack-Bean Urease by Baicalin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lirong; Su, Jiyan; Wu, Dianwei; Yu, Xiaodan; Su, Zuqing; Wu, Xiaoli; Kong, Songzhi; Lai, Xiaoping; Lin, Ji; Su, Ziren

    2013-01-01

    Baicalin (BA) is the principal component of Radix Scutellariae responsible for its pharmacological activity. In this study, kinetics and mechanism of inhibition by BA against jack-bean urease were investigated for its therapeutic potential. It was revealed that the IC50 of BA against jack-bean urease was 2.74 ± 0.51 mM, which was proved to be a competitive and concentration-dependent inhibition with slow-binding progress curves. The rapid formation of initial BA-urease complex with an inhibition constant of K i = 3.89 × 10−3 mM was followed by a slow isomerization into the final complex with an overall inhibition constant of K i* = 1.47 × 10−4 mM. High effectiveness of thiol protectors against BA inhibition indicated that the strategic role of the active-site sulfhydryl group of the urease was involved in the blocking process. Moreover, the inhibition of BA was proved to be reversible due to the fact that urease could be reactivated by dithiothreitol but not reactant dilution. Molecular docking assay suggested that BA made contacts with the important activating sulfhydryl group Cys-592 residues and restricted the mobility of the active-site flap. Taken together, it could be deduced that BA was a competitive inhibitor targeting thiol groups of urease in a slow-binding manner both reversibly and concentration-dependently, serving as a promising urease inhibitor for treatments on urease-related diseases. PMID:24198731

  13. Jack-knife stretching promotes flexibility of tight hamstrings after 4 weeks: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sairyo, Koichi; Kawamura, Takeshi; Mase, Yasuyoshi; Hada, Yasushi; Sakai, Toshinori; Hasebe, Kiyotaka; Dezawa, Akira

    2013-08-01

    Tight hamstrings are reported to be one of the causes of low back pain. However, there have been few reports on effective stretching procedures for the tight hamstrings. The so-called jack-knife stretch, an active-static type of stretching, can efficiently increase the flexibility of tight hamstrings. To evaluate hamstring tightness before and after the 4-week stretching protocol in healthy volunteer adults and patients aged under 18 years with low back pain. For understanding the hamstrings tightness, we measured two parameters including (1) finger to floor distance (FFD) and (2) pelvis forward inclination angle (PFIA). Eight healthy adult volunteers who had no lumbar or hip problems participated in this study (mean age: 26.8 years). All lacked flexibility and their FFD were positive before the experiment. Subjects performed 2 sets of the jack-knife stretch every day for 4 weeks. One set consisted of 5 repetitions, each held for 5 s. Before and during the 4-week experiment, the FFD and PFIA of toe-touching tests were measured weekly. For 17 of the sports players aged under 18, only FFD was measured. In adult volunteers, FFD was 14.1 ± 6.1 cm before the experiment and decreased to -8.1 ± 3.7 cm by the end of week 4, indicating a gain in flexibility of 22.2 cm. PFIA was 50.6 ± 8.2 before the experiment and 83.8 ± 5.8 degrees after. Before and after the experiment, the differences were significant (p hamstrings.

  14. The Jack mackerel Trachurus murphyiand the environmental macro-scale variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Espino

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses information on various macro environmental variables available since 1876 for the Southeast Pacific and more recent data on Jack mackerel Trachurus murphyi (Nichols, 1920 landings and biomass in the Peruvian sea, relating them to probable areas of water masses equivalent to Cold Coastal Waters (CCW and Subtropical Surface Waters (SSW. It is concluded that the index of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO presents expressions of variability that are consistent with those found for the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI and that the detected changes in biomass of Jack mackerel T. murphyiin the Peruvian sea reflect changes in the availability of the fish stock associated with secular (SOI and decadal (PDO variability patterns. These fluctuations in stock availability impact fisheries in Ecuador, Peru and northern Chile, which show significant variations in their landings and would have given a biased picture of the state of abundance, leading to wrong diagnoses of the real situation of the exploited stocks. These patterns of variability would also affect the appearance of El Niño, making them start in the southern hemisphere autumn or spring depending on whether the current PDO is positive or negative. Periods of high (1876 – 1925 and 1976 – 2012 and low (1926 – 1975 variability are also identified in relation to the Euclidean distance of the variances of the SOI; and in relation to the PDO a distinction is made between warm (1925 – 1944 and 1975 – 1994, cold (1945 – 1974 and tempered or interface periods (1895 – 1924 and 1995 – 2012, the latter being explained by the interaction between periods of high variability.

  15. 76 FR 36145 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ...: Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology, Kalamazoo, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Western Michigan University, Department of Anthropology, has completed..., Department of Anthropology. Disposition of the human remains and associated funerary objects to the Indian...

  16. 75 FR 67998 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... objects in the possession of Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI. The... anthropologist in the Anthropology Department at Western Michigan University, studied the remains. Native...

  17. 75 FR 5105 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... objects in the possession of Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI. The... analysis. Dr. Robert Sundick, a physical anthropologist in the Anthropology Department at Western Michigan...

  18. 76 FR 28078 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ...: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, has completed an... University, Anthropology Department. Disposition of the human remains and associated funerary objects to the...

  19. 75 FR 36671 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... objects in the possession of Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI. The... funerary objects should contact LouAnn Wurst, Department of Anthropology, Western Michigan University, 1005...

  20. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Michigan. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Michigan.

  1. Southern pine beetle in loblolly pine: simulating within stand interactions using the process model SPBLOBTHIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Strom; J. R. Meeker; J. Bishir; James Roberds; X. Wan

    2016-01-01

    Pine stand density is a key determinant of damage resulting from attacks by the southern pine beetle (SPB, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.). High-density stands of maturing loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) are at high risk for losses to SPB, and reducing stand density is the primary tool available to forest managers for preventing and mitigating damage. Field studies are...

  2. Impact of a Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak on Young Lodgepole Pine Stands in Central British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Dhar, Amalesh; Balliet, Nicole; Runzer, Kyle; Hawkins, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The current mountain pine beetle (MPB) (Dendroctonous ponderosae Hopkins) epidemic has severely affected pine forests of Western Canada and killed millions of hectares of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm.) forest. Generally, MPB attack larger and older (diameter > 20 cm or >60 years of age) trees, but the current epidemic extends this limit with attacks on even younger and smaller trees. The study’s aim was to investigate the extent of MPB attack in y...

  3. Hybrid pine for tough sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, W.H.

    1994-01-01

    A test planting of 30 first- and second-generation pitch x loblolly pine (pinus rigida x P. taeda) hybrids was established on a West Virginia minesoil in 1985. The site was considered orphaned because earlier attempts at revegetation were unsuccessful. The soil was acid (pH 4.6), lacking in nutrients, and compacted. Vegetation present at the time of planting consisted of a sparse cover of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and poverty grass (Danthonia spicata) and a few sourwood (Oxydendrum arboreum) and mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) seedlings. In the planting trial, 30 different hybrids were set out in 4 tree linear plots replicated 5 times. The seedlings had been grown in containers for 1 yr before outplanting. Evaluations made after 6 growing seasons showed overall plantation survival was 93%; six hybrids and one open-pollinated cross survived 100%. Individual tree heights ranged from 50 to 425 cm with a plantation average of 235 cm (7.7 ft). Eleven of the hybrids had average heights that exceeded the plantation average. Another test planting of tree and shrub species on this site has very poor survival. Therefore, pitch x loblolly hybrid pine can be recommended for reclaiming this and similar sites

  4. Mountain pine beetle infestation of lodgepole pine in areas of water diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinski, Sharon L; Anthamatten, Peter J; Bruederle, Leo P; Barbour, Jon M; Chambers, Frederick B

    2014-06-15

    The Rocky Mountains have experienced extensive infestations from the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), affecting numerous pine tree species including lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia). Water diversions throughout the Rocky Mountains transport large volumes of water out of the basins of origin, resulting in hydrologic modifications to downstream areas. This study examines the hypothesis that lodgepole pine located below water diversions exhibit an increased incidence of mountain pine beetle infestation and mortality. A ground survey verified diversion structures in a portion of Grand County, Colorado, and sampling plots were established around two types of diversion structures, canals and dams. Field studies assessed mountain pine beetle infestation. Lodgepole pines below diversions show 45.1% higher attack and 38.5% higher mortality than lodgepole pines above diversions. These findings suggest that water diversions are associated with increased infestation and mortality of lodgepole pines in the basins of extraction, with implications for forest and water allocation management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Lodgepole Pine Wood Chips Affected by the Mountain Pine Beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartwig Peemoeller

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, wood-water interactions of mountain pine beetle affected lodgepole pine were found to vary with time since death. Based on an analysis of magnetization components and spin-spin relaxation times from 1H NMR, it was determined that the mountain pine beetle attack does not affect the crystalline structure of the wood. Both the amorphous structure and the water components vary with time since death, which could be due to the fungi present after a mountain pine beetle attack, as well as the fact that wood from the grey-stage of attack cycles seasonally through adsorption and desorption in the stand.

  6. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Lodgepole Pine Wood Chips Affected by the Mountain Pine Beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Todoruk, Tara M.; Hartley, Ian D.; Teymoori, Roshanak; Liang, Jianzhen; Peemoeller, Hartwig

    2010-01-01

    In this study, wood-water interactions of mountain pine beetle affected lodgepole pine were found to vary with time since death. Based on an analysis of magnetization components and spin-spin relaxation times from 1H NMR, it was determined that the mountain pine beetle attack does not affect the crystalline structure of the wood. Both the amorphous structure and the water components vary with time since death, which could be due to the fungi present after a mountain pine beetle attack, as wel...

  7. Geology and salt deposits of the Michigan Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.S.; Gonzales, S.

    1976-07-01

    The Silurian-age Salina salt, one of the greatest deposits of bedded rock salt in the world, underlies most of the Michigan basin and parts of the Appalachian basin in Ohio. Pennsylvania, New York, and West Virginia. Interest in this salt deposit has increased in recent years because there may be one or more areas where it could be used safely as a repository for the underground storage of high-level radioactive wastes. The general geology of the Michigan basin is summarized and the major salt deposits are described in the hope that these data will be useful in determining whether there are any areas in the basin that are sufficiently promising to warrant further detailed study. Distribution of the important salt deposits in the basin is limited to the Southern Peninsula of Michigan

  8. Fast-food consumption and obesity among Michigan adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Beth; Rafferty, Ann P; Lyon-Callo, Sarah; Fussman, Christopher; Imes, Gwendoline

    2011-07-01

    Consumption of meals eaten away from home, especially from fast-food restaurants, has increased in the United States since the 1970s. The main objective of this study was to examine the frequency and characteristics of fast-food consumption among adults in Michigan and obesity prevalence. We analyzed data from 12 questions about fast-food consumption that were included on the 2005 Michigan Behavioral Risk Factor Survey, a population-based telephone survey of Michigan adults, using univariate and bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression, and compared these data with data on Michigan obesity prevalence. Approximately 80% of Michigan adults went to fast-food restaurants at least once per month and 28% went regularly (≥2 times/wk). Regular fast-food consumption was higher among younger adults (mostly men) but was not significantly associated with household income, education, race, or urbanicity (in a multivariate framework). The prevalence of obesity increased consistently with frequenting fast-food restaurants, from 24% of those going less than once a week to 33% of those going 3 or more times per week. The predominant reason for choosing fast food was convenience. Although hypothetically 68% of adults who go to fast-food restaurants would choose healthier fast-food items when available, only 16% said they ever use nutritional information when ordering. The prevalence of fast-food consumption is high in Michigan across education, income, and racial groups and is strongly associated with obesity. Making nutritional information at fast-food restaurants more readily available and easier to use may help consumers to order more healthful or lower-calorie items.

  9. Low offspring survival in mountain pine beetle infesting the resistant Great Basin bristlecone pine supports the preference-performance hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika L Eidson

    Full Text Available The preference-performance hypothesis states that ovipositing phytophagous insects will select host plants that are well-suited for their offspring and avoid host plants that do not support offspring performance (survival, development and fitness. The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, a native insect herbivore in western North America, can successfully attack and reproduce in most species of Pinus throughout its native range. However, mountain pine beetles avoid attacking Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva, despite recent climate-driven increases in mountain pine beetle populations at the high elevations where Great Basin bristlecone pine grows. Low preference for a potential host plant species may not persist if the plant supports favorable insect offspring performance, and Great Basin bristlecone pine suitability for mountain pine beetle offspring performance is unclear. We infested cut bolts of Great Basin bristlecone pine and two susceptible host tree species, limber (P. flexilis and lodgepole (P. contorta pines with adult mountain pine beetles and compared offspring performance. To investigate the potential for variation in offspring performance among mountain pine beetles from different areas, we tested beetles from geographically-separated populations within and outside the current range of Great Basin bristlecone pine. Although mountain pine beetles constructed galleries and laid viable eggs in all three tree species, extremely few offspring emerged from Great Basin bristlecone pine, regardless of the beetle population. Our observed low offspring performance in Great Basin bristlecone pine corresponds with previously documented low mountain pine beetle attack preference. A low preference-low performance relationship suggests that Great Basin bristlecone pine resistance to mountain pine beetle is likely to be retained through climate-driven high-elevation mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

  10. 40 CFR 81.67 - Lake Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.67 Lake Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Menominee-Escanaba (Michigan)-Marinette (Wisconsin) Interstate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Lake Michigan Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Wisconsin) and revised to consist of the territorial area...

  11. 76 FR 28068 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Cultural Items: Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI AGENCY: National Park Service... Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, that meet the definition of unassociated... funerary objects should contact Carla Sinopoli, Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor...

  12. 78 FR 45057 - Safety Zone; Alpena Area HOG Rally Fireworks, Alpena, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Alpena Area HOG Rally Fireworks, Alpena, Michigan AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... rally in Alpena, Michigan with a fireworks display. Fireworks will be launched near the end of Mason Street, South of State Avenue, approximately 50 yards west of Thunder Bay in Alpena, Michigan. The...

  13. HR diagrams derived from the Michigan Spectral Catalogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houk, N.; Fesen, R.

    1978-01-01

    The authors present some HR diagrams constructed using data from the Michigan Spectral Catalogues. Houk (1975) has been systematically reclassifying the Henry Draper stars on the MK system, from the south pole northward. Objective-prism plates, with a reciprocal dispersion of 108 A/mm, have been taken with the Michigan Curtis Schmidt telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile. The spectra are classified visually from the plates, and the results are put onto IBM cards and magnetic tape from which the catalogues are produced. (Auth.)

  14. Michigan Health & Hospital Association Keystone Obstetrics: a statewide collaborative for perinatal patient safety in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Kathleen Rice; Knox, G Eric; Martin, Morgan; George, Chris; Watson, Sam R

    2011-12-01

    Preventable harm to mothers and infants during labor and birth is a significant patient safety and professional liability issue. A Michigan Health & Hospital Association Keystone Center for Patient Safety & Quality Obstetric Collaborative Project involved perinatal teams from 15 Michigan hospitals during an 11-month period in 2009. The purpose of the project was to promote safe care practices during labor and birth using the Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program (CUSP). Consistent with the CUSP model, this project's components included assessing and promoting a culture of safety; interdisciplinary team building; case review; learning from defects through multiple methods of education; team and individual coaching and peer encouragement; administrative support for the establishment of a fundamental safety infrastructure; and ongoing evaluation of care processes and outcomes. Study measures included 32 components of a perinatal patient infrastructure, 6 care processes during labor and birth, and 4 neonatal outcomes. Significant improvements were found in the safety culture (Safety Attitudes Questionnaire), the perinatal patient safety infrastructure components, and all care processes. Although the project was successful, getting buy-in from all members of the clinical team in each hospital for all of the measures was challenging at times. There was initial resistance to some of the measures and their various expected aspects of care. For example, some of the clinicians were initially reluctant to adopt the recommended standardized oxytocin protocol. Peer encouragement and unit-based feedback on progress in minimizing early elective births proved useful in many hospitals. A CUSP in obstetrics can be beneficial in improving the care of mothers and infants during labor and birth.

  15. TBT recommends : Courtney Pine. Hansa disco night

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Inglise jazzsaksofonisti Courtney Pine heliplaadi "Resistance" esitluskontserdist 15. dets. Rock Cafés Tallinnas. Inglise laulja Chris Norman läti ansamblitega üritusel "Hansa disco night Nr.4" 9. dets. Kipsala Hallis Riias

  16. Predictions of fire behavior and resistance to control: for use with photo series for the ponderosa pine type, ponderosa pine and associated species type, and lodgepole pine type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin R. Ward; David V. Sandberg

    1981-01-01

    This publication presents tables on the behavior of fire and the resistance of fuels to control. The information is to be used with the publication, "Photo Series for Quantifying Forest Residues in the Ponderosa Pine Type, Ponderosa Pine and Associated Species Type, Lodgepole Pine Type" (Maxwell, Wayne G.; Ward, Franklin R. 1976. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-052....

  17. Collaboration between the University of Michigan Taubman Health Sciences library and the University of Michigan Medical School Office of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Christine; Harris, Bethany; Mahraj, Katy; Schnitzer, Anna Ercoli; Rosenzweig, Merle

    2013-01-01

    Librarians have traditionally facilitated research development resulting in grants through performing biomedical literature searches for researchers. The librarians at the Taubman Health Sciences Library of the University of Michigan have taken additional steps forward by instituting a proactive approach to assisting investigators. To accomplish this, the librarians have taken part in a collaborative effort with the University of Michigan Medical School Office of Research. Through this partnership, both units have created and adopted various techniques intended to facilitate the submission of grants, thus allowing researchers more time to conduct their primary activities.

