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Sample records for mice iv total

  1. Towards Revised Step IV MICE Optics in the Absence of M1 SSD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayes, R. [Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); Berg, J. S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blackmore, V. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Hunt, C. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Liu, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Pasternak, J. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Rogers, C. T. [Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), Oxford (United Kingdom). Rutherford Appleton Lab. (RAL)

    2015-10-01

    During magnet commissioning in September 2015, the leads on coil M1 of the downstream spectrometer solenoid failed. The coil will not be operational for MICE Step IV. Revised optics settings for the Step IV data taking are reviewed.

  2. Towards Revised Step IV MICE Optics in the Absence of M1 SSD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayes, R.; Berg, J. S.; Blackmore, V.; Hunt, C.; Liu, A.; Pasternak, J.; Rogers, C. T.

    2015-01-01

    During magnet commissioning in September 2015, the leads on coil M1 of the downstream spectrometer solenoid failed. The coil will not be operational for MICE Step IV. Revised optics settings for the Step IV data taking are reviewed.

  3. Protective effects of astragaloside IV on db/db mice with diabetic retinopathy.

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    Yuzhi Ding

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy (DR is a common diabetic eye disease which is well-known as the result of microvascular retinal changes. Although the potential biological functions of astragaloside IV (AS IV have long been described in traditional system of medicine, its protective effect on DR remains unclear. This study aims to investigate the function and mechanism of AS IV on type 2 diabetic db/db mice.Db/db mice were treated with AS IV (4.5 mg/kg or 9 mg/kg or physiological saline by oral gavage for 20 weeks along with db/m mice. In each group, retinal ganglion cell (RGC function was measured by pattern electroretinogram (ERG and apoptosis was determined by Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL staining. Blood and retina aldose reductase (AR activity were quantified by chemiluminescence analysis. The expressions of phosporylated-ERK1/2, NF-κB were determined by Western blot analysis. Furthermore, the expression of related downstream proteins were quantified by Label-based Mouse Antibody Array.Administration of AS IV significantly improved the amplitude in pattern ERG and reduced the apoptosis of RGCs.in db/db mice. Furthermore, downregulation of AR activity, ERK1/2 phosphorylation, NF-κB and related cytokine were observed in AS IV treatment group.Our study indicated that AS IV, as an inhibitor of AR, could prevent the activation of ERK1/2 phosporylation and NF-kB and further relieve the RGCs disfunction in db/db mice with DR. It has provided a basis for investigating the clinical efficacy of AR inhibitors in preventing DR.

  4. Central administration of angiotensin IV rapidly enhances novel object recognition among mice.

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    Paris, Jason J; Eans, Shainnel O; Mizrachi, Elisa; Reilley, Kate J; Ganno, Michelle L; McLaughlin, Jay P

    2013-07-01

    Angiotensin IV (Val(1)-Tyr(2)-Ile(3)-His(4)-Pro(5)-Phe(6)) has demonstrated potential cognitive-enhancing effects. The present investigation assessed and characterized: (1) dose-dependency of angiotensin IV's cognitive enhancement in a C57BL/6J mouse model of novel object recognition, (2) the time-course for these effects, (3) the identity of residues in the hexapeptide important to these effects and (4) the necessity of actions at angiotensin IV receptors for procognitive activity. Assessment of C57BL/6J mice in a novel object recognition task demonstrated that prior administration of angiotensin IV (0.1, 1.0, or 10.0, but not 0.01 nmol, i.c.v.) significantly enhanced novel object recognition in a dose-dependent manner. These effects were time dependent, with improved novel object recognition observed when angiotensin IV (0.1 nmol, i.c.v.) was administered 10 or 20, but not 30 min prior to the onset of the novel object recognition testing. An alanine scan of the angiotensin IV peptide revealed that replacement of the Val(1), Ile(3), His(4), or Phe(6) residues with Ala attenuated peptide-induced improvements in novel object recognition, whereas Tyr(2) or Pro(5) replacement did not significantly affect performance. Administration of the angiotensin IV receptor antagonist, divalinal-Ang IV (20 nmol, i.c.v.), reduced (but did not abolish) novel object recognition; however, this antagonist completely blocked the procognitive effects of angiotensin IV (0.1 nmol, i.c.v.) in this task. Rotorod testing demonstrated no locomotor effects with any angiotensin IV or divalinal-Ang IV dose tested. These data demonstrate that angiotensin IV produces a rapid enhancement of associative learning and memory performance in a mouse model that was dependent on the angiotensin IV receptor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibition enhances the intestinotrophic effect of glucagon-like peptide-2 in rats and mice

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    Hartmann, B; Thulesen, J; Kissow, Hannelouise

    2000-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) induces intestinal growth in mice; but in normal rats, it seems less potent, possibly because of degradation of GLP-2 by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV). The purpose of this study was to investigate the survival and effect of GLP-2 in rats and mice afte...

