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Sample records for mice mus domesticus

  1. Nesting behavior of house mice (Mus domesticus) selected for increased wheel-running activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, P A; Swallow, J G; Davis, S J; Garland, T

    2000-03-01

    Nest building was measured in "active" (housed with access to running wheels) and "sedentary" (without wheel access) mice (Mus domesticus) from four replicate lines selected for 10 generations for high voluntary wheel-running behavior, and from four randombred control lines. Based on previous studies of mice bidirectionally selected for thermoregulatory nest building, it was hypothesized that nest building would show a negative correlated response to selection on wheel-running. Such a response could constrain the evolution of high voluntary activity because nesting has also been shown to be positively genetically correlated with successful production of weaned pups. With wheel access, selected mice of both sexes built significantly smaller nests than did control mice. Without wheel access, selected females also built significantly smaller nests than did control females, but only when body mass was excluded from the statistical model, suggesting that body mass mediated this correlated response to selection. Total distance run and mean running speed on wheels was significantly higher in selected mice than in controls, but no differences in amount of time spent running were measured, indicating a complex cause of the response of nesting to selection for voluntary wheel running.

  2. Chromosomal heterozygosity and fertility in house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) from Northern Italy.

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    Hauffe, H C; Searle, J B

    1998-11-01

    Following the discovery of over 40 Robertsonian (Rb) races of Mus musculus domesticus in Europe and North Africa, the house mouse has been studied extensively as an ideal model to determine the chromosomal changes that may cause or accompany speciation. Current models of chromosomal speciation are based on the assumption that heterozygous individuals have a particularly low fertility, although recent studies indicate otherwise. Despite their importance, fertility estimates for the house mouse are incomplete because traditional measurements, such as anaphase I nondisjunction and germ cell death, are rarely estimated in conjunction with litter size. In an attempt to bridge this gap, we have taken advantage of the house mouse hybrid zone in Upper Valtellina (Lombardy, Italy) in which five Rb races interbreed. We present data on the fertility of naturally occurring ("wild-caught") hybrids and of offspring from laboratory crosses of wild-caught mice ("laboratory-reared"), using various measurements. Wild-caught mice heterozygous for one fusion were more infertile than predicted from past studies, possibly due to genic hybridity; laboratory-reared heterozygotes carrying seven or eight trivalents at meiosis I and heterozygotes carrying one pentavalent also had low fertilities. These low fertilities are especially significant given the probable occurrence of a reinforcement event in Upper Valtellina.

  3. Chromosomal heterozygosity and fertility in house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) from Northern Italy.

    OpenAIRE

    Hauffe, H C; Searle, J B

    1998-01-01

    Following the discovery of over 40 Robertsonian (Rb) races of Mus musculus domesticus in Europe and North Africa, the house mouse has been studied extensively as an ideal model to determine the chromosomal changes that may cause or accompany speciation. Current models of chromosomal speciation are based on the assumption that heterozygous individuals have a particularly low fertility, although recent studies indicate otherwise. Despite their importance, fertility estimates for the house mouse...

  4. No evidence for punishment in communally nursing female house mice (Mus musculus domesticus).

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    Ferrari, Manuela; König, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Punishment is claimed as an important mechanism to stabilise costly cooperation in humans, but its importance in social animals has been questioned recently due to both conceptual considerations and a lack of empirical evidence (only few published studies). We empirically tested whether there is evidence for punishment in communally nursing house mice (Mus musculus domesticus, direct descendants of "wild" animals). Communally breeding females pool their litters and raise all offspring together, indiscriminately caring for own and other offspring. Such a situation resembles a public good and provides scope for exploitation if females vary in their relative contributions to the joint nest (offspring number). We allowed two females to communally breed and conducted removal experiments both in the presence and absence of pups. We aimed to test whether reduced investment by one of the females (induced through separation from the partner and their combined offspring for 4 or 12 hours) leads to increased aggression by the other female after the reunion. We found no evidence for punishment, on the contrary, females increased socio-positive behaviours. The costs of losing a partner in a communally breeding species might be too high and hinder the evolution of punishment. Our findings add to a growing list of examples questioning the role of punishment in cooperating non-human animals and emphasise the importance of empirical testing of its assumptions and predictions.

  5. Host subspecific viral strains in European house mice: Murine cytomegalovirus in the Eastern (Mus musculus musculus) and Western house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus).

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    Čížková, Dagmar; Baird, Stuart J E; Těšíková, Jana; Voigt, Sebastian; Ľudovít, Ďureje; Piálek, Jaroslav; Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle

    2018-06-09

    Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) has been reported from house mice (Mus musculus) worldwide, but only recently from Eastern house mice (M. m. musculus), of particular interest because they form a semi-permeable species barrier in Europe with Western house mice, M. m. domesticus. Here we report genome sequences of EastMCMV (from Eastern mice), and set these in the context of MCMV genomes from genus Mus hosts. We show EastMCMV and WestMCMV are genetically distinct. Phylogeny splitting analyses show a genome wide (94%) pattern consistent with no West-East introgression, the major exception (3.8%) being a genome-terminal region of duplicated genes involved in host immune system evasion. As expected from its function, this is a region of maintenance of ancestral polymorphism: The lack of clear splitting signal cannot be interpreted as evidence of introgression. The EastMCMV genome sequences reported here can therefore serve as a well-described resource for exploration of murid MCMV diversity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Female nursing partner choice in a population of wild house mice (Mus musculus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Nicola; Lindholm, Anna K; Dobay, Akos; Halloran, Olivia; Manser, Andri; König, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    Communal nursing in house mice is an example of cooperation where females pool litters in the same nest and indiscriminately nurse own and other offspring despite potential exploitation. The direct fitness benefits associated with communal nursing shown in laboratory studies suggest it to be a selected component of female house mice reproductive behaviour. However, past studies on communal nursing in free-living populations have debated whether it is a consequence of sharing the same nest or an active choice. Here using data from a long-term study of free-living, wild house mice we investigated individual nursing decisions and determined what factors influenced a female's decision to nurse communally. Females chose to nurse solitarily more often than expected by chance, but the likelihood of nursing solitarily decreased when females had more partners available. While finding no influence of pairwise relatedness on partner choice, we observed that females shared their social environment with genetically similar individuals, suggesting a female's home area consisted of related females, possibly facilitating the evolution of cooperation. Within such a home area females were more likely to nest communally when the general relatedness of her available options was relatively high. Females formed communal nests with females that were familiar through previous associations and had young pups of usually less than 5 days old. Our findings suggest that communal nursing was not a by-product of sharing the same nesting sites, but females choose communal nursing partners from a group of genetically similar females, and ultimately the decision may then depend on the pool of options available. Social partner choice proved to be an integrated part of cooperation among females, and might allow females to reduce the conflict over number of offspring in a communal nest and milk investment towards own and other offspring. We suggest that social partner choice may be a general

  7. Male meiosis and gametogenesis in wild house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) from a chromosomal hybrid zone; a comparison between "simple" Robertsonian heterozygotes and homozygotes.

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    Wallace, B M; Searle, J B; Everett, C A

    1992-01-01

    Wild male house mice Mus musculus domesticus were collected from the hybrid zone between the John o'Groats race (2n = 32) and the standard race (2n = 40) in northern Scotland. Meiosis in both homozygotes (2n = 32, 36, and 40) and single Robertsonian heterozygotes (2n = 33, 35, and 37) was found to be orderly. At prophase/metaphase I in heterozygotes, a trivalent was formed from the metacentric and two homologous acrocentrics. At pachytene, this trivalent usually had a single side arm at the position of the centromeres, as a result of nonhomologous pairing of the acrocentrics. This side arm persisted into diplotene. Generally only a single chiasma was formed between each acrocentric and the metacentric. Anaphase I nondisjunction frequencies were estimated as 1.5% for the homozygotes and 2.7% for the heterozygotes. The extent of germ cell death between the pachytene and round spermatid stages was 18% greater in heterozygotes than in homozygotes. Our results concur with previous studies which indicate that single Robertsonian heterozygotes in wild house mice have near-normal fertility.

  8. A selfish genetic element influencing longevity correlates with reactive behavioural traits in female house mice (Mus domesticus.

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    Yannick Auclair

    Full Text Available According to theory in life-history and animal personality, individuals with high fitness expectations should be risk-averse, while individuals with low fitness expectations should be more bold. In female house mice, a selfish genetic element, the t haplotype, is associated with increased longevity under natural conditions, representing an appropriate case study to investigate this recent theory empirically. Following theory, females heterozygous for the t haplotype (+/t are hypothesised to express more reactive personality traits and be more shy, less explorative and less active compared to the shorter-lived homozygous wildtype females (+/+. As males of different haplotype do not differ in survival, no similar pattern is expected. We tested these predictions by quantifying boldness, exploration, activity, and energetic intake in both +/t and +/+ mice. +/t females, unlike +/+ ones, expressed some reactive-like personality traits: +/t females were less active, less prone to form an exploratory routine and tended to ingest less food. Taken together these results suggest that differences in animal personality may contribute to the survival advantage observed in +/t females but fail to provide full empirical support for recent theory.

  9. Model of chromosome associations in Mus domesticus spermatocytes

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    Soledad Berríos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the spatial organization of the chromosomes in meiotic nuclei is crucial to our knowledge of the genome's functional regulation, stability and evolution. This study examined the nuclear architecture of Mus domesticus 2n=40 pachytene spermatocytes, analyzing the associations among autosomal bivalents via their Centromere Telomere Complexes (CTC. The study developed a nuclear model in which each CTC was represented as a 3D computer object. The probability of a given combination of associations among CTC was estimated by simulating a random distribution of 19 indistinguishable CTC over n indistinguishable "cells" on the nuclear envelope. The estimated association frequencies resulting from this numerical approach were similar to those obtained by quantifying actual associations in pachytene spermatocyte spreads. The nuclear localization and associations of CTC through the meiotic prophase in well-preserved nuclei were also analyzed. We concluded that throughout the meiotic prophase: 1 the CTC of autosomal bivalents are not randomly distributed in the nuclear space; 2 the CTC associate amongst themselves, probably at random, over a small surface of the nuclear envelope, at the beginning of the meiotic prophase; 3 the initial aggregation of centromere regions occurring in lepto-zygotene likely resolves into several smaller aggregates according to patterns of preferential partitioning; 4 these smaller aggregates spread over the inner face of the nuclear envelope, remaining stable until advanced stages of the meiotic prophase or even until the first meiotic division.

  10. The effect of multiple simple Robertsonian heterozygosity on chromosome pairing and fertility of wild-stock house mice (Mus musculus domesticus).

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    Wallace, B M N; Searle, J B; Everett, C A

    2002-01-01

    The influence of Robertsonian (Rb) heterozygosity on fertility has been the subject of much study in the house mouse. However, these studies have been largely directed at single simple heterozygotes (heterozygous for a single Rb metacentric) or complex heterozygotes (heterozygous for several to many metacentrics which share common chromosome arms). In this paper we describe studies on male multiple simple heterozygotes, specifically the F(1) products of crosses between wild-stock mice homozygous for four or seven metacentrics and wild-stock mice with a standard all-acrocentric karyotype; these F(1) products were characterized by four and seven trivalents at meiosis I, respectively. Mice with the same karyotype, but two different genetic backgrounds were examined. Although a range of meiotic and fertility studies were conducted, particular emphasis was paid to analysis of chromosome pairing, previously not well-described in multiple simple heterozygous mice. The progression of spermatocytes through prophase I was followed by electron microscopy of surface spread material. As previously shown for single simple Rb heterozygotes, the trivalents that characterize multiple simple heterozygotes initially showed delayed pairing of the centromeric region and later showed side arm formation, resulting from non-homologous pairing by the centromeric ends of the acrocentric chromosomes. In the four trivalent groups of mice, 15 and 32% of trivalents showed unpairing in the centromeric region at mid pachytene; equivalent values were 29 and 39% for the seven trivalent groups. Pairing abnormalities (largely attachments and interlocks between trivalents and between a trivalent and the XY configuration) were observed in 18 and 23% of mid pachytene cells in the four trivalent groups and 36 and 49% of cells in the seven trivalent groups. The greater level of pachytene irregularity (unpairing and pairing abnormalities) in seven versus four trivalent heterozygotes was mirrored in terms

  11. Sexual selection and the rodent baculum: an intraspecific study in the house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus).

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    Ramm, Steven A; Khoo, Lin; Stockley, Paula

    2010-01-01

    The rapid divergence of genitalia is a pervasive trend in animal evolution, thought to be due to the action of sexual selection. To test predictions from the sexual selection hypothesis, we here report data on the allometry, variation, plasticity and condition dependence of baculum morphology in the house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus). We find that that baculum size: (a) exhibits no consistent pattern of allometric scaling (baculum size being in most cases unrelated to body size), (b) exhibits low to moderate levels of phenotypic variation, (c) does not exhibit phenotypic plasticity in response to differences in perceived levels of sexual competition and (d) exhibits limited evidence of condition dependence. These patterns provide only limited evidence in support of the sexual selection hypothesis, and no consistent support for any particular sexual selection mechanism; however, more direct measures of how genital morphology influences male fertilization success are required.

  12. Early gene expression divergence between allopatric populations of the house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus).

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    Bryk, Jarosław; Somel, Mehmet; Lorenc, Anna; Teschke, Meike

    2013-03-01

    Divergence of gene expression is known to contribute to the differentiation and separation of populations and species, although the dynamics of this process in early stages of population divergence remains unclear. We analyzed gene expression differences in three organs (brain, liver, and testis) between two natural populations of Mus musculus domesticus that have been separated for at most 3000 years. We used two different microarray platforms to corroborate the results at a large scale and identified hundreds of genes with significant expression differences between the populations. We find that although the three tissues have similar number of differentially expressed genes, brain and liver have more tissue-specific genes than testis. Most genes show changes in a single tissue only, even when expressed in all tissues, supporting the notion that tissue-specific enhancers act as separable targets of evolution. In terms of functional categories, in brain and to a smaller extent in liver, we find transcription factors and their targets to be particularly variable between populations, similar to previous findings in primates. Testis, however, has a different set of differently expressed genes, both with respect to functional categories and overall correlation with the other tissues, the latter indicating that gene expression divergence of potential importance might be present in other datasets where no differences in fraction of differentially expressed genes were reported. Our results show that a significant amount of gene expression divergence quickly accumulates between allopatric populations.

  13. New Metacentric Populations and Phylogenetic Hypotheses Involving Whole-Arm Reciprocal Translocation in Mus musculus domesticus from Sicily, Southern Italy.

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    Castiglia, Riccardo; Capanna, Ernesto; Bezerra, Alexandra M R; Bizzoco, Domenico; Zambigli, Emanuela; Solano, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    The house mouse Mus musculus domesticus is characterized by more than 100 metacentric populations, due to the occurrence of Robertsonian (Rb) fusions, together with the standard all-telocentric karyotype (2n = 40). We examined G-banded karyotypes of 18 mice from 10 localities in Sicily and describe 3 new metacentric populations: 'Ragusa Ibla' (IRAG), 2n = 33-36, Rb(2.4), Rb(5.6), Rb(9.16), Rb(13.17); 'Piana degli Albanesi' (IPIA), 2n = 23, Rb(1.18), Rb(2.15), Rb(3.5), Rb(4.12), Rb(6.11), Rb(7.8), Rb(9.16), Rb(10.14), Rb(13.17); 'Trapani' (ITRA), 2n = 22, Rb(1.18), Rb(2.15), Rb(3.7), Rb(4.12), Rb(5.9), Rb(6.11), Rb(8.16), Rb(10.14), Rb(13.17). Three mice belonged to the previously reported 'Castelbuono' race (ICAS), 2n = 24, which is very similar to the nearby 'Palermo' (IPAL) race, 2n = 26. Three Rb fusions not yet observed in wild mouse populations were identified: Rb(3.5), Rb(3.7) and Rb(5.9). Rb fusions shared among 4 races (IPIA, IRAG, ICAS, and IPAL) allowed us to describe their potential phylogenetic relationships. We obtained 2 alternative phylogenetic trees. The differences between them are mainly due to various modes of formation of IPIA and ITRA. In the first hypothesis, the specific Rb fusions occurred independently. In the second, those of IRAG originated from those of IPIA via whole-arm reciprocal translocations. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Aspects of the life history of Muspicea borreli (Nematoda: Muspiceidae, parasite of the house mouse (Mus domesticus in Australia

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    Spratt D.M.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of Muspicea borreli (Nematoda infection in wild populations of Mus domesticus in forests in southeastern New South Wales and in rural Canberra, Australia was variable, relatively low and the parasite occurred predominantly in male mice. Experimental infection of BALB/c mice occurred only via subcutaneous inoculation but was achieved using i adults containing embryonating eggs, ii adults containing active larvae and iii active larvae dissected from the uterus of female worms. Experimental infection was not established using adults containing unembryonated eggs and was not established via intraperitoneal, percutaneous nor oral routes. Evidence indicates that larvae develop to the infective stage in the uterus of the adult worm, suggests that an obligate developmental phase on the host skin does not occur and that autoinfection is possible. Experimental infection predominated in males; females rarely became infected. When male BALB/c mice were inoculated subcutaneously with M. borreli, immediately paired with an uninoculated female and permitted to breed for 90 days, infection was found in male and female offspring only of the second and subsequent litters or in the breeding female partner. Transmission to the young occurred within 21 days of birth and fifth-stage M. borreli were found in offspring of the second and subsequent litters only after 35 or more days. However, when a male was inoculated but mating delayed for 23 days, infection was found in progeny of the first and second litters. The life cycle is direct and the prepatent period in BALB/c mice is estimated at 50-60 days. The precise mode of transmission of the parasite in breeding pairs of mice was not determined but larvae remained active for approximately an hour in balanced saline solutions (pH = 7.2 and in human saliva but died under conditions emulating free-living (tap water pH = 7.1 and stomach (pepsin solution pH = 2 environments. Transmission was not effected by

  15. Mitochondrial DNA in the hybrid zone between Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus: a comparison of two transects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Božíková, Eva; Munclinger, P.; Teeter, K. C.; Tucker, P. K.; Macholán, Miloš; Piálek, Jaroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 3 (2005), s. 363-378 ISSN 0024-4066. [The genus Mus as a model for evolutionary studies - a symposium in honour of Louis Thaler. Brno, 28.07.2003-30.07.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0205; GA ČR GA206/01/0989 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : allozyme * gene flow * house mouse Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.261, year: 2005

  16. Population biology of house mice (Mus musculus L.) on sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-05-03

    May 3, 1993 ... Studies on the feral house mouse Mus musculus in habitats ranging from deserts ... Previous studies on mice at Marion Island focused on ..... and food availability) may decrease the rate of development .... Wiley, New York.

  17. Teratogenic effect of yogurt in mice fetus (Mus musculus)

    OpenAIRE

    Dwisari Dillasamola; Almahdy A; Amirah Desri; Skunda Diliarosta

    2018-01-01

    Yogurt is one of the dairy products made from lactic acid fermentation by using Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. A study on teratogenic effects of yogurt on the white female mice fetus (Mus musculus) has been carried out. Pregnant mice used were 20 which divided into 4 groups : the control group, D1, D2, and D3. The treatments giveThe mice were Distidelled water (control), 0.52 yogurt (D1), 1.04  yogurt (D2), and 2.08 g yogurt (D3). Data were analyzed using one-way ANO...

  18. Food preferences of wild house-mice (Mus musclus L).

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    Rowe, F P; Bradfield, A; Redfern, R

    1974-12-01

    The relative acceptance of various plain foods by wild house-mice (Mus musculus L.) was compared in laboratory choice tests. The palatability of glycerine and six oils, each included at 5% in pinhead oatmeal, was compared in a similar manner.The most favoured food was found to be whole canary seed (Phalaris canariensis). Pinhead oatmeal and wheat were also comparatively well accepted. Glycerine, corn oil, arachis oil and mineral oil were more palatable than either olive, linseed or cod-liver oils.The results of the choice tests are considered in relation to the use of poison baits for the control of free-living mice.

  19. Food preferences of wild house-mice (Mus musculus L.)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, F. P.; Bradfield, A.; Redfern, R.

    1974-01-01

    The relative acceptance of various plain foods by wild house-mice (Mus musculus L.) was compared in laboratory choice tests. The palatability of glycerine and six oils, each included at 5% in pinhead oatmeal, was compared in a similar manner. The most favoured food was found to be whole canary seed (Phalaris canariensis). Pinhead oatmeal and wheat were also comparatively well accepted. Glycerine, corn oil, arachis oil and mineral oil were more palatable than either olive, linseed or cod-liver oils. The results of the choice tests are considered in relation to the use of poison baits for the control of free-living mice. PMID:4531454

  20. Genetic structure and invasion history of the house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) in Senegal, West Africa: a legacy of colonial and contemporary times.

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    Lippens, C; Estoup, A; Hima, M K; Loiseau, A; Tatard, C; Dalecky, A; Bâ, K; Kane, M; Diallo, M; Sow, A; Niang, Y; Piry, S; Berthier, K; Leblois, R; Duplantier, J-M; Brouat, C

    2017-08-01

    Knowledge of the genetic make-up and demographic history of invasive populations is critical to understand invasion mechanisms. Commensal rodents are ideal models to study whether complex invasion histories are typical of introductions involving human activities. The house mouse Mus musculus domesticus is a major invasive synanthropic rodent originating from South-West Asia. It has been largely studied in Europe and on several remote islands, but the genetic structure and invasion history of this taxon have been little investigated in several continental areas, including West Africa. In this study, we focussed on invasive populations of M. m. domesticus in Senegal. In this focal area for European settlers, the distribution area and invasion spread of the house mouse is documented by decades of data on commensal rodent communities. Genetic variation at one mitochondrial locus and 16 nuclear microsatellite markers was analysed from individuals sampled in 36 sites distributed across the country. A combination of phylogeographic and population genetics methods showed that there was a single introduction event on the northern coast of Senegal, from an exogenous (probably West European) source, followed by a secondary introduction from northern Senegal into a coastal site further south. The geographic locations of these introduction sites were consistent with the colonial history of Senegal. Overall, the marked microsatellite genetic structure observed in Senegal, even between sites located close together, revealed a complex interplay of different demographic processes occurring during house mouse spatial expansion, including sequential founder effects and stratified dispersal due to human transport along major roads.

  1. Teratogenic effect of yogurt in mice fetus (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwisari Dillasamola

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Yogurt is one of the dairy products made from lactic acid fermentation by using Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. A study on teratogenic effects of yogurt on the white female mice fetus (Mus musculus has been carried out. Pregnant mice used were 20 which divided into 4 groups : the control group, D1, D2, and D3. The treatments giveThe mice were Distidelled water (control, 0.52 yogurt (D1, 1.04  yogurt (D2, and 2.08 g yogurt (D3. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Duncan multiple range test. Results showed that administration of yogurt during pregnancy could affect mother body weight of mice (P 0,05. Observations with Alizarin solution did not show skeletal defects in comparison to the control group. Observations with Bouin’s solution showed defective visceral cleft palate in fetal mice yogurt group D3. This study conclude that yogurt is safe to consume in groups D1 and D2. Yogurt has the potential to cause fetal teratogenic in group D3

  2. The role of salivary androgen-binding protein in reproductive isolation between two subspecies of house mouse: Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bímová, Barbora; Karn, R. C.; Piálek, Jaroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 3 (2005), s. 349-361 ISSN 0024-4066. [The genus Mus as a model for evolutionary studies - a symposium in honour of Louis Thaler. Brno, 28.07.2003-30.07.2003] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093201; GA AV ČR IAA6045902 Grant - others:National Research Council(US) COBASE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : assortative mating * hybrid zone * sexual selection Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.261, year: 2005

  3. Age-Related Changes in Locomotor Performance Reveal a Similar Pattern for Caenorhabditis elegans, Mus domesticus, Canis familiaris, Equus caballus, and Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marck, Adrien; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Foulonneau, Vincent; Marc, Andy; Antero-Jacquemin, Juliana; Noirez, Philippe; Bronikowski, Anne M; Morgan, Theodore J; Garland, Theodore; Carter, Patrick A; Hersen, Pascal; Di Meglio, Jean-Marc; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2017-04-01

    Locomotion is one of the major physiological functions for most animals. Previous studies have described aging mechanisms linked to locomotor performance among different species. However, the precise dynamics of these age-related changes, and their interactions with development and senescence, are largely unknown. Here, we use the same conceptual framework to describe locomotor performances in Caenorhabditis elegans, Mus domesticus, Canis familiaris, Equus caballus, and Homo sapiens. We show that locomotion is a consistent biomarker of age-related changes, with an asymmetrical pattern throughout life, regardless of the type of effort or its duration. However, there is variation (i) among species for the same mode of locomotion, (ii) within species for different modes of locomotion, and (iii) among individuals of the same species for the same mode of locomotion. Age-related patterns are modulated by genetic (such as selective breeding) as well as environmental conditions (such as temperature). However, in all cases, the intersection of the rising developmental phase and the declining senescent phase reveals neither a sharp transition nor a plateau, but a smooth transition, emphasizing a crucial moment: the age at peak performance. This transition may define a specific target for future investigations on the dynamics of such biological interactions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Hexavalents in spermatocytes of Robertsonian heterozygotes between Mus m. domesticus 2n=26 from the Vulcano and Lipari Islands (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy).

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    Berríos, Soledad; Fernández-Donoso, Raúl; Page, Jesús; Ayarza, Eliana; Capanna, Ernesto; Solano, Emanuela; Castiglia, Riccardo

    2018-02-20

    The size and shape of the chromosomes, as well as the chromosomal domains that compose them, are determinants in the distribution and interaction between the bivalents within the nucleus of spermatocytes in prophase I of meiosis. Thus the nuclear architecture characteristic of the karyotype of a species can be modified by chromosomal changes such as Rb chromosomes. In this study we analysed the meiotic prophase nuclear organization of the heterozygous spermatocytes from Mus musculus domesticus 2n=26, and the synaptic configuration of the hexavalent formed by the dependent Rb chromosomes Rbs 6.16, 16.10, 10.15, 15.17 and the telocentric chromosomes 6 and 17. Spreads of 88 pachytene spermatocytes from two males were studied and in all of them five metacentric bivalents, four telocentric bivalents, one hexavalent and the XY bivalent were observed. About 48% of the hexavalents formed a chain or a ring of synapsed chromosomes, the latter closed by synapsis between the short arms of telocentric chromosomes 6 and 17.  About 52% of hexavalents formed an open chain of 10 synapsed chromosomal arms belonging to 6 chromosomes.  In about half of the unsynapsed hexavalents one of the telocentric chromosome short arms appears associated with the X chromosome single axis, which was otherwise normally paired with the Y chromosome.  The cluster of pericentromeric heterochromatin mostly determines the hexavalent's nuclear configuration, dragging the centromeric regions and all the chromosomes towards the nuclear envelope similar to an association of five telocentric bivalents. These reiterated encounters between these chromosomes restrict the interactions with other chromosomal domains and might favour eventual rearrangements within the metacentric, telocentric or hexavalent chromosome subsets. The unsynapsed short arms of telocentric chromosomes frequently bound to the single axis of the X chromosome could further complicate the already complex segregation of hexavalent

  5. Hexavalents in spermatocytes of Robertsonian heterozygotes between Mus m. domesticus 2n 26 from the Vulcano and Lipari Islands (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy)

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    Berríos, Soledad; Fernández-Donoso, Raúl; Page, Jesús; Ayarza, Eliana; Capanna, Ernesto; Solano, Emanuela; Castiglia, Riccardo

    2018-01-01

    The size and shape of the chromosomes, as well as the chromosomal domains that compose them, are determinants in the distribution and interaction between the bivalents within the nucleus of spermatocytes in prophase I of meiosis. Thus the nuclear architecture characteristic of the karyotype of a species can be modified by chromosomal changes such as Robertsonian (RB) chromosomes. In this study we analysed the meiotic prophase nuclear organization of the heterozygous spermatocytes from Mus musculus domesticus 2n=26, and the synaptic configuration of the hexavalent formed by the dependent Rb chromosomes Rbs 6.16, 16.10, 10.15, 15.17 and the telocentric chromosomes 6 and 17. Spreads of 88 pachytene spermatocytes from two males were studied and in all of them five metacentric bivalents, four telocentric bivalents, one hexavalent and the XY bivalent were observed. About 48% of the hexavalents formed a chain or a ring of synapsed chromosomes, the latter closed by synapsis between the short arms of telocentric chromosomes 6 and 17. About 52% of hexavalents formed an open chain of 10 synapsed chromosomal arms belonging to 6 chromosomes. In about half of the unsynapsed hexavalents one of the telocentric chromosome short arms appears associated with the X chromosome single axis, which was otherwise normally paired with the Y chromosome. The cluster of pericentromeric heterochromatin mostly determines the hexavalent’s nuclear configuration, dragging the centromeric regions and all the chromosomes towards the nuclear envelope similar to an association of five telocentric bivalents. These reiterated encounters between these chromosomes restrict the interactions with other chromosomal domains and might favour eventual rearrangements within the metacentric, telocentric or hexavalent chromosome subsets. The unsynapsed short arms of telocentric chromosomes frequently bound to the single axis of the X chromosome could further complicate the already complex segregation of

  6. Hexavalents in spermatocytes of Robertsonian heterozygotes between Mus m. domesticus 2n=26 from the Vulcano and Lipari Islands (Aeolian Archipelago, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Berríos

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The size and shape of the chromosomes, as well as the chromosomal domains that compose them, are determinants in the distribution and interaction between the bivalents within the nucleus of spermatocytes in prophase I of meiosis. Thus the nuclear architecture characteristic of the karyotype of a species can be modified by chromosomal changes such as Rb chromosomes. In this study we analysed the meiotic prophase nuclear organization of the heterozygous spermatocytes from Mus musculus domesticus 2n=26, and the synaptic configuration of the hexavalent formed by the dependent Rb chromosomes Rbs 6.16, 16.10, 10.15, 15.17 and the telocentric chromosomes 6 and 17. Spreads of 88 pachytene spermatocytes from two males were studied and in all of them five metacentric bivalents, four telocentric bivalents, one hexavalent and the XY bivalent were observed. About 48% of the hexavalents formed a chain or a ring of synapsed chromosomes, the latter closed by synapsis between the short arms of telocentric chromosomes 6 and 17.  About 52% of hexavalents formed an open chain of 10 synapsed chromosomal arms belonging to 6 chromosomes.  In about half of the unsynapsed hexavalents one of the telocentric chromosome short arms appears associated with the X chromosome single axis, which was otherwise normally paired with the Y chromosome.  The cluster of pericentromeric heterochromatin mostly determines the hexavalent’s nuclear configuration, dragging the centromeric regions and all the chromosomes towards the nuclear envelope similar to an association of five telocentric bivalents. These reiterated encounters between these chromosomes restrict the interactions with other chromosomal domains and might favour eventual rearrangements within the metacentric, telocentric or hexavalent chromosome subsets. The unsynapsed short arms of telocentric chromosomes frequently bound to the single axis of the X chromosome could further complicate the already complex segregation

  7. A role for ultrasonic vocalisation in social communication and divergence of natural populations of the house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus.

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    Sophie von Merten

    Full Text Available It has long been known that rodents emit signals in the ultrasonic range, but their role in social communication and mating is still under active exploration. While inbred strains of house mice have emerged as a favourite model to study ultrasonic vocalisation (USV patterns, studies in wild animals and natural situations are still rare. We focus here on two wild derived mouse populations. We recorded them in dyadic encounters for extended periods of time to assess possible roles of USVs and their divergence between allopatric populations. We have analysed song frequency and duration, as well as spectral features of songs and syllables. We show that the populations have indeed diverged in several of these aspects and that USV patterns emitted in a mating context differ from those emitted in same sex encounters. We find that females vocalize not less, in encounters with another female even more than males. This implies that the current focus of USVs being emitted mainly by males within the mating context needs to be reconsidered. Using a statistical syntax analysis we find complex temporal sequencing patterns that could suggest that the syntax conveys meaningful information to the receivers. We conclude that wild mice use USV for complex social interactions and that USV patterns can diverge fast between populations.

  8. A new chromosomal race of the house mouse, Mus musculus domesticus, in the Vulcano Island-Aeolian Archipelago, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Emanuela; Castiglia, Riccardo; Corti, Marco

    2007-07-01

    In this paper we describe a new Robertsonian (Rb) race of the house mouse from Vulcano (Aeolian archipelago) through the identification of the metacentric chromosomes. We analysed fifteen mice. All the specimens were found to have the same karyotype 2n=26. This karyotype is characterized by Rb(1.2), Rb(3.9), Rb(4.13), Rb(5.14), Rb(8.12), Rb(10.16) and Rb(15.17). The differences between the race of Vulcano and the races in a neighbour island (Lipari) consist in the presence of Rb(10.16) and Rb(15.17) in the former and Rb(6.16) and Rb(10.15) in the latter. We discuss the possible hypotheses regarding the origin between these two races including the possible occurrence of a whole arm reciprocal translocation (WART) on the Vulcano island.

  9. Characterization of urinary volatiles in Swiss male mice (Mus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Information about diet is also available in guinea pigs. (Beauchamp ... change in diet can alter urine odours. Urinary ... adult male mice, which are dependent upon high levels of ... a protein or protein related substance (Marchlewska-Koj. 1977 ...

  10. Radioautographic DNA synthesis study on mice Mus musculus gingival epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira Tarelho, Z.V. da; Hetem, S.

    1984-01-01

    The DNA-synthetizing cells frequency in the gingival epithelium basal layer of the first lower molar region in young and adult mice were studied. The 3H-thymidine and radioautography were used. The labeled cells frequency was determined by calculating their proportions. The data were statiscally analysed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  11. Efficacy of drugs against Giardia muris in mice Mus musculus naturally infected/
    Eficácia de drogas contra Giardia muris em camundongos Mus musculus naturalmente infectados

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Gonzalez Monteiro; Régis Adriel Zanette; Camila Belmonte Oliveira; Marcos Kipper da Silva; Aleksandro Schafer da Silva

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of metronidazole, fenbendazole and secnidazole against Giardia muris in mice naturally infected. Forty mice of the species Mus musculus were divided in four groups of ten each, being group A non treated, the control group and groups B, C and D treated with 4mg/ml of metronidazole, fenbendazole and secnidazole, respectively. Two feces collection, on day 0 and on day 10 after treatment, were done in order to evaluate the efficacy of the drugs. Samples w...

  12. The effect of electron beam radiations on testicular damage in mice, Mus musculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikram, S.; Nair, Vijay Mala Grover

    2013-01-01

    Adult male Swiss albino mice, Mus musculus (8-10 weeks old) weighing 28±2.5 gm were exposed to varying doses (2-12 Gy) of electron beam radiations and maintained in animal house at 26-28 C. The animals were sacrificed following 35 and 60 days following exposure to electron beam radiations. The LD-50 value, change in the weight and histological details of the testis, sperm count, sperm shape abnormalities and sperm motility were recorded. The data suggests that electron beam radiations is a potential inducer to cause reproductive system dysfunctions which probably may be responsible leading to infertility. (author)

  13. Of mice and (Viking?) men: phylogeography of British and Irish house mice

    OpenAIRE

    Searle, Jeremy B.; Jones, Catherine S.; Gündüz, İslam; Scascitelli, Moira; Jones, Eleanor P.; Herman, Jeremy S.; Rambau, R. Victor; Noble, Leslie R.; Berry, R.J.; Giménez, Mabel D.; Jóhannesdóttir, Fríða

    2008-01-01

    The west European subspecies of house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) has gained much of its current widespread distribution through commensalism with humans. This means that the phylogeography of M. m. domesticus should reflect patterns of human movements. We studied restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequence variations in mouse mitochondrial (mt) DNA throughout the British Isles (328 mice from 105 localities, including previously published data). There is a major mtDNA...

  14. Efficacy of drugs against Giardia muris in mice Mus musculus naturally infected/ Eficácia de drogas contra Giardia muris em camundongos Mus musculus naturalmente infectados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Gonzalez Monteiro

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of metronidazole, fenbendazole and secnidazole against Giardia muris in mice naturally infected. Forty mice of the species Mus musculus were divided in four groups of ten each, being group A non treated, the control group and groups B, C and D treated with 4mg/ml of metronidazole, fenbendazole and secnidazole, respectively. Two feces collection, on day 0 and on day 10 after treatment, were done in order to evaluate the efficacy of the drugs. Samples were analyzed by the centrifugal-flotation method with zinc sulfate. Efficacy of 97,05% for metronidazole, 98,30% for fenbendazole and 100% for secnidazole were observed in the study. According to the results it was concluded that the tested drugs were effective for the treatment of mice parasitized by Giardia muris.Este estudo visou avaliar a eficácia do metronidazol, fenbendazole e secnidazol contra Giardia muris em camundongos naturalmente infectados. Foram utilizados 40 camundongos da espécie Mus musculus divididos em quatro grupos de 10 animais cada, sendo grupo A, grupo controle, não tratados, e grupos B, C e D tratados com 4mg/ml de metronidazol, fenbendazole e secnidazol, respectivamente. Para avaliar a eficácia dos medicamentos foram realizadas duas coletas de fezes uma no dia zero e outra 10 dias após tratamento. As amostras foram processadas e analisadas a partir do método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco. No estudo observou-se eficácia de 97,05% para metronidazol, 98,30% para fenbendazole e 100% para secnidazol no tratamento de giardiase murina. Com base nos resultados concluí-se que as drogas testadas apresentaram eficácia no tratamento de camundongos parasitados por Giardia muris.

  15. The toxicity of brown algae (Sargassum sp extract to mice (Mus muscullus

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    Rahmat Wariz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian is a country with very large and overflow marine biological resources. Utilization of seaweed has been developed and become a source of revenue for Indonesian who live in coastal areas with high potential for seaweed.The demand of seaweed in the world increases as increasing in the use of seaweed for various purposeamong others in the fields of industry, food, textile, paper, paints, cosmetics, medical and pharmaceutical field. Alginate is one of materials that commonly used in the field of dentistry as printed materials to create study models. Materials in the field of dentistry must be biocompatible to the oral cavity tissues. The materials should be stable, safe, comfortable, and certainly doesn’t have a toxicity character to the oral cavity tissues and other tissues in human body. The purpose of this study is to know the toxicity of extract brown algaeSargassum sp given orally to mice.The research perform experimental laboratory research type withexperimental post-tes-only control group design. The reseach samples applyfemales white mice (Mus muscullus. Research samples divided into 5 groups of 5 female mices for each treatment group. Treatment group 1 was given 500mg/kgBW doses of Sargassum sp, group 2 was given 1000mg/KgBW doses of Sargassum sp, group 3 was given 1500mg/KgBW doses of Sargassum sp, group 4 were 2000mg/KgBW doses of Sargassum sp, and a control group was given only dose of Na CMC. The result of this study isdose in humans are converted into 2000mg/KgBW in mice, is a doses that doesn’t cause the death of whole animals. Based of acute toxicity category, the extracts of Sargassum sp that obtained from Punaga Takalar Regency, South Sulawesi includes in the mild toxic.

  16. Food preferences and mound-building behaviour of the mound-building mice Mus spicilegus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzl, Michaela; Krištofík, Ján; Darolová, Alžbeta; Hoi, Herbert

    2011-10-01

    Optimal foraging strategies and food choice are influenced by various factors, e.g. availability, size and caloric content of the food type and predation risk. However, food choice criteria may change when food is not eaten immediately but has to be carried to a storage site for later use. For example, handling time in terms of harvesting and transport time should be optimized, particularly when the risk of predation is high. Thus, it is not clear whether food selected by hoarding animals reflects their food preference due to intrinsic features of the food type, e.g. size, caloric or lipid content, or whether the food type selected is a compromise that also considers the handling time required for harvesting and transport. We investigate this question in relation to food hoarding behaviour in mound-building mice. In autumn, mound-building mice Mus spicilegus collect seeds and other plant material and cover it with soil. Such above-ground storage is quite unusual for rodents. Here, we investigated whether there is a relationship between the seed species preferred as building materials and those preferred for food. We conducted a seed preference test using three most collected weed species for mound building. Controlling factors like food availability or predation risk, mice prefer Setaria spp. as food, although Amaranthus spp. and Chenopodium spp. were preferentially harvested and stored. By including the availability of the three species, our experimental results were confirmed, namely, a clear preference for Setaria spp. Also, handling time and seed size revealed to influence plant choice.

  17. Murine cytomegalovirus is not restricted to the house mouse Mus musculus domesticus: prevalence and genetic diversity in the European house mouse hybrid zone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle; Baird, Stuart J. E.; Albrechtová, Jana; Sobeková, Karolina; Piálek, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 1 (2015), s. 406-414 ISSN 0022-538X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0640; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-35009S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : maximum likelihood * viral antibodies * wild mice * strains * recombination * mitochondrial * Australia * evolution * virus * model Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.606, year: 2015

  18. Skin mites in mice (Mus musculus): high prevalence of Myobia sp. (Acari, Arachnida) in Robertsonian mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre, Natalia; Calvete, Oriol; Martínez-Vargas, Jessica; Medarde, Nuria; Casellas, Joaquim; Altet, Laura; Sánchez, Armand; Francino, Olga; Ventura, Jacint

    2018-05-04

    Myobia sp. and Demodex sp. are two skin mites that infest mice, particularly immunodeficient or transgenic lab mice. In the present study, wild house mice from five localities from the Barcelona Roberstonian system were analysed in order to detect skin mites and compare their prevalence between standard (2n = 40) and Robertsonian mice (2n > 40). We found and identified skin mites through real-time qPCR by comparing sequences from the mitochondrial 16S rRNA and the nuclear 18S rRNA genes since no sequences are available so far using the mitochondrial gene. Fourteen positive samples were identified as Myobia musculi except for a deletion of 296 bp out to 465 bp sequenced, and one sample was identified as Demodex canis. Sampling one body site, the mite prevalence in standard and Robertsonian mice was 0 and 26%, respectively. The malfunction of the immune system elicits an overgrowth of skin mites and consequently leads to diseases such as canine demodicosis in dogs or rosacea in humans. In immunosuppressed mice, the probability of developing demodicosis is higher than in healthy mice. Since six murine toll-like receptors (TLRs) are located in four chromosomes affected by Robertsonian fusions, we cannot dismiss that differences in mite prevalence could be the consequence of the interruption of TLR function. Although ecological and/or morphological factors cannot be disregarded to explain differences in mite prevalence, the detection of translocation breakpoints in TLR genes or the analysis of TLR gene expression are needed to elucidate how Robertsonian fusions affect the immune system in mice.

  19. Test of Fruit Extract Pare (Momordica charantia L.) to Quality of Ejaculated Spermatozoa Mice (Mus musculus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifendy, M.; Indriati, G.

    2018-04-01

    Pare (Momordica charantia L.) can be used in the treatment of various diseases, such as influenza, cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV, antimitotic and antifertilitas. This study aimed to determine the effect of the herbal bitter (Momordica charantia L.) to ejaculated sperm quality mice (Mus musculus L.). This research was conducted using Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 4 treatments and 6 replications, water and fed adlibitum. First treatment is given solvent extract. Second treatments extract were given 0.2 gram, third treatment were given 0.4 gram of extracts and fourth treatment were treated exstrac 0.6 gram were orally for 30 days. After the mice decapitated, dissected and take sperm from vas deferens. Then, the sperm preparation determined using the improved Neubauer. Data were analyzed by ANOVA (Analysis of Varians). The results shoured at doses of 0,2 gram, the average sperm count was 19.89. decrease significant when compared with the control in which the average number of sperm 29.13. So with this research the effective doses to decrease sperm count and can be used as a contraception medication dosage was 0,2 gram. It can be conclude that the extract of bitter (Momordica charantia L.) can decrease the quality of the ejaculated sperm of mice (Mus musculus L.)

  20. The Effect of Curry Leaves (Murayya Koenigii L. on Blood Glucose Levels In Alloxan Diabetic Mice (Mus Musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauziah Fauziah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of ethanol extract of curry leaves (Murraya koenigii L. on blood glucose levels in alloxan diabetic mice (Mus musculus. The diabetic conditions were made by giving alloxan 75 mg/kg body weight (BW and the hypoglycemic effects of extract of curry leaves given with various doses.   This study used 24 male mice strain Balb/c in four groups of treatment with six replications, namely the negative control group, the ethanol extract of curry leaf tree 50% mL/10g body weight group, 70% mL/10g body weight group and 90% mL/10g body weight group. The treatment was given orally by using a gastric sonde for 14 days. Blood samples were taken through the sinus caudalis using a scissors. Blood glucose level was measured at 1st , the 8th and the 24th of treatment using blood glucose test strips and Nesco® Multicheck apparatus. Blood glucose data were analyzed by one way ANOVA (Analysis of Variants and followed by Tuckey test at significance level of 5%. The result showed that treatment of ethanol extract of curry leaves (Murraya koenigii at various doses significantly affected the decrease on blood glucose levels of mice (Mus musculus alloxan diabetic.

  1. Embryo quality of mice (“Mus musculus” fed royal jelly Qualidade embrionária de camundongos ("Mus musculus" suplementados com geléia real

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Edésio dos Santos Melo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to verify the effect of feeding royal jelly associated to follicle growth induction on number and quality of mice (Mus musculus embryos. Sixty Swiss females ageing from eight to ten weeks were distributed into three treatments: the first one, composed by animals fed 0.2 mL of physiological solution intraperitoneal (control group, n=20; the second and third ones, composed by females fed 0.5 and 1.0 mg of royal jelly diluted in 0.2 mL of physiological solution (n=20, respectively. Royal jelly was administered during 15 days, followed by the follicular growth induction process. Embryos were collected 68 hours after mating, by uterine flushing. No treatment effects on the number of females that answered to superovulatory process, the number of total recovery structures, the number of viable and non viable structures and the morphological quality of viable embryos (P>0.05 were observed. Therefore, royal jelly doses used were not efficient to increase the number of embryos and to improve the quality recovery from superovulated mice.Objetivou-se verificar a influência da geléia real, associada ao tratamento de indução de crescimento folicular, no número e na qualidade de embriões de camundongos (Mus musculus. Foram utilizadas 60 fêmeas da linhagem Suíço albino com idade entre oito e dez semanas, distribuídas em três tratamentos: o primeiro, composto por animais que receberam 0,2 mL de solução fisiológica, via intraperitonial (grupo controle, n=20; o segundo e terceiro, compostos de fêmeas que receberam 0,5 e 1 mg de geléia real diluídos em 0,2 mL de solução fisiológica via intraperitonial (n=20, respectivamente. Foi administrada geléia real por um período de 15 dias, segundo o processo de indução do crescimento folicular. As coletas dos embriões ocorreram 68 horas após a cobertura, utilizando-se o método da lavagem uterina. Não houve diferença no número de fêmeas que responderam ao tratamento

  2. Parâmetros morfofisiológicos testiculares de camundongos (Mus musculus suplementados com geleia real Morphophysiological parameters of mice (Mus musculus testicles supplemented with royal jelly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.T. Morais

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da geleia real sobre os parâmetros morfofisiológicos testiculares de camundongos (Mus musculus. Utilizaram-se 57 machos Swiss, com quatro meses de idade, distribuídos aleatoriamente em seis tratamentos: T1: solução fisiológica, via intraperitoneal; T2: 0,1mg de geleia real, via intraperitoneal; T3: 0,2mg de geleia real, via intraperitoneal; T4: água destilada, via oral; T5: 0,1mg de geleia real, via oral; e T6: 0,2mg de geleia real, via oral. Após 45 dias de suplementação com geleia real, os animais sacrificados e pesados tiveram seus testículos coletados, incluídos em parafina e corados com hematoxilina/eosina. Não houve diferença entre os tratamentos quanto aos: pesos corporal e testicular, índice gonadossomático, diâmetro tubular, altura do epitélio, comprimento total dos túbulos seminíferos, comprimento tubular por grama de testículo, índices tubulossomático e leydigossomático e valores de proporção volumétrica referentes à túnica própria, epitélio seminífero, vaso sanguíneo e vaso linfático. Foi encontrada diferença entre T1 e T3 em relação aos túbulos seminíferos e ao espaço intertubular.The effects of royal jelly on the morphophysiological parameters of mice (Mus musculus testicles were studied. Fifty-eight male Swiss mice were evaluated. They were four-month old and were randomly distributed in six treatments: T1: physiological solution, intraperitonial route; T2: 0.1mg of royal jelly, intraperitonial route; T3: 0.2mg of royal jelly, intraperitonial route; T4: distilled water, orally; T5: 0.1mg of royal jelly, orally; and T6: 0.2mg of royal jelly, orally. After 45 days of supplementation with royal jelly, the animals were weighted, slaughtered, and the testicles collected, included in paraffin, and stained with haematoxylin-eosin. No differences among treatments were observed for: body and testicular weights, gonadossomatic index, tubular diameter, epithelial height, total

  3. Effect of parsley (Petroselinum crispum, Apiaceae) juice against cadmium neurotoxicity in albino mice (Mus musculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maodaa, Saleh N; Allam, Ahmed A; Ajarem, Jamaan; Abdel-Maksoud, Mostafa A; Al-Basher, Gadah I; Wang, Zun Yao

    2016-02-04

    Parsley was employed as an experimental probe to prevent the behavioral, biochemical and morphological changes in the brain tissue of the albino mice following chronic cadmium (Cd) administration. Non-anesthetized adult male mice were given parsley juice (Petroselinum crispum, Apiaceae) daily by gastric intubation at doses of 10 and 20 g/kg/day. The animals were divided into six groups: Group A, mice were exposed to saline; Groups B and C, were given low and high doses of parsley juice, respectively; Group D, mice were exposed to Cd; Groups E and F, were exposed to Cd and concomitantly given low and high doses of parsley, respectively. Cd intoxication can cause behavioral abnormalities, biochemical and histopathological disturbances in treated mice. Parsley juice has significantly improved the Cd-associated behavioral changes, reduced the elevation of lipid peroxidation and normalized the Cd effect on reduced glutathione and peroxidase activities in the brain of treated mice. Histological data have supported these foundations whereas Cd treatment has induced neuronal degeneration, chromatolysis and pyknosis in the cerebrum, cerebellum and medulla oblongata. The low dose (5 g/kg/day) of parsley exhibited beneficial effects in reducing the deleterious changes associated with Cd treatment on the behavior, neurotransmitters level, oxidative stress and brain neurons of the Cd-treated mice.

  4. Intraperitoneal Injection of Ethanol for the Euthanasia of Laboratory Mice (Mus musculus) and Rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen-Worthington, Krystal H; Brice, Angela K; Marx, James O; Hankenson, F Claire

    2015-11-01

    Compassion, professional ethics, and public sensitivity require that animals are euthanized humanely and appropriately under both planned and emergent situations. According to the 2013 AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals, intraperitoneal injection of ethanol is "acceptable with conditions" for use in mice. Because only limited information regarding this technique is available, we sought to evaluate ethanol by using ECG and high-definition video recording. Mice (n = 85) and rats (n = 16) were treated with intraperitoneal ethanol (70% or 100%), a positive-control agent (pentobarbital-phenytoin combination [Pe/Ph]), or a negative-control agent (saline solution). After injection, animals were assessed for behavioral and physiologic responses. Pain-assessment techniques in mice demonstrated that intraperitoneal injection of ethanol was not more painful than was intraperitoneal Pe/Ph. Median time to loss of consciousness for all mice that received ethanol or Pe/Ph was 45 s. Median time to respiratory arrest was 2.75, 2.25, and 2.63 min, and time (mean ± SE) to cardiac arrest was 6.04 ± 1.3, 2.96 ± 0.6, and 4.03 ± 0.5 min for 70% ethanol, 100% ethanol, and Pe/Ph, respectively. No mouse that received ethanol or Pe/Ph regained consciousness. Although successful in mice, intraperitoneal ethanol at the doses tested (9.2 to 20.1 g/kg) was unsuitable for euthanasia of rats (age, 7 to 8 wk) because of the volume needed and prolonged time to respiratory effects. For mice, intraperitoneal injection of 70% or 100% ethanol induced rapid and irreversible loss of consciousness, followed by death, and should be considered as "acceptable with conditions."

  5. Genetics and evolution of hybrid male sterility in house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael A; Stubbings, Maria; Dumont, Beth L; Payseur, Bret A

    2012-07-01

    Comparative genetic mapping provides insights into the evolution of the reproductive barriers that separate closely related species. This approach has been used to document the accumulation of reproductive incompatibilities over time, but has only been applied to a few taxa. House mice offer a powerful system to reconstruct the evolution of reproductive isolation between multiple subspecies pairs. However, studies of the primary reproductive barrier in house mice-hybrid male sterility-have been restricted to a single subspecies pair: Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus. To provide a more complete characterization of reproductive isolation in house mice, we conducted an F(2) intercross between wild-derived inbred strains from Mus musculus castaneus and M. m. domesticus. We identified autosomal and X-linked QTL associated with a range of hybrid male sterility phenotypes, including testis weight, sperm density, and sperm morphology. The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) was strongly associated with hybrid sterility phenotypes when heterozygous. We compared QTL found in this cross with QTL identified in a previous F(2) intercross between M. m. musculus and M. m. domesticus and found three shared autosomal QTL. Most QTL were not shared, demonstrating that the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility largely differs between these closely related subspecies pairs. These results lay the groundwork for identifying genes responsible for the early stages of speciation in house mice.

  6. Lack of genotoxic potential of pesticides, spinosad, imidacloprid and neem oil in mice (Mus musculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Ankita; Kesari, V P

    2016-03-01

    Pesticides, spinosad, imidacloprid and neem oil are widely used both in residential and agricultural environments because of its broad spectrum insecticidal activity and effectiveness. The present study was undertaken to estimate genotoxicity of formulations of some pesticides in mice. Three pesticides of diverse group studied were spinosad (45% w/v), imidacloprid (17.8%, w/v) and neem oil. Animals were exposed 37, 4.5 and 50 mg kg⁻¹ b.wt. for spinosad, imidacloprid and neem oil, respectively, through oral gavage for 5 consecutive days. A vehicle control group and one positive control (cyclophosphamide; 20 mg kg⁻¹ b. wt.) were also selected. The results showed that cyclophosphamide produced 1.12% micronuclei in mice, as against 0.18 in vehicle control, 0.30 in spinosad, 0.28 in imidacloprid and 0.22% in neem oil, respectively. The gross percentage of chromosomal aberration in mice were 28.5% in cyclophosphamide against 6.5% in vehicle control, 8.0% in spinosad, 9.5% in imidacloprid and 7.0% in neem oil, respectively. The overall findings of the present study revealed that all the three pesticide formulations, imidacloprid, spinosad and neem oil at tested dose did not show any genotoxic effect in mice.

  7. Radioautographic study of DNA synthesis on gingival epithelium of mice Mus musculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira Tarelho, Z.V. da; Hetem, S.

    1985-01-01

    The frequency of DNA-sinthetizing cells in the basal layer of the gingival epithelium of the first lower molar region of young and adult mice of both sexes was studied using 3 H-thymidine and radioautography. (M.A.C.) [pt

  8. A survey on helminthic infection in mice (Mus musculus and rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus in Kermanshah, Iran

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    Norollah Pakdel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infections of rodents can compromise scientific research as well as the health of the animals and humans. Based on previous studies, infection rate of parasitic helminths is different in various regions of Iran. The current survey was aimed to determine endoparasitic helminths infection in 138 trapped rodents of Kermanshah county, Iran. Mice and rats were trapped using metal snares from January to October 2011 and euthanized. Rodents included 110 Mus musculus (79.00%, 23 Rattus norvegicus (17.00%, and five Rattus rattus (4.00%. The gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts were removed and examined to identify parasitic helminths. The results indicated that 42.02% of examined rodents were infected with eight helminths species, i.e. Trichuris muris (14.49%, Syphacia obvelata (13.76%, Syphacia muris (2.89%, Aspicularis tetrapetra (5.07%, Heterakis spumosa (5.07%, Capillaria hepatica eggs (3.62%, Hyminolepis diminuta (12.30%, and Cystisercus fasciolaris, the larva of Taenia teanieformis (4.34%. Given the results of this study, we concluded that examined rodents were more infected with nematodes than other helminths. As rodents are usually infected with a number of zoonotic parasites, hence control of these animals has an important role in safeguarding public health.

  9. Tartrazine induced changes in physiological and biochemical parameters in Swiss albino mice, Mus musculus

    OpenAIRE

    Arefin, Sayema; Hossain, Mohammad Salim; Akter Neshe, Shamme; Rashid, Md. Mamun Or; Amin, Mohammad Tohidul; Hussain, Md. Saddam

    2017-01-01

    Now-a-days synthetic food dyes are being used most commonly as food colorant in confectionaries, drugs and cosmetics. Present study was designed to evaluate the toxic effect of tartrazine, a widely used azo dye, on Swiss Albino mice. Experimental animals were treated with tested dye at a dose level 200mg/kg & 400mg/kg body weight along with normal diet. Various physiological and biochemical parameters were assessed to study the toxic effect of tartrazine. Our study rev...

  10. Effect of administering black cumin (Nigella sativa) toward postpartum mice (MusMusculus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imelda, F.; Darti, N. A.

    2018-03-01

    The period of childbirth is a period for the health provider monitoring that less monitoring can cause the mother to suffer a variety of problemsandcomplications during childbirth such as post-partum infections. This type of research was an experimental group P0: control group, treatment groups by administering Nigella sativa P1:2.6mg/day, P2:3.9mg/day, P3:5.2mg/day, and P4:6.5mg/day, which each group 5 samples. The average amount of leukocytes after given Nigella sativa 2.6mg/day for seven days (P1) which was 7:10±0:57 (x103cells/mm3), and at least in female mice after given Nigella sativa 6.5mg/day for sevendays (P4) which was 6.62±0.52 (x103cells/mm3). The average amount lymphocytes after given Nigella sativa 2.6mg/day for seven days (P1) which was 63.40±4.77 (x103cells/mm3), and least in female mice after given Nigella sativa 3.9 mg/day for seven days (P3) which was 47.00±14:58 (x103cells/mm3). Amount of monocytes after given Nigella sativa 5.2mg/day for seven days (P3) which was 5.40±0.55 (x103cells/mm3), and least in female mice after given Nigella sativa 2.6mg/day for seven days (P1) which was 4.80±1.30 (x103cells/mm3).

  11. Radioautographic DNA-synthesis study on mice mus musculus gingival epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira Tarelho, Z.V. da; Hetem, S.

    1984-01-01

    The DNA-synthetizing cells frequency in the gingival epithelium basal layer of the first lower molar region in young and adult mice of both sexes, using 3H-thymidine and radioautography were studied. The labeled cells frequency and proportion were determined and the data were statiscally analysed. The labeled cells frenquency is higher in female than in male animals, but difference is statiscally significant for adult animals only; this result suggests a hormonal influence, possibly of estrogen on the epithelial tissue. (Author) [pt

  12. Phagocytic Index of Peritoneal Macrophages after Propolis Suplementation in Mice (Mus musculus

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    Siti Eva Mustafiah

    2011-12-01

    Design and Method: This research is an experiment with post test study design randomized control group design. This study used mice that were divided into four groups randomly. The first group / Group-I were for negative control (standard feed and aquadest; The second group/Group-II were fed standard-feed, aquadest, and propolis at a dose of 1.25 mg/kgBM; the third group/group-III were fed standard-feed, water, and propolis at a dose of 2.5 mg/KgBM; The fourth group/Group-IV were fed standard feed, water, and propolis at a dose of 5 mg/KgBM. Treatment where conducted for 3 days. Result: The average macrophage phagocytic index, were at the highest level of it (7.82 1.63 while the lowest one were the first group 3.43 0.13. The Kruskall Wallis result stated that there is index difference among various groups with p 0.002 (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Propolis effected on mice peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis index (Sains Medika, 3(2:121-128.

  13. Cryptosporidium tyzzeri and Cryptosporidium muris originated from wild West-European house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) and East-European house mice (Mus musculus musculus) are non-infectious for pigs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kváč, Martin; Kestřánová, M.; Květoňová, Dana; Kotková, M.; Ortega, Y.; McEvoy, J.; Sak, Bohumil

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 1 (2012), s. 107-110 ISSN 0014-4894 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11061 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA206/08/0640 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Pigs * Cryptosporidium tyzzeri * Cryptosporidium muris * Experimental infection * PCR * Histology Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.154, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014489412001105

  14. Macroscopic description of the coronary arteries in Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus

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    A. Yoldas

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A total of 25 (13 male, 12 female adult, healthy Swiss albino mice were used to investigate the origin, course and anastomoses of coronary arteries. Coloured latex was injected into the aortic arch to enable these arteries to be clearly discerned. A. coronaria sinistra was larger than A. coronaria dextra. It was divided into a Ramus interventricularis paraconalis and a Ramus circumflexus sinister. However, in 2 specimens, the septal ramus, was observed to stem directly from the left coronary artery, and only 1 ventricular branch arose from the left circumflex. The collateral branches of the paraconal interventricular ramus had a larger diameter and more extensive distribution was observed in these specimens. The A. coronaria dextra was divided into a Ramus septalis and Ramus circumflexus dexter. The Ramus interventricularis subsinuosis was not detected in this study. The ventricular branches of the left coronary artery run intramyocardially whereas the branches of the right coronary artery course subendocardially.

  15. Histopathological effects of Chromium (III Sulfate on Liver and Kidney of Swiss Albino Mice (Mus musculus

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    Iffat Fatima

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Chromium (III sulfate has various industrial applications and is widely used in leather industry due to its high tanning properties. Cr (III is required for efficient metabolism of fats and carbohydrates in traces. Various studies have reported that its constant exposure may lead to severe health problems in both animals and humans. In this study, histopathological effect of dietary Cr (III was evaluated on liver and kidneys of rodents. For this purpose, adult Swiss albino mice (n=25 were divided into different treatment and control groups (n=5/group after sufficient acclimatization. After 3 weeks of treatment, animals were sacrificed and observations regarding histopathology of liver and kidneys were made in all treatment groups and compared to control. Microscopy and photography was performed after processing the tissues according to standard protocol of sectioning and staining. Liver cross sections of treated animals showed signs of fibrosis in portal area, and congestion of sinusoid and central vein. Whereas, more pronounced effects of Cr (III toxicity were observed in kidneys. These include mononuclear cell infiltration, necrosis and contraction of glomerulus within Bowman’s capsule. However, No pathological changes were observed in control group. These results support the hypothesis that enhanced level of Cr (III contamination of food can induce both hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. These basic findings prove that currently increasing levels of trivalent chromium in environment are hazardous to living organisms. Therefore, to avoid health risks to both animals and humans, conversion of toxic chromium waste to less toxic compounds is required. Moreover, exposure level through any route should also be minimized.

  16. A quantitative study of the second meiotic metaphase in male mice (Mus musculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, R A; Lim, M C; Coulter, V J

    1975-01-01

    Over 11,000 second meiotic metaphase spreads stained for the pericentromeric region have been studied quantitatively in male mice of 14 strains. The sex-chromosome constitution of a cell could be judged objectively if X and Y chromosomes and ploidy were all scored. A bias arose if only Y chromosomes and ploidy were scored but could be corrected statistically. There was no sign of other forms of bias. The original contiguity of X and Y second metaphases in vivo was very occasionally evident in the preparations. Most of the subhaploid aneuploid counts were assumed to be artifactual. The incidence of truly aneuploid second metaphases in 13 strains was estimated as 0.38+/-0.12%. The estimated average rate per chromosome was 0.019+/-0.006%, with a comparable order of magnitude for the sex chromosomes alone. Simultaneous aneuploidy of two or more chromosomes of the haploid set was estimated to be very rare. Of the spreads from 13 strains, 9.6% were polyploid (2N, 3N, 4N) and showed most of the possible combinations of sex chromosomes. Nearly all the polyploid spreads were considered to arise by artifactual cell fusion at the time of second metaphase during the preparative technique, especially of the X and Y daughter-cell products of the first meiotic division. Other modes of origin (true polyploidy, accidental superposition of cells during preparation) were unlikely. The data could be accommodated by a statistical model with only four parameters. It allowed for artifactual fusion mainly between daughter cells but also between non-daughter cells, bias in one scoring method, and bias in the numbers of cells with given ploidy successfully mounted. Current techniques of chromosome preparation were thought to be wholly unsuitable for the recognition of true polyploidy. The artifactual origin of polyploid spreads was borne out by an absence of polyploid spermatozoa in 14 strains. There appeared to be a virtually constant transmission rate of paternal X and Y chromosomes from

  17. Effect of Powder Leaf Breadfruit Disposals (Arthocarpus Altilis) in Oil Mandar District and Polman Against Cholesterol and Glucose Mice (Mus Musculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu'nisa, A.; Asmawati, A.; Farida, A.; FA, Fressy; Erni

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of powdered leaves of breadfruit (Arthocarpus altilis) on oil is mandated origin of the Polman glucose and cholesterol levels in mice (Mus musculus). This study comprised 4 treatments and each treatment consisted of 5 replicates, ie groups of mice were fed a standard (negative control); 2 groups: group of mice fed with standard and cholesterol feed (positive control); Group 3 that mice fed with standard and Selayar oil; and group 4: group of mice fed with standard and Mandar oil that has been given powdered leaves of breadfruit. Measurement of glucose and blood cholesterol levels in mice done 3 times ie 2 weeks after the adaptation period (phase 1), 2 weeks after administration of the oil (phase 2) and 2 weeks after feeding cholesterol (stage 3). Based on the analysis of data both cholesterol and glucose levels showed that in a group of 4 decreased glucose and cholesterol levels in stage 2 but at stage 3 an increase in the group of mice given only the oil while in the group of mice given the oil and powdered leaves of breadfruit indicate glucose levels and normal cholesterol. The conclusion of this study show that the addition of powdered leaves of breadfruit into cooking oil Mandar influential in glucose levels and normalize blood cholesterol levels in mice.

  18. A geometric morphometric analysis of the shape of the first upper molar in mice of the genus Mus (Muridae, Rodentia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macholán, Miloš

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 270, č. 4 (2006), s. 672-681 ISSN 0952-8369 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6045307 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Mus * geometric morphometrics * thin-plate spline Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.413, year: 2006

  19. Syphacia obvelata (Nematode, Oxyuridae) infecting laboratory mice Mus musculus (Rodentia, Muridae): phylogeny and host-parasite relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida

    2016-03-01

    Syphacia obvelata is a pinworm nematode parasite infecting man and laboratory animals in high abundance. This parasitological study was carried out during the period of March 2014-February 2015 to investigate the helminth parasites infecting the laboratory mice Mus musculus in the Animal House at Cairo University, Egypt. The prevalence of S. obvelata in M. musculus was 75.0 %. The extent of infection with S. obvelata is analyzed according to the sex of the host mice. It was shown that the prevalence of male infection was greater than female worms. Morphological characterization revealed that the present Oxyurid species possesses a rounded cephalic end with less developed lips, esophagus divided into cylindrical corpus, and globular bulb supported internally with valvular apparatus; three mamelons are located at the ventral surface with a single chitinized spicule and a gubernaculum provided with an accessory hook in males, and ovijector apparatus opens ventrally by the vulva surrounded by protruded lips in female worms. Body of the male was 0.623-1.130 (0.830 ± 0.11) mm long and 0.092-0.130 (0.110 ± 0.01) mm wide; the esophagus was 0.164-0.280 (0.210 ± 0.01) mm long; the nerve ring and excretory pore are located at 0.035-0.132 (0.073 ± 0.01) and 0.087-0.191 (0.145 ± 0.01) mm from the anterior end, respectively, while the female measured 2.930-4.650 (3.540 ± 0.1) mm long and 0.120-0.232 (0.156 ± 0.001) mm wide; the esophagus was 0.213-0.410 (0.342 ± 0.01) mm long; the nerve ring, excretory pore, and vulval opening are located at 0.026-0.157 (0.121 ± 0.01), 0.134-0.243 (0.195 ± 0.01), and 0.323-0.632 (0.546 ± 0.11) mm from the anterior end, respectively; eggs measured 0.120-0.139 (0.129 ± 0.001) mm long and 0.030-0.052 (0.045 ± 0.001) mm wide. It compared morphometrically with other Syphacia species described previously and showed little differences in

  20. Aktivitas Penyembuhan Luka Sediaan Topikal Ekstrak Bawang Merah (Allium cepa terhadap Luka Sayat Kulit Mencit (Mus Musculus (THE ACTIVITY OF TOPICAL EXTRACT OF ONIONS (ALLIUM CEPA ON WOUND HEALING PROCESS IN MICE (MUS MUSCULUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visa Yunanda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing is a physiological response of the body to restore continuity, structure and function ofthe injured tissue. Onion is one of the plants that are empirically used by the community to heal wounds.The purpose of this study was to observe the effect of topical extract of onions (Allium cepa on woundhealing process in mice (Mus musculus strain BalbC. This study used the posttest-only control groupdesign with completely randomized design (CRD. The samples were 12 male mice with weight ranged of22-32 g divided into four treatments; i.e.: Vaseline, topical extract of onion 5%, topical extract of onion30% and topical extract of onion 55% with 3 replications. Wound healing evaluated macroscopically toobserve hyperemia, wound contraction, granulation, crusting and pus production; and microscopically bycounting the number of fibroblasts on day 10. Hyperemia, granulation, crusting and pus production wereanalyzed descriptively. Wound contraction and the number of fibroblasts were analyzed using ANOVA(p<0.05 and followed with Duncan’s test (p<0,05. Descriptive observations obtained hyperemia lasteduntil day 3, granulation in wounds used topical extract of onion 30% and 55% were faster than the other,crusting lasted until day 6 and the production of pus was not found in any treatment. Statistical testresults showed that topical extract of onion 55% significantly affected wound contraction and topicalextract of onion 30% and 55% significantly affected maturation, which characterized by the decreasednumber of fibroblasts. The results of this study showed that topical extract of onion had significant effect(p<0.05 on wound healing and the effect was in line with the increased concentration of the onion extract.

  1. EXAMINATION OF THE SUNGKAI’S YOUNG LEAF EXTRACT (Peronema canescens AS AN ANTIPIRETIC, IMMUNITY, ANTIPLASMODIUM AND TERATOGENITY IN MICE (Mus.muculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Martono Hadi Putranto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The research of examination extract sungkai’s young leafs as an antipyretic, immunity, anti plasmodium and teratogenity in mice (Mus. Muculus has been done. The aims of this research is examinations in infusa effectiveness extract of the young leafs in mice (Mus. Muculus. The object of this research used 50 males Webster’s species mice has 7 – 8 week olds, averages 30 gram in weight. Mice are divided into 5 groups in examination for antipyretic. Mice has been introduced the DPT-HB fever before. The first group as a negative control treated a pure water, second group as a positive control treated a paracetamol 1.08 mg/Kg w/w and rest of groups treated a young sungkai’s extract leafs in the concentration of 0.186 mg/Kg w/w, 0.375 mg/Kg w/w and 0.5625 mg/Kg w/w respectively. Measurements of the temperature toke in the duration of 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes. Furthermore, in the immunity examination, mice also divided into 5 groups, first as a negative control treated a pure water, second group as a positive control treated 0.07 mg/Kg imunos w/w and respectively for the rest groups treated with young sungkai’s extract leafs in the concentration of 0.186 mg/Kg w/w, 0.375 mg/Kg w/w and 0.5625 mg/Kg w/w. These treatments held in gavage system with the duration at 24 hours. In examination amount of the leukocyte number, toke from the tail of the mice, has a result the dosage in 0.5625 mg/Kg w/w extract’s young leafs of sungkai could be decrease the temperature 29%, it is better than paracetamol treatment which could be decreased only 26% of temperature. In addition, for the immunity examination, the best dosage of the young sungkai’s extract leafs is 0.567 mg/Kg w/w, which It can increase 36% amount of the leukocyte number. This dosage is better than the positive control by using Imunos, which is can increase only 23% of the temperature.

  2. The regeneration of thermal wound on mice skin (Mus Musculus) after Q-Switch Nd: YAG laser irradiation for cancer therapy candidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apsari, R.; Nahdliyatun, E.; Winarni, D.

    2017-09-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate the regeneration of mice skin tissue (Mus Musculus) irradiated by Q-Switch Nd: YAG laser and morphological change due to Q-Switch Nd: YAG laser irradiation compared to conventional heating (hairdryer). The 2-3 month of twenty-seven mice were used for experimental animals. Mice were incised in the dorsum by the damage effect of laser energy dose (therapeutic dose) of 29.5 J/cm2 with 10 seconds of exposure time, 10 Hz of repetition rate, and 100 pulses of the given single pulse energy. The mice skin tissue was injuried by hairdryer to get burned effect. Mice were divided into three groups, Group I (control) were not treated by anything, Group II were treated by Q-Switch Nd: YAG laser irradiation and sacrificed on (0, 1, 3, 5) days, and Group III were treated by hairdryer then sacrificed on (0, 1, 3, 5) days. Pathology examination showed that the energy of 29,5 J/cm2 dose produced the hole effect (ablation) through the hypodermic layer caused by optical breakdown and collagen coagulation. Thus, the 60 °C temperature of burn showed coagulation necrosis because piknosis discovered in the injured area. The regeneration process showed that the mice skin tissue's ability to regenerate was irradiated by fast laser because of the focus of Q-Switch Nd: YAG laser. It was showed by the scab releases on third day and completely reepithelialization formation on the fifth day. The collagen fibers distribution was same as normal skin tissue on day 5 and so did angiogenesis. Therefore, Q-Switch Nd: YAG laser can be applied for problems of dermatology medical therapies, especially melasma, nevus of ota and tatto therapy. For skin cancer therapy application, energy dose of unregenerated skin tissue is chosen because the death expected effect is permanent.

  3. Effects of social stress and intrauterine position on sexual phenotype in wild-type house mice (Mus musculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Zielinski; John G. Vandenbergh; Monica M. Montano

    1991-01-01

    Wild-type house mice were used to test the effect of intrauterine position on anogenital distance (AGD) and to verify whether crowding stress would masculinize female pups, developing at all intrauterine positions, as has been demonstrated in CF-1 mice stressed by restraint, heat, and...