  18. Comparative Transcriptomics Among Four White Pine Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan A. G. Baker

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Conifers are the dominant plant species throughout the high latitude boreal forests as well as some lower latitude temperate forests of North America, Europe, and Asia. As such, they play an integral economic and ecological role across much of the world. This study focused on the characterization of needle transcriptomes from four ecologically important and understudied North American white pines within the Pinus subgenus Strobus. The populations of many Strobus species are challenged by native and introduced pathogens, native insects, and abiotic factors. RNA from the needles of western white pine (Pinus monticola, limber pine (Pinus flexilis, whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis, and sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana was sampled, Illumina short read sequenced, and de novo assembled. The assembled transcripts and their subsequent structural and functional annotations were processed through custom pipelines to contend with the challenges of non-model organism transcriptome validation. Orthologous gene family analysis of over 58,000 translated transcripts, implemented through Tribe-MCL, estimated the shared and unique gene space among the four species. This revealed 2025 conserved gene families, of which 408 were aligned to estimate levels of divergence and reveal patterns of selection. Specific candidate genes previously associated with drought tolerance and white pine blister rust resistance in conifers were investigated.

  19. Large-scale thinning, ponderosa pine, and mountain pine beetle in the Black Hills, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Kurt K. Allen; Angie Ambourn; Blaine Cook; Kenneth Marchand

    2017-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) (MPB), can cause extensive ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) mortality in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming, USA. Lower tree densities have been associated with reduced MPB-caused tree mortality, but few studies have reported on large-scale thinning and most data come from small plots that...

  20. Mountain pine beetle attack alters the chemistry and flammability of lodgepole pine foliage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley G. Page; Michael J. Jenkins; Justin B. Runyon

    2012-01-01

    During periods with epidemic mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) populations in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm.) forests, large amounts of tree foliage are thought to undergo changes in moisture content and chemistry brought about by tree decline and death. However, many of the presumed changes have yet to be...

  1. Is lodgepole pine mortality due to mountain pine beetle linked to the North American Monsoon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara A. Goeking; Greg C. Liknes

    2012-01-01

    Regional precipitation patterns may have influenced the spatial variability of tree mortality during the recent mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosa) (MPB) outbreak in the western United States. Data from the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program show that the outbreak was especially severe in the state of Colorado where over 10 million lodgepole pines (...

  2. Strong partial resistance to white pine blister rust in sugar pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohun B. Kinloch, Jr.; Deems Burton; Dean A. Davis; Robert D. Westfall; Joan Dunlap; Detlev Vogler

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative resistance to white pine blister rust in 128 controlled- and open-pollinated sugar pine families was evaluated in a “disease garden”, where alternate host Ribes bushes were interplanted among test progenies. Overall infection was severe (88%), but with great variation among and within families: a 30-fold range in numbers of infections...

  3. Silvicultural Considerations in Managing Southern Pine Stands in the Context of Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Guldin

    2011-01-01

    Roughly 30 percent of the 200 million acres of forest land in the South supports stands dominated by southern pines. These are among the most productive forests in the nation. Adapted to disturbance, southern pines are relatively easy to manage with even-aged methods such as clearcutting and planting, or the seed tree and shelterwood methods with natural regeneration....

  4. Dose-dependent pheromone responses of mountain pine beetle in stands of lodgepole pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Miller; B. Staffan Lindgren; John H. Borden

    2005-01-01

    We conducted seven behavioral choice tests with Lindgren multiple-funnel traps in stands of mature lodgepole pine in British Columbia, from 1988 to 1994, to determine the dosedependent responses of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, to its pheromones. Amultifunctional dose-dependent response was exhibited by D. ...

  5. Insect biodiversity reduction of pine woods in southern Greece caused by the pine scale (Marchalina hellenica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrakis, P. V.; Spanos, K.; Feest, A.

    2011-07-01

    This paper deals with the impact of the pine scale (Marchalina hellenica Gennadius, Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Margarodidae) on the insect biodiversity of pinewoods in Attica, Greece. The comparison of biodiversities was done by estimating the biodiversity by the Ewens-Caswells V statistic in a set of nine sites each containing two linetransects. Transects pairs went through free and infested pine woods from the pine scale and each one had several tenth hectare plots on both sides. The ecosystem temperature (= disorder) of the sites was computed and found high, together with the idiosyncratic temperatures (= susceptibility to extinction) of the 158 species in order to detect local extinctions. The indicator values of insect species were computed on the basis of the relative cover of each plant species. The main findings of this study are (1) the reduction of insect species biodiversity because of the introduction of the pine scale, (2) the moderate increase of disorder in pine scale infested sites,(3) many insect species can characterize site groups but none of them can distinguish infested from pine scale free sites. The introduction of pine scale in pine woods disturbs their insect fauna before its influence to the floristic composition and the associated vegetation structure appears. The causes behind this reduction of biodiversity and the anthropogenic influences are discussed. (Author) 64 refs.

  6. Influence of hardwood midstory and pine species on pine bole arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher S. Collins; Richard N. Conner; Daniel Saenz

    2002-01-01

    Arthropod density on the boles of loblolly pines (Pinus taeda) was compared between a stand with and stand without hardwood midstory and between a stand of loblolly and shortleaf pines (P. echinata) in the Stephen E Austin Experimental Forest, Nacogdoches Co., Texas, USA from September 1993 through July 1994. Arthropod density was...

  7. Preparation of Fe-cored carbon nanomaterials from mountain pine beetle-killed pine wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung Phil Mun; Zhiyong Cai; Jilei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) wood treated with iron (III) nitrate solution was used for the preparation of Fe-cored carbon nanomaterials (Fe-CNs) under various carbonization temperatures. The carbonization yield of Fe-treated sample (5% as Fe) was always 1–3% higher (after ash compensation) than that of the non-...

  8. Mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine for the production of submicron lignocellulose fibrils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrid Hoeger; Rolland Gleisner; Jose Negron; Orlando J. Rojas; J. Y. Zhu

    2014-01-01

    The elevated levels of tree mortality attributed to mountain pine beetle (MPB) (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) in western North American forests create forest management challenges. This investigation introduces the production of submicron or nanometer lignocellulose fibrils for value-added materials from the widely available resource represented by dead pines after...

  9. Mountain pine beetle-killed trees as snags in Black Hills ponderosa pine stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. M. Schmid; S. A. Mata; W. C. Schaupp

    2009-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle-killed ponderosa pine trees in three stands of different stocking levels near Bear Mountain in the Black Hills National Forest were surveyed over a 5-year period to determine how long they persisted as unbroken snags. Rate of breakage varied during the first 5 years after MPB infestation: only one tree broke during the first 2 years in the three...

  10. White pine blister rust resistance in limber pine: Evidence for a major gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. W. Schoettle; R. A. Sniezko; A. Kegley; K. S. Burns

    2014-01-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis) is being threatened by the lethal disease white pine blister rust caused by the non-native pathogen Cronartium ribicola. The types and frequencies of genetic resistance to the rust will likely determine the potential success of restoration or proactive measures. These first extensive inoculation trials using individual tree seed collections...

  11. Histology of white pine blister rust in needles of resistant and susceptible eastern white pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel A. Jurgens; Robert A. Blanchette; Paul J. Zambino; Andrew David

    2003-01-01

    White pine blister rust, Cronartium ribicola, has plagued the forests of North America for almost a century. Over past decades, eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) that appear to tolerate the disease have been selected and incorporated into breeding programs. Seeds from P. strobus with putative resistance were...

  12. Threats, status & management options for bristlecone pines and limber pines in Southern Rockies

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. W. Schoettle; K. S. Burns; F. Freeman; R. A. Sniezko

    2006-01-01

    High-elevation white pines define the most remote alpine-forest ecotones in western North America yet they are not beyond the reach of a lethal non-native pathogen. The pathogen (Cronartium ribicola), a native to Asia, causes the disease white pine blister rust (WPBR) and was introduced into western Canada in 1910. Whitebark (Pinus albicaulis) and...

  13. Michigan field artillery's 'Blackjacks' training in Latvia > National Guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles Smith, 1st Battalion, 119th Field Artillery, Michigan Army National Guard, set up the M67 GLPS for 24 years. 1st. Lt. Brice Masterson, and Sgt. 1st Class Charles Smith, 1st Battalion, 119th Field , Lithuania and the United States will participate in the exercise. The exercise takes place at Adazi Training

  14. Commentary on the Discovery of the Beautiful Style Michigan Madonna

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlobil, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 64, 3/4 (2016), s. 256-260 ISSN 0049-5123 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : gothic sculpture * Bohemian Beautiful Style * Madonna-torso * Museum Ann Arbor * Michigan ( USA ) Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  15. Timber resource of Michigan's Southern Lower Peninsula Unit, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerold T. Hahn

    1982-01-01

    The fourth inventory of the timber resource of Michigan's Southern Lower Peninsula Survey Unit shows a 12% decline in commercial forest area and a 26% gain in growing-stock volume between 1966 and 1980. Presented are highlights and statistics on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, and biomass.

  16. The changing veneer and plywood industry of Michigan and Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary R. Lindell; Lewis T. Hendricks

    1972-01-01

    Analyzes trends in the hardwood veneer and plywood industry of Michigan and Wisconsin between 1964 and 1969. In that period, red oak and hard maple replaced yellow birch as the major species used. Log supplies were adequate. Wall paneling was the major end market with doorskins next. Excess plywood producing capacity is a chronic problem.

  17. Understanding public opinion regarding transit in southeast Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report presents findings from a study on public opinion regarding transit in Southeast Michigan. The overall goals of this : study were to assess the nature of public opinion regarding regional transit and to understand its relation to socio-dem...

  18. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Iron River Quadrangle, Michigan and Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frishman, D

    1982-09-01

    No area within the Iron River 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ Quadrangle, Michigan and Wisconsin, appears to be favorable for the existence of a minimum of 100 tons of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ at a grade of 0.01 percent or better.

  19. Digital Learning Compass: Distance Education State Almanac 2017. Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Julia E.; Seaman, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This brief report uses data collected under the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Fall Enrollment survey to highlight distance education data in the state of Michigan. The sample for this analysis is comprised of all active, degree-granting…

  20. A post-Calumet shoreline along southern Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, D.K.; Thompson, T.A.; Booth, R.K.

    2007-01-01

    The southern shore of Lake Michigan is the type area for many of ancestral Lake Michigan's late Pleistocene lake phases, but coastal deposits and features of the Algonquin phase of northern Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, and Lake Superior are not recognized in the area. Isostatic rebound models suggest that Algonquin phase deposits should be 100 m or more below modern lake level. A relict shoreline, however, exists along the lakeward margin of the Calumet Beach that was erosional west of Deep River and depositional east of the river. For this post-Calumet shoreline, the elevation of basal foreshore deposits east of Deep River and the base of the scarp west of Deep River indicate a slightly westward dipping water plane that is centered at ???184 m above mean sea level. Basal foreshore elevations also indicate that lake level fell ???2 m during the development of the shoreline. The pooled mean of radiocarbon dates from the surface of the peat below post-Calumet shoreline foreshore deposits indicate that the lake transgressed over the peat at 10,560 ?? 70 years B.P. Pollen assemblages from the peat are consistent with this age. The elevation and age of the post-Calumet shoreline are similar to the Main Algonquin phase of Lake Huron. Recent isostatic rebound models do not adequately address a high-elevation Algonquin-age shoreline along the southern shore of Lake Michigan, but the Goldthwait (1908) hinge-line model does. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  1. An Interdisciplinary International Business Degree at Eastern Michigan University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, David A.

    2008-01-01

    In January 2006, the College of Business at Eastern Michigan University (EMU) instituted a cross-disciplinary program in international business (IB). Business communication is a major component of the program. Moreover, the need for business communication in other languages contributed greatly to the cross-disciplinary nature of the program. This…

  2. Importance-performance analysis: an application to Michigan's natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria Sanders; Erin White; Lori Pennington-Gray

    2001-01-01

    In the state of Michigan, the nature-based tourist is becoming an increasingly important target market for providers of natural resources. To meet the demands of this growing market segment, evaluation strategies for nature-based sites are needed to maintain and improve customer satisfaction and loyalty. Evaluation strategies that incorporate consumer input can help to...

  3. Post Audit of Lake Michigan Lake Trout PCB Model Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lake Michigan (LM) Mass Balance Study was conducted to measure and model polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other anthropogenic substances to gain a better understanding of the transport, fate, and effects of these substances within the system and to aid managers in the env...

  4. Michigan Physicians' Conference on Elder Abuse. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengstock, Mary C.; O'Brien, James G.

    The final report describes the Michigan Physicians' Conference on Elder Abuse project. The project conference had four major content areas, including: a general introduction to the problem of elder abuse; clinical symptoms of abuse; legal issues; and referral and case management techniques. Training techniques included lectures, group discussion,…

  5. Grip and Pinch Strength Norms for Michigan Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M. Phillips M.S., OTRL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to create a norm reference of current grip and pinch strength norms for working-age Michigan adults. This normative study included a convenience sample of 179 volunteers who were employees at car plants in South East Michigan or hospital sites in West Michigan. Participants’ ages ranged from between 20 and 62 years of age with a mean age of 49.15 years. There were 78 females (44% and 101 males (56%. Subjects were classified by gender and in the age categories of ages 20 to 49 years and ages 50-62 years. Grip and pinch strength norms were collected following the American Society of Hand Therapy protocol. The norms from these working adults were calculated with descriptive statistics for males and females in two age classifications: ages 20 to 49 and ages 50 to 62 years. Standard Errors (SE are better than the 1985 norms for both males and females ages 20 to 49 years. SEs are higher than the ages 20 to 49 years’ norms for the ages 50 to 62 years age categories in both males and females. These norms offer a point of comparison for clinicians to use for clients in Michigan who are ages 20 to 62 years and who have a goal to improve their grip strength. Clients’ grip and pinch strength could be compared to their age level or gender norms using the comparison for one standard deviation above, below, or at the means.

  6. Selected Collective Bargaining Agreements of Michigan Two-Year Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    Collective bargaining agreements of 19 selected Michigan two-year colleges are presented, representing contracts in effect in 1987. Contracts for the following colleges are included: Alpena Community College, Bay de Noc Community College, Gogebic Community College, Grand Rapids Junior College, Kalamazoo Valley Community College, Kellogg Community…

  7. Telecommuting for Original Cataloging at the Michigan State University Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Leah; Hyslop, Colleen

    1995-01-01

    Working conditions in library technical services departments can be a problem for catalogers in need of a quiet work environment. Based on a successful program for indexers at the National Agriculture Library, a proposal for an experimental telecommuting program for original cataloging at the Michigan State University Libraries was developed and…

  8. Environmental indices for common Michigan trees and shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary J. Brand

    1985-01-01

    Plants are indicators of environmental factors like moisture, nutrients, heat, and light. Semi-quantitative indices for these four factors were developed for 90 Michigan trees and shrubs. The indices and a tally of species present provide a simple evaluation of the environment of a forest stand and a useful management aid.

  9. The University of Michigan's Computer-Aided Engineering Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, D. E.; Olsen, Leslie A.

    1986-01-01

    Presents an overview of the Computer-Aided Engineering Network (CAEN) of the University of Michigan. Describes its arrangement of workstations, communication networks, and servers. Outlines the factors considered in hardware and software decision making. Reviews the program's impact on students. (ML)

  10. Processing United Nations Documents in the University of Michigan Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolper, Gertrude

    This guide provides detailed instructions for recording documents in the United Nations (UN) card catalog which provides access to the UN depository collection in the Harlan Hatcher Graduate Library at the University of Michigan. Procedures for handling documents when they are received include stamping, counting, and sorting into five categories:…

  11. Solar drying of jack fruit almonds Secagem solar de amêndoas de jaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre J. de M Queiroz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dryers heated by solar energy have been constructed and used in drying whole and half jack fruit almonds. The samples were dried during the day in direct sun and in the conventional solar dryer prepared for this purpose. Another piece of equipment was built for reception and accumulation of sun energy in a body of water, which was used as a heat source for night drying. The drying with the sun energy was compared with artificial drying. The jack fruit almonds were dried whole, half, with pellicle and without it. The storage of solar energy in water was technically viable for use in night drying. The drying by combining solar dryers in the day and night periods were completed in approximately 35 hours, and were equivalent to artificial drying between 40ºC and 70ºC. Almond cut in half and the pellicle removed reduced the drying time.Secadores com aquecimento por energia solar foram construídos e utilizados em secagens de amêndoas de jaca inteiras e em metades. As secagens no período diurno foram realizadas por exposição direta ao sol e em secador solar convencional, elaborado para este fim. Construiu-se também um equipamento para captação e acumulação de energia solar em uma massa de água, a qual foi utilizada como fonte de calor para realização de secagens no período noturno. As secagens com o uso de energia solar foram comparadas com secagens artificiais. As amêndoas de jaca foram secadas inteiras, em metades, com e sem película. O armazenamento da energia solar em corpo de água mostrou-se viável do ponto de vista técnico para utilização em secagens noturnas. As secagens combinando secadores por energia solar nos períodos diurno e noturno foram concluídas em tempos aproximados de 35 horas e equivaleram a secagens artificiais entre 40 ºC e 70 ºC. O corte das amêndoas e a retirada das películas reduziram o tempo de secagem.

  12. A Change in Igneous Activity of the Jack Hills Zircon Sources ca. 3.9 Ga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, E. A.; Harrison, T. M.