  4. Effect of bovine pellucid zone 3 monoclonal antibodies on B cell lymphoma 2 expressions of granulosa cell and mice (Mus musculus follicle diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heti Ira Ayue

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of pellucid zone 3 monoclonal antibodies against B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2 expression and mice follicle diameter at various time periods.Methods: The animal model of this study was 36 Balb/c mice (Mus musculus. A true experimental design was used with a post-test only control group approach. BCL-2 expression was observed using immunohistochemistry, while the follicle diameter was observed by haematoxylin-eosin staining. The data was analyzed using nested ANOVA to compare the results of the mean expression of BCL-2 on the 5th and 20th day of observation in the pre-antral and antral follicle between the control and treatment groups.Results: No significant differences were found in BCL-2 gene expression. There were also no significant differences in BCL-2 expression on the 10th day of pre-antral follicle analysis. Moreover, there were no significant differences between the mean follicle diameter on the 5th, 10th, and 20th day of pre-antral and antral follicle development between the control and treatment groups. The addition of bovine pellucid zone 3 (bZP3 monoclonal antibodies on the 5th and 20th day of observation did not decrease the expression of BCL-2 gene in the pre-antral and antral follicle of mice. Administering bZP3 monoclonal antibodies on the 10th day of observation did not affect BCL-2 expression in the pre-antral follicle but did decrease BCL-2 expression in the antral follicle. Supplying bZP3 monoclonal antibodies on the 5th, 10th and 20th day did not affect the diameter of pre-antral and antral follicles of the mice.Conclusion: The monoclonal antibodies bovine zona pelusida 3 has the potential to be developed as a safe immunocontraception preparation.

  5. Sensitivity of perianal tape impressions to diagnose pinworm (Syphacia spp.) infections in rats (Rattus norvegicus) and mice (Mus musculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, William Allen; Randolph, Mildred M; Mandrell, Timothy D

    2009-07-01

    We determined the sensitivity of perianal tape impressions to detect Syphacia spp. in rats and mice. We evaluated 300 rat and 200 mouse perianal impressions over 9 wk. Pinworm-positive perianal tape impressions from animals with worm burdens at necropsy were considered as true positives. Conversely, pinworm-negative perianal tape impressions from animals with worm burdens were considered false negatives. The sensitivity of perianal tape impressions for detecting Syphacia muris infections in rats was 100%, and for detecting Syphacia obvelata in mice was 85.5%. Intermittent shedding of Syphacia obvelata ova is the most probable explanation for the decreased sensitivity rate we observed in mice. We urge caution in use of perianal tape impressions alone for Syphacia spp. screening in sentinel mice and rats.

  6. Rad54 and Mus81 cooperation promotes DNA damage repair and restrains chromosome missegregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghamrasni, S El; Cardoso, R; Li, L

    2016-01-01

    . The inefficient repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in Rad54(-/-)Mus81(-/-) cells was accompanied by elevated levels of chromosome missegregation and cell death. Perhaps as a consequence, tumor incidence in Rad54(-/-)Mus81(-/-) mice remained comparable to that in Mus81(-/-) mice. Our study highlights...

  7. Increased survivorship of testosterone-treated female house mice (Mus musculus) in high-density field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.J. Zielinski; J.G. Vandenbergh

    1991-01-01

    Differences in hormone levels influence sexual differences in aggression. survival, home-range size and dispcrsal in rodents. The role oftestosterone in establishing some of these differences in wild house mice was examined. Females treated with either 0·5 mg of testosterone enanthate (TE-treated) or oil (control), and an...

  8. Interspecies Variation in the Susceptibility of a Wild-Derived Colony of Mice to Pinworms (Aspiculuris tetraptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Ryan C; Murray, Jill K; Campbell, Polly; Nagamori, Yoko; Molnar, Adam; Jackson, Todd A

    2017-01-01

    Pinworms are common parasites in wild and laboratory rodents. Despite their relative nonpathogenicity in immunocompetent models, pinworm infections add an unwanted variable and may confound some types of research. For this reason, health monitoring programs and biosecurity measures aim to minimize the spread of pinworm infections into colonies free from the organisms. Wild-derived and laboratory strains of mice have shown varied susceptibility to infection with Aspiculuris tetraptera, the most commonly found murine pinworm. In particular, susceptibility is increased in wild-derived mice, young animals, and males. Routine surveillance at our institution revealed pinworm infection (A. tetraptera only) within a colony of multiple, wild-derived species of Mus, although only specific species showed positive results during initial sampling. To assess whether species-associated differences in susceptibility were present, we analyzed fecal egg counts of A. tetraptera in every cage of the colony. Our results revealed significant differences in susceptibility between various species and subspecies of Mus. Egg counts were significantly higher in Mus spicilegus than Mus m. domesticus (WSB/EiJ) and Mus macedonicus. Mus spretus had higher egg counts than M. m. domesticus (WSB/EiJ), M. m. musculus (PWK/PhJ), and M. macedonicus. Egg counts did not differ in regard to age, sex, or number of mice per cage. As wild-derived mouse models continue to compliment research largely based on laboratory strains, it will be important to understand host-parasite interactions and their effects on research, particularly studies evaluating immune responses, behavior, growth, and other physiologic parameters.

  9. Anti-cholesterol activity in vivo test of multifunction herbs extract in the water using in vivo method in mice (Mus musculus L.) DDY-strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tristantini, Dewi; Christina, Diana

    2018-02-01

    Atherosclerosis is the hardening of the arteries due to cholesterol accumulation in the blood vessels. The occurrence of cardiovascular disease can be reduced by lowering cholesterol levels in the blood. Nevertheless, using some pharmaceutical synthetic medicine for lowering the cholesterol has several side effects that dangerous for human body. There are 3 plants, tanjung leaf (Mimusops elengi L.), star fruit leaf (Averrhoa carambola L.), and curcuma (Curcuma xanthorrhiza L.), which are combined empirically believed would serve as multifunction herbs. Tanjung leaf has been known to have antioxidant, anti-cholesterol, and anti-platelet activity, also star fruit leaf have anti-hyperglycemia activity. Furthermore, curcuma has been known as a hepatoprotection agent. In this study, the combination of all three simplicias were used as anti-cholesterol. Anti-cholesterol activity test by in vivo method using mice (Mus muculus L.) result in decreased cholesterol as much as 47% for 250 mL human dosage in 7 days. This performance equals to 73% of simvastatin activity in decreased cholesterol. In this study, we can conclude the multifunction herbs that were combination of tanjung (M. elengi) leaf, star fruit leaf (Averrhoa carambola L.), and curcuma (Curcuma xanthorrhiza L.) extract can be used as cholesterol decreasing medicine.

  10. X-rays effect on the proximal tubes of mice kidney (Mus musculus). Ultra-structural study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, I.P.

    1973-01-01

    The kidney alterations in mice it was submitted to total irradiation was studied, trying to determine which lesions were produced and in which sequence its occur. Knowing that irradiation, since in low doses, decrease the organism survival, since anticipating the normal aging, and how it occur and, in event of it occur if such alterations are qualitative and/or quantitatively related with that occur in aging. (L.M.J.)

  11. Estrogenic Effect of 70% Ethanol Turmeric (Curcuma domestica Val. Extract on Ovariectomized Female Mice (Mus musculus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Dewi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of extract turmeric (Curcuma domestica Val. on endometrium thickness, vaginal epithelium, mammary gland, and protein of estrogen receptor of ovariectomized mice was examined. Twenty five ovariectomized mice which were divided into five groups, were treated by ethynilestradiol (8,4 x 10-3 g, aquades (10 ml, and turmeric extract at doses 230 mg/kg b.w.; 310 mg/kg b.w.; and 390 mg/kg b.w. for eight days. At the end of experiments the mice were killed, then the uterus, vagina, and mammae were removed and the wet weight of uterus was recorded. Uterus, vagina, and mammae were examined histologically. Estrogen receptor protein from uterus were analized by using SDS-PAGE. One way anava test showed that turmeric extract at doses 310 mg/kg b.w. and 390 mg/kg b.w give estrogenic effect on vaginal ephitelium, endometrium thickness, and diametre of mammary glands. SDS-PAGE analysis showed there were differences in protein concentration between control and treatment groups which were seen in the thickness of the bands. Estrogen receptor band could be detected in sampel of treatment groups at molecular weight 45 kDa.

  12. Mouse consomic strains: Exploiting genetic divergence between Mus m. musculus and Mus m. domesticus subspecies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gregorová, Soňa; Divina, Petr; Storchová, Radka; Trachtulec, Zdeněk; Fotopulosová, Vladana; Svenson, K.L.; Donahue, K.L.; Paigen, B.; Forejt, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2008), s. 509-515 ISSN 1088-9051 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/07/1264 Grant - others:HHMI(US) HHMI55000306; NIH(US) 1R01HG00318; EC(XE) AnEUploidy 037627 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : complex trait loci (QTLs) * chromosome substitution strains * PWD/Ph Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 10.176, year: 2008

  13. In vivo toxicity of the culturable marine cyanobacterium Geitlerinema pseudacutissimum CNP 1019 extract on male Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthanayagam, Veerabadhran; Nagarajan, Manivel; Sundararaman, Muthuraman

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the in vivo toxicity of Geitlerinema pseudacutissimum CNP 1019 organic extract in a murine host. A single intraperitoneal injection of 1 g extract kg⁻¹ body weight (BW) did not exhibit mortality, whereas 3 g extract kg⁻¹ BW (approximate lethal dose) resulted in mortality within 5 days. To perform subchronic exposure toxicity analyses (i.e., daily exposure for a total of 14 days), a maximum concentration of ≤1 g extract kg⁻¹ BW was used. Subchronic toxicity studies in the treated mice, showed fluctuations of feed intake, loss of body weight, increase in specific activity of serum lactate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase and decrease in whole serum protein concentration. LDH isoenzyme expression was found, and levels of the various isoforms were decreased as a result of the treatment. Histopathology studies in liver, kidney, and spleen isolated from the treated mice showed the presence of necrotic debris, hemorrhage, and micronuclei revealing the toxicity of the extract. The dose-dependent alterations in biochemical parameters in conjunction with the histological lesions noted in the animals treated with the prepared extract illustrate the likely potential toxicity to mammals from any encounters with the studied cyanobacterium.

  14. Toxicological evaluation in silico and in vivo of secondary metabolites of Cissampelos sympodialis in Mus musculus mice following inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Mateus Feitosa; Ferreira, Larissa Adilis Maria Paiva; Gadelha, Francisco Allysson Assis Ferreira; Ferreira, Laércia Karla Diega Paiva; Felix, Mayara Barbalho; Scotti, Marcus Tullius; Scotti, Luciana; de Oliveira, Kardilândia Mendes; Dos Santos, Sócrates Golzio; Diniz, Margareth de Fátima Formiga Melo

    2017-12-04

    The ethanolic extract of the leaves of Cissampelos sympodialis showed great pharmacological potential, with inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities, however, it showed some toxicological effects. Therefore, this study aims to verify the toxicological potential of alkaloids of the genus Cissampelos through in silico methodologies, to develop a method in LC-MS/MS verifying the presence of alkaloids in the infusion and to evaluate the toxicity of the infusion of the leaves of C. sympodialis when inhaled by Swiss mice. Results in silico showed that alkaloid 93 presented high toxicological potential along with the products of its metabolism. LC-MS/MS results showed that the infusion of the leaves of this plant contained the alkaloids warifteine and methylwarifteine. Finally, the in vivo toxicological analysis of the C. sympodialis infusion showed results, both in biochemistry, organ weights and histological analysis, that the infusion of C. sympodialis leaves presents a low toxicity.

  15. Dose Optimization of Calcusol™ and Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate (COM on Primary Renal Epithelial Cells Cultures of Mice ( Mus musculus

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    Ahmad Soni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Kidney stones are one of the urologic diseases that have plagued mankind for centuries. The main constituents of stones in the kidney are calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM crystals. Nowadays, there are varieties of drugs and treatments that can be made to minimize the grievances due to kidney stone disease. The treatment can be done either by using chemicals or traditional medicine. Calcusol™ is one of the popular herbal products that have been used by Indonesian people in curing the kidney stone disease. The main constituent that was contained in Calcusol™ is an extract of the tempuyung leaves (Sonchus arvensis L., which is expected could cure the kidney stone disease. This study used primary cultured renal epithelial cells of mice to determine the optimal dose of Calcusol™ and the optimal dose of COM. The primary Kidney epithelial cell were treated with Calcusol™ and COM at various doses. The analysis of the cell death either by necrosis or apoptosis pathways was analyzed by flow cytometric analysis. The results that were obtained is the percentage of cell death that is then analyzed by using a complete randomized design (CRD One Way Anova. Based on the results that were obtained, it is known that the optimal dose of Calcusol™ in vitro were ranging from 75 ppm to 100 ppm, whereas the optimal dose of COM suggested for 500 ppm.

  16. A complex genetic basis to X-linked hybrid male sterility between two species of house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Jeffrey M; Dean, Matthew D; Nachman, Michael W

    2008-08-01

    The X chromosome plays a central role in the evolution of reproductive isolation, but few studies have examined the genetic basis of X-linked incompatibilities during the early stages of speciation. We report the results of a large experiment focused on the reciprocal introgression of the X chromosome between two species of house mice, Mus musculus and M. domesticus. Introgression of the M. musculus X chromosome into a wild-derived M. domesticus genetic background produced male-limited sterility, qualitatively consistent with previous experiments using classic inbred strains to represent M. domesticus. The genetic basis of sterility involved a minimum of four X-linked factors. The phenotypic effects of major sterility QTL were largely additive and resulted in complete sterility when combined. No sterility factors were uncovered on the M. domesticus X chromosome. Overall, these results revealed a complex and asymmetric genetic basis to X-linked hybrid male sterility during the early stages of speciation in mice. Combined with data from previous studies, we identify one relatively narrow interval on the M. musculus X chromosome involved in hybrid male sterility. Only a handful of spermatogenic genes are within this region, including one of the most rapidly evolving genes on the mouse X chromosome.

  17. Genetic Dissection of a Key Reproductive Barrier Between Nascent Species of House Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael A.; Steffy, Brian; Wiltshire, Tim; Payseur, Bret A.

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive isolation between species is often caused by deleterious interactions among loci in hybrids. Finding the genes involved in these incompatibilities provides insight into the mechanisms of speciation. With recently diverged subspecies, house mice provide a powerful system for understanding the genetics of reproductive isolation early in the speciation process. Although previous studies have yielded important clues about the genetics of hybrid male sterility in house mice, they have been restricted to F1 sterility or incompatibilities involving the X chromosome. To provide a more complete characterization of this key reproductive barrier, we conducted an F2 intercross between wild-derived inbred strains from two subspecies of house mice, Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus. We identified a suite of autosomal and X-linked QTL that underlie measures of hybrid male sterility, including testis weight, sperm density, and sperm morphology. In many cases, the autosomal loci were unique to a specific sterility trait and exhibited an effect only when homozygous, underscoring the importance of examining reproductive barriers beyond the F1 generation. We also found novel two-locus incompatibilities between the M. m. musculus X chromosome and M. m. domesticus autosomal alleles. Our results reveal a complex genetic architecture for hybrid male sterility and suggest a prominent role for reproductive barriers in advanced generations in maintaining subspecies integrity in house mice. PMID:21750261

  18. Genetic dissection of a key reproductive barrier between nascent species of house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael A; Steffy, Brian; Wiltshire, Tim; Payseur, Bret A

    2011-09-01

    Reproductive isolation between species is often caused by deleterious interactions among loci in hybrids. Finding the genes involved in these incompatibilities provides insight into the mechanisms of speciation. With recently diverged subspecies, house mice provide a powerful system for understanding the genetics of reproductive isolation early in the speciation process. Although previous studies have yielded important clues about the genetics of hybrid male sterility in house mice, they have been restricted to F1 sterility or incompatibilities involving the X chromosome. To provide a more complete characterization of this key reproductive barrier, we conducted an F2 intercross between wild-derived inbred strains from two subspecies of house mice, Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus domesticus. We identified a suite of autosomal and X-linked QTL that underlie measures of hybrid male sterility, including testis weight, sperm density, and sperm morphology. In many cases, the autosomal loci were unique to a specific sterility trait and exhibited an effect only when homozygous, underscoring the importance of examining reproductive barriers beyond the F1 generation. We also found novel two-locus incompatibilities between the M. m. musculus X chromosome and M. m. domesticus autosomal alleles. Our results reveal a complex genetic architecture for hybrid male sterility and suggest a prominent role for reproductive barriers in advanced generations in maintaining subspecies integrity in house mice.

  19. Micro-evolutionary divergence patterns of mandible shapes in wild house mouse (Mus musculus populations

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    Tautz Diethard

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insights into the micro-evolutionary patterns of morphological traits require an assessment of the natural variation of the trait within and between populations and closely related species. The mouse mandible is a particularly suitable morphological trait for such an analysis, since it has long been used as a model to study the quantitative genetics of shape. In addition, many distinct populations, sub-species and closely related species are known for the house mouse. However, morphological comparisons among wild caught animals require an assessment in how far environmental and technical factors could interfere with the shape change measurements. Results Using geometric morphometrics, we have surveyed mandible shapes in 15 natural populations of the genus Mus, with a focus on the subspecies Mus musculus domesticus. In parallel we have carefully assessed possibly confounding technical and biological factors. We find that there are distinct differences on average between populations, subspecies and species, but these differences are smaller than differences between individuals within populations. Populations from summer-dry regions, although more ancestral, are less distinct from each other than are populations from the more recently colonized northern areas. Populations with especially distinct shapes occur in an area of sympatry of M. m. domesticus and M. spretus and on recently colonized sub-antarctic islands. We have also studied a number of inbred strains to assess in how far their mandible shapes resemble those from the wild. We find that they fall indeed into the shape space of natural variation between individuals in populations. Conclusions Although mandible shapes in natural populations can be influenced by environmental variables, these influences are insufficient to explain the average extent of shape differences between populations, such that evolutionary processes must be invoked to explain this level of diversity

  20. Of mice and (Viking?) men: phylogeography of British and Irish house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, Jeremy B; Jones, Catherine S; Gündüz, Islam; Scascitelli, Moira; Jones, Eleanor P; Herman, Jeremy S; Rambau, R Victor; Noble, Leslie R; Berry, R J; Giménez, Mabel D; Jóhannesdóttir, Fríoa

    2009-01-22

    The west European subspecies of house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) has gained much of its current widespread distribution through commensalism with humans. This means that the phylogeography of M. m. domesticus should reflect patterns of human movements. We studied restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequence variations in mouse mitochondrial (mt) DNA throughout the British Isles (328 mice from 105 localities, including previously published data). There is a major mtDNA lineage revealed by both RFLP and sequence analyses, which is restricted to the northern and western peripheries of the British Isles, and also occurs in Norway. This distribution of the 'Orkney' lineage fits well with the sphere of influence of the Norwegian Vikings and was probably generated through inadvertent transport by them. To form viable populations, house mice would have required large human settlements such as the Norwegian Vikings founded. The other parts of the British Isles (essentially most of mainland Britain) are characterized by house mice with different mtDNA sequences, some of which are also found in Germany, and which probably reflect both Iron Age movements of people and mice and earlier development of large human settlements. MtDNA studies on house mice have the potential to reveal novel aspects of human history.

  1. A pronounced evolutionary shift of the pseudoautosomal region boundary in house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael A; Ikeda, Akihiro; Payseur, Bret A

    2012-08-01

    The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) is essential for the accurate pairing and segregation of the X and Y chromosomes during meiosis. Despite its functional significance, the PAR shows substantial evolutionary divergence in structure and sequence between mammalian species. An instructive example of PAR evolution is the house mouse Mus musculus domesticus (represented by the C57BL/6J strain), which has the smallest PAR among those that have been mapped. In C57BL/6J, the PAR boundary is located just ~700 kb from the distal end of the X chromosome, whereas the boundary is found at a more proximal position in Mus spretus, a species that diverged from house mice 2-4 million years ago. In this study we used a combination of genetic and physical mapping to document a pronounced shift in the PAR boundary in a second house mouse subspecies, Mus musculus castaneus (represented by the CAST/EiJ strain), ~430 kb proximal of the M. m. domesticus boundary. We demonstrate molecular evolutionary consequences of this shift, including a marked lineage-specific increase in sequence divergence within Mid1, a gene that resides entirely within the M. m. castaneus PAR but straddles the boundary in other subspecies. Our results extend observations of structural divergence in the PAR to closely related subspecies, pointing to major evolutionary changes in this functionally important genomic region over a short time period.

  2. Effect of human ZP3 monoclonal antibody on expression of GDF-9 and number of theca cells in ovary of mice (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilik Indahwati, M.Sc.

    2018-06-01

    the expression of growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9 and number of theca cells in the ovaries of mice (Mus musculus. Methods: Our study employed a true experiment posttest-only control group design of 48 mice that were divided into the control and three mAb hZP3-treatment groups (20, 40, and 60 μg. Mice in each group were terminated on days 10, 15, and 20. GDF-9 expression was measured by immunohistochemistry and the number of theca cells was counted. Results: Analysis of the effects of mAb hZP3 (at 20–60 μg on the expression of GDF-9 and amount of theca cells did not show significant differences. Similar findings were observed throughout the study period (at 10–20 days. Therefore, mAb hZP3 had no effect on GDF-9 expression and theca cells. Conclusion: This study showed that mAb hZP3 can be considered to be an effective and safe immunocontraception. الكلمات المفتاحية: ج د ف-٩, عوامل النمو, الأجسام المضادة أحادية المنشأ, خلايا ثيكا, Keywords: GDF-9, Growth factors, Monoclonal antibody, Theca cells

  3. Intraluminar testicular colonization and differentiation of the inner cell mass in mice (Mus Musculus Colonización intraluminar testicular y diferenciación de la masa celular interna en ratones (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Láyonal Acosta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Primordial germ cells (PGC`s are transplanted to testicle of other individual of the same species, they colonize the lumen of the seminiferous tubules, seeking a niche to differentiate into sperm. Our objective was to evaluate the intraluminal colonization of a suspension of cells in the inner cell mass (IMC`s of blastocysts obtained from mice, using a novel technique. It was transplanted a suspension of ICM by mean of inmunosurgery into the rete testis of recipient animals which were previously treated with cyclophosphamide to reduce their own spermatogenesis. We confirmed the presence of intraluminal minitubules in 2 of 100 seminiferous tubules, demonstrating that transplantation of a suspension of cells from the inner cell mass can colonize the seminiferous tubules and also maintain a synchronously xenogenic spermatogenesis with the receiver.Cuando las células germinales primordiales (CGPs son trasplantadas al testículo de otro individuo de la misma especie; colonizan el lumen de los túbulos seminíferos, buscando su nicho para diferenciarse en espermatozoides. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar la colonización intraluminal de una suspensión de células de la masa celular interna (MCI obtenidas de blastocistos de ratones. Una suspensión de MCI obtenidos mediante una inmunocirugía en la red testicular de animales tratados previamente con ciclofosfamida para disminuir su propia espermatogénesis fueron trasladados a animales receptores. Se comprobó la presencia de minitúbulos intraluminales en 2 de 100 túbulos seminíferos, lo que demuestra que el trasplante de una suspensión de células de la masa celular interna pueden colonizar los túbulos seminíferos y además mantener una espermatogénesis xenogénica de manera sincrónica con el receptor.

  4. iTRAQ analysis of hepatic proteins in free-living Mus spretus mice to assess the contamination status of areas surrounding Doñana National Park (SW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abril, Nieves; Chicano-Gálvez, Eduardo; Michán, Carmen; Pueyo, Carmen; López-Barea, Juan, E-mail: bb1lobaj@uco.es

    2015-08-01

    This work aims to develop and integrate new -omics tools that would be applicable to different ecosystem types for a technological updating of environmental evaluations. We used a 2nd-generation (iTRAQ-8plex) proteomic approach to identify/quantify proteins differentially expressed in the liver of free-living Mus spretus mice from Doñana National Park or its proximities. Mass spectrometry was performed in an LTQ Orbitrap system for iTRAQ reporter ion quantitation and protein identification using a Mus musculus database as reference. A prior IEF step improved the separation of the complex peptide mixture. Over 2000 identified proteins were altered, of which 118 changed by ≥ 2.5-fold in mice from at least two problem sites. Part of the results obtained with the iTRAQ analysis was confirmed by Western blot. Over 75% of the 118 proteins were upregulated in animals captured at polluted sites and only 16 proteins were downregulated. Upregulated proteins were involved in stress response; cell proliferation and apoptosis; signal transduction; metastasis or tumour suppression; xenobiotic export or vesicular trafficking; and metabolism. The downregulated proteins, all potentially harmful, were classified as oncoproteins and proteins favouring genome instability. The iTRAQ results presented here demonstrated that the survival of hepatic cells is compromised in animals living at polluted sites, which showed deep alterations in metabolism and the signalling pathways. The identified proteins may be useful as biomarkers of environmental pollution and provide insight about the metabolic pathways and/or physiological processes affected by pollutants in DNP and its surrounding areas. - Highlights: • iTRAQ quantitation was used for the first time to monitor a wildlife reserve • Over 2,000 proteins with altered expression were identified in problem Doñana sites • Of them, 118 changed over 2.5-fold in, at least, two problem sites • Upregulation of protective proteins

  5. X-y interactions underlie sperm head abnormality in hybrid male house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Polly; Nachman, Michael W

    2014-04-01

    The genetic basis of hybrid male sterility in house mice is complex, highly polygenic, and strongly X linked. Previous work suggested that there might be interactions between the Mus musculus musculus X and the M. m. domesticus Y with a large negative effect on sperm head morphology in hybrid males with an F1 autosomal background. To test this, we introgressed the M. m. domesticus Y onto a M. m. musculus background and measured the change in sperm morphology, testis weight, and sperm count across early backcross generations and in 11th generation backcross males in which the opportunity for X-autosome incompatibilities is effectively eliminated. We found that abnormality in sperm morphology persists in M. m. domesticus Y introgression males, and that this phenotype is rescued by M. m. domesticus introgressions on the X chromosome. In contrast, the severe reductions in testis weight and sperm count that characterize F1 males were eliminated after one generation of backcrossing. These results indicate that X-Y incompatibilities contribute specifically to sperm morphology. In contrast, X-autosome incompatibilities contribute to low testis weight, low sperm count, and sperm morphology. Restoration of normal testis weight and sperm count in first generation backcross males suggests that a small number of complex incompatibilities between loci on the M. m. musculus X and the M. m. domesticus autosomes underlie F1 male sterility. Together, these results provide insight into the genetic architecture of F1 male sterility and help to explain genome-wide patterns of introgression across the house mouse hybrid zone.

  6. The genomic ancestry, landscape genetics and invasion history of introduced mice in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James C.; King, Carolyn M.

    2018-01-01

    The house mouse (Mus musculus) provides a fascinating system for studying both the genomic basis of reproductive isolation, and the patterns of human-mediated dispersal. New Zealand has a complex history of mouse invasions, and the living descendants of these invaders have genetic ancestry from all three subspecies, although most are primarily descended from M. m. domesticus. We used the GigaMUGA genotyping array (approximately 135 000 loci) to describe the genomic ancestry of 161 mice, sampled from 34 locations from across New Zealand (and one Australian city—Sydney). Of these, two populations, one in the south of the South Island, and one on Chatham Island, showed complete mitochondrial lineage capture, featuring two different lineages of M. m. castaneus mitochondrial DNA but with only M. m. domesticus nuclear ancestry detectable. Mice in the northern and southern parts of the North Island had small traces (approx. 2–3%) of M. m. castaneus nuclear ancestry, and mice in the upper South Island had approximately 7–8% M. m. musculus nuclear ancestry including some Y-chromosomal ancestry—though no detectable M. m. musculus mitochondrial ancestry. This is the most thorough genomic study of introduced populations of house mice yet conducted, and will have relevance to studies of the isolation mechanisms separating subspecies of mice. PMID:29410804

  7. The genomic ancestry, landscape genetics and invasion history of introduced mice in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Andrew J; Russell, James C; King, Carolyn M

    2018-01-01

    The house mouse ( Mus musculus ) provides a fascinating system for studying both the genomic basis of reproductive isolation, and the patterns of human-mediated dispersal. New Zealand has a complex history of mouse invasions, and the living descendants of these invaders have genetic ancestry from all three subspecies, although most are primarily descended from M. m. domesticus . We used the GigaMUGA genotyping array (approximately 135 000 loci) to describe the genomic ancestry of 161 mice, sampled from 34 locations from across New Zealand (and one Australian city-Sydney). Of these, two populations, one in the south of the South Island, and one on Chatham Island, showed complete mitochondrial lineage capture, featuring two different lineages of M. m. castaneus mitochondrial DNA but with only M. m. domesticus nuclear ancestry detectable. Mice in the northern and southern parts of the North Island had small traces (approx. 2-3%) of M. m. castaneus nuclear ancestry, and mice in the upper South Island had approximately 7-8% M. m. musculus nuclear ancestry including some Y-chromosomal ancestry-though no detectable M. m. musculus mitochondrial ancestry. This is the most thorough genomic study of introduced populations of house mice yet conducted, and will have relevance to studies of the isolation mechanisms separating subspecies of mice.

  8. The contribution of the Y chromosome to hybrid male sterility in house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Polly; Good, Jeffrey M; Dean, Matthew D; Tucker, Priscilla K; Nachman, Michael W

    2012-08-01

    Hybrid sterility in the heterogametic sex is a common feature of speciation in animals. In house mice, the contribution of the Mus musculus musculus X chromosome to hybrid male sterility is large. It is not known, however, whether F1 male sterility is caused by X-Y or X-autosome incompatibilities or a combination of both. We investigated the contribution of the M. musculus domesticus Y chromosome to hybrid male sterility in a cross between wild-derived strains in which males with a M. m. musculus X chromosome and M. m. domesticus Y chromosome are partially sterile, while males from the reciprocal cross are reproductively normal. We used eight X introgression lines to combine different X chromosome genotypes with different Y chromosomes on an F1 autosomal background, and we measured a suite of male reproductive traits. Reproductive deficits were observed in most F1 males, regardless of Y chromosome genotype. Nonetheless, we found evidence for a negative interaction between the M. m. domesticus Y and an interval on the M. m. musculus X that resulted in abnormal sperm morphology. Therefore, although F1 male sterility appears to be caused mainly by X-autosome incompatibilities, X-Y incompatibilities contribute to some aspects of sterility.

  9. Genomic resources for wild populations of the house mouse, Mus musculus and its close relative Mus spretus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, Bettina; Karakoc, Emre; Neme, Rafik; Teschke, Meike; Pfeifle, Christine; Pezer, Željka; Babiker, Hiba; Linnenbrink, Miriam; Montero, Inka; Scavetta, Rick; Abai, Mohammad Reza; Molins, Marta Puente; Schlegel, Mathias; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Altmüller, Janine; Franitza, Marek; Büntge, Anna; Künzel, Sven; Tautz, Diethard

    2016-01-01

    Wild populations of the house mouse (Mus musculus) represent the raw genetic material for the classical inbred strains in biomedical research and are a major model system for evolutionary biology. We provide whole genome sequencing data of individuals representing natural populations of M. m. domesticus (24 individuals from 3 populations), M. m. helgolandicus (3 individuals), M. m. musculus (22 individuals from 3 populations) and M. spretus (8 individuals from one population). We use a single pipeline to map and call variants for these individuals and also include 10 additional individuals of M. m. castaneus for which genomic data are publically available. In addition, RNAseq data were obtained from 10 tissues of up to eight adult individuals from each of the three M. m. domesticus populations for which genomic data were collected. Data and analyses are presented via tracks viewable in the UCSC or IGV genome browsers. We also provide information on available outbred stocks and instructions on how to keep them in the laboratory. PMID:27622383

  10. The Effect of Red Fruit's (Pandanus conoideus Extract to Eritrocytes, Hemoglobin, PCV and TPP Concentrations of Mice (Mus musculus Infected by Toxoplasma gondii

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    Anis Dwi Utami

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic parasites caused by Toxoplasma gondii. The red fruit’s extract contains tocopherol and betacarotene as antioxidant and it can repair the bodies immune system. This research was aimed to study the effect of red fruit’s extract to erithrocytes, hemoglobine, the values of PCV and TPP concentration of mice infected with T. gondii, so that the red fruit extract can be used as alternative herbal medicine for eliminating Toxoplasmosis. 15 of Balb/C mice, male, three months, 30 gr of body weight were used as experimental animals. The mice were then devided into three groups. Group I was a control, group II  was tachyzoite infected and group III was tachyzoite infected and given red fruit’s extract. Group III given red fruit’s extract on first day with 0,53 g/kg BW/mice/day. Mice in group II and III were infected by injection Toxoplasma gondii tachyziote 1x103 a mice intraperitoneally. The blood sample was taken from five mice in each group at 7th and 12th day pass through cantus medialis. The blood was examinated in Clinical Pathology Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Gadjah Mada University. Data were analyzed by using Factorial 2 x 3. The result showed no significant difference (P>0,05 in hemoglobin, and PCV’s value between groups I, II and III before and after infection of T. gondii’s tachyzoite. The TPP’s value between groups I, II and III before and after infection of T. gondii’s tachyzoite was significantly difference (P<0,05.

  11. Evolution of major milk proteins in Mus musculus and Mus spretus mouse species: a genoproteomic analysis

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    Panthier Jean-Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to their high level of genotypic and phenotypic variability, Mus spretus strains were introduced in laboratories to investigate the genetic determinism of complex phenotypes including quantitative trait loci. Mus spretus diverged from Mus musculus around 2.5 million years ago and exhibits on average a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in every 100 base pairs when compared with any of the classical laboratory strains. A genoproteomic approach was used to assess polymorphism of the major milk proteins between SEG/Pas and C57BL/6J, two inbred strains of mice representative of Mus spretus and Mus musculus species, respectively. Results The milk protein concentration was dramatically reduced in the SEG/Pas strain by comparison with the C57BL/6J strain (34 ± 9 g/L vs. 125 ± 12 g/L, respectively. Nine major proteins were identified in both milks using RP-HPLC, bi-dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-Tof mass spectrometry. Two caseins (β and αs1 and the whey acidic protein (WAP, showed distinct chromatographic and electrophoresis behaviours. These differences were partly explained by the occurrence of amino acid substitutions and splicing variants revealed by cDNA sequencing. A total of 34 SNPs were identified in the coding and 3'untranslated regions of the SEG/Pas Csn1s1 (11, Csn2 (7 and Wap (8 genes. In addition, a 3 nucleotide deletion leading to the loss of a serine residue at position 93 was found in the SEG/Pas Wap gene. Conclusion SNP frequencies found in three milk protein-encoding genes between Mus spretus and Mus musculus is twice the values previously reported at the whole genome level. However, the protein structure and post-translational modifications seem not to be affected by SNPs characterized in our study. Splicing mechanisms (cryptic splice site usage, exon skipping, error-prone junction sequence, already identified in casein genes from other species, likely explain the existence of multiple αs1-casein

  12. Clinical Procedures Training for Veterinary Technicians and Investigators using Common Laboratory Animal Species, including: Mice (Mus musculus), Rats (Rattus norvegicus), Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), Guinea Pigs (Gavia porcellus), Rabbits (Otyctolagus cuniculus), Ferrets (Mustela putorius furo), Pigs (Sus scrofa), Sheep (Ovis aries), and Goats (Capra hircus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-30

    60th Medical Group (AMC), Travis AFB, CA INSTITUTIONAL ANIMAL CARE AND USE COMMITTEE (IACUC) FINAL REPORT SUMMARY (Please !ml all information. Use...Technicians and Investigators using Common Laboratory Animal Species, including: Mice (Mus muscu/us), Rats (Rattus norvegicus), Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus...DATE: 14 November 2016 FUNDING SOURCE: SG O&M funds LAST TRIENNIAL REVISION DATE: 15 October 2015 1. RECORD OF ANIMAL USAGE: Animal Species: Total

  13. Fighting in the home cage: Agonistic encounters and effects on neurobiological markers within the social decision-making network of house mice (Mus musculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Gian D; Howerton, Chris L; Trainor, Brian C

    2014-04-30

    Inbred strains of mice, such as C57Bl/6, have become preferred animal models for neurobehavioral studies. A main goal in creating inbred lines is to reduce the effects of individual genetic variation on observed phenotypes. Most studies use only males, and there is increasing evidence that agonistic interactions within the home cage may produce systematic variability in behavior and brain function. Previous studies have demonstrated that the outcomes of aggressive interactions have powerful effects on the brain and behavior, but less is known about whether aggressive interactions within the home cage have similar effects. We assessed group-housed laboratory mice C57Bl/6 for competitive ability and then tested the extent high competitive ability (CA) or low CA was related to gene and protein expression within related pathways. We focused on a broad social behavior network, including the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). High CA mice had significantly more corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 (CRHR2) and estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) mRNA in the BNST. Our data suggest a simple test of CA could yield valuable information that could be used to reduce error variance and increase power in neurobiological studies using mice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical Chemistry Reference Intervals for C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, and C3HeB/FeJ Mice (Mus musculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Gordon P; Rathkolb, Birgit; Oestereicher, Manuela A; Lengger, Christoph J; Moerth, Corinna; Micklich, Kateryna; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Wolf, Eckhard; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Although various mouse inbred strains are widely used to investigate disease mechanisms and to establish new therapeutic strategies, sex-specific reference intervals for laboratory diagnostic analytes that are generated from large numbers of animals have been unavailable. In this retrospective study, we screened data from more than 12,000 mice phenotyped in the German Mouse Clinic from January 2006 through June 2014 and selected animals with the genetic background of C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, or C3HeB/FeJ. In addition, we distinguished between the C57BL/6NTac substrain and C57BL/6N mice received from other vendors. The corresponding data sets of electrolytes (sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, inorganic phosphate), lipids (cholesterol, triglyceride), and enzyme activities (ALT, AST, ALP, α-amylase) and urea, albumin, and total protein levels were analyzed. Significant effects of age and sex on these analytes were identified, and strain- or substrain- and sex-specific reference intervals for 90- to 135-d-old mice were calculated. In addition, we include an overview of the literature that reports clinical chemistry values for wild-type mice of different strains. Our results support researchers interpreting clinical chemistry values from various mouse mutants and corresponding wild-type controls based on the examined strains and substrains.

  15. The effect of pomelo citrus (Citrus maxima var. Nambangan), vitamin C and lycopene towards the number reduction of mice (Mus musculus) apoptotic hepatocyte caused of ochratoxin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badriyah, Hastuti, Utami Sri

    2017-06-01

    Foods can contaminated by some mycotoxin produced by molds. Ochratoxin A is a sort of mycotoxin that cause structural damage on hepatocytes. Pomelo citrus (Citrus maxima var. Nambangan) contain vitamin C and lycopene that have antioxidant character. This research is done to: 1)examine the effect of pomelo citrus juice, vitamin C, and lycopene treatment towards the number reduction of mice apoptotic hepatocytes caused by ochratoxin A exposure, 2)examine the effect of vitamin C mixed with lycopene treatment towards the number reduction of mice apoptotic hepatocytes caused by ochratoxin A exposure. The experimental group used male mice strain BALB-C in the age of three month and bodyweight 20-30 grams devided in 4 experiment group and control group. The experiment group I were administered pomelo citrus juice 0,5 ml/30 grams BW/day orally during 2 weeks and then administered with ochratoxin in the dose of 1 mg/kg BW during 1 week. The experiment group II were administered with vitamin C in the dose of 5,85 µg/30g BW with the same methods. The experiment group III were administered with lycopene in the dose of 0,1025 µg/30 g BW with the same methods. The experiment group IV were administered with vitamin C mixed with lycopene with the same methods. The control group were administered with ochratoxin A in the dose of 1 mg/kg BW per oral during 1 week. The apoptotic hepatocyte number were count by microscopic observation of hepatocyte slides from experiment group as well as control group with cytochemical staining. The research result shows that: 1) the pomelo citrus juice, vitamin C as well as lycopene administration could reduce the mice apoptotic hepatocyte number caused by ochratoxin A exposure, compared with the mice apoptotic hepatocyte number caused by ochratoxin A exposure only; 2) the vitamin C mixed with lycopene could reduce the mice apoptotic hepatocyte number caused by ochratoxin A exposure compared with the mice apoptotic hepatocyte number caused by

  16. Where are the wormy mice? A re-examination of hybrid parasitism in the European house mouse hybrid zone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baird, Stuart J. E.; Ribas, Alexis; Macholán, Miloš; Albrecht, Tomáš; Piálek, Jaroslav; Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 9 (2012), s. 2757-2772 ISSN 0014-3820 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0640 Institutional support : RVO:68081766 ; RVO:67985904 Keywords : helminths * Mus musculus domesticus * Mus musculus musculus * resistance * immune gene transitive compatibility Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.864, year: 2012

  17. Effect of Diet High in Coconut Oil on Cardiovascular Disease Risk in ApoE Knockout and Wild Type Mice (Mus musculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-07

    Objective: We evaluated the risk of cardiovascular disease in both control and proatherosclerotic mice consuming diets high in coconut oil. Methods...evaluated by a pathologist blinded to treatment. Results: There were no differences in the average weight gain or amount of diet consumed regardless of...genotype or diet consumed . Similarly, there were no differences in total cholesterol, HDL, and triglyceride in any of the groups. Statistically

  18. Protective Effect of Parsley Juice (Petroselinum crispum, Apiaceae against Cadmium Deleterious Changes in the Developed Albino Mice Newborns (Mus musculus Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Allam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parsley was used as a probe of the current experiment to prevent the behavioral, morphological and biochemical changes in the newborn brain following the administration of cadmium (Cd to the pregnant mice. The nonanesthetized pregnant mice were given daily parsley juice (Petroselinum crispum at doses of 20 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg. Pregnant mothers were given Cd at a dose of 30 mg/kg divided into 3 equal times. The newborns have been divided into 6 groups: Group A, mothers did not take treatment; Groups B and C, mothers were treated with low and high dose of parsley, respectively; Group D, mothers were treated only with Cd (perinatal intoxication; Groups E and F, mothers were treated with Cd doses and protected by low and high doses of parsley, respectively. Light microscopy showed that Cd-induced neuronal degeneration by chromatolysis and pyknosis in the brain regions. The low dose of parsley 10 g/kg/day exhibited significant effects in neutralizing and reducing the deleterious changes due to Cd exposure during pregnancy on the behavioral activities, neurotransmitters, oxidative stress, and brain neurons morphology of the mice newborns.

  19. Protective Effect of Parsley Juice (Petroselinum crispum, Apiaceae) against Cadmium Deleterious Changes in the Developed Albino Mice Newborns (Mus musculus) Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Ahmed A; Maodaa, Salah N; Abo-Eleneen, Rasha; Ajarem, Jamaan

    2016-01-01

    Parsley was used as a probe of the current experiment to prevent the behavioral, morphological and biochemical changes in the newborn brain following the administration of cadmium (Cd) to the pregnant mice. The nonanesthetized pregnant mice were given daily parsley juice (Petroselinum crispum) at doses of 20 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg. Pregnant mothers were given Cd at a dose of 30 mg/kg divided into 3 equal times. The newborns have been divided into 6 groups: Group A, mothers did not take treatment; Groups B and C, mothers were treated with low and high dose of parsley, respectively; Group D, mothers were treated only with Cd (perinatal intoxication); Groups E and F, mothers were treated with Cd doses and protected by low and high doses of parsley, respectively. Light microscopy showed that Cd-induced neuronal degeneration by chromatolysis and pyknosis in the brain regions. The low dose of parsley 10 g/kg/day exhibited significant effects in neutralizing and reducing the deleterious changes due to Cd exposure during pregnancy on the behavioral activities, neurotransmitters, oxidative stress, and brain neurons morphology of the mice newborns.

  20. Effects of Topical Anesthetics on Behavior, Plasma Corticosterone, and Blood Glucose Levels after Tail Biopsy of C57BL/6NHSD Mice (Mus musculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Emily S; Johnson, Robert A; French, DeAnne C; Boivin, Gregory P

    2016-01-01

    Tail biopsy is a common procedure that is performed to obtain genetic material for determining genotype of transgenic mice. The use of anesthetics or analgesics is recommended, although identifying safe and effective drugs for this purpose has been challenging. We evaluated the effects of topical 2.5% lidocaine-2.5% prilocaine cream applied to the distal tail tip at 5 or 60 min before biopsy, immersion of the tail tip for 10 seconds in ice-cold 70% ethanol just prior to biopsy, and immersion of the tail tip in 0.5% bupivacaine for 30 s after biopsy. Mice were 7, 11, or 15 d old at the time of tail biopsy. Acute behavioral responses, plasma corticosterone, and blood glucose were measured after biopsy, and body weight and performance in elevated plus maze and open-field tests after weaning. Ice-cold ethanol prior to biopsy prevented acute behavioral responses to biopsy, and both ice-cold ethanol and bupivacaine prevented elevations in corticosterone and blood glucose after biopsy. Tail biopsy with or without anesthesia did not affect body weight or performance on elevated plus maze or open-field tests. We recommend the use of ice-cold ethanol for topical anesthesia prior to tail biopsy in mice 7 to 15 d old.

  1. 1800 MHz mobile phone irradiation induced oxidative and nitrosative stress leads to p53 dependent Bax mediated testicular apoptosis in mice, Mus musculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahin, Saba; Singh, Surya P; Chaturvedi, Chandra M

    2018-09-01

    Present study was carried out to investigate the effect of long-term mobile phone radiation exposure in different operative modes (Dialing, Receiving, and Stand-by) on immature male mice. Three-week old male mice were exposed to mobile phone (1800 MHz) radiation for 3 hr/day for 120 days in different operative modes. To check the changes/alteration in testicular histoarchitecture and serum testosterone level, HE staining and ELISA was performed respectively. Further, we have checked the redox status (ROS, NO, MDA level, and antioxidant enzymes: SOD, CAT, and GPx) by biochemical estimation, alteration in the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (p53 and Bax), active executioner caspase-3, full length/uncleaved PARP-1 (DNA repair enzyme), anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2 and Bcl-x L ) in testes by immunofluorescence and cytosolic cytochrome-c by Western blot. Decreased seminiferous tubule diameter, sperm count, and viability along with increased germ cells apoptosis and decreased serum testosterone level, was observed in the testes of all the mobile phone exposed mice compared with control. We also observed that, mobile phone radiation exposure in all the three different operative modes alters the testicular redox status via increasing ROS, NO, and MDA level, and decreasing antioxidant enzymes levels leading to enhanced apoptosis of testicular cells by increasing the expression of pro-apoptotic and apoptotic proteins along with decreasing the expression of anti-apoptotic protein. On the basis of results, it is conclude that long-term mobile phone radiation exposure induced oxidative stress leads to apoptosis of testicular cells and thus impairs testicular function. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Tissues and hair residues and histopathology in wild rats (Rattus rattus L.) and Algerian mice (Mus spretus Lataste) from an abandoned mine area (Southeast Portugal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, R.; Pereira, M.L.; Ribeiro, R.; Goncalves, F.

    2006-01-01

    Data gathered in this study suggested the exposure of rats and Algerian mice, living in an abandoned mining area, to a mixture of heavy metals. Although similar histopathological features were recorded in the liver and spleen of both species, the Algerian mouse has proved to be the strongest bioaccumulator species. Hair was considered to be a good biological material to monitor environmental contamination of Cr in rats. Significant positive associations were found between the levels of this element in hair/kidney (r = 0.826, n = 9, p < 0.01) and hair/liver (r = 0.697, n = 9, p = 0.037). Although no association was found between the levels of As recorded in the hair and in the organs, the levels of this element recorded in the hair, of both species, were significantly higher in animals captured in the mining area, which met the data from the organs analysed. Nevertheless, more studies will be needed to reduce uncertainty about cause-effect relationships. - The bioaccumulation of As and Cd and signs of renal histopathological injury proved the value of Algerian mice as a bioindicator species in the risk assessment of contaminated sites

  3. Tissues and hair residues and histopathology in wild rats (Rattus rattus L.) and Algerian mice (Mus spretus Lataste) from an abandoned mine area (Southeast Portugal)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, R. [Departamento de Biologia da Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal) and Instituto Piaget, Campus Academico de Viseu, Estrada do Alto do Gaio, Lordosa, 3515-776 Viseu (Portugal)]. E-mail: ruthp@bio.ua.pt; Pereira, M.L. [Departamento de Biologia da Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Ribeiro, R. [Instituto do Ambiente e Vida, Departamento de Zoologia da Universidade de Coimbra, Largo Marques de Pombal, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal); Goncalves, F. [Departamento de Biologia da Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2006-02-15

    Data gathered in this study suggested the exposure of rats and Algerian mice, living in an abandoned mining area, to a mixture of heavy metals. Although similar histopathological features were recorded in the liver and spleen of both species, the Algerian mouse has proved to be the strongest bioaccumulator species. Hair was considered to be a good biological material to monitor environmental contamination of Cr in rats. Significant positive associations were found between the levels of this element in hair/kidney (r = 0.826, n = 9, p < 0.01) and hair/liver (r = 0.697, n = 9, p = 0.037). Although no association was found between the levels of As recorded in the hair and in the organs, the levels of this element recorded in the hair, of both species, were significantly higher in animals captured in the mining area, which met the data from the organs analysed. Nevertheless, more studies will be needed to reduce uncertainty about cause-effect relationships. - The bioaccumulation of As and Cd and signs of renal histopathological injury proved the value of Algerian mice as a bioindicator species in the risk assessment of contaminated sites.

  4. Polymorphism in hybrid male sterility in wild-derived Mus musculus musculus strains on proximal chromosome 17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskocilová, Martina; Prazanová, Gabriela; Piálek, Jaroslav

    2009-02-01

    The hybrid sterility-1 (Hst1) locus at Chr 17 causes male sterility in crosses between the house mouse subspecies Mus musculus domesticus (Mmd) and M. m. musculus (Mmm). This locus has been defined by its polymorphic variants in two laboratory strains (Mmd genome) when mated to PWD/Ph mice (Mmm genome): C57BL/10 (carrying the sterile allele) and C3H (fertile allele). The occurrence of sterile and/or fertile (wild Mmm x C57BL)F1 males is evidence that polymorphism for this trait also exists in natural populations of Mmm; however, the nature of this polymorphism remains unclear. Therefore, we derived two wild-origin Mmm strains, STUS and STUF, that produce sterile and fertile males, respectively, in crosses with C57BL mice. To determine the genetic basis underlying male fertility, the (STUS x STUF)F1 females were mated to C57BL/10 J males. About one-third of resulting hybrid males (33.8%) had a significantly smaller epididymis and testes than parental animals and lacked spermatozoa due to meiotic arrest. A further one-fifth of males (20.3%) also had anomalous reproductive traits but produced some spermatozoa. The remaining fertile males (45.9%) displayed no deviation from values found in parental individuals. QTL analysis of the progeny revealed strong associations of male fitness components with the proximal end of Chr 17, and a significant effect of the central section of Chr X on testes mass. The data suggest that genetic incompatibilities associated with male sterility have evolved independently at the proximal end of Chr 17 and are polymorphic within both Mmd and Mmm genomes.

  5. Tapak liman (Elephantopus scaber L) extract-induced CD4+ and CD8+ differentiation from hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cell proliferation in mice (Mus musculus L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djati, Muhammad Sasmito; Habibu, Hindun; Jatiatmaja, Nabilah A.; Rifa'i, Muhaimin

    2017-11-01

    Tapak Liman (Elephantopus scaber L) is a traditional medicinal plant containing several active compounds that potentially affecting hematopoietic stem cells, such as epifrieelinol, lupeol, stigmasterol, triacontane-1-ol, dotriacontane-1-ol, lupeol acetate, deoxyelephan-topin, isodeoxyelephantopin, polyphenol luteolin-7, as well as various flavonoids and glucosides. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of leaf extract of Tapak Liman on hematopoietic stem cells in mice BALB/c, by observation of the relative number of cells expressing CD4/CD8, CD4/CD62L, and TER119/B220 in the spleen, and TER119/B220, TER119/VLA-4 and TER119/CD34 in bone marrow, after being administered leaf extract for 2 weeks. This experiment used 12 female mice, which were divided into three treatment groups, P1= 0.5 g.g bw-1.day-1, P2= 1.0 g.g bw-1.day-1 and P3=2.0 g.g bw-1.day-1 Tapak Liman leaf extract as well as a control. The relative numbers of cells expressing surface molecules were analyzed by flowcytometry and quantitative data were tested using one-way ANOVA. The results showed that the leaf extract of Tapak Liman has no significant effect on erythrocyte proliferation; on the other hand, it had a significant effect on both proliferation and differentiation of B lymphocytes (B220+) in bone marrow (p=0.044) and increased the expression of CD4+, CD8+ molecule in B cells (p=0.026) and erythroid cells in spleen and bone marrow, based on the estimation of cells that expressed TER119+VLA-4+, identified as important in the development pathway of erythrocytes. An increased cell percentage of TER11+VLA-4+ occurred for treatment P2, 12% higher than the control. The increased expression of TER119+VLA-4+ was assumed to be due to the iron content in Tapak Liman, which functioned to stimulate the progenitor hematopoietic cells to proliferate and differentiate into a precursor of erythroid cells (TER119+VLA-4+). There was an increasing number of cells expressing the surface molecules TER119

  6. THE EFFECT OF CIPLUKAN (Physalis angulata L. FRUIT EXTRACT ON SGPT AND SGOT LEVELS AGAINST WHITE MALE MICE (Mus musculus HYPERGLYCEMIA INDUCED BY ALLOXAN AS BIOLOGY LEARNING RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Lailatul Fitri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ciplukan (Physalis angulata L. used by the community as an antidiabetic drug. Antidiabetic effects caused ciplukan fruit of this plant contain chemicals flavonoids with the percentage of fruit extract 300 mg / ml was 84%. Flavonoids are antioxidant compounds one that works a treat or neutralize free radicals that are expected with the administration of these antioxidants can be inhibited damage to body cells and can prevent damage to the body and the onset of degenerative diseases. This type of research is True Experimental Research. The research design using The Posttest-Only Control Group Design. The research design used completely randomized design (CRD. This research data is data SGPT and SGOT levels. Analysis of data using one-way analysis of variance at significance level of 0.05 and Duncan 5%. The results showed that different doses of fruit extract ciplukan effect on SGPT and SGOT levels of mice. Duncan test showed that the treatment dose ciplukan fruit extract is the most effective dose of 2 ml / kg. The research results can be used by teachers as information of an alternative to utilize medical plants of hyperglicemia and antiocsidant on Biology subject for X Grade of Senior High School, especially on the concept Maintenance and Utilizing of Biological Diversity in Core Competence 4

  7. Regional thermal specialisation in a mammal: temperature affects power output of core muscle more than that of peripheral muscle in adult mice (Mus musculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Rob S; Tallis, Jason; Angilletta, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    In endotherms, such as mammals and birds, internal organs can specialise to function within a narrow thermal range. Consequently, these organs should become more sensitive to changes in body temperature. Yet, organs at the periphery of the body still experience considerable fluctuations in temperature, which could select for lower thermal sensitivity. We hypothesised that the performance of soleus muscle taken from the leg would depend less on temperature than would the performance of diaphragm muscle taken from the body core. Soleus and diaphragm muscles were isolated from mice and subjected to isometric and work-loop studies to analyse mechanical performance at temperatures between 15 and 40 °C. Across this thermal range, soleus muscle took longer to generate isometric force and longer to relax, and tended to produce greater normalised maximal force (stress) than did diaphragm muscle. The time required to produce half of maximal force during isometric tetanus and the time required to relax half of maximal force were both more sensitive to temperature in soleus than they were in diaphragm. However, thermal sensitivities of maximal force during isometric tetani were similar for both muscles. Consistent with our hypothesis, power output (the product of speed and force) was greater in magnitude and more thermally sensitive in diaphragm than it was in soleus. Our findings, when combined with previous observations of muscles from regionally endothermic fish, suggest that endothermy influences the thermal sensitivities of power output in core and peripheral muscles.

  8. Genome patterns of selection and introgression of haplotypes in natural populations of the house mouse (Mus musculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Staubach

    Full Text Available General parameters of selection, such as the frequency and strength of positive selection in natural populations or the role of introgression, are still insufficiently understood. The house mouse (Mus musculus is a particularly well-suited model system to approach such questions, since it has a defined history of splits into subspecies and populations and since extensive genome information is available. We have used high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP typing arrays to assess genomic patterns of positive selection and introgression of alleles in two natural populations of each of the subspecies M. m. domesticus and M. m. musculus. Applying different statistical procedures, we find a large number of regions subject to apparent selective sweeps, indicating frequent positive selection on rare alleles or novel mutations. Genes in the regions include well-studied imprinted loci (e.g. Plagl1/Zac1, homologues of human genes involved in adaptations (e.g. alpha-amylase genes or in genetic diseases (e.g. Huntingtin and Parkin. Haplotype matching between the two subspecies reveals a large number of haplotypes that show patterns of introgression from specific populations of the respective other subspecies, with at least 10% of the genome being affected by partial or full introgression. Using neutral simulations for comparison, we find that the size and the fraction of introgressed haplotypes are not compatible with a pure migration or incomplete lineage sorting model. Hence, it appears that introgressed haplotypes can rise in frequency due to positive selection and thus can contribute to the adaptive genomic landscape of natural populations. Our data support the notion that natural genomes are subject to complex adaptive processes, including the introgression of haplotypes from other differentiated populations or species at a larger scale than previously assumed for animals. This implies that some of the admixture found in inbred strains of mice

  9. Open-field behavior of house mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronikowski, A M; Carter, P A; Swallow, J G; Girard, I A; Rhodes, J S; Garland, T

    2001-05-01

    Open-field behavioral assays are commonly used to test both locomotor activity and emotionality in rodents. We performed open-field tests on house mice (Mus domesticus) from four replicate lines genetically selected for high voluntary wheel-running for 22 generations and from four replicate random-bred control lines. Individual mice were recorded by video camera for 3 min in a 1-m2 open-field arena on 2 consecutive days. Mice from selected lines showed no statistical differences from control mice with respect to distance traveled, defecation, time spent in the interior, or average distance from the center of the arena during the trial. Thus, we found little evidence that open-field behavior, as traditionally defined, is genetically correlated with wheel-running behavior. This result is a useful converse test of classical studies that report no increased wheel-running in mice selected for increased open-field activity. However, mice from selected lines turned less in their travel paths than did control-line mice, and females from selected lines had slower travel times (longer latencies) to reach the wall. We discuss these results in the context of the historical open-field test and newly defined measures of open-field activity.

  10. PRDM9 drives evolutionary erosion of hotspots in Mus musculus through haplotype-specific initiation of meiotic recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christopher L; Kajita, Shimpei; Walker, Michael; Saxl, Ruth L; Raghupathy, Narayanan; Choi, Kwangbom; Petkov, Petko M; Paigen, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Meiotic recombination generates new genetic variation and assures the proper segregation of chromosomes in gametes. PRDM9, a zinc finger protein with histone methyltransferase activity, initiates meiotic recombination by binding DNA at recombination hotspots and directing the position of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). The DSB repair mechanism suggests that hotspots should eventually self-destruct, yet genome-wide recombination levels remain constant, a conundrum known as the hotspot paradox. To test if PRDM9 drives this evolutionary erosion, we measured activity of the Prdm9Cst allele in two Mus musculus subspecies, M.m. castaneus, in which Prdm9Cst arose, and M.m. domesticus, into which Prdm9Cst was introduced experimentally. Comparing these two strains, we find that haplotype differences at hotspots lead to qualitative and quantitative changes in PRDM9 binding and activity. Using Mus spretus as an outlier, we found most variants affecting PRDM9Cst binding arose and were fixed in M.m. castaneus, suppressing hotspot activity. Furthermore, M.m. castaneus×M.m. domesticus F1 hybrids exhibit novel hotspots, with large haplotype biases in both PRDM9 binding and chromatin modification. These novel hotspots represent sites of historic evolutionary erosion that become activated in hybrids due to crosstalk between one parent's Prdm9 allele and the opposite parent's chromosome. Together these data support a model where haplotype-specific PRDM9 binding directs biased gene conversion at hotspots, ultimately leading to hotspot erosion.

  11. Molecular heterogeneity in major urinary proteins of Mus musculus subspecies: potential candidates involved in speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Jane L.; Beynon, Robert J.; Armstrong, Stuart D.; Davidson, Amanda J.; Roberts, Sarah A.; Gómez-Baena, Guadalupe; Smadja, Carole M.; Ganem, Guila

    2017-01-01

    When hybridisation carries a cost, natural selection is predicted to favour evolution of traits that allow assortative mating (reinforcement). Incipient speciation between the two European house mouse subspecies, Mus musculus domesticus and M.m.musculus, sharing a hybrid zone, provides an opportunity to understand evolution of assortative mating at a molecular level. Mouse urine odours allow subspecific mate discrimination, with assortative preferences evident in the hybrid zone but not in allopatry. Here we assess the potential of MUPs (major urinary proteins) as candidates for signal divergence by comparing MUP expression in urine samples from the Danish hybrid zone border (contact) and from allopatric populations. Mass spectrometric characterisation identified novel MUPs in both subspecies involving mostly new combinations of amino acid changes previously observed in M.m.domesticus. The subspecies expressed distinct MUP signatures, with most MUPs expressed by only one subspecies. Expression of at least eight MUPs showed significant subspecies divergence both in allopatry and contact zone. Another seven MUPs showed divergence in expression between the subspecies only in the contact zone, consistent with divergence by reinforcement. These proteins are candidates for the semiochemical barrier to hybridisation, providing an opportunity to characterise the nature and evolution of a putative species recognition signal. PMID:28337988

  12. The Pace of Hybrid Incompatibility Evolution in House Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Richard J; White, Michael A; Payseur, Bret A

    2015-09-01

    Hybrids between species are often sterile or inviable. This form of reproductive isolation is thought to evolve via the accumulation of mutations that interact to reduce fitness when combined in hybrids. Mathematical formulations of this "Dobzhansky-Muller model" predict an accelerating buildup of hybrid incompatibilities with divergence time (the "snowball effect"). Although the Dobzhansky-Muller model is widely accepted, the snowball effect has only been tested in two species groups. We evaluated evidence for the snowball effect in the evolution of hybrid male sterility among subspecies of house mice, a recently diverged group that shows partial reproductive isolation. We compared the history of subspecies divergence with patterns of quantitative trait loci (QTL) detected in F2 intercrosses between two pairs of subspecies (Mus musculus domesticus with M. m. musculus and M. m. domesticus with M. m. castaneus). We used a recently developed phylogenetic comparative method to statistically measure the fit of these data to the snowball prediction. To apply this method, QTL were partitioned as either shared or unshared in the two crosses. A heuristic partitioning based on the overlap of QTL confidence intervals produced unambiguous support for the snowball effect. An alternative approach combining data among crosses favored the snowball effect for the autosomes, but a linear accumulation of incompatibilities for the X chromosome. Reasoning that the X chromosome analyses are complicated by low mapping resolution, we conclude that hybrid male sterility loci have snowballed in house mice. Our study illustrates the power of comparative genetic mapping for understanding mechanisms of speciation. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  13. Recombination rate variation in mice from an isolated island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Richard J; Gray, Melissa M; Parmenter, Michelle D; Broman, Karl W; Payseur, Bret A

    2017-01-01

    Recombination rate is a heritable trait that varies among individuals. Despite the major impact of recombination rate on patterns of genetic diversity and the efficacy of selection, natural variation in this phenotype remains poorly characterized. We present a comparison of genetic maps, sampling 1212 meioses, from a unique population of wild house mice (Mus musculus domesticus) that recently colonized remote Gough Island. Crosses to a mainland reference strain (WSB/EiJ) reveal pervasive variation in recombination rate among Gough Island mice, including subchromosomal intervals spanning up to 28% of the genome. In spite of this high level of polymorphism, the genomewide recombination rate does not significantly vary. In general, we find that recombination rate varies more when measured in smaller genomic intervals. Using the current standard genetic map of the laboratory mouse to polarize intervals with divergent recombination rates, we infer that the majority of evolutionary change occurred in one of the two tested lines of Gough Island mice. Our results confirm that natural populations harbour a high level of recombination rate polymorphism and highlight the disparities in recombination rate evolution across genomic scales. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Population genetic structure in a Robertsonian race of house mice: evidence from microsatellite polymorphism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallas, J.F.; Bonhomme, F.; Boursot, P.; Britton-Davidian, J.; Bauchau, V.

    1998-01-01

    Genetic evidence was assessed for inbreeding and population subdivision in a Robertsonian fusion (Rb) race of the western European form of house mouse, Mus musculus domesticus, in central Belgium. Inbreeding, and the factors responsible for subdivision (genetic drift and extinction-recolonization)

  15. Meiosis and speciation: a study in a speciating Mus terricolor complex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2000-12-27

    Dec 27, 2000 ... (see reviews by White 1978; King 1981) or would lead to reduced viability of ... Indian pygmy field mice Mus terricolor, vis-à-vis the fixa- tion of autosomal ... plexes (SCs) were prepared and stained with silver nitrate. (Fletcher ...

  16. Novel laboratory mouse papillomavirus (MusPV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, A; Ghim, S; Joh, J; Chepkoech, I; Bennett Jenson, A; Sundberg, J P

    2011-03-01

    Most papillomaviruses (PVs) are oncogenic. There are at least 100 different human PVs and 65 nonhuman vertebrate hosts, including wild rodents, which have species-specific PV infections. Florid papillomatosis arose in a colony of NMRI-Foxn1(nu)/Foxn1(nu) (nude) mice at the Advanced Centre for Treatment Research and Education in Cancer in India. Lesions appeared at the mucocutaneous junctions of the nose and mouth. Histologically, lesions were classical papillomas with epidermal hyperplasia on thin fibrovascular stalks in a verrucous pattern. Koilocytotic cells were observed in the stratum granulosum of the papillomatous lesions. Immunohistochemically, these abnormal cells were positive for PV group-specific antigens. With transmission electron microscopy, virus particles were observed in crystalline intranuclear inclusions within keratinocytes. The presence of a mouse PV, designated MusPV, was confirmed by amplification of PV DNA with degenerative primers specific for PVs. This report is the first of a PV and its related disease in laboratory mice.

  17. Análise da freqüência de eritrócitos policromáticos micronucleados em camundongos (Mus domesticus domesticus), tratados com enzicoba (COBAMAMIDA)

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Érica Valentini Pepeliascov; Kroll, Benedito Lúcio; Souza, Edislane Barreiros de

    2008-01-01

    O anabolizante Enzicoba possui como princípio ativo a Cobamamida ou Coenzima da Vitamina B12 que é umcofator presente, em condições fi siológicas, nos tecidos de várias espécies animais (inclusive no homem), que pode interferirnos processos metabólicos da síntese protéica, essencial para o crescimento corpóreo e para o eutrofi smo do parênquimahepático. Tal composto estimula o anabolismo celular em todos...

  18. Steroids in house sparrows (Passer domesticus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nossen, Ida; Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Dimmen, Malene V

    2016-01-01

    . In male house sparrows, ornamental traits involved in male quality signalling are important for female selection. These traits are governed by endocrinological systems, and POPs may therefore interfere with male quality signalling. The aim of the present study was to use the house sparrow as a mid......At high trophic levels, environmental contaminants have been found to affect endocrinological processes. Less attention has been paid to species at lower trophic levels. The house sparrow (Passer domesticus) may be a useful model for investigating effects of POPs in mid-range trophic level species......-range trophic level model species to study the effects of environmental contaminants on endocrinology and male quality signalling. We analysed the levels of selected PCBs, PBDEs and OCPs and investigated the possible effects of these contaminants on circulating levels of steroid hormones (4 progestagens, 4...

  19. EFFECT OF IMPERMEANT CRYOPROTECTANTS ON THE IN VITRO VIABILITY OF FROZEN SPERMATOZOA OF SWISS-ALBINA AND BALB/C MICE (Mus musculus EFEITO DE CRIOPROTETORES IMPERMEÁVEIS SOBRE A VIABILIDADE IN VITRO DE ESPERMATOZOIDES CONGELADOS DE CAMUNDONGOS (Mus musculus DAS LINHAGENS SWISS-ALBINA e BALB/c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sergio Varela Junior

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of three disaccharides (sucrose, threalose and lactose used as nonpenetrating cryoprotectants in extender for mice semen. The parameters evaluated were sperm motility (MOT and cleavage rate (CLV after in vitro fertilization in the SWISS-ALBINA and BALB/c lines. The treatments were S1=sucrose; S2=threalose; S3=lactose, for SWISS-ALBINA; and B1=lactose; B2=threalose for BALB/c.  MOT was evaluated after: thawing (THA, centrifugation and re-suspension in P-1 medium (CEN and after 10 minutes of incubation (10M. The MOT for the SWISS-ALBINA line was higher for S2 (P<0.001 in the 3 evaluated steps (47% at DES; 66.5% at CEN and 67.2% at 10M than for S1 (32.5% at DES; 51.5% at CEN and 47.7% at 10M and S3 (30% at DES, 46.5% at CEN and 32.7% at 10M. For the BALB/c line, MOT was superior for B2 than for B1 (P<0.001. Thus, the tested disaccharides, especially threalose, can be recommended for freezing of mice sperm.

    KEY WORDS: Cryopreservation, disaccharides, mice, semen. 

    O trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos dos dissacarídeos sacarose, trealose e lactose, como crioprotetores impermeáveis à membrana plasmática em diluentes para criopreservação de sêmen de camundongos. Para avaliação do sêmen utilizaram-se os seguintes parâmetros: motilidade progressiva (MOT das células espermáticas, e a taxa de clivagem embrionária (TXCL obtida por meio de fertilização in vitro, nas linhagens SWISS-ALBINA e BALB/c. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: S1=sacarose; S2=trealose; S3=lactose, para SWISS-ALBINA e B1=lactose; B2=trealose para BALB/c. Avaliou-se a MOT durante as seguintes etapas: descongelação (DES, centrifugação e ressuspensão no meio P-1 (CEN e após dez minutos de incubação (10M. A MOT no S2 para a linhagem SWISS-ALBINA nas três etapas (47% no DES; 66,5% na CEN e 67,2% no 10M foi superior (P<0,001 a S1 (32,5% no DES; 51,5% no

  20. Epididymal lithiasis in Gallus gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM Rocha Jr.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A study on the occurrence of epididymal lithiasis (EL in Gallus gallus domesticus of different breeds and from different geographical regions of Brazil was carried out. Forty breeding roosters were collected in the states Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo and Goiás, representing two specific pathogen free Leghorn lines (SPF, one commercial Leghorn layer breeder (Hy-Line line, two commercial broiler breeder lines (Ross and Cobb, and two backyard chicken flocks. In commercial poultry breeders, EL was observed mainly after 55 weeks of age, and lithus resulted in lower fertility caused by inadequate maturation of spermatozoa and testicular atrophy, which evolved to more severe testicular dysfunction at 100 weeks of age. One hundred percent of the sampled roosters of the evaluated SPF lines presented epididymal lithiasis, which was also observed in all commercial genetic lines. The analysis of EL occurrence revealed no differences among regions and breeds: all regions and genetic lines presented epididymal calculi and the occurrence seemed higher in the more intensively-reared chickens. As for the backyard roosters, 50% presented calculi. Considering the occurrence of EL in the SPF flocks, its primary association with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV infection was discarded, despite its contribution to fertility loss.

  1. Locomotor trade-offs in mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugosz, Elizabeth M; Chappell, Mark A; McGillivray, David G; Syme, Douglas A; Garland, Theodore

    2009-08-01

    We investigated sprint performance and running economy of a unique ;mini-muscle' phenotype that evolved in response to selection for high voluntary wheel running in laboratory mice (Mus domesticus). Mice from four replicate selected (S) lines run nearly three times as far per day as four control lines. The mini-muscle phenotype, resulting from an initially rare autosomal recessive allele, has been favoured by the selection protocol, becoming fixed in one of the two S lines in which it occurred. In homozygotes, hindlimb muscle mass is halved, mass-specific muscle oxidative capacity is doubled, and the medial gastrocnemius exhibits about half the mass-specific isotonic power, less than half the mass-specific cyclic work and power, but doubled fatigue resistance. We hypothesized that mini-muscle mice would have a lower whole-animal energy cost of transport (COT), resulting from lower costs of cycling their lighter limbs, and reduced sprint speed, from reduced maximal force production. We measured sprint speed on a racetrack and slopes (incremental COT, or iCOT) and intercepts of the metabolic rate versus speed relationship during voluntary wheel running in 10 mini-muscle and 20 normal S-line females. Mini-muscle mice ran faster and farther on wheels, but for less time per day. Mini-muscle mice had significantly lower sprint speeds, indicating a functional trade-off. However, contrary to predictions, mini-muscle mice had higher COT, mainly because of higher zero-speed intercepts and postural costs (intercept-resting metabolic rate). Thus, mice with altered limb morphology after intense selection for running long distances do not necessarily run more economically.

  2. Corrected placement of Mus-Rattus fossil calibration forces precision in the molecular tree of rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Yuri; Hawkins, Melissa T. R.; McDonough, Molly M.; Jacobs, Louis L.; Flynn, Lawrence J.

    2015-01-01

    Time calibration derived from the fossil record is essential for molecular phylogenetic and evolutionary studies. Fossil mice and rats, discovered in the Siwalik Group of Pakistan, have served as one of the best-known fossil calibration points in molecular phylogenic studies. Although these fossils have been widely used as the 12 Ma date for the Mus/Rattus split or a more basal split, conclusive paleontological evidence for the nodal assignments has been absent. This study analyzes newly reco...

  3. Genetics of Genome-Wide Recombination Rate Evolution in Mice from an Isolated Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Richard J; Payseur, Bret A

    2017-08-01

    Recombination rate is a heritable quantitative trait that evolves despite the fundamentally conserved role that recombination plays in meiosis. Differences in recombination rate can alter the landscape of the genome and the genetic diversity of populations. Yet our understanding of the genetic basis of recombination rate evolution in nature remains limited. We used wild house mice ( Mus musculus domesticus ) from Gough Island (GI), which diverged recently from their mainland counterparts, to characterize the genetics of recombination rate evolution. We quantified genome-wide autosomal recombination rates by immunofluorescence cytology in spermatocytes from 240 F 2 males generated from intercrosses between GI-derived mice and the wild-derived inbred strain WSB/EiJ. We identified four quantitative trait loci (QTL) responsible for inter-F 2 variation in this trait, the strongest of which had effects that opposed the direction of the parental trait differences. Candidate genes and mutations for these QTL were identified by overlapping the detected intervals with whole-genome sequencing data and publicly available transcriptomic profiles from spermatocytes. Combined with existing studies, our findings suggest that genome-wide recombination rate divergence is not directional and its evolution within and between subspecies proceeds from distinct genetic loci. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  4. Asymmetry and polymorphism of hybrid male sterility during the early stages of speciation in house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Jeffrey M; Handel, Mary Ann; Nachman, Michael W

    2008-01-01

    House mice offer a powerful system for dissecting the genetic basis of phenotypes that isolate species in the early stages of speciation. We used a series of reciprocal crosses between wild-derived strains of Mus musculus and M. domesticus to examine F(1) hybrid male sterility, one of the primary phenotypes thought to isolate these species. We report four main results. First, we found significantly smaller testes and fewer sperm in hybrid male progeny of most crosses. Second, in some crosses hybrid male sterility was asymmetric and depended on the species origin of the X chromosome. These observations confirm and extend previous findings, underscoring the central role that the M. musculus X chromosome plays in reproductive isolation. Third, comparisons among reciprocal crosses revealed polymorphism at one or more hybrid incompatibilities within M. musculus. Fourth, the spermatogenic phenotype of this polymorphic interaction appears distinct from previously described hybrid incompatibilities between these species. These data build on previous studies of speciation in house mice and show that the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility is fairly complex, even at this early stage of divergence.

  5. Pan-African phylogeny of Mus (subgenus Nannomys) reveals one of the most successful mammal radiations in Africa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bryja, Josef; Mikula, Ondřej; Šumbera, R.; Meheretu, Y.; Aghová, Tatiana; Lavrenchenko, L. A.; Mazoch, Vladimír; Oguge, N.; Mbau, J. S.; Welegerima, K.; Amundala, N.; Colyn, M.; Leirs, H.; Verheyen, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 256 (2014), s. 256 ISSN 1471-2148 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/0983 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Biogeography * Tropical Africa * Molecular phylogeny * Pygmy mice * Plio-Pleistocene climatic fluctuations * Divergence timing * Muridae (Murinae) * Mus minutoides * Phylogeography * DNA barcoding Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.368, year: 2014

  6. PEMANFAATAN Spirulina platensis SEBAGAI SUPLEMEN PROTEIN SEL TUNGGAL (PST MENCIT (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryo Kuntoro Adi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The using of Spirulina platensis as Supplement of Single-Celled Protein (SCP to Mice. High protein in Spirulina platensis can be used as a source of Single-Celled Protein. By using mice (Mus musculus as a animal laboratory, the objective of this research is to know the influence of Biomass S. platensis to the increase of body weight of mice. The name of species is Mus musculus, strain is Swiss derivate. Utilized mice were male, 30-50 weighing gram, and 5-7 weeks of age. Treatment group was given by palette and given by biomass of S. Platensis, while control also fed palette but did not give biomass of S. platensis. Yielded biomass was used as food mixed with palette with composition of dry biomass S. platensis with palette was 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50%. Data analysis was conducted by using t-tes and analysis of variance. The results showed that by giving of dry biomass of S. platensis affected to the increasement of body weight from the first day until twelfth day of observation, and decrease on the thirteenth and fourteenth day. Pursuant to result of statistic, there is a significant difference (p < 0,05 between before giving and after giving of dry biomass S. platensis during 17 day. By giving dry biomass of S. platensis to mice (Mus musculus at first and second week, it was found the difference of average mice body weight among six concentrations of biomass but did not at the third week. It means that not all concentration of biomass have same effect to the increase of mice body weight as a Single-Celled Protein.

  7. Chicken (Gallus domesticus) inner ear afferents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, H.; Chen, X.; Hartsfield, J. F.; Hara, J.; Martin, D.; Fermin, C. D.

    1998-01-01

    Neurons from the vestibular (VG) and the statoacoustic (SAG) ganglion of the chick (Gallus domesticus) were evaluated histologically and morphometrically. Embryos at stages 34 (E8 days), 39 (E13 days) and 44 (E18 days) were sacrificed and temporal bones microdissected. Specimens were embedded in JB-4 methacrylate plastic, and stained with a mixture of 0.2% toluidine blue (TB) and 0.1% basic Fuschin in 25% ethanol or with a mixture of 2% TB and 1% paraphenylenediamine (PDA) for axon and myelin measurement study. Images of the VIIIth nerve were produced by a V150 (R) color imaging system and the contour of 200-300 neuronal bodies (perikarya) was traced directly on a video screen with a mouse in real time. The cross-sectional area of VG perikarya was 67.29 micrometers2 at stage 34 (E8), 128.46 micrometers2 at stage 39 (E13) and 275.85 micrometers2 at stage 44 (E18). The cross-sectional area of SAG perikarya was 62.44 micrometers2 at stage 34 (E8), 102.05 micrometers2 at stage 39 (E13) and 165.02 micrometers2 at stage 44 (E18). A significant cross-sectional area increase of the VG perikarya between stage 39 (E13) and stage 44 (E18) was determined. We randomly measured the cross-sectional area of myelin and axoplasm of hatchling afferent nerves, and found a correspondence between axoplasmic and myelin cross-sectional area in the utricular, saccular and semicircular canal nerve branches of the nerve. The results suggest that the period between stage 34 (E8) and 39 (E13) is a critical period for afferent neuronal development. Physiological and behavioral vestibular properties of developing and maturing hatchlings may change accordingly. The results compliment previous work by other investigators and provide valuable anatomical measures useful to correlate physiological data obtained from stimulation of the whole nerve or its parts.

  8. Les sens du musée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Grison

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Cet article, fondé sur l'exemple de la National Gallery de Londres, porte sur l'intégration dans le cadre urbain, l'aménagement et les dynamiques spatiales du lieu muséal. Sur le même thème, nous relatons un exercice réalisé avec des lycéens.

  9. Evaluation of the in vivo mutagenic potential of hydroalcoholic extracts of the northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. Ericales, Ericaceae on peripheral blood cells of Swiss mice (Mus musculus Rodentia, Muridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Scotini Freitas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. Ericales, Ericaceae is very rich in anthocyanins, natural pigments which have strong antioxidant properties and potential health benefits, resulting in the worldwide use the blueberry as a medicinal plant. We investigated the mutagenic potential of simple hydroalcoholic extracts of V. corymbosum acutely administrated by gavage to Swiss mice at doses of 1 g kg-1, 1.5 g kg-1 and 2 g kg-1. Peripheral blood cells were collected 4 h and 24 h post-gavage and assessed by the alkaline comet assay, with further blood samples being collected at 48 h and 72 h for assessment using the micronucleus (MN assay. Our results show that the V. corymbosum extracts did not induce any statistically significant increase in the average amount of DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes. However, we did record a significant increase in the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes at the three doses tested.

  10. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN “KOMBUCHA” TEH ROSELLA TERHADAP PROFIL DARAH MENCIT (Mus musculus L)

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhani Dwi Hidayanti; Sussi Astuti; Maria Erna Kustyawati

    2015-01-01

    “Kombucha” rosella tea is a functional fermented beverage product solution from the petals of rosella tea and sugar using a microbial starter “Kombucha” (Acetobacter xylinum and several kind of yeast). The objective of the experiment was to determine the effect of “Kombucha” rosella tea on the blood profile of mice (Mus musculus L). The experiment compiled in a completely randomized design with 4 treatments dose “Kombucha” rosella tea was 0,73 ml/20 g BB mice (distilled water) (K), 0,36 ml...

  11. The Evolution of Polymorphic Hybrid Incompatibilities in House Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Erica L; Vanderpool, Dan; Sarver, Brice A J; Callahan, Colin; Keeble, Sara; Provencio, Lorraine P; Kessler, Michael D; Stewart, Vanessa; Nordquist, Erin; Dean, Matthew D; Good, Jeffrey M

    2018-04-24

    Resolving the mechanistic and genetic bases of reproductive barriers between species is essential to understanding the evolutionary forces that shape speciation. Intrinsic hybrid incompatibilities are often treated as fixed between species, yet there can be considerable variation in the strength of reproductive isolation between populations. The extent and causes of this variation remain poorly understood in most systems. We investigated the genetic basis of variable hybrid male sterility (HMS) between two recently diverged subspecies of house mice, Mus musculus domesticus and M. m. musculus We found that polymorphic HMS has a surprisingly complex genetic basis, with contributions from at least five autosomal loci segregating between two closely related wild-derived strains of M. m. musculus One of the HMS-linked regions on Chromosome 4 also showed extensive introgression among inbred laboratory strains and transmission ratio distortion (TRD) in hybrid crosses. Using additional crosses and whole genome sequencing of sperm pools, we showed that TRD was limited to hybrid crosses and was not due to differences in sperm motility between M. m. musculus strains. Based on these results, we argue that TRD likely reflects additional incompatibilities that reduce hybrid embryonic viability. In some common inbred strains of mice, selection against deleterious interactions appears to have unexpectedly driven introgression at loci involved in epistatic hybrid incompatibilities. The highly variable genetic basis to F1 hybrid incompatibilities between closely related mouse lineages argues that a thorough dissection of reproductive isolation will require much more extensive sampling of natural variation than has been commonly utilized in mice and other model systems. Copyright © 2018, Genetics.

  12. GAMBARAN HEMATOLOGI MENCIT (Mus musculus MODEL TOKSISITAS SUBKRONIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ita Nur Eka Pujiastuti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Garlic commonly is consumed as medicine to prevent or heal illness or to maintain someone's health. Many societies prefer garlic (Allium sativum among other herbal remedies for cholesterol treatment. It consists of several types, and one of them is single bulb garlic used to treat hypertension. There has been, however, no published research reporting the toxicological properties of single bulb garlic. The purpose of this study was to determine subchronic toxic effects of single bulb garlic administered to mice using hematological parameters. The experiment parameters were hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, the number of erythrocytes and leukocytes. Male mice (Mus musculus strain Balb-C were treated with single bulb garlic extract for 28 days with dosage levels of 0% (N , 0.25% (P1 , 0.5% (P2 , 1% (P3 , and 2% (P4 . Single bulb garlic showed no effect on hemoglobin and hematocrit levels but increased the number of erythrocyte and leucocyte. We concluded that single bulb garlic did not cause subchronic toxic effects.

  13. Fellow travellers: a concordance of colonization patterns between mice and men in the North Atlantic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones EP

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background House mice (Mus musculus are commensals of humans and therefore their phylogeography can reflect human colonization and settlement patterns. Previous studies have linked the distribution of house mouse mitochondrial (mt DNA clades to areas formerly occupied by the Norwegian Vikings in Norway and the British Isles. Norwegian Viking activity also extended further westwards in the North Atlantic with the settlement of Iceland, short-lived colonies in Greenland and a fleeting colony in Newfoundland in 1000 AD. Here we investigate whether house mouse mtDNA sequences reflect human history in these other regions as well. Results House mice samples from Iceland, whether from archaeological Viking Age material or from modern-day specimens, had an identical mtDNA haplotype to the clade previously linked with Norwegian Vikings. From mtDNA and microsatellite data, the modern-day Icelandic mice also share the low genetic diversity shown by their human hosts on Iceland. Viking Age mice from Greenland had an mtDNA haplotype deriving from the Icelandic haplotype, but the modern-day Greenlandic mice belong to an entirely different mtDNA clade. We found no genetic association between modern Newfoundland mice and the Icelandic/ancient Greenlandic mice (no ancient Newfoundland mice were available. The modern day Icelandic and Newfoundland mice belong to the subspecies M. m. domesticus, the Greenlandic mice to M. m. musculus. Conclusions In the North Atlantic region, human settlement history over a thousand years is reflected remarkably by the mtDNA phylogeny of house mice. In Iceland, the mtDNA data show the arrival and continuity of the house mouse population to the present day, while in Greenland the data suggest the arrival, subsequent extinction and recolonization of house mice - in both places mirroring the history of the European human host populations. If house mice arrived in Newfoundland with the Viking settlers at all, then, like the

  14. A candidate subspecies discrimination system involving a vomeronasal receptor gene with different alleles fixed in M. m. domesticus and M. m. musculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Karn

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Assortative mating, a potentially efficient prezygotic reproductive barrier, may prevent loss of genetic potential by avoiding the production of unfit hybrids (i.e., because of hybrid infertility or hybrid breakdown that occur at regions of secondary contact between incipient species. In the case of the mouse hybrid zone, where two subspecies of Mus musculus (M. m. domesticus and M. m. musculus meet and exchange genes to a limited extent, assortative mating requires a means of subspecies recognition. We based the work reported here on the hypothesis that, if there is a pheromone sufficiently diverged between M. m. domesticus and M. m. musculus to mediate subspecies recognition, then that process must also require a specific receptor(s, also sufficiently diverged between the subspecies, to receive the signal and elicit an assortative mating response. We studied the mouse V1R genes, which encode a large family of receptors in the vomeronasal organ (VNO, by screening Perlegen SNP data and identified one, Vmn1r67, with 24 fixed SNP differences most of which (15/24 are nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions between M. m. domesticus and M. m. musculus. We observed substantial linkage disequilibrium (LD between Vmn1r67 and Abpa27, a mouse salivary androgen-binding protein gene that encodes a proteinaceous pheromone (ABP capable of mediating assortative mating, perhaps in conjunction with its bound small lipophilic ligand. The LD we observed is likely a case of association rather than residual physical linkage from a very recent selective sweep, because an intervening gene, Vmn1r71, shows significant intra(subspecific polymorphism but no inter(subspecific divergence in its nucleotide sequence. We discuss alternative explanations of these observations, for example that Abpa27 and Vmn1r67 are coevolving as signal and receptor to reinforce subspecies hybridization barriers or that the unusually divergent Vmn1r67 allele was not a product of fast positive

  15. A pronounced evolutionary shift of the pseudoautosomal region boundary in house mice

    OpenAIRE

    White, Michael A.; Ikeda, Akihiro; Payseur, Bret A.

    2012-01-01

    The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) is essential for the accurate pairing and segregation of the X and Y chromosomes during meiosis. Despite its functional significance, the PAR shows substantial evolutionary divergence in structure and sequence between mammalian species. An instructive example of PAR evolution is the house mouse Mus musculus domesticus (represented by the C57BL/6J strain), which has the smallest PAR among those that have been mapped. In C57BL/6J, the PAR boundary is located jus...

  16. No evidence of conpopulation sperm precedence between allopatric populations of house mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée C Firman

    Full Text Available Investigations into the evolution of reproductive barriers have traditionally focused on closely related species, and the prevalence of conspecific sperm precedence. The effectiveness of conspecific sperm precedence at limiting gene exchange between species suggests that gametic isolation is an important component of reproductive isolation. However, there is a paucity of tests for evidence of sperm precedence during the earlier stages of divergence, for example among isolated populations. Here, we sourced individuals from two allopatric populations of house mice (Mus domesticus and performed competitive in vitro fertilisation assays to test for conpopulation sperm precedence specifically at the gametic level. We found that ova population origin did not influence the outcome of the sperm competitions, and thus provide no evidence of conpopulation or heteropopulation sperm precedence. Instead, we found that males from a population that had evolved under a high level of postcopulatory sexual selection consistently outcompeted males from a population that had evolved under a relatively lower level of postcopulatory sexual selection. We standardised the number of motile sperm of each competitor across the replicate assays. Our data therefore show that competitive fertilizing success was directly attributable to differences in sperm fertilizing competence.

  17. The Recombination Landscape in Wild House Mice Inferred Using Population Genomic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Tom R; Ness, Rob W; Keightley, Peter D

    2017-09-01

    Characterizing variation in the rate of recombination across the genome is important for understanding several evolutionary processes. Previous analysis of the recombination landscape in laboratory mice has revealed that the different subspecies have different suites of recombination hotspots. It is unknown, however, whether hotspots identified in laboratory strains reflect the hotspot diversity of natural populations or whether broad-scale variation in the rate of recombination is conserved between subspecies. In this study, we constructed fine-scale recombination rate maps for a natural population of the Eastern house mouse, Mus musculus castaneus We performed simulations to assess the accuracy of recombination rate inference in the presence of phase errors, and we used a novel approach to quantify phase error. The spatial distribution of recombination events is strongly positively correlated between our castaneus map, and a map constructed using inbred lines derived predominantly from M. m. domesticus Recombination hotspots in wild castaneus show little overlap, however, with the locations of double-strand breaks in wild-derived house mouse strains. Finally, we also find that genetic diversity in M. m. castaneus is positively correlated with the rate of recombination, consistent with pervasive natural selection operating in the genome. Our study suggests that recombination rate variation is conserved at broad scales between house mouse subspecies, but it is not strongly conserved at fine scales. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  18. No evidence of conpopulation sperm precedence between allopatric populations of house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firman, Renée C; Simmons, Leigh W

    2014-01-01

    Investigations into the evolution of reproductive barriers have traditionally focused on closely related species, and the prevalence of conspecific sperm precedence. The effectiveness of conspecific sperm precedence at limiting gene exchange between species suggests that gametic isolation is an important component of reproductive isolation. However, there is a paucity of tests for evidence of sperm precedence during the earlier stages of divergence, for example among isolated populations. Here, we sourced individuals from two allopatric populations of house mice (Mus domesticus) and performed competitive in vitro fertilisation assays to test for conpopulation sperm precedence specifically at the gametic level. We found that ova population origin did not influence the outcome of the sperm competitions, and thus provide no evidence of conpopulation or heteropopulation sperm precedence. Instead, we found that males from a population that had evolved under a high level of postcopulatory sexual selection consistently outcompeted males from a population that had evolved under a relatively lower level of postcopulatory sexual selection. We standardised the number of motile sperm of each competitor across the replicate assays. Our data therefore show that competitive fertilizing success was directly attributable to differences in sperm fertilizing competence.

  19. EFEK ANTIFERTILITAS EKSTRAK AKAR SOM JAWA (Talinum paniculatum Gaertn. PADA MENCIT (Mus musculus L. JANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetri Widiyani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Talinum paniculatum Gaertn commonly is used as aphrodisiac herb. Phytosterol, saponin, flavonoid and tannin of the herb have a certain bioactivity and may affect to the body system. The objective of this research was to examine the antifertility effects of sam jawa (Talinum paniculatum Gaertn. root extract (SJRE on male mice (Mus musculus L.. Twenty male mice were divided into 4 groups randomly with 5 replications. SJRE was dissolved in aquadest and given orally everyday for 34 days. The treatment dosages were 0 (control, 100,200, and 300 mg/kg BW. At 35th day mice were sacrificed and sectioned to remove testes and epididymis spermatozoas. Testes were sectioned using paraffin method and stained using Haematoxyllin-Eosin. Spermatogenic cells in each seminiferous tubule were counted to investigated spermatogenesis activity of testes. Epididymis sperm suspension was used to investigate sperm quality i.e: morphology, velocity and motility. Quantitatives data were analized using ANOVA and continued DMRT on 5% significance level. The result showed SJRE had antifertility effects on male mice (Mus musculus L. could inhibit spermatogenesis (decrease the spermatogenic cells count and decrease the sperm quality (increase percentage of abnormal sperm, decrease sperm motility and also decrease sperm velocity.

  20. MUS81 promotes common fragile site expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ying, Songmin; Minocherhomji, Sheroy; Chan, Kok Lung

    2013-01-01

    Fragile sites are chromosomal loci with a propensity to form gaps or breaks during early mitosis, and their instability is implicated as being causative in certain neurological disorders and cancers. Recent work has demonstrated that the so-called common fragile sites (CFSs) often impair the fait......Fragile sites are chromosomal loci with a propensity to form gaps or breaks during early mitosis, and their instability is implicated as being causative in certain neurological disorders and cancers. Recent work has demonstrated that the so-called common fragile sites (CFSs) often impair...... the faithful disjunction of sister chromatids in mitosis. However, the mechanisms by which CFSs express their fragility, and the cellular factors required to suppress CFS instability, remain largely undefined. Here, we report that the DNA structure-specific nuclease MUS81-EME1 localizes to CFS loci in early...

  1. Postnatal mandible growth in wild and laboratory mice: Differences revealed from bone remodeling patterns and geometric morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Vargas, Jessica; Muñoz-Muñoz, Francesc; Martinez-Maza, Cayetana; Molinero, Amalia; Ventura, Jacint

    2017-08-01

    Comparative information on the variation in the temporospatial patterning of mandible growth in wild and laboratory mice during early postnatal ontogeny is scarce but important to understand variation among wild rodent populations. Here, we compare mandible growth between two ontogenetic series from the second to the eighth week of postnatal life, corresponding to two different groups of mice reared under the same conditions: the classical inbred strain C57BL/6J, and Mus musculus domesticus. We characterize the ontogenetic patterns of bone remodeling of the mandibles belonging to these laboratory and wild mice by analyzing bone surface, as well as examine their ontogenetic form changes and bimodular organization using geometric morphometrics. Through ontogeny, the two mouse groups display similar directions of mandible growth, according to the temporospatial distribution of bone remodeling fields. The allometric shape variation of the mandibles of these mice entails the relative enlargement of the ascending ramus. The organization of the mandible into two modules is confirmed in both groups during the last postnatal weeks. However, especially after weaning, the mandibles of wild and laboratory mice differ in the timing and localization of several remodeling fields, in addition to exhibiting different patterns of shape variation and differences in size. The stimulation of dentary bone growth derived from the harder post-weaning diet might account for some features of postnatal mandible growth common to both groups. Nonetheless, a large component of the postnatal growth of the mouse mandible appears to be driven by the inherent genetic programs, which might explain between-group differences. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Corrected placement of Mus-Rattus fossil calibration forces precision in the molecular tree of rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuri; Hawkins, Melissa T R; McDonough, Molly M; Jacobs, Louis L; Flynn, Lawrence J

    2015-09-28

    Time calibration derived from the fossil record is essential for molecular phylogenetic and evolutionary studies. Fossil mice and rats, discovered in the Siwalik Group of Pakistan, have served as one of the best-known fossil calibration points in molecular phylogenic studies. Although these fossils have been widely used as the 12 Ma date for the Mus/Rattus split or a more basal split, conclusive paleontological evidence for the nodal assignments has been absent. This study analyzes newly recognized characters that demonstrate lineage separation in the fossil record of Siwalik murines and examines the most reasonable nodal placement of the diverging lineages in a molecular phylogenetic tree by ancestral state reconstruction. Our specimen-based approach strongly indicates that Siwalik murines of the Karnimata clade are fossil members of the Arvicanthini-Otomyini-Millardini clade, which excludes Rattus and its relatives. Combining the new interpretation with the widely accepted hypothesis that the Progonomys clade includes Mus, the lineage separation event in the Siwalik fossil record represents the Mus/Arvicanthis split. Our test analysis on Bayesian age estimates shows that this new calibration point provides more accurate estimates of murine divergence than previous applications. Thus, we define this fossil calibration point and refine two other fossil-based points for molecular dating.

  3. Characterization of urinary volatiles in Swiss male mice (Mus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    and Archunan 2001a), territorial marking (Balakrishnan and Alexander 1985; Prakash et al 1998) mother-young interactions (Leon 1983), and individual identification. (Poddar-Sarkar and Brahmachary 1999). Urine is known to be a major source of mammalian chemosignals invol- ved in this pheromonal communication.

  4. (Urginea Altissima), Against the Field Rat, Arvicanthis Abyssinicus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    the field rat, Arvicanthis abyssincus with the aim of developing locally based ... inhabited by humans and is commonly found in open ... rat, A. abyssinicus in a choice and non-choice tests. ..... sowing control of house mice (Mus domesticus):.

  5. Effect of Pasak Bumi (Eurycoma longifolia Jack) Root In Precopulation Stage to the Fertility of Female Mouse (Mus musculus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Marlinza, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Pasak Bumi (Eurycoma longifolia Jack) have potency to be used to increase bodyendurance, to cure malaria drug, and to act as afrodisiak. However, the effect of pasak bumi onwomen fertility, especially at pre-copulation stage was not widely known. This research seeks toreveal the effect pasak bumi extract treated at pre-copulation phase on fertility. This experimentemploy mice (Mus Musculus L.) and was undertaken at Biology and Cemistry laboratories PMIPA, andVeterinary laboratory of Jambi Uni...

  6. Genetic recombination variation in wild Robertsonian mice: on the role of chromosomal fusions and Prdm9 allelic background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capilla, Laia; Medarde, Nuria; Alemany-Schmidt, Alexandra; Oliver-Bonet, Maria; Ventura, Jacint; Ruiz-Herrera, Aurora

    2014-07-07

    Despite the existence of formal models to explain how chromosomal rearrangements can be fixed in a population in the presence of gene flow, few empirical data are available regarding the mechanisms by which genome shuffling contributes to speciation, especially in mammals. In order to shed light on this intriguing evolutionary process, here we present a detailed empirical study that shows how Robertsonian (Rb) fusions alter the chromosomal distribution of recombination events during the formation of the germline in a Rb system of the western house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus). Our results indicate that both the total number of meiotic crossovers and the chromosomal distribution of recombination events are reduced in mice with Rb fusions and that this can be related to alterations in epigenetic signatures for heterochromatinization. Furthermore, we detected novel house mouse Prdm9 allelic variants in the Rb system. Remarkably, mean recombination rates were positively correlated with a decrease in the number of ZnF domains in the Prdm9 gene. The suggestion that recombination can be modulated by both chromosomal reorganizations and genetic determinants that control the formation of double-stranded breaks during meiosis opens new avenues for understanding the role of recombination in chromosomal speciation. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. The uncharacterized gene 1700093K21Rik and flanking regions are correlated with reproductive isolation in the house mouse, Mus musculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, David H; Janoušek, Václav; Wang, Liuyang; Tucker, Priscilla K

    2014-06-01

    Reproductive barriers exist between the house mouse subspecies, Mus musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus, members of the Mus musculus species complex, primarily as a result of hybrid male infertility, and a hybrid zone exists where their ranges intersect in Europe. Using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) diagnostic for the two taxa, the extent of introgression across the genome was previously compared in these hybrid populations. Sixty-nine of 1316 autosomal SNPs exhibited reduced introgression in two hybrid zone transects suggesting maladaptive interactions among certain loci. One of these markers is within a region on chromosome 11 that, in other studies, has been associated with hybrid male sterility of these subspecies. We assessed sequence variation in a 20 Mb region on chromosome 11 flanking this marker, and observed its inclusion within a roughly 150 kb stretch of DNA showing elevated sequence differentiation between the two subspecies. Four genes are associated with this genomic subregion, with two entirely encompassed. One of the two genes, the uncharacterized 1700093K21Rik gene, displays distinguishing features consistent with a potential role in reproductive isolation between these subspecies. Along with its expression specifically within spermatogenic cells, we present various sequence analyses that demonstrate a high rate of molecular evolution of this gene, as well as identify a subspecies amino acid variant resulting in a structural difference. Taken together, the data suggest a role for this gene in reproductive isolation.

  8. Safety of Beauveria bassiana (Bals. Vuill. to Gallus domesticus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucelaine Haas-Costa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Beauveria bassiana, an important insect pathogen was used to evaluate its effect on the feeding, behavior, histology of the digestory system and anatomy of Gallus domesticus. The fungus (strain Unioeste 4 was administrated orally treated with chicken food. Chicken feces were collected, and the birds observed for 28 days. Also, were evaluated the weight of the birds, as well as any sign of intoxication or pathological modification. Tissue samples were withdrawn to test lesions with the optic microscope. There was 100% of survival of the birds, and no behavior alteration or external lesion was found. The test group presented the highest weight gain (1383.9±54.4g. Viable conidia were observed in the feces until 24 h after feeding the fungus, indicating that there was no germination inside the digestory system. No tissue lesion was observed, providing overwhelming evidence for the safety of B. bassiana to non-target organism G. domesticus.Beauveria bassiana é um importe entomopatógeno, sendo avaliado seu efeito sobre a alimentação, comportamento e histologia do sistema digestório de Gallus domesticus. O fungo (isolado Unioeste 4 foi administrado oralmente às aves, misturado à ração. Estas foram observadas por 28 dias e as fezes coletadas diariamente para análise. Também foi avaliado o peso das aves, bem como sinais de intoxicação ou modificação patológica. Amostras teciduais foram retiradas para verificar lesões com o microscópico óptico. Houve sobrevivência de 100% das aves avaliadas e nenhuma alteração comportamental ou lesão externa durante o experimento. O grupo teste apresentou o maior ganho de peso (1383,9±54,4g, sendo mais acentuado a partir da segunda semana. Observou-se a presença de conídios viáveis nas fezes somente até 24 horas após a ingestão do fungo, indicando que não houve germinação nas aves. Nenhuma lesão tecidual foi verificada, de forma que B. bassiana mostrou-se seguro para o organismo n

  9. Penelitian Pendahuluan Pengaruh Daun Manggis sebagai Rodentisida Nabati pada Mencit Mus musculus Strain Balepsi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Kardinan

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Research has been conducted at Pest and Disease Laboratory, Research Institute for Spices and Medicinal Crops, Bogor, during 1997-1998. The objective was to evaluate the possibility of Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana leaves to be used as botanical rodenticide which is tested to reproduction ability of mice Mus musculus. Eight to ten weeks old mice with the average weight of 25 gram were obtained from Research Institute for Livestock, Ciawi. Research was arranged at randomized block design, 8 treatments and 4 replications. Data was analyzed by determining the average value and their standard deviation values. Observations were done to the weight of testis, weight of embryo, number of embryo, volume of extracts drank by mice and mice behavior during experiment. Result revealed that there was no indication that the leaves extract affected the weight of testis, but it affected the number and weight of embryo. There was indication that mangosteen leaves acted as antifertility on mice. Giving leaves extract increased the total volume of extract drink. There was no abnormality at the activity of mice during experiment, included sex activity, poisonous symptoms and others.

  10. Effects of Mutagen-Sensitive Mus Mutations on Spontaneous Mitotic Recombination in Aspergillus

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, P.; Kafer, E.

    1992-01-01

    Methyl methane-sulfonate (MMS)-sensitive, radiation-induced mutants of Aspergillus were shown to define nine new DNA repair genes, musK to musS. To test mus mutations for effects on mitotic recombination, intergenic crossing over was assayed between color markers and their centromeres, and intragenic recombination between two distinguishable adE alleles. Of eight mutants analyzed, four showed significant deviations from mus(+) controls in both tests. Two mutations, musK and musL, reduced reco...

  11. Formation of apolar ecdysteroid conjugates by ovaries of the house cricket Acheta domesticus in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Whiting, P; Dinan, L

    1988-01-01

    The newly laid eggs of the house cricket Acheta domesticus contain apolar ecdysteroid conjugates, which we have hypothesized to be ecdysone long-chain fatty acyl esters [Whiting & Dinan (1988) J. Insect Physiol., in the press]. The ovaries of mature adult female A. domesticus in vitro convert [3H]ecdysone into apolar conjugates identical with those found in newly laid eggs. Comparison of the radioactive metabolites produced on incubation of [3H]ecdysone with various organs of adult female A. ...

  12. Repeat associated mechanisms of genome evolution and function revealed by the Mus caroli and Mus pahari genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thybert, David; Roller, Maša; Navarro, Fábio C P; Fiddes, Ian; Streeter, Ian; Feig, Christine; Martin-Galvez, David; Kolmogorov, Mikhail; Janoušek, Václav; Akanni, Wasiu; Aken, Bronwen; Aldridge, Sarah; Chakrapani, Varshith; Chow, William; Clarke, Laura; Cummins, Carla; Doran, Anthony; Dunn, Matthew; Goodstadt, Leo; Howe, Kerstin; Howell, Matthew; Josselin, Ambre-Aurore; Karn, Robert C; Laukaitis, Christina M; Jingtao, Lilue; Martin, Fergal; Muffato, Matthieu; Nachtweide, Stefanie; Quail, Michael A; Sisu, Cristina; Stanke, Mario; Stefflova, Klara; Van Oosterhout, Cock; Veyrunes, Frederic; Ward, Ben; Yang, Fengtang; Yazdanifar, Golbahar; Zadissa, Amonida; Adams, David J; Brazma, Alvis; Gerstein, Mark; Paten, Benedict; Pham, Son; Keane, Thomas M; Odom, Duncan T; Flicek, Paul

    2018-04-01

    Understanding the mechanisms driving lineage-specific evolution in both primates and rodents has been hindered by the lack of sister clades with a similar phylogenetic structure having high-quality genome assemblies. Here, we have created chromosome-level assemblies of the Mus caroli and Mus pahari genomes. Together with the Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus genomes, this set of rodent genomes is similar in divergence times to the Hominidae (human-chimpanzee-gorilla-orangutan). By comparing the evolutionary dynamics between the Muridae and Hominidae, we identified punctate events of chromosome reshuffling that shaped the ancestral karyotype of Mus musculus and Mus caroli between 3 and 6 million yr ago, but that are absent in the Hominidae. Hominidae show between four- and sevenfold lower rates of nucleotide change and feature turnover in both neutral and functional sequences, suggesting an underlying coherence to the Muridae acceleration. Our system of matched, high-quality genome assemblies revealed how specific classes of repeats can play lineage-specific roles in related species. Recent LINE activity has remodeled protein-coding loci to a greater extent across the Muridae than the Hominidae, with functional consequences at the species level such as reproductive isolation. Furthermore, we charted a Muridae-specific retrotransposon expansion at unprecedented resolution, revealing how a single nucleotide mutation transformed a specific SINE element into an active CTCF binding site carrier specifically in Mus caroli , which resulted in thousands of novel, species-specific CTCF binding sites. Our results show that the comparison of matched phylogenetic sets of genomes will be an increasingly powerful strategy for understanding mammalian biology. © 2018 Thybert et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  13. Repeat associated mechanisms of genome evolution and function revealed by the Mus caroli and Mus pahari genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thybert, David; Roller, Maša; Navarro, Fábio C.P.; Fiddes, Ian; Streeter, Ian; Feig, Christine; Martin-Galvez, David; Kolmogorov, Mikhail; Janoušek, Václav; Akanni, Wasiu; Aken, Bronwen; Aldridge, Sarah; Chakrapani, Varshith; Chow, William; Clarke, Laura; Cummins, Carla; Doran, Anthony; Dunn, Matthew; Goodstadt, Leo; Howe, Kerstin; Howell, Matthew; Josselin, Ambre-Aurore; Karn, Robert C.; Laukaitis, Christina M.; Jingtao, Lilue; Martin, Fergal; Muffato, Matthieu; Nachtweide, Stefanie; Quail, Michael A.; Sisu, Cristina; Stanke, Mario; Stefflova, Klara; Van Oosterhout, Cock; Veyrunes, Frederic; Ward, Ben; Yang, Fengtang; Yazdanifar, Golbahar; Zadissa, Amonida; Adams, David J.; Brazma, Alvis; Gerstein, Mark; Paten, Benedict; Pham, Son; Keane, Thomas M.; Odom, Duncan T.; Flicek, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms driving lineage-specific evolution in both primates and rodents has been hindered by the lack of sister clades with a similar phylogenetic structure having high-quality genome assemblies. Here, we have created chromosome-level assemblies of the Mus caroli and Mus pahari genomes. Together with the Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus genomes, this set of rodent genomes is similar in divergence times to the Hominidae (human-chimpanzee-gorilla-orangutan). By comparing the evolutionary dynamics between the Muridae and Hominidae, we identified punctate events of chromosome reshuffling that shaped the ancestral karyotype of Mus musculus and Mus caroli between 3 and 6 million yr ago, but that are absent in the Hominidae. Hominidae show between four- and sevenfold lower rates of nucleotide change and feature turnover in both neutral and functional sequences, suggesting an underlying coherence to the Muridae acceleration. Our system of matched, high-quality genome assemblies revealed how specific classes of repeats can play lineage-specific roles in related species. Recent LINE activity has remodeled protein-coding loci to a greater extent across the Muridae than the Hominidae, with functional consequences at the species level such as reproductive isolation. Furthermore, we charted a Muridae-specific retrotransposon expansion at unprecedented resolution, revealing how a single nucleotide mutation transformed a specific SINE element into an active CTCF binding site carrier specifically in Mus caroli, which resulted in thousands of novel, species-specific CTCF binding sites. Our results show that the comparison of matched phylogenetic sets of genomes will be an increasingly powerful strategy for understanding mammalian biology. PMID:29563166

  14. Effects of mutagen-sensitive mus mutations on spontaneous mitotic recombination in Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, P; Kafer, E

    1992-04-01

    Methyl methane-sulfonate (MMS)-sensitive, radiation-induced mutants of Aspergillus were shown to define nine new DNA repair genes, musK to musS. To test mus mutations for effects on mitotic recombination, intergenic crossing over was assayed between color markers and their centromeres, and intragenic recombination between two distinguishable adE alleles. Of eight mutants analyzed, four showed significant deviations from mus+ controls in both tests. Two mutations, musK and musL, reduced recombination, while musN and musQ caused increases. In contrast, musO diploids produced significantly higher levels only for intragenic recombination. Effects were relatively small, but averages between hypo- and hyperrec mus differed 15-20-fold. In musL diploids, most of the rare color segregants resulted from mitotic malsegregation rather than intergenic crossing over. This indicates that the musL gene product is required for recombination and that DNA lesions lead to chromosome loss when it is deficient. In addition, analysis of the genotypes of intragenic (ad+) recombinants showed that the musL mutation specifically reduced single allele conversion but increased complex conversion types (especially recombinants homozygous for ad+). Similar analysis revealed differences between the effects of two hyperrec mutations; musN apparently caused high levels solely of mitotic crossing over, while musQ increased various conversion types but not reciprocal crossovers. These results suggest that mitotic gene conversion and crossing over, while generally associated, are affected differentially in some of the mus strains of Aspergillus nidulans.

  15. Mutations at the mei-41, mus(1)101, mus(1)103, mus(2)205 and mus(3)310 loci of Drosophila exhibit differential UDS responses with different DNA-damaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusenbery, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    5 mutagen-sensitive mutants of Drosophila melanogaster, reported to perform normal or only slightly reduced excision repair of UV damage, were examined by an unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assay. 2 mutants, classified as completely or partially proficient for both excision and postreplication repair of UV damage, mus(1)103 and mus(2)205, were found to give positive UDS responses only for UV damage. These mutants exhibit no measurable UDS activity following DNA damage by several different alkylating agents and X-rays. 3 mutants, classified as having no defect in excision repair, but measurable defects in postreplication repair of UV damage, exhibit 3 different response patterns. The mutant mei-41 exhibits a highly positive UDS response following damage by all agents, consistent with its prior classification as excision-repair-proficient, but postreplication-repair-deficient for UV damage. The mutant mus(1)101, however, exhibits a strong positive UDS response following only UV damage and appears to be blocked in the excision repair of damage produced by both alkylating agents and X-irradiation. Finally, mus(3)310 exhibits no UDS response to alkylation, X-ray or UV damage. This is not consistent with its previous classification. Results obtained w0272the qualitative in vitro UDS assay are entirely consistent with the results from two separate in vivo measures of excision repair deficiency followign DNA damage, larval hypersensitivity to killing and hypermutability in the sex-linked recessive lethal test. (Auth.)

  16. Acute MUS81 depletion leads to replication fork slowing and a constitutive DNA damage response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xing, Meichun; Wang, Xiaohui; Palmai-Pallag, Timea

    2015-01-01

    have investigated the role of MUS81 in human cells by acutely depleting the protein using shRNAs. We found that MUS81 depletion from human fibroblasts leads to accumulation of ssDNA and a constitutive DNA damage response that ultimately activates cellular senescence. Moreover, we show that MUS81...

  17. FRAKSI ETANOL 96% BIJI KORO BENGUK (Mucuna pruriens L. SEBAGAI PENINGKAT KUALITAS SPERMATOZOA MENCIT (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Winarni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The examination of sperm quality is the main priority for infertility diagnosis. Based on previous study with mice, active ingredient of Mucuna pruriens L. or koro benguk (Papilionaceae, the L-dopa, may affect the quality of spermatozoa.Objective: Research was to study the effect of 96% ethanol fraction Mucuna pruriens seed on spermatozoaquality of mice exposed to 2-Methoxy ethanol. L-dopa in 96% ethanol fraction of M. pruriens seed was 14.7%.Methode: This was an experimental study using complete randomized design. Subjects were BALB/C mice (Mus musculus. Five groups served as control, 3 groups received subcutaneos injection of 2-ME as muchas 100 mg/kg.bw/day for 12 days, followed with 96% ethanol fraction Mucuna pruriens seed starting from14 mg/kg.bw/day, 28 mg/kg.bw/day, and 56 mg/kg.bw/day for 51 days.Result: The 96% ethanol fraction of Mucuna pruriens seeds are significant increase motility (p<0,01 andthe percentage of normal spermatozoa morphology (p= 0,042.Conclusion: 96% ethanol fraction of Mucuna pruriens seeds are able to increase motility and the percentage of normal spermatozoa morphology in mice exposed to 2-ME. Keywords: Mucuna pruriens L., L-dopa, mouse spermatozoa

  18. Context dependence of acorn handling by the Algerian mouse (Mus spretus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, D.; Morán-López, T.; Torre, I.; Navarro-Castilla, Á.; Barja, I.; Díaz, M.

    2017-10-01

    Perceived predation risk and competition for acorns are expected to affect scatter-hoarding decisions by Algerian mice (Mus spretus). We manipulated both factors by means of predator fecal scents and ungulate exclosures. We hypothesized that high-risk perception and ungulate presence would promote acorn dispersal. In the former case, it would stimulate acorn mobilization to safe microhabitats rather than in situ consumption. In the latter, increased competition for acorns would promote their storage for later consumption. We also expected that mice would adapt their foraging behavior to previous experience modulating the strength of these effects. In the presence of ungulates, mice focused their foraging activities on food acquisition at the expenses of vigilant behaviors. However, a more efficient foraging did not entail enhanced dispersal services. Lack of anti-predatory cover in tree surroundings may have deterred mice from transporting seeds outside canopies. Increased risk interacted with previous experience. In control trees (no predator odor), mice confidence increased throughout the night resulting in decreased vigilance and enhanced acorn mobilization rates. In contrast, in risky conditions (trees with predator odor) mice maintained a base-line vigilant behavior. Contrary to our expectations, increased risk did not result in higher acorn mobilization, but the opposite. Again, the scarcity of safe microhabitats for mobilization may have been the underlying cause of this behavior. Our results show that successful acorn dispersal depends, at least partly, on plant-animal relationships that are beyond the oak-rodent mutualism. Thus, any conservation policy aimed at restoring natural regeneration of oaks should take into account the interaction network in which oak-rodent encounters are embedded. In addition, they suggest that mice incorporate direct and indirect cues of risks (habitat structure) through recent experience. A better understanding of this process

  19. Phenotypic and epistatic grouping of hypo- and hyper-rec mus mutants in Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafer, E; Chae, S K

    1994-03-01

    The mutants musK to musS of Aspergillus nidulans are sensitive to methyl-methanesulfonate (MMS) and several of them are meiotic-defective and alter mitotic recombination frequencies. All were found to be cross-sensitive to 4-nitro-quinoline-N-oxide (4-NQO) but unexpectedly none of them was hypersensitive to gamma-rays and few to UV light. Double mus; uvs mutants were constructed to test for interactions with uvs mutations of the four epistatic groups of Aspergillus, "UvsF", "UvsC", "UvsI", and "UvsB". All meiotic-defective mus mutations caused some lethal interactions, usually with uvsF. None of them showed epistasis with UvsF or UvsB group mutants and one, musO, may represent a new group. Three mus mutations that affect recombination were assigned to the UvsC group, namely musN and K, and also musL which is recombination-defective and closely resembles uvsC. While uvsC mutants are mutators and lack UV-mutagenesis, most mus mutants had no effects on mutation. Only musR, which appeared epistatic with uvsI, showed reduced UV-reversion frequencies similar to uvsI. The recombination-proficient mus mutants appeared to be epistatic with more than one group, but in several cases sensitivities were slight and overlaps insufficient to obtain corroborating results with MMS and 4-NQO.

  20. Phosphorylation by CK2 regulates MUS81/EME1 in mitosis and after replication stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Anita; Pugliese, Giusj Monia; Murfuni, Ivana; Marabitti, Veronica; Malacaria, Eva; Rinalducci, Sara; Minoprio, Anna; Sanchez, Massimo; Mazzei, Filomena; Zolla, Lello; Franchitto, Annapaola; Pichierri, Pietro

    2018-06-01

    The MUS81 complex is crucial for preserving genome stability through the resolution of branched DNA intermediates in mitosis. However, untimely activation of the MUS81 complex in S-phase is dangerous. Little is known about the regulation of the human MUS81 complex and how deregulated activation affects chromosome integrity. Here, we show that the CK2 kinase phosphorylates MUS81 at Serine 87 in late-G2/mitosis, and upon mild replication stress. Phosphorylated MUS81 interacts with SLX4, and this association promotes the function of the MUS81 complex. In line with a role in mitosis, phosphorylation at Serine 87 is suppressed in S-phase and is mainly detected in the MUS81 molecules associated with EME1. Loss of CK2-dependent MUS81 phosphorylation contributes modestly to chromosome integrity, however, expression of the phosphomimic form induces DSBs accumulation in S-phase, because of unscheduled targeting of HJ-like DNA intermediates, and generates a wide chromosome instability phenotype. Collectively, our findings describe a novel regulatory mechanism controlling the MUS81 complex function in human cells. Furthermore, they indicate that, genome stability depends mainly on the ability of cells to counteract targeting of branched intermediates by the MUS81/EME1 complex in S-phase, rather than on a correct MUS81 function in mitosis.

  1. Cross-experimental analysis of coat color variations and morphological characteristics of the japanese wild mouse, Mus musculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Taichi A; Iwasa, Masahiro A

    2013-01-01

    There are many coat colors in the laboratory mouse, Mus musculus. On the basis of traditional genetics, there are four loci, A-D, related to coat color expressions. As shown by previous studies, Japanese wild mice have gray backs and white bellies and are assumed to carry the A(w) allele at the A (agouti) locus, which is dominant over any other alleles. However, we collected Japanese wild mice from central Honshu with black coats. To understand this black coat expression, we performed cross experiments concerning the four loci using wild-caught mice and DBA/2 laboratory mice from the standpoint of traditional genetics. The offspring of the current crosses showed the wild type, the blackish type, and the intermediate type from some combinations of parents. Considering the coat colors of the offspring, we did not obtain any evidence that the Japanese wild mice always carry the A(w) allele at the A locus. Furthermore, we were not able to explain the current coat color expressions using the traditional logic with regard to the A-D loci and concluded that it is possible for another locus (loci) to be related to the coat color expressions. On the other hand, skull characteristics and external body measurements of the captured wild mice were fundamentally different from those of DBA/2 and offspring from captured wild mice and DBA/2 combinations. Thus, we concluded that the Japanese wild mice had original criteria from a morphological viewpoint.

  2. Spermatogenic structure and fertility of Mus musculus after exposure of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) pericarp extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayati, Alfiah; Agustin, Melia Eka; Rokhimaningrum, Farida Ayu; Adro'i, Hasan; Darmanto, Win

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) pericarp extract on spermatogenics number, seminiferous tubules sized, profile protein of epididymal and testicular sperm, and fertility of mice (Mus musculus). Fourty two male mice strain BALB/C was divided equally into 7 groups. The control group was given 0.05 ml of 0.05% CMC solution. Three group were given mangosteen pericarp extract at various doses (75, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight, respectively) for 7 days, while the other three groups were given the same extract dose for 35 days. Parameters evaluated on histological of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, round spermatids, seminiferous tubule diameter, and thickness of germinal epithelium, analysis of testicular and epidydimal protein profile with SDS-Page, and than fertility test on female mice. The results showed that mangosteen pericarp extract at 75 and 100 mg/kg dose for 7 days had no effect on spermatogenics number and seminiferous tubule sizes, but the treatment dose of 150 mg/kg for 7 days and all treatment (doses of 75, 100, and 150 mg/kg) for 35 days led to significant decrease on the number of spermatogenics and seminiferous tubule sizes; effect on protein profiles testicular and epididymal sperm; and lower fertilization.

  3. Genome-wide architecture of reproductive isolation in a naturally occurring hybrid zone between Mus musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janoušek, V.; Wang, L.; Luzynski, K.; Dufková, Petra; Mrkvicová Vyskočilová, Martina; Nachman, M. W.; Munclinger, P.; Macholán, Miloš; Piálek, Jaroslav; Tucker, P. K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 12 (2012), s. 3032-3047 ISSN 0962-1083 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0640 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:67985904 Keywords : genomics * proteomics * hybridization * mammals * speciation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 6.275, year: 2012

  4. Infrared and optical observations of Nova Mus 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitelock, P.A.; Carter, B.S.; Feast, M.W.; Glass, I.S.; Laney, D.; Menzies, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    Extensive optical (UBVRI) and infrared (JHKL) photometry of Nova Mus 1983 obtained over a period of 300 days is tabulated. Infrared and optical spectra are described. Although by classical definition this was a fast nova its later development was slower than for typical objects of this class. Surprisingly the development of infrared thermal dust emission did not occur. Throughout the period covered, the infrared emission was characteristic of a bound-free plus free-free plasma continuum with emission lines. (author)

  5. PENGARUH DOSIS DAN LAMA PERLAKUAN EKSTRAK DAUN KALIANDRA MERAH (Calliandra calothyrsus Meissn. TERHADAP STRUKTUR HISTOLOGI GINJAL MENCIT (Mus musculus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Assiam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to determine the effect of red calliandra (Calliandra calothyrsusMeissn. leaf extrac on the histological structure of the kidney of mice (Mus musculus L..Treatment was administered orally with varying doses. This research used a CompletelyRandomized Design in factorial pattern of two factors, doses (0 or control, 2, 4, and 6 mg/kgBW and length of treatment (7, 14, and 21 days, so there are 12 combination groups with 3replications of each. Organ was collected on days 8, 15, and 22 to observe histologicalstructure of the kidney. Renal histological observation of edema, Bowman’s spaceconstriction, and protein deposition, showed no correlation between both factors, but a veryreal correlation occurs in the damage of fatty degeneration, hemorrhage, and nucleuspyknotic. Histological observation of glomerular congestion and infiltration of inflammatorycells did not show any correlation between dose and duration of treatment.Keywords: red calliandra, histopathology of kidney, male mice

  6. MUS81 is associated with cell proliferation and cisplatin sensitivity in serous ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Suhong; Zheng, Hui [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai (China); Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Wen, Xuemei [Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Sun, Jiajun; Wang, Yanchun; Gao, Xiang; Guo, Lin [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai (China); Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Lu, Renquan, E-mail: lurenquan@126.com [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai (China); Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2016-08-05

    The dysfunction of DNA damage repair (DDR) pathway contributes to tumorigenesis and drug-resistance in cancer. MUS81 is a member of the conserved xeroderma pigmentosum group F (XPF) family protein of endonucleases, which is important to the DDR pathway. However, the role of MUS81 in the development of ovarian cancer remains uncertain. To explore the expression of MUS81 and its association to serous ovarian cancer (SOC), 43 biopsies of SOC patients were detected by qRT-PCR, and 29 specimens were further performed by immunohistochemistry analysis. Here, we observed that MUS81 was over-expressed in SOC tissues at both transcript and protein levels, and the expression level of MUS81 protein in ovarian cancer cell lines was also higher than that in human normal ovarian surface epithelial cell line (HOSEpiC). We also found that down-regulation of MUS81 expression in ovarian cancer cells inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation ability, and influenced cell cycle progression. Moreover, inhibition of MUS81 expression induced cellular senescence and enhanced the antitumor effect of cisplatin. Down-regulation of MUS81 expression could suppress the growth and development of SOC. These results indicate that MUS81 might play important roles in the progression of SOC and influence the antitumor effect of cisplatin. - Highlights: • MUS81 was overexpression in serous ovarian cancer (SOC). • Meanwhile down-regulation of inhibited cell proliferation and influenced cell cycle progression. • Inhibition of MUS81 induced cell cellular senescence and enhanced the antitumor effect of cisplatin. • Down-regulation of MUS81 expression could suppress the growth and development of SOC.

  7. MUS81 is associated with cell proliferation and cisplatin sensitivity in serous ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Suhong; Zheng, Hui; Wen, Xuemei; Sun, Jiajun; Wang, Yanchun; Gao, Xiang; Guo, Lin; Lu, Renquan

    2016-01-01

    The dysfunction of DNA damage repair (DDR) pathway contributes to tumorigenesis and drug-resistance in cancer. MUS81 is a member of the conserved xeroderma pigmentosum group F (XPF) family protein of endonucleases, which is important to the DDR pathway. However, the role of MUS81 in the development of ovarian cancer remains uncertain. To explore the expression of MUS81 and its association to serous ovarian cancer (SOC), 43 biopsies of SOC patients were detected by qRT-PCR, and 29 specimens were further performed by immunohistochemistry analysis. Here, we observed that MUS81 was over-expressed in SOC tissues at both transcript and protein levels, and the expression level of MUS81 protein in ovarian cancer cell lines was also higher than that in human normal ovarian surface epithelial cell line (HOSEpiC). We also found that down-regulation of MUS81 expression in ovarian cancer cells inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation ability, and influenced cell cycle progression. Moreover, inhibition of MUS81 expression induced cellular senescence and enhanced the antitumor effect of cisplatin. Down-regulation of MUS81 expression could suppress the growth and development of SOC. These results indicate that MUS81 might play important roles in the progression of SOC and influence the antitumor effect of cisplatin. - Highlights: • MUS81 was overexpression in serous ovarian cancer (SOC). • Meanwhile down-regulation of inhibited cell proliferation and influenced cell cycle progression. • Inhibition of MUS81 induced cell cellular senescence and enhanced the antitumor effect of cisplatin. • Down-regulation of MUS81 expression could suppress the growth and development of SOC.

  8. Evaluation of Felis domesticus allergen I as a possible autoallergen in cats with eosinophilic granuloma complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisselink, Marinus A.; van Ree, Ronald; Willemse, Ton

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of Felis domesticus allergen I (Feld I) in the pathogenesis of eosinophilic granuloma complex (EGC) in cats. ANIMALS: 7 healthy cats and 6 cats with EGC. PROCEDURE: Epidermis was removed from 4 areas. Rubber stoppers filled with Feld I, saline (0.9% NaCl) solution,

  9. Effects of sex and time of day on metabolism and excretion of corticosterone in urine and feces of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touma, Chadi; Sachser, Norbert; Möstl, Erich; Palme, Rupert

    2003-02-15

    Non-invasive techniques to monitor stress hormones in small animals like mice offer several advantages and are highly demanded in laboratory as well as in field research. Since knowledge about the species-specific metabolism and excretion of glucocorticoids is essential to develop such a technique, we conducted radiometabolism studies in mice (Mus musculus f. domesticus, strain C57BL/6J). Each mouse was injected intraperitoneally with 740 kBq of 3H-labelled corticosterone and all voided urine and fecal samples were collected for five days. In a first experiment 16 animals (eight of each sex) received the injection at 9 a.m., while eight mice (four of each sex) were injected at 9 p.m. in a second experiment. In both experiments radioactive metabolites were recovered predominantly in the feces, although males excreted significantly higher proportions via the feces (about 73%) than females (about 53%). Peak radioactivity in the urine was detected within about 2h after injection, while in the feces peak concentrations were observed later (depending on the time of injection: about 10h postinjection in experiment 1 and about 4h postinjection in experiment 2, thus proving an effect of the time of day). The number and relative abundance of fecal [3H]corticosterone metabolites was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HPLC separations revealed that corticosterone was extensively metabolized mainly to more polar substances. Regarding the types of metabolites formed, significant differences were found between males and females, but not between the experiments. Additionally, the immunoreactivity of these metabolites was assessed by screening the HPLC fractions with four enzyme immunoassays (EIA). However, only a newly established EIA for 5alpha-pregnane-3beta,11beta,21-triol-20-one (measuring corticosterone metabolites with a 5alpha-3beta,11beta-diol structure) detected several peaks of radioactive metabolites with high intensity in both sexes, while

  10. Gonadal expression of aromatase and estrogen receptor alpha genes in two races of Tunisian mice and their hypofertile hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saïd, Lamia; Delalande, Christelle; Britton-Davidian, Janice; Saïd, Khaled; Saad, Ali; Carreau, Serge

    2007-07-01

    House mice (Mus musculus domesticus) in Tunisia consists of two races, one carries the 40-acrocentric standard karyotypes and the other one is a robertsonian race (2n=22) homozygous for nine centric fusions (Rb). The F1 hybrids between the two chromosomal races showed a significant decrease in reproductive success and litter size. Such results can be related to the formation of meiotic trivalent in the hybrids leading to the production of viable aneuploid gametes and post-zygotic elimination of embryos due to chromosomal non disjunction events at meiosis. Moreover, testicular histology of F1 and backcross males showed in some cases a breakdown in spermatogenesis. In both females and males, androgens but also estrogens play an important role in gametogenesis. In this study, we have studied aromatase and estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) gene expression in the gonads of the two parental races and their chromosomal hybrids. The results showed that aromatase and ERalpha mRNAs are expressed in hybrid males of inter-racial crosses (female22Rb x male40Std and female40Std x male22Rb) and in hybrid females of inter-racial crosses (female22Rb x male40Std) as in the two parental races. However, in hybrid females of inter-racial crosses (female40Std x male22Rb) the amount of aromatase transcripts decreased sharply suggesting that this gene is involved in the breakdown of hybrid fertility in females, but not in males. However, in hybrid males, a putative post-translational modification of this enzyme, in terms of activity, should be verified.

  11. One normal void and residual following MUS surgery is all that is necessary in most patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Paul; Shawer, Sami; Anderson, Colette; Khunda, Aethele

    2018-04-01

    There is considerable variation worldwide on how the assessment of voiding function is performed following midurethral sling (MUS) surgery. There is potentially a financial cost, and reduction in efficiency when patient discharge is delayed. Using our current practice of two normal void and residual (V&R) readings before discharge, the aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the likelihood of an abnormal second V&R test if the first V&R test was normal in order to determine if a policy of discharge after only one satisfactory V&R test is reasonable. Data from 400 patients who had had MUS surgery with or without other procedures were collected. Our unit protocol included two consecutive voids of greater than 200 ml with residuals less than 150 ml before discharge. The patients were divided into the following groups: MUS only, MUS plus anterior colporrhaphy (AR) plus any other procedures (MUS/AR), and MUS with any non-AR procedures (MUS+). Complete datasets were available for 335 patients. Once inadequate tests (low volume voids <200 ml) had been excluded (28% overall), the likelihood of an abnormal second V&R test if the first test was normal was 7.1% overall, but 3.6% for MUS, 11.5% for MUS/AR and 8.6% for MUS+. The findings in the MUS-only group indicate that it is probably safe to discharge patients after one satisfactory V&R test, as long as safety measures such as 'open access' are available so that patients have unhindered readmission if problems arise.

  12. REVIEW - Thermal Physiology of Laboratory Mice: Defining Thermoneutrality

    Science.gov (United States)

    In terms of total number of publications, the laboratory mouse (Mus musculus) has emerged as the most popular test subject in biomedical research. Mice are used as models to study obesity, diabetes, eNS diseases and variety of other pathologies. Mice are classified as homeotherms...

  13. Effect of Physalis peruviana "tomatillo" fruit extract in Mus musculus var. swis with induced hyperlipidemi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Campos Florián

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the hypolipidemic activity of the fruit of Physalis peruviana "tomatillo" in a model of acute hyperlipidemia induced by triton. Mus musculus var. swis males as experimental animals. We worked with four groups of mice, the white group received distilled water orally and saline intraperitoneally, the control group received distilled water orally and intraperitoneally triton, the problem group 1 received orally 0.05g/100g Physalis peruviana extract intraperitoneally and triton and the problem group 2 received orally 0.2g/100g extract of Physalis peruviana and triton intraperitoneally. After 24 hours of administering the treatments were performed measurements of serum cholesterol and triglycerides. Mean levels of cholesterol (mg/dL were: 58.87 ± 11.54 (white, 121.71 ± 15.00 (control, 58.08 ± 9.21 (Problem 1 and 66 78 ± 16.77 (Problem 2. Average levels of triglycerides (g /L were: 0.48 ± 0.07 (white, 1.84 ± 0.18 (control, 0.34 ± 0.10 (Problem 1 and 0.94 ± 0.25 (Problem 2. We found significant reductions (p <0.000 concentrations of both cholesterol and triglycerides in relation to those obtained in the group treated only with Triton.

  14. The radioprotective effects of Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) juice on the bone marrow of irradiated Mus musculus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boquiren, Ryan Albert Leonard N.; Te Tan, Alvin E.

    2000-03-01

    The radioprotective effects of Noni juice on the bone marrow of irradiated Mus musculus L. (7-week old IRC strain) was studied using the micronucleus test. Five mice were used for each of the six groups; negative and positive control, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% treatment. Both negative and positive control groups were not treated with Noni juice. However, the negative control was not irradiated. Four different concentrations, a mixture of distilled water and commercial Noni juice, were administered via oral gavage to mice in their specific groups during the 15-day feeding schedule. A day (24H) after the last treatment, the mice were irradiated (6 Gy of gamma radiation). Two days (48H) after irradiation, the mice were sacrifice and the femur were extracted. The bone marrow cells were collected and slides were prepared. One thousand polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) were screened for the presence of micronucleus per mouse. The mean frequency of micronucleated PCE were as follows: negative control, 15; positive control, 45; 25% treatment, 21; 50% treatment, 18; 75% treatment, 11; 100% treatment, 7. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed that the groups' responses varied (α=0.05). Multiple comparison showed that there were significant differences between: (1) 25% and 100% treatment group; (2) positive control group and 75% treatment group; (3) positive control group and 100% treatment group, thus indicating that Noni juice is effective in inhibiting micronucleus formation at high concentrations. The result also showed that radioprotective potential of Noni juice follows a dose-dependent pattern. (Author)

  15. The radioprotective effects of Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) juice on the bone marrow of irradiated Mus musculus L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boquiren, Ryan Albert Leonard N.; Te Tan, Alvin E

    2000-03-01

    The radioprotective effects of Noni juice on the bone marrow of irradiated Mus musculus L. (7-week old IRC strain) was studied using the micronucleus test. Five mice were used for each of the six groups; negative and positive control, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% treatment. Both negative and positive control groups were not treated with Noni juice. However, the negative control was not irradiated. Four different concentrations, a mixture of distilled water and commercial Noni juice, were administered via oral gavage to mice in their specific groups during the 15-day feeding schedule. A day (24H) after the last treatment, the mice were irradiated (6 Gy of gamma radiation). Two days (48H) after irradiation, the mice were sacrifice and the femur were extracted. The bone marrow cells were collected and slides were prepared. One thousand polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) were screened for the presence of micronucleus per mouse. The mean frequency of micronucleated PCE were as follows: negative control, 15; positive control, 45; 25% treatment, 21; 50% treatment, 18; 75% treatment, 11; 100% treatment, 7. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed that the groups' responses varied ({alpha}=0.05). Multiple comparison showed that there were significant differences between: (1) 25% and 100% treatment group; (2) positive control group and 75% treatment group; (3) positive control group and 100% treatment group, thus indicating that Noni juice is effective in inhibiting micronucleus formation at high concentrations. The result also showed that radioprotective potential of Noni juice follows a dose-dependent pattern. (Author)

  16. PENGARUH TRITERPEN TOTAL PEGAGAN (Centella asiatica (L Urban TERHADAP FUNGSI KOGNITIF BELAJAR DAN MENGINGAT PADA MENCIT JANTAN ALBINO (Mus musculus YANG DIHAMBAT DENGAN SKOPOLAMIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlina

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Pegagan (Centella asiatica (L Urban has been described to posses CNS effects such as improving cognitive function, learning and memory. The aim of the research was to evaluate the effects of total triterpen’s pegagan extract on cognitive functions as the learning and memory performance in male albino mice (Mus musculus inhibited by scopolamine. The research design was Complete Randomized Design (RAL – factorial on thirty six mice divided into 4 groups. One control group received only aquabidest (negative control. Three treatment groups received total triterpen 16 mg/kg BW, 32 mg/kg BW orally and piracetam 500 mg/kg BW by intra peritoneally (positive control for 21 days. Data indicating learning and memory process of all subjects were obtained from one-trial passive avoidance test. Data were analyzed by two way ANOVA and BNT (p0,05. In conclusion, total triterpen from pegagan (Centella asiatica (L Urban improved learning ability and memory of male albino mice (Mus musculus even though, it was inhibited by scopolamine.

  17. Fraksi Heksan dan Fraksi Metanol Ekstrak Biji Pepaya Muda Menghambat Spermatogonia Mencit (Mus Musculus Jantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagus Komang Satriyasa

    2010-03-01

    spermatogoniaA decreased significantly (p < 0,01. It is concluded that hexan fraction and methanol fraction ofunripe carica papaya seeds extract can decrease spermatogonia A cell of male mice (mus musculus.

  18. Two genetic determinants acquired late in Mus evolution regulate the inclusion of exon 5, which alters mouse APOBEC3 translation efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mouse apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like editing complex 3 (mA3, an intracellular antiviral factor, has 2 allelic variations that are linked with different susceptibilities to beta- and gammaretrovirus infections among various mouse strains. In virus-resistant C57BL/6 (B6 mice, mA3 transcripts are more abundant than those in susceptible BALB/c mice both in the spleen and bone marrow. These strains of mice also express mA3 transcripts with different splicing patterns: B6 mice preferentially express exon 5-deficient (Δ5 mA3 mRNA, while BALB/c mice produce exon 5-containing full-length mA3 mRNA as the major transcript. Although the protein product of the Δ5 mRNA exerts stronger antiretroviral activities than the full-length protein, how exon 5 affects mA3 antiviral activity, as well as the genetic mechanisms regulating exon 5 inclusion into the mA3 transcripts, remains largely uncharacterized. Here we show that mA3 exon 5 is indeed a functional element that influences protein synthesis at a post-transcriptional level. We further employed in vitro splicing assays using genomic DNA clones to identify two critical polymorphisms affecting the inclusion of exon 5 into mA3 transcripts: the number of TCCT repeats upstream of exon 5 and the single nucleotide polymorphism within exon 5 located 12 bases upstream of the exon 5/intron 5 boundary. Distribution of the above polymorphisms among different Mus species indicates that the inclusion of exon 5 into mA3 mRNA is a relatively recent event in the evolution of mice. The widespread geographic distribution of this exon 5-including genetic variant suggests that in some Mus populations the cost of maintaining an effective but mutagenic enzyme may outweigh its antiviral function.

  19. Hubungan Hiperglikemia dengan Prothrombin Time pada Mencit (Mus musculus yang Diinduksi Aloksan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ibnu Malik

    2015-01-01

    . Endothelial disfungtion can be detected by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT and prothrombin time (PT. The objective of this studi was to determine the correlation between hyperglycemia and prothrombin time in mice (Mus musculus induced with aloxan. The design of this research was a post test only control group design conducted in October 2013 until February 2014 in Central Laboratory RS Dr. M. Djamil Padang. The subject were white mice (Mus musculus who have met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The subject were divided as hyperglycemia group (induced with aloxan and control group. After seven days of adaptation, the aloxan was injected and measurenment of blood glucose and body weight had been done, one time in every four days. Then in day 30th the termination of mice had been done to meassure the prothrombin time. The result showed the prothrombin time between group was shortened with the average prothrombin time of the control group was 7,96 second and the hiperglicemia group was 8,12 second. The result showing no correlation between hyperglycemia and prothrombin time with the degree of signification is (p 0,7 (p > 0,05.Keywords: hyperglycemia, diabetes mellitus, prothrombin time,

  20. Prevalencia y carga parasitaria de helmintos gastrointestinales en gallinas de traspatio (Gallus Gallus Domesticus), en el municipio de El Sauce, departamento de León, Nicaragua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivares, L. Luna; Kyvsgaard, Niels Chr.; Rimbaud, E.

    2006-01-01

    Prævalens og parasitbyrde af gastrointestinale helminter hos fritgående høns (Gallus gallus domesticus) i El Sauce kommune, León departementet, Nicaragua......Prævalens og parasitbyrde af gastrointestinale helminter hos fritgående høns (Gallus gallus domesticus) i El Sauce kommune, León departementet, Nicaragua...

  1. STRUKTUR HISTOLOGI HATI MENCIT(Mus musculus L. SETELAH PEMBERIAN EKSTRAK DAUN EKOR NAGA (Rhapidhophora pinnata Schott

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Komang Tia Pramesti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Rhapidhophora pinnata, Schott is a traditional medical plant that has been use remedy for treatment of hypertension, stroke. Aims of  this research is to determine the effect of Rhapidhophora pinnata Schott leaf extract toward  mouse (Mus musculus L liverhistological structure. This research used completely randomized  design with 28 female mice that were divide into 4 groups of  P0 (control received 0,9% NaCl, group P1, P2, and P3 received 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg bw respectively by oral administration. The treatment were given daily for 14 days. All of the mice were sacrificed by ether after 15 days. The liver were examined for their histopathological changes, namely fatty degeneration, hydropic degenaration and necrosis. Results were statistically analised by Kruskal-Wallis method. Treatment groups showed no significant differences with regard of liver histopatological changes, however hemorrhage, sinusoid congestion and inflamatory cell infiltration were found in liver.   Keyword : Rhapidhophora pinnata Schott, liver, mice

  2. INTEGRAL/JEM-X detection of fading emission from GT Mus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiocchi, M.; Chenevez, J.; Sguera, V.

    2015-01-01

    On November 15th 2015 the MAXI/GSC detected a big flare from the RS CVn star GT Mus with a flux of ~100 mCrab in the 2-20 keV energy band. (ATel #8285). During recent INTEGRAL observations of the Musca region performed between 17 Nov 16:08 and 18 Nov 00:05 (UTC) the source GT Mus was within the f...

  3. Mus musculus bone fluoride concentration as a useful biomarker for risk assessment of skeletal fluorosis in volcanic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhares, Diana; Camarinho, Ricardo; Garcia, Patrícia Ventura; Rodrigues, Armindo Dos Santos

    2018-08-01

    Fluoride is often found in elevated concentrations in volcanic areas due to the release of magmatic fluorine as hydrogen fluorine through volcanic degassing. The exposure to high levels of fluoride can affect the processes of bone formation and resorption causing skeletal fluorosis, a pathology that can easily be mistaken for other skeletal diseases. In this study, we aimed to determine if fluoride concentration in the femoral bone of wild populations of the house mouse (Mus musculus) is a good biomarker of exposure to active volcanic environments naturally enriched in fluoride, allowing their use in biomonitoring programs. The fluoride concentration of the whole femoral bone of 9 mice from Furnas (5 males and 4 females) and 33 mice from Rabo de Peixe (16 males and 17 females) was measured by the potentiometric method with a fluoride ion selective electrode. Fluoride in bones was significantly higher in the mice from Furnas when compared with the mice from Rabo de Peixe (616.5 ± 129.3 μg F/g vs. 253.8 ± 10.5 μg F/g). Accumulation rates were also significantly higher in the mice collected in Furnas when compared with Rabo de Peixe individuals (3.84 ± 0.52 μg F/day vs. 1.22 ± 0.06 μg F/day). The results demonstrate a significant association between exposure to fluoride in the active volcanic environment and fluoride content in bone, revealing that bone fluoride concentration is a suitable biomarker of chronic environmental exposure to fluoride. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Genotoxic effects in wild rodents (Rattus rattus and Mus musculus) in an open coal mining area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Grethel; Pérez, Lyda Espitia; Linares, Juan Carlos; Hartmann, Andreas; Quintana, Milton

    2007-06-15

    Coal is a mixture of a variety of compounds containing mutagenic and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Exposure to coal is considered as an important non-cellular and cellular source of reactive oxygen species that can induce DNA damage. In addition, spontaneous combustion can occur in coal mining areas, further releasing compounds with detrimental effects on the environment. In this study the comet assay was used to investigate potential genotoxic effects of coal mining activities in peripheral blood cells of the wild rodents Rattus rattus and Mus musculus. The study was conducted in a coal mining area of the Municipio de Puerto Libertador, South West of the Departamento de Cordoba, Colombia. Animals from two areas in the coal mining zone and a control area located in the Municipio de Lorica were investigated. The results showed evidence that exposure to coal results in elevated primary DNA lesions in blood cells of rodents. Three different parameters for DNA damage were assessed, namely, DNA damage index, migration length and percentage damaged cells. All parameters showed statistically significantly higher values in mice and rats from the coal mining area in comparison to the animals from the control area. The parameter "DNA Damage Index" was found to be most sensitive and to best indicate a genotoxic hazard. Both species investigated were shown to be sensitive indicators of environmental genotoxicity caused by coal mining activities. In summary, our study constitutes the first investigation of potential genotoxic effects of open coal mining carried out in Puerto Libertador. The investigations provide a guide for measures to evaluate genotoxic hazards, thereby contributing to the development of appropriate measures and regulations for more careful operations during coal mining.

  5. Morphogenesis and calcification of the statoconia in the chick (Gallus domesticus) embryo - Implications for future studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermin, C. D.; Igarashi, M.

    1985-01-01

    The morphogenesis of the statoconia in the chick, Gallus domesticus, injected with a carbon anhydrase inhibitor is studied. The preparation of the embryo specimens for analysis is described. The early, middle, and late stages of embryonic development are examined. The data reveal that acetozolamide inhibits statoconia formation in the middle stage of development and the calcification process follows statoconia formation. The spatial relationship between the development of type 1 and type 2 hair cells and the appearance and maturation of the statoconia is investigated.

  6. Density, body size, and reproduction of feral house mice on Gough ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feral house mice Mus musailus have occurred on Gough Island, South Atlantic Ocean, for about 180 years. The population was sampled during the austral spring of 1990. Estimated density on a live-trapping grid in dense cover (woody plants, ferns, grass) near the coast was 224 mice/ha. Snap-trapping at high altitude, ...

  7. Comparison ecological characteristics of mound-building mouse (mus spicilegus in two natural hotbeds of tularemia at North-West coast of the Black sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. T. Rusev

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of ecology-epizootic monitoring of North-West coast of the Black sea carried out in wintering seasons of 2004, 2005 and 2011 testifies the basic role of the Mound-building mouse (Mus spicilegus Petenyi, 1882 as a carrier of Francisella tularensis. Spatial distribution of the Mound-building mouse strongly dependson a biotope, geographical region and weather conditions of a specific season. Mice nests in the storage mounds are located normally at a depth of 20–40 cm under the food storage chamber. Average number of the mice in storage mounds is 3.08 ± 1.54 in the south of investigated region and 3.88 ± 2.63 – in the NE of the region.