    2010-12-01

    New Ti-in-zircon crystallization temperature (Txlln) data for Jack Hills zircons reveal that the tight clustering of Hadean grains around a Txlln of 680°C, possibly indicative of felsic-to-intermediate minimum melting conditions, continues to ~3.92 Ga. Between 3.92-3.82 Ga the 680°C clustering ceases and most concordant grains cluster around an apparent Txlln of 610°C. A small group of zircons with higher Txlln (~750°C), present during the Hadean, is also observed during this period. After 3.82 Ga a Hadean-like distribution resumes for ~100 Ma. This large, concordant, low-Ti group at ~3.9 Ga is statistically distinct from the Hadean distribution and appears to be unique in the Jack Hills zircon record. The existence of coeval high- and low-Ti groups suggests that two distinct zircon-forming processes are distinguishable ~3.9 Ga, unlike during the Hadean. The significant numbers of zircons with apparent Txlln below 600°C may be suggestive of subsolidus formation, since igneous units with solidii below 600°C are relatively rare. The higher-Ti group is more consistent with an intermediate to mafic igneous origin but metamorphic overprinting or subsolidus formation at granulite grade cannot be ruled out by Txlln alone. A substantial proportion of the high-Ti group display oscillatory and disrupted oscillatory zoning in cathodoluminescence images, usually indicative of igneous origins and later metamorphism, respectively; most low-Ti grains are homogeneous. Several of each group display patchy zonation indicative of metamorphic overprinting. Although several grains with apparent Txlln >600°C display oscillatory zonation, the majority of the low-Ti group do not show textural evidence for igneous origins. We interpret these results to indicate the transition from a mechanism(s) that produced dominantly 680°C apparent zircon temperatures at ca. 3.9 Ga to include a new zircon-forming process in the sediment source(s), likely a protracted period of metamorphism

  13. Jack'd, a Mobile Social Networking Application: A Site of Exclusion Within a Site of Inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartone, Michael D

    2018-01-01

    User-generated smartphone applications have created a new level of virtual connectivity for gay males, one in which users can create profiles and meet other users as nearby or as far away as possible. For those within close proximity, the other users can be considered their "virtual neighbors." Although the applications are theoretically designed to be places of inclusion and not exclusion, where any gay male with economic means can download an application, many profiles have been created that exclude other users. Through an examination of profiles on one such application, Jack'd, exclusion is found in the way users celebrate and reinforce ideas of traditional masculinity and denigrate and reinforce stereotypic ideas of femininity embodied by some gay men. Jack'd, and other user-generated smartphone applications, can be read as virtual neighborhoods where one is excluded based on their gender performance.

  14. Wollemi Pine: Living Fossil from Jurassic Landscape -RE ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    city of Sydney, Australia. This giant ... It is also being exploited to grow commer- cially to ... Australia. There are huge kauri pines (Agathis sps) along with. Wollemi pine seedling ... Natural History Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies.

  15. Effect of Pasak Bumi (Eurycoma longifolia Jack) Root In Precopulation Stage to the Fertility of Female Mouse (Mus musculus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Marlinza, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Pasak Bumi (Eurycoma longifolia Jack) have potency to be used to increase bodyendurance, to cure malaria drug, and to act as afrodisiak. However, the effect of pasak bumi onwomen fertility, especially at pre-copulation stage was not widely known. This research seeks toreveal the effect pasak bumi extract treated at pre-copulation phase on fertility. This experimentemploy mice (Mus Musculus L.) and was undertaken at Biology and Cemistry laboratories PMIPA, andVeterinary laboratory of Jambi Uni...

  16. Analysis of Floating Buoy of a Wave Power Generating Jack-Up Platform Haiyuan 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Date Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the performance of floating buoys of a wave power generating jack-up platform called Haiyuan 1, in order to work out the optimum designed draft and hydraulic pressure. The performance of the buoy, especially its delivered power, is an important issue in designing oscillating buoy wave energy converter. In this case, major factors affect the performance including incident wave, designed draft, and hydraulic pressure on the buoy. To find out the relationship among design draft, hydraulic pressure, and delivered power, the key point is to precisely estimate wave induced motion of the buoy. Three-dimensional theory and time domain method based on potential theory were adopted in the paper. Unlike ship and other floating structures, motion of wave energy converter (WEC buoy in wave will be weakened because of energy take-off, which will cause significant draft changing with time. Thus, draft changing should be taken into consideration as well. In addition, green water problem occurs more frequently than that in ship and other floating structures and also might the reduce delivered power. Therefore, green water problem will also be taken into account when choosing the optimum designed draft and hydraulic pressure. The calculation indicates that the optimum designed draft is 0.935 m, while the optimum designed hydraulic pressure is 30 kN.

  17. Non-reef environments impact the diversification of extant jacks, remoras and allies (Carangoidei, Percomorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frédérich, Bruno; Marramà, Giuseppe; Carnevale, Giorgio; Santini, Francesco

    2016-11-16

    Various factors may impact the processes of diversification of a clade. In the marine realm, it has been shown that coral reef environments have promoted diversification in various fish groups. With the exception of requiem sharks, all the groups showing a higher level of diversity in reefs than in non-reef habitats have diets based predominantly on plankton, algae or benthic invertebrates. Here we explore the pattern of diversification of carangoid fishes, a clade that includes numerous piscivorous species (e.g. trevallies, jacks and dolphinfishes), using time-calibrated phylogenies as well as ecological and morphological data from both extant and fossil species. The study of carangoid morphospace suggests that reef environments played a role in their early radiation during the Eocene. However, contrary to the hypothesis of a reef-association-promoting effect, we show that habitat shifts to non-reef environments have increased the rates of morphological diversification (i.e. size and body shape) in extant carangoids. Piscivory did not have a major impact on the tempo of diversification of this group. Through the ecological radiation of carangoid fishes, we demonstrate that non-reef environments may sustain and promote processes of diversification of different marine fish groups, at least those including a large proportion of piscivorous species. © 2016 The Author(s).

  18. Safe jack-up method permits repairs of tank bottoms and foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Wit, J.

    1991-01-01

    The oil and chemical industries use many thousands of steel tanks to store crude oil, oil products, and chemical liquids. The majority of these tanks are 30-40 years old. Tank bottoms are likely to begin leaking in the coming years, as these tanks get older. The European technique of jacking up a tank and repairing its foundation allows the thorough inspection of the underside of the tank bottom and the removal of saturated foundation material. And the possibility of soil and groundwater pollution is reduced to a minimum. With good, regular maintenance, the lifetime of a storage tank is very long. But experience has shown that special attention should be paid to the tank's bottom. Tank bottoms are only 5 or 6 mm thick, and in the last 10 years, an increasing number of leaks in tank bottoms have been reported. Tank foundations are affected by these leaks. This article describes the resulting procedure, which is used successfully in many European countries, but is not yet common in the U.S

  19. Anti-diabetic Activity of Tabat Barito Leafs (Ficus deltoidea, Jack Extract in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Agus Cahyanto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tabat barito (Ficus deltoidea, Jack leaf is believed could be used to treat diabetes. But more scientific data are needed. The aim of this study is to investigate  antidiabetic activity of  Tabat Barito extract by glucose tolerance method. The treatment was given in three doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg BW and two controls using aquoeus and glibenklamid.  Tabat barito extract was obtained by maceration and made into dry extract with addition of starch. The result showed that chemical compound of the ethanol extract were fenolic and saponin. The extract showed effects in lowering blood sugar levels with glucose tolerance methods at 30 to 60 minutes. Blood glucose levels of mice treated with the extract extract ranged between 132.60 to 258.00 mg/dL , glibenklamide ranged from 130.20 to 144.60 mg/dL, and aqua ranged between 227.60 to 260.20 mg/dL. The percentage decrease in blood sugar levels compared to controls is 32.54%.

  20. Development of observational learning during school formation in jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kohji; Masuda, Reiji; Yamashita, Yoh

    2014-03-01

    We assessed whether the development of observational learning in jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus juveniles corresponds with that of their schooling behaviour. Schooling behaviour was quantitatively analyzed by nearest neighbour distance and separation angle in two size classes of fish, 20-mm and 40-mm in body length. Observer and non-observer fish with matching sizes were conditioned to pellets by temporarily stopping aeration. Observer fish were provided with five observation trials of other individuals feeding near an air stone when aeration was stopped. After the observation trial, fish were conditioned to pellets with the stop of aeration, and then the learning process was evaluated by the increase in the association with the feeding area when aeration was stopped. In 20-mm fish, which were at an immature stage of schooling behaviour, there was no difference in the learning process between observer and non-observer fish. In contrast, 40-mm fish were confirmed to have a well-developed schooling behaviour, and the observer learnt the feeding area more efficiently than the non-observer. This study provides evidence that observational learning develops along with the development of the social interaction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. What to copy: the key factor of observational learning in striped jack (Pseudocaranx dentex) juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K; Masuda, R; Yamashita, Y

    2014-03-01

    Animals in social environments can enhance their learning efficiency by observing the behaviour of others. Our previous study showed that learning efficiency of schooling fish increased through the observation of the behaviour of trained demonstrator conspecifics. The present study aimed to verify the key factor of observational learning by investigating what information is important for social transmission of feeding information. A striped jack (Pseudocaranx dentex) observer was provided with one of the five observation treatments: (a) pellets observation, where pellets were dropped near the aeration in an adjacent tank; (b) responding conspecific observation, where a trained conspecific demonstrator responded to the aeration without food in the adjacent tank; (c) foraging conspecific observation, where a conspecific demonstrator foraged near the aeration in the adjacent tank; (d) nearby pellets observation, where pellets were dropped in a transparent column near the aeration in the observer tank; and (e) foraging heterospecific observation, where a filefish (Stephanolepis cirrhifer) demonstrator foraged near the aeration in the adjacent tank. The response to the aeration in these observers was compared with that of controls who did not observe any behaviour. Only individuals who observed foraging conspecifics showed a response to the aeration after observing. These results suggest that observer fish acquire feeding information not through recognition of prey items or through imitation of the demonstrator, but through the vicarious reinforcement of a conspecific for foraging.

  2. Uncaria rhynchophylla (miq) Jack plays a role in neuronal protection in kainic acid-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Nou-Ying; Liu, Chung-Hsiang; Su, Shan-Yu; Jan, Ya-Min; Hsieh, Ching-Tou; Cheng, Chin-Yi; Shyu, Woei-Cherng; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2010-01-01

    Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq) Jack (UR) is one of many Chinese herbs. Our previous studies have shown that UR has both anticonvulsive and free radical-scavenging activities in kainic acid (KA)-treated rats. The aim of the present study was to use the effect of UR on activated microglia, nitric oxide synthase, and apoptotic cells to investigate its function in neuroproction in KA-treated rats. UR of 1.0 or 0.5 g/kg was orally administered for 3 days (first day, second day, and 30 min prior to KA administration on the third day), or 10 mg/kg (intraperitoneal injection, i.p.) N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) 30 min prior to KA (2 microg/2 microl) was injected into the right hippocampus region of Sprague-Dawly rats. ED1 (mouse anti rat CD68), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) immunoreactive cells and apoptotic cells were observed in the hippocampus region. The results indicated that 1.0 g/kg, 0.5 g/kg of UR and 10 mg/kg of L-NAME reduced the counts of ED1, nNOS, iNOS immunoreactive cells and apoptotic cells in KA-treated rats. This study demonstrates that UR can reduce microglia activation, nNOS, iNOS and apoptosis, suggesting that UR plays a neuro-protective role against neuronal damage in KA-treated rats.

  3. Immune-mediated thrombocytopenia associated with angiostrongylus vasorum infection in a jack russell terrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JO'Neill Emma

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A twenty-month-old Jack Russell terrier was presented with a four-day history of thrombocytopenia, echymotic inguinal haemorrhages, coughing and reduced exercise tolerance. Clinical examination revealed several petechial haemorrhages on the gingivae and small echymotic haemorrhages in the inguinal region, along with mild bilateral epistaxis. Haematology confirmed a platelet count of 1.0 × 10/L. Thoracic radiographs revealed a wide-spread mixed alveolar-interstitial lung pattern, apparent throughout the entire lungfield, but particularly marked within the left lung lobes. A presumptive diagnosis of immune-mediated thrombocytopenia was made and the dog was treated with vincristine and immunosuppressive doses of prednisolone. Initially anaemia developed following gastrointestinal haemorrhage; however, after symptomatic treatment the dog showed a marked clinical improvement. Evaluation for an underlying cause of the disease revealed Angiostrongylus vasorum L1 larvae on faecal analysis and treatment with fenbendazole was commenced. The dog made a full clinical recovery with all treatment was withdrawn within five weeks of diagnosis. This is the second report of immune-mediated thrombocytopenia associated with Angiostrongylus vasorum infection and it is the first to be successfully managed. The report highlights that Angiostrongylus vasorum should be considered in young dogs presented with thrombocytopenia.

  4. Winter radiation extinction and reflection in a boreal pine canopy: measurements and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomeroy, J.W.; Dion, K.

    1996-01-01

    Predicting the rate of snow melt and intercepted snow sublimation in boreal forests requires an understanding of the effects of snow-covered conifers on the exchange of radiant energy. This study examined the amount of intercepted snow on a jack pine canopy in the boreal forest of central Saskatchewan and the shortwave and net radiation exchange with this canopy, to determine the effect of intercepted snow and canopy structure on shortwave radiation reflection and extinction and net radiation attenuation in a boreal forest. The study focused on clear sky conditions, which are common during winter in the continental boreal forest. Intercepted snow was found to have no influence on the clear-sky albedo of the canopy, the extinction of short wave radiation by the canopy or ratio of net radiation at the canopy top to that at the surface snow cover. Because of the low albedo of the snow-covered canopy, net radiation at the canopy top remains positive and a large potential source of energy for sublimation. The canopy albedo declines somewhat as the extinction efficiency of the underlying canopy increases. The extinction efficiency of short wave radiation in the canopy depends on solar angle because of the approximately horizontal orientation of pine branches. For low solar angles above the horizon, the extinction efficiency is quite low and short wave transmissivity through the canopy is relatively high. As the solar angle increases, extinction increases up to angles of about 50°, and then declines. Extinction of short wave radiation in the canopy strongly influences the attenuation of net radiation by the canopy. Short wave radiation that is extinguished by branches is radiated as long wave, partly downwards to the snow cover. The ratio of net radiation at the canopy top to that at the snow cover surface increases with the extinction of short wave radiation and is negative for low extinction efficiencies. For the pine canopy examined, the daily mean net radiation at

  5. Winter Radiation Extinction and Reflection in a Boreal Pine Canopy: Measurements and Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, J. W.; Dion, K.

    1996-12-01

    Predicting the rate of snowmelt and intercepted snow sublimation in boreal forests requires an understanding of the effects of snow-covered conifers on the exchange of radiant energy. This study examined the amount of intercepted snow on a jack pine canopy in the boreal forest of central Saskatchewan and the shortwave and net radiation exchange with this canopy, to determine the effect of intercepted snow and canopy structure on shortwave radiation reflection and extinction and net radiation attenuation in a boreal forest. The study focused on clear sky conditions, which are common during winter in the continental boreal forest. Intercepted snow was found to have no influence on the clear-sky albedo of the canopy, the extinction of short wave radiation by the canopy or ratio of net radiation at the canopy top to that at the surface snow cover. Because of the low albedo of the snow-covered canopy, net radiation at the canopy top remains positive and a large potential source of energy for sublimation. The canopy albedo declines somewhat as the extinction efficiency of the underlying canopy increases. The extinction efficiency of short wave radiation in the canopy depends on solar angle because of the approximately horizontal orientation of pine branches. For low solar angles above the horizon, the extinction efficiency is quite low and short wave transmissivity through the canopy is relatively high. As the solar angle increases, extinction increases up to angles of about 50̂, and then declines. Extinction of short wave radiation in the canopy strongly influences the attenuation of net radiation by the canopy. Short wave radiation that is extinguished by branches is radiated as long wave, partly downwards to the snow cover. The ratio of net radiation at the canopy top to that at the snow cover surface increases with the extinction of short wave radiation and is negative for low extinction efficiencies. For the pine canopy examined, the daily mean net radiation at the

  6. Ecosystem-based management in the lodgepole pine zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin C. Hardy; Robert E. Keane; Catherine A. Stewart

    2000-01-01

    The significant geographic extent of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) in the interior West and the large proportion within the mixed-severity fire regime has led to efforts for more ecologically based management of lodgepole pine. New research and demonstration activities are presented that may provide knowledge and techniques to manage lodgepole pine...

  7. Restoring fire in lodgepole pine forests of the Intermountain west

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin C. Hardy; Ward W. McCaughey

    1997-01-01

    We are developing new management treatments for regenerating and sustaining lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests through emulation of natural disturbance processes. Lodgepole pine is the principal forest cover on over 26 million hectares in western North America. While infrequent, stand replacing fires following mountain pine beetle outbreaks are common to the...

  8. Direct and indirect chemical defence of pine against folivorous insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mumm, R.; Hilker, M.

    2006-01-01

    The chemical defence of pine against herbivorous insects has been intensively studied with respect to its effects on the performance and behaviour of the herbivores as well as on the natural enemies of pine herbivores. The huge variety of terpenoid pine components play a major role in mediating

  9. Early longleaf pine seedling survivorship on hydric soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Cohen; Joan Walker

    2006-01-01

    We established a study to evaluate site preparation in restoring longleaf pine on poorly drained sites. Most existing longleaf pine stands occur on drier sites, and traditional approaches to restoring longleaf pine on wetter sites may rely on intensive practices that compromise the integrity of the ground layer vegetation. We applied silvicultural treatments to improve...

  10. Blister rust control in the management of western white pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth P. Davis; Virgil D. Moss

    1940-01-01

    The forest industry of the western white pine region depends on the production of white pine as a major species on about 2,670,000 acres of commercial forest land. Continued production of this species and maintenance of the forest industry at anything approaching its present level is impossible unless the white pine blister rust is controlled. Existing merchantable...

  11. Avian response to pine restoration at Peck Ranch Conservation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Clawson; Carrie Steen; Kim Houf; Terry Thompson

    2007-01-01

    Midco Pine Flats is a 2,223-acre region of Peck Ranch Conservation Area (CA) that is classified as a pine-oak plains land type association. Extensive logging in the early 1900s removed most overstory shortleaf pine allowing oak to become the primary overstory component. In 2000, Missouri Department of Conservation staff initiated a pineoak woodland restoration project...