  8. Joint molecule resolution requires the redundant activities of MUS-81 and XPF-1 during Caenorhabditis elegans meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel J O'Neil

    Full Text Available The generation and resolution of joint molecule recombination intermediates is required to ensure bipolar chromosome segregation during meiosis. During wild type meiosis in Caenorhabditis elegans, SPO-11-generated double stranded breaks are resolved to generate a single crossover per bivalent and the remaining recombination intermediates are resolved as noncrossovers. We discovered that early recombination intermediates are limited by the C. elegans BLM ortholog, HIM-6, and in the absence of HIM-6 by the structure specific endonuclease MUS-81. In the absence of both MUS-81 and HIM-6, recombination intermediates persist, leading to chromosome breakage at diakinesis and inviable embryos. MUS-81 has an additional role in resolving late recombination intermediates in C. elegans. mus-81 mutants exhibited reduced crossover recombination frequencies suggesting that MUS-81 is required to generate a subset of meiotic crossovers. Similarly, the Mus81-related endonuclease XPF-1 is also required for a subset of meiotic crossovers. Although C. elegans gen-1 mutants have no detectable meiotic defect either alone or in combination with him-6, mus-81 or xpf-1 mutations, mus-81;xpf-1 double mutants are synthetic lethal. While mus-81;xpf-1 double mutants are proficient for the processing of early recombination intermediates, they exhibit defects in the post-pachytene chromosome reorganization and the asymmetric disassembly of the synaptonemal complex, presumably triggered by crossovers or crossover precursors. Consistent with a defect in resolving late recombination intermediates, mus-81; xpf-1 diakinetic bivalents are aberrant with fine DNA bridges visible between two distinct DAPI staining bodies. We were able to suppress the aberrant bivalent phenotype by microinjection of activated human GEN1 protein, which can cleave Holliday junctions, suggesting that the DNA bridges in mus-81; xpf-1 diakinetic oocytes are unresolved Holliday junctions. We propose that the

  9. Pengaruh Lendir Bekicot (Achatina fulica terhadap Jumlah Sel Fibroblas pada Penyembuhan Luka Sayat Studi Eksperimental pada Kulit Mencit (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez Wahyu Purnasari

    2012-12-01

    Design and methods: The study is an experimental research with post test only randomized control group design. The subjects were 18 Mus musculus strain mice that were divided into 3 groups. 1st group as a control group of untreated, 2nd group was given povidone iodine 10%, and 3rd group was given land snails’ mucus during 5th days. On the 6th day the mices were killed for histological study. Results: The data showed that average number of fibroblast in 1st group is 93,85; 2nd group is 126,37; and 3rd is group 217,5. The results of one way anova statistical test showed significant difference among the three groups p = 0,000. The results of post hoc test showed significant difference in all groups (p < 0,05. Conclusion: The mucus of land snail is influence the number of fibroblast in healing cuts (Sains Medika, 4(2:195-203.

  10. Efficacy and Palatability of Different Rodenticide Formulations Applied against House Mouse (Mus musculus L. in Plant Storage Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Jokić

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Palatability (daily intake of different rodenticide formulations based on bromadiolone was compared in experiments with house mouse (Mus musculus L. in agricultural storage facilities, and rodent numbers were assessed at the beginning and end of experiment, as well as rodenticide efficacy. The dynamic of bait intake was monitored for ten days in facilities of the Institute of Animal Husbandry in Zemun and the Agricultural Cooperatives at Starčevo and Omoljica. The experiments complied with the relevant standard method of OEPP/EPPO. Agricultural products were stored either as bulk commodities or in sacs laid on pallete racks in the treated facilities. Baits were laid in boxes on mice routes below palletes holding sacs and on places where significant damage had been observed, at 1-3 m spacing and in 10-20 g portions. Mouse abundance was estimated based on the highest and lowest daily intakes of bait by mice over a period of 10 days, which was divided by the mouse daily feed requirement. The presence of house mouse was also monitored over the next 20 days. The efficacy of test products was computed using Abbott’s formula.

  11. WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF UNGUENTUM DOSAGE FORM OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF Areca catechu L. NUT IN Mus musculus albinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizah Vonna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The activity test of ethanol extract of betel nut ointment (Areca catechu L. in wound healing on mice (Mus musculus albinus has been carried out to determine the ability of the ethanol extract of betel nut ointment in wound healing and determine the concentration which was accelerate the wound healing on mice between 2 concentrations. This experimental research method used completely randomized design (CRD using 20 mices divided into 4 treatment groups ; ointment base, povidone iodine ointment, ethanol extract of betel nut ointment (SEEBP 2% and SEEBP 4%. Each treatment groups was tested in the incision which was made along the 15 mm parallel to the spine (Os. Vetebre with the depth until subcutaneous skin layers. The ointment was applied twice a day for about 21 days and observed changes every day for during the period of observation. The results showed that the average length of time of the scab formation, the scab exfoliation, and the wound healing successively are for the ointment base was 6.6; 10.2 and 18.2 days, povidone iodine ointment was 7; 11.2 and 14.8 days, SEEBP 2% was 5.75; 7.75 and 13.25 days, SEEBP 4% was 4.2; 8.8 and 12.8 days. ANOVA and LSD results of scab formation time showed a significant difference between SEEBP 4% with base ointment and povidone iodine ointment (p <0.05. Results of the exfoliation scab showed a significance difference between SEEBP 2% with base ointment and povidone iodine ointment (p <0.05. The duration of wound healing showed that there was significance difference between SEEBP 2%, SEBP 4% and povidone iodine ointment with ointment base  (p<0.05.Thus, betel nut ointment as an effect on healing process. The concentration which can accelerate wound healing in mice is SEEBP 4%.

  12. Natural Rabies Infection in a Domestic Fowl (Gallus domesticus): A Report from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby, Julie; Mani, Reeta Subramaniam; Abraham, Swapna Susan; Thankappan, Asha T; Pillai, Prasad Madhavan; Anand, Ashwini Manoor; Madhusudana, Shampur Narayan; Ramachandran, Jayachandran; Sreekumar, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    Rabies is a fatal encephalitis caused by viruses belonging to the genus Lyssavirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. It is a viral disease primarily affecting mammals, though all warm blooded animals are susceptible. Experimental rabies virus infection in birds has been reported, but naturally occurring infection of birds has been documented very rarely. The carcass of a domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus), which had been bitten by a stray dog one month back, was brought to the rabies diagnostic laboratory. A necropsy was performed and the brain tissue obtained was subjected to laboratory tests for rabies. The brain tissue was positive for rabies viral antigens by fluorescent antibody test (FAT) confirming a diagnosis of rabies. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleoprotein gene sequencing revealed that the rabies virus strain from the domestic fowl belonged to a distinct and relatively rare Indian subcontinent lineage. This case of naturally acquired rabies infection in a bird species, Gallus domesticus, being reported for the first time in India, was identified from an area which has a significant stray dog population and is highly endemic for canine rabies. It indicates that spill over of infection even to an unusual host is possible in highly endemic areas. Lack of any clinical signs, and fewer opportunities for diagnostic laboratory testing of suspected rabies in birds, may be the reason for disease in these species being undiagnosed and probably under-reported. Butchering and handling of rabies virus- infected poultry may pose a potential exposure risk.

  13. Natural Rabies Infection in a Domestic Fowl (Gallus domesticus: A Report from India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Baby

    Full Text Available Rabies is a fatal encephalitis caused by viruses belonging to the genus Lyssavirus of the family Rhabdoviridae. It is a viral disease primarily affecting mammals, though all warm blooded animals are susceptible. Experimental rabies virus infection in birds has been reported, but naturally occurring infection of birds has been documented very rarely.The carcass of a domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus, which had been bitten by a stray dog one month back, was brought to the rabies diagnostic laboratory. A necropsy was performed and the brain tissue obtained was subjected to laboratory tests for rabies. The brain tissue was positive for rabies viral antigens by fluorescent antibody test (FAT confirming a diagnosis of rabies. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleoprotein gene sequencing revealed that the rabies virus strain from the domestic fowl belonged to a distinct and relatively rare Indian subcontinent lineage.This case of naturally acquired rabies infection in a bird species, Gallus domesticus, being reported for the first time in India, was identified from an area which has a significant stray dog population and is highly endemic for canine rabies. It indicates that spill over of infection even to an unusual host is possible in highly endemic areas. Lack of any clinical signs, and fewer opportunities for diagnostic laboratory testing of suspected rabies in birds, may be the reason for disease in these species being undiagnosed and probably under-reported. Butchering and handling of rabies virus- infected poultry may pose a potential exposure risk.

  14. Genetic variation in house mice (Mus, Muridae, Rodentia) from the Czech and Slovak Republics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šugerková, Monika; Munclinger, P.; Božíková, E.; Piálek, Jaroslav; Macholán, Miloš

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2002), s. 81-92 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6045601; GA AV ČR IAA6045902; GA ČR GA206/01/0989; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : house mouse * genetic variation * allozymes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.234, year: 2002 http://www.ivb.cz/folia/51/2/081-092.pdf

  15. Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation and evolution of Old World house mice (Mus musculus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macholán, Miloš; Mrkvicová Vyskočilová, Martina; Bejček, V.; Šťastný, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, 3-4 (2012), s. 284-307 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/0707; GA ČR GA206/08/0640 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Bayesian skyline plot * control region * house mouse Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.494, year: 2012

  16. X-RAY DETECTION OF THE CLUSTER CONTAINING THE CEPHEID S MUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Pillitteri, Ignazio; Wolk, Scott; Karovska, Margarita; DePasquale, Joseph; Tingle, Evan [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, MS 4, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Guinan, Edward; Engle, Scott [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Villanova University, 800 Lancaster Avenue, Villanova, PA 19085 (United States); Bond, Howard E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Schaefer, Gail H., E-mail: nevans@cfa.harvard.edu [The CHARA Array of Georgia State University, Mount Wilson, CA 91023 (United States)

    2014-04-20

    The galactic Cepheid S Muscae has recently been added to the important list of Cepheids linked to open clusters, in this case the sparse young cluster ASCC 69. Low-mass members of a young cluster are expected to have rapid rotation and X-ray activity, making X-ray emission an excellent way to discriminate them from old field stars. We have made an XMM-Newton observation centered on S Mus and identified a population of X-ray sources whose near-IR Two Micron All Sky Survey counterparts lie at locations in the J, (J – K) color-magnitude diagram consistent with cluster membership at the distance of S Mus. Their median energy and X-ray luminosity are consistent with young cluster members as distinct from field stars. These strengthen the association of S Mus with the young cluster, making it a potential Leavitt law (period-luminosity relation) calibrator.

  17. POSSuMUS: a position sensitive scintillating muon SiPM detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ruschke, Alexander

    The development of a modular designed large scale scintillation detector with a two-dimensional position sensitivity is presented in this thesis. This novel POsition Sensitive Scintillating MUon SiPM Detector is named POSSuMUS. The POSSuMUS detector is capable to determine the particle’s position in two space dimensions with a fast trigger capability. Each module is constructed from two trapezoidal shaped plastic scintillators to form one rectangular shaped detector module. Both trapezoids are optically insulated against each other. In both trapezoids the scintillation light is collected by plastic fibers and guided towards silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). SiPMs are light sensors which are capable to detect even smallest amounts of light. By combining several detector modules, position sensitive areas from 100 cm2 to few m2 are achievable with few readout channels. Therefore, POSSuMUS provides a cost effective detector concept. The position sensitivity along the trapezoidal geometry of one detector module ...

  18. X-Ray Detection of the Cluster Containing the Cepheid S Mus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Pillitteri, Ignazio; Wolk, Scott; Guinan, Edward; Engle, Scott; Bond, Howard E.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Karovska, Margarita; DePasquale, Joseph; Tingle, Evan

    2014-04-01

    The galactic Cepheid S Muscae has recently been added to the important list of Cepheids linked to open clusters, in this case the sparse young cluster ASCC 69. Low-mass members of a young cluster are expected to have rapid rotation and X-ray activity, making X-ray emission an excellent way to discriminate them from old field stars. We have made an XMM-Newton observation centered on S Mus and identified a population of X-ray sources whose near-IR Two Micron All Sky Survey counterparts lie at locations in the J, (J - K) color-magnitude diagram consistent with cluster membership at the distance of S Mus. Their median energy and X-ray luminosity are consistent with young cluster members as distinct from field stars. These strengthen the association of S Mus with the young cluster, making it a potential Leavitt law (period-luminosity relation) calibrator.

  19. X-RAY DETECTION OF THE CLUSTER CONTAINING THE CEPHEID S MUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Pillitteri, Ignazio; Wolk, Scott; Karovska, Margarita; DePasquale, Joseph; Tingle, Evan; Guinan, Edward; Engle, Scott; Bond, Howard E.; Schaefer, Gail H.

    2014-01-01

    The galactic Cepheid S Muscae has recently been added to the important list of Cepheids linked to open clusters, in this case the sparse young cluster ASCC 69. Low-mass members of a young cluster are expected to have rapid rotation and X-ray activity, making X-ray emission an excellent way to discriminate them from old field stars. We have made an XMM-Newton observation centered on S Mus and identified a population of X-ray sources whose near-IR Two Micron All Sky Survey counterparts lie at locations in the J, (J – K) color-magnitude diagram consistent with cluster membership at the distance of S Mus. Their median energy and X-ray luminosity are consistent with young cluster members as distinct from field stars. These strengthen the association of S Mus with the young cluster, making it a potential Leavitt law (period-luminosity relation) calibrator

  20. Tristania Sumatrana Effect On Female Mus Musculus Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamsurizal, S.

    2018-04-01

    The use of traditional medicinal plants are generally based on empirical experience, therefore it is necessary scientific approach in order to bring traditional medicine into medical practice and the formal health services. Tristania sumatrana Miq. is one of the traditional medicinal plants are often used as a contraceptive for women in West Sumatra Tristania sumatrana Miq. extract can prolong the estrous cycle in mice to eleven days. This study aimed to influence Tristania sumatrana Miq. extract treatment on fertility of female mice. Experiments conducted a randomized block design 5x2. Five dose groups: control with no treatment, placebo, treatment with doses of 600, 900 and 1200 mg/kgbw and the old two treatment groups: 10 and 20 days. Fertility parameters studied were ovarian weight follicle Graaf number, the corpus luteum and fetal life. The research proves of Tristania sumatrana Miq. extract treatment causes a decrease very significantly the ovarian weight (treatment of 900 mg/kgbw for 10 days), follicles Graaf number (900 mg/kgbw for 20 days), the corpus luteum (600 mg/kgbw for 10 days) and live fetuses (900 mg/kgbw for 10 days). Tristania sumatrana Miq. extract treatment can lead to decreased fertility of female mice.

  1. Dbf4-dependent kinase and the Rtt107 scaffold promote Mus81-Mms4 resolvase activation during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Princz, Lissa N; Wild, Philipp; Bittmann, Julia; Aguado, F Javier; Blanco, Miguel G; Matos, Joao; Pfander, Boris

    2017-03-01

    DNA repair by homologous recombination is under stringent cell cycle control. This includes the last step of the reaction, disentanglement of DNA joint molecules (JMs). Previous work has established that JM resolving nucleases are activated specifically at the onset of mitosis. In case of budding yeast Mus81-Mms4, this cell cycle stage-specific activation is known to depend on phosphorylation by CDK and Cdc5 kinases. Here, we show that a third cell cycle kinase, Cdc7-Dbf4 (DDK), targets Mus81-Mms4 in conjunction with Cdc5-both kinases bind to as well as phosphorylate Mus81-Mms4 in an interdependent manner. Moreover, DDK-mediated phosphorylation of Mms4 is strictly required for Mus81 activation in mitosis, establishing DDK as a novel regulator of homologous recombination. The scaffold protein Rtt107, which binds the Mus81-Mms4 complex, interacts with Cdc7 and thereby targets DDK and Cdc5 to the complex enabling full Mus81 activation. Therefore, Mus81 activation in mitosis involves at least three cell cycle kinases, CDK, Cdc5 and DDK Furthermore, tethering of the kinases in a stable complex with Mus81 is critical for efficient JM resolution. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY NC ND 4.0 license.

  2. The Southeastern Asian house mouse (Mus musculus castaneus Linn.) as a new passenger host for Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii molecular type VNI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Karuna; Rani, Jyoti; Neelabh; Rai, Govind Kumar; Singh, Major

    2017-11-01

    We describe Mus musculus castaneus as a new mammalian host for Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii (VNI). Eighteen apparently healthy adults and pups of the rodent were collected from human dwellings in Varanasi, a city of India. Both clinical and behavioral examinations of the rodents did not reveal any sign of the disease. Among visceral organs, histological examination of only liver exhibited the presence of single celled, encapsulated, Southgate's mucicarmine positive fungal structures consistent with C. neoformans. Nevertheless, culture of tissue homogenates of brain, lungs, liver, and kidneys yielded white colonies on Sabouraud's dextrose agar and brown mucoid colonies of C. neoformans on Staib's and Tobacco agar media. The pathogen was isolated from habitat soil as well as fresh faeces of the animals. All isolates were urease positive, nitrate and canavanine-glycine bromothymol blue negative, exhibited phenoloxidase activity and grew at 37°C. The isolates were identified as C. neoformans var. grubii with ITS primers and unique marker (GACA)4. The pathogen when inoculated in immunosuppressed mice showed low pathogenicity. To our knowledge, we for the first time report case cluster of Mus musculus castaneus as new passenger host for C. neoformans var. grubii (VNI). © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Effects of size, sex, and voluntary running speeds on costs of locomotion in lines of laboratory mice selectively bred for high wheel-running activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Enrico L; Kelly, Scott A; Gomes, Fernando R; Chappell, Mark A; Garland, Theodore

    2006-01-01

    Selective breeding for over 35 generations has led to four replicate (S) lines of laboratory house mice (Mus domesticus) that run voluntarily on wheels about 170% more than four random-bred control (C) lines. We tested whether S lines have evolved higher running performance by increasing running economy (i.e., decreasing energy spent per unit of distance) as a correlated response to selection, using a recently developed method that allows for nearly continuous measurements of oxygen consumption (VO2) and running speed in freely behaving animals. We estimated slope (incremental cost of transport [COT]) and intercept for regressions of power (the dependent variable, VO2/min) on speed for 49 males and 47 females, as well as their maximum VO2 and speeds during wheel running, under conditions mimicking those that these lines face during the selection protocol. For comparison, we also measured COT and maximum aerobic capacity (VO2max) during forced exercise on a motorized treadmill. As in previous studies, the increased wheel running of S lines was mainly attributable to increased average speed, with males also showing a tendency for increased time spent running. On a whole-animal basis, combined analysis of males and females indicated that COT during voluntary wheel running was significantly lower in the S lines (one-tailed P=0.015). However, mice from S lines are significantly smaller and attain higher maximum speeds on the wheels; with either body mass or maximum speed (or both) entered as a covariate, the statistical significance of the difference in COT is lost (one-tailed P> or =0.2). Thus, both body size and behavior are key components of the reduction in COT. Several statistically significant sex differences were observed, including lower COT and higher resting metabolic rate in females. In addition, maximum voluntary running speeds were negatively correlated with COT in females but not in males. Moreover, males (but not females) from the S lines exhibited

  4. Novel duck parvovirus identified in Cherry Valley ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus), China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuanfeng; Li, Qi; Chen, Zongyan; Liu, Guangqing

    2016-10-01

    An unknown infectious disease in Cherry Valley ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) characterized by short beak and strong growth retardation occurred in China during 2015. The causative agent of this disease, tentatively named duck short beak and dwarfism syndrome (DSBDS), as well as the evolutionary relationships between this causative agent and all currently known avian-origin parvoviruses were clarified by virus isolation, transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation, analysis of nuclear acid type, (RT-)PCR identification, whole genome sequencing, and NS1 protein sequences-based phylogenetic analyses. The results indicated that the causative agent of DSBDS is closely related with the goose parvovirus-like virus, which is divergent from all currently known avian-origin parvoviruses and should be a novel duck parvovirus (NDPV). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ion transporters for fluid reabsorption in the rooster (Gallus domesticus) epididymal region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, J M; Dalponte, M; Janssen, S; Bunick, D; Nakai, M

    2006-10-01

    Testicular fluid is highly condensed during its passage through the epididymal region in the avian species. In the present study, major ion transporters that are responsible for condensation mainly by water resorption in the reproductive tract as identified in the mammalian epididymis were localized within the rooster (Gallus domesticus) epididymis by immunohistochemistry. The results show that the efferent ductule epithelium expressed sodium-potassium ATPase (Na(+),K(+)-ATPase), carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and sodium hydrogen exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) and that the connecting ductule and epididymal duct epithelia expressed Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and CAII. These data suggest that a model proposed for reabsorption in mammalian efferent ductules can be applied to avian efferent ductules.

  6. Effect of fenitrothion and disulfoton on lipid metabolism in tissues of white leghorn chicks (Gallus domesticus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopal, P.K.; Chopra, Arvind; Ahuja, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of acute and chronic toxicity due to Disulfoton (diethyl S-(2-ehtyl thio) ethyl phosphorothionate) and Fenitrothion (dimethyl P-3-methyl-4 nitrophenyl phosphorothionate) on the lipid metabolism in tissues of white leghorn chicks (Gallus domesticus) was studied by using 32 P-phosphate, 2- 14 C-acetate and U- 14 C-glucose as precursors. During acute toxicity, the biosynthesis of fatty acids and aerobic oxidation of glucose appear to be inhibited in nervous tissues. However, during chronic toxicity, the biosynthesis of fatty acids is not inhibited. The biosynthesis of phospholipids is depressed in certain tissues due to decreased availability of diglyceride precursors during acute toxicity. During chronic toxicity, the formation of diglyceride from phosphatidic acid appears to be inhibited. (author). 14 refs., 4 tabs

  7. Numerical variation of cell lysosomes of the proximal convoluted tubules of mice Kidneys submitted to different X-ray doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Lapa, R. de C.R. da; Pacheco, I.P.; Segreto, C.

    1984-01-01

    The number of cell lysosomes of the proximal convoluted tubules of mice Kidneys (Mus musculus) before and after whole-body irradiation with different X-ray doses is confronted. The mice were sacrificed after 72 hours and the cortex fragments were conduct to electron microscopy. A statistically significant numerical reduction of the lysosomas was observed in 72 hours. (M.A.C.) [pt

  8. Nova Mus 2018 (PNV J11261220-6531086) Is Forming Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Frederick M.

    2018-02-01

    Nova Mus 2018 (PNV J11261220-6531086) was discovered by R Kaufman on 2018 Jan 14.486, and reported by P. Schmeer in vsnet-alert 21772. The first detection was 2018 Jan 3.24 (ASAS-SN, reported in the TOCP).

  9. Musée ideale : unistused täiuslikust muuseumist / Mariann Raisma

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raisma, Mariann, 1974-

    2008-01-01

    18.-19. sajandi unistusi täiuslikust muuseumist kolmel tasandil: vormi ehk arhitektuuri, muuseumikogu terviklikkuse ning pärandi kättesaadavuse kaudu. Pikemalt Napoleon Bonaparte'ile pühendatud Musée Napoleoni kogudest, kontseptsioonist ja koopiamuuseumidest Lääne-Euroopas ning Tartus

  10. Detection of Highly-Absorbed X-rays from Nova Mus 2018 with Swift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Thomas; Kuin, Paul; Mukai, Koji; Page, Kim; Chomiuk, Laura; Kawash, Adam; Sokoloski, J. L.; Linford, Justin; Rupen, Michael P.; Mioduszewski, Amy

    2018-03-01

    We report the detection of X-rays from Nova Mus 2018 with the Swift XRT instrument. We have been carrying out weekly monitoring of the nova with Swift since its discovery on 2018 Jan 15 (see ATel #11220), and observations up to 2018 Feb 24 yielded X-ray non-detections.

  11. X-ray and UV observations of Nova Mus 2018 with Swift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Thomas; Mukai, Koji; Chomiuk, Laura; Li, Kwan-Kok; Kawash, Adam; Sokoloski, J. L.; Rupen, Michael; Linford, Justin; Mioduszewski, Amy

    2018-01-01

    We observed Nova Mus 2018 (PNV J11261220-6531086) with the Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory on 2018 January 21, 18 days after the initial rapid rise to V=8.8 on 2018 January 3.24 (see link below for more details).

  12. Reproductive isolation in hybrid mice due to spermatogenesis defects at three meiotic stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Ayako; Mita, Akihiko; Takada, Yuki; Koseki, Haruhiko; Shiroishi, Toshihiko

    2010-09-01

    Early in the process of speciation, reproductive failures occur in hybrid animals between genetically diverged populations. The sterile hybrid animals are often males in mammals and they exhibit spermatogenic disruptions, resulting in decreased number and/or malformation of mature sperms. Despite the generality of this phenomenon, comparative study of phenotypes in hybrid males from various crosses has not been done, and therefore the comprehensive genetic basis of the disruption is still elusive. In this study, we characterized the spermatogenic phenotype especially during meiosis in four different cases of reproductive isolation: B6-ChrX(MSM), PGN-ChrX(MSM), (B6 × Mus musculus musculus-NJL/Ms) F(1), and (B6 × Mus spretus) F(1). The first two are consomic strains, both bearing the X chromosome of M. m. molossinus; in B6-ChrX(MSM), the genetic background is the laboratory strain C57BL/6J (predominantly M. m. domesticus), while in PGN-ChrX(MSM) the background is the PGN2/Ms strain purely derived from wild M. m. domesticus. The last two cases are F(1) hybrids between mouse subspecies or species. Each of the hybrid males exhibited cell-cycle arrest and/or apoptosis at either one or two of three distinct meiotic stages: premeiotic stage, zygotene-to-pachytene stage of prophase I, and metaphase I. This study shows that the sterility in hybrid males is caused by spermatogenic disruptions at multiple stages, suggesting that the responsible genes function in different cellular processes. Furthermore, the stages with disruptions are not correlated with the genetic distance between the respective parental strains.

  13. Permanent magnetic field, direct electric field, and infrared to reduce blood glucose level and hepatic function in mus musculus with diabetic mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhariningsih; Basuki Notobroto, Hari; Winarni, Dwi; Achmad Hussein, Saikhu; Anggono Prijo, Tri

    2017-05-01

    Blood contains several electrolytes with positive (cation) and negative (anion) ion load. Both electrolytes deliver impulse synergistically adjusting body needs. Those electrolytes give specific effect to external disturbance such as electric, magnetic, even infrared field. A study has been conducted to reduce blood glucose level and liver function, in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients, using Biophysics concept which uses combination therapy of permanent magnetic field, electric field, and infrared. This study used 48 healthy mice (mus musculus), male, age 3-4 weeks, with approximately 25-30 g in weight. Mice was fed with lard as high fat diet orally, before Streptozotocin (STZ) induction become diabetic mice. Therapy was conducted by putting mice in a chamber that emits the combination of permanent magnetic field, electric field, and infrared, every day for 1 hour for 28 days. There were 4 combinations of therapy/treatment, namely: (1) permanent magnetic field, direct electric field, and infrared; (2) permanent magnetic field, direct electric field, without infrared; (3) permanent magnetic field, alternating electric field, and infrared; and (4) permanent magnetic field, alternating electric field, without infrared. The results of therapy show that every combination is able to reduce blood glucose level, AST, and ALT. However, the best result is by using combination of permanent magnetic field, direct electric field, and infrared.

  14. Permanent magnetic field, direct electric field, and infrared to reduce blood glucose level and hepatic function in mus musculus with diabetic mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhariningsih; Prijo, Tri Anggono; Notobroto, Hari Basuki; Winarni, Dwi; Hussein, Saikhu Achmad

    2017-01-01

    Blood contains several electrolytes with positive (cation) and negative (anion) ion load. Both electrolytes deliver impulse synergistically adjusting body needs. Those electrolytes give specific effect to external disturbance such as electric, magnetic, even infrared field. A study has been conducted to reduce blood glucose level and liver function, in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients, using Biophysics concept which uses combination therapy of permanent magnetic field, electric field, and infrared. This study used 48 healthy mice ( mus musculus ), male, age 3-4 weeks, with approximately 25-30 g in weight. Mice was fed with lard as high fat diet orally, before Streptozotocin (STZ) induction become diabetic mice. Therapy was conducted by putting mice in a chamber that emits the combination of permanent magnetic field, electric field, and infrared, every day for 1 hour for 28 days. There were 4 combinations of therapy/treatment, namely: (1) permanent magnetic field, direct electric field, and infrared; (2) permanent magnetic field, direct electric field, without infrared; (3) permanent magnetic field, alternating electric field, and infrared; and (4) permanent magnetic field, alternating electric field, without infrared. The results of therapy show that every combination is able to reduce blood glucose level, AST, and ALT. However, the best result is by using combination of permanent magnetic field, direct electric field, and infrared. (paper)

  15. Perfil hematológico, bioquímico sérico e sorológico de Felis domesticus com lagochilascariose experimental Hematological, serum biochemical and serological profile of Felis domesticus with experimental lagochilascariosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Félix de Souza Prudente

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, avaliou-se o hemograma, diversas proteínas e enzimas séricas ou plasmáticas e a produção de anticorpos específicos em Felis domesticus, experimentalmente infectados por Lagochilascaris minor. Verificou-se nos animais infectados aumento de leucócitos totais, principalmente eosinófilos; queda do número de plaquetas; aumento de aspartato-aminotransferase e alanina-aminotransferase; e principalmente a presença de anticorpos IgG específicos para antígenos do parasita. A reação com extrato bruto de parasitas adultos mostrou-se mais específica, permitindo a discriminação de soros de animais: não infectados, com infecção por outros parasitas, e com lagochilascariose. Esta é a primeira descrição da padronização de uma reação sorológica para diagnóstico da lagochilascariose em Felis domesticus.The present study evaluated the hemogram, different proteins, plasma enzymes, serum enzymes and specific antibody production of Felis domesticus experimentally infected by Lagochilascaris minor. The infected animals were seen to present increased total leukocytes (particularly eosinophils, decreased platelet counts, increased aspartate-aminotransferase and alanine-aminotransferase and, especially, the presence of specific IgG antibodies against antigens of the parasite. The reaction with crude extract of adult parasites was shown to be more specific, thereby enabling serum discrimination between the animals: non-infected, infected with other parasites and infected with lagochilascariosis. This is the first description of the standardization of a serological reaction for diagnosing lagochilascariosis in Felis domesticus.

  16. PENGARUH LINAMARIN TERHADAP PENAMPILAN REPRODUKSI INDUK MENCIT (Mus musculus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitra Wahyuni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study was performed to observe the effect of linamarin on reproductive performance, that consist of the number of live fetuses, reabsorption embryo or fetal, fetal death and fetal body weight together with length. Pregnant mice were divided into one control group with administration of distilled water (0 mg/kgb.w/days and six treatment groups linamarin dose is 0.36; 0.72; 1.26 mg; 2; 4; and 8 mg/kgb.w./days. Linamarin dosing and control begins at 5th to 16th gestation days, at 17-days of gestation caesarean section were performed to pregnant mice to remove foetuses. Statistical analysis used was a variation analysis by ANOVA followed by comparisons between treatments HSD test (Tukey. Giving linamarin observed in the parent mice led to a decrease in average weight gain of the mother during pregnancy compared with controls. In linamarin dose 8 mg/kgb.w/day an increase in embryo reabsorption and fetal death, as well as the observed decrease in fetal body weight and length, but after statistical analysis of the decrease was not significantly different. Linamarin with the doses given in this study is not expected to interfere with pregnancy based on reproductive performance were observed. Keywords: Linamarin, reproductive performance, fetal weight, fetal body length ABSTRAKPenelitian ini dilaksanakan bertujuan untuk mengamati pengaruh linamarin pada penampilan reproduksi yang meliputi jumlah fetus hidup, embrio resorpsi, fetus mati dan berat beserta panjang badan fetus. Induk mencit yang bunting dikelompokkan ke dalam satu kelompok kontrol dengan pemberian akuades (0 mg/kgb.b./hari dan enam kelompok perlakuan dosis linamarin yaitu 0,36; 0,72; 1,26 mg; 2; 4; dan 8 mg/kgb.b./hari. Pemberian dosis linamarin dan kontrol dimulai pada umur kebuntingan 5 sampai 16 hari, setelah itu pada umur kebuntingan 17 hari mencit dikorbankan nyawanya untuk pengambilan fetus. Analisis statistik yang digunakan adalah analisis variasi dengan ANOVA dan

  17. DERMAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA IN GERIATRIC ROOSTER (Gallus gallus domesticus CARCINOMA DÉRMICO DE CÉLULAS ESCAMOSAS EM GALO (Gallus gallus domesticus GERIÁTRICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Cisneiros da Costa Reis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The squamous cell carcinoma is more common the malignant epithelial neoplasm of the domestic mammals, even so occurs descriptions in some species of birds. Between the gallinaceous, this tumor is uncommon and the affected animals are in the majority adult and aged. The cutaneous form corresponds most frequent in birds. The squamous cell carcinoma is highly invasive and of changeable malignancy, depending on its localization. The aim of the present study corresponded to the description of a case of dermal squamous cell carcinoma in geriatric rooster. A gallinaceous (Gallus gallus domesticus, male, 10 years of age, was presented with a cutaneous tumor, of gradual growth. The patient was submitted to the physical examination and front to the joined alterations was opted to the surgical debulking of the neoformation. The collected sample was submitted to the histopathological examination. Clinically was evidenced cutaneous tumor, with crusts, inexact limits and tack to adjacent tissues. The same it was located in the distal part of the left hindlimb. The histopathological examination disclosed a compatible morphologic picture with dermal squamous cell carcinoma, moderately differentiated and infiltrate. Three months of after the surgery, signal of return of the neoplasm was observed.

    KEY WORDS: Cutaneous neoplasm, gallinaceous, squamous cell carcinoma.

    O carcinoma de células escamosas é a neoplasia epitelial maligna mais comum dos mamíferos domésticos, embora ocorram descrições em várias espécies de aves. Entre os galináceos, esse tumor é incomum e os animais afetados são na maioria adultos e idosos. A forma cutânea corresponde à mais frequente em aves. O carcinoma de células escamosas é altamente invasivo e de malignidade variável, dependendo da sua localização. Em virtude do reduzido número de relatos de

  18. Toxicological evaluation of essential oil from the leaves of Croton tetradenius (Euphorbiaceae) on Aedes aegypti and Mus musculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Karine da Silva; E Silva, Sandra Lúcia da Cunha; de Souza, Ivone Antonia; Gualberto, Simone Andrade; da Cruz, Rômulo Carlos Dantas; Dos Santos, Frances Regiane; de Carvalho, Mário Geraldo

    2016-09-01

    For control of Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue, botanical insecticides can be a viable alternative. Herein, we evaluated the chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oils of the leaves of Croton tetradenius on Ae. aegypti larvae and adults. We also evaluated the acute toxicity in Mus musculus. The essential oil chemical analysis was performed using chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and flame ionization detection. Female mice were used for assessing toxicity according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's Test Guideline 423/2001. Doses administered to mice orally and intraperitoneally were 5, 50, 300, and 2000 mg kg(-1). There was a greater toxic effect on larvae (LC50 = 0.152 mg mL(-1) and LC90 = 0.297 mg mL(-1)) and on adults (LC50 = 1.842 mg mL(-1) and LC90 = 3.156 mg mL(-1)) of Ae. aegypti after 24 h of exposure, when compared to other periods of exposure. Chemical analysis revealed 26 components, with camphor (25.49 %) as the major component. The acute toxicity via the intraperitoneal route identified an LD50 = 200 mg kg(-1) and by the oral route an LD50 = 500 mg kg(-1). Thus, the essential oil of C. tetradenius presents insecticidal potential for Ae. aegypti and has high safety threshold at the concentrations evaluated in this study.

  19. RECQ5 Helicase Cooperates with MUS81 Endonuclease in Processing Stalled Replication Forks at Common Fragile Sites during Mitosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Marco, Stefano; Hasanova, Zdenka; Kanagaraj, Radhakrishnan

    2017-01-01

    The MUS81-EME1 endonuclease cleaves late replication intermediates at common fragile sites (CFSs) during early mitosis to trigger DNA-repair synthesis that ensures faithful chromosome segregation. Here, we show that these DNA transactions are promoted by RECQ5 DNA helicase in a manner dependent...... on its Ser727 phosphorylation by CDK1. Upon replication stress, RECQ5 associates with CFSs in early mitosis through its physical interaction with MUS81 and promotes MUS81-dependent mitotic DNA synthesis. RECQ5 depletion or mutational inactivation of its ATP-binding site, RAD51-interacting domain...

  20. Pengaruh Pemberian Ekstrak Etanol Daun Kecapi (Sandoricum koetjape (Burm.f. Merr. Terhadap Penurunan Kadar Kolesterol Total pada Mencit Jantan (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Kartika

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The research about utilization of ethanol extract form leafkecapi (Sandoricum koetjape (Burm.f.Merr.has been done, it proved could decrease  total cholesterol levels in male mice (Mus musculus. In this research sample macerated with ethanol 96% and then concentrated by rotary evaporator, and gained 15.6% of yield. Based on the results of phytochemical test, secondary metabolites compound that contained in bark kecapi are alkaloid, flavonoid, triterpenoid, steroid, phenolic and saponin. On antihiperkolesterolemia activity test by using male mice, there are several treatments that negative control (-, positive control (+ and three treatment with different doses i.e. a low doses (9.5 mg/kg BB, middle doses (19 mg/kg BB and high doses (38 mg/kg BB. The parameter measured was blood serum of male mice by using a Cholesterol Test Strips. From this test it showed that the effectiveness of decreased total cholesterol level doses of 19 mg/kg BB showed total cholesterol level under 100 mg/dL. Keywords:      Leaf kecapi (Sandoricum koetjape (Burm.f. Merr., Phytochemicals test, Total cholesterol levels, Cholesterol test strips.

  1. Le MusVerre, Sars-Poteries, Hauts-de-France

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt , Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Le MusVerre, inauguré en 2016, présente une collection patrimoniale et contemporaine d'art verrier. Le scénario de la visite propose un parcours en deux temps avec une séquence historique : de l’histoire des « bousillés » à la création du musée avec une galerie technique qui donne un aperçu des gestes de l’art verrier. Puis une séquence contemporaine développe un panorama des collections d’art verrier d’aujourd’hui, dans leur grande richesse et originalité.

  2. Stop Stalling: Mus81 Required for Efficient Replication | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    DNA replication is precisely controlled to ensure that daughter cells receive intact, accurate genetic information. Each segment of DNA must be copied only once, and the rate of replication coordinated genome-wide. Mild replication stress slows DNA synthesis and activates a pathway involving the Mus81 endonuclease, which generates a series of DNA breaks that are rapidly repaired, allowing the cell to avoid activating the S-phase checkpoint and its potentially damaging outcomes of apoptosis or error-prone repair. Mirit Aladjem, Ph.D., of CCR’s Developmental Therapeutics Branch, and her colleagues wondered whether Mus81 also plays a role in regulating the replication rate during growth in the absence of stress.

  3. Methylation patterns of repetitive DNA sequences in germ cells of Mus musculus.

    OpenAIRE

    Sanford, J; Forrester, L; Chapman, V; Chandley, A; Hastie, N

    1984-01-01

    The major and the minor satellite sequences of Mus musculus were undermethylated in both sperm and oocyte DNAs relative to the amount of undermethylation observed in adult somatic tissue DNA. This hypomethylation was specific for satellite sequences in sperm DNA. Dispersed repetitive and low copy sequences show a high degree of methylation in sperm DNA; however, a dispersed repetitive sequence was undermethylated in oocyte DNA. This finding suggests a difference in the amount of total genomic...

  4. Potential of MuS1 Transgenic Tobacco for Phytoremediation of the Urban Soils Contaminated with Cadmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. H.; Kim, Y. N.; Kim, S. H.

    2010-05-01

    Urban soils are prone to contamination by trace elements such as Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Phytoremediation is one of the attractive remediation methods for soils contaminated with trace elements due to its non-destructive and environmentally-friendly characteristic. Scientists have tried to find hyper-accumulator plants in nature or to develop transgenic plant through genetic engineering. This study was carried out to identify a potential of MuS1 transgenic tobacco for phytoremediation of the urban soils contaminated with Cd. MuS1 is known as a multiple stress related gene with several lines. The previous study using RT-PCR showed that the expression of MuS1 gene in tobacco plant induced tolerance to Cd stress. For this study, MuS1 transgenic tobacco and wild-type tobacco (control) were cultivated in a hydroponic system treated with Cd (0, 50, 100 and 200μM Cd) for 3 weeks. At harvest, both tobacco and nutrient solution were collected and were analyzed for Cd. Effect of Cd treatment on morphological change of the tobacco leaves was also observed by variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM). The tolerance of MuS1 transgenic tobacco to Cd stress was better than that of wild-type tobacco at all Cd levels. Especially, wild-type tobacco showed chlorosis and withering with 200μM Cd treatment, whereas MuS1 transgenic tobacco gradually recovered from Cd damage. Wild-type tobacco accumulated more Cd (4.65mg per plant) than MuS1 transgenic tobacco (2.37mg per plant) with 200μM Cd treatment. Cd translocation rate from root to leaves was 81.8 % for wild-type tobacco compared to 37.1 % for MuS1 transgenic tobacco. Result of VP-SEM showed that the number of trichome in the leaves for wild-type tobacco increased in comparison with that for untreated samples after 3 weeks, while that for MuS1 transgenic tobacco was not changed by Cd treatment. Results showed that the mechanism of the recovery of the MuS1 tobacco plant was not by high level of Cd uptake and accumulation

  5. The MusIC method: a fast and quasi-optimal solution to the muscle forces estimation problem

    OpenAIRE

    Muller , Antoine; Pontonnier , Charles; Dumont , Georges

    2018-01-01

    International audience; The present paper aims at presenting a fast and quasi-optimal method of muscle forces estimation: the MusIC method. It consists in interpolating a first estimation in a database generated offline thanks to a classical optimization problem, and then correcting it to respect the motion dynamics. Three different cost functions – two polynomial criteria and a min/max criterion – were tested on a planar musculoskeletal model. The MusIC method provides a computation frequenc...

  6. História da colonização do ratinho-caseiro, Mus musculus domesticus, em ilhas AtLânticas (Madeira, Açores e Cabo Verde): uma abordagem multilocus

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Ana Sofia Carromeu dos

    2017-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Biologia Evolutiva e do Desenvolvimento, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2017 As ilhas oceânicas são consideradas laboratórios naturais para o estudo da evolução. Os humanos são também agentes de colonização de várias espécies, nomeadamente, mamíferos terrestres, ao transportarem, ativa ou passivamente, estes animais para as ilhas. Uma das introduções mediadas pelo Homem mais icónicas envolve a disseminação mundial do ratinho-caseiro, principalmente da sub-...

  7. Variation in MHC genotypes in two populations of house sparrow (Passer domesticus) with different population histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Asa Alexandra; Pedersen, Sindre Andre; Jensen, Henrik; Westerdahl, Helena

    2011-10-01

    Small populations are likely to have a low genetic ability for disease resistance due to loss of genetic variation through inbreeding and genetic drift. In vertebrates, the highest genetic diversity of the immune system is located at genes within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Interestingly, parasite-mediated selection is thought to potentially maintain variation at MHC loci even in populations that are monomorphic at other loci. Therefore, general loss of genetic variation in the genome may not necessarily be associated with low variation at MHC loci. We evaluated inter- and intrapopulation variation in MHC genotypes between an inbred (Aldra) and a relatively outbred population (Hestmannøy) of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in a metapopulation at Helgeland, Norway. Genomic (gDNA) and transcribed (cDNA) alleles of functional MHC class I and IIB loci, along with neutral noncoding microsatellite markers, were analyzed to obtain relevant estimates of genetic variation. We found lower allelic richness in microsatellites in the inbred population, but high genetic variation in MHC class I and IIB loci in both populations. This suggests that also the inbred population could be under balancing selection to maintain genetic variation for pathogen resistance.

  8. Induction of dominant lethal mutations by gamma irradiation of Gallus domesticus spermatozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, J; Grom, A; Csuka, J; Kindlova, L [Poultry Research Institute, Ivanka pri Dunaji (Czechoslovakia)

    1977-01-01

    Mixed semen of Gallus domesticus cocks was gamma irradiated in vitro with exposures of 500, 1000, 2000, and 3000 R at the exposure rate of 5.86 Rs/sup -1/. After the irradiation the semen was applied to experimental and control layer hens, the embryonic mortality in F/sub 1/ was observed, the total number of incubated eggs was 3344. Irradiation with 500 R had a favourable influence on embryonic vitality, the exposures 1000, 2000, and 3000 R resulted in increased embryonic mortality, for 2100 R a 50% mortality of offspring was found. Induced dominant lethality was manifest during embryonic and oviduct development. The frequency of induced dominant lethality for exposures used was 19.2, 9.9, 48.3, and 69.1%, the values of mutation rate were 0.087, 0.104, 0.659, and 1.174. The mutation rate had a linear course, the value of the lethal hit per gamete for 1 R was 1.04x10/sup -4/.

  9. Experimental inoculation of domestic cats (Felis domesticus) with Sarcocystis neurona or S. neurona-like merozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, M; Lakritz, J; Halaney, A; Branson, K; Gupta, G D; Kreeger, J; Marsh, A E

    2002-07-29

    Sarcocystis neurona is the parasite most commonly associated with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Recently, cats (Felis domesticus) have been demonstrated to be an experimental intermediate host in the life cycle of S. neurona. This study was performed to determine if cats experimentally inoculated with culture-derived S. neurona merozoites develop tissue sarcocysts infectious to opossums (Didelphis virginiana), the definitive host of S. neurona. Four cats were inoculated with S. neurona or S. neurona-like merozoites and all developed antibodies reacting to S. neurona merozoite antigens, but tissue sarcocysts were detected in only two cats. Muscle tissues from the experimentally inoculated cats with and without detectable sarcocysts were fed to laboratory-reared opossums. Sporocysts were detected in gastrointestinal (GI) scrapings of one opossum fed experimentally infected feline tissues. The study results suggest that cats can develop tissue cysts following inoculation with culture-derived Sarcocystis sp. merozoites in which the particular isolate was originally derived from a naturally infected cat with tissue sarcocysts. This is in contrast to cats which did not develop tissue cysts when inoculated with S. neurona merozoites originally derived from a horse with EPM. These results indicate present biological differences between the culture-derived merozoites of two Sarcocystis isolates, Sn-UCD 1 and Sn-Mucat 2.

  10. Extraction and physicochemical characterization of broiler (Gallus gallus domesticus) skin gelatin compared to commercial bovine gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykin-Dinçer, E; Koç, A; Erbas, M

    2017-09-01

    Gelatin was extracted from broiler (Gallus gallus domesticus) skins and analyzed to compare its physicochemical properties with those of commercial bovine gelatin. The average yield of broiler skin gelatin was 6.5% on a wet weight basis. Broiler skin gelatin had more α1-and α2-chains than β-chain and contained high molecular weight (γ-chain) polymers. Glycine was the dominant amino acid in broiler skin gelatin (20.26%), followed by proline (Pro) (15.12%) then hydroxyproline (Hyp) (11.36%). Compared to commercial bovine gelatin, broiler skin gelatin had less total imino acids (Pro and Hyp) but a higher (33.65 vs. 31.38°C) melting temperature (P commercial bovine gelatins appeared to be associated with differences in their amino acid composition and molecular weight distribution. The sensory evaluation results revealed that broiler skin gelatin could be a potential alternative to commercial bovine gelatin, useful in various food products. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. First report of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis from caseous lymphadenitis lesions in Black Alentejano pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Manuela; Barroco, Cynthia; Mottola, Carla; Santos, Raquel; Lemsaddek, Abdelhak; Tavares, Luis; Semedo-Lemsaddek, Teresa

    2014-09-21

    Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is the etiologic agent of caseous lymphadenitis, a common disease in small ruminant populations throughout the world and responsible for a significant economic impact for producers. To our knowledge, this is the first characterization of C. pseudotuberculosis from caseous lymphadenitis lesions in Black Alentejano pig (Sus scrofa domesticus). In this study, phenotypic and genotypic identification methods allocated the swine isolates in C. pseudotuberculosis biovar ovis. The vast majority of the isolates were able to produce phospholipase D and were susceptible to most of the antimicrobial compounds tested. Macrorestriction patterns obtained by Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) grouped the C. pseudotuberculosis in two clusters with a high similarity index, which reveals their clonal relatedness. Furthermore, swine isolates were compared with C. pseudotuberculosis from caprines and PFGE patterns also showed high similarity, suggesting the prevalence of dominant clones and a potential cross-dissemination between these two animal hosts. This work represents the first report of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis from caseous lymphadenitis lesions in Black Alentejano pig and alerts for the importance of the establishment of suitable control and sanitary management practices to control the infection and avoid further dissemination of this important pathogen to other animal hosts.

  12. Effectiveness duckweed (Lemna minor) as an alternative native chicken feed native chicken (Gallus domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, A.; Ritonga, M. Z.

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to know the effectiveness duckweed as feed as native chicken (Gallus domesticus) on growth period (weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion). This research was conducted in Desa Telaga Jernih Kabupaten Langkat. The study was conducted in February 2017 until May 2017. This study use completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 treatments and 5 Replication, where each treatment consisting of 5 Native chickens unsexing. The treatment was used P0 = control (feed manufacturing), P1 = ration conventional with 10% duckweed, P2 = ration conventional with 20% duckweed, P3 = ration conventional with 30% duckweed. The parameters observed were weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion. The results showed not significantly effect in body weight gain, feed consumption and feed conversion. Where the average of best weight gain on treatment P0 (control), P2 (20% duckweed), P3 (30% duckweed) and P1 (10% duckweed), average of best feed consumption in P0 (control), P2 (20% duckweed ) Of P1 (10% duckweed) and P3 (30% duckweed), P1 (10% duckweed) and P3 (30% duckweed), average of best feed conversion rate in P0 (control), P2 (20% duckweed) P1 (10% duckweed) and P3 (30% duckweed).

  13. Induction of dominant lethal mutations by gamma irradiation of Gallus domesticus spermatozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, J.; Grom, A.; Csuka, J.; Kindlova, L.

    1977-01-01

    Mixed semen of Gallus domesticus cocks was gamma irradiated in vitro with exposures of 500, 1000, 2000 and 3000 R at the exposure rate of 5.86 Rs -1 . After the irradiation the semen was applied to experimental and control layer hens, the embryonic mortality in F 1 was observed, the total number of incubated eggs was 3344. Irradiation with 500 R had a favourable influence on embryonic vitality, the exposures 1000, 2000 and 3000 R resulted in increased embryonic mortality, for 2100 R a 50% mortality of offspring was found. Induced dominant lethality was manifest during embryonic and oviduct development. The frequency of induced dominant lethality for exposures used was 19.2, 9.9, 48.3, and 69.1%, the values of mutation rate were 0.087, 0.104, 0.659, and 1.174. The mutation rate had linear course, the value of the lethal hit per gamete for 1 R was 1.04x10 -4 . (author)

  14. Toxicity Effects of Toad (Rhinella jimi Stevaux, 2002 Venom in Chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Cristina Nunes Gadelha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the pathological changes that occur after administering different doses of R. jimi (Stevaux, 2002 parotoid glands secretion to Gallus gallus domesticus chicks. Twenty-three animals were used in this study and were divided into 5 groups that received a toad venom dose of 0, 3.0 mg/kg, 6.0 mg/kg, 10.0 mg/kg, and 25.0 mg/kg. After 48 h, the necropsy and pathological examinations were performed. No clinical signs of toxicity were observed in any group. Macroscopically, hepatomegaly, areas of liver necrosis, splenomegaly, necrotic and hemorrhagic cardiac regions, hydropericardium, dark necrotic lesions of Meckel’s diverticulum, and hemorrhages in the lungs and kidneys were detected. Histopathological changes included diffuse vacuolar degeneration of hepatocytes, severe sinusoidal congestion, focal areas of hemorrhage in the parenchyma, swollen cardiac fibers, necrotic myocardial fibers, moderate to acute diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, vacuolar degeneration of the renal tubular epithelium, necrosis of renal tubules, and extensive hemorrhagic areas below the brain and cerebellar meninges. In conclusion, pathological changes of the R. jimi toxins in chicks were noted in the heart, spleen, liver, Meckel’s diverticulum, lungs, and kidneys. Most of the changes were similar to those observed in humans and animals exposed to toxins from other toad species.

  15. POSSuMUS. A position sensitive scintillating muon SiPM detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruschke, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The development of a modular designed large scale scintillation detector with a two-dimensional position sensitivity is presented in this thesis. This novel POsition Sensitive Scintillating MUon SiPM Detector is named POSSuMUS. The POSSuMUS detector is capable to determine the particle's position in two space dimensions with a fast trigger capability. Each module is constructed from two trapezoidal shaped plastic scintillators to form one rectangular shaped detector module. Both trapezoids are optically insulated against each other. In both trapezoids the scintillation light is collected by plastic fibers and guided towards silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). SiPMs are light sensors which are capable to detect even smallest amounts of light. By combining several detector modules, position sensitive areas from 100 cm 2 to few m 2 are achievable with few readout channels. Therefore, POSSuMUS provides a cost effective detector concept. The position sensitivity along the trapezoidal geometry of one detector module is achieved by the path length dependent amount of detected light for crossing particles. The ratio of the light yields in both trapezoids is calculated. This value corresponds to the position of the particle traversing the detector. A spatial resolution in the order of several mm is foreseen. The position sensitivity along the scintillator module is determined by the propagation time of light to the SiPMs located on opposite sides of the detector. A spatial resolution of few cm is expected for this direction. The POSSuMUS detector is applicable as large area trigger detector with a two dimensional position information of crossing particles. This is suitable in detector tests of large area precesion detectors or for measuring the small angle scattering of cosmic muons. At the beginning of this thesis, the determination of important SiPM characteristics like the breakdown voltage is presented. In the course of this work the detector principle is proven by

  16. A case of leucism in House Sparrow, Passer domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758 in an island of São Francisco river, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Barros Ribeiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Leucism in birds is a genetic disorder characterized by the total absence of melanin in some or all feathers, but unlike albinism, the other body parts, such as eyes, beak, and tarsi remain with the typical color of the species. The House Sparrow Passer domesticus is a bird native from Europe, Asia, and North Africa. It has been introduced in North America, South America, South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand. Currently, it is the bird species with the largest geographical range. Here, we report the record of a leucistic specimen of Passer domesticus from Rodeadouro island, São Francisco river, northeastern Brazil.

  17. Pemanfaatan Limbah Kulit Pisang Lilin (Musa paradisiaca Sebagai Pakan Alternatif Ayam Pedaging (Gallus galus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Hidayat

    2016-04-01

    utilization (Gallus gallus domesticus has been done. The research aims to find the utilization of candle banana skin as an alternative feed for broilers growth. This research was being used 1-day old broiler. And using competely randomized design (CRD with 5 treatments and 2 repititions this research was being used candles banana skin extract with 0% control 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% concentration.the analized was being used variant analysis (ANOVA, it could continu with Least Significent Difference (LSD if there is a difference between the treatments with 95% confidence level. The result of this research show that the best gain of broiler, weight, is using 0% candles banana skin extract 289.04 grams. However, this result of mixing feed between candles banana skin and comercial put highhest in (25% candles banana skin consentration 259.20 grams, (50% 250.92 grams, (75% 251.65 grams whie the lowest result that cousing the death of broiler is in (100% candle banana extract consentration treatment because of high C/N contained. espescially on the high   N-Total cause the decrease of C/N ratio so that there is on mineralization procers on in creasing the feed contained. The conclution is the concentration of the feed given to broilers, it aaffects the low growth average of broilers the feed in 25%- 75% concentrations can consumed by the broilers to increase the weight. Keywords: Broilers, Candles banana skin, Growth and The rate of consumption Cara sitasi: Hidayat, R., Setiawan, A., Nofyan, E. (2016. Pemanfaatan Limbah Kulit Pisang Lilin (Musa paradisiaca Sebagai Pakan Alternatif Ayam Pedaging (Gallus galus domesticus. Jurnal Ilmu Lingkungan,14(1,11-17, doi:10.14710/jil.14.1.11-17

  18. Natural epigenetic variation within and among six subspecies of the house sparrow, Passer domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyahi, Sepand; Vilatersana, Roser; Schrey, Aaron W; Ghorbani Node, Hassan; Aliabadian, Mansour; Senar, Juan Carlos

    2017-11-01

    Epigenetic modifications can respond rapidly to environmental changes and can shape phenotypic variation in accordance with environmental stimuli. One of the most studied epigenetic marks is DNA methylation. In the present study, we used the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) technique to investigate the natural variation in DNA methylation within and among subspecies of the house sparrow, Passer domesticus We focused on five subspecies from the Middle East because they show great variation in many ecological traits and because this region is the probable origin for the house sparrow's commensal relationship with humans. We analysed house sparrows from Spain as an outgroup. The level of variation in DNA methylation was similar among the five house sparrow subspecies from the Middle East despite high phenotypic and environmental variation, but the non-commensal subspecies was differentiated from the other four (commensal) Middle Eastern subspecies. Further, the European subspecies was differentiated from all other subspecies in DNA methylation. Our results indicate that variation in DNA methylation does not strictly follow subspecies designations. We detected a correlation between methylation level and some morphological traits, such as standardized bill length, and we suggest that part of the high morphological variation in the native populations of the house sparrow is influenced by differentially methylated regions in specific loci throughout the genome. We also detected 10 differentially methylated loci among subspecies and three loci that differentiated between commensal or non-commensal status. Therefore, the MSAP technique detected larger scale differences among the European and non-commensal subspecies, but did not detect finer scale differences among the other Middle Eastern subspecies. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Personality Traits and Behavioral Syndromes in Differently Urbanized Populations of House Sparrows (Passer domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bókony, Veronika; Kulcsár, Anna; Tóth, Zoltán; Liker, András

    2012-01-01

    Urbanization creates novel environments for wild animals where selection pressures may differ drastically from those in natural habitats. Adaptation to urban life involves changes in various traits, including behavior. Behavioral traits often vary consistently among individuals, and these so-called personality traits can be correlated with each other, forming behavioral syndromes. Despite their adaptive significance and potential to act as constraints, little is known about the role of animal personality and behavioral syndromes in animals' adaptation to urban habitats. In this study we tested whether differently urbanized habitats select for different personalities and behavioral syndromes by altering the population mean, inter-individual variability, and correlations of personality traits. We captured house sparrows (Passer domesticus) from four different populations along the gradient of urbanization and assessed their behavior in standardized test situations. We found individual consistency in neophobia, risk taking, and activity, constituting three personality axes. On the one hand, urbanization did not consistently affect the mean and variance of these traits, although there were significant differences between some of the populations in food neophobia and risk taking (both in means and variances). On the other hand, both urban and rural birds exhibited a behavioral syndrome including object neophobia, risk taking and activity, whereas food neophobia was part of the syndrome only in rural birds. These results indicate that there are population differences in certain aspects of personality in house sparrows, some of which may be related to habitat urbanization. Our findings suggest that urbanization and/or other population-level habitat differences may not only influence the expression of personality traits but also alter their inter-individual variability and the relationships among them, changing the structure of behavioral syndromes. PMID:22574204

  20. Steroids in house sparrows (Passer domesticus): Effects of POPs and male quality signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nossen, Ida; Ciesielski, Tomasz M; Dimmen, Malene V; Jensen, Henrik; Ringsby, Thor Harald; Polder, Anuschka; Rønning, Bernt; Jenssen, Bjørn M; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2016-03-15

    At high trophic levels, environmental contaminants have been found to affect endocrinological processes. Less attention has been paid to species at lower trophic levels. The house sparrow (Passer domesticus) may be a useful model for investigating effects of POPs in mid-range trophic level species. In male house sparrows, ornamental traits involved in male quality signalling are important for female selection. These traits are governed by endocrinological systems, and POPs may therefore interfere with male quality signalling. The aim of the present study was to use the house sparrow as a mid-range trophic level model species to study the effects of environmental contaminants on endocrinology and male quality signalling. We analysed the levels of selected PCBs, PBDEs and OCPs and investigated the possible effects of these contaminants on circulating levels of steroid hormones (4 progestagens, 4 androgens and 3 estrogens) in male and female adult house sparrows from a population on the island Leka, Norway. Plasma samples were analysed for steroid hormones by GC-MS and liver samples were analysed for environmental contaminants by GC-ECD and GC-MS. In males, we also quantified ornament traits. It was hypothesised that POPs may have endocrine disrupting effects on the local house sparrow population and can thus interfere with the steroid hormone homeostasis. Among female house sparrows, bivariate correlations revealed negative relationships between POPs and estrogens. Among male sparrows, positive relationships between dihydrotestosterone levels and PCBs were observed. In males, positive relationships were also found between steroids and beak length, and between steroids and ornamental traits such as total badge size. This was confirmed by a significant OPLS model between beak length and steroids. Although sparrows are in the mid-range trophic levels, the present study indicates that POPs may affect steroid homeostasis in house sparrows, in particular for females. For

  1. Timing of Environmental Enrichment Affects Memory in the House Cricket, Acheta domesticus.

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    Heather S Mallory

    Full Text Available Learning appears to be ubiquitous among animals, as it plays a key role in many behaviors including foraging and reproduction. Although there is some genetic basis for differences in learning ability and memory retention, environment also plays an important role, as it does for any other trait. For example, adult animals maintained in enriched housing conditions learn faster and remember tasks for longer than animals maintained in impoverished conditions. Such plasticity in adult learning ability has often been linked to plasticity in the brain, and studies aimed at understanding the mechanisms, stimuli, and consequences of adult behavioral and brain plasticity are numerous. However, the role of experiences during post-embryonic development in shaping plasticity in adult learning ability and memory retention remain relatively unexplored. Using the house cricket (Acheta domesticus as a model organism, we developed a protocol to allow the odor preference of a large number of crickets to be tested in a short period of time. We then used this new protocol to examine how enrichment or impoverishment at two developmental stages (either the last nymphal instar or young adult affected adult memory. Our results show that regardless of nymphal rearing conditions, crickets that experienced an enriched rearing condition as young adults performed better on a memory task than individuals that experienced an impoverished condition. Older adult crickets (more than 1 week post adult molt did not demonstrate differences in memory of the odor task, regardless of rearing condition as a young adult. Our results suggest that environmentally-induced plasticity in memory may be restricted to the young adult stage.

  2. Srs2 and Mus81-Mms4 Prevent Accumulation of Toxic Inter-Homolog Recombination Intermediates.

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    Kenji Keyamura

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Homologous recombination is an evolutionally conserved mechanism that promotes genome stability through the faithful repair of double-strand breaks and single-strand gaps in DNA, and the recovery of stalled or collapsed replication forks. Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATP-dependent DNA helicase Srs2 (a member of the highly conserved UvrD family of helicases has multiple roles in regulating homologous recombination. A mutation (srs2K41A resulting in a helicase-dead mutant of Srs2 was found to be lethal in diploid, but not in haploid, cells. In diploid cells, Srs2K41A caused the accumulation of inter-homolog joint molecule intermediates, increased the levels of spontaneous Rad52 foci, and induced gross chromosomal rearrangements. Srs2K41A lethality and accumulation of joint molecules were suppressed by inactivating Rad51 or deleting the Rad51-interaction domain of Srs2, whereas phosphorylation and sumoylation of Srs2 and its interaction with sumoylated proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA were not required for lethality. The structure-specific complex of crossover junction endonucleases Mus81 and Mms4 was also required for viability of diploid, but not haploid, SRS2 deletion mutants (srs2Δ, and diploid srs2Δ mus81Δ mutants accumulated joint molecule intermediates. Our data suggest that Srs2 and Mus81-Mms4 have critical roles in preventing the formation of (or in resolving toxic inter-homolog joint molecules, which could otherwise interfere with chromosome segregation and lead to genetic instability.

  3. Methylation patterns of repetitive DNA sequences in germ cells of Mus musculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, J; Forrester, L; Chapman, V; Chandley, A; Hastie, N

    1984-03-26

    The major and the minor satellite sequences of Mus musculus were undermethylated in both sperm and oocyte DNAs relative to the amount of undermethylation observed in adult somatic tissue DNA. This hypomethylation was specific for satellite sequences in sperm DNA. Dispersed repetitive and low copy sequences show a high degree of methylation in sperm DNA; however, a dispersed repetitive sequence was undermethylated in oocyte DNA. This finding suggests a difference in the amount of total genomic DNA methylation between sperm and oocyte DNA. The methylation levels of the minor satellite sequences did not change during spermiogenesis, and were not associated with the onset of meiosis or a specific stage in sperm development.

  4. Are ribosomal DNA clusters rearrangement hotspots? A case study in the genus Mus (Rodentia, Muridae

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    Douzery Emmanuel JP

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in comparative genomics have considerably improved our knowledge of the evolution of mammalian karyotype architecture. One of the breakthroughs was the preferential localization of evolutionary breakpoints in regions enriched in repetitive sequences (segmental duplications, telomeres and centromeres. In this context, we investigated the contribution of ribosomal genes to genome reshuffling since they are generally located in pericentromeric or subtelomeric regions, and form repeat clusters on different chromosomes. The target model was the genus Mus which exhibits a high rate of karyotypic change, a large fraction of which involves centromeres. Results The chromosomal distribution of rDNA clusters was determined by in situ hybridization of mouse probes in 19 species. Using a molecular-based reference tree, the phylogenetic distribution of clusters within the genus was reconstructed, and the temporal association between rDNA clusters, breakpoints and centromeres was tested by maximum likelihood analyses. Our results highlighted the following features of rDNA cluster dynamics in the genus Mus: i rDNA clusters showed extensive diversity in number between species and an almost exclusive pericentromeric location, ii a strong association between rDNA sites and centromeres was retrieved which may be related to their shared constraint of concerted evolution, iii 24% of the observed breakpoints mapped near an rDNA cluster, and iv a substantial rate of rDNA cluster change (insertion, deletion also occurred in the absence of chromosomal rearrangements. Conclusions This study on the dynamics of rDNA clusters within the genus Mus has revealed a strong evolutionary relationship between rDNA clusters and centromeres. Both of these genomic structures coincide with breakpoints in the genus Mus, suggesting that the accumulation of a large number of repeats in the centromeric region may contribute to the high level of chromosome

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of a Virulent Newcastle Disease Virus Strain Isolated from a Clinically Healthy Duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajid, Abdul; Rehmani, Shafqat F.; Wasim, Muhammad; Basharat, Asma; Bibi, Tasra; Arif, Saima; Dimitrov, Kiril M.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a virulent Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) strain, duck/Pakistan/Lahore/AW-123/2015, isolated from apparently healthy laying ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) from the province of Punjab, Pakistan. The virus has a genome length of 15,192 nucleotides and is classified as member of subgenotype VIIi, class II. PMID:27469959

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of a Virulent Newcastle Disease Virus Strain Isolated from a Clinically Healthy Duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Wajid, Abdul; Rehmani, Shafqat F.; Wasim, Muhammad; Basharat, Asma; Bibi, Tasra; Arif, Saima; Dimitrov, Kiril M.; Afonso, Claudio L.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the complete genome sequence of a virulent Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) strain, duck/Pakistan/Lahore/AW-123/2015, isolated from apparently healthy laying ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) from the province of Punjab, Pakistan. The virus has a genome length of 15,192 nucleotides and is classified as member of subgenotype VIIi, class II.

  7. Desempeño Cardiovascular de Dos Estirpes de Gallus gallus domesticus Sometidas a Estrés Calórico Agudo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chacon, Tony; De Basilio, Vasco; Zerpa, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Genetic selection in poultry has been based on fast growth characters and not on stress adaptability. This investigation assessed cardiovascular variables in two lineages of Gallus gallus domesticus of different domestication levels, subjected to acute heat stress. To carry out the assay, broiler...

  8. Speciation and reduced hybrid female fertility in house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Taichi A; Nachman, Michael W

    2015-09-01

    In mammals, intrinsic postzygotic isolation has been well studied in males but has been less studied in females, despite the fact that female gametogenesis and pregnancy provide arenas for hybrid sterility or inviability that are absent in males. Here, we asked whether inviability or sterility is observed in female hybrids of Mus musculus domesticus and M. m. musculus, taxa which hybridize in nature and for which male sterility has been well characterized. We looked for parent-of-origin growth phenotypes by measuring adult body weights in F1 hybrids. We evaluated hybrid female fertility by crossing F1 females to a tester male and comparing multiple reproductive parameters between intrasubspecific controls and intersubspecific hybrids. Hybrid females showed no evidence of parent-of-origin overgrowth or undergrowth, providing no evidence for reduced viability. However, hybrid females had smaller litter sizes, reduced embryo survival, fewer ovulations, and fewer small follicles relative to controls. Significant variation in reproductive parameters was seen among different hybrid genotypes, suggesting that hybrid incompatibilities are polymorphic within subspecies. Differences in reproductive phenotypes in reciprocal genotypes were observed and are consistent with cyto-nuclear incompatibilities or incompatibilities involving genomic imprinting. These findings highlight the potential importance of reduced hybrid female fertility in the early stages of speciation. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. Burrow characteristics of the co-existing sibling species Mus booduga and Mus terricolor and the genetic basis of adaptation to hypoxic/hypercapnic stress

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    Narayan Gopeshwar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The co-existing, sibling species Mus booduga and Mus terricolor show a difference in site-preference for burrows. The former build them in flat portion of the fields while the latter make burrows in earthen mounds raised for holding water in cultivated fields. In northern India which experiences great variation in climatic condition between summer and winter, M. booduga burrows have an average depth of 41 cm, as against 30 cm in southern India with less climatic fluctuation. M. terricolor burrows are about 20 cm deep everywhere. The three chromosomal species M. terricolor I, II and III have identical burrows, including location of the nest which is situated at the highest position. In contrast, in M. booduga burrows, the nest is at the lowest position. Results The nest chamber of M. booduga is located at greater depth than the nest chamber of M. terricolor. Also, in the burrows of M. booduga the exchange of air takes place only from one side (top surface in contrast to the burrows of M. terricolor where air exchange is through three sides. Hence, M. booduga lives in relatively more hypoxic and hypercapnic conditions than M. terricolor. We observed the fixation of alternative alleles in M. booduga and M. terricolor at Superoxide dismutase-1 (Sod-1, Transferrin (Trf and Hemoglobin beta chain (Hbb loci. All the three are directly or indirectly dependent on oxygen concentration for function. In addition to these, there are differences in burrow patterns and site-preference for burrows suggesting difference in probable adaptive strategy in these co-existing sibling species. Conclusion The burrow structure and depth of nest of the chromosomal species M. terricolor I, II and III are same everywhere probably due to the recency of their evolutionary divergence. Moreover, there is lack of competition for the well-adapted 'microhabitats' since they are non-overlapping in distribution. However, the co-existing sibling species M. booduga

  10. Histomorphological study of the parathyroid gland in female Kuttanad ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus

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    Firdous Ahmad Dar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present work was targeted to form the baseline data of normal morphological and histological picture of parathyroid gland in female Kuttanad ducks.Materials and Methods: A Histomorphological study of the parathyroid gland was carried out in twelve adult female Kuttanad ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus of 20 weeks of age. Birds reared semintensively were procured from Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University Poultry and Duck Farm and sacrificed humanely. Glands were collected and gross parameters were recorded. The glands were fixed in 10 percent neutral buffered formalin. The small sized glands were processed as such by routine histological methods, paraffin blocks were prepared and sectioned to a thickness of 5µ. The tissues were stained by Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E for routine histological studies and Gomori's rapid one step trichrome method for connective tissue fibres. Micrometric parameters were recorded using ocular micrometer. Results: Parathyroid glands in Kuttanad ducks lay just caudal to the division of the innominate artery into the subclavian and common carotid arteries. Parathyroids were oval to spherical in shape, yellow in colour and smaller than thyroid gland of the representative sides. The arterial blood supply was from common carotid artery and blood from gland was drained directly into jugular vein. Although it lied close to the thyroid, thymus and ultimobranchial gland, parathyroid tissue did not merge to any of the above mentioned three glands. Parenchyma was composed irregular anatomizing cords of cells supplied by connective tissue stroma penetrated by blood capillaries. Parenchyma was predominantly made of lightly stained cell, the chief cell. The nuclei were round and contain one or two nucleoli. Oxyphil cells present in parathyroid glands of other mammals were not seen in the present study. Conclusion: Histomorphological features or characteristics of Parathyroid gland in Kuttanad duck were

  11. Aspectos morfométricos do timo em gatos domésticos (Felis domesticus

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    Camila E. Barroso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O timo é um órgão linfático primário que desenvolve sua atividade em organismos jovens. Apesar de sua função ser responsável por mecanismos fundamentais na aquisição das defesas e conseqüentes respostas orgânicas, ela ainda não está totalmente esclarecida, nem tampouco as bases morfológicas que respondem por tais funções, como o processo de desenvolvimento e involução do órgão. Objetivou-se analisar e caracterizar os aspectos morfológicos do timo, tais como seu tamanho e volume, e aspectos histológicos do timo em gatos, correlacionando o sexo e o desenvolvimento etário. Doze timos provenientes de fetos de gatos domésticos (Felis domesticus sem raça definida (SRD, machos e fêmeas, separados em três grupos etários. O timo apresentou-se com uma coloração rosa-pálida e com duas porções, a torácica e a cervical, sendo que cada uma delas possuía um lobo direito e um lobo esquerdo em sua maioria. A porção torácica localizava-se em região de mediastino cranial, entre os pulmões e à base do coração. E a porção cervical estendia-se além das costelas em sentido cranial, estando localizada ventralmente à traqueia. A estrutura celular do timo demonstrou-se organizada com a presença de agregados concêntricos, os chamados corpúsculos tímicos, formados por células epiteliais, sustentada por uma cápsula de tecido conjuntivo de onde partiam septos que ao penetrar no órgão dividia-o em lóbulos. Ocorreram variações significativas quanto à lobação e as dimensões do timo entre indivíduos da mesma faixa etária, e entre sexos diferentes. Os valores relativos ao comprimento, espessura e largura, de maneira geral, apresentaram aumento, em conformidade ao desenvolvimento dos animais, mas com diferenças entre os sexos.