  12. Historic forests and endemic mountain pine beetle and dwarf mistletoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose Negron

    2012-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle has always been a significant disturbance agent in ponderosa and lodgepole pine forests in Colorado. Most studies have examined the impacts to forest structure associated with epidemic populations of a single disturbance agent. In this paper we address the role of endemic populations of mountain pine and their interactions with dwarf mistletoe...

  13. Direct seeding of pitch pine in southern New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Little; C. B. Cranmer; H. A. Somes

    1958-01-01

    There is not enough pine reproduction in the woodlands of southern New Jersey. This increasingly important problem, which plagues the state's Pine Region, is especially severe where seed sources for natural regeneration are poor. In some of these areas, pulpwood cuttings have removed all pines large enough to bear many cones. In other areas, wildfires have killed...

  14. White pines, blister rust, and management in the Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. A. Conklin; M Fairweather; D Ryerson; B Geils; D Vogler

    2009-01-01

    White pines in New Mexico and Arizona are threatened by the invasive disease white pine blister rust, Cronartium ribicola. Blister rust is already causing severe damage to a large population of southwestern white pine in the Sacramento Mountains of southern New Mexico. Recent detection in northern and western New Mexico suggests that a major expansion of the...

  15. White pines, Ribes, and blister rust: integration and action

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. S. Hunt; B. W. Geils; K. E. Hummer

    2010-01-01

    The preceding articles in this series review the history, biology and management of white pine blister rust in North America, Europe and eastern Asia. In this integration, we connect and discuss seven recurring themes important for understanding and managing epidemics of Cronartium ribicola in the white pines (five-needle pines in subgenus Strobus). Information and...

  16. Natural regeneration of whitebark pine: Factors affecting seedling density

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Goeking; D. Izlar

    2014-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is an ecologically important species in high-altitude areas of the western United States and Canada due to the habitat and food source it provides for Clark’s nutcrackers, red squirrels, grizzly bears, and other animals. Whitebark pine stands have recently experienced high mortality due to wildfire, white pine blister rust, and a...

  17. Taxonomy, phylogeny, and coevolution of pines and their stem rusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. I. Millar; B. B. Kinloch

    1991-01-01

    We review and reinterpret major events in the evolution of pines and their stem rusts using information from their taxonomy, genetics, biogeography, and fossil history. Understanding of pine evolution has been significantly revised in the last 20 years. Pines appear to have evolved early in the Mesozoic and to have diversified and migrated throughout middle latitudes...

  18. Mechanized row-thinning systems in slash pine plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter C. Anderson; James E. Granskog

    1974-01-01

    Over the next decade or two, most of the 15 to 20 million acres of pine plantations in the South will become ready for a first commercial thinning. The magnitude and nature of the job is illustrated by the situation in slash pine-the most extensively planted of the southern pines.

  19. Separating Trends in Whitebark Pine Radial Growth Related to Climate and Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreaks in the Northern Rocky Mountains, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia L. van de Gevel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought and mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins outbreaks have affected millions of hectares of high-elevation conifer forests in the Northern Rocky Mountains during the past century. Little research has examined the distinction between mountain pine beetle outbreaks and climatic influence on radial growth in endangered whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm. ecosystems. We used a new method to explore divergent periods in whitebark pine radial growth after mountain pine beetle outbreaks across six sites in western Montana. We examined a 100-year history of mountain pine beetle outbreaks and climate relationships in whitebark pine radial growth to distinguish whether monthly climate variables or mountain pine outbreaks were the dominant influence on whitebark pine growth during the 20th century. High mortality of whitebark pines was caused by the overlapping effects of previous and current mountain pine beetle outbreaks and white pine blister rust infection. Wet conditions from precipitation and snowpack melt in the previous summer, current spring, and current summer benefit whitebark pine radial growth during the following growing season. Whitebark pine radial growth and climate relationships were strongest in sites less affected by the mountain pine beetle outbreaks or anthropogenic disturbances. Whitebark pine population resiliency should continue to be monitored as more common periods of drought will make whitebark pines more susceptible to mountain pine beetle attack and to white pine blister rust infection.

  20. Resilience of ponderosa and lodgepole pine forests to mountain pine beetle disturbance and limited regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Jenny S.; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Vandendriesche, Don

    2015-01-01

    After causing widespread mortality in lodgepole pine forests in North America, the mountain pine beetle (MPB) has recently also affected ponderosa pine, an alternate host species that may have different levels of resilience to this disturbance. We collected field data in ponderosa pine- and lodgepole pine-dominated forests attacked by MPB in Colorado and then simulated stand growth over 200 years using the Forest Vegetation Simulator. We compared scenarios of no disturbance with scenarios of MPB-caused mortality, both with and without regeneration. Results indicated that basal area and tree density recovered to predisturbance levels relatively rapidly (within 1‐8 decades) in both forest types. However, convergence of the disturbed conditions with simulated undisturbed conditions took longer (12‐20+ decades) and was delayed by the absence of regeneration. In MPB-affected ponderosa pine forests without regeneration, basal area did not converge with undisturbed conditions within 200 years, implying lower resilience in this ecosystem. Surface fuels accumulated rapidly in both forest types after MPB-induced mortality, remaining high for 3‐6 decades in simulations. Our results suggest that future patterns of succession, regeneration, fuel loading, climate, and disturbance interactions over long time periods should be considered in management strategies addressing MPB effects in either forest type, but particularly in ponderosa pine.

  1. FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT FOR FORESTRY BIOFUEL STATEWIDE COLLABORATION CENTER (MICHIGAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaCourt, Donna M.; Miller, Raymond O.; Shonnard, David R.

    2012-04-24

    A team composed of scientists from Michigan State University (MSU) and Michigan Technological University (MTU) assembled to better understand, document, and improve systems for using forest-based biomass feedstocks in the production of energy products within Michigan. Work was funded by a grant (DE-EE-0000280) from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and was administered by the Michigan Economic Development Corporation (MEDC). The goal of the project was to improve the forest feedstock supply infrastructure to sustainably provide woody biomass for biofuel production in Michigan over the long-term. Work was divided into four broad areas with associated objectives: • TASK A: Develop a Forest-Based Biomass Assessment for Michigan – Define forest-based feedstock inventory, availability, and the potential of forest-based feedstock to support state and federal renewable energy goals while maintaining current uses. • TASK B: Improve Harvesting, Processing and Transportation Systems – Identify and develop cost, energy, and carbon efficient harvesting, processing and transportation systems. • TASK C: Improve Forest Feedstock Productivity and Sustainability – Identify and develop sustainable feedstock production systems through the establishment and monitoring of a statewide network of field trials in forests and energy plantations. • TASK D: Engage Stakeholders – Increase understanding of forest biomass production systems for biofuels by a broad range of stakeholders. The goal and objectives of this research and development project were fulfilled with key model deliverables including: 1) The Forest Biomass Inventory System (Sub-task A1) of feedstock inventory and availability and, 2) The Supply Chain Model (Sub-task B2). Both models are vital to Michigan’s forest biomass industry and support forecasting delivered cost, as well as carbon and energy balance. All of these elements are important to facilitate investor, operational and policy decisions. All

  2. Restoring pine barrens for avian conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg Corace

    2001-01-01

    At first glance, many visitors to Michigan's Upper Peninsula (U.P.) see a fairly uniform forested region. Although northern hardwood forests comprised of sugar maple (Acer saccharum), American basswood (Tilia americana), yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) and eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) predominate, the U.P. is a fact a mosaic of forest cover types...

  3. Mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine: mortality and fire implications (Project INT-F-07-03)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer G. Klutsch; Daniel R. West; Mike A Battaglia; Sheryl L. Costello; José F. Negrón; Charles C. Rhoades; John Popp; Rick Caissie

    2013-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) has infested over 2 million acres of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) forest since an outbreak began approximately in 2000 in north central Colorado. The tree mortality from mountain pine beetle outbreaks has the potential to alter stand composition and stand...

  4. Probability of infestation and extent of mortality models for mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine forests in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Jennifer G. Klutsch

    2017-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a significant agent of tree mortality in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) forests throughout western North America. A large outbreak of mountain pine beetle caused extensive tree mortality in north-central Colorado beginning in the late 1990s. We use data from a network of plots established in...

  5. Revivification of a method for identifying longleaf pine timber and its application to southern pine relicts in southeastern Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Philip M. Sheridan; Arvind A.R. Bhuta

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) cannot be distinguished from the other southern pines based on wood anatomy alone. A method that involves measuring pith and second annual ring diameters, reported by Arthur Koehler in 1932 (The Southern Lumberman, 145: 36–37), was revisited as an option for identifying longleaf pine timbers and stumps. Cross-section...

  6. Fertilizer responses of longleaf pine trees within a loblolly pine plantation: separating direct effects from competition effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter H Anderson; Kurt H. Johnsen

    2009-01-01

    Evidence is mixed on how well longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) responds to increased soil nitrogen via fertilization. We examined growth and physiological responses of volunteer longleaf pine trees within an intensive loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) fertilization experiment. Fertilizer was applied annually following thinning at age 8 years (late 1992) at rates...

  7. The push–pull tactic for mitigation of mountain pine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) damage in lodgepole and whitebark pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy E. Gillette; Constance J. Mehmel; Sylvia R. Mori; Jeffrey N. Webster; David L. Wood; Nadir Erbilgin; Donald R. Owen

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to improve semiochemical-based treatments for protecting forest stands from bark beetle attack, we compared push-pull versus push-only tactics for protecting lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon) and whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) stands from attack by mountain pine beetle (...

  8. Development and assessment of 30-meter pine density maps for landscape-level modeling of mountain pine beetle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin A. Crabb; James A. Powell; Barbara J. Bentz

    2012-01-01

    Forecasting spatial patterns of mountain pine beetle (MPB) population success requires spatially explicit information on host pine distribution. We developed a means of producing spatially explicit datasets of pine density at 30-m resolution using existing geospatial datasets of vegetation composition and structure. Because our ultimate goal is to model MPB population...

  9. Status of white pine blister rust and seed collections in california's high-elevation white pine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Dunlap

    2011-01-01

    White pine blister rust (caused by the non-native pathogen Cronartium ribicola) reached northern California about 80 years ago. Over the years its spread southward had been primarily recorded on sugar pine. However, observations on its occurrence had also been reported in several of the higher elevation five-needled white pine species in California. Since the late...

  10. White pine blister rust resistance of 12 western white pine families at three field sites in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Sniezko; Robert Danchok; Jim Hamlin; Angelia Kegley; Sally Long; James Mayo

    2012-01-01

    Western white pine (Pinus monticola Douglas ex D. Don) is highly susceptible to the non-native, invasive pathogen Cronartium ribicola, the causative agent of white pine blister rust. The susceptibility of western white pine to blister rust has limited its use in restoration and reforestation throughout much of western North...

  11. The Scholarly Communication Process within the University Research Corridor (Michigan State University, the University of Michigan, and Wayne State University): A Case Study in Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Timothy; Holley, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    The growth of open access publishing, the development of institutional repositories, and the availability of millions of digitized monographs and journals are rapidly changing scholarly communication. This case study looks at the current and possible uses of these tools by Michigan's three largest universities: Michigan State University, the…

  12. Genomic selection in maritime pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Fikret; Bartholomé, Jérôme; Farjat, Alfredo; Chancerel, Emilie; Raffin, Annie; Sanchez, Leopoldo; Plomion, Christophe; Bouffier, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    A two-generation maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) breeding population (n=661) was genotyped using 2500 SNP markers. The extent of linkage disequilibrium and utility of genomic selection for growth and stem straightness improvement were investigated. The overall intra-chromosomal linkage disequilibrium was r(2)=0.01. Linkage disequilibrium corrected for genomic relationships derived from markers was smaller (rV(2)=0.006). Genomic BLUP, Bayesian ridge regression and Bayesian LASSO regression statistical models were used to obtain genomic estimated breeding values. Two validation methods (random sampling 50% of the population and 10% of the progeny generation as validation sets) were used with 100 replications. The average predictive ability across statistical models and validation methods was about 0.49 for stem sweep, and 0.47 and 0.43 for total height and tree diameter, respectively. The sensitivity analysis suggested that prior densities (variance explained by markers) had little or no discernible effect on posterior means (residual variance) in Bayesian prediction models. Sampling from the progeny generation for model validation increased the predictive ability of markers for tree diameter and stem sweep but not for total height. The results are promising despite low linkage disequilibrium and low marker coverage of the genome (∼1.39 markers/cM). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pinon Pine IGCC project status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higginbotham, E.B.; Lamarre, L.J.; Glazer, M.

    1993-01-01

    Sierra Pacific Power Company (SPPCo) intends to build the Pinon Pine Power Project, an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant at its Tracy Power Station near Reno, Nevada. The plant will burn approximately 800 tons of coal per day to generate electricity in a base load application. The Pinon Project was selected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for funding under Round IV of the Clean Coal Technology Program. The project will demonstrate the use of the KRW agglomerating fluidized bed gasifer operating in the air blown mode. Hot gas cleanup consisting of particulate and sulfur removal will also be demonstrated. The Cooperative Agreement between SPPCo and the DOE was executed in August 1992. Foster Wheeler USA Corporation (FWUSA) will provide engineering and construction management services. The M.W. Kellogg Company (MWK) will provide engineering of the gasifer and hot gas cleanup systems. A discussion of project progress since the 1992 Clean Coal Technology Conference, design and economic considerations, and current project status is presented

  14. Solar Decathlon 2015 - Indigo Pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blouin, Vincent [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2016-05-30

    The Solar Decathlon competition challenges students across the country to design and build a net-zero, market ready solar powered home. The bi-annual competition consists of ten contests that seek to balance the home on a scale of innovation. The ten contests were selected by to organizers to address all aspects of housing, including architecture, market appeal, engineering, communication, affordability, comfort, appliances, home life, commuting, and energy balance. Along with the criteria associated with the contests, the competition includes several design constraints that mirror those found in practical housing applications: including (but certainly not limited to) lot lines, building height, and ADA accessibility. The Solar Decathlon 2015 was held at the Orange Country Great Park in Irvine, CA. The 2015 competition was Clemson University’s first entry into the Solar Decathlon and was a notable milestone in the continued development of a home, called Indigo Pine. From the beginning, the team reconsidered the notion of sustainability as related to both the design of a home and the competition itself. The designing and building process for the home reflects a process which seamlessly moves between thinking and making to develop a comprehensive design with a method and innovations that challenge the conventions of residential construction. This report is a summary of the activities of the Clemson University team during the two-year duration of the project leading to the participation in the 2015 Solar Decathlon competition in Irvine California.

  15. Drought drove forest decline and dune building in eastern upper Michigan, USA, as the upper Great Lakes became closed basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loope, Walter L.; Loope, Henry M.; Goble, Ronald J.; Fisher, Timothy G.; Lytle, David E.; Legg, Robert J.; Wysocki, Douglas A.; Hanson, Paul R.; Young, Aaron R.

    2012-01-01

    Current models of landscape response to Holocene climate change in midcontinent North America largely reconcile Earth orbital and atmospheric climate forcing with pollen-based forest histories on the east and eolian chronologies in Great Plains grasslands on the west. However, thousands of sand dunes spread across 12,000 km2 in eastern upper Michigan (EUM), more than 500 km east of the present forest-prairie ecotone, present a challenge to such models. We use 65 optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages on quartz sand deposited in silt caps (n = 8) and dunes (n = 57) to document eolian activity in EUM. Dune building was widespread ca. 10–8 ka, indicating a sharp, sustained decline in forest cover during that period. This decline was roughly coincident with hydrologic closure of the upper Great Lakes, but temporally inconsistent with most pollen-based models that imply canopy closure throughout the Holocene. Early Holocene forest openings are rarely recognized in pollen sums from EUM because faint signatures of non-arboreal pollen are largely obscured by abundant and highly mobile pine pollen. Early Holocene spikes in nonarboreal pollen are recorded in cores from small ponds, but suggest only a modest extent of forest openings. OSL dating of dune emplacement provides a direct, spatially explicit archive of greatly diminished forest cover during a very dry climate in eastern midcontinent North America ca. 10–8 ka.

  16. Water resources of the Flint area, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiitala, Sulo Werner; Vanlier, K.E.; Krieger, Robert A.

    1964-01-01

    sand and gravel also fill some of the valleys in the bedrock surface and yield moderate to large supplies of water. Production from public supply wells tapping the drift aquifers in the area ranges from about 50 to 1,200 gpm. The water from the drift aquifer is hard or very hard and commonly contains objectionable amounts of iron.The Saginaw formation is a source of water to wells supplying some of the small communities and industries in the county. The Saginaw, which is the uppermost bedrock formation in the area, underlies most of the county. It is composed of layers of sandstone, shale, and limestone and some beds of coal. The formation is composed principally of sandstone in some areas of the county, and shale in others. Production from wells tapping the Saginaw ranges from a few to about 500 gpm. The water produced is generally moderately hard or hard and commonly contains objectionable amounts of chloride. The quality of the water limits its development for water supply. Overdrafts from the Saginaw result in a lowering of the piezometric surface and commonly cause an upward migration of water high in chloride.The Michigan and Marshall formations are generally not sources of fresh water where they are overlain by the Saginaw formation. In the southern and eastern parts of the county where they are overlain by glacial deposits, they are a source of water of good quality. The quantity of water obtainable from these formations is not fully known. However, the Marshall may be a source of large supplies of water in the southeastern part of the county.An ample supply of water is available in lakes, ponds, and streams in the metropolitan area of Flint to meet requirements for domestic, sanitary, and firefighting use in civil defense emergencies. The extent of emergency use of water from these sources would depend upon the pumping, distribution, and treatment facilities available. Enough private industrial and commercial, and public wells are present in the area normally

  17. Recent geologic development of Lake Michigan (U.S.A.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, D.L.; Cahill, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The stresses placed on Lake Michigan since the advent of industrialization require knowledge of the sedimentology of the whole lake in order to make informed decisions for environmental planning. Sediment accumulation rates are low: areas of the lake receiving the most sediment average only 1 mm a-1; deep-water basins average 0.1 to 0.5 mm a-1; and large areas are not receiving any sediment. Sediment was deposited rapidly (typically 5 mm a-1), in the form of rock flour, during the deglaciation of both Lake Michigan and Lake Superior Basins. Then the rate of accumulation decreased by 80-90% and has remained relatively constant since final deglaciation. Because active sedimentation occurs mostly in the deep water areas of the lake, the sediment remains undisturbed and contains a record of the chemical history of the lake. ?? 1983 Dr W. Junk Publishers.

  18. Impact of cooling systems on Lake Michigan fishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spigarelli, S.A.; Romberg, G.P.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of data on fish mortalities due to impingement at thermal power plant water intakes on Lake Michigan with available estimates of standing crop biomass, commercial and sport fishery catches, and estimated predation mortality is presented. The striking features of these data are the proportions of total mortality due to predation and the lack of accurate basic population statistics such as standing crop biomass and natural mortality for important forage and human food fishes in Lake Michigan. Although this preliminary assessment would indicate that power plant and total impingement losses constitute an insignificant fraction of total forage biomass, the potentially unstable forage-predator ratios and the apparent high degree of annual fluctuations (year-classes) in alewife, smelt, and perch indicate the need for a more detailed assessment of cooling-system related impact on selected populations

  19. Acid rain stimulation of Lake Michigan phytoplankton growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manny, Bruce A.; Fahnenstiel, G.L.; Gardner, W.S.

    1987-01-01

    Three laboratory experiments demonstrated that additions of rainwater to epilimnetic lake water collected in southeastern Lake Michigan stimulated chlorophyll a production more than did additions of reagent-grade water during incubations of 12 to 20 d. Chlorophyll a production did not begin until 3–5 d after the rain and lake water were mixed. The stimulation caused by additions of rain acidified to pH 3.0 was greater than that caused by additions of untreated rain (pH 4.0–4.5). Our results support the following hypotheses: (1) Acid rain stimulates the growth of phytoplankton in lake water; (2) phosphorus in rain appears to be the factor causing this stimulation. We conclude that acid rain may accelerate the growth of epilimnetic phytoplankton in Lake Michigan (and other similar lakes) during stratification when other sources of bioavailable phosphorus to the epilimnion are limited

  20. Permen dan Jelli Sebagai Produk Inovasi dari Pasak Bumi (Eurycoma longifolia Jack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatmir Edwar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pasak bumi (Eurycoma longifolia Jack merupakan salah satu jenis tumbuhan hutan tropis di Indonesia yang pemanfaatannya sebagai bahan baku dalam pembuatan obat baik yang modern maupun tradisional.  Pasak bumi mengandung senyawa erikomanon yang ampuh mengobati malaria dan senyawa kuasinoid serta alkaloid yang dapat menghambat pertumbuhan sel kanker. Pasak bumi juga mempunyai senyawa aktif flavonoid yang berfungsi untuk melindungi struktur sel, meningkatkan efektifitas vitamin C, anti inflamasi, mencegah keropos tulang, antioksidan, dan antibiotik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat produk permen dan jelli dari bagian akar, batang, daun, ranting, dan kulit pasak bumi sehingga dapat meningkatkan nilai tambah dan memudahkan akses bagi masyarakat luas untuk mendapatkan khasiat zat aktif yang dikandung tumbuhan tersebut dalam bentuk produk inovatif.  Standard produk yang dihasilkan (permen dan jelli mengacu kepada SNI 3547.1:2008 tentang kembang gula keras dan SNI No. 3547.2:2008 tentang kembang gula lunak. Berdasarkan hasil pengujian permen, semua parameter yaitu kadar air, abu, gula, sukrosa, Zn, Hg, Pb, As, Angka Lempeng Total, Coliform, Ecoli, Salmonella dan Kapang/Khamir memenuhi syarat, kecuali untuk parameter Cu dengan nilai antara 3,48–8,17% tidak memenuhi standar yang dipersyaratkan yaitu maksimal 2%. Sedangkan produk jelli sebagian besar memiliki kadar air bervariasi antara 18,20–39,45% tidak memenuhi standar  yang dipersyaratkan maksimal 20%. Hasil dari penelitian ini dapat meningkatkan nilai tambah dan nilai jual dari tumbuhan pasak bumi berupa produk permen dan jelli yang memiliki cita rasa, keunggulan dan manfaat bagi kesehatan.ABSTRAKPasak bumi (Eurycoma longifolia Jack merupakan salah satu jenis tumbuhan hutan tropis di Indonesia yang pemanfaatannya sebagai bahan baku dalam pembuatan obat baik yang modern maupun tradisional.  Pasak bumi mengandung senyawa erikomanon yang ampuh mengobati malaria dan senyawa kuasinoid serta

  1. Variations in otolith patterns, sizes and body morphometrics of jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaji, Y; Kishida, M; Watanabe, Y; Kawamura, T; Xie, S; Yamashita, Y; Sassa, C; Tsukamoto, Y

    2010-10-01

    Variations in otolith patterns, sizes and body morphometrics of jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus juveniles were investigated. Under transmitted light, translucent (W(t)) and opaque otoliths (W(o)) were detected in juveniles collected from Wakasa Bay between July 2005 and April 2006, whereas only opaque otoliths (G(o)) were detected in Goto-nada Sea individuals between May and June 2006. Three groups of juveniles were distinguished based on differences in hatch season, otolith size and growth history, and body morphometrics. As T. japonicus has different spawning seasons according to spawning grounds, each group was estimated to hatch in different waters. Juveniles with W(t) otoliths were considered to have stayed in coastal habitat longer, as the hatch area was estimated to be near Wakasa Bay. Juveniles with W(o) and G(o) otoliths appear to recruit to coastal waters at larger size, since their hatch areas were estimated to be far from each collection area. Larger otoliths of W(t) were attributed to otolith accretion after the second growth flexion, which was observed only for W(t) . Standard length of W(t) fish at the second otolith growth flexion was estimated to correspond to recruitment size to coastal rocky reefs in Wakasa Bay. Body morphometrics were correlated with otolith size after removing body size effect, suggesting that morphological variations of T. japonicus juveniles were also associated with the timing of recruitment to coastal habitat. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. Observed chlorine concentrations during Jack Rabbit I and Lyme Bay field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Steven; Chang, Joseph; Huq, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    As part of planning for a series of field experiments where large quantities (up to 20 tons) of pressurized liquefied chlorine will be released, observations from previous chlorine field experiments are analyzed to estimate the ranges of chlorine concentrations expected at various downwind distances. In five field experiment days during the summer 2010 Jack Rabbit I (JR I) field trials, up to two tons of chlorine were released and concentrations were observed at distances, x, from 25 to 500 m. In the 1927 Lyme Bay (LB) experiments, there were four days of trials, where 3-10 tons of chlorine were released in about 15 min from the back of a ship. Concentrations were sampled at LB from four ships sailing across the cloud path at downwind distances in the range from about 350 to 3000 m. Thus, the distances from which JR I concentrations were available slightly overlapped the LB distances. One-minute arc-maximum chlorine concentrations, C (g/m3), were analyzed from four JR I trials and two LB trials. Normalized concentrations (Cu/Q) were plotted versus x (m), where u (m/s) is measured wind speed at heights of 2-10 m and Q (g/s) is continuous mass release rate. It is found that the JR I and LB Cu/Q observations smoothly merge with each other and fall along a line with approximate slope of -2 at distances beyond about 200 m (i.e., Cu/Q is proportional to x-2). At x < 200 m, where dense gas effects are more important, the slope is less (about -1.5). Most of the data points are within a factor of two of the "best-fit" line.

  3. Evaluating the Feasibility of Five Candidate DNA Barcoding Loci for Philippine Lasianthus Jack (Lasiantheae: Rubiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshed, Muhammad Jefte C; Valdez, Marcos B; Alejandro, Grecebio Jonathan D

    2017-01-01

    The pantropical genus Lasianthus Jack is identified for high phenotypic plasticity making traditional taxonomic identification difficult. Having some members with important medicinal properties, a precise complimentary identification through DNA barcoding is needed for species delineation. In this study, 12 samples representing six Philippine Lasianthus species were used to determine the most efficient barcoding loci among the cpDNA markers ( mat K, rbc L, rps 16, and trn T-F) and nrDNA (ITS) based on the criteria of universality, discriminatory power, and resolution of species. The results revealed that ITS has the recommended primer universality, greatest interspecific divergences, and average resolution of species. Among the cpDNA markers, mat K and rbc L are recommended but with minimal resolution of species. While trn T-F showed moderate interspecific variations and resolution of Lasianthus species, rps 16 has the lowest interspecific divergence and resolution of species. Consequently, ITS is the potential ideal DNA barcode for Lasianthus species. ITS, mat K, and rps 16 markers have the excellent amplification and sequence qualityITS marker has the highest interspecific divergence with the maximum values, followed by mat K, rbc L, trn T-F, and rps 16, respectivelyAll markers except rps 16 yielded average resolution to Lasianthus speciesITS marker is the most ideal locus in terms of excellent universality, high interspecific discriminatory ability, and average species resolution. Abbreviations used: ITS: Internal Transcribe Spacer, mat K: maturase K, rbc L: ribulose-1,5-biphospahte-carboxylase, rps 16: ribosomal protein 16 small subunit gene.

  4. Fishery of the Green Jack Caranx caballus (Osteichytes: Carangidae in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Mair

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Green Jacks, Caranx caballus, are distributed along the Eastern Pacific coast. In Panama, C. caballus was heavily fished around Las Perlas Archipelago to sustain local markets until 2007, when the archipelago was declared a marine protected area. This first study in Panama, analyzed a sample of 4 990 individuals from Las Perlas, obtained monthly from June 2005 to June 2006, from landings at the central fish market. Average total length was 36.1±6.4cm and optimum length 38.9cm. Approximately 68% of fish lengths were within ±10% of the optimal length but only six (15% were considered mega-spawners. The von Bertalanffy parameters describe a long-lived and fast growing species, while mortality rates revealed that C. caballus is under high fishing pressure. Standard length at which half of the population is mature was 38.8cm, and the size at which individuals matured massively, 33cm. Only 10-13% of the fish were immature. C. caballus reproduces two to three times per year, with peaks in December, April, and probably September, and recruits to the population at least twice per year. Catch per unit effort (CPUE was best predicted by minimum annual values of the Multivariate ENSO/ LNSO Index (MEI (R²=0.54. Results show that C. caballus in Pacific Panama is overfished. We recommend the raising of the minimum capture/landing size of this species in order to increase the proportion of megaspawners in the population and guarantee the sustainability of this resource.

  5. 239 240Pu in Lake Michigan: 1971 to 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlgren, M.A.; Nelson, D.M.; Orlandini, K.A.; Kucera, E.T.

    1978-01-01

    The plutonium concentration data presented previously have consisted primarily of results from studies of short-term variations, i.e., the annual plutonium cycle conducted at Lake Michigan station ANL-5, 12 km SW of Grand Haven, Michigan. In this report, mean annual concentrations of total plutonium in unfiltered water from far off-shore (> 30 km) stations for the period 1971 through 1977, and from station ANL-5 (1975 through 1978) are summarized to establish the long-term trend in plutonium concentration in Lake Michigan. The results presented show that the mean annual concentration in the water column is similar at ANL-5 and at offshore stations and has decreased at the rate of only 6% per year during the period 1972 through 1978. The nearly constant concentration indicates that steady-state equilibria exist between plutonium inputs to the lake and the loss of plutonium from the water column. Observations suggest the existence of an active redox cycle for Pu in Lake Michigan. In this cycle, Pu IV atoms in solution are continually taken up by particulate materials but may be oxidized within microzones of the particles such as freshly deposited manganese coatings and also in solution by agents such as dissolved oxygen. In turn, the concentration of Pu VI in solution may be limited by reaction with reducing constituents of the coloidal-sized fraction (or decomposer organisms such as bacteria or fungi, which might have been present after filtration) and with planktonic organisms in the environment to produce Pu IV and thus maintain the cycle

  6. Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Group: The University of Michigan Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Michigan Cancer Center, Ann Arbor, MI Abstract Disclosures Abstract: Background: Cabozantinib ( Cabo ) is an inhibitor of MET and VEGFR2. MET signaling...promotes tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. Methods: mCRPC patients (pts) with progressive measurable disease (mRECIST) received Cabo at 100 mg...qd PO over a 12 week (wk) lead-in stage. Response was assessed q6 wks. Treatment ≥ wk 12 was based on response: pts with PR continued open-label Cabo

  7. Passive solar homes in Michigan's Upper Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindred, G.F. [Garfield Kindred Associates, Hancock, MI (United States)

    2001-07-01

    This paper discussed the construction and design of 3 affordable passive solar homes located in high latitudes: (1) the Kindred house located in a wooded subdivision in Hancock, Michigan; (2) the Autio house located in Laurium, Michigan; and the Mikkola house located in South Range, Michigan. The award-winning houses were part of the United States federal government's Energy Star program. The houses were constructed with common building materials in order to introduce the general public to the principles of energy-conscious passive solar design strategies and sustainable construction technologies. Super-insulation was used to retain solar heat gain in the houses. Air infiltration was minimized through the use of an airtight drywall sealing technique. Large windows were a prominent feature of the southern facades of the houses. The windows used fixed and casement low-e argon-filled insulated glazing. Average bills for the Kindred home are US$960 per year. It was concluded that passive solar design and construction strategies are now being used more often in the area as a result of the positive media coverage that the homes has received. 5 refs.

  8. Mountain pine beetle attack associated with low levels of 4-allylanisole in ponderosa pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerick, Jay J; Snyder, Aaron I; Bower, Nathan W; Snyder, Marc A

    2008-08-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is the most important insect pest in southern Rocky Mountain ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests. Tree mortality is hastened by the various fungal pathogens that are symbiotic with the beetles. The phenylpropanoid 4-allylanisole is an antifungal and semiochemical for some pine beetle species. We analyzed 4-allylanisole and monoterpene profiles in the xylem oleoresin from a total of 107 trees at six sites from two chemotypes of ponderosa pine found in Colorado and New Mexico using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Although monoterpene profiles were essentially the same in attacked and nonattacked trees, significantly lower levels of 4-allylanisole were found in attacked trees compared with trees that showed no evidence of attack for both chemotypes.

  9. Answers to questions posed by the Michigan Governor's Nuclear Waste Disposal Task Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A general presentation of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program was given on July 26, 1976, to the Michigan Environmental Review Board and the Michigan Governor's Nuclear Waste Disposal Task Force. Following the presentation, Dr. William G. Taylor, Chairman of the Task Force, provided ERDA with a listing of questions which pertained to the NWTS program and ERDA/OWI's interest in northeast Michigan. This document contains copies of the information which was provided to Dr. Taylor in response to his inquiry

  10. Environmental status of the Lake Michigan region. Volume 16. Amphibians and reptiles of the Lake Michigan drainage basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pentecost, E.D.; Vogt, R.C.

    1976-07-01

    The focus of this report is on regional distribution of the herpetofauna of the Lake Michigan Drainage Basin. The introduction includes a brief discussion of plant communities and their associated herpetofauna, and the importance of hibernacula and migration routes. Some aspects of the status, distribution, habitat, and life history of the amphibians and reptiles of the Basin are described in an annotated checklist. Special attention is given to uncommon and endangered species. Species range is shown on distribution maps.

  11. Environmental status of the Lake Michigan region. Volume 16. Amphibians and reptiles of the Lake Michigan drainage basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentecost, E.D.; Vogt, R.C.