  12. The MusIC method: a fast and quasi-optimal solution to the muscle forces estimation problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, A; Pontonnier, C; Dumont, G

    2018-02-01

    The present paper aims at presenting a fast and quasi-optimal method of muscle forces estimation: the MusIC method. It consists in interpolating a first estimation in a database generated offline thanks to a classical optimization problem, and then correcting it to respect the motion dynamics. Three different cost functions - two polynomial criteria and a min/max criterion - were tested on a planar musculoskeletal model. The MusIC method provides a computation frequency approximately 10 times higher compared to a classical optimization problem with a relative mean error of 4% on cost function evaluation.

  13. The Effect of Calcusol™ to the Plasma Free Radical and Serum Creatinin in Mus Musculus Nephrolithiasis Model

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    A’liyatur Rosyidah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Calcusol™ is a traditional medicine (jamu made from Tempuyung (Sonchus arvensis extract and is usually used for cure kidney stone disease. However, there has not been any studies which investigate the its mechanism. The aim of this study is to know the effect of Calcusol™ to the plasma free radical and serum creatinin of Mus musculus model for renal calcium-oxalate accumulation. This study is carried out by administration of Porang (Amorphophallus muelleri tuber flour for 3 months with the doses 6 mg/100g BW to induce renal calcium oxalate accumulation and Calcusol™ treatment for 7 days with the doses of 3.3mg/g BW. Group I was used as a control group. Group II was only given porang every day for 3 months. Group III was only given Calcusol™ for 7 days. Group IV were given porang for 3 months then given Calcusol™ for 7 days. Group V were given porang and Calcusol™ simultaneously for 3 months. Porang and CalcusolTM is administrated orally. Blood was collected from the tail of the animal for serum creatinin test and plasma free radical test using TBARS method. The data was analyzed using ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD to compare the means employing SPSS 16.0 for windows. The result of the research shows that the treatment Calcusol™ on mice model for renal calcium oxalate accumulation. The content of MDA at group I, group II, group III, group IV and group V, respectivelyis 0.81±0.5 mg/ml; 2.63±0.8 mg/ml; 0.56±0.5 mg/ml; 2.09±0.9 mg/ml and 0.17±0.17 mg/ml. The content of serum creatinine are 0.15±0.04 mg/dL; 0.13±0.03 mg/dL; 0.12±0.08 mg/dL; 0.11±0.016 mg/dL and 0.14±0.015 mg/dL at group I, group II, group III, Group IV, and group V respectively. This indicates that Calcusol™ decreases plasma free radical production during renal stone formation, while serum creatinin reduced but not significantly changed. Calcusol™ has an effect to decrease free radical during renalstone formation inmice model for calcium oxalate accumulation

  14. Re-evaluation of the holotype of Mus ruber Jentink, 1880 (Rodentia: Muridae) from western New Guinea (Irian Jaya)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calaby, J.H.; Mary Taylor, J.

    1980-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The first rodent from the New Guinea region, now included in the genus Rattus, to be formally named, was Mus ruber Jentink, 1880. The name R. ruber is currently in widespread use (Lidicker, 1968, 1973; Lidicker & Ziegler, 1968; Misonne, 1969; Ziegler, 1971; Bulmer & Menzies, 1972, 1973;

  15. Transformative Poetry : A Case Study of W.H. Auden's Musée des Beaux Arts And General Conclusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarot, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    This article situates Auden’s poem Musée des Beaux Arts in the process of his conversion to Christianity. The author argues for the layered intertextuality of the poem, in which allusions to Bruegel’s Landscape with the Fall of Icarus, The Census at Jerusalem, and The Massacre of the Innocents can

  16. Meiotic sex chromosome inactivation is disrupted in sterile hybrid male house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Polly; Good, Jeffrey M; Nachman, Michael W

    2013-03-01

    In male mammals, the X and Y chromosomes are transcriptionally silenced in primary spermatocytes by meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) and remain repressed for the duration of spermatogenesis. Here, we test the longstanding hypothesis that disrupted MSCI might contribute to the preferential sterility of heterogametic hybrid males. We studied a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of Mus musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus in which sterility is asymmetric: F1 males with a M. m. musculus mother are sterile or nearly so while F1 males with a M. m. domesticus mother are normal. In previous work, we discovered widespread overexpression of X-linked genes in the testes of sterile but not fertile F1 males. Here, we ask whether this overexpression is specifically a result of disrupted MSCI. To do this, we isolated cells from different stages of spermatogenesis and measured the expression of several genes using quantitative PCR. We found that X overexpression in sterile F1 primary spermatocytes is coincident with the onset of MSCI and persists in postmeiotic spermatids. Using a series of recombinant X genotypes, we then asked whether X overexpression in hybrids is controlled by cis-acting loci across the X chromosome. We found that it is not. Instead, one large interval in the proximal portion of the M. m. musculus X chromosome is associated with both overexpression and the severity of sterility phenotypes in hybrids. These results demonstrate a strong association between X-linked hybrid male sterility and disruption of MSCI and suggest that trans-acting loci on the X are important for the transcriptional regulation of the X chromosome during spermatogenesis.

  17. Comparison of the measurement of heart rate in adult free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) by auscultation and electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C F; Gavaghan, B J; McSweeney, D; Powell, V; Lisle, A

    2014-12-01

    To compare the heart rates of adult free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) measured by auscultation with a stethoscope with those measured simultaneously using electrocardiography (ECG). With each bird in a standing position, estimation of the heart rate was performed by placing a mark on paper for every 4 beats for roosters and 8 beats for hens as detected by auscultation over 30 s, while simultaneous ECG was performed. Heart rates measured by auscultation showed a high correlation (r = 0.97) with those measured by ECG. There was a high correlation between the heart rates of adult free-range chickens measured by auscultation with a stethoscope and those measured simultaneously using ECG. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  18. Pengaruh Ekstrak Daun Sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata terhadap Struktur Mikroanatomi Hepar dan Kadar Glutamat Piruvat Transaminase Serum Mencit (Mus musculus yang Terpapar Diazinon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRI WULANDARI

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Diazinon is a pesticide which is often using by farmer to kill insect as theenemy of the plant. The over using of pesticide may result in the remaining of diazinon residue in farming product. This residue can cause the damage of body tissue, especially liver. The aim of research were to find out the effect of leaves sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata Ness. extract on microanatomic structure of liver and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT level of mice (Mus musculus L. exposed to diazinon. The research used Compelete Random Design with five treatments. The treatment of each group were using CMC 1% (placebo control, diazinon solution 40 mg/Kg BW (negative ontrol and the leaves sambiloto extract 12,6; 25,2 and 37,8 mg /kg BW. Diazinon solution was given within 10 days and continued with extract of sambiloto leaves also within 10 days. Parameter observed was the microanatomic structure of liver and serum GPT level. The data was analyzed of Analysis of Varians (Anova and continued with DMRT at significance 5%. The result of the research showed that the giving of the extract of sambiloto leaves in some dose variation degree is significantly influential to repair the microanatomic structure of liver and to decrease the serum GPT level was 37,8 mg/Kg BW.

  19. Classical Mus musculus Igκ enhancers support transcription but not high level somatic hypermutation from a V-lambda promoter in chicken DT40 cells.

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    Naga Rama Kothapalli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Somatic hypermutation (SHM of immunoglobulin genes is initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID in activated B cells. This process is strictly dependent on transcription. Hence, cis-acting transcriptional control elements have been proposed to target SHM to immunoglobulin loci. The Mus musculus Igκ locus is regulated by the intronic enhancer (iE/MAR and the 3' enhancer (3'E, and multiple studies using transgenic and knock-out approaches in mice and cell lines have reported somewhat contradictory results about the function of these enhancers in AID-mediated sequence diversification. Here we show that the M. musculus iE/MAR and 3'E elements are active solely as transcriptional enhancer when placed in the context of the IGL locus in Gallus gallus DT40 cells, but they are very inefficient in targeting AID-mediated mutation events to this locus. This suggests that either key components of the cis-regulatory targeting elements reside outside the murine Igκ transcriptional enhancer sequences, or that the targeting of AID activity to Ig loci occurs by largely species-specific mechanisms.

  20. [Musical Inactivity - A Risk Factor? A Short Questionnaire to Assess Musical Activity (MusA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernholz, Isabel; Menzel, Juliane; Jabusch, Hans-Christian; Gembris, Heiner; Fischer, Felix; Kendel, Friederike; Kreutz, Gunter; Schmidt, Alexander; Willich, Stefan N; Weikert, Cornelia

    2018-02-27

    There is only a limited number of studies on associations between musical activity and health issues. It seems that musical activity has physiological and psychological benefits, as well as effects on the mental capacity, but this has been studied only in a few clinical and epidemiological studies. One reason might be that no appropriate survey instrument assessing musical activity is available. Here we provide an overview of survey instruments that assess musicality and musical activity. One focus is the presentation of a newly developed German questionnaire (MusA), which assesses musical activity (active music making and music reception) and was specifically developed for the "German National Cohort", a German health study. Through literature research, questionnaires were identified that assess musicality and / or musical activity. A new German questionnaire was developed from a panel of experts and tested in a small study (n=121, women and men age 18-70 years). In the literature research, 3 questionnaires were identified which focus on musicality and musical activity with different aspects (Gold-MSI, MUSE, MEQ). All 3 instruments may be characterized as large psychometric scales, which especially assess aspects of musicality in the English language. The Gold-MSI is additionally available in German. None of the existing questionnaires covers musical activities in detail. A new short German questionnaire consisting of 9 questions with a maximum filling time of 3-5 min has been developed. There are few questionnaires available for assessing musicality and musical activity with different aspects. The newly developed MusA in the German language focuses on the assessment of musical activity and is intended to be used in larger, population-based as well as clinical studies, to examine music activities and listening to music as independent factors in connection with prevention and therapy of chronic diseases. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Hematological, electrolyte and serum biochemical values of the Thai indigenous chickens (Gallus domesticus in northeastern, Thailand

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    Suchint Simaraks

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Thai indigenous chickens (Gallus domesticus have been domesticated in rural villages in Thailand for a long time. These birds are important to low-income people who live in the rural part of Thailand. However, health problems have been a major cause limiting their population. Hematological, electrolyte and serum biochemical values, which are important for diagnosis of clinical signs and symptoms when affected by diseases, are limited. Blood samples from 40 chickens (20 males and 20 females were used for hematological test while another 18 samples (from 10 males and 8 females were analysed for electrolyte and serum biochemical values. The samples were obtained from Khon Kaen, Kalasin, Roi - Et, Maha Sarakham and Nakhon Ratchasima provinces, northeastern region of Thailand. The results revealed the following information: total red blood cell count, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, total white blood cell count, lymphocyte, heterophil, monocyte, eosinophil, basophil, H:L ratio values of Thai native chickens were 2.26 ± 0.29 × 106 cells/μl, 8.89 ± 1.20 g/dl, 32.18 ± 4.46%, 144.63 ± 18.61 fl, 39.69 ± 4.96 pg, 27.86 ± 3.37 g/dl, 2.04 ± 0.45 × 104 cells/μl, 63.68 ± 9.36%, 23.70 ± 7.21%, 4.20 ± 3.20%, 5.83 ± 3.53%, 2.65 ± 2.09% and 0.40 ± 0.17, respectively. Potassium, sodium and chloride values of Thai native chickens were 5.3 ± 0.8 mmol/l, 155.9 ± 3.1 mmol/l and 116.9 ± 2.7 mmol/l, respectively. Furthermore, serum biochemistry values of Thai native chickens such as total protein, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, uric acid, calcium and cholesterol were 4.6 ± 1.0 mg/dl, 190.2 ± 29.8 mg/dl, 235.9 ± 68.6 U/L, 5.0 ± 1.9 mg/dl, 10.4 ± 1.2 mg/dl and 102.4 ± 30.8 mg/dl, respectively. Besides, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and eosinophil inthe males were significantly higher than in the females Thai indigenous

  2. Physiological alteration, quality of anesthesia and economy of isoflurane in domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus

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    Parag Deori

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of isoflurane anesthesia on physiological parameters, assessment of anesthetic qualities, and economy of use of isoflurane in domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus. Materials and Methods: In this study, 18 apparently healthy adult domestic chickens were selected randomly and divided into three groups. The birds were anesthetized by masked induction with isoflurane at a dose rate of 3.5%, 4%, and 5% and were maintained with 1.5%, 2%, and 2.5% isoflurane with oxygen by endotracheal intubation in Groups I, II, and III, respectively. Physiological parameters, viz., cloacal temperature, heart rate, and respiration rate were recorded at 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min. The quality of anesthesia was assessed on the basis of induction time, induction behavior, quality of sedation, production of analgesia, degree of muscle relaxation, palpebral reflex, recovery time, and recovery behavior. The economy of anesthesia was calculated in terms of quantity of isoflurane utilized during 60 min of study. Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance, Duncan's multiple range tests. Results: There was significant decrease (p<0.01 in physiological parameters such as in cloacal temperature, heart rate and respiration rate in the birds of all the groups from 0 to 60 min. The induction time was 5.83±0.33, 2.37±0.18, and 0.87±0.15 min, respectively, in Groups I, II, and III. Induction behavior was smooth in Group III, whereas mildly stormy in Group II and I. Quality of sedation was excellent in Group III, better in Group II as compared to Group I. Analgesia was moderate in Group III whereas poor in Group II and I. Degree of muscle relaxation was excellent in Group III, whereas good in Group I and II. Palpebral reflexes were absent in all the groups. Recovery time was 15.33±0.84, 18.83±0.94, and 26.50±0.85 in Groups I, II, and III respectively. Recovery behavior was smooth in birds of all the groups

  3. A Comparison of mucosal surface area and villous histology in small intestines of the Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis) and the mouse (Mus musculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Qiang; Brun, Antonio; Price, Edwin R; Cruz-Neto, Ariovaldo P; Karasov, William H; Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Studies on birds have led to the hypothesis that increased intestinal absorption between enterocytes (paracellular) evolved as a compensation for smaller intestinal size in fliers, which was perhaps selected to minimize the mass of digesta carried. This hypothesis predicts that bats will also exhibit relatively reduced intestinal size and high paracellular absorption, compared with nonflying mammals. Published studies on three bat species indicate relatively high paracellular absorption. One mechanism for increasing paracellular absorption per cm2 small intestine (SI) is increased number of tight junctions (TJs) across which paracellular absorption occurs. To our knowledge, we provide the first comparative analysis of enterocyte size and number in flying and nonflying mammals. Intestines of insectivorous bats Tadarida brasiliensis were compared with Mus musculus using hematoxylin and eosin staining method. Bats had shorter and narrower SIs than mice, and after correction for body size difference by normalizing to mass3/4, the bats had 40% less nominal surface area than the mouse, as predicted. Villous enhancement of surface area was 90% greater in the bat than in the mouse, mainly because of longer villi and a greater density of villi in bat intestines. Bat and mouse were similar in enterocyte diameter. Bats exceeded mice by 54.4% in villous area per cm length SI and by 95% in number of enterocytes per cm2 of the nominal surface area of the SI. Therefore, an increased density of TJs per cm2 SI may be a mechanistic explanation that helps to understand the high paracellular absorption observed in bats compared to nonflying mammals. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Tooth Morphogenesis and FGF4 Expression During Development of Molar Tooth in Three Muroid Rodents: Calomyscus elburzensis (Calomyscidae), Mesocricetus auratus (Cricetidae) and Mus musculus (Muridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Kordiyeh; Darvish, Jamshid; Matin, Maryam M; Javanmard, Athar Sadat; Kilpatrick, C William

    2017-12-01

    To date, no studies have examined the tooth formation during developmental stages of brush-tailed mice (Calomyscidae) and true hamsters (Cricetidae). Herein, we compared the timing of tooth morphogenesis and FGF4 expression pattern during development of the first lower molar in Goodwin's brush-tailed mouse, Calomyscus elburzensis with two other muroid rodents; the house mouse, Mus musculus (Muridae), model organism for tooth morphogenesis, and the golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus which shares great similarities in cusp pattern with brush-tailed mice. All three species were bred in captivity and developing embryos were isolated at different embryonic days (E). Histological evaluation of lower molars was performed and spatiotemporal pattern of FGF4 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. Results indicated that morphogenesis of the tooth cusps starts at the beginning of the cap stage of the first lower molar (E14 in house mouse, about E11.5 in golden hamster and E22 in Goodwin's brush-tailed mouse). During the cap to bell stage (E15 in house mouse, E12 in golden hamster and at about E24 in Goodwin's brush-tailed mouse), a decrease in the expression of FGF4 was observed in the mesenchyme, except for the cusp tips. According to our observations, the developmental process of the first lower molar formation in Goodwin's brush-tailed mouse began much later as compared with the other two species. Despite the differences in the temporal pattern of molar development between these three members of the same superfamily (Muroidea), the correlation in the expression of FGF4 with specific stages of tooth morphogenesis supported its regulatory function. Anat Rec, 300:2138-2149, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Behavioural characterisation of wild derived male mice (Mus musculus musculus) of the PWD/Ph inbred strain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fernandes, C.; Liu, L.; Paya-Cano, J. L.; Gregorová, Soňa; Forejt, Jiří; Schalkwyk, L. J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 6 (2004), s. 621-630 ISSN 0001-8244 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A079; GA ČR GA204/02/1373 Grant - others:EU(XE) QLRI-2000-00233; HHMI(US) 555000306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : mouse * behavior Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.215, year: 2004

  6. Crickets are not a free lunch: protein capture from scalable organic side-streams via high-density populations of Acheta domesticus.

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    Mark E Lundy

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the ecological impact of crickets as a source of dietary protein is less than conventional forms of livestock due to their comparatively efficient feed conversion and ability to consume organic side-streams. This study measured the biomass output and feed conversion ratios of house crickets (Acheta domesticus reared on diets that varied in quality, ranging from grain-based to highly cellulosic diets. The measurements were made at a much greater population scale and density than any previously reported in the scientific literature. The biomass accumulation was strongly influenced by the quality of the diet (p99% mortality without reaching a harvestable size. Therefore, the potential for A. domesticus to sustainably supplement the global protein supply, beyond what is currently produced via grain-fed chickens, will depend on capturing regionally scalable organic side-streams of relatively high-quality that are not currently being used for livestock production.

  7. Reflexões sobre a arte "primitiva": o caso do Musée Branly

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    Ilana Goldstein

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Na época das descobertas ultramarinas, os europeus acumulavam fragmentos das novas realidades que encontravam em suas viagens, nos chamados gabinetes de curiosidades. Os colecionadores se especializaram e, a partir do século XVIII, surgiram os primeiros museus científicos. No final do século XIX, as exposições universais expunham a "barbárie" dos povos colonizados. Já as vanguardas do século XX redescobriram a arte "primitiva" enquanto fonte de renovação. Este artigo recupera tais formas de apreensão da cultura material de sociedades tradicionais ao longo do tempo, para chegar à inauguração do Musée Branly, em 2006. A partir desse museu, podem-se repensar algumas questões fundamentais acerca da arte "primitiva", como a dicotomia entre tratar os artefatos como testemunhos etnográficos ou como criações estéticas; as relações de poder envolvidas na aquisição dos objetos; o problema da autenticidade, numa era em que se multiplicam os souvenirs étnicos "neotradicionais".In the epoch of overseas discoveries, Europeans accumulated fragments of the realities they found in cabinets of curiosities. The private collectors specialized in different branches of "natural history" and this led to the emergence of scientific museums in the 18th century. At the end of the 19th century, universal exhibitions displayed "primitive" artifacts side by side with Western technologies, suggesting the "barbarism" of colonized peoples. But, at the beginning of the 20th century, the avant-gardes rediscovered the art nègre, using it as a source of artistic renovation. This article begins by describing these various forms of dealing with the cultural expressions of others, in order to understand the meaning of the recently opened Musée Branly. The French museum, devoted to non-occidental societies, provides an opportunity to reconsider some fundamental issues. Should we exhibit these artifacts as ethnographic testimonies or works of art? Can we

  8. Hold your horSSEs: controlling structure-selective endonucleases MUS81 and Yen1/GEN1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Miguel G; Matos, Joao

    2015-01-01

    Repair of DNA lesions through homologous recombination promotes the establishment of stable chromosomal interactions. Multiple helicases, topoisomerases and structure-selective endonucleases (SSEs) act upon recombining joint molecules (JMs) to disengage chromosomal connections and safeguard chromosome segregation. Recent studies on two conserved SSEs - MUS81 and Yen1/GEN1- uncovered multiple layers of regulation that operate to carefully tailor JM-processing according to specific cellular needs. Temporal restriction of SSE function imposes a hierarchy in pathway usage that ensures efficient JM-processing while minimizing reciprocal exchanges between the recombining DNAs. Whereas a conserved strategy of fine-tuning SSE functions exists in different model systems, the precise molecular mechanisms to implement it appear to be significantly different. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the cellular switches that are in place to control MUS81 and Yen1/GEN1 functions.

  9. Quelques espèces nouvelles d’hispides de Sumatra appartenant au Musée de Leyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gestro, R.

    1897-01-01

    Sur le point d’entreprendre l’étude des Hispides recueillies à Sumatra par M. le Doct. E. Modigliani, j’ai demandé à M. Ritsema, le savant conservateur de la collection d’insectes du Musée de Leyde, la communication de quelques espèces dans le but de faciliter mon travail. Mon aimable collègue a

  10. The French Muséum national d'histoire naturelle vascular plant herbarium collection dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bras, Gwenaël; Pignal, Marc; Jeanson, Marc L.; Muller, Serge; Aupic, Cécile; Carré, Benoît; Flament, Grégoire; Gaudeul, Myriam; Gonçalves, Claudia; Invernón, Vanessa R.; Jabbour, Florian; Lerat, Elodie; Lowry, Porter P.; Offroy, Bérangère; Pimparé, Eva Pérez; Poncy, Odile; Rouhan, Germinal; Haevermans, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    We provide a quantitative description of the French national herbarium vascular plants collection dataset. Held at the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris, it currently comprises records for 5,400,000 specimens, representing 90% of the estimated total of specimens. Ninety nine percent of the specimen entries are linked to one or more images and 16% have field-collecting information available. This major botanical collection represents the results of over three centuries of exploration and study. The sources of the collection are global, with a strong representation for France, including overseas territories, and former French colonies. The compilation of this dataset was made possible through numerous national and international projects, the most important of which was linked to the renovation of the herbarium building. The vascular plant collection is actively expanding today, hence the continuous growth exhibited by the dataset, which can be fully accessed through the GBIF portal or the MNHN database portal (available at: https://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/p/item/search/form). This dataset is a major source of data for systematics, global plants macroecological studies or conservation assessments.

  11. The French Muséum national d’histoire naturelle vascular plant herbarium collection dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bras, Gwenaël; Pignal, Marc; Jeanson, Marc L.; Muller, Serge; Aupic, Cécile; Carré, Benoît; Flament, Grégoire; Gaudeul, Myriam; Gonçalves, Claudia; Invernón, Vanessa R.; Jabbour, Florian; Lerat, Elodie; Lowry, Porter P.; Offroy, Bérangère; Pimparé, Eva Pérez; Poncy, Odile; Rouhan, Germinal; Haevermans, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We provide a quantitative description of the French national herbarium vascular plants collection dataset. Held at the Muséum national d’histoire naturelle, Paris, it currently comprises records for 5,400,000 specimens, representing 90% of the estimated total of specimens. Ninety nine percent of the specimen entries are linked to one or more images and 16% have field-collecting information available. This major botanical collection represents the results of over three centuries of exploration and study. The sources of the collection are global, with a strong representation for France, including overseas territories, and former French colonies. The compilation of this dataset was made possible through numerous national and international projects, the most important of which was linked to the renovation of the herbarium building. The vascular plant collection is actively expanding today, hence the continuous growth exhibited by the dataset, which can be fully accessed through the GBIF portal or the MNHN database portal (available at: https://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/p/item/search/form). This dataset is a major source of data for systematics, global plants macroecological studies or conservation assessments. PMID:28195585

  12. Habitat use and demography of Mus musculus in a rural landscape of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Vanina A; Fraschina, Jimena; Guidobono, Juan S; Busch, Maria

    2013-04-01

    The main goal of the paper was to determine the habitat distribution of the house mouse (Mus musculus) within a rural landscape of Buenos Aires province, Argentina. We also studied the seasonal variation in abundance and reproductive activity. The habitats studied were poultry farms, human houses in a small village, cropfields, pastures, cropfield and pasture edges, riparian habitats (streams), railway embankments and woodlots. We captured 817 M. musculus and 690 individuals of 5 native rodent species. M. musculus was captured in poultry farms, houses, riparian habitats, cropfield and borders, but it showed a significantly higher abundance in poultry farms compared to the other habitats. Its presence outside poultry farms was significantly related to the distance to streams and poultry farms. The mean trapping success index of M. musculus did not show significant variations between periods, but the proportion of active males was significantly higher in the spring-summer period than in the autumn-winter period. All captures of M. musculus in cropfields, borders and riparian habitats occurred in the spring-summer period. The capture of M. musculus in many types of habitats suggests that it can disperse outside poultry farms, and streams may be used as corridors. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, ISZS and IOZ/CAS.

  13. THE PATTERN OF THE AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR IN THE LABORATORY MOUSE (MUS MUSCULUS

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    Maria BUNEA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nature has found solutions for decreasing the aggressive impulse, using various inhibitory mechanisms as means of balancing the forces between two fighting individuals, thus avoiding it to lead to the destruction of their own species. These nature's “ pacifyng” solutions are mostly found in animals which are armed with various potentially lethal “weapons”, while in species that live on large territoires and thus have the possibility to avoid conflict, these mechanisms are poorly developed. The purpose of this research is to study the extent of the inhibitory mechanisms against aggression in the laboratory mouse, species in which these mechanisms of diminishing aggression and of avoiding conflicts don't work the same in artificial conditions, where individuals are forced to live in small areas, and to identify the behavioral chains that form the innate manifestations of the aggressive behavior in Mus musculus sp. The results of this study show that in the circumstance of caged individuals, which are crowded so closely together, the intensity of aggression is increasing. The dominance hierarchy is well established after their first fight, but due to the spatial constraint and the fact that there is no place where to flee, the submissive individual oftenly fights back. In every single interraction the aggressive behavior follows a fixed action pattern.

  14. Laju peningkatan konsentrasi timbal Pb dalam darah hewan uji mencit Mus musculus di bengkel otomotif

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    Mohammad Razif Sukatma

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted in automotive workshop of VEDC Malang and the samples were taken at the automotive machineand automotive electric workshops. The parameters which examined were the Pb concentration in the mouse blood (Mus musculus in2 and 3 months years old. The measurement was run for 5 times every 10 days, and the result was mean value of the increasing rate ofPb concentration in the mouse blood. The aim of this research was to determine the increasing rate of Pb concentration in the mouseblood which has the relation with different working area, different age, and also duration of exposure. Based on the data of laboratorytest, research continued by T-test analysis, Simple regression test, and correlation, and also General Linear Model. By doing statisticanalysis with the different working area, duration of explanation, and different age.Result of this research showed that there were the differences of rapid increasing of Pb concentration in both workshop. Generallythe age which influence so much for that (in the mouse body and have the relation with the body stamina. If the mouse body absorbamount of Pb constantly, so the Pb concentration in it will increase more and more and it cause the decreasing of the body height.

  15. XY females do better than the XX in the African pygmy mouse, Mus minutoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Paul A; Perez, Julie; Rahmoun, Massilva; Ronce, Ophélie; Crochet, Pierre-André; Veyrunes, Frédéric

    2014-07-01

    All therian mammals have a similar XY/XX sex-determination system except for a dozen species. The African pygmy mouse, Mus minutoides, harbors an unconventional system in which all males are XY, and there are three types of females: the usual XX but also XX* and X*Y ones (the asterisk designates a sex-reversal mutation on the X chromosome). The long-term evolution of such a system is a paradox, because X*Y females are expected to face high reproductive costs (e.g., meiotic disruption and loss of unviable YY embryos), which should prevent invasion and maintenance of a sex-reversal mutation. Hence, mechanisms for compensating for the costs could have evolved in M. minutoides. Data gathered from our laboratory colony revealed that X*Y females do compensate and even show enhanced reproductive performance in comparison to the XX and XX*; they produce significantly more offspring due to (i) a higher probability of breeding, (ii) an earlier first litter, and (iii) a larger litter size, linked to (iv) a greater ovulation rate. These findings confirm that rare conditions are needed for an atypical sex-determination mechanism to evolve in mammals, and provide valuable insight into understanding modifications of systems with highly heteromorphic sex chromosomes. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  16. Geographic phenetic variation of two eastern-Mediterranean non-commensal mouse species, Mus macedonicus and M. cypriacus (Rodentia: Muridae) based on traditional and geometric approaches to morphometrics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macholán, Miloš; Mikula, Ondřej; Vohralík, V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 247, - (2008), s. 67-80 ISSN 0044-5231 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6045307; GA ČR GA206/06/0707 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/2334 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Mus macedonicus * Mus cypriacus * phenotypic variation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.319, year: 2008

  17. Epidemiology of Sarcocystis neurona infections in domestic cats (Felis domesticus) and its association with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) case farms and feral cats from a mobile spay and neuter clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, J F; Stich, R W; Dubey, J P; Reed, S M; Njoku, C J; Lindsay, D S; Schmall, L M; Johnson, G K; LaFave, B M; Saville, W J A

    2003-11-28

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a serious neurologic disease in the horse most commonly caused by Sarcocystis neurona. The domestic cat (Felis domesticus) is an intermediate host for S. neurona. In the present study, nine farms, known to have prior clinically diagnosed cases of EPM and a resident cat population were identified and sampled accordingly. In addition to the farm cats sampled, samples were also collected from a mobile spay and neuter clinic. Overall, serum samples were collected in 2001 from 310 cats, with samples including barn, feral and inside/outside cats. Of these 310 samples, 35 were from nine horse farms. Horse serum samples were also collected and traps were set for opossums at each of the farms. The S. neurona direct agglutination test (SAT) was used for both the horse and cat serum samples (1:25 dilution). Fourteen of 35 (40%) cats sampled from horse farms had circulating S. neurona agglutinating antibodies. Twenty-seven of the 275 (10%) cats from the spay/neuter clinic also had detectable S. neurona antibodies. Overall, 115 of 123 (93%) horses tested positive for anti-S. neurona antibodies, with each farm having greater than a 75% exposure rate among sampled horses. Twenty-one opossums were trapped on seven of the nine farms. Eleven opossums had Sarcocystis sp. sporocysts, six of them were identified as S. neurona sporocysts based on bioassays in gamma-interferon gene knockout mice with each opossum representing a different farm. Demonstration of S. neurona agglutinating antibodies in domestic and feral cats corroborates previous research demonstrating feral cats to be naturally infected, and also suggests that cats can be frequently infected with S. neurona and serve as one of several natural intermediate hosts for S. neurona.

  18. Histometría de la glándula sublingual de ratones (Mus musculus machos y hembras infectados con la cepa RAL del parásito de Chagas, Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio de Albuquerque

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Analizamos morfológica e histométricamente la glándula sublingual de ratones infectados con la cepa RAL del Trypanosoma cruzi, en machos y hembras. Usamos ratones albinos (Mus musculus, variedad Swiss, inoculados con 2x104 tripomastigotes sanguíneos de la cepa RAL del T. cruzi.. Sacrificamos los animales en el pico de la parasitemia (12º día y fijamos las glándulas sublinguales en ALFAC. Los cortes histológicos teñidos con HE fueron evaluados histométricamente (cariometría y estereología. La parasitemia fue más elevada en las hembras. Histopatológicamente, los "ácinos" (acini de los animales infectados eran menores, con escasa secreción, y conductos estriados menores. Los núcleos de las "medialunas" eran menores y había nidos de amastigotes en el citoplasma. Cariométricamente, los núcleos de los ácinos, medialunas y conductos estriados eran menores en los ratones infectados. Estereológicamente, los volúmenes relativos ocupados por ácinos y conductos estriados fueron menores e, inversamente, fue mayor el volumen para el tejido conjuntivo de los machos infectados. Las densidades de superficie de ácinos y conductos fueron mayores, y el diámetro y el espesor de la pared menores, en este grupo. Por otro lado, la densidad de ácinos fue menor, y las de los conductos estriados y tejido conjuntivo, fueron mayores en las hembras infectadas. Las densidades de superficie de ácinos y conductos estriados fueron mayores, mientras que el diámetro y espesor de la pared de los ácinos fueron menores (y las de los conductos estriados mayores, en este grupo. La cepa RAL del T. cruzi causó un cuadro general de atrofia general en la glándula sublingual, con numerosos nidos de parásitos.Histometry of the sublingual gland in male and female mice (Mus musculus infected with the RAL strain of the Chagas parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi. The aim of this work was to analyze histologically and histometrically the sublingual gland of mice infected

  19. Analysis of Adult Female Mouse (Mus musculus) Group Behavior on the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomides, P.; Moyer, E. L.; Talyansky, Y.; Choi, S.; Gong, C.; Globus, R. K.; Ronca, A. E.

    2016-01-01

    As interest in long duration effects of space habitation increases, understanding the behavior of model organisms living within the habitats engineered to fly them is vital for designing, validating, and interpreting future spaceflight studies. A handful of papers have previously reported behavior of mice and rats in the weightless environment of space. The Rodent Research Hardware and Operations Validation (Rodent Research-1; RR1) utilized the Rodent Habitat (RH) developed at NASA Ames Research Center to fly mice on the ISS (International Space Station). Ten adult (16-week-old) female C57BL/6 mice were launched on September 21st, 2014 in an unmanned Dragon Capsule, and spent 37 days in microgravity. Here we report group behavioral phenotypes of the RR1 Flight (FLT) and environment-matched Ground Control (GC) mice in the Rodent Habitat (RH) during this long-duration flight. Video was recorded for 33 days on the ISS, permitting daily assessments of overall health and well-being of the mice, and providing a valuable repository for detailed behavioral analysis. We previously reported that, as compared to GC mice, RR1 FLT mice exhibited the same range of behaviors, including eating, drinking, exploration, self- and allo-grooming, and social interactions at similar or greater levels of occurrence. Overall activity was greater in FLT as compared to GC mice, with spontaneous ambulatory behavior, including organized 'circling' or 'race-tracking' behavior that emerged within the first few days of flight following a common developmental sequence, and comprised the primary dark cycle activity persisting throughout the remainder of the experiment. Participation by individual mice increased dramatically over the course of the flight. Here we present a detailed analysis of 'race-tracking' behavior in which we quantified: (1) Complete lap rotations by individual mice; (2) Numbers of collisions between circling mice; (3) Lap directionality; and (4) Recruitment of mice into a group

  20. Somatotrophs and lactotrophs: an immunohistochemical study of Gallus domesticus pituitary gland at different stages of induced moult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Sandhu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of somatotrophs and lactotrophs and conduct a morphometrical analysis of immunoreactive somatotrophs and lactotrophs in the pituitary glands of White Leghorn Hens (Gallus domesticus during the period of induced moult. We divided the periods of induced moulting into three phases viz. 7, 14 and 21 days. The labeled alkaline-phsphatase method with anti-GH (growth hormone and anti-PRL (prolactin as a primary antibody was used to detect somatotrophs and lactotrophs, in the midsagital sections of chicken adenohypophysis. Immunohistochemistry showed that somatotrophs are not only confined to the cephalo-caudal axis but can also be found in the caudal lobe; while lactotrophs were distributed in both lobes of the anterior pituitary gland at all stages of moulting (7, 14 and 21 days. Lactotrophs were of different shapes but somatotrophs were oval to round in morphology. At the given stages of induced moulting, some hypertrophied lactotrophs were also present after 7 days of induced moult in the anterior pituitary gland. However, there were moulting-related changes: from 7 to 21 days of induced moulting the immunoreactive-PRL cell population decreased, while the mean lactotroph size was more than that of somatotrophs. Basic quantitative and morphological information relating to somatotrophs and lactotrophs during the period of induced moult in laying hens is reported here and the changes brought about by induced moulting are restricted to PRL positive cells rather than GH positive cells.

  1. Effects of gamma radiation and temperature on the biological assimilation and retention of /sup 137/Cs by Acheta domesticus (L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hook, Jr, R I; Herbert, E T

    1971-12-01

    Cesium-137 retention was determined for brown crickets, Acheta domesticus, which had been irradiated with 0, 1000, 2500 and 5000 rad gamma radiation and maintained at 20, 25 and 30 degrees C. Parameters examined for temperature and dose effects were (1) per cent /sup 137/Cs assimilated into body tissues (p2), (2) rate of isotope passage through the gut (k1) and (3) rate of elimination of assimilated /sup 137/Cs (ks). Increases in temperature and gamma dose resulted in a general decrease in per cent /sup 137/Cs assimilated pe day (p2). The first-component elimination coefficient (k1) was not significantly affected (P less than or equal to 0.05) by either temperature or dose changes. Biological elimination coefficients for assimilated /sup 137/Cs (k2) increased with increasing temperature between doses of 0 and 2500 rad. Above 2500 rads however, increases in temperature had no noticeable effects on the rate of assimilated /sup 137/Cs excretion. At higher dose levels, radiation was the dominant factor influencing the parameter k2.

  2. Differences in semen freezability and intracellular ATP content between the rooster (Gallus gallus domesticus) and the Barbary partridge (Alectoris barbara).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeddu, M; Berlinguer, F; Pasciu, V; Succu, S; Satta, V; Leoni, G G; Zinellu, A; Muzzeddu, M; Carru, C; Naitana, S

    2010-10-01

    This study aimed to compare viability, ATP content, and DNA integrity of rooster (Gallus gallus domesticus) and Barbary partridge (Alectoris barbara) fresh and frozen spermatozoa in order to identify factors possibly related to differences in semen freezability. Ejaculates were obtained from March to May by the abdominal massage method from 3 adult roosters and 12 adult Barbary partridges. Semen was frozen with different cryoprotectants using Lake's diluents as a base medium: 1) glycerol 11%; 2) glycerol 11% and trehalose 70 mmol/L; 3) dimethylacetamide (DMA) 6%; 4) DMA 6% and trehalose 70 mmol/L. Both fresh and frozen semen showed a lower viability and higher intracellular ATP concentrations in the Barbary partridge compared with the rooster (P rooster a higher viability was recorded when semen was frozen in glycerol containing media compared to DMA (P rooster DNA fragmentation was higher in DMA ctr medium compared with the other media and with values found in Barbary partridge semen frozen in the same medium (P rooster and the Barbary partridge and the wide variation observed in ATP levels may account for differences in semen freezability between the two species. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sperm subpopulations in avian species: a comparative study between the rooster (Gallus domesticus) and Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Herreros, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The main aims of this research were to study possible differences in objective morphometric sperm characteristics, establish normative sperm morphometry standards, and evaluate the presumed different subpopulation distribution of avian spermatozoa from the rooster (Gallus domesticus ) and Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris ) as model avian species. Seventy-two ejaculates (36 per species studied) were obtained manually, following a training period involving gently combined dorso-abdominal and lumbo-sacral massage of the birds. Ejaculates were processed for volume, sperm concentration, viability, motility, and morphology. Moreover, samples were submitted for sperm morphometric assessment using objective Computer-Assisted Semen Analysis for Morphometry (CASA-Morph) methods, with sperm morphometric descriptors evaluated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and multivariate clustering analyses. There were several differences observed between the avian species in values obtained for ejaculate volume and sperm concentration (P rooster and Guinea fowl, respectively). Moreover, the distribution of the sperm subpopulations was found to be structurally different between species. In conclusion, our findings from using CASA-Morph methods indicate pronounced sperm morphometric variation between these two avian species. Because of the strong differences observed in morphometric parameter values and their subpopulation distribution, these results suggest that application of objective analytical methods such as CASA-Morph could substantially improve the reliability of comparative studies and help establish valid normative sperm morphological values for avian species.

  4. High costs of infection: Alphavirus infection reduces digestive function and bone and feather growth in nestling house sparrows (Passer domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbinder-Orth, Carol A.; Killpack, Tess L.; Goto, Dylan S.; Rainwater, Ellecia L.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.

    2018-01-01

    Increasingly, ecoimmunology studies aim to use relevant pathogen exposure to examine the impacts of infection on physiological processes in wild animals. Alphaviruses are arthropod-borne, single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses (“arboviruses”) responsible for millions of cases of human illnesses each year. Buggy Creek virus (BCRV) is a unique alphavirus that is transmitted by a cimicid insect, the swallow bug, and is amplified in two avian species: the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) and the cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota). BCRV, like many alphaviruses, exhibits age-dependent susceptibility where the young are most susceptible to developing disease and exhibit a high mortality rate. However, alphavirus disease etiology in nestling birds is unknown. In this study, we infected nestling house sparrows with Buggy Creek virus and measured virological, pathological, growth, and digestive parameters following infection. Buggy Creek virus caused severe encephalitis in all infected nestlings, and the peak viral concentration in brain tissue was over 34 times greater than any other tissue. Growth, tissue development, and digestive function were all significantly impaired during BCRV infection. However, based on histopathological analysis performed, this impairment does not appear to be the result of direct tissue damage by the virus, but likely caused by encephalitis and neuronal invasion and impairment of the central nervous system. This is the first study to examine the course of alphavirus diseases in nestling birds and these results will improve our understanding of age-dependent infections of alphaviruses in vertebrate hosts.

  5. Dynamic changes in parameters of redox balance after mild heat stress in aged laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H; De Vos, D; Decuypere, E; Buyse, J

    2008-01-01

    In order to evaluate the metabolic responses of laying hens induced by high temperature at later laying stage, nine 60-wk-old laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus) were employed in the present study. The hens were exposed to 32 degrees C for 21 d and blood samples were obtained before and at 1, 7, 14 and 21 d of heat exposure. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed in blood during heat exposure were estimated by the ex vivo spin-trapping method. Body temperature and plasma concentrations of glucose, urate, creatine kinase (CK), triiodothyronine (T(3)), thyroxine (T(4)), corticosterone (CORT), thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS), ferric/reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured. Plasma levels of glucose, CK and CORT were not significantly influenced by heat exposure at any time point. The circulating concentrations of T(3) were decreased while plasma T(4) levels changed in the opposite way. The formation of ROS was significantly augmented by heat exposure in laying hens though the body temperature was not significantly altered. The enhanced enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems acted in concert to alleviate the heat stress evoked oxidative damage.

  6. Ultrastructure of the gut epithelium in Acheta domesticus after long-term exposure to nanodiamonds supplied with food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpeta-Kaczmarek, Julia; Augustyniak, Maria; Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena

    2016-05-01

    The biosafety of nanoparticles and the potential toxicity of nanopollutants and/or nanowastes are all currently burning issues. The increased use of nanoparticles, including nanodiamonds (ND), entails the real risk of their penetration into food chains, which may result in the contamination of animal and, as a result, human food. Knowledge about changes in the ultrastructure of tissues in organisms that have been exposed to ND is still very limited. The aim of the study was to describe the ultrastructure of the gut epithelium in Acheta domesticus after exposure to different concentrations of ND (0, 20 or 200 μg g(-1) - control, ND20 and ND200 groups, respectively) administered with food over a five-week period. The ultrastructure of the foregut, midgut and hindgut was assessed using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). A number of changes in the structure of the gut in crickets that had consumed nanodiamond-contaminated food were observed. The epithelium of the midgut and hindgut were clearly damaged by ND, although the foregut was not affected. A positive relationship between the ND concentration in food and the degree of damage to the structure of epithelial cells was observed. Autophagy, especially mitophagy and reticulophagy, was activated in relation to the appearance of ND particles. A putative ND toxicity mechanizm is proposed. Extreme caution should be maintained when using nanodiamonds on a large scale. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. PENGARUH EKSTRAK DAUN KEMANGI (Ocimum sanctum L. TERHADAP MOTILITAS DAN KONSENTRASI SPERMATOZOA MENCIT JANTAN (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safwan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We have conducted a research on the effect of the extract of leaves basil (Ocimum sanctum L on male mice to investigate the consentration and motility spermatozoa mice. Twoty male mice which has age about 2 months with wight 20 – 25 g were divided into four groups. The extract was provided orally daily until the 20 th day. At 21th day were sacrificed and determine of consentration and motility. The result of the research showed that the extract of Ocimum sanctum L leaves that being given during 20 days with the dosage of 50 mg/g body weight, 100 mg/g bw, and 250 mg/g bw could signifi increase the consentration and motility spermatozoa mice.

  8. UJI TOKSISITAS AKUT EKSTRAK DAUN PSIDIUM GUAVA LINN (DAUN JAMBU BIJI TERHADAP MENCIT (MUS MUSCULUS

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    Amiyatun Naini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Psidium guava Linn leaf extract as mouthrinse has been suggested to be used against toothache, and also has suggested effect against diarrhea and vomiting, as well as anti spasmodic and rheumatic symptoms, anti inflammation, anti piretic, analgetic, and anti bacterial activity. However, to consider potential side effects, this work aimed to test the acute toxicity of guava leaf extract. For this purpose guava leaf extract was given orally to to groups of ten mice each at a doses of 1.25g, 2.5, 5, 10 and 21 g/kg body weight in a suspension with CMC Na 0,5%. Ten mice were used as control with a dose of 1 ml CMC Na 0,5%. The results suggest no acute toxicity to mice, since even the biggest dose given (show no measurable value of LD 50. It could be concluded that guava leaf extract shows no acute toxicity to mice at tested concentrations.

  9. Influence of Polysaccharide Krestin from Coriolus versicolor Extract on Nitrite and Malondialdehyde Concencentrations of Mus musculus Serum Exposed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Puji Astuti Wahyuningsih

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a major infection agent of tuberculosis that is controlled by the response of cell-mediated immunity. It is macrophages and cytolytic T lymphocytes. Activated macrophages will produce free radicals. Excessive free radicals cause tissue damage. Polysaccharide krestin contains β-glucan. It is a scavenger of free radicals. This research aimed to identify the influence of polysaccharide krestin from C. versicolor on nitrite and malondialdehyde concentrations of mice serum exposed by M. tuberculosis. Nitrite concentration was determined by nitrite assay. Malondialdehyde concentration was determined by TBARS assay. The result showed that adding polysaccharide krestin before exposure (P1 and adding polysaccharide krestin before-after exposure (P3 had the best potential to decrease nitrite concentration. Nitrite concentrations of P1 and P3 were 1.364 ± 0.523 M and 1.456 ± 0.712 M respectively. Meanwhile, P1 group and adding polysaccharide krestin after exposure (P2 had the best potential to decrease malondialdehyde concentration. Malondialdehyde concentrations of P1 and P2 were 1125.86 ± 97.96 µM and 953.86 ± 328.16 µM respectively. Their nitrite and malondialdehyde concentrations decreased, compared to K and K- groups. The research conclusion was that adding polysaccharide krestin before exposure could decrease both nitrite and malondialdehyde concentrations.How to CiteWahyuningsih, S., Pramudya, M., & Sugiharto, S. (2016. Influence of Polysaccharide Krestin from Coriolus versicolor Extract on Nitrite and Malondialdehyde Concencentrations of Mus musculus Serum Exposed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(1, 12-17.

  10. Curcumin Is Efective In Improving Folliculogenesis Profile And Oo-cytes Quality In Vitro In Ectopic Endometriosis Mouse (Mus muscu-lus Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Firmawati

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is the presence of ectopic endometrial tissue, such as that outside the uter-ine cavity, which can cause chronic inflammatory reactions. Curcumin is one of traditional herbal med-icines that is widely used. Some experiments have managed to find a mechanism to treat an ectopic endometriosis through the mechanism of suppression of several cytokines such as TNF-alpha, NF-kB and COX-2, this study was an experimental laboratory study, with five treatments and six replications, using female mice (Mus musculus that had reached puberty. The study consisted of three phases: the first phase was the microscopic examination of in vitro oocytes quality, and the second was histopatho-logical examination of folliculogenesis profile using Hematoxillin eosin staining, the results of this study showed significant difference between positive control group (P0 with treatment and negative control (KN groups in folliculogenesis profile (p <0.05. Examination of in vitro oocytes quality showed sig-nificant difference between positive control group with treatment group and negative control group (p <0.05. Curcumin has several roles in cytokines modulation in ectopic endometriosis mouse models. Curcumin may reduce the occurrence of apoptosis of granulosa cells so that it may directly improve oocyte quality and folliculogenesis profile, in conclusion, curcumin effectively overcomes fertility prob-lems through the mechanism of cytokines modulation that plays a role in some cases of endometriosis such as: TNF-alpha, NF-kB and COX-2. Curcumin may improve folliculogenesis profile and in vitro oocytes quality.

  11. Pengaruh Tepung Teripang Pasir (Holothuria Scabra Terhadap Perilaku Seksual dan Kadar Testosteron Darah Mencit (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarifah Nurjanah

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumber is generally believed as a natural material that can be used as a tonic food to increase man vitality. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sandfish powder on sexual behavior and blood testosterone level of male mice. Method applied in the study was laboratory experimental method. Mature male mice were treated with administration of sandfish powder with three dosage rate of steroid content (10, 30 and 50 ìg/100 g body weight during 12 days, whereas for control treatment were without hormone administration and with the metil testosterone administration. Parameters that were investigated were kissing vagina and mounting for sexual behavior and the blood testosterone level of male mice. It was found that administration of sandfish powder significantly give effect on the number of kissing vagina and mounting compared to control. Administration of 10 ìg/100 g body weight on male mice showed the highest sexual behavior with 25 kissing vagina for and 6 mounting for 30 minutes. Moreover, administration of sandfish powder increased the testosterone level in the male mice blood. This may due to the steroid contained in sandfish powder and nutrition value that increase mice libido. The study proved that the sandfish powder has a potential as a nature aphrodisiac.

  12. Dissecting the genetic architecture of F1 hybrid sterility in house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzur-Gejdosova, Maria; Simecek, Petr; Gregorova, Sona; Bhattacharyya, Tanmoy; Forejt, Jiri

    2012-11-01

    Hybrid sterility as a postzygotic reproductive isolation mechanism has been studied for over 80 years, yet the first identifications of hybrid sterility genes in Drosophila and mouse are quite recent. To study the genetic architecture of F(1) hybrid sterility between young subspecies of house mouse Mus m. domesticus and M. m. musculus, we conducted QTL analysis of a backcross between inbred strains representing these two subspecies and probed the role of individual chromosomes in hybrid sterility using the intersubspecific chromosome substitution strains. We provide direct evidence that the asymmetry in male infertility between reciprocal crosses is conferred by the middle region of M. m. musculus Chr X, thus excluding other potential candidates such as Y, imprinted genes, and mitochondrial DNA. QTL analysis identified strong hybrid sterility loci on Chr 17 and Chr X and predicted a set of interchangeable autosomal loci, a subset of which is sufficient to activate the Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibility of the strong loci. Overall, our results indicate the oligogenic nature of F(1) hybrid sterility, which should be amenable to reconstruction by proper combination of chromosome substitution strains. Such a prefabricated model system should help to uncover the gene networks and molecular mechanisms underlying hybrid sterility. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  13. Meiotic synapsis of homogeneously staining regions (HSRs) in chromosome 1 of Mus musculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winking, H; Reuter, C; Traut, W

    1993-05-01

    About 50 copies of a long-range repeat DNA family with a repeat size of roughly 100 kb and with sequence homology to mRNAs are clustered in the G-light band D of chromosome 1 of the house mouse, Mus musculus. We studied amplified versions of the cluster which are found in many wild populations of M. musculus. They are cytogenetically conspicuous as one or two C-band positive homogeneously staining regions (single- and double band HSRs) which increase the mitotic length of chromosome 1. The double band HSR was phylogenetically derived from a single band HSR by a paracentric inversion. In homozygous condition, such HSRs contribute, albeit not as much as expected from their mitotic length, to the synaptonemal complex (SC) length of chromosome 1. In HSR heterozygous animals an elongation of the SCs was not noticeable. In single band HSR heterozygous males, synapsis proceeds regularly and continuously from the distal telomere towards the centromeric end without forming buckles. Thus, the single band HSR has no adverse effect on pairing. The same straight pairing behaviour was found in the majority of double band HSR heterozygous spermatocytes. This shows that extensive nonhomologous pairing can take place in the earliest phase of synapsis. Synapsis was discontinuous, leaving the central part of the bivalent 1 asynapsed, in only 14.3% of double band HSR heterozygous cells. In such cells the chromosome 1 SC is completed at a later stage of meiosis. The delay is presumably an effect of the inversion that includes one HSR band and the segment between the two HSR bands.

  14. Mitochondrial Genetic Diversity and Phylogeography of Mus musculus castaneus in Northern Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Shahnaz; Nadeem, Muhammad Sajid; Wiewel, Andrew Stephen; Beg, Mirza Azhar; Hameed, Khalid; Jabeen, Musarrat; Raja, Ghazala Kaukab

    2017-12-01

    Regions of Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and northwestern India have been proposed as the place of origin of Mus musculus castaneus. But despite the fact that Pakistan encompasses an important part of its range, M. m. castaneus populations in Pakistan have not been the subject of intensive genetic and biogeographic studies, except for a very small number of samples included in past studies. We studied genetic variation in M. m. castaneus (CAS) from northern Punjab Province, Pakistan, by using cytochrome b (Cytb) analysis in a sample of 98 individuals. Median-joining network revealed four well differentiated CAS sub-lineages coexisting within a small geographical region; these had previously been thought to have largely non-overlapping geographic distributions. Moreover, haplotypes from Pakistan occupied a central position in the network and all identified global haplotypes were also present in Pakistan. All identified CAS sub-lineages proved to be highly diverse on the basis of haplotype and nucleotide diversity indices. Tajima's D test and Fu's Fs tests of neutrality suggest recent population expansions in all sub-lineages. Expansion times were estimated as 21,760-134,930, 10,800-64,400 and 4950-30,665 ybp using substitution rates of 2.5%, 5% and 11%, respectively. Our results support the hypothesis that northern Punjab Province in Pakistan is the most likely source area for M. m. castaneus, and that the CAS sub-lineages in this region have undergone rapid population expansion events at different time periods, which appear to have benefitted from human-mediated transport, although one of them clearly predates the establishment of human settlements in this region.

  15. La Morue Normande, de la conserverie au musée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Levert

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available L’usine de La Morue Normande de Fécamp est mise en service en 1950. Initialement pensée pour sécher la morue débarquée par centaines de tonnes, elle connaîtra jusqu’à sa fermeture en 1995, une large diversification. Les adaptations successives seront facilitées par la souplesse de la structure poteaux-poutres. La multiplicité des expériences qui s’y sont déroulées paraît aujourd’hui symptomatique du déclin de la pêche industrielle fécampoise. Alors qu’à l’heure actuelle coexistent une industrie de transformation qui a quitté la zone portuaire et une pêche côtière n’entretenant plus aucun lien, l’immeuble désaffecté de La Morue Normande abritera bientôt le nouveau musée de Fécamp.In Fécamp, the factory of La Morue Normande opened in 1950. Initially created to dry cods brought by hundreds of tons, it will undergo many changes until its closing. Thank to its post-beam structure, an easy adaptation is provided. This diversification seems to be symptomatic of the decline of Fécamp industrial fishing. Nowadays, while a processing industry which left the port area a few years ago and the coastal fishing do not relate to each other anymore, the building of La Morue Normande will be soon the location of the new museum of Fécamp.

  16. KOLONISASI Mus musculus albino DI LABORATORIUM LOKA LITBANG P2B2 BANJARNEGARA

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    Dewi Marbawati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The improvement and development of science and technologycal in health area must be followed with improvement of requirement of test animal would especially white mouse (Mus musculus albino/mencit. Usage of white mouse (mencit because of relatively easy in handling, the size relatively small, the price relatively cheap, once birth can reach 16- 18, have similiarity in circulation system of human and doesn't have ability to vomit because having spillway in bouncing up, that is why white mouse used for drug trial research. This research expected to obtain stable white mouse colony in laboratory to fulfill requirement of white mouse as subject for research.Research was started in March-November 2008 in Loka Litbang P2B2 Banjarnegara. This research was elementary research with observational design. Data were collected from white mouse growth observation. Result of observation showed reproduction of white mouse after 5 month, from 6 white mouse increased become 17 (increased 2 times more, with number of deaths 11,76%. This white mouse survive until 12 months, but the average was 6 month. Oldest mencit until research ends (November 2008 ranges from 8 months. Daily observation data showed that white mouse can bear children until 6/pregnance. According to literature study mouse can bear children average 68/pregnance. Generaly baby mouse was around 1 gram, heavily horns depend on type (strain of white mouse. Result of white mouse weight showed increase of white mouse's body weight every 2 weeks was 8,6 grams. Observation data of development white mouse showed after 4 days the white mouse hair was seen, specially moustache that was clearly seen, on 5 day whole body was white. At the age of 10 days ear opened, part of other body like external mamilla and genitals become explains looked to be. At the age of 12 days eye started opens and active walking.

  17. On the tear proteome of the house mouse (Mus musculus musculus in relation to chemical signalling

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    Romana Stopkova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian tears are produced by lacrimal glands to protect eyes and may function in chemical communication and immunity. Recent studies on the house mouse chemical signalling revealed that major urinary proteins (MUPs are not individually unique in Mus musculus musculus. This fact stimulated us to look for other sexually dimorphic proteins that may—in combination with MUPs—contribute to a pool of chemical signals in tears. MUPs and other lipocalins including odorant binding proteins (OBPs have the capacity to selectively transport volatile organic compounds (VOCs in their eight-stranded beta barrel, thus we have generated the tear proteome of the house mouse to detect a wider pool of proteins that may be involved in chemical signalling. We have detected significant male-biased (7.8% and female-biased (7% proteins in tears. Those proteins that showed the most elevated sexual dimorphisms were highly expressed and belong to MUP, OBP, ESP (i.e., exocrine gland-secreted peptides, and SCGB/ABP (i.e., secretoglobin families. Thus, tears may have the potential to elicit sex-specific signals in combination by different proteins. Some tear lipocalins are not sexually dimorphic—with MUP20/darcin and OBP6 being good examples—and because all proteins may flow with tears through nasolacrimal ducts to nasal and oral cavities we suggest that their roles are wider than originally thought. Also, we have also detected several sexually dimorphic bactericidal proteins, thus further supporting an idea that males and females may have adopted alternative strategies in controlling microbiota thus yielding different VOC profiles.

  18. Evaluation of potential immunostimulant of the Carboxymethyl-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in poultry (Gallus domesticus / Avaliação do potencial imunoestimulante da Carboximetil-glucana de Saccharomyces cerevisiae em frangos de corte (Gallus domesticus

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    Raul Jorge Hernan Castro-Goméz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The carboxymethylglucan (CMG is a soluble molecule, composed of glucopyranosyl linked by ?(1-3 e ?(1-6, which can activate the immune system of the host. The purpose of this study was evaluate the productive and immunological characteristics of 192 poultry (Gallus domesticus COBB line which received feds containing 0%, 0,025%, 0,050% e 0,075% of CMG from Saccharomyces cerevisiae added in corn flour. All poultry were immunized against Newcastle disease and at each treatment 3 poultries randomly chosen received CMG intramuscular at 3, 7 and 14 days. It was evaluated the animal performance, development of the bursa of Fabricius, histological slides of the small intestine, counts of phagocytes cells in blood and levels of antibodies in serum. The results showed difference in weight gain and consumption of feed to poultry that consumed CMG at 1 to 21 days. Fabricius bursa relative weight increased in poultry supplemented with 0,025 e 0,050% of CMG. The phagocytic cells number and total levels of antibodies found in poultry at 21 days were higher in those that received CMG in the diet. For the animals that received intramuscular CMG was observed increase of antibodies specific to Newcastle.A carboximetilglucana (CMG é uma molécula solúvel, composta de resíduos de glicopiranosil unidos em ?(1-3 e ?(1-6, que possui a capacidade de ativar o sistema imune do hospedeiro. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar as características produtivas e imunológicas de 192 frangos de corte (Gallus domesticus da linhagem COBB, que receberam rações contendo 0%, 0,025%, 0,050% e 0,075% de CMG de Saccharomyces cerevisiae adicionada em farinha de milho. Todas as aves foram imunizadas contra a doença de Newcastle e, em cada tratamento, 3 aves escolhidas aleatoriamente receberam CMG intramuscular no 3º, 7º e 14º dia. Foram avaliados o desempenho animal, o desenvolvimento da bursa de Fabricius e lâminas histológicas do intestino delgado, além do número de c

  19. Evolutionary and functional properties of a two-locus β-globin polymorphism in Indian house mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Runck, Amy M; Weber, Roy E.; Fago, Angela

    2010-01-01

    exceeded neutral expectations, and reconstructed haplotype networks for both β-globin paralogs revealed extensive allele sharing with several other closely related species of Mus. However, despite this suggestive evidence for balancing selection, O2-equilibrium curves revealed no discernible functional......Electrophoretic surveys of hemoglobin (Hb) polymorphism in house mice from South Asia and the Middle East have revealed that two alternative β-globin haplotypes, Hbbd and Hbbp, are often present at intermediate frequencies in geographically disparate populations. Both haplotypes harbor two......) are distinguished by two amino acid substitutions. To investigate the possible adaptive significance of the Hbbd/Hbbp polymorphism we conducted a population genetic analysis of the duplicated β-globin genes of Indian house mice (Mus castaneus) in conjunction with experimental studies of Hb function in inbred...

  20. Fraksi Etanol 96% Biji Koro Benguk (Mucuna Pruriens L.) Sebagai Peningkat Kualitas Spermatozoa Mencit (Mus Musculus)

    OpenAIRE

    Winarni, Sri; Judiwati, Rina; Prajogo, Bambang; Hayati, Alfiah

    2011-01-01

    Background: The examination of sperm quality is the main priority for infertility diagnosis. Based on previous study with mice, active ingredient of Mucuna pruriens L. or koro benguk (Papilionaceae), the L-dopa, may affect the quality of spermatozoa.Objective: Research was to study the effect of 96% ethanol fraction Mucuna pruriens seed on spermatozoaquality of mice exposed to 2-Methoxy ethanol. L-dopa in 96% ethanol fraction of M. pruriens seed was 14.7%.Methode: This was an experimental stu...

  1. Arterial vascular supply of the thymus in poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus of the Master Gris Cou Plumé lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Maurício Mendes de Lima

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Seeking to expand information on the comparative morphology of poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus of the Máster Gris Cou Plumé lineage, a study was conducted to provide data on the number of lobes of the thymus in addition to origin, number and distribution of the arteries that promoted the sanguineous supply of this organ. To this end 30 poultry (15 males and 15 females were used. They were about six week old and were donated after natural death by poultry farms of the Federal District. The arterial supply was injected with a “450” Neoprene Latex stained solution. Subsequently, the poultry were fixed in a 10% formoldehyde aqueous solution by means of deep intramuscular, subcutaneous and intracaviteous applications and were kept in the same solution. Four to nine cervical lobes were found, in addition to one or two thoracic lobes on the left side. On the right side, three to seven cervical lobes and one or two thoracic lobes were found. The lobes were supplied indirectly by branches coming from the common carotidal artery, the cranial and caudal thyroidal arteries, the ascending esophageal artery, the ingluvial artery, the common vagus nerve artery, the occipital artery and the cutaneous branches. They were also supplied by direct by branches from the ingluvial artery, cranial thyroidal artery and common vagus nerve artery. It was possible to verify that poultry of this breed not only possessed characteristics that were defining for the breed as such, but also demonstrated particular arrangements for each of the individuals.

  2. Sperm subpopulations in avian species: a comparative study between the rooster (Gallus domesticus and Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel García-Herreros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aims of this research were to study possible differences in objective morphometric sperm characteristics, establish normative sperm morphometry standards, and evaluate the presumed different subpopulation distribution of avian spermatozoa from the rooster (Gallus domesticus and Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris as model avian species. Seventy-two ejaculates (36 per species studied were obtained manually, following a training period involving gently combined dorso-abdominal and lumbo-sacral massage of the birds. Ejaculates were processed for volume, sperm concentration, viability, motility, and morphology. Moreover, samples were submitted for sperm morphometric assessment using objective Computer-Assisted Semen Analysis for Morphometry (CASA-Morph methods, with sperm morphometric descriptors evaluated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA and multivariate clustering analyses. There were several differences observed between the avian species in values obtained for ejaculate volume and sperm concentration (P < 0.001. Irrespective of species, PCA revealed two Principal Components (PCs explaining more than 80% of the variance. In addition, the number of subpopulations differed with species (three and five subpopulations for rooster and Guinea fowl, respectively. Moreover, the distribution of the sperm subpopulations was found to be structurally different between species. In conclusion, our findings from using CASA-Morph methods indicate pronounced sperm morphometric variation between these two avian species. Because of the strong differences observed in morphometric parameter values and their subpopulation distribution, these results suggest that application of objective analytical methods such as CASA-Morph could substantially improve the reliability of comparative studies and help establish valid normative sperm morphological values for avian species.

  3. Comparison of intraosseous pentobarbital administration and thoracic compression for euthanasia of anesthetized sparrows (Passer domesticus) and starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul-Murphy, Joanne R; Engilis, Andrew; Pascoe, Peter J; Williams, D Colette; Gustavsen, Kate A; Drazenovich, Tracy L; Keel, M Kevin; Polley, Tamsen M; Engilis, Irene E

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare intraosseous pentobarbital treatment (IPT) and thoracic compression (TC) on time to circulatory arrest and an isoelectric electroencephalogram (EEG) in anesthetized passerine birds. ANIMALS 30 wild-caught adult birds (17 house sparrows [Passer domesticus] and 13 European starlings [Sturnus vulgaris]). PROCEDURES Birds were assigned to receive IPT or TC (n = 6/species/group). Birds were anesthetized, and carotid arterial pulses were monitored by Doppler methodology. Five subdermal braided-wire electrodes were used for EEG. Anesthetic depth was adjusted until a continuous EEG pattern was maintained, then euthanasia was performed. Times from initiation of euthanasia to cessation of carotid pulse and irreversible isoelectric EEG (indicators of death) were measured. Data (medians and first to third quartiles) were summarized and compared between groups within species. Necropsies were performed for all birds included in experiments and for another 6 birds euthanized under anesthesia by TC (4 sparrows and 1 starling) or IPT (1 sparrow). RESULTS Median time to isoelectric EEG did not differ significantly between treatment groups for sparrows (19.0 and 6.0 seconds for TC and IPT, respectively) or starlings (88.5 and 77.5 seconds for TC and IPT, respectively). Median times to cessation of pulse were significantly shorter for TC than for IPT in sparrows (0.0 vs 18.5 seconds) and starlings (9.5 vs 151.0 seconds). On necropsy, most (14/17) birds that underwent TC had grossly visible coelomic, pericardial, or perihepatic hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that TC might be an efficient euthanasia method for small birds. Digital pressure directly over the heart during TC obstructed venous return, causing rapid circulatory arrest, with rupture of the atria or vena cava in several birds. The authors propose that cardiac compression is a more accurate description than TC for this procedure.

  4. Morphometry study on pre and post-hatching nerve cell bodies of lumbar spinal ganglia of Gallus domesticus

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    Claudio A. Ferraz de Carvalho

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available A cytomorphometric study was performed in lumbar spinal ganglia neurons of Gallus domesticus on the 10th and 18th incubation days and 8th, 35th, 61st, and 120th post-hatching days. The absolute volume of nucleus and relative volume of cytoplasm were respectively estimated by the Bach² caryometric method and by point-counting volumetry, carried out in 0.5mm thick araldite sections. The relative volume, the surface-to-volume ratio and the total surface of RER, SER, mitochondria, dense bodies, Golgi complex and the relative volume of hyaloplasm inside and outside the Nissl bodies were estimated from electronmicrographs by the Weibel et al.58 method. The conclusions were: a there was an increase of the cell volume and a decrease of the nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio, particularly between the first two ages; b the relative volumes of RER and SER change inversely with respect to each other: the RER increases before hatching, decreasing progressively afterwards; the changes of relative volume of dense bodies are similar to those of the RER, and the mitochondria show relatively small variations concerning the same parameter; c the relative volume of hyaloplasm inside the Nissl bodies decreases while those outside increases; d the surface-to-volume ratio drops sharply for all organelles from the 10th to the 18th day of incubation; after hatching, a tendency to increase is observed; e the membrane surface-to-cytoplasmic volume ratio decreases for all organelles from the 10th to the 18th day of incubation; after hatching, this ratio increases slightly for mitochondria and Golgi complex, sharply for SER, dropping for dense bodies. The RER values alternate regularly.

  5. Chronic stress alters concentrations of corticosterone receptors in a tissue-specific manner in wild house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattin, Christine R; Romero, L Michael

    2014-07-15

    The physiological stress response results in release of glucocorticoid hormones such as corticosterone (CORT). Whereas short-term activation of this response helps animals cope with environmental stressors, chronic activation can result in negative effects including metabolic dysregulation and reproductive failure. However, there is no consensus hormonal profile of a chronically stressed animal, suggesting that researchers may need to look beyond hormone titers to interpret the impacts of chronic stress. In this study, we brought wild house sparrows (Passer domesticus) into captivity. We then compared glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor concentrations in sparrows exposed either to a standardized chronic stress protocol (n=26) or to standard husbandry conditions (controls; n=20). We used radioligand binding assays to quantify receptors in whole brain, liver, kidneys, spleen, gonads, gastrocnemius and pectoralis muscle, omental and subcutaneous fat, and bib and back skin. In most tissues, CORT receptors did not differ between controls and stressed animals, although we found marginal increases in receptor density in kidney and testes in stressed birds at some time points. Only in pectoralis muscle was there a robust effect of chronic stress, with both receptor types higher in stressed animals. Increased pectoralis sensitivity to CORT with chronic stress may be part of the underlying mechanism for muscle wasting in animals administered exogenous CORT. Furthermore, the change in pectoralis was not paralleled by gastrocnemius receptors. This difference may help explain previous reports of a greater effect of CORT on pectoralis than on other muscle types, and indicate that birds use this muscle as a protein reserve. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. La stratégie numérique du musée de la Civilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Baz, Ana-Laura

    2016-01-01

    Après une description des orientations déployées dans la mise en œuvre de la stratégie numérique du musée de la Civilisation à Québec, l’auteur dresse un premier bilan de l’opération, de ses succès et de ses échecs, constatant que beaucoup reste à faire pour mesurer les retombées de cette stratégie sur la participation citoyenne et le comportement des internautes.

  7. Disruption of SLX4-MUS81 Function Increases the Relative Biological Effectiveness of Proton Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qi [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Underwood, Tracy S.A.; Kung, Jong [Division of Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Wang, Meng [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Lu, Hsiao-Ming; Paganetti, Harald [Division of Radiation Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Held, Kathryn D.; Hong, Theodore S.; Efstathiou, Jason A. [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Willers, Henning, E-mail: hwillers@mgh.harvard.edu [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: Clinical proton beam therapy has been based on the use of a generic relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of ∼1.1. However, emerging data have suggested that Fanconi anemia (FA) and homologous recombination pathway defects can lead to a variable RBE, at least in vitro. We investigated the role of SLX4 (FANCP), which acts as a docking platform for the assembly of multiple structure-specific endonucleases, in the response to proton irradiation. Methods and Materials: Isogenic cell pairs for the study of SLX4, XPF/ERCC1, MUS81, and SLX1 were irradiated at the mid-spread-out Bragg peak of a clinical proton beam (linear energy transfer 2.5 keV/μm) or with 250 kVp x-rays, and the clonogenic survival fractions were determined. To estimate the RBE of the protons relative to cobalt-60 photons (Co60Eq), we assigned a RBE(Co60Eq) of 1.1 to x-rays to correct the physical dose measured. Standard DNA repair foci assays were used to monitor the damage responses, and the cell cycle distributions were assessed by flow cytometry. The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor olaparib was used for comparison. Results: Loss of SLX4 function resulted in an enhanced proton RBE(Co60Eq) of 1.42 compared with 1.11 for wild-type cells (at a survival fraction of 0.1; P<.05), which correlated with increased persistent DNA double-strand breaks in cells in the S/G{sub 2} phase. Genetic analysis identified the SLX4-binding partner MUS81 as a mediator of resistance to proton radiation. Both proton irradiation and olaparib treatment resulted in a similar prolonged accumulation of RAD51 foci in SLX4/MUS81-deficient cells, suggesting a common defect in the repair of DNA replication fork-associated damage. Conclusions: A defect in the FA pathway at the level of SLX4 results in hypersensitivity to proton radiation, which is, at least in part, due to impaired MUS81-mediated processing of replication forks that stall at clustered DNA damage. In vivo and clinical studies are needed to

  8. X-ray structure of a soluble Rieske-type ferredoxin from Mus musculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, Elena J.; Elsen, Nathaniel L.; Seder, Kory D.; McCoy, Jason G.; Fox, Brian G.; Phillips Jr, George N.

    2008-01-01

    The X-ray crystal structure of a soluble Rieske ferredoxin from M. musculus was solved at 2.07 Å resolution, revealing an iron–sulfur cluster-binding domain with similar architecture to the Rieske-type domains of bacterial aromatic dioxygenases. The ferredoxin was also shown to be capable of accepting electrons from both eukaryotic and prokaryotic oxidoreductases. The 2.07 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of a soluble Rieske-type ferredoxin from Mus musculus encoded by the gene Mm.266515 is reported. Although they are present as covalent domains in eukaryotic membrane oxidase complexes, soluble Rieske-type ferredoxins have not previously been observed in eukaryotes. The overall structure of the mouse Rieske-type ferredoxin is typical of this class of iron–sulfur proteins and consists of a larger partial β-barrel domain and a smaller domain containing Cys57, His59, Cys80 and His83 that binds the [2Fe–2S] cluster. The S atoms of the cluster are hydrogen-bonded by six backbone amide N atoms in a pattern typical of membrane-bound high-potential eukaryotic respiratory Rieske ferredoxins. However, phylogenetic analysis suggested that the mouse Rieske-type ferredoxin was more closely related to bacterial Rieske-type ferredoxins. Correspondingly, the structure revealed an extended loop most similar to that seen in Rieske-type ferredoxin subunits of bacterial aromatic dioxygenases, including the positioning of an aromatic side chain (Tyr85) between this loop and the [2Fe–2S] cluster. The mouse Rieske-type ferredoxin was shown to be capable of accepting electrons from both eukaryotic and prokaryotic oxidoreductases, although it was unable to serve as an electron donor for a bacterial monooxygenase complex. The human homolog of mouse Rieske-type ferredoxin was also cloned and purified. It behaved identically to mouse Rieske-type ferredoxin in all biochemical characterizations but did not crystallize. Based on its high sequence identity, the structure of the

  9. Efek ekstrak testis terhadap jumlah implantasi dan jumlah anak pada mencit (Mus musculus

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    Sri Puji Astuti Wahyuningsih

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Extract of testis contains the testis specific proteins. The testis proteins may raise immune responses. The immune responses arethe antibodies against testis specific anti-protein. The reaction between the antibodies and the sperms can inhibit fertilization. Thisprocess has contraception effects. This research used 24 female and 20 male mice strain Balb/c. The experiment used the completerandom design with 4 concentration treatments (0, 500, 1000, and 2000 μg extracts of testis and 3 replications. Mice were injected 3times with time interval 21 days. After 15 days from the rising of vaginal plug, 3 mice were dissected and counted the implantation. Theothers mice were waited until delivered of the children. The datas were analyzed by ANOVA and LSD (α = 5%. The results showed thatextract of testis did not influence the amount of implantation at the uterus endometrial, but it decreased the amount of children. Theeffective concentration of extract testis is 2000 μg. So, this study showed that the intraperitoneum injection of the extract of testis hadcontraception effects.