    1976-07-01

    The focus of this report is on regional distribution of the herpetofauna of the Lake Michigan Drainage Basin. The introduction includes a brief discussion of plant communities and their associated herpetofauna, and the importance of hibernacula and migration routes. Some aspects of the status, distribution, habitat, and life history of the amphibians and reptiles of the Basin are described in an annotated checklist. Special attention is given to uncommon and endangered species. Species range is shown on distribution maps

  12. Ground-water contamination and legal controls in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Morris

    1963-01-01

    The great importance of the fresh ground-water resources of Michigan is evident because 90 percent of the rural and about 70 percent of the total population of the State exclusive of the Detroit metropolitan area are supplied from underground sources. The water-supply and public-health problems that have been caused by some cases of ground-water contamination in the State illustrate the necessity of protecting this vital resource.Manmade and natural contaminants, including many types of chemical and organic matter, have entered many of the numerous aquifers of the State. Aquifers have been contaminated by waste-laden liquids percolating from the surface or from the zone of aeration and by direct injection to the aquifer itself. Industrial and domestic wastes, septic tanks, leaking sewers, flood waters or other poor quality surface waters, mine waters, solids stored or spread at the surface, and even airborne wastes all have been sources of ground-water contamination in Michigan. In addition, naturally occurring saline waters have been induced into other aquifers by overpumping or unrestricted flow from artesian wells, possibly by dewatering operations, and by the deepening of surface stream channels. Vertical migration of saline waters through open holes from formations underlying various important aquifers also has spoiled some of the fresh ground waters in the State. In spite of the contamination that has occurred, however, the total amount of ground water that has been spoiled is only a small part of the total resource. Neither is the contamination so widespread as that of the surface streams of Michigan.Overall legal authority to control most types of ground-water contamination in the State has been assigned by the Michigan Legislature to the Water Resources Commission, although the Department of Conservation and the Health Department also exercise important water-pollution control functions. The Michigan Supreme Court, in an important case upholding the power

  13. Lake Michigan Wind Assessment Analysis, 2012 and 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R Standridge

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to address the wind energy potential over Lake Michigan to support a commercial wind farm.  Lake Michigan is an inland sea in the upper mid-western United States.  A laser wind sensor mounted on a floating platform was located at the mid-lake plateau in 2012 and about 10.5 kilometers from the eastern shoreline near Muskegon Michigan in 2013.  Range gate heights for the laser wind sensor were centered at 75, 90, 105, 125, 150, and 175 meters.  Wind speed and direction were measured once each second and aggregated into 10 minute averages.  The two sample t-test and the paired-t method were used to perform the analysis.  Average wind speed stopped increasing between 105 m and 150 m depending on location.  Thus, the collected data is inconsistent with the idea that average wind speed increases with height. This result implies that measuring wind speed at wind turbine hub height is essential as opposed to using the wind energy power law to project the wind speed from lower heights.  Average speed at the mid-lake plateau is no more that 10% greater than at the location near Muskegon.  Thus, it may be possible to harvest much of the available wind energy at a lower height and closer to the shoreline than previously thought.  At both locations, the predominate wind direction is from the south-southwest.  The ability of the laser wind sensor to measure wind speed appears to be affected by a lack of particulate matter at greater heights.   Keywords: wind assessment, Lake Michigan, LIDAR wind sensor, statistical analysis. Article History: Received June 15th 2016; Received in revised form January 16th 2017; Accepted February 2nd 2017 Available online How to Cite This Article: Standridge, C., Zeitler, D., Clark, A., Spoelma, T., Nordman, E., Boezaart, T.A., Edmonson, J.,  Howe, G., Meadows, G., Cotel, A. and Marsik, F. (2017 Lake Michigan Wind Assessment Analysis, 2012 and 2013. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development

  14. Regeneration of different plant functional types in a Masson pine forest following pine wilt disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guang; Xu, Xuehong; Wang, Yuling; Lu, Gao; Feeley, Kenneth J; Yu, Mingjian

    2012-01-01

    Pine wilt disease is a severe threat to the native pine forests in East Asia. Understanding the natural regeneration of the forests disturbed by pine wilt disease is thus critical for the conservation of biodiversity in this realm. We studied the dynamics of composition and structure within different plant functional types (PFTs) in Masson pine forests affected by pine wilt disease (PWD). Based on plant traits, all species were assigned to four PFTs: evergreen woody species (PFT1), deciduous woody species (PFT2), herbs (PFT3), and ferns (PFT4). We analyzed the changes in these PFTs during the initial disturbance period and during post-disturbance regeneration. The species richness, abundance and basal area, as well as life-stage structure of the PFTs changed differently after pine wilt disease. The direction of plant community regeneration depended on the differential response of the PFTs. PFT1, which has a higher tolerance to disturbances, became dominant during the post-disturbance regeneration, and a young evergreen-broad-leaved forest developed quickly after PWD. Results also indicated that the impacts of PWD were dampened by the feedbacks between PFTs and the microclimate, in which PFT4 played an important ecological role. In conclusion, we propose management at the functional type level instead of at the population level as a promising approach in ecological restoration and biodiversity conservation.

  15. Impact of pine needle leachates from a mountain pine beetle infested watershed on groundwater geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryhoda, M.; Sitchler, A.; Dickenson, E.

    2013-12-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB) epidemic in the northwestern United States is a recent indicator of climate change; having an impact on the lodgepole pine forest ecosystem productivity. Pine needle color can be used to predict the stage of a MPB infestation, as they change color from a healthy green, to red, to gray as the tree dies. Physical processes including precipitation and snowfall can cause leaching of pine needles in all infestation stages. Understanding the evolution of leachate chemistry through the stages of MPB infestation will allow for better prediction of the impact of MPBs on groundwater geochemistry, including a potential increase in soil metal mobilization and potential increases in disinfection byproduct precursor compounds. This study uses batch experiments to determine the leachate chemistry of pine needles from trees in four stages of MPB infestation from Summit County, CO, a watershed currently experiencing the MPB epidemic. Each stage of pine needles undergoes four subsequent leach periods in temperature-controlled DI water. The subsequent leaching method adds to the experiment by determining how leachate chemistry of each stage changes in relation to contact time with water. The leachate is analyzed for total organic carbon. Individual organic compounds present in the leachate are analyzed by UV absorption spectra, fluorescence spectrometry, high-pressure liquid chromatography for organic acid analysis, and size exclusion chromatography. Leachate chemistry results will be used to create a numerical model simulating reactions of the leachate with soil as it flows through to groundwater during precipitation and snowfall events.

  16. Seedling regeneration on decayed pine logs after the deforestation events caused by pine wilt disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fukasawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Coarse woody debris (CWD forms an important habitat suitable for tree seedling establishment, and the CWD decay process influences tree seedling community. In Japan, a severe dieback of Pinus densiflora Sieb. & Zucc. caused by pine wilt disease (PWD damaged huge areas of pine stands but creates huge mass of pine CWD. It is important to know the factors influencing seedling colonization on pine CWD and their variations among geographical gradient in Japan to expect forest regeneration in post-PWD stands. I conducted field surveys on the effects of latitude, climates, light condition, decay type of pine logs, and log diameter on tree seedling colonization at ten geographically distinct sites in Japan. In total, 59 tree taxa were recorded as seedlings on pine logs. Among them, 13 species were recorded from more than five sites as adult trees or seedlings and were used for the analyses. A generalized linear model showed that seedling colonization of Pinus densiflora was negatively associated with brown rot in sapwood, while that of Rhus trichocarpa was positively associated with brown rot in heartwood. Regeneration of Ilex macropoda had no relationships with wood decay type but negatively associated with latitude and MAT, while positively with log diameter. These results suggested that wood decay type is a strong determinant of seedling establishment for certain tree species, even at a wide geographical scale; however, the effect is tree species specific.

  17. 76 FR 56635 - Tuberculosis in Cattle and Bison; State and Zone Designations; Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... second zone, which is classified as modified accredited, comprises Alcona, Alpena, Montmorency, Oscoda...) A zone in Michigan that comprises Alcona, Alpena, Montmorency, and Oscoda Counties. * * * * * [[Page...

  18. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics and Reproductive Success in Post-Fire Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northeastern Utah.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Lerch

    Full Text Available Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae, but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug. and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined how the degree and type of fire injury influenced beetle attacks, brood production, and subsequent tree mortality, and related these to beetle population changes over time. Mountain pine beetle population levels were high the first two post-fire years in lodgepole pine, and then declined. In ponderosa pine, populations declined each year after initial post-fire sampling. Compared to trees with strip or failed attacks, mass attacks occurred on trees with greater fire injury, in both species. Overall, a higher degree of damage to crowns and boles was associated with higher attack rates in ponderosa pines, but additional injury was more likely to decrease attack rates in lodgepole pines. In lodgepole pine, attacks were initially concentrated on fire-injured trees, but during subsequent years beetles attacked substantial numbers of uninjured trees. In ponderosa pine, attacks were primarily on injured trees each year, although these stands were more heavily burned and had few uninjured trees. In total, 46% of all lodgepole and 56% of ponderosa pines underwent some degree of attack. Adult brood emergence within caged bole sections decreased with increasing bole char in lodgepole pine but increased in ponderosa pine, however these relationships did not scale to whole trees. Mountain pine beetle populations in both tree species four years post-fire were substantially lower than the year after fire, and wildfire did not result in population outbreaks.

  19. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics and Reproductive Success in Post-Fire Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northeastern Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Andrew P; Pfammatter, Jesse A; Bentz, Barbara J; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2016-01-01

    Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae), but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug.) and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law) pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined how the degree and type of fire injury influenced beetle attacks, brood production, and subsequent tree mortality, and related these to beetle population changes over time. Mountain pine beetle population levels were high the first two post-fire years in lodgepole pine, and then declined. In ponderosa pine, populations declined each year after initial post-fire sampling. Compared to trees with strip or failed attacks, mass attacks occurred on trees with greater fire injury, in both species. Overall, a higher degree of damage to crowns and boles was associated with higher attack rates in ponderosa pines, but additional injury was more likely to decrease attack rates in lodgepole pines. In lodgepole pine, attacks were initially concentrated on fire-injured trees, but during subsequent years beetles attacked substantial numbers of uninjured trees. In ponderosa pine, attacks were primarily on injured trees each year, although these stands were more heavily burned and had few uninjured trees. In total, 46% of all lodgepole and 56% of ponderosa pines underwent some degree of attack. Adult brood emergence within caged bole sections decreased with increasing bole char in lodgepole pine but increased in ponderosa pine, however these relationships did not scale to whole trees. Mountain pine beetle populations in both tree species four years post-fire were substantially lower than the year after fire, and wildfire did not result in population outbreaks.

  20. Caledonian scots pine: origins and genetic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohun B Kinloch; R. D. Westfall; G. I. Forrest

    1986-01-01

    Monoterpene and isozyme loci, used as markers to study the genetic structure of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) native to Scotland, showed that the endemic populations are not genetically impoverished, in spite of severe contraction in range and numbers as a result of both natural and anthropogenic causes. On the contrary, variability in the relict...

  1. Producing high-quality slash pine seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Barnett; Sue Varela

    2003-01-01

    Slash pine is a desirable species. It serves many purposes and is well adapted to poorly drained flatwoods and seasonally flooded areas along the lower Coastal Plain of the Southeastern US. The use of high-quality seeds has been shown to produce uniform seedlings for outplanting, which is key to silvicultural success along the Coastal Plain and elsewhere. We present...

  2. Insects associated with ponderosa pine in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Stevens; J. Wayne Brewer; David A. Leatherman

    1980-01-01

    Ponderosa pine serves as a host for a wide variety of insects. Many of these, including all the particularly destructive ones in Colorado, are discussed in this report. Included are a key to the major insect groups, an annotated list of the major groups, a glossary, and a list of references.

  3. Esthetic considerations in management of shortleaf pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Stignani

    1986-01-01

    Application of esthetic concerns in the management of shortleaf pine or any species should be predicated on a systematic approach. Many mitigation techniques are available, but those selected will need to be carefully tailored to the specific situation and to the unique characteristics of plant communities and landforms involved. Some additional costs should be...

  4. Limber pine health in the Canadian Rockies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyndi M. Smith; David Langor; Colin Myrholm; Jim Weber; Cameron Gillies; Jon Stuart-Smith

    2011-01-01

    Limber pine (Pinus flexilis) reaches the northern limit of its range at about 52 degrees latitude in Alberta (AB) and 51 degrees latitude in British Columbia (BC). Most populations are found on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains, with a few disjunct populations west of the Continental Divide in southeastern BC.

  5. Comparing Planting Tools for Container Longleaf Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Leduc; James D. Haywood; Shi-Jean Susana Sung

    2011-01-01

    We examined if compressing the soil to make a planting hole with a custom-built, solid round dibble versus coring the soil with a commercially available tube dibble influenced container-grown longleaf pine seedling development differently. Seven teen months after planting, the planting tool did not significantly affect root collar diameter, shoot or root mass, root-to-...

  6. Direct-seedling pines in the south

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold J. Derr; William F. Mann

    1971-01-01

    Direct seeding of the southern pines is a versatile reforestation technique that is being widely accepted by land managers. On many sites it is more economical than planting nursery-grown seedlings or waiting for natural reproduction. It is applicable on some sites where access, terrain, or drainage conditions make planting difficult. Commercial trials have proved it...

  7. Economic Impacts of the Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Pye; Thomas P. Holmes; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David N. Wear

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the timber economic impacts of the southern pine beetle (SPB). Although we anticipate that SPB outbreaks cause substantial economic losses to households that consume the nonmarket economic services provided by healthy forests, we have narrowly focused our attention here on changes in values to timber growers and wood-products...

  8. Sugar pine management—an annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Averell; John C. Crowell; Clarence R. Quick; Gilbert H. Schubert

    1955-01-01

    The purposes of this bibliography are to enumerate and describe publications that have a bearing on the growing of sugar pine for timber production. It is intended primarily for the information of forest managers, and it includes mainly those articles which appeared to pertain rather directly to management. Although a careful search was made for titles, no claim is...

  9. Regional vegetation management standards for commercial pine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the understanding gained from these trials allowed for the development of vegetation management standards, their operational and economic viability need to be tested on a commercial basis. Four pine trials were thus initiated to test the applicability of these standards when utilised on a commercial scale. Two of ...

  10. What's known about managing eastern white pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Lockard

    1959-01-01

    At the 1957 meeting of the Northeastern Forest Research Advisory Council the comment was made that although Eastern white pine has been the most studied forest tree species in the Northeast, the only literature on the management of the species was in reports on isolated and uncoordinated studies. There was no comprehensive compendium of knowledge.

  11. Electromagnetic treatment of loblolly pine seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J. P. [Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA (United States); Krugman, S. L.

    1989-11-15

    Loblolly pine (Pinus faeda L.) seeds were exposed to an electromagnetic radiation treatment (Energy Transfer Process@, marketed by the Energy Transfer Corporation), and the effects of the treatments on seed germination, seedling development, disease resistance, and field performance of seedlings were evaluated. None of the evaluated variables showed any improvement over untreated controls.

  12. Anatomical characteristics of southern pine stemwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaine T. Howard; Floyd G. Manwiller

    1968-01-01

    To obtain a definitive description of the wood and anatomy of all 10 species of southern pine, juvenile, intermediate, and mature wood was sampled at three heights in one tree of each species and examined under a light microscope. Photographs and three-dimensional drawings were made to illustrate the morphology. No significant anatomical differences were found...

  13. Cone and Seed Maturation of Southern Pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Barnett

    1976-01-01

    If slightly reduced yields and viability are acceptable, loblolly and slash cone collections can begin 2 to 3 weeks before maturity if the cones are stored before processing. Longleaf(P. palestris Mill.) pine cones should be collected only when mature, as storage decreased germination of seeds from immature cones. Biochemical analyses to determine reducing sugar...

  14. Hydraulic adjustment of Scots pine across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Vilalta, J.; Cochard, H.; Mencuccini, M.; Sterck, F.J.; Herrero, A.; Korhonen, J.F.J.; Llorens, P.; Nikinmaa, E.; Nolè, A.; Poyatos, R.; Ripullone, F.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Zweifel, R.

    2009-01-01

    The variability of branch-level hydraulic properties was assessed across 12 Scots pine populations covering a wide range of environmental conditions, including some of the southernmost populations of the species. The aims were to relate this variability to differences in climate, and to study the

  15. Carbon sequestration and natural longleaf pine ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram Thapa; Dean Gjerstad; John Kush; Bruce Zutter

    2010-01-01

    The Southeastern United States was once dominated by a longleaf pine ecosystem which ranged from Virginia to Texas and covered approximately 22 to 36 million ha. The unique fire tolerant species provided the necessary habitat for numerous plant and animal species. Different seasons of prescribed fire have various results on the ecosystem and the carbon which is stored...

  16. Silvical characteristics of pitch pine (Pinus rigida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Little

    1959-01-01

    Pitch pine (Pinus rigida Mill.) grows over a wide geographical range - from central Maine to New York and extreme southeastern Ontario, south to Virginia and southern Ohio, and in the mountains to eastern Tennessee, northern Georgia, and western South Carolina. Because it grows mostly on the poorer soils, its distribution is spotty.

  17. Facile synthesis of highly branched jacks-like ZnO nanorods and their applications in dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudhagar, P. [Center for Next Generation Dye-sensitized Solar Cells, WCU Program Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul- 133 791 (Korea, Republic of); Kumar, R. Saravana [R and D Department of Physics, Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Coimbatore 641 029, Tamilnadu (India); Jung, June Hyuk; Cho, Woohyung [Center for Next Generation Dye-sensitized Solar Cells, WCU Program Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul- 133 791 (Korea, Republic of); Sathyamoorthy, R. [R and D Department of Physics, Kongunadu Arts and Science College, Coimbatore 641 029, Tamilnadu (India); Won, Jongok [Department of Chemistry, Sejong University, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Yong Soo, E-mail: kangys@hanyang.ac.kr [Center for Next Generation Dye-sensitized Solar Cells, WCU Program Department of Energy Engineering, Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul- 133 791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Graphical abstract: -- Abstract: Highly branched, jacks-like ZnO nanorods architecture were explored as a photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells, and their photovoltaic performance was compared with that of branch-free ZnO nanorods photoanodes. The highly branched network and large pores of the jacks-like ZnO nanorods electrodes enhances the charge transport, and electrolyte penetration. Thus, the jacks-like ZnO nanorods DSSCs render a higher conversion efficiency of {eta} = 1.82% (V{sub oc} = 0.59 V, J{sub sc} = 5.52 mA cm{sup -2}) than that of the branch-free ZnO nanorods electrodes ({eta} = 1.08%, V{sub oc} = 0.49 V, J{sub sc} = 4.02 mA cm{sup -2}). The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency measurements reveal that the jacks-like ZnO nanorods DSSCs exhibit higher internal quantum efficiency ({approx}59.1%) than do the branch-free ZnO nanorods DSSC ({approx}52.5%). The charge transfer resistances at the ZnO/dye/electrolyte interfaces investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that the jacks-like ZnO nanorods DSSC had high charge transfer resistance and a slightly longer electron lifetime, thus improving the solar-cell performance.

  18. Facile synthesis of highly branched jacks-like ZnO nanorods and their applications in dye-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudhagar, P.; Kumar, R. Saravana; Jung, June Hyuk; Cho, Woohyung; Sathyamoorthy, R.; Won, Jongok; Kang, Yong Soo

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Abstract: Highly branched, jacks-like ZnO nanorods architecture were explored as a photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cells, and their photovoltaic performance was compared with that of branch-free ZnO nanorods photoanodes. The highly branched network and large pores of the jacks-like ZnO nanorods electrodes enhances the charge transport, and electrolyte penetration. Thus, the jacks-like ZnO nanorods DSSCs render a higher conversion efficiency of η = 1.82% (V oc = 0.59 V, J sc = 5.52 mA cm -2 ) than that of the branch-free ZnO nanorods electrodes (η = 1.08%, V oc = 0.49 V, J sc = 4.02 mA cm -2 ). The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency measurements reveal that the jacks-like ZnO nanorods DSSCs exhibit higher internal quantum efficiency (∼59.1%) than do the branch-free ZnO nanorods DSSC (∼52.5%). The charge transfer resistances at the ZnO/dye/electrolyte interfaces investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that the jacks-like ZnO nanorods DSSC had high charge transfer resistance and a slightly longer electron lifetime, thus improving the solar-cell performance.

  19. Analýza image produktu Jack Daniel´s Tennessee Fire na českém trhu

    OpenAIRE

    Papoušek, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    This Diploma Thesis focuses on a new alcoholic product in the Czech Republic - Jack Daniel's Tennessee Fire. It examines its popularity amongst consumers, its relation to other products in the range of the brand and to the main competitors of the other brands. For better interpretation of the results there is a questionnaire research. The aim of this work is the image analysis of this product in the Czech market and to offer potential recommendations for the brand in the future which come out...

  20. Chemical composition of the leaf essential oils of Murraya koenigii (L. Spreng and Murraya paniculata (L. Jack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasim Uddin Chowdhury

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the leaf oils of Murraya koenigii (L. Spreng and M. paniculata (L. Jack from Bangladesh was studied by gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. M. koenigii oil contained 39 compounds of which the major is 3-carene (54.2% followed by caryophyllene (9.5%. Oil of M. paniculata contained 58 compounds of which the major are caryophyllene oxide (16.6%, b-caryophyllene (11.8%, spathulenol (10.2%, b-elemene (8.9%, germacrene D (6.9% and cyclooctene, 4-methylene-6-(1-propenylidene (6.4%. The compositions of both oils varied qualitatively and quantitatively.

  1. Neoarchean metamorphism recorded in high-precision Sm-Nd isotope systematics of garnets from the Jack Hills (Western Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, K. A.; Baxter, E. F.; Mojzsis, S. J.; Marschall, H.; Williams, M. L.; Jercinovic, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Studies of metasedimentary rocks from the Jack Hills, which host Earth's oldest known detrital minerals, have focused on zircon and occasionally monazite or xenotime, but no attention has been directed toward one of the most common mineral markers of metamorphism: garnet. Garnet can provide a record of the post-depositional, prograde metamorphic history of Archean metasedimentary rocks. Additionally, the use of a newly developed detrital garnet dating technique [1,2] may reveal information about pre-depositional metamorphism that could address lingering questions about the nature and timing of Earth's earliest tectonometamorphic events. Here we investigate garnet from the Jack Hills metasedimentary rocks to test whether they record in situ metamorphism or are a detrital relict of even older metamorphic events. We identified garnet in two bulk quartz-pebble conglomerate samples collected from the 'discovery' outcrop at Eranondoo Hill in the Jack Hills of Western Australia. Electron microprobe analyses of polished grains and SEM measurements of unpolished grain surfaces are consistent, revealing garnet composition indicative of a single generation/population of predominantly almandine-spessartine solid solution (~10-35% mole fraction spessartine). Compositional maps of garnet grains reveal little zoning and no discontinuities, most consistent with a single growth event. Dating Jack Hills' garnet via the Sm-Nd system is possible due to continued development of small sample analysis techniques, including running NdO+ TIMS analyses with Ta2O5 activator [3] permitting Ma for two point isochrons between clean garnet (Sm/Nd ≥ 1.0) and their leached inclusion populations [2]. Four grouped garnet grain separates from one sample yield preliminary dates of 2703.6×6.0Ma, 2612.4×6.0Ma, 2605.0×5.5Ma, and 2567.3×8.3Ma, while the second sample yielded a date of 2579.6×4.6 Ma (2σ). Compositional and geochronologic data indicate likely in situ garnet growth during a late

  2. Characterization of inclusions in terrestrial impact formed zircon: Constraining the formation conditions of Hadean zircon from Jack Hills, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faltys, J. P.; Wielicki, M. M.; Sizemore, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the discovery and subsequent geochemical analysis of Hadean terrestrial material (e.g. detrital zircon from Jack Hills, Western Australia), a dramatic paradigm shift has occurred in the hypothesized near surface conditions of the first 500 million years of Earth's evolution. From a hellish setting riddled with impactors and not fit for life to a much milder environment that may have been uniquely suitable for the origin of life. Geochemical analyses of these ancient materials have been used to suggest the presence of water at or near the surface as well as the existence of continental crust during the Hadean, both of which have been suggested as necessary for the origin of life. However, the intensity of extraterrestrial bombardment during the Hadean and the effects of such events on the origin of life remains poorly understood. Clearly, as evidenced by Phanerozoic impact events, extraterrestrial impactors have the potential to dramatically effect the environment, particularly the biosphere. Early Earth likely experienced multiple large impact events, as evidenced by the lunar record, however whether those impacts were sufficient to frustrate the origin of life remains an open question. Although multiple lines of evidence, including the inclusion population, suggest the formation of Hadean zircon from Jack Hills as crystallizing in an under-thrust environment from S-type magmas, a recent study has suggested their formation in an impact melt environment analogous to a portion of the Sudbury Igneous Complex at the Sudbury impact structure. To determine between these two formation scenarios we have under-taken an inclusion study of terrestrial impact formed zircon from four of the largest terrestrial impact structures (Sudbury, Canada; Manicouagan, Canada; Vredefort, South Africa; Morokweng, South Africa), to compare to the vast inclusion dataset that exists for Jack Hills zircon. Preliminary data suggests a different inclusion population, from Hadean zircon

  3. Debris flow from 2012 failure of moraine-dammed lake, Three Fingered Jack volcano, Mount Jefferson Wilderness, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, David R.; Wills, Barton B.

    2014-01-01

    In the late spring or early summer of 2012, a flood emanated from a small moraine-dammed lake on the northeast flank of Three Fingered Jack in the Mount Jefferson Wilderness. Channel erosion or slope collapse breached the natural dam of the lake, leading to a sudden lowering of lake level by 2.8 m and discharge of 12,700 cubic meters (m3) of water. The resulting debris flow formed a bouldery deposit extending about 0.35 km downslope.

  4. Was Jack the Ripper a Slaughterman? Human-Animal Violence and the World’s Most Infamous Serial Killer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Andrew; Watson, Katherine D.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary The identity of Jack the Ripper remains one of the greatest unsolved crime mysteries in history. Jack was notorious both for the brutality of his murders and also for his habit of stealing organs from his victims. His speed and skill in doing so, in conditions of poor light and haste, fueled theories he was a surgeon. However, re-examination of a mortuary sketch from one of his victims has revealed several key aspects that strongly suggest he had no professional surgical training. Instead, the technique used was more consistent with that of a slaughterhouse worker. There were many small-scale slaughterhouses in East London in the 1880s, within which conditions were harsh for animals and workers alike. The brutalizing effects of such work only add to concerns highlighted by modern research that those who commit violence on animals are more likely to target people. Modern slaughterhouses are more humane in some ways but more desensitizing in others, and sociological research has indicated that communities with slaughterhouses are more likely to experience the most violent of crimes. The implications for modern animal slaughtering, and our social reliance on slaughterhouses, are explored. Abstract Hundreds of theories exist concerning the identity of “Jack the Ripper”. His propensity for anatomical dissection with a knife—and in particular the rapid location and removal of specific organs—led some to speculate that he must have been surgically trained. However, re-examination of a mortuary sketch of one of his victims has revealed several aspects of incisional technique highly inconsistent with professional surgical training. Related discrepancies are also apparent in the language used within the only letter from Jack considered to be probably authentic. The techniques he used to dispatch his victims and retrieve their organs were, however, highly consistent with techniques used within the slaughterhouses of the day. East London in the 1880s had

  5. Heritability and complex segregation analysis of deafness in Jack Russell Terriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strain George M

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between patterns of pigmentation and deafness in the dog has a long-documented history, with reports dating back over one hundred years. Long suspected of having a genetic basis, the search for loci with a pronounced influence in the expression of hearing loss in the dog has yet to be successful. No studies in the dog to date have found a possible influence of a specific colour locus associated with deafness. The present study is intended to evaluate the heritability of deafness in the Jack Russell Terrier (JRT, characterize the mode of inheritance, and evaluate the existence of a sex, coat colour, or coat texture influence on the expression of sensorineural deafness. Results The estimation of heritability of deafness in the JRT was 0.22 when deafness was considered a binary (normal/deaf trait and 0.31 when deafness was considered a three-category (normal/unilateral/bilateral deafness. The influence of coat colour in the incidence of JRT deafness was statistically significant, indicating that dogs with more white are more likely to be deaf. The influence of sex or coat texture was not statistically significant in the incidence of JRT deafness. Complex segregation analysis revealed a model of a single locus with a large effect on the binary measure of hearing loss is not supported. Conclusion This is the first attempt, to our knowledge, to characterize a genetic component responsible for deafness in the JRT. The heritability of deafness in the JRT was found to be 0.22 and 0.31 considering deafness to be a two-category or three-category trait, respectively. There appears to be an influence of coat colour on the expression of deafness. In an attempt to characterize the mode of inheritance of deafness in the JRT, a model of a single locus with a large effect on hearing loss is not supported with this data. Further study is needed to determine if a single locus may be influencing deafness in the JRT. While the

  6. Hydraulic Shearing and Hydraulic Jacking Observed during Hydraulic Stimulations in Fractured Geothermal Reservoir in Pohang, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, K. B.; Park, S.; Xie, L.; Kim, K. I.; Yoo, H.; Kim, K. Y.; Choi, J.; Yoon, K. S.; Yoon, W. S.; Lee, T. J.; Song, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) relies on sufficient and irreversible enhancement of reservoir permeability through hydraulic stimulation and possibility of such desirable change of permeability is an open question that can undermine the universality of EGS concept. We report results of first hydraulic stimulation campaign conducted in two deep boreholes in fractured granodiorite geothermal reservoir in Pohang, Korea. Borehole PX-1, located at 4.22 km, was subjected to the injection of 3,907 m3 with flow rate of up to 18 kg/s followed by bleeding off of 1,207 m3. The borehole PX-2, located at 4.35 km, was subjected to the injection of 1,970 m3 with flow rate of up to 46 kg/sIn PX-1, a sharp distinct decline of wellhead pressure was observed at around 16 MPa of wellhead pressure which was similar to the predicted injection pressure to induce hydraulic shearing. Injectivity interpretation before and after the hydraulic shearing indicates that permanent increase of permeability was achieved by a factor of a few. In PX-2, however, injectivity was very small and hydraulic shearing was not observed due possibly to the near wellbore damage made by the remedying process of lost circulation such as using lost circulation material during drilling. Flow rate of larger than 40 kg/s was achieved at very high well head pressure of nearly 90 MPa. Hydraulic jacking, that is reversible opening and closure of fracture with change of injection pressure, was clearly observed. Although sharp increase of permeability due to fracture opening was achieved with elevated injection pressure, the increased permeability was reversed with decreased injection pressure.Two contrasting response observed in the same reservoir at two different boreholes which is apart only 600 m apart provide important implication that can be used for the stimulation strategy for EGS.This work was supported by the New and Renewable Energy Technology Development Program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology

  7. Paleomagnetism and Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility study of the Miocene Jack Springs Tuff (Nevada, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, S.; Petronis, M. S.; Pluhar, C. J.; Gordon, L.

    2014-12-01

    The mid-Miocene Jack Springs Tuff (JST) outcrops across the western Mina Deflection accommodation zone, west-central Nevada and into eastern California. Previously, the source location for the JST was unknown, yet recent studies northwest of Mono Lake, CA have identified a relatively un-rotated structural block in which to reference the paleomagnetic data. Although new studies have indicated that this block may be rotated up to 13º, we argue that the probable source area is located near the Bodie Hills, CA. At this site, the paleomagnetic reference direction is D = 353°, I = 43°, α95 = 7.7° (Carlson et al, 2013). Based on these data, the JST can be used to measure absolute vertical-axis rotation as well as enable reconstruction of the paleo-topography using the corrected anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data. A total of 19 sites were sampled to constrain Cenozoic to recent vertical axis rotation within the region and AMS experiments were conducted to determine the flow direction of the JST. Curie point estimates indicate that the JST ranges in titanium concentration from 0.042 to 1.10, indicating a low to moderate titanomagnetite phase (Akimoto, 1962). Demagnetization experiments reveal mean destructive fields of the NRM ranging between 15mT and 40mT suggesting that both multi-domain to pseudo-single domain grains are the dominant ferromagnetic phases that carry the remanence and AMS fabric. Preliminary paleomagnetic data yield stable single component demagnetization behavior for most sites that, after structural correction, indicate clockwise vertical axis rotation ranging from +20°± 10° to +60°± 11° between multiple fault blocks. The uncorrected AMS data yield oblate magnetic fabrics that can be used to infer the transport direction, source region, and paleovalley geometry of the JST. These data are tentatively interpreted to indicate west to east transport of the JST across the Mono Basin region into the Mina Deflection that was erupted and

  8. Epiberberine, a natural protoberberine alkaloid, inhibits urease of Helicobacter pylori and jack bean: Susceptibility and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lihua; Li, Cailan; Chen, Hanbin; Mo, Zhizhun; Zhou, Jiangtao; Liu, Yuhong; Ma, Zhilin; Xu, Yuyao; Yang, Xiaobo; Xie, Jianhui; Su, Ziren

    2017-12-15

    In our previous study, Rhizoma Coptidis extract was found to exert more potent inhibitory effect than its major component berberine towards urease from Helicobacter pylori (HPU) and jack bean (JBU). In continuation of our work, the present study was designed to further comparatively investigate the urease inhibitory activities of five major protoberberine alkaloids in Rhizoma Coptidis, namely berberine, palmatine, coptisine, epiberberine, jateorhizine to identify the bioactive constituent, and illuminate the potential mechanism of action. Results indicated that the five protoberberine alkaloids acted as concentration-dependent inactivators of urease with IC 50 values ranging between 3.0 and 5087μM for HPU and 2.3->10,000μM for JBU, respectively. Notably, epiberberine (EB) was found to be the most potent inhibitor against both ureases with IC 50 values of 3.0±0.01μM for HPU and 2.3±0.01μM for JBU, which was more effective than the standard urease inhibitor, acetohydroxamic acid (83±0.01μM for HPU and 22±0.01μM for JBU, respectively). Further kinetic analysis revealed that the type of EB inhibition against HPU was slow-binding and uncompetitive, with K i of 10.6±0.01μM, while slow-binding and competitive against JBU with K i of 4.6±0.01μM. Addition of thiol reagents, such as l-cysteine, glutathione and dithiothreitol, significantly abolished the inhibition, while Ni 2+ competitive inhibitors, boric acid and sodium fluoride, synergetically inhibited urease with EB, indicating the obligatory role of the active site sulfhydryl group for the inhibition. In addition, binding of EB with the urease proved to be reversible, as about 65% and 90% enzymatic activity of HPU and JBU, respectively, could be restored by dithiothreitol application. These findings highlighted the potential role of Rhizoma Coptidis protoberberine alkaloids, especially EB, as a lead urease inhibitor in the treatment of diseases associated with ureolytic bacteria. Thus, EB had good

  9. Pine Gene Discovery Project - Final Report - 08/31/1997 - 02/28/2001; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whetten, R. W.; Sederoff, R. R.; Kinlaw, C.; Retzel, E.

    2001-01-01

    Integration of pines into the large scope of plant biology research depends on study of pines in parallel with study of annual plants, and on availability of research materials from pine to plant biologists interested in comparing pine with annual plant systems. The objectives of the Pine Gene Discovery Project were to obtain 10,000 partial DNA sequences of genes expressed in loblolly pine, to determine which of those pine genes were similar to known genes from other organisms, and to make the DNA sequences and isolated pine genes available to plant researchers to stimulate integration of pines into the wider scope of plant biology research. Those objectives have been completed, and the results are available to the public. Requests for pine genes have been received from a number of laboratories that would otherwise not have included pine in their research, indicating that progress is being made toward the goal of integrating pine research into the larger molecular biology research community

  10. Sapwood Stored Resources Decline in Whitebark and Lodgepole Pines Attacked by Mountain Pine Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahr, Eleanor C; Sala, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Recent outbreaks of forest insects have been directly linked to climate change-induced warming and drought, but effects of tree stored resources on insects have received less attention. We asked whether tree stored resources changed following mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) attack and whether they affected beetle development. We compared initial concentrations of stored resources in the sapwood of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelmann) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex. Louden) with resource concentrations one year later, in trees that were naturally attacked by beetles and trees that remained unattacked. Beetles did not select host trees based on sapwood resources-there were no consistent a priori differences between attacked versus unattacked trees-but concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC), lipids, and phosphorus declined in attacked trees, relative to initial concentrations and unattacked trees. Whitebark pine experienced greater resource declines than lodgepole pine; however, sapwood resources were not correlated with beetle success in either species. Experimental manipulation confirmed that the negative effect of beetles on sapwood and phloem NSC was not due to girdling. Instead, changes in sapwood resources were related to the percentage of sapwood with fungal blue-stain. Overall, mountain pine beetle attack affected sapwood resources, but sapwood resources did not contribute directly to beetle success; instead, sapwood resources may support colonization by beetle-vectored fungi that potentially accelerate tree mortality. Closer attention to stored resource dynamics will improve our understanding of the interaction between mountain pine beetles, fungi, and host trees, an issue that is relevant to our understanding of insect range expansion under climate change. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  11. Drought stress leads to systemic induced susceptibility to a nectrotrophic fungus associated with mountain pine beetle in Pinus banksiana seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klutsch, Jennifer G; Shamoun, Simon Francis; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2017-01-01

    Conifers have complex defense responses to initial attacks by insects and pathogens that can have cascading effects on success of subsequent colonizers. However, drought can affect a plant's ability to respond to biotic agents by potentially altering the resources needed for the energetically costly production of induced defense chemicals. We investigated the impact of reduced water on induced chemical defenses of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) seedlings from initial attack by biotic agents and resistance to subsequent challenge inoculation with a pathogenic fungal associate of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), Grosmannia clavigera. Applications of phytohormones (methyl salicylate and methyl jasmonate) and G. clavigera were used for initial induction of defenses. Monoterpene concentrations varied with initial induction from fungal and phytohormone application while watering treatment had no effect. Seedlings treated with G. clavigera and methyl jasmonate had the greatest monoterpene concentrations compared to the control and methyl salicylate-treated seedlings. However, the monoterpene response to the challenge inoculation varied with watering treatments, not with prior induction treatments, with lower monoterpene concentrations in fungal lesions on seedlings in the low to moderate watering treatments compared to normal watering treatment. Furthermore, prior induction from phytohormones resulted in systemic cross-induction of resistance to G. clavigera under normal watering treatment but susceptibility under low watering treatment. Seedlings stressed by low water conditions, which also had lower stomatal conductance than seedlings in the normal watering treatment, likely allocated resources to initial defense response but were left unable to acquire further resources for subsequent responses. Our results demonstrate that drought can affect interactions among tree-infesting organisms through systemic cross-induction of susceptibility.