  10. Evaluation of Acute toxicity of Lambda Cyhalothrin in Mus musculus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Monika; Kumar, Ajay; Kataria, Sudhir Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Lambda Cyhalothrin (LCT) is a type II synthetic pyrethroid widely used in agriculture, home pest control and protection of food stuff. Here, we evaluated its toxicity on biochemical parameters (Total protein, Acetyl cholinesterase, RNA and DNA) and liver histological alteration in mice after 24 h of oral administration @ 25, 50 and 75% of LD50 i.e.; 26.49 mg/kg/body wt. Distilled water (DW) and Cyclophosphamide (CP @ 40 mg/kg/body wt.) were used as negative and positive control; respectively. LCT treated mice showed significant decrease in total protein (P < 0.01), acetyl cholinesterase (P < 0.001) and DNA (P < 0.001) in a dose dependent manner. On the contrary, RNA content showed significant increase (P < 0.01) at 50% of LD50 of LCT. Histological observations of the mice liver showed vascular congestion and hepatocyte degeneration with 6.63 mg/kg/body wt. of LCT; and accumulation of RBCs with sinusoid degeneration and wide necrotic area with pyknosis with 13.25 and 19.88 mg/kg/body wt., respectively. The results demonstrated LCT induced biochemical changes and hepatotoxicity in female mice.

  11. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN AIR REBUSAN DAUN UBI JALAR (Ipomea batatas TERHADAP PENINGKATAN JUMLAH TROMBOSIT MENCIT (Mus musculus

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    Rahma Widyastuti

    2016-11-01

    abstract The leaves of sweet potato contains a very high nutritional value, so it can be used as a vegetable and as a herbal remedy. Sweet potato leaves are often found in various regions in Indonesia. This vegetable contains polyphenols that act as antioxidants that fight disease into the body. . In the leaves of sweet potato 100g contains 117 mg of calcium, 1.8 mg iron, 3.5 mg carotene, 7.2 mg vitamin C, 1.6 mg vitamin E and 0.5 mg of vitamin K, B vitamins, beta-carotene, as well as protein. Formulation of the problem of this study was to determine whether there are effects of sweet potato leaves boiled water to increase platelet counts in mice. The purpose of this study was to determine the number of platelets which water is boiled sweet potato leaves and boiled water without being sweet potato leaves in mice. This research was conducted at the Laboratory of Experimental Medicine Faculty Wijaya Kusuma Surabaya and the sample examined in the Hematology Laboratory at the Center for Health Laboratory Surabaya. The number of samples from this study there were 32 mice, 16 mice as a control group and 16 mice as the treatment group. From the results of the levels of the number of platelets in the blood samples of mice known to the average levels of platelet counts after being given water boiled sweet potato leaves as much as 210.5 / mm3 of blood and platelet count levels of mice that were not given water boiled sweet potato leaves as much as 129.7 / mm3 of blood. Statistical analyzes to test differences in the levels of T showed a platelet count between which water is boiled sweet potato leaves and boiled water without being sweet potato leaves, with a value significantly less than 0.05 (5%.   Key word : leaves of sweet potato, the levels of the number of platelets in the blood samples

  12. Um caso de leucismo em pardal, Passer domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758 em uma ilha do rio São Francisco, nordeste do Brasil

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    Leonardo Barros Ribeiro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n1p187 O leucismo em aves é uma anomalia genética caracterizada pela ausência total de melanina em algumas ou em todas as penas, porém, ao contrário do albinismo, as outras partes do corpo, tais como olhos, bico e tarsos permanecem com a coloração típica da espécie. O pardal Passer domesticus é uma ave nativa da Europa, Ásia e norte da África e foi introduzido na América do Norte, América do Sul, África do Sul, Austrália e Nova Zelândia. Atualmente, é a espécie de ave com a maior distribuição geográfica. Relatamos, aqui, o registro de um indivíduo leucístico de Passer domesticus na ilha do Rodeadouro, rio São Francisco, nordeste do Brasil.

  13. Isolation and characterization of a pseudoautosomal region-specific genetic marker in C57BL/6 mice using genomic representational difference analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalcheva, I D; Matsuda, Y; Plass, C; Chapman, V M

    1995-12-19

    Representational difference analysis was used to identify strain-specific differences in the pseudoautosomal region (PAR) of mouse X and Y chromosomes. One second generation (C57BL/6 x Mus spretus) x Mus spretus interspecific backcross male carrying the C57BL/6 (B6) PAR was used for tester DNA. DNA from five backcross males from the same generation that were M. spretus-type for the PAR was pooled for the driver. A cloned probe designated B6-38 was recovered that is B6-specific in Southern analysis. Analysis of genomic DNA from several inbred strains of laboratory mice and diverse Mus species and subspecies identified a characteristic Pst I pattern of fragment sizes that is present only in the C57BL family of strains. Hybridization was observed with sequences in DBA/2J and to a limited extent with Mus musculus (PWK strain) and Mus castaneus DNA. No hybridization was observed in DNA of different Mus species, M. spretus, M. hortulanus, and M. caroli. Genetic analyses of B6-38 was conducted using C57BL congenic males that carry M. spretus alleles for distal X chromosome loci and the PAR and outcrosses of heterozygous congenic females with M. spretus. These analyses demonstrated that the B6-38 sequences were inherited with both the X and Y chromosome. B6-38 sequences were genetically mapped as a locus within the PAR using two interspecific backcrosses. The locus defined by B6-38 is designated DXYRp1. Preliminary analyses of recombination between the distal X chromosome gene amelogenin (Amg) and the PAR loci for either TelXY or sex chromosome association (Sxa) suggest that the locus DXYRp1 maps to the distal portion of the PAR.

  14. Effect of Maytenus macrocarpa“Chuchuhuasi” in the male system reproductive of mouse (Mus musculus

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    Láyonal G. Acosta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Maytenus macrocarpa(chuchuhuasi is native tree of the Peruvian Amazon used as traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases, but its effect on the male reproductive system has not yet been elucidated. The aim of this study is evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of M. macrocarpa in daily doses for 7 days on reproductive parameters of male mice. We used C57BL mature male mice divided into 2 groups (n= 10, Control Group (C: 0.9% NaCl and Treatment group (T: Aqueous extract of Chuchuhuasi, both supplied daily via oral gavages. At the eight day of treatment the mice were euthanized. The weight of the body and reproductive organs: testis, epididymis and vas deferens, were registered. Concentration, motility and sperm morphology were evaluated. The results showed significantly differences (t- Student test P<0.05 in the weight of the head and body epididymis (C: 19.25±1.1 vs T: 21.26±2.0, vas deferens (C: 10.61±0.7 vs T: 11.75±0.5, progressive sperm motility (C: 42.16±5.2 vs T: 25.82±8.4 and immobile sperm (C: 36.05±4.9 vs T: 48.51±7.2. No difference in sperm count was observed. The sperm normal morphology diminished with ingest of M. macrocarpa(tStudent test p <0.05 (C: 39.72±1.3 vs T: 30.78±4.9. We conclude that the aqueous extract of chuchuhuasi, has a negative effect on the male reproductive system of mice.

  15. AKTIVITAS ANALGETIK EKSTRAK ETANOL DAUN MELINJO (Gnetum gnemon L. PADA MENCIT PUTIH (Mus musculus L. JANTAN

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    Safwan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Leaf melinjo (Gnetum gnemon L. contain flavonoids that has the potential to reduce pain by blocking the action of the enzyme cyclooxygenase. This research was aims to determine the effect of ethanol extract of leaf melinjo of the analgesic effect in mice. Twenty-five mice were divided into 5 groups: negative control (CMC Na 0,5%, positive control group (mefenamic acid 1.3 mg / kg and groups melinjo leaf extract (dose of 6.48 mg / kg, 25.92 mg / kg and 51.84 mg / BB on white male mice. Analgesic test were examined by giving pain stimulation to treated animals, such a 55°C heat stimulation. The observation, then at 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after administered.The results showed melinjo leaf ethanol extract with a dose of 51.84 mg / kg have analgesic effects is no different significantly with mefenamic acid dose of 1.3 mg / kg body weight (P> 0.05.

  16. Dynamics of a Tularemia Outbreak in a Closely Monitored Free-Roaming Population of Wild House Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobay, Akos; Pilo, Paola; Lindholm, Anna K; Origgi, Francesco; Bagheri, Homayoun C; König, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Infectious disease outbreaks can be devastating because of their sudden occurrence, as well as the complexity of monitoring and controlling them. Outbreaks in wildlife are even more challenging to observe and describe, especially when small animals or secretive species are involved. Modeling such infectious disease events is relevant to investigating their dynamics and is critical for decision makers to accomplish outbreak management. Tularemia, caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis, is a potentially lethal zoonosis. Of the few animal outbreaks that have been reported in the literature, only those affecting zoo animals have been closely monitored. Here, we report the first estimation of the basic reproduction number R0 of an outbreak in wildlife caused by F. tularensis using quantitative modeling based on a susceptible-infected-recovered framework. We applied that model to data collected during an extensive investigation of an outbreak of tularemia caused by F. tularensis subsp. holarctica (also designated as type B) in a closely monitored, free-roaming house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) population in Switzerland. Based on our model and assumptions, the best estimated basic reproduction number R0 of the current outbreak is 1.33. Our results suggest that tularemia can cause severe outbreaks in small rodents. We also concluded that the outbreak self-exhausted in approximately three months without administrating antibiotics.

  17. Dynamics of a Tularemia Outbreak in a Closely Monitored Free-Roaming Population of Wild House Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akos Dobay

    Full Text Available Infectious disease outbreaks can be devastating because of their sudden occurrence, as well as the complexity of monitoring and controlling them. Outbreaks in wildlife are even more challenging to observe and describe, especially when small animals or secretive species are involved. Modeling such infectious disease events is relevant to investigating their dynamics and is critical for decision makers to accomplish outbreak management. Tularemia, caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis, is a potentially lethal zoonosis. Of the few animal outbreaks that have been reported in the literature, only those affecting zoo animals have been closely monitored. Here, we report the first estimation of the basic reproduction number R0 of an outbreak in wildlife caused by F. tularensis using quantitative modeling based on a susceptible-infected-recovered framework. We applied that model to data collected during an extensive investigation of an outbreak of tularemia caused by F. tularensis subsp. holarctica (also designated as type B in a closely monitored, free-roaming house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus population in Switzerland. Based on our model and assumptions, the best estimated basic reproduction number R0 of the current outbreak is 1.33. Our results suggest that tularemia can cause severe outbreaks in small rodents. We also concluded that the outbreak self-exhausted in approximately three months without administrating antibiotics.

  18. Efecto del extracto de paico (chenopodium ambrosioides, en parásitos gastrointestinales de gallos de pelea (gallus domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Rodríguez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available El uso empírico de las plantas como agentes de salud es ampliamente conocido en múltiplesculturas del mundo, conocimientos que son transmitidos de generación en generación. En la actualidad, las plantas medicinales y sus extractos, son utilizados con fines terapéuticos, instaurándose como una alternativa farmacológica, para diferentes patologías tanto en humanos como en animales. En la etnomedicina de algunas regiones de Latinoamérica, el paico (Chenopodium ambrosioides ha sido empleado en infusión de hojas y flores comocarminativo y digestivo, pero principalmente como antihelmíntico. Por lo tanto, el presenteestudio se realizó con el fin de evaluar el efecto antiparasitario del extracto de esta planta engallos de pelea (Gallus domesticus en un criadero de la ciudad de Tunja-Boyacá, ya que los propietarios de estas aves lo utilizan de manera artesanal como desparasitante natural. Para el trabajo se utilizaron 45 ejemplares, organizados en 3 grupos a los cuales, cada 15días y durante un mes, se les administró, por vía oral, 0,1 ml/ Kg de extracto de paico (grupoT2, 0.5ml/Kg de un medicamento comercial a base de Levamisol-Ivermectina (grupo T3 y0.5ml/ave de agua (grupo T1 control. Se recolectaron muestras de materia fecal con el objeto de determinar la presencia de huevos y/o larvas de parásitos, utilizando la técnica de Formol-Eter. Durante el estudio fueron identificados diferentes especies de ascaridia spp, heterakis gallinarum, eimeria sp, huevos y larvas de trichostrongylus. Posterior a la administracióndel tratamiento con extracto de paico se encontraron huevos de ascaridia galli, heterakis gallinarum, eimeria sp , y al suministrar la última dosis sólo se identificaron huevos de ascaridia galli e eimeria sp , lo que corrobora su efecto antiparasitario.

  19. Effect of House Cricket (Acheta domesticus) Flour Addition on Physicochemical and Textural Properties of Meat Emulsion Under Various Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Setyabrata, Derico; Lee, YongJae; Jones, Owen G; Kim, Yuan H Brad

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of house cricket (Acheta domesticus) flour addition on physicochemical and textural properties of meat emulsion under various formulations. As an initial marker of functionality, protein solubility, water absorption, emulsifying capacity, and gel formation ability of house cricket flour were determined at pH (2 to 10) and NaCl concentrations (0 to 2.10 M). Control emulsion was formulated with 60% lean pork, 20% back fat, and 20% ice. Six treatment emulsions were prepared with replacement of lean pork and/or back fat portions with spray-dried house cricket flour at 5% and 10% levels, based on a total sample weight. The protein solubility of house cricket flour (67 g protein/100 g) was significantly altered depending upon pH (P house cricket flour were found between 0 and 2.10 M NaCl concentration (P > 0.05). The replacement of lean meat/fat portion with house cricket flour within 10% level could fortify protein and some micronutrients (phosphorus, potassium, and magnesium) in meat emulsion, without negative impacts on cooking yield and textural properties. Our results suggest that house cricket flour can be used as an effective nonmeat functional ingredient to manufacture emulsified meat products. To better utilize house cricket flour as a food ingredient in wide application, understanding its technological properties in various pH, and ionic strength conditions is a pivotal step. Protein solubility of house cricket flour would be considerably affected by the varying pH and NaCl concentrations of applied conventional foods. In the case of meat emulsion, within 10% lean meat and/or fat portions could be successfully substituted with house cricket flour without detectable adverse impacts on technological properties associated with cooking yield and instrumental analysis of texture. Thus, our findings suggest that house cricket flour possess the necessary physical properties to be used as an alternative nonmeat

  20. Suspended animation-like state protects mice from lethal hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Eric; Roth, Mark B

    2007-04-01

    Joseph Priestley observed the high burn rate of candles in pure oxygen and wondered if people would "live out too fast" if we were in the same environment. We hypothesize that sulfide, a natural reducer of oxygen that is made in many cell types, acts as a buffer to prevent unrestricted oxygen consumption. To test this, we administered sulfide in the form of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to mice (Mus musculus). As we have previously shown, H2S decreases the metabolic rate of mice by approximately 90% and induces a suspended animation-like state. Mice cannot survive for longer than 20 min when exposed to 5% oxygen. However, if mice are first put into a suspended animation-like state by a 20-min pretreatment with H2S and then are exposed to low oxygen, they can survive for more than 6.5 h in 5% oxygen with no apparent detrimental effects. In addition, if mice are exposed to a 20-min pretreatment with H2S followed by 1 h at 5% oxygen, they can then survive for several hours at oxygen tensions as low as 3%. We hypothesize that prior exposure to H2S reduces oxygen demand, therefore making it possible for the mice to survive with low oxygen supply. These results suggest that H2S may be useful to prevent damage associated with hypoxia.

  1. The screening of parasites and viral pathogens of small mammals from a farm in southern Finland, and genetic identification of the Finnish house mouse, Mus musculus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laakkonen, J.; Kallio-Kokko, M.; Vapalahti, O.; Vaheri, A.; Vyskočilová, M.; Munclinger, P.; Macholán, Miloš; Henttonen, H.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 44, - (2007), s. 202-208 ISSN 0003-455X EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 10284 - EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : Mus musculus Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.537, year: 2007

  2. Fitness effects of a selfish gene (the Mus t complex) are revealed in an ecological context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Lara S; Meagher, Shawn; Morrison, Linda; Penn, Dustin J; Potts, Wayne K

    2004-06-01

    In wild house mice, genes linked to the t transmission distortion complex cause meiotic drive by sabotaging wild-type gametes. The t complex is consequently inherited at frequencies higher than 90%. Yet, for unclear reasons, in wild mouse populations this selfish DNA is found at frequencies much lower than expected. Here, we examine selection on the t complex in 10 seminatural populations of wild mice based on data from 234 founders and nearly 2000 progeny. Eight of the 10 populations decreased in t frequency over one generation, and the overall frequency of t haplotypes across all 10 populations was 48.5% below expectations based on transmission distortion and 34.3% below Mendelian (or Hardy-Weinberg) expectations. Behavioral and reproductive data were collected for 10 months for each population, and microsatellite genotyping was performed on seven of the populations to determine parentage. These combined data show t-associated fitness declines in both males and females. This is the first study to show evidence for a reduction in the ability of +/t males to maintain territories. Because females tend to mate with dominant males, impairment of territorial success can explain much of the selection against t observed in our populations. In nature, selection against heterozygote carriers of the t complex helps solve the puzzlingly low t frequencies found in wild populations. This ecological approach for determining fitness consequences of genetic variants has broad application for the discovery of gene function in general.

  3. Rendez-vous avec les oeuvres du Musée: le speed dating au MAH : quinze minutes pour convaincre

    OpenAIRE

    Matthey, David

    2015-01-01

    Tiré du site internet du blog des Musées d'art et d'histoire (http://blog.mahgeneve.ch): "Lors des soirées Afterwork tenues au MAH durant les mois d'octobre et de novembre, les séances de speed dating – un commentaire d'une quinzaine de minutes consacré à une oeuvre ou à un ensemble d'oeuvres – ont remporté un franc succès. Cet engouement nous conforte dans l'idée d'en faire le fil rouge de nos futures manifestations de fin de journée ! Mais pourquoi cette formule?".

  4. Características do desenvolvimento embrionário de Gallus gallus domesticus, em temperaturas e períodos diferentes de incubação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fernando Dias

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando avaliar o desenvolvimento embrionário de Gallus gallus domesticus, foram incubados ovos nas temperaturas de 34,0ºC, 37,5ºC e 40,0ºC, nos períodos de 48, 72 e 96 horas. Avaliaram-se em 81 embriões o comprimento cefalocaudal, o peso total e 6 características morfológicas, utilizando-se um protocolo referindo o desenvolvimento como padrão, acelerado ou defasado. Os dados relativos ao nível de diferenciação das estruturas embrionárias demonstram que os fatores temperatura e tempo de incubação interagem nos processos de morfogênese.

  5. MORFOLOGI FETUS MENCIT (MUS MUSCULUS L. SETELAH PEMBERIAN EKSTRAK DAUN SAMBILOTO (ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA NEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRIANI SETYAWATI

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was performed to examine the effects of Andrographis paniculata Nees leaves extract on foetus morphology if given during organogenesis period. Thirty pregnant mice were randomly divided into 5 groups for teratogenic effects. Extract was given orally by gavage with 0 (as control; 0,004 (equal to one time dose to human; 7,5; 15; and 22,5 g/g body weight/ day. Treatment was given from day 6 to day 13 of gestation (organogenesis period. Foetus were removed on day 18 of gestation by caesarean section. Quantitative data were analyzed with Anova and Duncan's Multiple Range Test. The results showed that teratogenic effects increased in dose-related manner by causing foetus death and resorption, hemorrhage and clubfoot.

  6. STUDI HISTOPATOLOGI HATI MENCIT (Mus musculus L. YANG DIINDUKSI PEMANIS BUATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Utomo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Penggunaan pemanis buatan yang semula hanya ditujukan pada produk-produk khusus bagi penderita diabetes, saat ini penggunaannya semakin meluas pada berbagai produk pangan. Oleh karena itu perlu adanya penelitian tentang pengaruh pemberian pemanis buatan terhadap kerusakan organ tubuh khususnya organ hati. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui gambaran histopatologi hati pada mencit yang diinduksi pemanis buatan. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimental laboratoris dengan rancangan post test randomized control group design. Sebanyak 20 ekor mencit  jantan  galur Balb/c dibagi secara acak menjadi empat kelompok, masing-masing kelompok terdiri dari lima ekor. Kelompok 1 sebagai kelompok kontrol diberi akuades sebagai placebo. Kelompok 2,3, dan 4 berturut-turut diberi  pemanis buatan dengan dosis 5 mg/KgBB, 10 mg/KgBB, dan 15 mg/KgBB. Pemanis buatan diberikan secara oral selama 30 hari. Pada hari ke-31 semua mencit dimatikan untuk diambil organ hatinya. Organ hati selanjutnya dibuat preparat mikroanatomi dan diwarnai dengan HE. Perubahan struktur jaringan hati diamati dan dilakukan penskoran dari 0 sampai 4 berdasarkan derajat perubahannya. Data skor perubahan dianalisis secara deskriptif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kelompok 1 dan 2 derajat kerusakannya hampir sama yaitu skor 1-2, sedangkan kelompok 4 derajat kerusakannya mencapai skor 2-3. Disimpulkan bahwa semakin tinggi dosis pemanis buatan yang diberikan semakin tinggi derajat kerusakan organ hatinya. The use of artificial sweetener was originally aimed at the specific products for diabetics, but today the use of artificial sweetener is widespread in various food to products. Therefore, it is needed a research on the effects of artificial sweeteners to organs damage especially the liver. The purpose of this study was to determine the histopathological picture of the liver of mice induced by artificial sweeteners. This study was a laboratory experimental

  7. Struktur mikroskopis kartilago epifisialis tibia fetus mencit (Mus musculus L. dari induk dengan perlakuan kafein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heri Budi Santoso

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine affects activity of enzyme of polimerase DNA, induce the mitosis of cells mammal of before replication DNA ended the perfection, and also pursue the activity of enzyme fosfodiesterase is hence anticipated by a potential caffeine generate the developmental defect, for example can pursue the process of ossification endochondralis in growth plate. This present research studied the effect of caffeine gift by oral on pregnant dam during organogenesis to structure of histologi growth plate tibia foetus. Twenty four pregnant mice (6 per group were treated by gavage with 0 (control, 40, 80, 120 mg/kg b.w caffeine from gestation day 6 to 15. On day 18 of pregnancy, fetuses was removed from dams by caecarean section.. Observation of histological structure of the tibial growth plate preparation by paraffin method (Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. The result showed that caffeine cause slightened proliferative zone, maturation zone, and cartilage calcification zone on the mouse tibial growth plate.

  8. Studies on the effects of radiation on enzyme activity and chromosome in mammals (Mus musuculus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.B.; Lee, K.S.; Kim, Y.J.

    1982-01-01

    From the results of many researches in radiation biology, it is well known that the radiation induces gene mutation, aberration of chromosome which is a carrier of genes and the increase or decrease of enzyme activities in living organisms. However, the frequency of chromosomal aberration or the degree of enzyme activities according to the animal's age when they are irradiated with radiation and time pass after irradiation are known a little if any. From these viewpoints, the research on the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells and the degree of activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in liver, kidney and brain, and isocitrate dehydrogense in kidney and brain of mouse has been carried out according to the mice age when they are irradiated with 200 rad of whole body irradiation. The chromosomes and enzyme activities were observed at 24 hours, 48 hours and 4 days to 90 days after irradiation. (Author)

  9. Toxoplasmosis in sentinel chickens (Gallus domesticus) in New England farms: seroconversion, distribution of tissue cysts in brain, heart, and skeletal muscle by bioassay in mice and cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free-range chickens are a good indicator of soil contamination with oocysts because they feed from the ground and they are also an important source of infection for cats that in turn shed oocysts after eating tissues of intermediate hosts. Little is known of the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in chic...

  10. Genetics of alkaline phosphatase of the small intestine of the house mouser (Mus musculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, F H

    1983-08-01

    Four inbred strains of mice exhibited either slow (PL/J), intermediate (DBA/2J, LP/J), or fast (SWR/J) rates of migration of duodenal alkaline phosphatase on cellulose acetate electrophoresis. Hybrids of these strains also had intermediate rates of migration regardless of the combination of strains used as parents. Strain differences were present in all regions of the small but not the large intestine. Crosses of the PL/J strain to hybrids between this strain and the other three strains gave a 1:1 segregation of the slow and intermediate patterns. The symbol Akp-3 is proposed for the locus responsible for the slower migration of the enzyme in this strain. Data from the LP/J X PL/J hybrid crossed with the PL/J strain showed linkage with two loci on chromosome 1 as follows: centromere--Idh-1--13.8 cM--Akp-3--8.9 +/- 2.6 cM--Pep-3. The available data do not reveal the genetic basis for the faster migration rate of the enzyme from the SWR/J strain, but a different response to neuraminidase and apparent nonlinkage to the Pep-3 locus suggest that a locus other than Akp-3 is responsible.

  11. Effects of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) extract consumption on leukocytes increase in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Amaro Terrazos, Jony; Moisés Saldaña, Ítalo

    2015-01-01

    We read with interest the article published by Amaro, which shows that there is an increase of leukocytes to manage beets in albino mice of the species Mus musculus Balb / c (1) strain. We want to share the results of a study that bean (Vicia faba L.), a plant that has the role in the diet of rural and urban dwellers for its contribution in proteins characteristic of all legume was used, and for their contribution carbohydrate, minerals and vitamins. The importance of this kind is increasing ...

  12. Laboratory and wild-derived mice with multiple loci for production of xenotropic murine leukemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, C A; Hartley, J W; Morse, H C

    1984-07-01

    Mendelian segregation analysis was used to define genetic loci for the induction of infectious xenotropic murine leukemia virus in several laboratory and wild-derived mice. MA/My mice contain two loci for xenotropic virus inducibility, one of which, Bxv -1, is the only induction locus carried by five other inbred strains. The second, novel MA/My locus, designated Mxv -1, is unlinked to Bxv -1 and shows a lower efficiency of virus induction. The NZB mouse carries two induction loci; both are distinct from Bxv -1 since neither is linked to the Pep-3 locus on chromosome 1. Finally, one partially inbred strain derived from the wild Japanese mouse, Mus musculus molossinus, carries multiple (at least three) unlinked loci for induction of xenotropic virus. Although it is probable that inbred strains inherited xenotropic virus inducibility from Japanese mice, our data suggest that none of the induction loci carried by this particular M. m. molossinus strain are allelic with Bxv -1.

  13. Passive Immunization of Anti bZP3 (Zone Pellucida3 in Wistar Rat (Rattus novergicus and Mouse (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Pantiwati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at comparing the influence of anti bZP3’s passive immunization on anti-anti bZP3’s titer and pregnancy level on Wistar rats and mice. This study employed factorial design experiment with completely randomized design. The first factor was immunogenic type. The treated rats were immunized with 100 L anti bZP3 in 100 L Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA, while the treated mice were injected with 50 L anti bZP3 in 50 L CFA. Control Wistar rats and mice were immunized with CFA and Incomplete Freund’s Adjuvant (IFA without anti bZP3. The second factor was animal type. The third factor was the length of serum incubation, i.e. 38, 49, 63, 86, 100, and 126 d. Dot blot on the treated Wistar rats and mice showed positive response proven by blue gradation; pre-immune mice as well as control Wistar rats and mice showed negative response proven by white gradation. The highest antibody titer in treated mouse serum was shown in 63 d incubation. The pregnancy on treated mice, control mice and Wistar rat occurred 100% until day 126; while the failure percentage on the treated mice was 4.5%. The pregnancy on treated mice occurred in 86 d incubation (1 rat, 100 d incubation (1 rat, and 126 d incubation (3 rats. Effective passive immunization on similar hospes occurred until day 63; while different hospes was ineffective. Antibodi anti-bZP3 was potential as a contraception through passive immunization on similar hospes.

  14. Controlling meiotic recombinational repair - specifying the roles of ZMMs, Sgs1 and Mus81/Mms4 in crossover formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Oke

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Crossovers (COs play a critical role in ensuring proper alignment and segregation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis. How the cell balances recombination between CO vs. noncrossover (NCO outcomes is not completely understood. Further lacking is what constrains the extent of DNA repair such that multiple events do not arise from a single double-strand break (DSB. Here, by interpreting signatures that result from recombination genome-wide, we find that synaptonemal complex proteins promote crossing over in distinct ways. Our results suggest that Zip3 (RNF212 promotes biased cutting of the double Holliday-junction (dHJ intermediate whereas surprisingly Msh4 does not. Moreover, detailed examination of conversion tracts in sgs1 and mms4-md mutants reveal distinct aberrant recombination events involving multiple chromatid invasions. In sgs1 mutants, these multiple invasions are generally multichromatid involving 3-4 chromatids; in mms4-md mutants the multiple invasions preferentially resolve into one or two chromatids. Our analysis suggests that Mus81/Mms4 (Eme1, rather than just being a minor resolvase for COs is crucial for both COs and NCOs in preventing chromosome entanglements by removing 3'- flaps to promote second-end capture. Together our results force a reevaluation of how key recombination enzymes collaborate to specify the outcome of meiotic DNA repair.

  15. Tissue-Specific Contributions of Paternally Expressed Gene 3 in Lactation and Maternal Care of Mus musculus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley D Frey

    Full Text Available Paternally Expressed Gene 3 (Peg3 is an imprinted gene that controls milk letdown and maternal-caring behaviors. In this study, a conditional knockout allele has been developed in Mus musculus to further characterize these known functions of Peg3 in a tissue-specific manner. The mutant line was first crossed with a germline Cre. The progeny of this cross displayed growth retardation phenotypes. This is consistent with those seen in the previous mutant lines of Peg3, confirming the usefulness of the new mutant allele. The mutant line was subsequently crossed individually with MMTV- and Nkx2.1-Cre lines to test Peg3's roles in the mammary gland and hypothalamus, respectively. According to the results, the milk letdown process was impaired in the nursing females with the Peg3 mutation in the mammary gland, but not in the hypothalamus. This suggests that Peg3's roles in the milk letdown process are more critical in the mammary gland than in the hypothalamus. In contrast, one of the maternal-caring behaviors, nest-building, was interrupted in the females with the mutation in both MMTV- and Nkx2.1-driven lines. Overall, this is the first study to introduce a conditional knockout allele of Peg3 and to further dissect its contribution to mammalian reproduction in a tissue-specific manner.

  16. The genetic basis of parental care evolution in monogamous mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendesky, Andres; Kwon, Young-Mi; Lassance, Jean-Marc; Lewarch, Caitlin L; Yao, Shenqin; Peterson, Brant K; He, Meng Xiao; Dulac, Catherine; Hoekstra, Hopi E

    2017-04-27

    Parental care is essential for the survival of mammals, yet the mechanisms underlying its evolution remain largely unknown. Here we show that two sister species of mice, Peromyscus polionotus and Peromyscus maniculatus, have large and heritable differences in parental behaviour. Using quantitative genetics, we identify 12 genomic regions that affect parental care, 8 of which have sex-specific effects, suggesting that parental care can evolve independently in males and females. Furthermore, some regions affect parental care broadly, whereas others affect specific behaviours, such as nest building. Of the genes linked to differences in nest-building behaviour, vasopressin is differentially expressed in the hypothalamus of the two species, with increased levels associated with less nest building. Using pharmacology in Peromyscus and chemogenetics in Mus, we show that vasopressin inhibits nest building but not other parental behaviours. Together, our results indicate that variation in an ancient neuropeptide contributes to interspecific differences in parental care.

  17. AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN EKSTRAK TUMBUHAN PAKU EKOR KUDA (Equisetum debile L. TERHADAP PEROKSIDASI LIPID PLASMA DARAH MENCIT (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana Dyah Suryaningrum

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study the antioxidant activity from ethanol extract of horstail (Equisetum debile L. in the free radical scavenging in mice blood plasma. The antioxidant activity test was conducted with the DPPH method and measuring the MDA concentration in mice blood. The antioxidant activity test with the DPPH results showed that the ethanol extract of horstail (Equisetum debile L. had the antioxidant activity of IC50 which was 1.604 mg/mL or 1,604 ppm. The statistical analysis result of the MDA blood plasma in mice with various doses (125 mg/kgBM, 250 mg/kgBM, 375 mg/kgBM and 500 mg/kgBM showed that the 500 mg/kgBM dose extract was able to reduce the MDA concentration in mice blood which given the most amount of exercise.

  18. Cutaneous water loss and covalently bound lipids of the stratum corneum in nestling house sparrows (Passer domesticus L.) from desert and mesic habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Michelle E; Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Williams, Joseph B

    2012-04-01

    Lipids of the stratum corneum (SC), the outer layer of the epidermis of birds and mammals, provide a barrier to water vapor diffusion through the skin. The SC of birds consists of flat dead cells, called corneocytes, and two lipid compartments: an intercellular matrix and a monolayer of covalently bound lipids (CBLs) attached to the outer surface of the corneocytes. We previously found two classes of sphingolipids, ceramides and cerebrosides, covalently bound to corneocytes in the SC of house sparrows (Passer domesticus L.); these lipids were associated with cutaneous water loss (CWL). In this study, we collected adult and nestling house sparrows from Ohio and nestlings from Saudi Arabia, acclimated them to either high or low humidity, and measured their rates of CWL. We also measured CWL for natural populations of nestlings from Ohio and Saudi Arabia, beginning when chicks were 2 days old until they fledged. We then evaluated the composition of the CBLs of the SC of sparrows using thin layer chromatography. We found that adult house sparrows had a greater diversity of CBLs in their SC than previously described. During ontogeny, nestling sparrows increased the amount of CBLs and developed their CBLs differently, depending on their habitat. Acclimating nestlings to different humidity regimes did not alter the ontogeny of the CBLs, suggesting that these lipids represent a fundamental component of SC organization that does not respond to short-term environmental change.

  19. Cross-training in birds: cold and exercise training produce similar changes in maximal metabolic output, muscle masses and myostatin expression in house sparrows (Passer domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Eyster, Kathleen; Liu, Jin-Song; Swanson, David L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Maximal metabolic outputs for exercise and thermogenesis in birds presumably influence fitness through effects on flight and shivering performance. Because both summit (Msum, maximum thermoregulatory metabolic rate) and maximum (MMR, maximum exercise metabolic rate) metabolic rates are functions of skeletal muscle activity, correlations between these measurements and their mechanistic underpinnings might occur. To examine whether such correlations occur, we measured the effects of experimental cold and exercise training protocols for 3 weeks on body (Mb) and muscle (Mpec) masses, basal metabolic rate (BMR), Msum, MMR, pectoralis mRNA and protein expression for myostatin, and mRNA expression of TLL-1 and TLL-2 (metalloproteinase activators of myostatin) in house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Both training protocols increased Msum, MMR, Mb and Mpec, but BMR increased with cold training and decreased with exercise training. No significant differences occurred for pectoralis myostatin mRNA expression, but cold and exercise increased the expression of TLL-1 and TLL-2. Pectoralis myostatin protein levels were generally reduced for both training groups. These data clearly demonstrate cross-training effects of cold and exercise in birds, and are consistent with a role for myostatin in increasing pectoralis muscle mass and driving organismal increases in metabolic capacities. PMID:25987736

  20. Calcium Supplement Derived from Gallus gallus domesticus Promotes BMP-2/RUNX2/SMAD5 and Suppresses TRAP/RANK Expression through MAPK Signaling Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Seok Yoo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the effects of a calcium (Ca supplement derived from Gallus gallus domesticus (GD on breaking force, microarchitecture, osteogenic differentiation and osteoclast differentiation factor expression in vivo in Ca-deficient ovariectomized (OVX rats. One percent of Ca supplement significantly improved Ca content and bone strength of the tibia. In micro-computed tomography analysis, 1% Ca supplement attenuated OVX- and low Ca-associated changes in bone mineral density, trabecular thickness, spacing and number. Moreover, 1% Ca-supplemented diet increased the expression of osteoblast differentiation marker genes, such as bone morphogenetic protein-2, Wnt3a, small mothers against decapentaplegic 1/5/8, runt-related transcription factor 2, osteocalcin and collagenase-1, while it decreased the expression of osteoclast differentiation genes, such as thrombospondin-related anonymous protein, cathepsin K and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B. Furthermore, 1% Ca-supplemented diet increased the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. The increased expression of osteoblast differentiation marker genes and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling were associated with significant increases in trabecular bone volume, which plays an important role in the overall skeletal strength. Our results demonstrated that 1% Ca supplement inhibited osteoclastogenesis, stimulated osteoblastogenesis and restored bone loss in OVX rats.

  1. Epigenetic Variation May Compensate for Decreased Genetic Variation with Introductions: A Case Study Using House Sparrows (Passer domesticus on Two Continents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron W. Schrey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic mechanisms impact several phenotypic traits and may be important for ecology and evolution. The introduced house sparrow (Passer domesticus exhibits extensive phenotypic variation among and within populations. We screened methylation in populations from Kenya and Florida to determine if methylation varied among populations, varied with introduction history (Kenyan invasion <50 years old, Florida invasion ~150 years old, and could potentially compensate for decrease genetic variation with introductions. While recent literature has speculated on the importance of epigenetic effects for biological invasions, this is the first such study among wild vertebrates. Methylation was more frequent in Nairobi, and outlier loci suggest that populations may be differentiated. Methylation diversity was similar between populations, in spite of known lower genetic diversity in Nairobi, which suggests that epigenetic variation may compensate for decreased genetic diversity as a source of phenotypic variation during introduction. Our results suggest that methylation differences may be common among house sparrows, but research is needed to discern whether methylation impacts phenotypic variation.

  2. Cross-training in birds: cold and exercise training produce similar changes in maximal metabolic output, muscle masses and myostatin expression in house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Eyster, Kathleen; Liu, Jin-Song; Swanson, David L

    2015-07-01

    Maximal metabolic outputs for exercise and thermogenesis in birds presumably influence fitness through effects on flight and shivering performance. Because both summit (Msum, maximum thermoregulatory metabolic rate) and maximum (MMR, maximum exercise metabolic rate) metabolic rates are functions of skeletal muscle activity, correlations between these measurements and their mechanistic underpinnings might occur. To examine whether such correlations occur, we measured the effects of experimental cold and exercise training protocols for 3 weeks on body (Mb) and muscle (Mpec) masses, basal metabolic rate (BMR), Msum, MMR, pectoralis mRNA and protein expression for myostatin, and mRNA expression of TLL-1 and TLL-2 (metalloproteinase activators of myostatin) in house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Both training protocols increased Msum, MMR, Mb and Mpec, but BMR increased with cold training and decreased with exercise training. No significant differences occurred for pectoralis myostatin mRNA expression, but cold and exercise increased the expression of TLL-1 and TLL-2. Pectoralis myostatin protein levels were generally reduced for both training groups. These data clearly demonstrate cross-training effects of cold and exercise in birds, and are consistent with a role for myostatin in increasing pectoralis muscle mass and driving organismal increases in metabolic capacities. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Use of vinegar and oreganón Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour. Spreng infusion for “Acriollados” bred broilers (Gallus gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Chiriboga Chuchuca

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted at the Farm Santa Inés, belonging to the Technical University of Machala, using 160 bred broilers (Gallus gallus domesticus , stayed the same as trying to meet the highest standards of management and health, however to cause challenges no vaccines or antibiotic treatment within the farm. The aim was to determine the efficacy of vinegar and infusion of oreganón Plectranthus amboinicus in acriollados bred broilers. The research lasted 42 days, 16 were randomized groups of 10 chickens each, considering 4 treatments (T1 = vinegar, T2 = vinegar + oreganón infusion, T3 = oreganón infusion, T4 = control with 4 replicates each. Balanced administered free of antibiotics, food consumption data and daily treated water were performed, the weights of the birds weekly; stool samples were collected at the start, middle and end of the assay. In conclusion, the field variables did not obtain statistically significant differences in treatment, but in the Microbiology, the T1, T2 and T3 showed efficiencies decrease when compared to T4, but T3 at the end of the research differed from the T1, T2, and T4. Assuming oreganón Plectranthus amboinicus infusion induces a reduction in the number of CFU in both Total Flora and coliforms.

  4. Effects of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) metabolites on cricket (Acheta domesticus) survival and reproductive success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Baohong [Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH), and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States); Freitag, Christina M. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH), and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States); Canas, Jaclyn E. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH), and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States); Cheng Qiuqiong [Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH), and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States); Anderson, Todd A. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health (TIEHH), and Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409-1163 (United States)]. E-mail: todd.anderson@tiehh.ttu.edu

    2006-11-15

    The effect of two major hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) metabolites, hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX), on cricket (Acheta domesticus) survival and reproduction was studied. RDX metabolites did not have adverse effects on cricket survival, growth, and egg production. However, MNX and TNX did affect egg hatching. MNX and TNX were more toxic in spiked-sand than in topical tests. TNX was more toxic to egg than MNX. Developmental stage and exposure time affected hatching. After 30 days exposure to MNX or TNX, the EC{sub 2}, EC{sub 5}, and EC{sub 95} were 47, 128, and 247 {mu}g/g for TNX, and 65, 140, and 253 {mu}g/g for MNX in topical tests. The ECs for 20, 50, and 95 were 21, 52, and 99 {mu}g/g for MNX, and 12, 48, and 97 {mu}g/g for TNX in sand. No gross abnormalities in cricket nypmhs were observed in all experiments indicating that neither TNX or MNX is teratogenic in this assay. - RDX metabolites did not have adverse effects on cricket survival, growth, and egg production, but adversely affected egg hatching.

  5. Effects of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) metabolites on cricket (Acheta domesticus) survival and reproductive success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Baohong; Freitag, Christina M.; Canas, Jaclyn E.; Cheng Qiuqiong; Anderson, Todd A.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of two major hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) metabolites, hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine (MNX) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX), on cricket (Acheta domesticus) survival and reproduction was studied. RDX metabolites did not have adverse effects on cricket survival, growth, and egg production. However, MNX and TNX did affect egg hatching. MNX and TNX were more toxic in spiked-sand than in topical tests. TNX was more toxic to egg than MNX. Developmental stage and exposure time affected hatching. After 30 days exposure to MNX or TNX, the EC 2 , EC 5 , and EC 95 were 47, 128, and 247 μg/g for TNX, and 65, 140, and 253 μg/g for MNX in topical tests. The ECs for 20, 50, and 95 were 21, 52, and 99 μg/g for MNX, and 12, 48, and 97 μg/g for TNX in sand. No gross abnormalities in cricket nypmhs were observed in all experiments indicating that neither TNX or MNX is teratogenic in this assay. - RDX metabolites did not have adverse effects on cricket survival, growth, and egg production, but adversely affected egg hatching

  6. Newcastle disease virus infection in sparrows (Passer domesticus, Linneaus, 1758 captured in poultry farms of the agreste region of the State of Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JSA Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Reservoir competence for the Newcastle Disease virus (NDV was evaluated in sparrows (Passer domesticus, Linnaeus 1758 captured on a commercial poultry farm and a chicken hatchery in the State of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. A total number of 103 birds collected from a poultry farm (24/103 and a chicken hatchery (79/103 were examined. Hemagglutination inhibition tests, isolation, and viral characterization were performed in all samples collected from each bird. Titers ranging from 1:2 to 1:64 were detectable in 10.68% of sparrows, but positive serology and viral isolation were obtained only from sparrows captured at the hatchery. Hemagglutination activity was inhibited by anti-avian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1 serum, and this sample showed an intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICOI of 0.21, which is similar to the B1 stock vaccine (0.20 used for vaccination in those farms. Therefore, it was concluded that the sparrows were infected by stock vaccine virus, and that these birds could be a reservoir for NDV. However, additional studies involving sequencing of the virus genome of stock vaccine must be carried out.

  7. Detección temprana de resistencia a Mycosphaerella fijiensis en genotipos locales de Musáceas en Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galo Cedeño García

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue determinar la reacción de 14 genotipos de musáceas frente a Mycosphaerella fijensis, agente causal de la Sigatoka negra. Se condujeron dos experimentos en el Departamento de Protección Vegetal de la Estación Experimental P ichilingue del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIAP, Ecuador. Los genotipos evaluados fueron: banano Orito (AA, Guineo de jardín, Williams, Filipino, Gros Michel, Mulato y Morado, del genoma (AAA, y los plátanos Limeño, Maqueño, Do minico, Dominico - Hartón, Dominico gigante, Dominico negro y Barraganete, del genoma AAB. Se usaron dos métodos de inoculación: a in vitro sobre fragmentos de hoja con una suspensión de conidios y b inoculación de pl á ntulas de ocho semanas de edad con una suspensión micelial. En el primer caso se midió el periodo de incubación (PI y el número de lesiones a los 14 y 20 días después de la inoculación (DDI. En invernadero, se registró el PI, tiempo de evolución de síntomas (TES y tiempo de desarrollo de la enfermedad (TDE. Se determinaron diferencias estadísticas significativas (p ≤ 0 , 05 para todas las variables evaluadas; los cultivares Orito (AA y Limeño (AAB calificaron como resistentes, mientras que todos los demás fueron susceptibles, aunque mostra ron un rango de variabilidad en la respuesta a las inoculaciones .

  8. Viral Diversity of House Mice in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Simon H; Che, Xiaoyu; Garcia, Joel A; Klena, John D; Lee, Bohyun; Muller, Dorothy; Ulrich, Werner; Corrigan, Robert M; Nichol, Stuart; Jain, Komal; Lipkin, W Ian

    2018-04-17

    The microbiome of wild Mus musculus (house mouse), a globally distributed invasive pest that resides in close contact with humans in urban centers, is largely unexplored. Here, we report analysis of the fecal virome of house mice in residential buildings in New York City, NY. Mice were collected at seven sites in Manhattan, Queens, Brooklyn, and the Bronx over a period of 1 year. Unbiased high-throughput sequencing of feces revealed 36 viruses from 18 families and 21 genera, including at least 6 novel viruses and 3 novel genera. A representative screen of 15 viruses by PCR confirmed the presence of 13 of these viruses in liver. We identified an uneven distribution of diversity, with several viruses being associated with specific locations. Higher mouse weight was associated with an increase in the number of viruses detected per mouse, after adjusting for site, sex, and length. We found neither genetic footprints to known human viral pathogens nor antibodies to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. IMPORTANCE Mice carry a wide range of infectious agents with zoonotic potential. Their proximity to humans in the built environment is therefore a concern for public health. Laboratory mice are also the most common experimental model for investigating the pathobiology of infectious diseases. In this survey of mice trapped in multiple locations within New York City over a period of 1 year, we found a diverse collection of viruses that includes some previously not associated with house mice and others that appear to be novel. Although we found no known human pathogens, our findings provide insights into viral ecology and may yield models that have utility for clinical microbiology. Copyright © 2018 Williams et al.

  9. Evaluation of oxidative stress in mice subjected to aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Mônica Cruvinel de; Marks, Guido; Silva, Iandara Schettert; Silva, Baldomero Antonio Kato da; Cônsolo, Lourdes Zélia Zanoni; Nogueira, Gabriel Bogalho

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the influence of aerobic exercise on oxidative stress in mice. The study included twenty female mice Mus musculus-Swiss divided into two groups: sedentary control (GA) and exercise (GB), each containing ten animals. All animals underwent an adaptation period of seven days isolated in individual boxes. After this period, the animals in the exercise group (GB) were trained in angled running wheel with circumference of 25 cm assembled on an articulated axle during five minutes for three consecutive days. On the fourth day, they underwent an exercise program of one session lasting 45 minutes. The evaluation of oxidative stress was performed by determining the levels of malondialhyde derived of lipid peroxidation by the TBA method. The samples were read in a spectrophotometer at 535 nm. No significant difference was observed in the intergroup comparison of MDA levels in the tissues evaluated. A significant difference was observed in the intragroup comparison of MDA levels in the control group (p = 0.0201).The Tukeys' post hoc test indicated significantly lower values of MDA in the smooth muscle in relation to plasma. In the analysis of variance in the exercise group, a significant difference between tissues (p = 0.0009), with significantly lower values in the smooth muscle in relation to plasma (pstress in mice which were undergone a single session of aerobic exercise.

  10. [Autoantibody formation against the antigens of the synaptonemal complex in the syngeneic immunization of male Mus musculus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadashev, S Ia; Gorach, G G; Kolomiets, O L

    1994-01-01

    Male mice were immunized with the suspension of synaptonemal complexes (SC) isolated from mouse spermatocytes nuclei. The indirect immunofluorescent analysis showed the active binding of sera obtained from immunized mice to SC of mouse spermatocyte spreads. At early and mid-pachytene, SC can be clearly identified in 19 autosome bivalents and in sex chromosome bivalent. According to the electron microscopic analysis, all structural elements of SC bind antibodies. Metaphase chromosomes were not stained with the immune sera. Specificity of interaction between SC components and antibodies was confirmed in a series of control experiments. Analysis of sera obtained from mice after their syngeneic immunization with isolated SC fraction suggested that certain mouse SC components induce the formation of autoantibodies. This, in turn, suggests that these SC components are meiosis-specific.

  11. Abnormalities in the WFU strain of Taenia crassiceps (Cyclophyllidea: Taeniidae) following years of propagation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Vega, L; García-Prieto, L; Zurabian, R

    2016-09-01

    Asexually proliferating Taenia crassiceps (Zeder, 1800) metacestodes isolated within past decades have been successfully sub-cultured under experimental conditions using Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 mice. However, during their development, morphological irregularities of scolex structures have been reported in two of the three strains of this cestode species maintained in mice - ORF and KBS. The main goal of this work is to describe the abnormalities observed in a sample of 118 cysticerci of the third T. crassiceps strain used at present - WFU. Morphological abnormalities were detected in 39.8% of the evaginated scoleces; they consisted of supernumerary suckers (n= 2), duplicated (n= 2) or absent rostellum (n= 1), as well as absent or aberrant (n= 29) hooks, which were significantly shorter when compared to the large and short hook lengths referred to in the literature.

  12. Morphofunctional evaluation of the testis, duration of spermatogenesis and spermatogenic efficiency in the Japanese fancy mouse (Mus musculus molossinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Guilherme M J; Leal, Marcelo C; França, Luiz R

    2017-08-01

    Japanese fancy mouse, mini mouse or pet mouse are common names used to refer to strains of mice that present with different colour varieties and coat types. Although many genetic studies that involve spotting phenotype based on the coat have been performed in these mice, there are no reports of quantitative data in the literature regarding testis structure and spermatogenic efficiency. Hence, in this study we researched testis function and spermatogenesis in the adult Japanese fancy mouse. The following values of 68 ± 6 mg and 0.94 ± 0.1% were obtained as mean testis weight and gonadosomatic index, respectively. In comparison with other investigated mice strains, the fancy mouse Leydig cell individual size was much smaller, resulting in higher numbers of these cells per gram of testis. As found for laboratory mice strains, as a result of the development of the acrosomic system, 12 stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle have been described in this study. The combined frequencies of pre-meiotic and post-meiotic stages were respectively 24% and 64% and very similar to the laboratory mice. The more differentiated germ cell types marked at 1 h or 9 days after tritiated thymidine administration were preleptotene/leptotene and pachytene spermatocytes at the same stage (VIII). The mean duration of one spermatogenic cycle was 8.8 ± 0.01 days and the total length of spermatogenesis lasted 37.8 ± 0.01 days (4.5 cycles). A high number of germ cell apoptosis was evident during meiosis, resulting in lower Sertoli cell and spermatogenic efficiencies, when compared with laboratory mice strains.

  13. EFEKTIVITAS MIKRONUTRIEN ZINC DARI EKSTRAK LABU KUNING (Cucurbita Moschata D TERHADAP PERILAKU KAWIN MENCIT (MUS MUSCULUS JANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Prasetyaning

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Male reproductive ability ability has a linear correlation with libido and testosterone. Both are associated with various things main food consumption such as protein, vitamins and minerals. Aphrodisiac  is an ingredient or drug that arouses sexual arousal or libido. Pumpkin is an example of food from plants with the highest content of zinc. This study was to determine whether there is a difference between the content of zinc on the peel, flesh and pumpkin seeds against sexual activity of mice. The experimental animals used were 24 male, group I mice as control group, Group II was grouped with pumpkin peel extract, Group III was grouped with extract of pumpkin flesh, Group IV was grouped with extract of pumpkin seeds. The dose used is 2gr / kg BB and volume of 0.2 ml is given for 35 days. Sexual Activity is observed every day  by the position of male mice riding females. Based on Anova One Way test results showed there are differences in sexual activity  mice males in each group (ρ 0.000. The difference of the result of the number of mounts indicated that the giving of yellow pumpkin extract had an effect on the increase of mating behavior of male mice. The group treated with the extract of pumpkin flesh showed the highest number of mice mounts (mean = 24,1667.Further research is needed to get a clearer picture of the composition of the pumpkin nutrients that indirectly affect fertility in men.

  14. Reduced spatial learning in mice infected with the nematode, Heligmosomoides polygyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaliers, M; Colwell, D D

    1995-06-01

    Parasite modification of host behaviour influences a number of critical responses, but little is known about the effects on host spatial abilities. This study examined the effects of infection with the intestinal trichostrongylid nematode, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, on spatial water maze learning by male laboratory mice, Mus musculus. In this task individual mice had to learn the spatial location of a submerged hidden platform using extramaze visual cues. Determinations of spatial performance were made on day 19 post-infection with mice that had been administered either 50 or 200 infective larvae of H. polygyrus. The infected mice displayed over 1 day of testing (6 blocks of 4 trials) significantly poorer acquisition and retention of the water maze task than either sham-infected or control mice, with mice that had received 200 infective larvae displaying significantly poorer spatial performance than individuals receiving 50 larvae. The decrease in spatial learning occurred in the absence of either any symptoms of illness and malaise, or any evident motor, visual and motivational impairments. It is suggested that in this single host system the parasitic infection-induced decrease in spatial learning arises as a side-effect of the host's immunological and neuromodulatory responses and represents a fitness cost of response to infection.

  15. Genotoxicity detected in wild mice living in a highly polluted wetland area in south western Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateos, Santiago; Daza, Paula; Dominguez, Inmaculada; Cardenas, Jose Antonio [University of Seville, Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Biology, Avenida de la Reina Mercedes no 6, E-41012 Seville (Spain); Cortes, Felipe [University of Seville, Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Biology, Avenida de la Reina Mercedes no 6, E-41012 Seville (Spain)], E-mail: cortes@us.es

    2008-06-15

    A field study was carried out in the south of the Iberian Peninsula in an industrial area in the neighbourhood of Huelva city, SW Spain, and in a natural area (Donana National Park) for comparison, to estimate the genetic risk induced by environmental pollution in wild mice. Genotoxic effects in a sentinel organism, the Algerian mice (Mus spretus) free living in the industrial area were compared with animals of the same species living in the natural protected area. The single cell gel electrophoresis, or Comet assay, was performed as a genotoxicity test in peripheral blood of mice. Our results clearly show that mice free living in the contaminated area bear a high burden of genetic damage as compared with control individuals. The results suggest that the assessing of genotoxicity levels by the Comet assay in wild mice can be used as a valuable test in pollution monitoring and environmental conservation. - We have found an increased genotoxic damage in wild mice in a highly polluted area from industry, mining and agriculture in SW Spain, as assessed by the Comet assay.

  16. Identification of an astrovirus commonly infecting laboratory mice in the US and Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Fei Fan Ng

    Full Text Available Mice (Mus musculus are the most commonly used laboratory animals. Viral metagenomics on tissues of immunodeficient mice revealed sequences of a novel mammalian astrovirus. Using PCR, we screened mice from 4 breeders, 4 pharmaceutical companies, 14 research institutes and 30 universities in the US and Japan. Mice from one US breeder tested positive while none from Japanese breeders were positive for MuAstV. Mice in over half of the universities (19/30, institutes (7/14 and pharmaceutical animal facilities (2/4 investigated revealed the presence of MuAstV. Nine mice strains tested positive including both immunodeficient strains (NSG, NOD-SCID, NSG-3GS, C57BL6-Timp-3 (-/-, and uPA-NOG and immunocompetent strains (B6J, ICR, Bash2, BALB/c. Our data indicates that MuAstV has a wide geographical, institutional and host strain distribution. Comparison of the MuAstV RdRp sequences showed numerous mutations indicating ongoing viral divergence in different facilities. This study demonstrates the need for metagenomic screening of laboratory animals to identify adventitious infections that may affect experimental outcomes.

  17. Genetic analysis of autoimmune gld mice. I. Identification of a restriction fragment length polymorphism closely linked to the gld mutation within a conserved linkage group

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A linkage map of distal mouse chromosome 1 was generated using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of DNA prepared from 95 [C3H-gld/gld X Mus spretus)F1 X C3H-gld/gld] backcross mice. The gene order was: (centromere) C4bp, Ren-1,2, Ly-5, [At-3/gld], Apoa-2/Ly-17, Spna-1 (telomere). All mice expressing the phenotype of gld homozygotes were homozygous for the At-3 RFLP characteristic of C3H mice and none of the mice heterozygous for At-3 RFLPs had characteristics of gld homozygotes, demonstrating close linkage between these genes. The identification of an RFLP closely linked to the gld gene provides a starting point for the identification of a genetic defect that results in abnormal T cells and autoimmune disease. PMID:2894402

  18. Efecto de Maytenus macrocarpa“Chuchuhuasi” en el sistema reproductor masculino del ratón (Mus musculus)

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta, Láyonal G.; Vásquez, Jonathan; Núñez, Víctor; Pino, José; Shiga, Betty

    2014-01-01

    Maytenus macrocarpa(chuchuhuasi) is native tree of the Peruvian Amazon used as traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases, but its effect on the male reproductive system has not yet been elucidated. The aim of this study is evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of M. macrocarpa in daily doses for 7 days on reproductive parameters of male mice. We used C57BL mature male mice divided into 2 groups (n= 10), Control Group (C): 0.9% NaCl and Treatment group (T): Aqueous extract ...

  19. UJI POTENSI UMBI KIMPUL (Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L. Schott. SEBAGAI BAHAN PANGAN FUNGSIONAL ANTIULSER PADA MENCIT (Mus musculus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triyani Yuliastuti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L. Schott. tuber is usually consumed as carbohydrates source. Because of highly mineral and fiber contents, it is potential to develop as a functional food source. The mineral contents are potassium, phosphor, magnesium, iron, copper and sodium. Some minerals are well known able to neutralize pH of the gastric fluid. It is necessary to study cocoyam activity on the ulcer gastric. The aims of this study were to determine anti-ulcerogenic activity of cocoyam tuber by observing macroscopic stomach mucous structure on mice and measuring the gastric fluid pH. Twenty male mice aged 2-3 months were used in this study. They were classified in to 4 different treatment groups. Group I was control mice without gastric ulcer, group II, III, and IV were mice with gastric ulcer by using aspirin treatment. Group II,III, and IV were treated with different treatments then for 7 days. Group II was treated by aquadest (negative control group, group III by sucralfat (positive control group, and group IV by cocoyam tuber. In the last treatment day, mice were fasted for 24 hours and then sacrified to pick stomach up. Gastric fluid was collected and the pH was measured then. Stomach mucous structure was observed macroscopically. Data in the gastric fluid pH was analyzed by using one-way ANOVA (Analysis of Variance and continued  HSD (Honest Significant Difference-Tukey test in 5% significance degree. Degree of stomach mucous structure damage was analyzed descriptively and then it was scored based on number and diameter size of ulcers. Data on the ulcer score were analyzed by using Kruskal-Wallis test. The results showed that there was a significant difference (p<0.05 at the stomach fluid pH. Normal group was not significantly different to the sucralfat and cocoyam tuber group, nevertheless normal group was different significantly to the ulcer group. Based on the degree of stomach mucous structure damage, there was not significantly

  20. Cloning Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Atsuo

    2017-08-01

    Viable and fertile mice can be generated by somatic nuclear transfer into enucleated oocytes, presumably because the transplanted somatic cell genome becomes reprogrammed by factors in the oocyte. The first somatic cloned offspring of mice were obtained by directly injecting donor nuclei into recipient enucleated oocytes. When this method is used (the so-called Honolulu method of somatic cell nuclear transfer [SCNT]), the donor nuclei readily and completely condense within the enucleated metaphase II-arrested oocytes, which contain high levels of M-phase-promoting factor (MPF). It is believed that the condensation of the donor chromosomes promotes complete reprogramming of the donor genome within the mouse oocytes. Another key to the success of mouse cloning is the use of blunt micropipettes attached to a piezo impact-driving micromanipulation device. This system saves a significant amount of time during the micromanipulation of oocytes and thus minimizes the loss of oocyte viability in vitro. For example, a group of 20 oocytes can be enucleated within 10 min by an experienced operator. This protocol is composed of seven parts: (1) preparing micropipettes, (2) setting up the enucleation and injection micropipettes, (3) collecting and enucleating oocytes, (4) preparing nucleus donor cells, (5) injecting donor nuclei, (6) activating embryos and culturing, and (7) transferring cloned embryos. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  1. Diseño de una compañía exportadora de banano y otras musáceas para el mercado ruso

    OpenAIRE

    Játiva Murillo, Henry Isaac

    2013-01-01

    El proyecto tiene la finalidad de mostrar los aspectos legales, estratégicos y comerciales para la exportación de banano al mercado ruso, aprovechando la demanda creciente del país y la gran riqueza de producción de la fruta en el Ecuador. También se analizará agregar otros productos musáceos al mismo mercado ruso, aprovechando las operaciones logísticas y comerciales que la nueva empresa tendrá en el país europeo. Se determinará el nombre de la empresa, los aspectos legales, el capi...

  2. Combinatorial regulation of meiotic holliday junction resolution in C. elegans by HIM-6 (BLM) helicase, SLX-4, and the SLX-1, MUS-81 and XPF-1 nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinho, Ana; Meier, Bettina; Sonneville, Remi; Jagut, Marlène; Woglar, Alexander; Blow, Julian; Jantsch, Verena; Gartner, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Holliday junctions (HJs) are cruciform DNA structures that are created during recombination events. It is a matter of considerable importance to determine the resolvase(s) that promote resolution of these structures. We previously reported that C. elegans GEN-1 is a symmetrically cleaving HJ resolving enzyme required for recombinational repair, but we could not find an overt role in meiotic recombination. Here we identify C. elegans proteins involved in resolving meiotic HJs. We found no evidence for a redundant meiotic function of GEN-1. In contrast, we discovered two redundant HJ resolution pathways likely coordinated by the SLX-4 scaffold protein and also involving the HIM-6/BLM helicase. SLX-4 associates with the SLX-1, MUS-81 and XPF-1 nucleases and has been implicated in meiotic recombination in C. elegans. We found that C. elegans [mus-81; xpf-1], [slx-1; xpf-1], [mus-81; him-6] and [slx-1; him-6] double mutants showed a similar reduction in survival rates as slx-4. Analysis of meiotic diakinesis chromosomes revealed a distinct phenotype in these double mutants. Instead of wild-type bivalent chromosomes, pairs of "univalents" linked by chromatin bridges occur. These linkages depend on the conserved meiosis-specific transesterase SPO-11 and can be restored by ionizing radiation, suggesting that they represent unresolved meiotic HJs. This suggests the existence of two major resolvase activities, one provided by XPF-1 and HIM-6, the other by SLX-1 and MUS-81. In all double mutants crossover (CO) recombination is reduced but not abolished, indicative of further redundancy in meiotic HJ resolution. Real time imaging revealed extensive chromatin bridges during the first meiotic division that appear to be eventually resolved in meiosis II, suggesting back-up resolution activities acting at or after anaphase I. We also show that in HJ resolution mutants, the restructuring of chromosome arms distal and proximal to the CO still occurs, suggesting that CO initiation

  3. Efecto del extracto del fruto de Physalis peruviana "tomatillo" en Mus musculus var. swis con hiperlipidemia inducida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Campos Florián

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente i nvestigación fue determinar la actividad hipolipidémica del fruto de Physalis peruviana “tomatillo” en un modelo de hiperlipidemia aguda inducida con tritón. Se utilizaron Mus musculus var. swis machos como animales de experimentación. Se trabajó con cuatro grupos de ratones, el grupo blanco recibió agua destilada por vía oral y solución salina fisiológica por vía intraperitoneal, el grupo control recibió agua destilada por vía oral y tritón por vía intraperitoneal, el grupo problema 1 recibió por vía oral 0.05g/100g del extracto de Physalis peruviana y tritón por vía intraperitoneal y el grupo problema 2 recibió por vía oral 0.2g/100g del extracto de Physalis peruviana y tritón por vía intraperitoneal. Luego de 24 horas de administrar los tratamientos se re alizaron las mediciones en suero de las concentraciones de colesterol y triglicéridos. Los niveles promedio de colesterol (mg/dL fueron: 58.87±11.54 (blanco, 121.71±15.00 (control, 58.08±9. 21 (problema 1 y 66.78±16.77 (problema 2. Los niveles promedio de triglicéridos (g/L fueron: 0.48±0.07 (blanco, 1.84±0.18 (control, 0.34±0.10 (problema 1 y 0.94±0.25 (problema 2. Se encontró reducciones significativas (p<0.000, tanto de las concentraciones de colesterol como de triglicéridos en relación a las o btenidas en el grupo tratado sólo con tritón.

  4. Transgene mus som sygdomsmodeller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuster, Mikkel Bruhn; Porse, Bo Torben

    2003-01-01

    Transgenic animal models have proven to be useful tools in understanding both basic biology and the events associated with disease. Recent technical advances in the area of genomic manipulation in combination with the availability of the human and murine genomic sequences now allow the precise...... tailoring of the mouse genome. In this review we describe a few systems in which transgenic animal models have been employed for the purpose of studying the etiology of human diseases. Udgivelsesdato: 2003-Feb-17...

  5. Dosis letal 50 de lorazepam en ratón (Mus musculus Albino, cepa suizo-icr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alejandro Múnera G.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The lethal dose 50 (LD50 of  lorazepam in albino mice (Musmusculus, swiss ICR strain, was determined as a first step in the study of the conjoint toxicity of admixtures of scopolamine and benzodiazepines ("new burundanga". Method: Sixty adult male mice were randomly assigned to five experimental groups and to a control one. The dose of lorazepam administered intraperitoneally to each group was: group 1,10 mg kg_1; group 11,20 mg kgI; group 111,40mg kgL; group IV,80mgkg'; group V,160mg kg-l.The control group received only the vehicle solution. Mortality was recorded during 15 days after injection. Necropsies were performed to all the mice dead during the assay and to the survivors. Data were processed using probit analysis and survival analysis. Results: Estimated LD50 were 90.71 mg kg- 1, with 95% confidence range of 65,02to 150,13mg kg- 1.Deaths occurred within the first six days after injection of doses higher than 80 mg kg:', mostly during the first 48 hours. Conclusions: The estimated LD50 of  lorazepam in this experiment almost doubles the reported one, this finding suggests a higher resistance of the mice strain used in this experiment The critic period for lorazepam poisoning spans the first 48 hours.

  6. Shedding and serologic responses following primary and secondary inoculation of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) with low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Nicole M; Thomas, Nicholas O; Orahood, Darcy S; Anderson, Theodore D; Oesterle, Paul T

    2010-10-01

    Waterfowl and shorebirds are well-recognized natural reservoirs of low-pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIV); however, little is known about the role of passerines in avian influenza virus ecology. Passerines are abundant, widespread, and commonly come into contact with free-ranging birds as well as captive game birds and poultry. We inoculated and subsequently challenged house sparrows (Passer domesticus) and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) with wild-bird origin LPAIV H3N8 to evaluate their potential role in transmission. Oropharyngeal shedding was short lived, and was detected in more starlings (97.2%) than sparrows (47.2%; n=36 of each). Cloacal shedding was rare in both species (8.3%; n=36 of each) and no cage-mate transmission occurred. Infectious LPAIV was cultured from oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs and gastrointestinal and respiratory tissues from both species. Seroconversion was detected as early as 3 days post inoculation (d.p.i.) (16.7% of sparrows and 0% of starlings; n=6 each); 50% of these individuals seroconverted by 5 d.p.i., and nearly all birds (97%; n=35) seroconverted by 28 d.p.i. In general, pre-existing homologous immunity led to reduced shedding and increased antibody levels within 7 days of challenge. Limited shedding and lack of cage-mate transmission suggest that passerines are not significant reservoirs of LPAIV, although species differences apparently exist. Passerines readily and consistently seroconverted to LPAIV, and therefore inclusion of passerines in epidemiological studies of influenza outbreaks in wildlife and domestic animals may provide further insight into the potential involvement of passerines in avian influenza virus transmission ecology.

  7. Evaluating the stress response as a bioindicator of sub-lethal effects of crude oil exposure in wild house sparrows (Passer domesticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine R Lattin

    Full Text Available Petroleum can disrupt endocrine function in humans and wildlife, and interacts in particularly complex ways with the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, responsible for the release of the stress hormones corticosterone and cortisol (hereafter CORT. Ingested petroleum can act in an additive fashion with other stressors to cause increased mortality, but it is not clear exactly why--does petroleum disrupt feedback mechanisms, stress hormone production, or both? This laboratory study aimed to quantify the effects of ingested Gulf of Mexico crude oil on the physiological stress response of house sparrows (Passer domesticus. We examined baseline and stress-induced CORT, negative feedback, and adrenal sensitivity in house sparrows given a 1% oil or control diet (n = 12 in each group. We found that four weeks on a 1% oil diet did not alter baseline CORT titers or efficacy of negative feedback, but significantly reduced sparrows' ability to secrete CORT in response to a standardized stressor and adrenocorticotropin hormone injection, suggesting that oil damages the steroid-synthesizing cells of the adrenal. In another group of animals on the same 1% oil (n = 9 or control diets (n = 8, we examined concentrations of eight different blood chemistry parameters, and CORT in feathers grown before and during the feeding experiments as other potential biomarkers of oil exposure. None of the blood chemistry parameters differed between birds on the oil and control diets after two or four weeks of feeding, nor did feather CORT differ between the two groups. Overall, this study suggests that the response of CORT to stressors, but not baseline HPA function, may be a particularly sensitive bioindicator of sub-lethal chronic effects of crude oil exposure.

  8. Evaluating the stress response as a bioindicator of sub-lethal effects of crude oil exposure in wild house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattin, Christine R; Ngai, Heather M; Romero, L Michael

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum can disrupt endocrine function in humans and wildlife, and interacts in particularly complex ways with the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, responsible for the release of the stress hormones corticosterone and cortisol (hereafter CORT). Ingested petroleum can act in an additive fashion with other stressors to cause increased mortality, but it is not clear exactly why--does petroleum disrupt feedback mechanisms, stress hormone production, or both? This laboratory study aimed to quantify the effects of ingested Gulf of Mexico crude oil on the physiological stress response of house sparrows (Passer domesticus). We examined baseline and stress-induced CORT, negative feedback, and adrenal sensitivity in house sparrows given a 1% oil or control diet (n = 12 in each group). We found that four weeks on a 1% oil diet did not alter baseline CORT titers or efficacy of negative feedback, but significantly reduced sparrows' ability to secrete CORT in response to a standardized stressor and adrenocorticotropin hormone injection, suggesting that oil damages the steroid-synthesizing cells of the adrenal. In another group of animals on the same 1% oil (n = 9) or control diets (n = 8), we examined concentrations of eight different blood chemistry parameters, and CORT in feathers grown before and during the feeding experiments as other potential biomarkers of oil exposure. None of the blood chemistry parameters differed between birds on the oil and control diets after two or four weeks of feeding, nor did feather CORT differ between the two groups. Overall, this study suggests that the response of CORT to stressors, but not baseline HPA function, may be a particularly sensitive bioindicator of sub-lethal chronic effects of crude oil exposure.

  9. House sparrows' (Passer domesticus) behaviour in a novel environment is modulated by social context and familiarity in a sex-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuliozi, Beniamino; Fracasso, Gerardo; Hoi, Herbert; Griggio, Matteo

    2018-01-01

    Exploratory behaviour is one of the best-investigated behavioural traits. However, little is known about how differences in familiarity, i.e. in the knowledge and previous experience with a companion can influence the exploration of a novel environment. However, to our knowledge, such a critical feature of the social environment has never been the target of a study relating it to exploratory behaviour in birds. Here we examined if familiarity with a conspecific could affect behavioural responses of individuals confronted with a novel environment. We recorded the latency to land on the ground, latency to feed, time spent feeding and number of sectors visited of 48 female and 48 male house sparrows ( Passer domesticus ) in an indoor aviary in three contexts: alone (individual context), with an unfamiliar and with a familiar same-sex companion. House sparrows landed sooner on the ground when in the familiar context than when in the individual context. Birds in unfamiliar pairs followed each other less than familiar birds, but this difference diminished with time spent exploring. Moreover, males and females differed in their behavioural responses in the unfamiliar context. Females with a familiar companion landed sooner than when they were paired with an unfamiliar conspecific, whereas only the presence of a companion but not familiarity reduced males latency to land on the ground. Finally, when considering the unfamiliar context males had shorter latencies to forage and thus spent more time eating than females. The presence or absence of a companion and its familiarity with the focal individual influenced differently the behavioural responses of male and female house sparrows in a novel environment. As house sparrows are strongly sociable, the influence of the social environment is likely to be of paramount importance to understand the selective pressures acting on them, particularly in recently colonized areas with ephemeral food sources. Our results shed light on

  10. Sex differences in gait utilization and energy metabolism during terrestrial locomotion in two varieties of chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus selected for different body size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayleigh A. Rose

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus of standard breed (large and bantam (small varieties, artificial selection has led to females being permanently gravid and sexual selection has led to male-biased size dimorphism. Using respirometry, videography and morphological measurements, sex and variety differences in metabolic cost of locomotion, gait utilisation and maximum sustainable speed (Umax were investigated during treadmill locomotion. Males were capable of greater Umax than females and used a grounded running gait at high speeds, which was only observed in a few bantam females and no standard breed females. Body mass accounted for variation in the incremental increase in metabolic power with speed between the varieties, but not the sexes. For the first time in an avian species, a greater mass-specific incremental cost of locomotion, and minimum measured cost of transport (CoTmin were found in males than in females. Furthermore, in both varieties, the female CoTmin was lower than predicted from interspecific allometry. Even when compared at equivalent speeds (using Froude number, CoT decreased more rapidly in females than in males. These trends were common to both varieties despite a more upright limb in females than in males in the standard breed, and a lack of dimorphism in posture in the bantam variety. Females may possess compensatory adaptations for metabolic efficiency during gravidity (e.g. in muscle specialization/posture/kinematics. Furthermore, the elevated power at faster speeds in males may be linked to their muscle properties being suited to inter-male aggressive combat.

  11. Characterization and discrimination of Taihe black-boned silky fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson) muscles using LC/MS-based lipidomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Si; Shang, Ke; Jia, Wei; Zhang, Chun-Hui; Li, Xia; Fan, Yu-Qing; Wang, Hang

    2018-07-01

    Taihe black-boned silky fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson) has a history of over 2200 years of being consumed as a curative food in China. In this work, an LC/MS-based lipidomics approach was employed to investigate the characteristic lipid composition of Taihe black-boned silky fowls from different ages and genders as well as from different carcass parts. Data were processed using an orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis and one-way analysis of variance. A total of 1127 lipids were detected in Taihe black-boned silky fowl muscles. Among them, 88, 11 and 1 lipid species were found to have both a variable influence on a projection value >1 and a p-value smaller than 0.05 between different age, gender and part groups. These results illustrate that the influence of the 3 investigated factors on the lipid profiles of Taihe black-boned silky fowl decreased in the order of age > gender > part. Lipid profile differences will facilitate a better understanding of the curative properties of Taihe black-boned silky fowl. Taihe and crossbred black-boned silky fowls were compared in terms of their lipid compositions based on the same strategy. The results showed that the two groups were able to discriminate from each other effectively. 47 lipid compounds were determined to be potential markers for the authentication of Taihe black-boned silky fowl. This work demonstrates the successful application of lipidomics for lipid profiling in food raw materials. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Terapi Hiperkolesterol pada Mencit (Mus musculus strain Balb/C Betina Umur 2 Bulan Menggunakan Sari Bawang Putih

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    Muhammad Sungging Pradana

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is a waxy substance which is mainly made in the body. Cholesterol can provide benefits. However, having too much cholesterol in the blood can increase risk of cardiovascular disease. Prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease can be done by taking synthetic drugs such as statin. Due to side effects of synthetic drugs, it is necessary to substitute synthetic drugs with herbal plant and some natural component in these plants. The important ones is garlic. Garlic contain organosulphur compounds such as diallyldisulphide (DADS, dipropyldisulphide (DPDS, diallytrisulphide (DATS and dipropyltrisulphide (DPTS which have anti artherogenic effects. Garlic also have active agent allicin, can reduce the levels of cholesterol. This research was conducted at the Experimental Animal Enclosure Installation, Center for Veterinary Farma Surabaya with 3 experimental groups. Animals used in this research were female mice 2 months old were feeding with high cholesterol feed such as fried offal of chicken twice a day as much 0,5 cc/ day every 3 days. On the 3rd day, the levels of cholesterol in each group was examined. On the 4th day, mice in group 3 were given 1cc of garlic juice. 1 hour later mice was examined blood cholesterol using Strip Test Easy Touch GCU. The results through T-paired test on SPSS stated that (p < 0,05, it means there is influence between the 3 treatment of mice. This results it can be concluded that the provision of garlic juice can reduced blood cholesterol levels in mice after fed with high cholesterol.

  13. Expression of stress hormones AVP and CRH in the hypothalamus of Mus musculus following water and food deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadawa, Arun Kumar; Chaturvedi, Chandra Mohini

    2016-12-01

    Neurohypophyseal hormone, arginine vasopressin (AVP), in addition to acting as antidiuretic hormone is also considered to be stress hormone like hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). Present study was designed to investigate the relative response of these stress hormones during water and food deprivation. In this study, male laboratory mice of Swiss strain were divided in 5 groups, control - provided water and food ad libitum, two experimental groups water deprived for 2 and 4days respectively (WD2 and WD4) and another two groups food deprived for 2 and 4days respectively (FD2 and FD4). Results indicate an increased expression of AVP mRNA as well as peptide in the hypothalamus of WD2 mice and the expression was further upregulated after 4days of water deprivation but the expression of CRH remained unchanged compare to their respective controls. On the other hand no change was observed in the expression of hypothalamic AVP mRNA while AVP peptide increased significantly in FD2 and FD4 mice compare to control. Further, the expression of CRH mRNA although increased in hypothalamus of both FD2 and FD4 mice, the immunofluorescent staining shows decreased expression of CRH in PVN of food deprived mice. Based on these findings it is concluded that since during osmotic stress only AVP expression is upregulated but during metabolic stress i.e. food deprivation transcription and translation of both the stress hormones are differentially regulated. Further, it is suggested that role of AVP and CRH may be stress specific. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Avaliação do perfil eletroforético das proteínas séricas em matrizes pesadas (Gallus Gallus Domesticus da linhagem Avian Farm Serum protein electrophoresis evaluation in adult broiler breeders (Gallus Gallus Domesticus of the Avian Farm strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MY Hasegawa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar o perfil eletroforético das proteínas séricas em matrizes pesadas (Gallus Gallus Domesticus sadias, da linhagem Avian Farm. Foram utilizadas 15 matrizes com 63 semanas de idade, provenientes do município de Conchas, São Paulo. Utilizou-se o método de biureto para a obtenção dos valores da proteína sérica total e a separação das frações protéicas pela técnica da eletroforese em gel de agarose, e a leitura do filme realizada por densitometria em 520nM. Obteve-se um total de sete frações, sendo que a beta1 - globulina e beta2 - globulina encontradas não foram citadas pelos autores consultados na literatura. A fração pré-albumina foi identificada em apenas seis das 15 amostras examinadas. Observou-se em cinco matrizes a divisão da gama - globulina em duas frações, denominadas gama - 1 e gama - 2, de acordo com suas mobilidades eletroforéticas. A relação albumina/globulina (A/G encontrada corrobora com os autores citados, demonstrando que esta diminui com o aumento da idade.This work is aimed to determine the profile of electrophoretic serum protein in healthy adult broiler breeders (Gallus gallus domesticus of the Avian farm strain. Fifteen breeders aging 63 weeks from Conchas, city located in the State of São Paulo, were assessed. The biuret method was used to obtain the total serum protein values and protein fractions separation through electrophoresis technique in agarose gel, and film reading through densitometry in 520nM. Seven fractions were obtained, whereas, beta1 - globulin and beta2 - globulin were not cited by the authors in the textbooks checked. The prealbumin fraction was identified only in six out of 15 samples analyzed. In five breeders, it was observed the division of gamma - globulin into two fractions named gamma - 1 and gamma - 2, according to the electrophoretic mobilities. The relation albumin/globulin (A/G found in the experiment agrees with the other

  15. denV gene of bacteriophage T4 restores DNA excision repair to mei-9 and mus201 mutants of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banga, S.S.; Boyd, J.B.; Valerie, K.; Harris, P.V.; Kurz, E.M.; de Riel, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    The denV gene of bacteriophage T4 was fused to a Drosophila hsp70 (70-kDa heat shock protein) promoter and introduced into the germ line of Drosophila by P-element-mediated transformation. The protein product of that gene (endonuclease V) was detected in extracts of heat-shocked transformants with both enzymological and immunoblotting procedures. That protein restores both excision repair and UV resistance to mei-9 and mus201 mutants of this organism. These results reveal that the denV gene can compensate for excision-repair defects in two very different eukayotic mutants, in that the mus201 mutants are typical of excision-deficient mutants in other organisms, whereas the mei-9 mutants exhibit a broad pleiotropism that includes a strong meiotic deficiency. This study permits an extension of the molecular analysis of DNA repair to the germ line of higher eukaryotes. It also provides a model system for future investigations of other well-characterized microbial repair genes on DNA damage in the germ line of this metazoan organism

  16. Novel arenavirus sequences in Hylomyscus sp. and Mus (Nannomys setulosus from Côte d'Ivoire: implications for evolution of arenaviruses in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Coulibaly-N'Golo

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify new arenaviruses and gather insights in the evolution of arenaviruses in Africa. During 2003 through 2005, 1,228 small mammals representing 14 different genera were trapped in 9 villages in south, east, and middle west of Côte d'Ivoire. Specimens were screened by pan-Old World arenavirus RT-PCRs targeting S and L RNA segments as well as immunofluorescence assay. Sequences of two novel tentative species of the family Arenaviridae, Menekre and Gbagroube virus, were detected in Hylomyscus sp. and Mus (Nannomys setulosus, respectively. Arenavirus infection of Mus (Nannomys setulosus was also demonstrated by serological testing. Lassa virus was not found, although 60% of the captured animals were Mastomys natalensis. Complete S RNA and partial L RNA sequences of the novel viruses were recovered from the rodent specimens and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Gbagroube virus is a closely related sister taxon of Lassa virus, while Menekre virus clusters with the Ippy/Mobala/Mopeia virus complex. Reconstruction of possible virus-host co-phylogeny scenarios suggests that, within the African continent, signatures of co-evolution might have been obliterated by multiple host-switching events.

  17. Detailed ordering of markers localizing to the Xq26-Xqter region of the human X chromosome by the use of an interspecific Mus spretus mouse cross

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avner, P.; Amar, L.; Arnaud, D.; Hanauer, A.; Cambrou, J.

    1987-01-01

    Five probes localizing to the Xq26-Xqter region of the human X chromosome have been genetically mapped on the mouse X chromosome using an interspecific cross involving Mus spretus to a contiguous region lying proximally to the Tabby (Ta) locus. Pedigree and recombinational analysis establish the marker order as being Hprt-FIX-c11-G6PD-St14-1. The size of this contiguous region is such that the X-linked muscular dystrophy (mdx) mouse mutation probably maps within this segment. This in turn suggests that it is highly improbable that the mouse mdx locus represents a model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). It is, however, compatible with the idea that this mutation may correspond in man to Emery Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. The high frequency of restriction fragment length polymorphisms found in this interspecific system for all the human cross-reacting probes examined up until now, using only a limited number of restriction enzymes, suggests that the Mus spretus mapping system may be of great potential value for establishing the linkage relationships existing in man when conserved chromosomal regions are concerned and human/mouse cross-reacting probes are available or can be obtained

  18. Transformative Poetry. A Case Study of W. H. Auden’s Musée Des Beaux Arts and General Conclusions

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    Sarot Marcel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article situates Auden’s poem Musée des Beaux Arts in the process of his conversion to Christianity. The author argues for the layered intertextuality of the poem, in which allusions to Bruegel’s Landscape with the Fall of Icarus, The Census at Jerusalem, and The Massacre of the Innocents can be recognised. Moreover, Philippe de Champaigne’s Presentation in the Temple and Peter Paul Rubens’s The Martyrdom of St Livinus (in the same museum in Brussels seem also to have influenced the poem. Finally, there is reason to suppose that John Singer Sargent’s Crashed Aeroplane influenced Auden. In an analysis of the structure of the poem, the author argues that there is a clear structure hidden under the surface of day-to-day language. He connects this hidden structure with Auden’s poem The Hidden Law, and suggests that Auden wished to claim that even though we cannot understand suffering, it has a hidden meaning known only to God. This hidden meaning connects our suffering with the self-emptying of Christ, a connection which the author demonstrates is in fact also made in Musée des Beaux Arts.

  19. INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF SYMBIOTIC STARS. XI. ORBITS FOR SOUTHERN S-TYPE SYSTEMS: HEN 3-461, SY MUS, HEN 3-828, AND AR PAV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fekel, Francis C.; Hinkle, Kenneth H.; Joyce, Richard R.; Wood, Peter R.

    2017-01-01

    Employing new infrared radial velocities, we have computed spectroscopic orbits of the cool giants in four southern S-type symbiotic systems. The orbits for two of the systems, Hen 3-461 and Hen 3-828, have been determined for the first time, while orbits of the other two, SY Mus and AR Pav, have previously been determined. For the latter two systems, we compare our results with those in the literature. The low mass of the secondary of SY Mus suggests that it has gone through a common envelope phase. Hen 3-461 has an orbital period of 2271 days, one of the longest currently known for S-type symbiotic systems. That period is very different from the orbital period proposed previously from its photometric variations. The other three binaries have periods between 600 and 700 day, values that are typical for S-type symbiotic orbits. Basic properties of the M giant components and the distance to each system are determined.

  20. γ-irradiation-induced mortality: protective effect of protease inhibitors in chickens and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palladino, M.A.; Galton, J.E.; Troll, W.; Thorbecke, G.J.

    1982-01-01

    Chickens (Gallus domesticus) were protected from the acute γ-irradiation-induced mortality (within 24 hours) by the proteolytic enzyme inhibitors, soy-bean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI), lima bean inhibitor (LBTI), antipain, α-N-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester HCl (BAEE), trasylol, and leupeptin. Several other enzyme inhibitors, p-tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester HCl (TAME), α-tosyl-lysyl-chloromethyl ketone HCl (TLCK) and epsilon-amino caproic acid (EACA), did not protect. EACA even increased the mortality caused by γ-irradiation. The pattern of protective enzyme inhibitors suggests involvement of a kallikrein-like enzyme. SBTI and antipain also protected against low range lethal γ-irradiation exposures, 690 R in BALB/c and 880 R in SJL/J mice. It is suggested that enhanced vascular permeability, which in chickens is known to be the cause of the irradiation mortality during the first 24 hours, may also contribute to the mortality in mice during the first week after irradiation. (author)

  1. The influence of snakehead (Channa striata) fish extract to increase hyperglycemic mice fertility based on spermatogenic cell composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayati, Dewi; Abdulgani, Nurlita; Ashuri, Nova Maulidina; Sa'adah, Noor Nailis; Lukitasari, Maharani

    2017-06-01

    Reproductive dysfunction is recognized as a consequence of diabetes mellitus. Previous study revealed that snakehead (Channa striata) fish extract can repairing the pancreas histological structure which by that decreasing the blood glucose levels. Further research was conducted to determine the influence of snakehead fish extract (SHFE) to increasing the fertility of hyperglycemic mice based on spermatogenic cell composition. Twenty five adult mice (Mus musculus) were induced intraperitoneally to be hyperglycemic using alloxan monohydrate single dose of 190 mg/kg body weight. Hyperglycemic mice treated orally for 14 days using SHFE which grouped into five treatment dosages. Testicular histology were prepared using the paraffin methods and stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin. According to ANOVA and Tukey's test, it was found that spermatogenic cells population as well as its composition in the testis of mice that treated with SHFE are significantly higher than hyperglichemic mice. The highest dose of SHFE (0.15 ml/day), showed highest spermatogenic cell. All hyperglichemic mice that treated with SHFE exhibited the ratio composition of spermatogonia: spermatocytes: spermatids as same as with control (healthy mice) i.e. 1:1:3 respectively.

  2. PREDIKSI LAMA KEMATIAN BERDASARKAN KEBERADAAN SERANGGA GENUS LUCILIA (CALLIPHORIDAE PADA BANGKAI MENCIT (Mus musculus DI LOKASI HUTAN MANGROVE

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    Ayu Saka Laksmita

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE This study aimed to investigate the presence of insects on mice carcasses in mangrove forest, the chronology of the insect presence and growth phase of the insects on estimating the time of death of the animal for the beneficial of forensic study. Collected insects were identified at The Laboratory of Animal Taxonomy and The Laboratory of Ecology, Department of Biology, Udayana University. The samples were divided into two based on the study areas: dry and watered areas. Five mice carcasses in three different spot were laid on each dry area. The data collected were analyzed descriptively. The differences of insect growths from egg to pupae and also the ex-pupae found on carcasses could be used to estimated the time of death of an animal.

  3. Effects of a 5-HT3 agonist and antagonist on inter-male aggression in Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kerchner

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Research has revealed an inverse relationship between serotonin (5-HT levels in the brain and aggressive behavior. However, effects on aggression at the level of the receptor have yet to be elucidated for many 5-HT receptor subtypes. This study examined the effects of the 5-HT3 receptor agonist m-chlorophenylbiguanide (mCPBG and antagonist ondansetron on inter-male aggression in mice. Using a resident-intruder paradigm designed to assess both offensive and defensive aggression, male C57BL/6J mice received 1 mg/kg i.p. injections of either mCPBG, ondansetron, or an inactive vehicle and were subsequently exposed to male AKR/J mice for a period of 10 minutes. Attack latency and the proportion of time engaged in a range of defensive behaviors were recorded. Subject C57BL/6J mice were then immediately run in an open field test for an additional 10 minutes to examine any anxiolytic or sedative effects of the drugs. Results show no significant differences between drug groups in either offensive or defensive behavior. No significant differences were observed between drug groups and open field activity; however, significant differences were seen between the offensive and defensive condition in the open field. In conclusion, this study fails to reveal any significant effects of the 5-HT3 agents on inter-male aggression, which may reflect a functional difference between the 5-HT3 receptor and the remaining G-protein coupled 5-HT receptor. However, this conclusion is limited by the large variance in behavior combined with small sample sizes, or the possibility of a drug dose insufficient for behavioral effects.

  4. Pengaruh Pemberian Fraksi Protein Ekstrak Kuda Laut (Hippocampus Kuda Bleeker, 1852) Terhadap Peningkatan Kadar Hemoglobin Mencit (Mus Musculus L)

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, Kindi; Fitria, Laksmindra; Sarto, Mulyati

    2014-01-01

    Seahorse (Hippocampus kuda) is known to have a high concentration of iron, taurin and progesteron as testosteron precursor. Seahorse extract can increase the production of testosterone hormone of mice. On the erythrocytes development, kidney is stimulated to release erythropoietin hormone in case of hypoxia and also related with testosterone production. Erythropoietin control erythrocytes development and increase hemoglobin synthesis. The objective of experiment was to study the effect of sea...

  5. Pengaruh Pemberian Fraksi Protein Ekstrak Kuda Laut (Hippocampus kuda Bleeker, 1852) terhadap Peningkatan Kadar Hemoglobin Mencit (Mus musculus L)

    OpenAIRE

    Kindi Adam; Laksmindra Fitria; Mulyati Sarto

    2015-01-01

    Seahorse (Hippocampus kuda) is known to have a high concentration of iron, taurin and progesteron as testosteron precursor. Seahorse extract can increase the production of testosterone hormone of mice. On the erythrocytes development, kidney is stimulated to release erythropoietin hormone in case of hypoxia and also related with testosterone production. Erythropoietin control erythrocytes development and increase hemoglobin synthesis. The objective of experiment was to study the effect of sea...

  6. EFEK ANTIDIABETES EKSTRAK AIR KULIT BUAH PISANG AMBON (Musa paradisiaca L. TERHADAP MENCIT (Mus musculus MODEL HIPERGLIKEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Indrawati

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pisang Ambon (Musa paradisiaca L. is one type of bananas usually consumed by Indonesian people. Besides its flesh which has high nutrition, its peels also has antioxidant activity. Antioxidants has the ability to reduce oxidative damage in people’s body with diabetes mellitus. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the antioxidant activity of the aqueous  extract of Pisang Ambon peels and to determine it’s effective dose as an antidiabetic agent in hyperglycemic mice. This study used male mice which all have been intravenously induced with alloxan at a dose of 50 mg/kgBW. They were then divided into five groups. The first two groups got Na CMC 0.5% (negative control and glibenclamide 0.65 mg/kgBW (positive control, while the other three got  the aqueous  extract of Pisang Ambon peels successively at doses of 400, 800, and 1200 mg/kgBW. The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA (Analysis of Variance at 95% confidence interval with parameter of blood glucose levels difference between before and after treatment. The results showed that the aqueous extract of Pisang Ambon peels had antidiabetic activity at an effective dose of 400 mg/kgBW in hyperglycemic mice which was comparable to glibenclamide

  7. Réappropriation du patrimoine autochtone : défis et nouvelles pratiques muséales et archivistiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Vernier

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Le rapport de la Commission de vérité et réconciliation du Canada (2015 fait le point sur la colonisation et les politiques du gouvernement fédéral ayant porté atteinte à l’identité culturelle des peuples autochtones du pays. Que cela ait été intentionnel ou non, les institutions de la mémoire – musées, centres d’archives et bibliothèques – ont contribué à cet héritage colonial par l’imposition d’un régime d’historicité de conservation et d’interprétation occidental. Le mouvement pour la réappropriation du patrimoine culturel autochtone, mené tant par les groupes autochtones que par les institutions de la mémoire elles-mêmes, cherche à corriger cette situation par des mesures aussi variées que le rapatriement, la restitution, la gestion partagée et l’autogestion des collections autochtones ainsi que la création de partenariats et de projets collaboratifs. Cette étude analyse d’abord le contexte sociohistorique dans lequel évolue le mouvement pour la réappropriation du patrimoine culturel autochtone pour ensuite présenter les réformes et les pratiques exemplaires des institutions de la mémoire issues de ce mouvement. Ces réformes témoignent de deux tendances distinctes, soit des stratégies d’autonomisation ou de collaboration. L’étude conclut sur quelques recommandations quant aux mesures institutionnelles à privilégier pour les prochaines décennies. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada’s Report (2015 takes stock of colonization and federal government policies that adversely affect the cultural identity of the country’s Indigenous People. Intentionally or not, memory institutions – museums, archives and libraries – have contributed this to the colonial heritage by imposing a regime of conservation historicity and Western interpretation. The movement to reclaim Indigenous People’s cultural heritage, led by both indigenous groups and memory institutions, seeks to

  8. Characteristics of MHC class I genes in house sparrows Passer domesticus as revealed by long cDNA transcripts and amplicon sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Maria; Westerdahl, Helena

    2013-08-01

    In birds the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) organization differs both among and within orders; chickens Gallus gallus of the order Galliformes have a simple arrangement, while many songbirds of the order Passeriformes have a more complex arrangement with larger numbers of MHC class I and II genes. Chicken MHC genes are found at two independent loci, classical MHC-B and non-classical MHC-Y, whereas non-classical MHC genes are yet to be verified in passerines. Here we characterize MHC class I transcripts (α1 to α3 domain) and perform amplicon sequencing using a next-generation sequencing technique on exon 3 from house sparrow Passer domesticus (a passerine) families. Then we use phylogenetic, selection, and segregation analyses to gain a better understanding of the MHC class I organization. Trees based on the α1 and α2 domain revealed a distinct cluster with short terminal branches for transcripts with a 6-bp deletion. Interestingly, this cluster was not seen in the tree based on the α3 domain. 21 exon 3 sequences were verified in a single individual and the average numbers within an individual were nine and five for sequences with and without a 6-bp deletion, respectively. All individuals had exon 3 sequences with and without a 6-bp deletion. The sequences with a 6-bp deletion have many characteristics in common with non-classical MHC, e.g., highly conserved amino acid positions were substituted compared with the other alleles, low nucleotide diversity and just a single site was subject to positive selection. However, these alleles also have characteristics that suggest they could be classical, e.g., complete linkage and absence of a distinct cluster in a tree based on the α3 domain. Thus, we cannot determine for certain whether or not the alleles with a 6-bp deletion are non-classical based on our present data. Further analyses on segregation patterns of these alleles in combination with dating the 6-bp deletion through MHC characterization across the

  9. Antibacterial power Village Fowl Egg Albumen (Gallus domesticus and Kate chicken (Gallus Bantam against fecal Coliform Bacteria Species at Eggshell Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Pramesti Wijaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Daya Antibakteri Albumen Telur Ayam Kampung (Gallus Domesticus dan Ayam Kate (Gallus Bantam terhadap Spesies Bakteri Coliform Fekal pada Cangkang Telur Abstract: This study aims to identify the species of fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells and Bantam and analyze the influence of chicken egg albumen and egg Bantam on the inhibition of the growth of species of fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells. This study is experimental with the independent variable in the form of chicken egg albumen and kate. The dependent variable in the form of growth inhibition zone fecal coliform bacteria. Tests performed by the agar diffusion method. Testing the antibacterial activity of chicken egg albumen and Bantam done by measuring the diameter of growth inhibition zone of each species colonies of fecal coliform bacteria in the medium Nutrient Agar. The research data is the measurement data growth inhibition zone diameter species of fecal coliform bacteria. Results were analyzed using analysis of variance single, and continued with LSD 1%. Results of the study are: (1 species fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells and chicken egg is Actinobacillus sp., Serratia liquefaciens, ozaenae Klebsiella, and Escherichia vulneris; and (2 there is the effect of different chicken egg albumen and egg Bantam towards the inhibition of the growth of species of fecal coliform bacteria found in chicken egg shells. Key Words: albumen of eggs, chicken, Bantam, antibacterial, fecal coliform bacteria Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan mengidentifikasi spesies-spesies bakteri koliform fekal yang terdapat pada cangkang telur ayam kampung dan ayam kate dan menganalisis pengaruh albumen telur ayam kampung dan telur ayam kate terhadap penghambatan pertumbuhan spesies-spesies bakteri koliform fekal yang terdapat pada cangkang telur ayam. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian ekperimen dengan variabel bebas berupa albumen telur ayam kampung dan kate

  10. Peroral Echinococcus multilocularis egg inoculation in Myodes glareolus, Mesocricetus auratus and Mus musculus (CD-1 IGS and C57BL/6j)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woolsey, Ian David; Jensen, Per Moestrup; Deplazes, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Echinococcus multilocularis transmission predominantly occurs in Europe between the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and various species of rodent intermediate hosts. We infected 3 species of rodent, Myodes glareolus (n = 47), Mesocricetus auratus (n = 11) and outbred Mus musculus (CD-1 IGS) (n = 9...

  11. Comparative analysis of Homo sapiens and Mus musculus cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor genes p16 (MTS1) and p15 (MTS2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, P; Stone, S; Wagner, R; Wang, S; Dayananth, P; Kozak, C A; Wold, B; Kamb, A

    1995-12-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors are a growing family of molecules that regulate important transitions in the cell cycle. At least one of these molecules, p16, has been implicated in human tumorigenesis while its close homolog, p15, is induced by cell contact and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). To investigate the evolutionary and functional features of p15 and p16, we have isolated mouse (Mus musculus) homologs of each gene. Comparative analysis of these sequences provides evidence that the genes have similar functions in mouse and human. In addition, the comparison suggests that a gene conversion event is part of the evolution of the human p15 and p16 genes.

  12. FBH1 co-operates with MUS81 in inducing DNA double-strand breaks and cell death following replication stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugger, Kasper; Chu, Wai Kit; Haahr, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The molecular events occurring following the disruption of DNA replication forks are poorly characterized, despite extensive use of replication inhibitors such as hydroxyurea in the treatment of malignancies. Here, we identify a key role for the FBH1 helicase in mediating DNA double-strand break...... formation following replication inhibition. We show that FBH1-deficient cells are resistant to killing by hydroxyurea, and exhibit impaired activation of the pro-apoptotic factor p53, consistent with decreased DNA double-strand break formation. Similar findings were obtained in murine ES cells carrying...... of replication stress. Our data suggest that FBH1 helicase activity is required to eliminate cells with excessive replication stress through the generation of MUS81-induced DNA double-strand breaks....

  13. Les vélins du Muséum national d’histoire naturelle : une collection mise en lumière

    OpenAIRE

    Cardinal, Catherine

    2018-01-01

    Une exposition unique au Cabinet d’histoire du Jardin des plantes Très rarement, le public a pu voir la collection d’images de fleurs, de plantes, d’oiseaux et de mammifères, déposée à la bibliothèque centrale du Musée national d’histoire naturelle. La fragilité des peintures sur vélin au contact de l’air humide et de la lumière explique les précautions prises à leur égard. L’exposition d’environ cent cinquante pièces au sein du Cabinet d’histoire, d’octobre 2016 à janvier 2017, a donc consti...

  14. Le corps numérique des données The Digital Body of Data: the Transfer of Artefact Fact Sheets from the Museum of Man to the Musée du quai Branly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Nicoletta Beltrame

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Le transfert des collections extra-européennes du musée de l’Homme au musée du quai Branly implique le déplacement des informations documentaires sur les objets. Des différentes fiches en papier (de collection ou d’inventaire, descriptive de l’objet, méthodique créées et classées au sein des départements du musée de l’Homme, on passe à la fiche informatique « TMS objets » au musée du quai Branly. L’information ne change pas simplement de place et de matière, elle est reconfigurée dans de nouvelles articulations du savoir sur les collections. L’inventaire muséal est ici conçu comme le système qui matérialise un savoir structuré. Pour pouvoir analyser ce système, il faut mettre en relation les propriétés des documents et les modalités de leur classement dans un espace créé ad hoc. La matérialité des supports, les multiples possibilités de rangements et de création de liens (la mise en relations entre rubriques de la fiche informatique agissent sur le contenu des données et ouvrent ainsi de nouvelles voies pour la construction du savoir.The transfer of extra-European collections from the Museum of Man to the Musée du quai Branly involves the displacement of documentary information on the artefacts. The various paper files (on collections or inventory, descriptive of the object, methodological created and classified within different departments of the Museum of Man are being replaced by digital files, or “TMS objects”, at the Musée du quai Branly. The information is not simply changing its location and material, it is being reconfigured within new interconnections of knowledge on the collections. The museum inventory is here conceived as the system that materialises a structured knowledge. To be able to analyse this system, it is necessary to link the documents’ properties to the methods used to classify them in an ad hoc space. The materiality of the media, the multiple possibilities for

  15. Fluoride Exposure Aggravates the Testicular Damage and Sperm Quality in Diabetic Mice: Protective Role of Ginseng and Banaba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sm, Saumya; Mahaboob Basha, P

    2017-06-01

    Fluoride toxicity is known to pose infertility in fluoride-intoxicated animals as well as in people residing in fluoride endemic zones. The present study addresses the degree of impairments caused due to co-exposure of high fluoride toxicity in diabetic mice. Swiss mice, Mus musculus, were subjected to fluoride toxicity by providing fluoride-supplemented drinking water (600 ppm NaF) for a period of 30 days after the confirmation of streptozotocin-induced diabetes(STZ, 50 mg/kgbw). Consequently, aggravated hyperglycemia and tissue fluoride accumulation were witnessed in fluoride-intoxicated diabetic mice; later, these toxicated mice were treated with ginseng extract (GE) and banaba leaf extract, (BLE) at dose of 150 mg/kgbw/day alone and in combination for 15 and 30-day duration to check the efficacy of phytoextracts in reversing the toxicity. The spermatological indices studied, such as sperm density, motility, viability and morphology as well as the testicular biochemical parameters showed enhanced impairment in reproductive status of fluoride-intoxicated diabetic mice. Further, 15-days administration of GE and BLE in combination at a dose of 150 mg/kgbw/day was found to be beneficial in normalizing the alterations observed upon fluoride intoxication to diabetic mice. However, the correlates showed moderate association between blood glucose levels and the spermatological as well as biochemical indices wherein the tissue fluoride levels correlate least.

  16. Seven harmonic susceptibility in oxygen and hydrogen loading of sintered YBCO by {mu}s pulsed electrolysis in an aqueous solution at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripodi, P.; Di Gioacchino, D.; Celani, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati (Italy). Lab. Nazionale di Frascati

    1996-09-01

    The complex AC susceptibility of high T{sub c} superconducting materials has been described in terms of the first seven harmonic component of Fourier series. Has been measured the {chi}{sub n} (n=1,7) of sintered YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO) bulk oxygen and hydrogen loaded samples versus amplitude and frequency of AC magnetic field at fixed temperature. The sample have been loaded by {mu}s current pulses electrolysis in an aqueous solution (0.3N LiOH+H{sub 2}O) at room temperature. In addition to the simplicity of the experimental setup, this procedure allows to obtain extremely high equivalent hydrogen/oxygen gas pressure on the surface of the electrodes. The YBCO electrode is polarized by short pulse width (0.5-10 {mu}s) and high power (120 W) peaks with a variable repetition rate (0.1-10000 Hz). The pulses are obtained by an home.made pulse generator. The difference in the behavior of the susceptibilities harmonic component between the deficiency and oxygen or hydrogen loaded samples give us the possibility to connect the susceptibilities with variations of the flux pinning in respect to normal losses in the superconducting materials. The loading can be a good probe to have information on the mechanism of the processes that sustain the critical current density Jc in this situation these affects appear strongly dependent on the loading conditions. By comparison of this measurements has been observed drastic change in behavior of susceptibility.

  17. Toxicological Evaluation of Essential Oil From the Leaves of Croton argyrophyllus (Euphorbiaceae) on Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and Mus musculus (Rodentia: Muridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, R C D; Silva, S L C E; Souza, I A; Gualberto, S A; Carvalho, K S; Santos, F R; Carvalho, M G

    2017-07-01

    Plant-derived essential oils can be used as insecticides for vector control. However, to establish their safety, it is necessary to perform toxicological studies. Herein, we evaluated the chemical composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil from the leaves of Croton argyrophyllus on the third- and fourth-instar larvae and adult Aedes aegypti (L., 1762). We also evaluated the acute toxicity of the essential oil in adult female Mus musculus. The lethal concentration 50 (LC50) and 90 (LC90) of C. argyrophyllus essential oil on larvae of Ae. aegypti were 0.31 and 0.70 mg ml-1, respectively, and 5.92 and 8.94 mg ml-1, respectively, on Ae. aegypti adults. The major components of the essential oil were spathulenol (22.80%), (E)-caryophyllene (15.41%), α-pinene (14.07%), and bicyclogermacrene (10.43%). It also displayed acute toxicity in adults of Mus musculus; the intraperitoneal and oral lethal dose 50 (LD50) were 2,000 mg kg-1 and 2,500 mg kg-1, respectively. The results showed that the essential oil from C. argyrophyllus leaves has insecticidal activity on Ae. aegypti larvae and adults at an average lethal concentration below the median lethal dose needed to cause acute toxicity in the common mouse. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Specificity in Sociality: Mice and Prairie Voles Exhibit Different Patterns of Peer Affiliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beery, Annaliese K.; Christensen, Jennifer D; Lee, Nicole S.; Blandino, Katrina L.

    2018-01-01

    Social behavior is often described as a unified concept, but highly social (group-living) species exhibit distinct social structures and may make different social decisions. Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are socially monogamous rodents that often reside in extended family groups, and exhibit robust preferences for familiar social partners (same- and opposite-sex) during extended choice tests, although short-term preferences are not known. Mice (Mus musculus) are gregarious and colonial, but in brief laboratory tests of social preference they typically prefer social novelty. This preference for novel vs. familiar peers may represent a species-specific difference in social decision-making between mice and prairie voles. However, the tests used to measure preferences in each species differ markedly in duration and degree of contact, such that the behaviors cannot be directly compared. We assessed whether social preferences for novelty or familiarity differed between mice and prairie voles of both sexes when assessed with matching protocols: the sociability/social preference test (SPT) typically used in mice (short, no direct contact), and the partner preference test (PPT) used in voles (long, direct contact). A subset of voles also underwent a PPT using barriers (long, no direct contact). In the short SPT, behavior did not differ between species. In the longer test, pronounced partner preferences emerged in prairie voles, but mice exhibited no social preferences and rarely huddled. No sex differences were evident in either test. Direct physical contact was required for partner preferences in huddling time in voles, but preference for the partner chamber was evident with or without contact. Both prairie voles and mice are social, but they exhibit important differences in the specificity and extent of their social behavior. While mice are often used to study social approach and other behaviors, voles are a more suitable species for the study of selective social

  19. Specificity in Sociality: Mice and Prairie Voles Exhibit Different Patterns of Peer Affiliation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annaliese K. Beery

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Social behavior is often described as a unified concept, but highly social (group-living species exhibit distinct social structures and may make different social decisions. Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster are socially monogamous rodents that often reside in extended family groups, and exhibit robust preferences for familiar social partners (same- and opposite-sex during extended choice tests, although short-term preferences are not known. Mice (Mus musculus are gregarious and colonial, but in brief laboratory tests of social preference they typically prefer social novelty. This preference for novel vs. familiar peers may represent a species-specific difference in social decision-making between mice and prairie voles. However, the tests used to measure preferences in each species differ markedly in duration and degree of contact, such that the behaviors cannot be directly compared. We assessed whether social preferences for novelty or familiarity differed between mice and prairie voles of both sexes when assessed with matching protocols: the sociability/social preference test (SPT typically used in mice (short, no direct contact, and the partner preference test (PPT used in voles (long, direct contact. A subset of voles also underwent a PPT using barriers (long, no direct contact. In the short SPT, behavior did not differ between species. In the longer test, pronounced partner preferences emerged in prairie voles, but mice exhibited no social preferences and rarely huddled. No sex differences were evident in either test. Direct physical contact was required for partner preferences in huddling time in voles, but preference for the partner chamber was evident with or without contact. Both prairie voles and mice are social, but they exhibit important differences in the specificity and extent of their social behavior. While mice are often used to study social approach and other behaviors, voles are a more suitable species for the study of

  20. Biochemical changes in the liver of Swiss albino mice orally exposed to acrylamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Sharma

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide is a common chemical which is used worldwide to synthesise polyacrylamide. Polyacrylamide and acrylamide both have numerous applications in cosmetic industries, plastic and aesthetic surgeries, ophthalmic operations, waste water treatments, oil recovery processes, and other industrial and laboratory processes. Exposure of mice (Mus musculus to acrylamide at three dose levels (5, 15 and 25 mg/kg body weight was investigated for its effects on the liver. Mortality was found to be nil in all the experimental groups. A significant decrease in body weight gain and liver weight was observed but the relative liver weight increased significantly with dose concentration. A significant decrease was observed in protein and GSH levels as compared to those of control, and this reduction was more pronounced at highest dose level. Concentrations of SGOT, SGPT, and serum alkaline phosphatase activity showed a significant increase which was directly proportional to the concentration of the dose.

  1. Induction and reversion process of molecular and cytological alterations after highly irradiated food ingestion in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo M, M.I.; Fernandez C, M.

    1984-01-01

    The molecular and cytological alterations induced in a mammal (Mus musculus) fed ad libitum with a balanced pellet diet irradiated with 50 KGy gamma radiation from weaning, for different periods, are analyzed. The transient chromosomal changes that recall tumor-like phenomena could be the expression of the damage and repair processes induced by changed molecules present in irradiated food. The reversible alterations of DNA structure and cytoplasmatic soluble proteins observed in mice fed with irradiated pellet diet could be interpreted as a result of the enhancement of the repair processes which could also explain the significant increase of the radioresistance of DNA found at 200 days after irradiated food ingestion. Finally, our results would suggest an induction of a pseudo-neoplasia due to a prolongated and exclusive ingestion of food irradiated with sterilizing gamma dose. Moreover, the maintenance of the irradiated diet induce the reversion of the observed phenomena by an eventual activation of the repair mechanisms. (Author)

  2. Tramadol ou butorfanol: modelo analgésico pós osteossíntese experimental de úmero em galos ( Gallus gallus domesticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Comassetto

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O tramadol é um fármaco opioide amplamente utilizado em medicina veterinária, porém seu uso e eficácia analgésica pós-cirúrgica não foi investigado em aves. Objetivou-se avaliar a eficácia do tramadol ou butorfanol em galos submetidos à ostessíntese de úmero. Foram utilizados 12 galos (Gallus gallus domesticus, os quais foram alocados aleatoriamente em dois grupos: grupo tramadol (GT que recebeu como medicação pré anestésica (MPA 5mg.Kg-1 de tramadol e o grupo butorfanol (GB que recebeu como MPA 1mg.kg-1 de butorfanol, ambos pela via intramuscular. Em seguida a indução ocorreu com a administração do agente anestésico inalatório, isoflurano 3V% e a manutenção anestésica com o mesmo agente 1,3 V%. Avaliaram-se a pressão arterial sistólica (PAS, frequência cardíaca (FC, frequência respiratória (f e temperatura corporal (TC. As avaliações foram realizadas: antes da MPA (M0; 15 minutos após MPA (M1; após indução anestésica (M2 e em diferentes momentos cirúrgicos (M3, M4, M5 e M6. A analgesia pós-operatória foi avaliada através da escala adaptada de dor em aves por dois avaliadores cegos aos tratamentos nos momentos: basal, e 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 e 24 horas pós-operatórias; sendo o resgate analgésico realizado quando uma pontuação maior ou igual a seis pontos de um total de 24 fosse observada. Observou-se redução da FC, f e da TC entre os momentos M2 e M6 em relação ao momento basal em ambos os grupos, sendo que no GB períodos de apneia foram observados entre M2 e M6, e entre grupos valores maiores na f no GT foram observados no momento M5 em relação ao GB. Houve diminuição da PAS apenas no momento M3 em relação ao momento basal no grupo GT. No pós-operatório apenas um animal do GT necessitou resgate analgésico observando-se pontuação maior no GT entre M1 e M8 e no GB entre M1 e M12 em relação ao momento basal, e entre grupos apenas T12 foi maior em GB quando comparado ao GT

  3. Designing peptide inhibitor of insulin receptor to induce diabetes mellitus type 2 in animal model Mus musculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permatasari, Galuh W; Utomo, Didik H; Widodo

    2016-10-01

    A designing peptide as agent for inducing diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) in an animal model is challenging. The computational approach provides a sophisticated tool to design a functional peptide that may block the insulin receptor activity. The peptide that able to inhibit the binding between insulin and insulin receptor is a warrant for inducing T2DM. Therefore, we designed a potential peptide inhibitor of insulin receptor as an agent to generate T2DM animal model by bioinformatics approach. The peptide has been developed based on the structure of insulin receptor binding site of insulin and then modified it to obtain the best properties of half life, hydrophobicity, antigenicity, and stability binding into insulin receptor. The results showed that the modified peptide has characteristics 100h half-life, high-affinity -95.1±20, and high stability 28.17 in complex with the insulin receptor. Moreover, the modified peptide has molecular weight 4420.8g/Mol and has no antigenic regions. Based on the molecular dynamic simulation, the complex of modified peptide-insulin receptor is more stable than the commercial insulin receptor blocker. This study suggested that the modified peptide has the promising performance to block the insulin receptor activity that potentially induce diabetes mellitus type 2 in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mottled Neuherberg (Mo sup(N)), a new male-lethal coat colour mutation of the house mouse (Mus musculus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    A new semidominant X-chromosomal mutation, Mottled Neuherberg (Mo sup(N)), which causes coat colour variegation is described. Mo sup(N) arose in the second postirradiation generation after 2 x 200 R of X-rays (24 hours apart) to oocytes of X/O mice. Heterozygous Mo sup(N) females have irregular patches of fully and lightly coloured fur over the whole coat with curly vibrissae. Their viability is reduced, about 3% of the heterozygotes dying prenatally and 6 to 28% dying postnatally before weaning. Survivors are fertile without externally visible abnormalities. Hemizygous Mo sup(N) males die in utero after implantation. The recombination frequency between Mo sup(N) and tabby (Ta) was 3.65 +- 3.16% (with 95% -confidence limits). Therefore, it is suggested that Mo sup(N) is a new allele of the mottled (Mo) locus of the house mouse. Mo sup(N)-bearing ova seem to have a lower chance of becoming fertilized by wild-type spermatozoa than by Ta-bearing spermatozoa. (orig.) [de

  5. UJI EFEK ANALGETIKA EKSTRAK BUAH KAKTUS (Opuntia elatior Mill. PADA MENCIT (Mus musculus YANG DIINDUKSI ASAM ASETAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gissa Amellia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pain is a mechanism of body defense. One way to allay or decreasing the pain is using medicines that have analgetic effect. The aim of this study is determine the analgetic effect of cactus fruits (Opuntia elatior Mill. extract and the most effective dose to giving analgetic effect. This study used writhing method by the injection acetic acid 1% as induced. Group I as a negative control used natrium carboxy methylcellulose 1%, group II as a positive control used aspirin suspension which dosage was 1,3 mg/20g BB, group III as a extract of cactus fruits give to dose 50 mg/kg BB, group IV dose 100 mg/kg BB, and group V dose 150 mg/kg BB. The result shows that cactus fruits extract to giving analgetic effect judging from the reduction strength writhing reflex to protection percentage at dose 50 mg/kg BB (11,26%, 100 mg/kg BB (42,10%, 150 mg/kg BB(60,14% and the positif control (75,34%, at the positif control shows that higher protection percentage. Effectiveness percentage analgetic extract of cactus fruits at dose of 50 mg/kg BB (14,4%, 100 mg/kg BB (55,36%, 150 mg/kg BB (79,95% and positif control (100%. The data which is got from the calculation later is analyzed by Kruskal Wallis. The result showed that at dose of 150 mg/kg BB is p: 0,016 (p<0,05 when compared with the positive control. So that is different significantly between dose 150 mg/kg BB and the positive control. The extract showed a optimal analgetic effect characterized by a significant reduction in the number of writhes or abdominal stretches in mice with dose 150 mg/kg BB body weight used when compared to the cactus fruits extract dose 50 and 100 mg/kg BB

  6. BIOAKTIFITAS BUNGA SEPATU (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. TERHADAP KADAR KOLESTEROL DARAH MENCIT (Mus musculus YANG MENGALAMI HIPERKOLESTEROLEMIA DENGAN DIET TINGGI LEMAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinza Rahmawati Samsudin

    2017-12-01

      Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh bioaktifitas ekstrak bunga sepatu (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis l. terhadap  kadar kolesterol darah mencit (Mus musculus yang mengalami hiperkolesterolemia dengan diet tinggi lemak. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimental murni, dengan menggunakan rancangan randomized post-test only control group design. Bunga sepatu mengandung pigmen antosianin yang termasuk golongan flavonoid yang berperan sebagai antioksidan. Sebanyak dua puluh delapan mencit dibagi menjadi empat kelompok (K1, K2, K3 dan K4. Kelompok K1 adalah kelompok yang mendapat perlakukan pakan tinggi lemak dan aquadest setelah aklimatasi. Kelompok K2, K3, dan K4 adalah kelompok  terapi yang mendapat perlakukan pakan tinggi lemak, ekstrak bunga septum sebanyak 1 ml dan aquadest setelah aklimatasi. Pemberian pakan tinggi lemak berlangsung selama 28 hari. Selama penelitian berlangsung penimbangan berat badan tikus dilakukan sebanyak lima kali. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa pemberian 1 ml ekstrak bunga sepatu selama dua puluh delapan hari dapat menurunkan kadar kolesterol mencit dimana nilai p<0.05.   Kata kunci: ekstrak bunga sepatu, kadar kolesterol, diet tinggi lemak

  7. A General Micro-Level Modeling Approach to Analyzing Interconnected SDGs: Achieving SDG 6 and More through Multiple-Use Water Services (MUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph P. Hall

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The 2030 agenda presents an integrated set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs and targets that will shape development activities for the coming decade. The challenge now facing development organizations and governments is how to operationalize this interconnected set of goals and targets through effective projects and programs. This paper presents a micro-level modeling approach that can quantitatively assess the impacts associated with rural water interventions that are tailored to specific communities. The analysis focuses on how a multiple-use water services (MUS approach to SDG 6 could reinforce a wide range of other SDGs and targets. The multilevel modeling framework provides a generalizable template that can be used in multiple sectors. In this paper, we apply the methodology to a dataset on rural water services from Mozambique to show that community-specific equivalents of macro-level variables used in the literature such as Cost of Illness (COI avoided can provide a better indication of the impacts of a specific intervention. The proposed modeling framework presents a new frontier for designing projects in any sector that address the specific needs of communities, while also leveraging the knowledge gained from previous projects in any country. The approach also presents a way for agencies and organizations to design projects or programs that bridge sectors/disciplines (water, irrigation, health, energy, economic development, etc. to advance an interconnected set of SDGs and targets.

  8. Synaptic vesicles isolated from the electric organ of Torpedo californica and from the central nervous system of Mus musculus contain small ribonucleic acids (sRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huinan Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic vesicles (SVs are presynaptic organelles that load and release small molecule neurotransmitters at chemical synapses. In addition to classic neurotransmitters, we have demonstrated that SVs isolated from the Peripheral Nervous Systems (PNS of the electric organ of Torpedo californica, a model cholinergic synapse, and SVs isolated from the Central Nervous System (CNS of Mus musculus (mouse contain small ribonucleic acids (sRNAs; ≤50 nucleotides (Scientific Reports, 5:1–14(14918 Li et al. (2015 [1]. Our previous publication provided the five most abundant sequences associated with the T. californica SVs, and the ten most abundant sequences associated with the mouse SVs, representing 59% and 39% of the total sRNA reads sequenced, respectively. We provide here a full repository of the SV sRNAs sequenced from T. californica and the mouse deposited in the NCBI as biosamples. Three data studies are included: SVs isolated from the electric organ of T. californica using standard techniques, SVs isolated from the electric organ of T. californica using standard techniques with an additional affinity purification step, and finally, SVs isolated from the CNS of mouse. The three biosamples are available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/biosample/ SRS1523467, SRS1523466, and SRS1523472 respectively.

  9. Synaptic Remodeling in the Dentate Gyrus, CA3, CA1, Subiculum, and Entorhinal Cortex of Mice: Effects of Deprived Rearing and Voluntary Running

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    Andrea T. U. Schaefers

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal cell proliferation is strongly increased and synaptic turnover decreased after rearing under social and physical deprivation in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus. We examined if a similar epigenetic effect of rearing environment on adult neuroplastic responses can be found in mice (Mus musculus. We examined synaptic turnover rates in the dentate gyrus, CA3, CA1, subiculum, and entorhinal cortex. No direct effects of deprived rearing on rates of synaptic turnover were found in any of the studied regions. However, adult wheel running had the effect of leveling layer-specific differences in synaptic remodeling in the dentate gyrus, CA3, and CA1, but not in the entorhinal cortex and subiculum of animals of both rearing treatments. Epigenetic effects during juvenile development affected adult neural plasticity in mice, but seemed to be less pronounced than in gerbils.

  10. Schistosoma mansoni: quantitative aspects of the evolution of gamma-radiation cercariae at the skin, lungs and portal system, in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa Cardoso, G. de; Coelho, P.M.Z.

    1989-01-01

    The migration of Schistosoma mansoni (LE and SJ strains) has been studied in eight groups of outbred Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus), which were previously infected with ca 450 cercariae, trans-cutaneously. The infection of mice was performed with non irradiated cercariae (control groups), or with gamma-irradiated cercariae, at the schedule of 3, 20 and 40 Krad. Regarding the skin, a progressive decrease was detected for the recovery rates, related to the time of infection. As far as the lungs and portal system are concerned, a significant inverse correlation was observed between the total recovery rate and the irradiation dosages. The dose of 20 Krad practically hinders the migration of the parasites (in both strains) from the lungs to the portal system, whereas the dose of 40 Krad prevents the migration of most of the parasites from the skin to the lungs. (author)

  11. Of mice and men

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    At the end of March , sixty mice were irradiated at the synchro-cyclotron in the course of an experimental programme studying radiation effects on mice and plants (Vicia faba bean roots) being carried out by the CERN Health Physics Group.

  12. The MICE Online Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is designed to test transverse cooling of a muon beam, demonstrating an important step along the path toward creating future high intensity muon beam facilities. Protons in the ISIS synchrotron impact a titanium target, producing pions which decay into muons that propagate through the beam line to the MICE cooling channel. Along the beam line, particle identification (PID) detectors, scintillating fiber tracking detectors, and beam diagnostic tools identify and measure individual muons moving through the cooling channel. The MICE Online Systems encompass all tools; including hardware, software, and documentation, within the MLCR (MICE Local Control Room) that allow the experiment to efficiently record high quality data. Controls and Monitoring (C&M), Data Acquisition (DAQ), Online Monitoring and Reconstruction, Data Transfer, and Networking all fall under the Online Systems umbrella. C&M controls all MICE systems including the target, conventional an...

  13. Schistosoma mansoni: quantitative aspects of the fertility and survival of worms obtained from irradiated cercariae (3 Krad), in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa Cardoso, G. de; Coelho, P.M.Z.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the fertility of female mice, as well as the survival of worms in their portal system, have been observed in four groups of outbred albino mice (Mus musculus), experimentally infected with ca 450 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni (LE and SJ strains), by transcutaneous route. The cercariae used were a) non-irradiated (control groups), and b) irradiated with 3 Krad of gamma irradiation (Co-60). From the 33 rd day on, some stability in the population of surviving worm could be observed. This population remained constant till the end of the observation period (90 th day), notedly in relation to the LE strain . Thus, it was concluded that gamma irradiation (at the dose of 3 Krad) is able to hinder the worm egg production in 98.1% of the infected mice. Further, it was observed that the few detected eggs were dead. Females were found to be more resistant to irradiation. The irradiation effect on the mortality of male worms was statistically significant scarcely from the 61 st day on. The long period of permanence of the sterile adult irradiated worms in the portal system of mice and their probable involvement in the development of immuno-protection (the so-called concomitant immunity, without the immuno-pathological involvements for the host) are here discussed. (author)

  14. The role of red dragon fruit peel (Hylocereus polyrhizus) to improvement blood lipid levels of hyperlipidaemia male mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernawati; Setiawan, N. A.; Shintawati, R.; Priyandoko, D.

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this research was to know the role of red dragon fruit peel powder to total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and weight in the male hyperlipidaemic Balb-C mice (Mus musculus). This study used a completely randomized design (CRD) and four replicates for each dose treatments. Samples were 24 male mice that divided into six groups i.e. positive and negative controls, doses of 50; 100; 150 and 200 mg/kgBW/days red dragon fruit peel powder. Before being given treatment, mice were given feed containing high fat for 20 days until experiencing conditions hyperlipidaemia. The red dragon fruit peel powder was given at oral with used gavage for 30 days. Blood samples were taken from the tail on vena caudalis. Blood lipid samples were analysed at enzymatic with BIOLABO kits. The results of this study indicate that after administration of red dragon fruit peel powder total cholesterol levels, triglycerides and LDL-c decreased, along with increasing doses of red dragon fruit peel powder for 30 days. Furthermore showed that dragon fruit powder can increase HDL-c levels. The conclusion of this research was The red dragon fruit peel powder can improve blood lipid level of male Balb-c mice hyperlipidaemia.

  15. Elevated carbon monoxide in the exhaled breath of mice during a systemic bacterial infection.

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    Alan G Barbour

    Full Text Available Blood is the specimen of choice for most laboratory tests for diagnosis and disease monitoring. Sampling exhaled breath is a noninvasive alternative to phlebotomy and has the potential for real-time monitoring at the bedside. Improved instrumentation has advanced breath analysis for several gaseous compounds from humans. However, application to small animal models of diseases and physiology has been limited. To extend breath analysis to mice, we crafted a means for collecting nose-only breath samples from groups and individual animals who were awake. Samples were subjected to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry procedures developed for highly sensitive analysis of trace volatile organic compounds (VOCs in the atmosphere. We evaluated the system with experimental systemic infections of severe combined immunodeficiency Mus musculus with the bacterium Borrelia hermsii. Infected mice developed bacterial densities of ∼10(7 per ml of blood by day 4 or 5 and in comparison to uninfected controls had hepatosplenomegaly and elevations of both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. While 12 samples from individual infected mice on days 4 and 5 and 6 samples from uninfected mice did not significantly differ for 72 different VOCs, carbon monoxide (CO was elevated in samples from infected mice, with a mean (95% confidence limits effect size of 4.2 (2.8-5.6, when differences in CO2 in the breath were taken into account. Normalized CO values declined to the uninfected range after one day of treatment with the antibiotic ceftriaxone. Strongly correlated with CO in the breath were levels of heme oxygenase-1 protein in serum and HMOX1 transcripts in whole blood. These results (i provide further evidence of the informativeness of CO concentration in the exhaled breath during systemic infection and inflammation, and (ii encourage evaluation of this noninvasive analytic approach in other various other rodent models of infection and for utility in

  16. Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 1 α levels are paralleling olfactory memory formation in the CD1 mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winding, Christiana; Sun, Yanwei; Höger, Harald; Bubna-Littitz, Hermann; Pollak, Arnold; Schmidt, Peter; Lubec, Gert

    2011-06-01

    Although olfactory discrimination has already been studied in several mouse strains, data on protein levels linked to olfactory memory are limited. Wild mouse strains Mus musculus musculus, Mus musculus domesticus and CD1 laboratory outbred mice were tested in a conditioned odor preference task and trained to discriminate between two odors, Rose and Lemon, by pairing one odor with a sugar reward. Six hours following the final test, mice were sacrificed and olfactory bulbs (OB) were taken for gel-based proteomics analyses and immunoblotting. OB proteins were extracted, separated by 2-DE and quantified using specific software (Proteomweaver). Odor-trained mice showed a preference for the previously rewarded odor suggesting that conditioned odor preference occurred. In CD1 mice levels, one out of 482 protein spots was significantly increased in odor-trained mice as compared with the control group; it was in-gel digested by trypsin and chymotrypsin and analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry (nano-ESI-LC-MS/MS). The spot was unambiguously identified as serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PP1-α catalytic subunit (PP-1A) and differential levels observed in gel-based proteomic studies were verified by immunoblotting. PP-1A is a key signalling element in synaptic plasticity and memory processes and is herein shown to be paralleling olfactory discrimination representing olfactory memory. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Helminth Infections of House Mouse (Mus musulus and Wood Mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus from the Suburban Areas of Hamadan City, Western Iran.

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    Ali Yousefi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence and intensity of helminths and their zoonotic importance in small rodents inhabiting in the suburban areas of Hamadan City, Iran.The present survey was conducted on the helminth infections of two species of rodents Apodemus sylvaticus (n=60 and Mus musculus(n=72 in the suburban areas of Hamadan City during 2010-2012. Rodents were collected and examined for helminth in the different organs. The nematodes were collected in 5% formalin solution and cleared in lactophenol, cestodes and trematodes collected from intestine fixed in AFA solution and stained by acetocarmine, cleared in xylol for identification.Helminths found in A. sylvaticus and M. musculus and their prevalence for the first time in suburban areas of Hamadan City were as follows; In A. sylvaticus: Cysticercus fasciolaris(3.33%, Syphacia fredrici(26.67%, S. stroma(8.33%, Anoplocephalidae sp. (1.67%, Skrjabinotaenia lobata(5%, Plagiorchis muris(1.67% and in M. musculus:Hymenolepis nana (16.67%, H.diminuta (5.55%, S. obvelata(30.56%, S. ohtarom (9.72%, Rodentolepis crassa (1.39%, C. fasciolaris (1.39%. Among 11 species in two rodents 4 species including S. obvelata, H. nana, H.diminuta,and P. muris have zoonotic importance. Statistically the relation between gender and their helminth infections was not significant in either M. musculus or A. sylvaticus (P>0.05.This study reports 11 species of helminths and on the other hand 3 species were identified for the first time in Iran and 5 species of them have potential health importance for public health and cat.

  18. Efeitos da música clássica como elemento de enriquecimento ambiental em Mus musculus em cativeiro (Rodentia: Muridae

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    José Geraldo Pereira da Cruz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2010v23n2p191 No ambiente selvagem, os animais são submetidos a mudanças constantes nos estímulos sensoriais. Entretanto, o ambiente de cativeiro é muito mais pobre em termos de estímulos fornecidos aos animais alojados no seu interior. Numa tentativa de remediar esta situação e promover um melhor bem estar, camundongos (Mus musculus foram expostos a duas condições: sem estímulos auditivos e com música clássica. Em todos os experimentos foi utilizada uma bateria de testes comportamentais. Os resultados demonstram uma diminuição significativa na imobilidade no nado forçado, aumento de entradas nos braços fechados do labirinto em cruz elevado e diminuição na imobilidade no campo aberto, nos animais que haviam sido pré-expostos anteriormente a 24h de música e sugerem que a música clássica causas mudanças na atividade motora em camundongos. Este estudo leva a conclusão que o enriquecimento do ambiente causa profundos efeitos sobre o comportamento de camundongos nos testes comportamentais e a música clássica é um método relativamente simples de contribuir para o bem estar de camundongos em cativeiro, mas pode comprometer resultados de experimentos como o nado forçado.

  19. Macroscopic morphology and arterial vascular supply of thymus in fowls (Gallus gallus domesticus of Red Bro Cou Nu lineag - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i4.8529

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    Eduardo Mauricio Mendes de Lima

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-eight fowls (Gallus gallus domesticus of the Red Bro Cou Nu lineage were studied. They were about 35 days old and had their arteries filled with Neoprene Latex 450", aqueous solution at 50%, stained with specific pigment (Globo S/A, Tintas e Pigmentos, and then fixed in aqueous solution of formaldehyde at 10%. The present study aimed to quantify the thymic lobes and identify the main arteries responsible for the blood supply of these lobes and their frequencies. The number of thymic lobes on the right antimere varied from two to 11, with a greater frequency of 8 lobes; and the left antimere showed a variation from one to eight, with a greater frequency of five lobes. The arteries destined to the thymus were composed by direct and indirect branches of the following arteries: left and right common vagus nerve, left and right cranial thyroid, left and right caudal thyroid, left and right ascending esophageal, right ingluvial, left and right cutaneous, and right common carotid. The right thymic lobes, regardless their origin, received from eight to 27 vascular branches, and the left thymic lobes, from eight to 24 branches.  

  20. Genetics of the α 1,6-dextran response: expression of the QUPC52 idiotype in different inbred and congenic strains of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Hoostelaere, L.; Potter, M.

    1982-01-01

    Antibodies to dextran B512 were raised in various strains of mice and were assayed by a radioimunoassay procedure. Idiotypic antibodies to the IgA(k) dextran B512 binding myeloma proteins QUOC52 and W3129 of BALB/c origin were prepred in rabbits. After adsorption, each antiserum was specific for the immunizing myeloma protein and did not react with hundreds of other myeloma proteins; nonetheless, antibodies to dextran B512 from various strains of mice cross-reacted in these test systems. Of the 2 idiotypes tested, the W3129 idiotype was more universally expressed in different strains of mice. The QUPC52 idiotype was the predominant idiotype in BALB/c anti-dextran B512 antibodies and was found in only a few other inbred strains. Using a battery of congenic and inbred strains, it was shown that the QUPC52 idiotype was controlled by genes linked to the Igh complex locus (chromosome 12) and to the Ig k complex locus (chromosome 6). The W3129 idiotype was found in a number of stocks of mice in the genus Mus recently isolated from the wild. The QUPC52 idiotype thus far was found only in inbred mice

  1. Isolation and characterization of viable Toxoplasma gondii isolates revealed possible high frequency of mixed infection in feral cats ( Felis domesticus) from St Kitts, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Moura, L; Majumdar, D; Sundar, N; Velmurugan, G V; Kwok, O C H; Kelly, P; Krecek, R C; Su, C

    2009-05-01

    Cats are essential in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the environmentally resistant oocysts in nature. Samples of serum, feces, and tissues from feral cats from St Kitts, West Indies were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by the modified agglutination test, and found in 71 of 96 (73.9%) of cats with titres of 1:10 in six, 1: 20 in six,1:40 in seven,1: 80 in three, 1: 160 in 10, 1:320 in 13, 1:640 in nine, and 1:1,280 or higher in 17. Tissues of 10 cats were bio-assayed in mice. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from tissues of 7 cats; from hearts of 6, from tongue of 5, and brains of 3 cats. All 7 isolates were avirulent for mice. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were not found in the feces of 51 cats. Genotyping of these 7 T. gondii isolates by 10 multi-locus PCR-RFLP markers, including SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and an apicoplast marker, Apico, revealed 4 genotypes, including clonal Type II, Type III and 2 unique genotypes. Five of the 7 cats had infection with 2 genotypes, indicating high frequency of mixed infection in the cat population on the St Kitts island.

  2. Protective propensity of bacoside A and bromelain on renal cholinesterases, γ-Aminobutyric acid and serotonin level of Mus musculus intoxicated with dichlorvos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sonam; Chaudhary, Bharti; Bist, Renu

    2017-01-05

    Current study established a protective action of bacoside A and bromelain against the toxic effects of dichlorvos in kidneys of mice. Experimental design included five groups. The first group was control. Mice of groups II, III and IV were administered doses of dichlorvos, bromelain and bacoside A respectively. In group V, mice were treated with both the antioxidants (bacoside A and bromelain) and dichlorvos. After 21 days of exposure of different doses, levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and serotonin were measured in renal tissues. Dichlorvos significantly reduced the kidney AChE (p GABA level (p level (p GABA level. Meanwhile, a significant decline in serotonin level (p < 0.001) was revealed, compared to dichlorvos exposed mice. Bacoside A and bromelain occupy a tremendous antioxidant action in the mice kidneys and a combination of the same ameliorates the renal toxicity induced by dichlorvos. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Presencia de los géneros invasores Mus y Rattus en áreas naturales de Chile: un riesgo ambiental y epidemiológico Presence of the invasive genera Mus and Rattus in natural areas in Chile: an environmental and epidemiological risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL LOBOS

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Realizamos un estudio que incluyó muestreos y prospecciones en un gradiente latitudinal en Chile continental para determinar la presencia y ausencia de roedores murinos introducidos, particularmente Mus musculus, Rattus rattus y R. norvegicus en áreas naturales o silvestres a lo largo de Chile. Además se analizó el riesgo epidemiológico que representan estas especies en el marco de un estudio sobre el virus Hanta. Los resultados mostraron que M. musculus rara vez es recolectado en áreas naturales. Sin embargo, las dos especies de Rattus han invadido ampliamente la región mediterránea chilena. Las regiones desérticas, los ambientes de alturas y las regiones australes, serían biótopos restringidos para estos invasores. Desde una perspectiva epidemiológica, la presencia del virus Hanta (variedades Andes y Seoul en Rattus es un elemento que demuestra que las especies invasoras además de generar impactos ecológicos, pueden ocasionar problemas económicos y de salud pública. La fragilidad de los ecosistemas mediterráneos determina que la presencia de especies exóticas constituya un elemento de alto riesgo para la conservación del patrimonio natural del país. Probablemente, la conservación de áreas naturales constituye la mejor herramienta para enfrentar a estas especies exóticasWe conducted a latitudinal study in natural areas of continental Chile to evaluate the occurrence of the introduced murine rodents Mus musculus, Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus. Furthermore, we evaluated the epidemiological risk of these species as part of an ongoing study on Hantavirus. The results allowed us to conclude that M. musculus occurs rarely in natural environments. However, the two species of Rattus have widely invaded the mediterranean region of Chile. Desert, altitudinal and high latitude regions seem to be restricted areas for these invasive rodents. From an epidemiological perspective, the occurrence of Hantavirus in Rattus (Andes and Seoul

  4. Pulsed magnetic field from video display terminals enhances teratogenic effects of cytosine arabinoside in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, H.; Wu, R.Y.; Shao, B.J.; Fu, Y.D.; Yao, G.D.; Lu, D.J. [Zhejiang Medical Univ. (China)

    1995-05-01

    Eighty-nine Swiss Webster mice were randomly divided into four groups: a control group, a pulsed magnetic field (PMF) group, a cytosine arabinoside (ara-C, a teratogen) group, and a combined PMF + ara-C group. Mice in the PMF and PMF + ara-C groups were irradiated with a PMF (a sawtooth waveform with 52 {mu}s rise time, 12{mu}s decay time, and 15.6 kHz frequency) at a peak magnetic flux density of 40 {mu}T for 4 hours daily on days 6-17 of gestation. The mice in the ara-C and the PMF + ara-C groups were injected intraperitoneally on day 9 of gestation with 10 mg/kg of ara-C. The incidence of resorption and dead fetuses was not affected by PMF but was increased by ara-C injection. The malformation incidence of cleft palate (CP) and/or cleft lip (CL) was significantly higher in all three of the treated groups than in the control group (P < 0.05). If, however, statistical analyses had been done on litters rather than on individual fetuses, they would show that the incidence of CP and/or CL in the PMF group is not significantly greater than that in the control group. A significantly higher incidence of CP and/or CL was found in the PMF + ara-C group (49%) than the ara-C alone group (26.1%). These data suggest that PMF might enhance the development of ara-C-induced CP and/or CL. The incidence of minor variations in skeletal development, including reduction of skeletal calcification and loss of skeleton, was not statistically significant in the PMF group. However, it was higher in the two ara-C-treated groups, and there was no significant difference between the ara-C alone group and the ara-C + PMF group. From these results it is concluded that the very weak embryotoxic effects of PMF exposure may be revealed and enhanced in combination with a teratogenic agent.

  5. Sex reversal in the mouse (Mus musculus) is caused by a recurrent nonreciprocal crossover involving the x and an aberrant y chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, L; Jones, K W

    1982-02-01

    Satellite DNA (Bkm) from the W sex-determining chromosome of snakes, which is related to sequences on the mouse Y chromosome, has been used to analyze the DNA and chromosomes of sex-reversed (Sxr) XXSxr male mice. Such mice exhibit a male-specific Southern blot Bkm hybridization pattern, consistent with the presence of Y-chromosome DNA. In situ hybridization of Bkm to chromosomes of XXSxr mice shows an aberrant concentration of related sequences on the distal terminus of a large mouse chromosome. The XYSxr carrier male, however, shows a pair of small chromosomes, which are presumed to be aberrant Y derivatives. Meiosis in the XYSxr mouse involves transfer of chromatin rich in Bkm-related DNA from the Y-Y1 complex to the X distal terminus. We suggest that this event is responsible for the transmission of the Sxr trait.

  6. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN EKSTRAK BUAH PISANG (Musa acuminate L DAN BUAH ALPUKAT (Persea americana Mill TERHADAP BERAT HATI MENCIT (Mus musculus BETINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heny Utami Ningsih

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Male reproductive ability ability has a linear correlation with libido and testosterone. Both are associated with various things main food consumption such as protein, vitamins and minerals. Aphrodisiac  is an ingredient or drug that arouses sexual arousal or libido. Pumpkin is an example of food from plants with the highest content of zinc. This study was to determine whether there is a difference between the content of zinc on the peel, flesh and pumpkin seeds against sexual activity of mice. The experimental animals used were 24 male, group I mice as control group, Group II was grouped with pumpkin peel extract, Group III was grouped with extract of pumpkin flesh, Group IV was grouped with extract of pumpkin seeds. The dose used is 2gr / kg BB and volume of 0.2 ml is given for 35 days. Sexual Activity is observed every day  by the position of male mice riding females. Based on Anova One Way test results showed there are differences in sexual activity  mice males in each group (ρ 0.000. The difference of the result of the number of mounts indicated that the giving of yellow pumpkin extract had an effect on the increase of mating behavior of male mice. The group treated with the extract of pumpkin flesh showed the highest number of mice mounts (mean = 24,1667.Further research is needed to get a clearer picture of the composition of the pumpkin nutrients that indirectly affect fertility in men.

  7. Compared to Sucrose, Previous Consumption of Fructose and Glucose Monosaccharides Reduces Survival and Fitness of Female Mice123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, James S; Hugentobler, Sara A; Suchy, Amanda K; Sosa, Mirtha M; Tanner, Ruth E; Hite, Megumi E; Morrison, Linda C; Gieng, Sin H; Shigenaga, Mark K; Potts, Wayne K

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intake of added sugar has been shown to correlate with many human metabolic diseases, and rodent models have characterized numerous aspects of the resulting disease phenotypes. However, there is a controversy about whether differential health effects occur because of the consumption of either of the two common types of added sugar—high-fructose corn syrup (fructose and glucose monosaccharides; F/G) or table sugar (sucrose, a fructose and glucose disaccharide). Objectives: We tested the equivalence of sucrose- vs. F/G-containing diets on mouse (Mus musculus) longevity, reproductive success, and social dominance. Methods: We fed wild-derived mice, outbred mice descended from wild-caught ancestors, a diet in which 25% of the calories came from either an equal ratio of F/G or an isocaloric amount of sucrose (both diets had 63% of total calories as carbohydrates). Exposure lasted 40 wk, starting at weaning (21 d of age), and then mice (104 females and 56 males) were released into organismal performances assays—seminatural enclosures where mice competed for territories, resources, and mates for 32 wk. Within enclosures all mice consumed the F/G diet. Results: Females initially fed the F/G diet experienced a mortality rate 1.9 times the rate (P = 0.012) and produced 26.4% fewer offspring than females initially fed sucrose (P = 0.001). This reproductive deficiency was present before mortality differences, suggesting the F/G diet was causing physiologic performance deficits prior to mortality. No differential patterns in survival, reproduction, or social dominance were observed in males, indicating a sex-specific outcome of exposure. Conclusion: This study provides experimental evidence that the consumption of human-relevant levels of F/G is more deleterious than an isocaloric amount of sucrose for key organism-level health measures in female mice. PMID:25733457

  8. Compared to sucrose, previous consumption of fructose and glucose monosaccharides reduces survival and fitness of female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, James S; Hugentobler, Sara A; Suchy, Amanda K; Sosa, Mirtha M; Tanner, Ruth E; Hite, Megumi E; Morrison, Linda C; Gieng, Sin H; Shigenaga, Mark K; Potts, Wayne K

    2015-03-01

    Intake of added sugar has been shown to correlate with many human metabolic diseases, and rodent models have characterized numerous aspects of the resulting disease phenotypes. However, there is a controversy about whether differential health effects occur because of the consumption of either of the two common types of added sugar-high-fructose corn syrup (fructose and glucose monosaccharides; F/G) or table sugar (sucrose, a fructose and glucose disaccharide). We tested the equivalence of sucrose- vs. F/G-containing diets on mouse (Mus musculus) longevity, reproductive success, and social dominance. We fed wild-derived mice, outbred mice descended from wild-caught ancestors, a diet in which 25% of the calories came from either an equal ratio of F/G or an isocaloric amount of sucrose (both diets had 63% of total calories as carbohydrates). Exposure lasted 40 wk, starting at weaning (21 d of age), and then mice (104 females and 56 males) were released into organismal performances assays-seminatural enclosures where mice competed for territories, resources, and mates for 32 wk. Within enclosures all mice consumed the F/G diet. Females initially fed the F/G diet experienced a mortality rate 1.9 times the rate (P = 0.012) and produced 26.4% fewer offspring than females initially fed sucrose (P = 0.001). This reproductive deficiency was present before mortality differences, suggesting the F/G diet was causing physiologic performance deficits prior to mortality. No differential patterns in survival, reproduction, or social dominance were observed in males, indicating a sex-specific outcome of exposure. This study provides experimental evidence that the consumption of human-relevant levels of F/G is more deleterious than an isocaloric amount of sucrose for key organism-level health measures in female mice. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Ana Cardoso Matos, Irina Gouzévitch e Marta C. Lourenço, dir. - Expositions Universelles, Musées Techniques et Société Industrielle/World Exhibitions, Technical Museums and Industrial Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Martins

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O livro toma como base as comunicações apresentadas ao workshop internacional "World Exhibitions & Museums of Science and Technology / Expositions Universelles & Musées de la Science et de la Technique" que decorreu no Museu de Ciência da Universidade Lisboa em outubro de 2008, cuja organização esteve a cargo das responsáveis por esta publicação (http://chcul.fc.ul.pt/act_ii/WorldExhibitions-Museums_programme_2008.pdf. Esse evento teve o apoio do Centro de História das Ciências da Universida...