  12. First report of the white pine blister rust fungus, Cronartium ribicola, infecting Pinus flexilis on Pine Mountain, Humboldt National Forest, Elko County, northeastern Nevada, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detlev R. Vogler; Patricia E. Maloney; Tom Burt; Jacob W. Snelling

    2017-01-01

    In 2013, while surveying for five-needle white pine cone crops in northeastern Nevada, we observed white pine blister rust, caused by the rust pathogen Cronartium ribicola Fisch., infecting branches and stems of limber pines (Pinus flexilis James) on Pine Mountain (41.76975°N, 115.61622°W), Humboldt National Forest,...

  13. Development and simulation of the air-jack for emergency like a huge disaster; Kyujoyo eajakki no kaihatsu to sono simyureshon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsuyama, Kunihisa.; Ogata, Yuji.; Wada, Yuji. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan); Hashizume, Kiyoshi.; Nishida, Kenjiro. [Nippon Kayaku Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-02-28

    When a disaster is so huge like Kobe earthquake, every energy line is killed. Even if we want to help the sufferers, we have no energy to move machines to help them. As collapsed houses are very heavy, we need machines to remove collapsed stuff. Explosives include a lot of energy in themselves. So, an air-jack which has explosives inside was developed to remove collapsed stuff on suffered people. A simple air-jack was made and tested. One concrete block, 50cm x 50cm x 50cm, was lifted by the simple air-jack. A simulation of lifting the concrete block was carried out with a programme ANSYS on the super computer. (author)

  14. Preliminary results of the empirical validation of daily increments in otoliths of jack mackerel Trachurus symmetricus murphyi (Nichols, 1920 marked with oxytetracycline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Araya

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of microincrement formation in sagittae otoliths of jack mackerel Trachurus symmetricus was validated using experiments on captive fish. Adult jack mackerel were injected with a dose of 100 mg of oxytetracycline/kg of fish. A second injection was performed 30 days later. The fish were then sacrificed and their sagittae otoliths were extracted. Thin sections of the otoliths were prepared and observed through an epifluorescent microscope using ultraviolet light. Two fluorescent marks corresponding to the two injections were clearly visible. The average number of microincrements between the two fluorescent marks was 29 (n=10; S.D.=1.63 and the median was 29.3. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test indicated that this value was not significantly different from 30. This result indicates that microincrements in otoliths of adult jack mackerel of between 28.4 and 37.7 cm fork length are formed with a daily frequency.

  15. 75 FR 26094 - Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan including Des Plaines River, Chicago... establishing a temporary safety zone from Brandon Road Lock and Dam to Lake Michigan. This temporary safety...

  16. Injectable-antineoplastic-drug practices in Michigan hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I A; Newland, S J; Kirking, D M

    1987-05-01

    Practices related to parenteral (injectable) antineoplastic drugs (PADs) in Michigan hospitals were surveyed. All hospitals in Michigan were surveyed to assess compliance with American Society of Hospital Pharmacists (ASHP) and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommendations related to PADs. Other PAD-related practice issues not covered within those guidelines were also studied. Surveys were mailed to the pharmacy directors of the state's 192 acute-care hospitals. Included were questions concerning policies and procedures for ordering, storing, preparing, handling, labeling, transporting, administering, and disposing of PADs. Questions concerning staff education, spill cleanup, and personnel issues were also included. A total of 169 questionnaires were returned, yielding a response rate of 88%. Of those respondents, 132 indicated that they prepare PAD doses for inpatients. Adherence rates were high for several of the PAD-preparation recommendations, including handwashing (97%) and gloving (98.5%). Rates for gowning (71.2%), labeling of PAD doses as biohazards (chemical hazards) (73.5%), and use of Class II biological-safety cabinets (71.2%) were less favorable. Practice areas with relatively poor adherence rates included use of plastic-backed absorbent pads under PAD preparation areas (53.8%), storing PADs separately from other drugs (48.5%), informing prospective employees of potential risks of handling PADs (36.4%), availability of spill kits (36.4%), and attaching and priming i.v. tubing before adding PADs to i.v. containers (5.4%). Many pharmacy departments in Michigan hospitals can substantially improve their adherence to ASHP and OSHA recommendations related to PADs.

  17. Estimation of alewife biomass in Lake Michigan, 1967-1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Richard W.; Haack, Paul M.; Brown, Edward H.

    1981-01-01

    The buildup of salmonid populations in Lake Michigan through annual stockings of hatchery-reared fish may become limited by the quantity of forage fish, mainly alewives Alosa pseudoharengus, available for food. As a part of a continuing examination of salmonid predator-prey relations in Lake Michigan, we traced changes in alewife biomass estimated from bottom-trawl surveys conducted in late October and early November 1967–1978. Weight of adult alewives trawled per 0.5 hectare of bottom (10-minute drag) at 16 depths along eight transects between 1973 and 1977 formed a skewed distribution: 72 of 464 drags caught no alewives; 89 drags caught less than 1 kg; and 2 drags caught more than 100 kg (maximum 159 kg). Analysis of variance in normalized catch per tow indicated highly significant differences between the main effects of years and depths, and highly significant differences in the interactions of years and transects, years and depths, and transects and depths. Five geographic and depth strata, formed by combining parts of transects wherein mean catch rate did not differ significantly, were the basis for calculating annual estimates of adult alewife biomass (with 90% confidence intervals). Estimated biomass of alewives (±90% confidence limits) in Lake Michigan proper (Green Bay and Grand Traverse Bay excluded) rose gradually from 46,000 (±9,000) t in 1967 to 114,000 (±17,000) t in 1973, declined to 45,000 (±8,000) t in 1977, and rose to 77,000 (±19,000) t in 1978.

  18. Silvicultural treatments for converting loblolly pine to longleaf pine dominance: Effects on resource availability and their relationships with planted longleaf pine seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huifeng Hu; G.Geoff Wang; Joan L. Walker; Benjamin O. Knapp

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the southeastern United States, land managers are currently interested in converting loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations to species rich longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystems. In a 3-year study on moderately well- to well-drained soils of the Lower Coastal Plain in North Carolina, we examined the...

  19. Biochemical components of seminal plasma and their correlation to the fresh seminal characteristics in Marwari stallions and Poitou jacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirumala Rao Talluri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate various biochemical components of seminal plasma in Marwari stallions and Poitou Jacks and to find out their correlation with that of the seminal characteristics. Materials and Methods: In this study, semen was collected from six Marwari stallions and six Poitou jacks aged from 4 to 6 years and with known fertility status. The semen collection from the stallions were collected during the breeding season, i.e., between the months of April and June. From the collected semen ejaculates, we estimated the values of some biochemical components, viz., total protein content, total lipid content, and enzymes such as glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, acid phosphatase (ACP, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH as well as concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, total calcium (Ca, and phosphorus (P and correlations among different seminal parameters were statistically examined using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: In this study, we found positive correlations between semen volume as well as sperm concentration and GOT, GPT, ALP and ACP for both the group stallions. Significant correlation between motility and glucose, GOT and GPT could be an indication for their role metabolism and protection against free radicals to the spermatozoa. Conclusion: Based on the results, it is concluded that there is a positive correlation between some biochemical values such as glucose, Ca, ALP, and LDH and seminal parameters which play a key role in capacitation and onward movement of the spermatozoa.

  20. Whistler mode startup in the Michigan Mirror Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booske, J.; Getty, W.D.; Gilgenbach, R.M.; Goodman, T.; Whaley, D.; Olivieri, R.; Pitcher, E.; Simonetti, L.

    1985-01-01

    Results of investigations of whistler mode ECRH plasma startup in the Michigan Mirror Machine are presented. Electron-velocity-distribution and plasma-spatial-distribution time evolution are characterized by measurements from axially and radially moveable Langmuir probes, an endloss current detector, an electron cyclotron emission radiometer, a foil-filtered X-ray detector, and a diamagnetic loop at the mirror midplane. Measurements of the buildup of both electron density and perpendicular pressure (nkT/sub perpendicular/) are compared to predictions from various numerical models. Both modeling and data suggest the creation of a highly anisotropic electron velocity distribution function with a ''sloshing electron'' axial density profile

  1. Comparison between polluted and clean air masses over Lake Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkezweeny, A.J.; Laulainen, N.S.

    1981-01-01

    Clean and polluted air masses, advected over Lake Michigan, were studied using instrumental aircraft during the summers of 1976 and 1978. The results show that regardless of the degree of pollution, the particle size distribution is bimodal. The concentrations of sulfate, nitrate and trace metals in a clean air mass are more than an order of magnitude lower than those in polluted air masses. Furthermore, these concentrations are comparable with those measured in remote areas of the world. In clean air the ratio of the total light scattering to Rayleigh scattering is very close to one, indicating very low concentrations of particulates in the optically active size classes

  2. History of the Trenton Albion-Scipio trend of Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beghini, V G; Conroy, T R

    1966-01-01

    This discussion of the history of the Trenton Albion-Scipio trend in Michigan includes the location and development history, geology and reservoir characteristics, drilling and completion methods, production and history of both the Albion and Scipio Fields, production operation, and workover procedure. Maps, illustrations, and graphs of the topics discussed are included. The largest drilling problem encountered was lost circulation causing several blowouts, 2 of which resulted in spectacular fires. Production problems include paraffin deposition, corrosion and brine disposal. Well workovers have been performed in an attempt to correct one or more of 3 problems--high gas- oil ratio, high water cut, and low capacity.

  3. Neutron radiography at the University of Michigan's Phoenix Memorial Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, J.T.; Elam, S.; Koblish, T.; Lee, P.; McAuliffe, D.

    1990-01-01

    Real-time neutron radiography (RTNR) is rapidly becoming a valuable tool for nondestructive testing and basic research with a wide variety of applications. The Phoenix Memorial Laboratory (PML) at the University of Michigan has developed an RTNR facility and has been using this facility to study several phenomena of interest to researchers in many areas. These phenomena include imaging of the internal fluid flow in gas turbine engine nozzles and coking and debris deposition in several gas turbine nozzles. This paper presents a summary of the technique and facilities involved in these applications

  4. Surveillance for work-related skull fractures in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kica, Joanna; Rosenman, Kenneth D

    2014-12-01

    The objective was to develop a multisource surveillance system for work-related skull fractures. Records on work-related skull fractures were obtained from Michigan's 134 hospitals, Michigan's Workers' Compensation Agency and death certificates. Cases from the three sources were matched to eliminate duplicates from more than one source. Workplaces where the most severe injuries occurred were referred to OSHA for an enforcement inspection. There were 318 work related skull fractures, not including facial fractures, between 2010 and 2012. In 2012, after the inclusion of facial fractures, 316 fractures were identified of which 218 (69%) were facial fractures. The Bureau of Labor Statistic's (BLS) 2012 estimate of skull fractures in Michigan, which includes facial fractures, was 170, which was 53.8% of those identified from our review of medical records. The inclusion of facial fractures in the surveillance system increased the percentage of women identified from 15.4% to 31.2%, decreased severity (hospitalization went from 48.7% to 10.6% and loss of consciousness went from 56.5% to 17.8%), decreased falls from 48.2% to 27.6%, and increased assaults from 5.0% to 20.2%, shifted the most common industry from construction (13.3%) to health care and social assistance (15.0%) and the highest incidence rate from males 65+ (6.8 per 100,000) to young men, 20-24 years (9.6 per 100,000). Workplace inspections resulted in 45 violations and $62,750 in penalties. The Michigan multisource surveillance system of workplace injuries had two major advantages over the existing national system: (a) workplace investigations were initiated hazards identified and safety changes implemented at the facilities where the injuries occurred; and (b) a more accurate count was derived, with 86% more work-related skull fractures identified than BLS's employer based estimate. A more comprehensive system to identify and target interventions for workplace injuries was implemented using hospital and

  5. 76 FR 48751 - Security Zones; Captain of the Port Lake Michigan Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... Jardine Water Filtration Plant security zone would encompass all U.S. navigable waters of Lake Michigan... areas near shore to Chicago's water filtration plants; the security zones have been designed to allow.... 165.910 Security Zones; Captain of the Port Lake Michigan. (a) * * * (1) Jardine Water Filtration...

  6. 76 FR 80392 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology, Ann Arbor, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ...: University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology, Ann Arbor, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION... Michigan officials and its Museum of Anthropology professional staff in consultation with representatives... accessioned into the Museum of Anthropology. Between 2007 and 2009 the remains were inventoried at the...

  7. 78 FR 34129 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Michigan, Museum of Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-NAGPRA-13042; PPWOCRADN0-PCU00RP14.R50000] Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Michigan, Museum of Anthropology... County, MI. In 1924, these items were sold to the University of Michigan, Museum of Anthropology, by Rev...

  8. Forging New Pathways: The Impact of the Breaking through Initiative in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanker, Jennifer B.; Taylor, Judith C.

    2012-01-01

    The Michigan Center for Student Success commissioned this study to determine whether strategies employed to improve adult students' success at 41 Breaking Through colleges nationwide have taken root at Michigan's original colleges and spread beyond them. A statewide survey revisited four of the colleges profiled in previous publications, and the…

  9. Forging New Pathways: The Impact of the Breaking through Initiative in Michigan. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanker, Jennifer B.; Taylor, Judith C.

    2012-01-01

    The Michigan Center for Student Success commissioned this study to determine whether strategies employed to improve adult students' success at 41 Breaking Through colleges nationwide have taken root at Michigan's original colleges and spread beyond them. A statewide survey revisited four of the colleges profiled in previous publications, and the…

  10. The Michigan high-level radioactive waste program: Final technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report comprises the state of Michigan's final technical report on the location of a proposed high-level radioactive waste disposal site. Included are a list of Michigan's efforts to review the DOE proposal and a detailed report on the application of geographic information systems analysis techniques to the review process

  11. 78 FR 65382 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ....S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory of human remains under the control of the University of....R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Michigan has completed an inventory of human...

  12. 78 FR 65369 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ....S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory of human remains under the control of the University of....R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Michigan has completed an inventory of human...

  13. 78 FR 65366 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ....S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory of human remains under the control of the University of....R50000] Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Michigan has completed an inventory of human...

  14. Factors Influencing School Closure and Dismissal Decisions: Influenza A (H1N1), Michigan 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooyema, Carrie A.; Copeland, Daphne; Sinclair, Julie R.; Shi, Jianrong; Wilkins, Melinda; Wells, Eden; Collins, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Background: In fall 2009, many US communities experienced school closures during the influenza A H1N1 pandemic (pH1N1) and the state of Michigan reported 567 closures. We conducted an investigation in Michigan to describe pH1N1-related school policies, practices, and identify factors related to school closures. Methods: We distributed an online…

  15. Michigan State University Extension Educators' Perceptions of the Use of Digital Technology in Their Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Elizabeth Chase

    2009-01-01

    This research study examined Michigan State University Extension educators' perceptions of the use of digital technology in their work. It used a mixed method of research which included a mailed survey and interviews of selected respondents. A census survey using Dillman's Total Design method was sent to 290 field staff of Michigan State…

  16. Lake Michigan lake trout PCB model forecast post audit (oral presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scenario forecasts for total PCBs in Lake Michigan (LM) lake trout were conducted using the linked LM2-Toxics and LM Food Chain models, supported by a suite of additional LM models. Efforts were conducted under the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study and the post audit represents an...

  17. High Energy Theory Workshops and Visitors at the Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics FY16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Aaron [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2017-08-04

    This award provided partial support for the Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics to host two workshops "Beyond the Standard Model 2016" in October 2016, and the "5th MCTP Symposium: Foundations of String Cosmology" in April 2017 on the University of Michigan campus.

  18. First report of Streptomyces stelliscabiei causing potato common scab in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptomyces scabies has been reported as the predominant cause of potato scab in Michigan. In a 2007 survey of common scab in Michigan, however, isolates were collected from a field that did not fit the description for S. scabies. Tests using species-specific PCR primers indicated isolates were S. ...

  19. 78 FR 18336 - Public Water System Supervision Program Approval for the State of Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... and Copper Rule Short Term Revisions, and the Lead and Copper Rule Minor Revisions. These rules better... defined in 18 U.S.C. 1151. By approving these rules, EPA does not intend to affect the rights of federally recognized Indian Tribes in Michigan, nor does it intend to limit existing rights of the State of Michigan...

  20. Improving Michigan STEM Teachers and Teaching: The W.K. Kellogg Foundation's Woodrow Wilson Teaching Fellowship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The W. K. Kellogg Foundation's Woodrow Wilson Michigan Teaching Fellowship successfully addressed the challenge of preparing and supporting effective teachers for Michigan's high-need classrooms, while helping transform teacher education across the state for the long term. This report analyzes the efforts of the W. K. Kellogg Foundation's Woodrow…