  10. Troxerutin abrogates mitochondrial oxidative stress and myocardial apoptosis in mice fed calorie-rich diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geetha, Rajagopalan; Sathiya Priya, Chandrasekaran; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2017-12-25

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of myocardial apoptosis in metabolic syndrome (MS) patients. In this study, we investigated the effect of troxerutin (TX), an antioxidant on mitochondrial oxidative stress and apoptotic markers in heart of mice fed fat and fructose-rich diet. Adult male Mus musculus mice were fed either control diet or high fat, high fructose diet (HFFD) for 60 days to induce MS. Mice from each dietary group were divided into two on the 16th day and were either treated or untreated with TX (150 mg/kg bw, p.o) for the next 45 days. At the end of the study, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, oxidative stress markers, levels of intracellular calcium, cardiolipin content, cytochrome c release and apoptotic markers were examined in the myocardium. HFFD-feeding resulted in diminution of antioxidants and increased ROS production, lipid peroxidation and oxidatively modified adducts of 8-OHG, 4-HNE and 3-NT. Further increase in Ca 2+ levels, low levels of calcium transporters and decrease in cardiolipin content were noted. Changes in the mitochondrial structure were observed by electron microscopy. Furthermore, cytochrome c release, increase in proapoptotic proteins (APAF-1, BAX, caspases-9 and-3) and decrease in antiapoptotic protein (BCL-2) in HFFD-fed mice suggest myocardial apoptosis. These changes were significantly restored by TX supplementation. TX administration effectively attenuated cardiac apoptosis and exerted a protective role by increasing antioxidant potential and by improving mitochondrial function. Thus, TX could be a promising therapeutic candidate for treating cardiac disease in MS patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Dietary omega 6 fatty acids and the effects of hyperthyroidism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, N; Hulbert, A J

    1995-03-01

    The influence of the type of dietary fat on the effects of thyroid hormones was investigated in mice. Hyperthyroidism was achieved by providing thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) in the drinking water. Both hyperthyroid and euthyroid mice (Mus musculus) were fed isoenergetic diets containing 18% (w/w) total lipid but differing in fatty acid composition. Diets were either low in the polyunsaturated linoleic acid (18:2, omega 6) and high in saturated fatty acids (SFAs) or low in saturated fats and high in the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), linoleic acid. Treatments were maintained for 21-22 days. Plasma thyroid hormone levels, standard metabolic rate (SMR), changes in body mass, specific activities of malic enzyme (ME), Na-K-ATPase and glycerolphosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) of the liver were measured. Fatty acid composition of the liver phospholipids was also determined. Levels of T3 (15-17 nM) and T4 (250-255 nM) were significantly higher in the respective hyperthyroid groups. There was no significant influence of the diet on hormone levels. Hyperthyroidism increased the SMR 37-44% above the euthyroid levels. A significant body weight loss of 14-18% was observed in hyperthyroid mice on the PUFA diet but not in those on the SFA diet. PUFA diet significantly reduced the activity of ME but had no effect on Na-K-ATPase or GPDH activity. Activities of Na-K-ATPase and GPDH were significantly elevated in all hyperthyroid groups. Mice on T4 and PUFA diet showed a highly significant 399% increase in GPDH activity above the euthyroid level.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Evidencias empíricas de regularidades estadísticas y leyes de potencia en los genomas de Arabidopsis thaliana, Oriza sativa y Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha I Almanza P.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La masiva cantidad de datos biológicos provenientes de las disciplinas "ómicas" y su aprovechamiento en el mejoramiento genético vegetal requiere de nuevos abordajes teóricos y estadísticos que describan de forma satisfactoria principios generales en los genomas. El total de secuencias de los genes de los genomas vegetales de Arabidopsis thaliana y Oriza sativa y del genoma animal Mus musculus fueron extraídas y depuradas de la base de datos pública del Genebank mediante el diseño de algoritmos en lenguaje de programación Python. Se analizaron las distribuciones de las variables frecuencia de uso y tamaño de los genes, exones e intrones por cromosoma y entre genomas. Los resultados señalaron que las variables presentan patrones de comportamiento no lineales en forma de ley de potencia que difieren estadísticamente entre los genomas pero no entre los cromosomas de un mismo genoma. Además, el análisis aportó evidencias respecto al tamaño promedio constante de las secuencias de exones y de los genes simples por cromosoma y entre genomas. Los hallazgos sugieren: primero, que el genoma se auto-organiza de la misma manera en los cromosomas independientemente del tamaño o número de genes que estos contengan, y, segundo, que tanto los cromosomas como sus elementos constituyentes: genes, exones e intrones han evolucionado conjuntamente. El estudio señala que las leyes de potencia cumplen un papel amortiguador en las leyes de variación biológica y proporcionan medidas cuantitativas de la organización de las secuencias de ADN que definen la identidad de un genoma. La regularidad estadística de estas medidas genéticas tiene potenciales aplicaciones en el incremento del valor predictivo de los actuales modelos de mejoramiento genético vegetal.

  13. Analysis of Copy Number Variation in the Abp Gene Regions of Two House Mouse Subspecies Suggests Divergence during the Gene Family Expansions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezer, Željka; Chung, Amanda G; Karn, Robert C; Laukaitis, Christina M

    2017-06-01

    The Androgen-binding protein ( Abp ) gene region of the mouse genome contains 64 genes, some encoding pheromones that influence assortative mating between mice from different subspecies. Using CNVnator and quantitative PCR, we explored copy number variation in this gene family in natural populations of Mus musculus domesticus ( Mmd ) and Mus musculus musculus ( Mmm ), two subspecies of house mice that form a narrow hybrid zone in Central Europe. We found that copy number variation in the center of the Abp gene region is very common in wild Mmd , primarily representing the presence/absence of the final duplications described for the mouse genome. Clustering of Mmd individuals based on this variation did not reflect their geographical origin, suggesting no population divergence in the Abp gene cluster. However, copy number variation patterns differ substantially between Mmd and other mouse taxa. Large blocks of Abp genes are absent in Mmm , Mus musculus castaneus and an outgroup, Mus spretus , although with differences in variation and breakpoint locations. Our analysis calls into question the reliance on a reference genome for interpreting the detailed organization of genes in taxa more distant from the Mmd reference genome. The polymorphic nature of the gene family expansion in all four taxa suggests that the number of Abp genes, especially in the central gene region, is not critical to the survival and reproduction of the mouse. However, Abp haplotypes of variable length may serve as a source of raw genetic material for new signals influencing reproductive communication and thus speciation of mice. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  14. The uncharacterized gene 1700093K21Rik and flanking regions are correlated with reproductive isolation in the house mouse, Mus musculus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kass, D. H.; Janoušek, Václav; Wang, L.; Tucker, P. K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 25, 5-6 (2014), s. 223-234 ISSN 0938-8990 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0303 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : hybrid male-sterility * X-chromosome * placental development * sex chromosomes * zone * mice * speciation * differentiation * protein Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.068, year: 2014

  15. Dwarf Mice and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masternak, Michal M; Darcy, Justin; Victoria, Berta; Bartke, Andrzej

    2018-01-01

    Dwarf mice have been studied for many decades, however, the focus of these studies shifted in 1996 when it was shown by Brown-Borg and her coworkers that Ames dwarf (Prop1 df ) mice are exceptionally long-lived. Since then, Snell dwarf (Pit1 dw ) and growth hormone receptor knockout (GHR-KO, a.k.a. Laron dwarf) mice were also shown to be exceptionally long-lived, presumably due to their growth hormone (GH)-deficiency or -resistance, respectively. What is of equal importance in these dwarf mice is their extended health span, that is, these animals have a longer period of life lived free of frailty and age-related diseases. This review article focuses on recent studies conducted in these dwarf mice, which concerned brown and white adipose tissue biology, microRNA (miRNA) profiling, as well as early-life dietary and hormonal interventions. Results of these studies identify novel mechanisms linking reduced GH action with extensions of both life span and health span. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Isolation and RFLP Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in Free-Range Chickens (Gallus domesticus) in Grenada, West Indies, Revealed Widespread and Dominance of Clonal Type III Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikweto, Alfred; Sharma, Ravindra N; Tiwari, Keshaw P; Verma, Shiv K; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Jiang, Tiantian; Su, Chunlei; Kwok, Oliver C; Dubey, Jitender P

    2017-02-01

    The objectives of the present cross-sectional study were to isolate and genotype Toxoplasma gondii in free-range chickens from Grenada, West Indies. Using the modified agglutination test, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 39 (26.9%) of 145 free-range chickens with titers of 25 in 7 chickens, 50 in 6 chickens, 100 in 2 chickens, and 200 or higher in 24 chickens. The hearts of the 39 seropositive chickens were bioassayed in mice; viable T. gondii was isolated from 20 and further propagated in cell culture. Genotyping of T. gondii DNA extracted from cell-cultured tachyzoites using the 10 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico revealed 4 genotypes, including ToxoDB PCR-RFLP no. 2 (Type III), no. 7, no. 13, and no. 259 (new). These results indicated that T. gondii population genetics in free-range chickens seems to be moderately diverse with ToxoDB no. 2 (Type III) as the most frequent (15/20 = 75%) compared to other genotypes in Grenada.

  17. Troxerutin attenuates diet-induced oxidative stress, impairment of mitochondrial biogenesis and respiratory chain complexes in mice heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Geetha; Chandrasekaran, Sathiya Priya; Carani Venkatraman, Anuradha

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial abnormality is thought to play a key role in cardiac disease originating from the metabolic syndrome (MS). We evaluated the effect of troxerutin (TX), a semi-synthetic derivative of the natural bioflavanoid rutin, on the respiratory chain complex activity, oxidative stress, mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics in heart of high fat, high fructose diet (HFFD) -induced mouse model of MS. Adult male Mus musculus mice of body weight 25-30 g were fed either control diet or HFFD for 60 days. Mice from each dietary regimen were divided into two groups on the 16th day and were treated or untreated with TX (150 mg/kg body weight [bw], per oral) for the next 45 days. At the end of experimental period, respiratory chain complex activity, uncoupling proteins (UCP)-2 and -3, mtDNA content, mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics, oxidative stress markers and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were analyzed. Reduced mtDNA abundance with alterations in the expression of genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis and fission and fusion processes were observed in HFFD-fed mice. Disorganized and smaller mitochondria, reduction in complexes I, III and IV activities (by about 55%) and protein levels of UCP-2 (52%) and UCP-3 (46%) were noted in these mice. TX administration suppressed oxidative stress, improved the oxidative capacity and biogenesis and restored fission/fusion imbalance in the cardiac mitochondria of HFFD-fed mice. TX protects the myocardium by modulating the putative molecules of mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics and by its anti-oxidant function in a mouse model of MS. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. 2.45-GHz microwave irradiation adversely affects reproductive function in male mouse, Mus musculus by inducing oxidative and nitrosative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahin, S; Mishra, V; Singh, S P; Chaturvedi, C M

    2014-05-01

    Electromagnetic radiations are reported to produce long-term and short-term biological effects, which are of great concern to human health due to increasing use of devices emitting EMR especially microwave (MW) radiation in our daily life. In view of the unavoidable use of MW emitting devices (microwaves oven, mobile phones, Wi-Fi, etc.) and their harmful effects on biological system, it was thought worthwhile to investigate the long-term effects of low-level MW irradiation on the reproductive function of male Swiss strain mice and its mechanism of action. Twelve-week-old mice were exposed to non-thermal low-level 2.45-GHz MW radiation (CW for 2 h/day for 30 days, power density = 0.029812 mW/cm(2) and SAR = 0.018 W/Kg). Sperm count and sperm viability test were done as well as vital organs were processed to study different stress parameters. Plasma was used for testosterone and testis for 3β HSD assay. Immunohistochemistry of 3β HSD and nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS) was also performed in testis. We observed that MW irradiation induced a significant decrease in sperm count and sperm viability along with the decrease in seminiferous tubule diameter and degeneration of seminiferous tubules. Reduction in testicular 3β HSD activity and plasma testosterone levels was also noted in the exposed group of mice. Increased expression of testicular i-NOS was observed in the MW-irradiated group of mice. Further, these adverse reproductive effects suggest that chronic exposure to nonionizing MW radiation may lead to infertility via free radical species-mediated pathway.

  19. Perbedaan Efek Pemberian Topikal Gel Lidah Buaya (Aloe vera L. Dengan Solusio Povidone Iodine Terhadap Penyembuhan Luka Sayat Pada Kulit Mencit (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Atik

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal wound healing is a complex and dynamic process. Wound healing process can accelerate, with chemical treatment or natural. The chemical treatment often used in healing process is povidone iodine. For natural treatment, topical application of Aloe vera gel may accelerate the full-thickness wound healing process. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the differences between topical application of povidone iodine and Aloe vera gel for skin wound healing in mice. This study used 18 mice that were divided into three groups. First group was the wounded (control group, the second group was wounded – Aloe vera group, the third group was wounded - povidone iodine group. Full-thickness skin wound were created on the dorsal area of mice in each group. The control group were not given anything, while the second group were given Aloe vera gel twice a day, and the third group were given povidone iodine solution twice a day. At the fifth day, all mice were sacrificed for histologic evaluation and VEGF A expression. Data was obtained by microscopic observation of the wounded skin, based on quantitative parameter: epithelial thickness, total fibroblast, total blood vessels, and VEGF A expression. Then the data was statistically analyzed by using independent samples T test, ANOVA, and Chi square. The result demonstrated that the sum of epithelial thickness, fibroblast, blood vessels, and VEGF A expression in the Aloe vera group is higher than in povidone iodine group. Statistic evaluation showed that there were significant differences between the two groups (p < 0.05, with 95% confidence interval. Based on this result, it can be concluded that the topical administration of Aloe vera gel twice a day is better than povidone iodine with parameter epithelial thickness, total fibroblass, total blood vessels and VEGF A expression.

  20. Of mice and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Troels Askhøj; Troelsen, Karin de Linde Lind; Larsen, Lars Allan

    2014-01-01

    CHD is part of the phenotype. Furthermore, mapping of genomic copy number variants and exome sequencing of CHD patients have led to the identification of a large number of candidate disease genes. Experiments in animal models, particularly in mice, have been used to verify human disease genes...

  1. Direct calorimetry identifies deficiencies in respirometry for the determination of resting metabolic rate in C57Bl/6 and FVB mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Colin M. L.

    2013-01-01

    Substantial research efforts have been aimed at identifying novel targets to increase resting metabolic rate (RMR) as an adjunct approach to the treatment of obesity. Respirometry (one form of “indirect calorimetry”) is unquestionably the dominant technique used in the obesity research field to assess RMR in vivo, although this method relies upon a lengthy list of assumptions that are likely to be violated in pharmacologically or genetically manipulated animals. A “total” calorimeter, including a gradient layer direct calorimeter coupled to a conventional respirometer, was used to test the accuracy of respirometric-based estimations of RMR in laboratory mice (Mus musculus Linnaeus) of the C57Bl/6 and FVB background strains. Using this combined calorimeter, we determined that respirometry underestimates RMR of untreated 9- to 12-wk-old male mice by ∼10–12%. Quantitative and qualitative differences resulted between methods for untreated C57Bl/6 and FVB mice, C57Bl/6 mice treated with ketamine-xylazine anesthesia, and FVB mice with genetic deletion of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor. We conclude that respirometric methods underestimate RMR in mice in a magnitude that is similar to or greater than the desired RMR effects of novel therapeutics. Sole reliance upon respirometry to assess RMR in mice may lead to false quantitative and qualitative conclusions regarding the effects of novel interventions. Increased use of direct calorimetry for the assessment of RMR and confirmation of respirometry results and the reexamination of previously discarded potential obesity therapeutics are warranted. PMID:23964071

  2. Docetaxel chronopharmacology in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampellini, M; Filipski, E; Liu, X H; Lemaigre, G; Li, X M; Vrignaud, P; François, E; Bissery, M C; Lévi, F

    1998-09-01

    Docetaxel tolerance and antitumor efficacy could be enhanced if drug administration was adapted to circadian rhythms. This hypothesis was investigated in seven experiments involving a total of 626 male B6D2F1 mice, synchronized with an alternation of 12 h of light and 12 h of darkness (12:12), after i.v. administration of docetaxel. In experiment (Exp) 1, the drug was given once a week (wk) for 6 wks (20 mg/kg/wk) or for 5 wks (30 mg/kg/wk) at one of six circadian times, during light when mice were resting [3, 7, or 11 hours after light onset (HALO)], or during darkness, when mice were active (15, 19, or 23 HALO). Endpoints were survival and body weight change. In Exp 2 and 3, docetaxel (30 mg/kg/wk) was administered twice, 1 wk apart, at one of four circadian stages (7, 11, 19, or 23 HALO). Endpoints were hematological and intestinal toxicities. In Exp 4, circadian changes in cell cycle phase distribution and BCL-2 immunofluorescence were investigated in bone marrow as possible mechanisms of docetaxel tolerability rhythm. In Exp 5 to 7, docetaxel was administered to mice bearing measurable P03 pancreatic adenocarcinoma (270-370 mg), with tumor weight and survival as endpoints. Mice from Exp 5 and 6 received a weekly schedule of docetaxel at one of six circadian stages (20 or 30 mg/kg/wk at 3, 7, 11, 15, 19, or 23 HALO). In Exp 7, docetaxel (30 mg/kg) was given every 2 days (day 1, 3, 5 schedule) at 7, 11, 19, or 23 HALO. Docetaxel dosing in the second half of darkness (19 or 23 HALO) resulted in significantly worse toxicity than its administration during the light span (3, 7, or 11 HALO). The survival rate ranged from 56.3% in the mice treated at 23 HALO to 93.8 or 87.5% in those injected at 3 or 11 HALO, respectively (Exp 1, P active at 11 HALO (percentage increase in life span, 390%) and least active at 23 HALO (210%). Docetaxel tolerability and antitumor efficacy were simultaneously enhanced by drug dosing in the light span, when mice were resting. Mechanisms

  3. First report of [i]Enterocytozoon[/i] bieneusi and [i]Encephalitozoon intestinalis[/i] infection of wild mice in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oľga Danišová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Increased risk of zoonotic transmission of the potential human pathogenic species [i]Enterocytozoon bieneusi[/i], [i]Encephalitozoon intestinalis[/i] and [i]Encephalitozoon cuniculi [/i]was detected in wild immunocompetent mice (Mus musculus musculus; n=280. Analysis was conducted with the use of PMP1/PMP2 primers and SYBR Green RT-PCR. Using Real Time PCR and comparing the sequences with sequences in the GenBank, [i]E. bieneusi[/i] was detected in 3 samples (1.07 %, [i]E. cuniculi [/i]in 1 sample (0.35 % and [i]E. intestinalis[/i] in 1 sample (0.35 %. The results of this report document the low host specificity of detected microsporidia species, and imply the importance of synanthropic rodents as a potential source of human microsporidial infection.

  4. Life history and bioeconomy of the house mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, R J; Bronson, F H

    1992-11-01

    1. More is known about the western European house mouse, Mus (musculus) domesticus than any other non-human mammal. If laboratory and field information is combined, an extremely valuable understanding of the species' bioeconomy could be obtained. 2. The seven stages of mouse life-history are surveyed (up to birth, nest life, sex life, social structure, population statics and stability, senescence, and death), and the interactions between the changing phenotype and the environment are described. 3. These interactions can be used to build up a model of the opportunities and compromises which result in the fitness of individual mice. It is not yet possible to quantify such a model, but this should in principle be achievable.

  5. Sarcocystis jamaicensis n. sp., from Red-Tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) Definitive Host and IFN-γ Gene Knockout Mice as Experimental Intermediate Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S K; von Dohlen, A Rosypal; Mowery, J D; Scott, D; Rosenthal, B M; Dubey, J P; Lindsay, D S

    2017-10-01

    Here, we report a new species of Sarcocystis with red-tailed hawk (RTH, Buteo jamaicensis) as the natural definitive host and IFN-γ gene knockout (KO) mice as an experimental intermediate host in which sarcocysts form in muscle. Two RTHs submitted to the Carolina Raptor Center, Huntersville, North Carolina, were euthanized because they could not be rehabilitated and released. Fully sporulated 12.5 × 9.9-μm sized sporocysts were found in intestinal scrapings of both hawks. Sporocysts were orally fed to laboratory-reared outbred Swiss Webster mice (SW, Mus musculus) and also to KO mice. The sporocysts were infective for KO mice but not for SW mice. All SW mice remained asymptomatic, and neither schizonts nor sarcocysts were found in any SW mice euthanized on days 54, 77, 103 (n = 2) or 137 post-inoculation (PI). The KO mice developed neurological signs and were necropsied between 52 to 68 days PI. Schizonts/merozoites were found in all KO mice euthanized on days 52, 55 (n = 3), 59, 61 (n = 2), 66, and 68 PI and they were confined to the brain. The predominant lesion was meningoencephalitis characterized by perivascular cuffs, granulomas, and necrosis of the neural tissue. The schizonts/merozoites were located in neural tissue and were apparently extravascular. Brain homogenates from infected KO mice were infective to KO mice by subcutaneous inoculation and when seeded on to CV-1 cells. Microscopic sarcocysts were found in skeletal muscles of 5 of 8 KO mice euthanized between 55-61 days PI. Only a few sarcocysts were detected. Sarcocysts were microscopic, up to 3.5 mm long. When viewed with light microscopy, the sarcocyst wall appeared thin (<1 μm thick) and smooth. By transmission electron microscopy, the sarcocyst wall classified as "type 1j" (new designation). Molecular characterization using 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, ITS-1, and cox1 genes revealed a close relationship with Sarcocystis microti and Sarcocystis glareoli; both species infect birds as definitive hosts

  6. Contrasting behavior of heterochromatic and euchromatic chromosome portions and pericentric genome separation in pre-bouquet spermatocytes of hybrid mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherthan, Harry; Schöfisch, Karina; Dell, Thomas; Illner, Doris

    2014-12-01

    The spatial distribution of parental genomes has attracted much interest because intranuclear chromosome distribution can modulate the transcriptome of cells and influence the efficacy of meiotic homologue pairing. Pairing of parental chromosomes is imperative to sexual reproduction as it translates into homologue segregation and genome haploidization to counteract the genome doubling at fertilization. Differential FISH tagging of parental pericentromeric genome portions and specific painting of euchromatic chromosome arms in Mus musculus (MMU) × Mus spretus (MSP) hybrid spermatogenesis disclosed a phase of homotypic non-homologous pericentromere clustering that led to parental pericentric genome separation from the pre-leptoteneup to zygotene stages. Preferential clustering of MMU pericentromeres correlated with particular enrichment of epigenetic marks (H3K9me3), HP1-γ and structural maintenance of chromosomes SMC6 complex proteins at the MMU major satellite DNA repeats. In contrast to the separation of heterochromatic pericentric genome portions, the euchromatic arms of homeologous chromosomes showed considerable presynaptic pairing already during leptotene stage of all mice investigated. Pericentric genome separation was eventually disbanded by telomere clustering that concentrated both parental pericentric genome portions in a limited nuclear sector of the bouquet nucleus. Our data disclose the differential behavior of pericentromeric heterochromatin and the euchromatic portions of the parental genomes during homologue search. Homotypic pericentromere clustering early in prophase I may contribute to the exclusion of large repetitive DNA domains from homology search, while the telomere bouquet congregates and registers spatially separated portions of the genome to fuel synapsis initiation and high levels of homologue pairing, thus contributing to the fidelity of meiosis and reproduction.

  7. Effects of royal jelly on genotoxicity and nephrotoxicity induced by valproic acid in albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa R. Galaly

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases affecting at least 50 million people worldwide. Valproic acid (VPA is a widely used antiepileptic medication for both generalized and partial seizures of epilepsy. The objective of the study was to investigate the anti-mutagenic and anti-histopathologic effects of royal jelly (RJ on VPA-induced genotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in male albino mice (Mus musculus. 80 Mice were used for 21 days; they were divided into eight groups, (G1 served as normal control group, G2 received VPA (100 mg/kg and (G3–G5 received RJ at doses 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg respectively. While (G6–G8 were administrated RJ simultaneously with VPA. In RJ treated mice at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg, the kidney sections showed normal histological structure with non significant changes in chromosomal aberrations (CA and mitotic index (MI, while RJ at dose of 200 mg/kg showed mild inflammatory cells infiltration and hyperemic glomeruli but not highly significant changes in CA and MI. The cortex of VPA treated mice revealed congested glomeruli with inflammatory cells infiltration, and marked degeneration of almost structures of the glomeruli including some vacuoles in mesangial cells with dark mesangial substances on the ultrastructure level. Some proximal tubules showed degeneration of microvilli on the apical parts of some cells. Cells of the distal tubules attained obliterated lumen and vacuolated lining epithelium. The results also revealed that valproic acid induced a high frequency of CA in bone marrow cells of mice and MI was significantly decreased indicating bone marrow cytotoxicity. The treatment of mice with RJ at doses 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for 21 days simultaneously with VPA resulted in abating the histological alterations in renal tissues with significant reduction in chromosomal aberrations, for doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg, and elevation in mitotic index (P < 0.05. RJ at doses 50 and 100 mg/kg appeared

  8. Comment rester vigilant face à l’oubli ? Le musée de la fonderie à Rosières. How to remain vigilant against forgetting ? Rosières’s foundry museum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume ETIENNE

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La mise en exposition d’objets liés au travail dépasse largement la simple présentation au public d’un savoir-faire ou d’une technique. Dans cette cité ouvrière du département du Cher, dans le centre de la France, les objets exposés au musée de la Fonderie semblent donner au visiteur bien plus qu’une vision générale du travail de la fonte. A travers l’analyse de la création de ce musée, de la mise en place d’un véritable réseau de vigilance contre la perte, et de l’exposition qui laisse transparaitre bien plus que des outils de travail, nous envisagerons ici le musée de la fonderie comme un microcosme d’une vie sociale aujourd’hui révolue, indissociable de l’usine et du paternalisme industriel qui a géré la vie des salariés pendant près d’un siècle et demi.More and more museums are dedicated to local histories of work and labour, displaying industrial artefacts and objects directly taken from the work place. In such museums, the visitors do not only get a chance to discover specific techniques and savoir-faire. The purpose is also to expose them to a much encompassing cultural experience. In the local museum of Rosières, a small industrial town located in the centre of France, the visitors are offered much more than the possibility to get a grasp of the smelting work itself, which we demonstrate through an analysis of the history of this museum, of the content of its permanent exhibition, and of a network of individuals who try to keep the industrial memory of this area alive. This museum indeed appears to function as a microcosm of a social life that no longer exists, and that was strongly connected to the factory life and the industrial plant as well as industrial paternalism that ruled the workers’ lives during almost one and a half century.

  9. Mice take calculated risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheifets, Aaron; Gallistel, C R

    2012-05-29

    Animals successfully navigate the world despite having only incomplete information about behaviorally important contingencies. It is an open question to what degree this behavior is driven by estimates of stochastic parameters (brain-constructed models of the experienced world) and to what degree it is directed by reinforcement-driven processes that optimize behavior in the limit without estimating stochastic parameters (model-free adaptation processes, such as associative learning). We find that mice adjust their behavior in response to a change in probability more quickly and abruptly than can be explained by differential reinforcement. Our results imply that mice represent probabilities and perform calculations over them to optimize their behavior, even when the optimization produces negligible material gain.

  10. XY pair associates with the synaptonemal complex of autosomal male-sterile translocations in pachytene spermatocytes of the mouse (Mus musculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forejt, J; Gregorová, S; Goetz, P

    1981-01-01

    Analysis of the chromosome behaviour at pachytene has been performed by means of the silver staining technique visualizing the synaptonemal complexes (SCs) in male mice heterozygous for the male-sterile translocations T(5;12)31Hm T(16;17)43H and T(7;19)145H, respectively. the T(9;17)138Ca male heterozygotes and T43H/T43H homozygous males were used as fertile controls. The sterile mice displayed a high frequency (about 60%) of pachytene spermatocytes with autosomal translocation configuration located in close vicinity of the XY pair. The dense round body (XAB), normally located near the X-chromosome axis in fertile males, exhibited abnormal affinity to translocation configuration in the sterile translocation heterozygotes. The incomplete synapsis of autosomes involved in translocation configuration was observed in more than 70% of the pachytene spermatocytes with the male-sterile translocations but less than 20% of the cells from T138Ca fertile male.s. A hypothesis relating the spermatogenic arrest of carriers of male-sterile rearrangements to the presumed interference with X chromosome inactivation in male meiosis is discussed.

  11. Les Cabinets de curiosités dauphinois dans les origines scientifiques du Muséum d'histoire naturelle de Grenoble (XVIII e -XIX e siècles)

    OpenAIRE

    Rochas , Joëlle

    2008-01-01

    Les actes du colloque de Poitiers concernant les cabinets de curiosités seront déposés sur le site web www.curiositas.org, site européen dédié aux cabinets de curiosités (Université de Poitiers).; Le Cabinet d'histoire naturelle de Grenoble, ancêtre du Muséum actuel, a été créé en 1773. Un premier historique de la fin du XVIIIe siècle mentionne les trois principaux cabinets d'où il était issu : un cabinet dauphinois - celui des Antonins - et deux cabinets grenoblois - celui du négociant greno...

  12. Studies on drosophila radiosensitive strains. 6. Influence of UV-rays and methyl methansulfonate on the survival and the frequency of chromosome aberrations in somatic cells of the larvae of mutant mus(2)201sup(G1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levina, V.V.; Sharygin, V.I.

    1984-01-01

    Larvae of mutagen-sensitive mutant of mus (2) 201sup(G1) drosophila of different ages are subjected to the effect of UV-rays and methyl methan-sulfonate. After this mortality of individuals at the larva and chrysalis development stages is accounted, as well as chromosome aberrations in somatic cells of larvae of the 3-rd age. It is shown that mutation studied determines high mortality of flies at both larva and chrysalis stages and increased number of both spontaneous and induced aberrations. The conclusion is made that chromosome aberrations are not the only reason for the death of mutant individuals after treatment with mutagens and that functions of the gene studied are important for both dividing and nondividing cells

  13. Activity test of various mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana pericarp extract fractions to decrease fasting blood cholesterol levels and lipid peroxidation activity in diabetic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saikhu Akhmad Husen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of various fractions of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana pericarp extract to the changes of the fasting blood cholesterol and serum malondialdehyde (MDA levels on diabetic mice (Mus musculus. Thirty 3-4 months old male mice strain BALB/c, weight 20-30 g were divided into six groups. The first group was KN as a non diabetic control group, KD as a diabetic control, KM as a group of diabetic mice treated with metformin, and NP, SP, and P as the treatment groups that were treated by using three different fractions from mangosteen pericarp extract, non polar, semi polar, and polar respectively. The induction of Diabetes mellitus was done by the injection of STZ, and the mice were given a high fat diet treatment to induce the hiperlipidemia condition using lard for three weeks. The blood cholesterol levels were measured in all groups before and after the injection of lard, and day 1, 7, and 14 of treatment as well. The serum MDA level as the indicator of lipid peroxidation were measured by using QuantiChrom TBARS Assay Kit (DTBA-100. The data of cholesterol levels were statistically analyzed by t-test, while the data of serum MDA levels were analyzed by variance analysis followed by Duncan test. The results showed that the polar fraction of mangosteen pericarp had effect to decrease the fasting blood cholesterol level in mice, however the non polar and semi polar fraction had no simmilar effect. All of the fractions has shown significant effect to decrease the serum MDA level in mice. Key words: cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, Garcinia mangostana, malondialdehyde (mda, obesity.

  14. Mechanical time-shutter for spectrograph with exposure times from 1.5 {mu}s to 3 ms; Un obturateur mecanique pour spectrographe dont le temps d'exposition varie de 1,5 microseconde a 3 millisecondes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, L; Drawin, H W [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Association Euratom - CEA, Groupe de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    A mechanical time-shutter for exposure-times ranging from l,5 {mu}s to 3 ms is described. The apparatus is designed for spectrographic observations of pulsed electrical discharges which show rapidly varying spectral emissivities. For the mechanical part of the shutter we used a specially formed fast rotating disk having a slit. Triggering of the discharge is achieved by the rotating disk - in connection with photocells. Both the instant at which - after the beginning of the electrical discharge - the exposure shall begin, and the duration of exposure which will then follow can be 'preselected' on a special electronic control device. All functions: rotation of the disk - ignition of the discharge - exposure - switch-off of the disk are controlled electronically. The principle and the main electronic control parts of this versatile instrument are described. (authors) [French] On decrit un obturateur spectrographique rapide ayant des temps d'exposition allant de 1,5 {mu}s a 3 ms. L'obturateur est concu pour faire des observations spectrographiques de decharges pulsees dont l'emission spectrale varie rapidement. En ce qui concerne la partie mecanique nous avons utilise un disque comprenant une fente, qui tourne devant la fente d'entree du spectrographe. L'amorcage de la decharge est assure par le disque lui-meme, a l'aide de cellules photoelectriques. L'instant a partir duquel l'observation doit commencer - apres avoir amorce la decharge -, ainsi que la duree d'exposition qui suit, peuvent etre preselectionnes sur un tiroir electronique. Toutes les fonctions: mise en rotation du disque - amorcage de la decharge - exposition - freinage du disque se suivent automatiquement. Le principe ainsi que les circuits electroniques de controle de cet appareil sont decrits. (auteur)

  15. Efficacy of a Recombinant Turkey Herpesvirus H5 Vaccine Against Challenge With H5N1 Clades 1.1.2 and 2.3.2.1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Domestic Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Kapczynski, Darrell R; DeJesus, Eric; Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Tripodi, Astrid; Dunn, John R; Swayne, David E

    2016-03-01

    Domestic ducks are the second most abundant poultry species in many Asian countries and have played a critical role in the epizootiology of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI).In this study, the protective efficacy of a live recombinant vector vaccine based on a turkey herpesvirus (HVT) expressing the H5 gene from a clade 2.2 H5N1 HPAI strain (A/Swan/Hungary/4999/ 2006) (rHVT-H5/2.2), given at 3 days of age, was examined in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus). The vaccine was given alone or in combination with an inactivated H5N1 clade 2.3.2.1 reverse genetic (rgGD/2.3.2.1) vaccine given at 16 days of age, either as a single vaccination or in a prime-boost regime. At 30 days of age, ducks were challenged with one of two H5N1 HPAI viruses: A/duck/Vietnam/NCVD-2721/2013 (clade 1.1.2) or A/duck/Vietnam/NCVD-1584/2012 (clade 2.3.2.1.C). These viruses produced 100% mortality in less than 5 days in nonvaccinated control ducks. Ducks vaccinated with the rgGD/2.3.2.1 vaccine, with or without the rHVT-H5/2.2 vaccine, were 90%-100% protected against mortality after challenge with either of the two H5N1 HPAI viruses. The rHVT-H5/2.2 vaccine alone, however, conferred only 30% protection against mortality after challenge with either H5N1 HPAI virus; the surviving ducks from these groups shed higher amount of virus and for longer than the single-vaccinated rgGD/2.3.2.1 group. Despite low protection, ducks vaccinated with the rHVT-H5/2.2 vaccine and challenged with the clade 1.1.2 Vietnam virus had a longer mean death time than nonvaccinated controls (P = 0.02). A booster effect was found on reduction of virus shedding when using both vaccines, with lower oropharyngeal viral titers at 4 days after challenge with either HPAI virus (P study demonstrates the suboptimal protection with the rHVT-H5/2.2 vaccine given alone in Pekin ducks against H5N1 HPAI viruses and only a minor additive effect on virus shedding reduction when used with an inactivated vaccine in a

  16. Metagenomic and metabolomic analysis of the toxic effects of trichloroacetamide-induced gut microbiome and urine metabolome perturbations in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Fuzheng; Deng, Yongfeng; Zhao, Yanping; Ren, Hongqiang

    2015-04-03

    Disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water have been linked to various diseases, including colon, colorectal, rectal, and bladder cancer. Trichloroacetamide (TCAcAm) is an emerging nitrogenous DBP, and our previous study found that TCAcAm could induce some changes associated with host-gut microbiota co-metabolism. In this study, we used an integrated approach combining metagenomics, based on high-throughput sequencing, and metabolomics, based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), to evaluate the toxic effects of TCAcAm exposure on the gut microbiome and urine metabolome. High-throughput sequencing revealed that the gut microbiome's composition and function were significantly altered after TCAcAm exposure for 90 days in Mus musculus mice. In addition, metabolomic analysis showed that a number of gut microbiota-related metabolites were dramatically perturbed in the urine of the mice. These results may provide novel insight into evaluating the health risk of environmental pollutants as well as revealing the potential mechanism of TCAcAm's toxic effects.

  17. Neural correlates of food anticipatory activity in mice subjected to once- or twice-daily feeding periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Ashutosh; Mintz, Eric M

    2017-10-01

    In rodents, restricted food access to a limited period each day at a predictable time results in the appearance of food anticipatory activity (FAA). Two shorter periods of food access each day can result in two FAA bouts. In this study, we examine FAA under 12:12 and 18:6 photoperiods in mice (Mus musculus) with one or two food access periods per day and measure the activation of the suprachiasmatic, dorsomedial and arcuate nuclei by assaying Fos protein expression, while making use of tissue-type plasminogen activator knockout mice to assess the role of neural plasticity in adaptation to restricted feeding cycles. Long days were utilised to allow for temporal separation of two restricted feeding periods during the light phase. Mice fed twice per day generally divided FAA into two distinct bouts, with mice lacking tissue-type plasminogen activator showing reduced FAA. Increases in Fos expression in response to one restricted feeding period per day were seen in the dorsomedial and arcuate nuclei in both 12:12 and 18:6 conditions, with an increase seen in the SCN in only the 12:12 condition. These increases were eliminated or reduced in the two feeding time conditions (done in 18:6 only). Both activity patterns and Fos expression differed for single restricted feeding times between 18:6 and 12:12 photoperiods. Fos activation was lower during RF in 18:6 than 12:12 across all three brain regions, a pattern not reflective of changes in FAA. These data suggest that involvement of these regions in FAA may be influenced by photoperiodic context. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Infection of C57BL/6 mice by Trypanosoma musculi modulates host immune responses during Brucella abortus cocolonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Jake E; Leonhardt, Jack A; Yao, Chaoqun; Belden, E Lee; Andrews, Gerard P

    2014-01-01

    Brucellosis, which results in fetal abortions in domestic and wildlife animal populations, is of major concern in the US and throughout much of the world. The disease, caused by Brucella abortus, poses an economic threat to agriculture-based communities. A moderately efficacious live attenuated vaccine (B. abortus strain RB51) exists. However, even with vaccine use, outbreaks occur. Evidence suggests that elk (Cervus canadensis), a wild host reservoir, are the source of recent outbreaks in domestic cattle herds in Wyoming, USA. Brucella abortus establishes a chronic, persistent infection in elk. The molecular mechanisms allowing the establishment of this persistent infective state are currently unknown. A potential mechanism could be that concurrent pathogen burdens contribute to persistence. In Wyoming, elk are chronically infected with Trypanosoma cervi, which may modulate host responses in a similar manner to that documented for other trypanosomes. To identify any synergistic relationship between the two pathogens, we simulated coinfection in the well-established murine brucellosis model using Trypanosoma musculi and B. abortus S19. Groups of C57BL/6 mice (Mus musculus) were infected with either B. abortus strain 19 (S19) or T. musculi or both. Sera were collected weekly; spleens from euthanized mice were tested to determine bacterial load near the end of normal brucellosis infection. Although changes in bacterial load were observed during the later stages of brucellosis in those mice coinfected with T. musculi, the most significant finding was the suppression of gamma interferon early during the infection along with an increase in interleukin-10 secretion compared with mice infected with either pathogen alone. These results suggest that immune modulatory events occur in the mouse during coinfection and that further experiments are warranted to determine if T. cervi impacts Brucella infection in elk.

  19. Continuous Excretion of Leptospira borgpetersenii Ballum in Mice Assessed by Viability Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soupé-Gilbert, Marie-Estelle; Bierque, Emilie; Geroult, Sophie; Teurlai, Magali; Goarant, Cyrille

    2017-10-01

    Rodents are the main reservoir animals of leptospirosis. In this study, we characterized and quantified the urinary excretion dynamics of Leptospira by Mus musculus infected with 2 × 10 8 virulent Leptospira borgpetersenii serogroup Ballum. Each micturition was collected separately in metabolic cages, at 12 time points from 7 to 117 days post-infection (dpi). We detected Leptospira in all urine samples collected (up to 8 per time point per mouse) proving that Leptospira excretion is continuous with ca. 90% live L. borgpetersenii Ballum, revealed by viability quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Microscopic visualization by Live/Dead fluorescence confirmed this high proportion of live bacteria and demonstrated that L. borgpetersenii Ballum are excreted, at least partly, as bacterial aggregates. We observed two distinct phases in the excretion dynamics, first an increase in Leptospira concentration shed in the urine between 7 and 63 dpi followed by a plateau phase from 63 dpi onward, with up to 3 × 10 7 Leptospira per mL of urine. These two phases seem to correspond to progressive colonization of renal tubules first, then to stable cell survival and maintenance in kidneys. Therefore, chronically infected adult mice are able to contaminate the environment via urine at each micturition event throughout their lifetime. Because Leptospira excretion reached its maximum 2 months after infection, older rodents have a greater risk of contaminating their surrounding environment.

  20. The evolutionary turnover of recombination hot spots contributes to speciation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagulova, Fatima; Brick, Kevin; Pu, Yongmei; Camerini-Otero, R Daniel; Petukhova, Galina V

    2016-02-01

    Meiotic recombination is required for the segregation of homologous chromosomes and is essential for fertility. In most mammals, the DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that initiate meiotic recombination are directed to a subset of genomic loci (hot spots) by sequence-specific binding of the PRDM9 protein. Rapid evolution of the DNA-binding specificity of PRDM9 and gradual erosion of PRDM9-binding sites by gene conversion will alter the recombination landscape over time. To better understand the evolutionary turnover of recombination hot spots and its consequences, we mapped DSB hot spots in four major subspecies of Mus musculus with different Prdm9 alleles and in their F1 hybrids. We found that hot spot erosion governs the preferential usage of some Prdm9 alleles over others in hybrid mice and increases sequence diversity specifically at hot spots that become active in the hybrids. As crossovers are disfavored at such hot spots, we propose that sequence divergence generated by hot spot turnover may create an impediment for recombination in hybrids, potentially leading to reduced fertility and, eventually, speciation. Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  1. Mismatch repair proteins, meiosis, and mice: understanding the complexities of mammalian meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlanov, Anton; Cohen, Paula E

    2004-05-15

    Mammalian meiosis differs from that seen in lower eukaryotes in several respects, not least of which is the added complexity of dealing with chromosomal interactions across a much larger genome (12 MB over 16 chromosome pairs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae compared to 2500 MB over 19 autosome pairs in Mus musculus). Thus, the recombination machinery, while being highly conserved through eukaryotes, has evolved to accommodate such issues to preserve genome integrity and to ensure propagation of the species. One group of highly conserved meiotic regulators is the DNA mismatch repair protein family that, as their name implies, were first identified as proteins that act to repair DNA mismatches that arise primarily during DNA replication. Their function in ensuring chromosomal integrity has also translated into a critical role for this family in meiotic recombination in most sexually reproducing organisms. In mice, targeted deletion of certain family members results in severe consequences for meiotic progression and infertility. This review will focus on the studies involving these mutant mouse models, with occasional comparison to the function of these proteins in other organisms.

  2. A disparity between locomotor economy and territory-holding ability in male house mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jeremy S; Ruff, James S; Potts, Wayne K; Carrier, David R

    2017-07-15

    Both economical locomotion and physical fighting are important performance traits to many species because of their direct influence on components of Darwinian fitness. Locomotion represents a substantial portion of the total daily energy budget of many animals. Fighting performance often determines individual reproductive fitness through the means of resource control, social dominance and access to mates. However, phenotypic traits that improve either locomotor economy or fighting ability may diminish performance in the other. Here, we tested for a predicted disparity between locomotor economy and competitive ability in wild-derived house mice ( Mus musculus ). We used 8 week social competition trials in semi-natural enclosures to directly measure male competitive ability through territorial control and female occupancy within territories. We also measured oxygen consumption during locomotion for each mouse using running trials in an enclosed treadmill and open-flow respirometry. Our results show that territory-holding males have higher absolute and mass-specific oxygen consumption when running (i.e. reduced locomotor economy) compared with males that do not control territories. This relationship was present both before and after 8 week competition trials in semi-natural enclosures. This disparity between physical competitive ability and economical locomotion may impose viability costs on males in species for which competition over mates is common and may constrain the evolution of behavioral and phenotypic diversity, particularly in natural settings with environmental and resource variability. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Study of Necrosis in the Liver of Formaldehyde and Benzo(αPyrene Exposured-Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Soni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde and benzo(αpyrene are compounds that harmful for health. Misapplication of this compound has an impact in the form of organ damage in the body. This study aims to determine the impact of the treatment of the combined exposure of formaldehyde and benzo(αpyrene to cell necrosis in the liver of mice (Mus musculus. Treatment of formaldehyde dose of 25 mg/kg BW to mice was given orally every day for 60 days. Treatment of benzo(αpyrene via intraperitoneal injection at a dose of 250 mg/kg BW were given after 30 days of incubation with four times injection with one day interval. Liver organ histological preparations were made through the HE staining. Observations were made by using a microscope for liver organ preparations. The data obtained that is the percentage of cells necrosis and necrotic foci. This research used Completely Randomized Design (CRD with 95% confidence interval. Liver organ preparations observations indicate that the percentage of necrosis in the untreated control, benzo(αpyrene 250 mg/kg BW, formaldehyde 25 mg/kg BW, combination of formaldehyde 25 mg/kg BW with BaP in a row that is equal to 14.43% ± 0.91; 26.05% ± 3.75; 49.38% ± 2.66; 51.86 ± 1.73. The mean of necrotic foci in liver organ formed in the untreatment control, benzo(αpyrene 250 mg/kg BW, Formaldehyde 25 mg/kg BW, and the combination of formaldehyde 25 mg/kg BW with BaP in a row, equal to 1.3 ± 0,07; 1.63 ± 0.61; 2 ± 0.51, and 3.4 ± 0.76. This suggests that the combined treatment had the highest level of toxicity compared with other treatments.

  4. Diphenylmethyl selenocyanate attenuates malachite green induced oxidative injury through antioxidation & inhibition of DNA damage in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jayanta Kumar; Sarkar, Sibani; Hossain, Sk Ugir; Chakraborty, Pramita; Das, Rajat Kumar; Bhattacharya, Sudin

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Malachite green (MG), an environmentally hazardous material, is used as a non permitted food colouring agent, especially in India. Selenium (Se) is an essential nutritional trace element required for animals and humans to guard against oxidative stress induced by xenobiotic compounds of diverse nature. In the present study, the role of the selenium compound diphenylmethyl selenocyanate (DMSE) was assessed on the oxidative stress (OS) induced by a food colouring agent, malachite green (MG) in vivo in mice. Methods: Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus) were intraperitoneally injected with MG at a standardized dose of 100 μg/ mouse for 30 days. DMSE was given orally at an optimum dose of 3 mg/kg b.w. in pre (15 days) and concomitant treatment schedule throughout the experimental period. The parameters viz. ALT, AST, LPO, GSH, GST, SOD, CAT, GPx, TrxR, CA, MN, MI and DNA damage have been evaluated. Results: The DMSE showed its potential to protect against MG induced hepatotoxicity by controlling the serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate amino transferase (ALT and AST) levels and also ameliorated oxidative stress by modulating hepatic lipid peroxidation and different detoxifying and antioxidative enzymes such as glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and also the selenoenzymes such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and reduced glutathione level which in turn reduced DNA damage. Interpretation & conclusions: The organo-selenium compound DMSE showed significant protection against MG induced heptotoxicity and DNA damage in murine model. Better protection was observed in pretreatment group than in the concomitant group. Further studies need to be done to understand the mechanism of action. PMID:23852297

  5. X-Chromosome Control of Genome-Scale Recombination Rates in House Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Beth L

    2017-04-01

    Sex differences in recombination are widespread in mammals, but the causes of this pattern are poorly understood. Previously, males from two interfertile subspecies of house mice, Mus musculus musculus and M. m. castaneus , were shown to exhibit a ∼30% difference in their global crossover frequencies. Much of this crossover rate divergence is explained by six autosomal loci and a large-effect locus on the X chromosome. Intriguingly, the allelic effects at this X-linked locus are transgressive, with the allele conferring increased crossover rate being transmitted by the low crossover rate M. m. castaneus parent. Despite the pronounced divergence between males, females from these subspecies exhibit similar crossover rates, raising the question of how recombination is genetically controlled in this sex. Here, I analyze publicly available genotype data from early generations of the Collaborative Cross, an eight-way panel of recombinant inbred strains, to estimate crossover frequencies in female mice with sex-chromosome genotypes of diverse subspecific origins. Consistent with the transgressive influence of the X chromosome in males, I show that females inheriting an M. m. castaneus X possess higher average crossover rates than females lacking the M. m. castaneus X chromosome. The differential inheritance of the X chromosome in males and females provides a simple genetic explanation for sex-limited evolution of this trait. Further, the presence of X-linked and autosomal crossover rate modifiers with antagonistic effects hints at an underlying genetic conflict fueled by selection for distinct crossover rate optima in males and females. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  6. Mitigating effects of Jambul against lead induced toxicity in epididymis and vas deferens of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir Abbas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Precious fruits like jambul are neglected and wasted while environmental pollutants like lead intake remain overlooked. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the Jambul pulp extract on lead detrimental effects in pseudostratified epithelium and the stereocilia of mice epididymis and vas deferens. Materials and Methods: Thirty young males mice (Mus musculus were distributed randomly in 3 groups (n= 10 called control, Pb (Lead and Pb-J (Lead-Jambul. The Pb and Pb-J were provided 50ppm Pb in drinking water ad libitum for 15 days and Pb free water for the next 5 days. The Pb-J group received 0.2ml jambul pulp extract on 12 hourly bases. Control group was not given any treatment. Organs (epididymis and vas deference were recovered on 21st day after euthanasia. The organs were finally processed for histological and micrometric studies. Results: Marked histologic and micrometric changes in both organs were noted in Pb group. These include significant (P ≤ 0.05 decrease in cross sectional area of caput and cauda epididymis folding tubing along with evident alterations of their endothelial thickness. Prominent signs of apoptosis (vacuolations in the corpus pseudostratified endothelium and the destruction of stereocilia of the epididymis and vas deferens in Pb compared to control group were observed. Evident signs of recovery, in both organs, such as proliferation and rearrangements in pseudostratified endothelium and the stereocilia along with convincing recovery in micrometric parameters were observed in Pb-J group. Conclusion: The results indicate that epididymis and vas deferens are highly sensitive to Pb exposure while Jambul pulp extract has shown rich mitigating potentials against such histopathologies.

  7. Evidencias empíricas de regularidades estadísticas y leyes de potencia en los genomas de Arabidopsis thaliana, Oriza sativa y Mus musculus Empirical evidences of statistical regularities and power laws in the genomes of Arabidopsis thaliana, Oriza sativa and Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha I Almanza P.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La masiva cantidad de datos biológicos provenientes de las disciplinas "ómicas" y su aprovechamiento en el mejoramiento genético vegetal requiere de nuevos abordajes teóricos y estadísticos que describan de forma satisfactoria principios generales en los genomas. El total de secuencias de los genes de los genomas vegetales de Arabidopsis thaliana y Oriza sativa y del genoma animal Mus musculus fueron extraídas y depuradas de la base de datos pública del Genebank mediante el diseño de algoritmos en lenguaje de programación Python. Se analizaron las distribuciones de las variables frecuencia de uso y tamaño de los genes, exones e intrones por cromosoma y entre genomas. Los resultados señalaron que las variables presentan patrones de comportamiento no lineales en forma de ley de potencia que difieren estadísticamente entre los genomas pero no entre los cromosomas de un mismo genoma. Además, el análisis aportó evidencias respecto al tamaño promedio constante de las secuencias de exones y de los genes simples por cromosoma y entre genomas. Los hallazgos sugieren: primero, que el genoma se auto-organiza de la misma manera en los cromosomas independientemente del tamaño o número de genes que estos contengan, y, segundo, que tanto los cromosomas como sus elementos constituyentes: genes, exones e intrones han evolucionado conjuntamente. El estudio señala que las leyes de potencia cumplen un papel amortiguador en las leyes de variación biológica y proporcionan medidas cuantitativas de la organización de las secuencias de ADN que definen la identidad de un genoma. La regularidad estadística de estas medidas genéticas tiene potenciales aplicaciones en el incremento del valor predictivo de los actuales modelos de mejoramiento genético vegetal.The huge quantity of biological data arising from the omics disciplines and their benefit in plant breeding require of new theoretical and statistical approaches in order to get a satisfactory

  8. Nullification of aspirin induced gastrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity by prior administration of wheat germ oil in Mus musculus: histopathological, ultrastructural and molecular studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, H R H; Hamad, S R

    2017-08-30

    Aspirin (acetyl salicylic acid) is used worldwide to treat various inflammatory conditions and prevent cardiovascular disease, along with reducing the risk of cancer. However, administration of aspirin causes toxic effects, especially in the stomach and liver. Thus, our study examined the protective effect of wheat germ oil on aspirin-induced toxicity in the stomach and liver tissues of Swiss albino mice. Administration of wheat germ oil before aspirin has restored normal hepatic and gastric tissue architecture and DNA integrity has become better than that of a negative health control group compared with the aspirin only treated group. The elevated gastric nitric oxide content in the aspirin only treated group was significantly decreased by wheat germ oil prior administration as a result of reduced the expression of inducible nitric synthase and increased the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase compared to their expression in the aspirin administered group. Wheat germ oil pre-administration significantly reduced the level of malondialdehyde, increased the level of glutathione and catalase and superoxide dismutase activities compared with those in aspirin only treated group. We conclude that wheat germ oil has a potential protective effect against aspirin induced gastro- and hepato-toxicity because of its free radical scavenging ability.

  9. Inborn anemias in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, S.E.; Barker, J.E.; Russell, E.S.

    1981-06-01

    hereditary anemias of mice have been the chief objects of investigation. At present under study are four macrocytic anemias, five hemolytic anemias, nonhemolytic microcytic anemia, transitory siderocytic anemia, sex-linked iron-transport anemia, an α-thalassemia, and a new target-cell anemia. Each of these blood dyscrasias is caused by the action of a unique mutant gene, which determines the structure of different intracellular molecules, and thus controls a different metabolic process. Thus our wide range of different hereditary anemias has considerable potential for uncovering many different aspects of hemopoietic homeostatic mechanisms in the mouse. Each anemia is studied through: (a) characterization of peripheral blood values, (b) determinations of radiosensitivity under a variety of conditions, (c) measurements of iron metabolism and heme synthesis, (d) histological and biochemical study of blood-forming tissue, (e) functional tests of the stem cell component, (f) examination of responses to erythroid stimuli, and (g) transplantation of tissue between individuals of differently affected genotypes

  10. Maternal-foetal genomic conflict and speciation: no evidence for hybrid placental dysplasia in crosses between two house mouse subspecies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kropáčková, L.; Piálek, Jaroslav; Gergelits, Václav; Forejt, Jiří; Reifová, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 3 (2015), s. 688-698 ISSN 1010-061X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08078S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : hybrid placental dysplasia * genomic conflicts * speciation * X chromosome * house mouse * Mus musculus musculus * Mus musculus domesticus Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.747, year: 2015

  11. Is water really a barrier for the house mouse? A comparative study of two mouse subspecies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hiadlovská, Zuzana; Strnadová, Markéta; Macholán, Miloš; Vošlajerová Bímová, Barbora

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, 3-4 (2012), s. 319-329 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0640; GA ČR GAP506/11/1792 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:67985904 Keywords : dispersal * Mus musculus domesticus * Mus musculus musculus * swimming * water barrier Subject RIV: EG - Zoology; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (UZFG-Y) Impact factor: 0.494, year: 2012

  12. The mouse hybrid zone in Central Europe: from morphology to molecules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ďureje, Ľudovít; Macholán, Miloš; Baird, Stuart J. E.; Piálek, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, 3-4 (2012), s. 308-318 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0640 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:67985904 Keywords : geography * introgression * mtDNA * Mus musculus musculus * Mus musculus domesticus * X chromosome * Y chromosome Subject RIV: EG - Zoology; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (UZFG-Y) Impact factor: 0.494, year: 2012

  13. Transgressive segregation in a behavioural trait? Explorative strategies in two house mouse subspecies and their hybrids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hiadlovská, Zuzana; Vošlajerová Bímová, Barbora; Mikula, Ondřej; Piálek, Jaroslav; Macholán, Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 1 (2013), s. 225-235 ISSN 0024-4066 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/0640; GA ČR GAP506/11/1792; GA AV ČR KJB600930701 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 ; RVO:67985904 Keywords : dispersion * exploration * hybridization * Mus musculus domesticus * Mus musculus musculus * open field test Subject RIV: EG - Zoology; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (UZFG-Y) Impact factor: 2.535, year: 2013

  14. Identification of a QTL in Mus musculus for alcohol preference, withdrawal, and Ap3m2 expression using integrative functional genomics and precision genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubier, Jason A; Jay, Jeremy J; Baker, Christopher L; Bergeson, Susan E; Ohno, Hiroshi; Metten, Pamela; Crabbe, John C; Chesler, Elissa J

    2014-08-01

    Extensive genetic and genomic studies of the relationship between alcohol drinking preference and withdrawal severity have been performed using animal models. Data from multiple such publications and public data resources have been incorporated in the GeneWeaver database with >60,000 gene sets including 285 alcohol withdrawal and preference-related gene sets. Among these are evidence for positional candidates regulating these behaviors in overlapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapped in distinct mouse populations. Combinatorial integration of functional genomics experimental results revealed a single QTL positional candidate gene in one of the loci common to both preference and withdrawal. Functional validation studies in Ap3m2 knockout mice confirmed these relationships. Genetic validation involves confirming the existence of segregating polymorphisms that could account for the phenotypic effect. By exploiting recent advances in mouse genotyping, sequence, epigenetics, and phylogeny resources, we confirmed that Ap3m2 resides in an appropriately segregating genomic region. We have demonstrated genetic and alcohol-induced regulation of Ap3m2 expression. Although sequence analysis revealed no polymorphisms in the Ap3m2-coding region that could account for all phenotypic differences, there are several upstream SNPs that could. We have identified one of these to be an H3K4me3 site that exhibits strain differences in methylation. Thus, by making cross-species functional genomics readily computable we identified a common QTL candidate for two related bio-behavioral processes via functional evidence and demonstrate sufficiency of the genetic locus as a source of variation underlying two traits. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  15. Declawing ostrich ( Struthio camelus domesticus ) chicks to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leather is one of the main products derived from ostrich farming. Current rearing practices lead to a high incidence of skin damage, which decreases the value of ostrich skins. In the emu and poultry industry, declawing is commonly practiced to reduce skin damage and injuries. We consequently investigated declawing of ...

  16. Experimental toxoplasmosis in house sparrows (Passer domesticus)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Literák, I.; Sedlák, K.; Juřicová, Zina; Pavlásek, I.

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 28, c. 4 (1999), s. 363-368 ISSN 0307-9457 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/98/0111 Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 0.845, year: 1999 http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/tandf/cavp/1999/00000028/00000004/art00007

  17. Sleep in the domestic hen (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Luijtelaar, E L; van der Grinten, C P; Blokhuis, H J; Coenen, A M

    1987-01-01

    Electrophysiological recordings were made of five closely observed hens, all permanently implanted with both EEG and EMG electrodes. Five behavioural postures were distinguished and percentages of wakefulness, sleep and presumably paradoxical sleep (PS) were determined during the third and sixth hour of the dark period. Substantial agreement was generally found between behaviour and sleep with the exception of sitting or standing motionless with at least one eye open. During two thirds of this behavioural posture, the EEG showed large amplitude slow waves undistinguishable from slow wave sleep. Characteristics of PS were determined: periods were short, whereas its percentage increased during the night. Furthermore, EMG atonia was never found. An all night recording was made, and delta activity (2-5 Hz) was filtered and plotted against time for three of the hens. A significant decrease in delta activity across the night was found. Differences and similarities between sleep in hens and in mammals are discussed. Although large similarities exist it is concluded that some properties of birds' sleep make it unique and are a challenge for further study.

  18. Analgesic effect of coconut shell (Cocos nucifera L liquid smoke on mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meircurius Dwi C.S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drugs can be used to eliminate pain by inhibiting the activity of conversing arachidonic acid into prostaglandin. The chemical compositions of coconut shell are cellulose, pentosan, lignin, solvent extraction, uronat anhydrous, nitrogen, and water. One active ingredient in coconut shell is phenyl propanoid (consisting in lignin structure and guaicol. Phenyl propanoid and guaicol are phenolic compounds that can be used as antioxidant, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, anesthetic and analgesic. Liquid smoke of coconut shell (Cocos nucifera L contains phenolic compound is believed able to bind a component conversing arachidonic acid into prostaglandin. Purpose: The study was aimed to examine the analgesic effect of liquid smoke of coconut shell (Cocos nucifera L. Methods: The study was a laboratory experimental research, conducted on 2-3 months old male mice (Mus musculus with 20-30 grams of weight. There were control group and treatment groups each of which had seven mice. Control group was orally given 0.01 ml/weight (ml/gr of distilled water, after 30 minutes 0.01 ml/weight (ml/gr of acetic acid 0.6% was delivered via intraperitoneal injection. The treatment groups were given liquid smoke of coconut shell (Cocos nucifera L with the concentrations of 25%, 50%, and 100% respectively. The analgesic effect was then determined by decreasing of writhing reflex on mice recorded every 5 minutes for 30 minutes. Results: There were significant differences of writhing reflexes in the treatment groups given liquid smoke of coconut shell with the concentrations of 25%, 50%, and 100%. The higher concentration of liquid smoke the higher its analgesic effect. Conclusion: Liquid smoke of coconut shell (Cocos nucifera L has analgesic effect.Latar belakang: Salah satu mekanisme obat yang digunakan untuk menghilangkan rasa nyeri adalah menghambat aktivitas konversi asam arakhidonat menjadi prostaglandin. Komposisi kimia tempurung kelapa terdiri dari

  19. Resilience in Aging Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, James L; Stout, Michael B; Sierra, Felipe

    2016-11-01

    Recently discovered interventions that target fundamental aging mechanisms have been shown to increase life span in mice and other species, and in some cases, these same manipulations have been shown to enhance health span and alleviate multiple age-related diseases and conditions. Aging is generally associated with decreases in resilience, the capacity to respond to or recover from clinically relevant stresses such as surgery, infections, or vascular events. We hypothesize that the age-related increase in susceptibility to those diseases and conditions is driven by or associated with the decrease in resilience. Thus, a test for resilience at middle age or even earlier could represent a surrogate approach to test the hypothesis that an intervention delays the process of aging itself. For this, animal models to test resilience accurately and predictably are needed. In addition, interventions that increase resilience might lead to treatments aimed at enhancing recovery following acute illnesses, or preventing poor outcomes from medical interventions in older, prefrail subjects. At a meeting of basic researchers and clinicians engaged in research on mechanisms of aging and care of the elderly, the merits and drawbacks of investigating effects of interventions on resilience in mice were considered. Available and potential stressors for assessing physiological resilience as well as the notion of developing a limited battery of such stressors and how to rank them were discussed. Relevant ranking parameters included value in assessing general health (as opposed to focusing on a single physiological system), ease of use, cost, reproducibility, clinical relevance, and feasibility of being repeated in the same animal longitudinally. During the discussions it became clear that, while this is an important area, very little is known or established. Much more research is needed in the near future to develop appropriate tests of resilience in animal models within an aging context

  20. On the determination of Toxoplasma gondii virulence in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most successful pathogens on earth, capable of infecting mammals and birds. Numerous papers and reports are published on isolation of T .gondii from various natural sources worldwide. The house mouse (Mus musculus) has been used as the laboratory animal model to deter...

  1. Drosophila mutations at the mei-9 and mus(2)201 loci which block excision of thymine dimers also block induction of unscheluded DNA synthesis by methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl methanesulfonate, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, UV light and X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusenbery, R.L.; McCormick, S.C.; Smith, P.D.

    1983-01-01

    The mei-9 and mus(2)201 mutants of Drosophila melanogaster were identified as mutagen-sensitive mutants on the basis of larval hypersensitivity to methyl methanesulfonate and characterized as excision repair-deficient on the basis of a greatly reduced capacity to excise thymine dimers from cellular DNA. The high degree of larval cytotoxicity observed with a variety of other chemical and physical agents indicated that these mutants may be unable to excise other important classes of DNA adducts. We have measured the ability of the single mutants and the double mutant combination mei-9;mus(2)201 to perform the resynthesis step in excision repair by means of an autoradiographic analysis of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) induced in a mixed population of primary cells in culture. The 3 strains exhibit no detectable UDS activity in response to applied doses of 1.5-6.0 mM methyl methanesulfonate, 1.0-4.5 nM N-methyl-N-nitrosourea or 10-40 J/m 2 254-nm UV light, dose ranges in which control cells exhibit a strong dose-dependent UDS response. The mei-9 and mei-9;mus(2)201 mutants also have no detectable UDS response to X-ray doses of 300-1.800 rad, whereas the mus(2)201 mutant exhibits a reduced, but dose-dependent, response over this range. These data correlate well with the degree of larval hypersensitivity of the strains and suggest that mutations at both loci block the excision repair of a wide variety of DNA damage prior to the resynthesis step. (orig.)

  2. Mice, men and MHC supertypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundegaard, Claus

    2010-01-01

    vaccine formulations. Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular parasite, causes severe neurologic and ocular disease in congenitally infected and immunocompromised individuals. No protective vaccine exists against human toxoplasmosis. However, studies with mice have revealed immunodominant cytotoxic T...

  3. Differential expression of miR-1, a putative tumor suppressing microRNA, in cancer resistant and cancer susceptible mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Fleming

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mus spretus mice are highly resistant to several types of cancer compared to Mus musculus mice. To determine whether differences in microRNA (miRNA expression account for some of the differences in observed skin cancer susceptibility between the strains, we performed miRNA expression profiling of skin RNA for over 300 miRNAs. Five miRNAs, miR-1, miR-124a-3, miR-133a, miR-134, miR-206, were differentially expressed by array and/or qPCR. miR-1 was previously shown to have tumor suppressing abilities in multiple tumor types. We found miR-1 expression to be lower in mouse cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cSCCs compared to normal skin. Based on the literature and our expression data, we performed detailed studies on predicted miR-1 targets and evaluated the effect of miR-1 expression on two murine cSCC cell lines, A5 and B9. Following transfection of miR-1, we found decreased mRNA expression of three validated miR-1 targets, Met, Twf1 and Ets1 and one novel target Bag4. Decreased expression of Ets1 was confirmed by Western analysis and by 3’ reporter luciferase assays containing wildtype and mutated Ets1 3’UTR. We evaluated the effect of miR-1 on multiple tumor phenotypes including apoptosis, proliferation, cell cycle and migration. In A5 cells, expression of miR-1 led to decreased proliferation compared to a control miR. miR-1 expression also led to increased apoptosis at later time points (72 and 96 h and to a decrease in cells in S-phase. In summary, we identified five miRNAs with differential expression between cancer resistant and cancer susceptible mice and found that miR-1, a candidate tumor suppressor, has targets with defined roles in tumorigenesis.

  4. Evidence-based severity assessment: Impact of repeated versus single open-field testing on welfare in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodden, Carina; Siestrup, Sophie; Palme, Rupert; Kaiser, Sylvia; Sachser, Norbert; Richter, S Helene

    2018-01-15

    According to current guidelines on animal experiments, a prospective assessment of the severity of each procedure is mandatory. However, so far, the classification of procedures into different severity categories mainly relies on theoretic considerations, since it is not entirely clear which of the various procedures compromise the welfare of animals, or, to what extent. Against this background, a systematic empirical investigation of the impact of each procedure, including behavioral testing, seems essential. Therefore, the present study was designed to elucidate the effects of repeated versus single testing on mouse welfare, using one of the most commonly used paradigms for behavioral phenotyping in behavioral neuroscience, the open-field test. In an independent groups design, laboratory mice (Mus musculus f. domestica) experienced either repeated, single, or no open-field testing - procedures that are assigned to different severity categories. Interestingly, testing experiences did not affect fecal corticosterone metabolites, body weights, elevated plus-maze or home cage behavior differentially. Thus, with respect to the assessed endocrinological, physical, and behavioral outcome measures, no signs of compromised welfare could be detected in mice that were tested in the open-field repeatedly, once, or, not at all. These findings challenge current classification guidelines and may, furthermore, stimulate systematic research on the severity of single procedures involving living animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Linkage disequilibrium in wild mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy C Laurie

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Crosses between laboratory strains of mice provide a powerful way of detecting quantitative trait loci for complex traits related to human disease. Hundreds of these loci have been detected, but only a small number of the underlying causative genes have been identified. The main difficulty is the extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD in intercross progeny and the slow process of fine-scale mapping by traditional methods. Recently, new approaches have been introduced, such as association studies with inbred lines and multigenerational crosses. These approaches are very useful for interval reduction, but generally do not provide single-gene resolution because of strong LD extending over one to several megabases. Here, we investigate the genetic structure of a natural population of mice in Arizona to determine its suitability for fine-scale LD mapping and association studies. There are three main findings: (1 Arizona mice have a high level of genetic variation, which includes a large fraction of the sequence variation present in classical strains of laboratory mice; (2 they show clear evidence of local inbreeding but appear to lack stable population structure across the study area; and (3 LD decays with distance at a rate similar to human populations, which is considerably more rapid than in laboratory populations of mice. Strong associations in Arizona mice are limited primarily to markers less than 100 kb apart, which provides the possibility of fine-scale association mapping at the level of one or a few genes. Although other considerations, such as sample size requirements and marker discovery, are serious issues in the implementation of association studies, the genetic variation and LD results indicate that wild mice could provide a useful tool for identifying genes that cause variation in complex traits.

  6. The Sycp1 loci of the mouse genome: successive retropositions of a meiotic gene during the recent evolution of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, J; Yuan, L; Martin, L; Mattei, M G; Guénet, J L; Liu, J G; Hoög, C; Rassoulzadegan, M; Cuzin, F

    1997-08-15

    The murine Sycp1 gene is expressed at the early stages of meiosis. We show that it is composed of a number of small exons and localized on mouse chromosome 3. In the laboratory strains, two retrogenes were also identified. The first one (Sycp1-ps1), on chromosome 7, has accumulated point mutations and deletions and is not transcribed. A second retrogene (Sycp1-ps2), on chromosome 8, is inserted within the continuity of a moderately repeated element, in an intron of another gene (Cad11). The two retroposition events can be dated to distinct periods in the evolution of the Muridae. Sycp1-ps2 has kept features indicative of a relatively recent origin, namely a nearly intact coding region, a poly(A) tail, and 14-bp terminal repeats. Its recent origin was confirmed by the fact that it is found in all the laboratory strains of mice, but neither in a recent isolate from Mus musculus domesticus wild stocks nor in the closely related subspecies M. musculus musculus, M. m. molossinus, M. m. castaneus, and M. m. bactrianus. Appearance of the more ancient Sycp1-ps1 retrogene is concomitant with the radiation of the genus. It is present in various Mus species (M. spretus, M. spicilegus, M. macedonicus, and M. cookii), but neither in the rat nor in the more closely related Pyromis genus. Transposition of retrotranscripts during meiosis and their hereditary establishment thus appear to occur relatively frequently. They may, therefore, play a significant role in the evolutionary process.

  7. Reproduction Does Not Adversely Affect Liver Mitochondrial Respiratory Function but Results in Lipid Peroxidation and Increased Antioxidants in House Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowry, Annelise V; Kavazis, Andreas N; Sirman, Aubrey E; Potts, Wayne K; Hood, Wendy R

    2016-01-01

    Reproduction is thought to come at a cost to longevity. Based on the assumption that increased energy expenditure during reproduction is associated with increased free-radical production by mitochondria, oxidative damage has been suggested to drive this trade-off. We examined the impact of reproduction on liver mitochondrial function by utilizing post-reproductive and non-reproductive house mice (Mus musculus) living under semi-natural conditions. The age-matched post-reproductive and non-reproductive groups were compared after the reproductive females returned to a non-reproductive state, so that both groups were in the same physiological state at the time the liver was collected. Despite increased oxidative damage (p = 0.05) and elevated CuZnSOD (p = 0.002) and catalase (p = 0.04) protein levels, reproduction had no negative impacts on the respiratory function of liver mitochondria. Specifically, in a post-reproductive, maintenance state the mitochondrial coupling (i.e., respiratory control ratio) of mouse livers show no negative impacts of reproduction. In fact, there was a trend (p = 0.059) to suggest increased maximal oxygen consumption by liver mitochondria during the ADP stimulated state (i.e., state 3) in post-reproduction. These findings suggest that oxidative damage may not impair mitochondrial respiratory function and question the role of mitochondria in the trade-off between reproduction and longevity. In addition, the findings highlight the importance of quantifying the respiratory function of mitochondria in addition to measuring oxidative damage.

  8. Paleogenetic analyses reveal unsuspected phylogenetic affinities between mice and the extinct Malpaisomys insularis, an endemic rodent of the Canaries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Pagès

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The lava mouse, Malpaisomys insularis, was end