  6. Astragaloside IV Prevents Cardiac Remodeling in the Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice by Regulating Cardiac Homeostasis and Oxidative Stress

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    Xiong-Zhi Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypercholesterolemia is a risk factor for the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Astragaloside IV (AST-IV possesses cardiovascular protective properties. We hypothesize that AST-IV prevents cardiac remodeling with hypercholesterolemia via modulating tissue homeostasis and alleviating oxidative stress. Methods: The ApoE-/- mice were treated with AST-IV at 1 or 10 mg/kg for 8 weeks. The blood lipids tests, echocardiography, and TUNEL were performed. The mRNA expression profile was detected by real-time PCR. The myocytes size and number, and the expressions of proliferation (ki67, senescence (p16INK4a, oxidant (NADPH oxidase 4, NOX4 and antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, SOD were observed by immunofluorescence staining. Results: Neither 1 mg/kg nor 10 mg/kg AST-IV treatment could decrease blood lipids in ApoE-/- mice. However, the decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF and fractional shortening (FS in ApoE–/– mice were significantly improved after AST-IV treatment. The cardiac collagen volume fraction declined nearly in half after AST-IV treatment. The enlarged myocyte size was suppressed, and myocyte number was recovered, and the alterations of genes expressions linked to cell cycle, proliferation, senescence, p53-apoptosis pathway and oxidant-antioxidants in the hearts of ApoE-/- mice were reversed after AST-IV treatment. The decreased ki67 and increased p16INK4a in the hearts of ApoE-/- mice were recovered after AST-IV treatment. The percentages of apoptotic myocytes and NOX4-positive cells in AST-IV treated mice were decreased, which were consistent with the gene expressions. Conclusion: AST-IV treatment could prevent cardiac remodeling and recover the impaired ventricular function induced by hypercholesterolemia. The beneficial effect of AST-IV might partly be through regulating cardiac homeostasis and anti-oxidative stress.

  7. Immunohistochmical Study of Glomerular Mesengial Collagen IV Expression in Diabetic Balb/c Mice

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    M. Jalali

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Extra-cellular matrix and basement membrane play important roles in many developmental phenamenon during development and after birth. Among the components of the basement membrane, collagen fibers specially type IV, are the most important part of this area. As kidney is one of the target organs in diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy is a major cause of end stage-renal disease and result an increase in morbidity and mortality of effected individuals, therefore early diagnosis leads to better treatment. The aim of this investigation was to study the primary diagnostic parameters by special regards to collagen IV fibers.Materials & Methods: In this study, 24 male balb/c mice were divided into experimental and control groups. In experimental group, the beta cells of Langerhance were chemically destroyed by an injection of 160 mg/kg alloxan and subdivided in experimental groups 1 and 2. Controls were kept untreated. Experimental group 1and 2 were sacrified 8 and 16 weeks after treatment with alloxan respectively. The same procedure was performed for control group. Immunohistochmical studies were carried out using monocolonal antibody against collagen type IV in Glomeruli. In addition, using morphometrical and stereological methods the volume of the glumerles was compared in all groups.Results: Our finding showed that in experimental groups with special regards in 16 weeks diabetic mice, the rate of collagen type IV in basement membrane around the parietal layer of Bowman capsule, mesangial cells and endothelium of capillary in glomerules increased significantly compared to controls and experimental group 1 (p<0.05, while there was not a significant difference among experimental group 2 and controls. Our data also revealed that the number of mesangial cells as well as glomerular volume increased significantly in experimental 2 (4.635±0.289×106µm3 compared to experimental 1 (3.504±0.189×106µm3 and controls (3.422

  8. Left-right asymmetry defect in the hippocampal circuitry impairs spatial learning and working memory in iv mice.

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    Kazuhiro Goto

    Full Text Available Although left-right (L-R asymmetry is a fundamental feature of higher-order brain function, little is known about how asymmetry defects of the brain affect animal behavior. Previously, we identified structural and functional asymmetries in the circuitry of the mouse hippocampus resulting from the asymmetrical distribution of NMDA receptor GluR ε2 (NR2B subunits. We further examined the ε2 asymmetry in the inversus viscerum (iv mouse, which has randomized laterality of internal organs, and found that the iv mouse hippocampus exhibits right isomerism (bilateral right-sidedness in the synaptic distribution of the ε2 subunit, irrespective of the laterality of visceral organs. To investigate the effects of hippocampal laterality defects on higher-order brain functions, we examined the capacity of reference and working memories of iv mice using a dry maze and a delayed nonmatching-to-position (DNMTP task, respectively. The iv mice improved dry maze performance more slowly than control mice during acquisition, whereas the asymptotic level of performance was similar between the two groups. In the DNMTP task, the iv mice showed poorer accuracy than control mice as the retention interval became longer. These results suggest that the L-R asymmetry of hippocampal circuitry is critical for the acquisition of reference memory and the retention of working memory.

  9. Antidepressive and BDNF effects of enriched environment treatment across ages in mice lacking BDNF expression through promoter IV

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    Jha, S; Dong, B E; Xue, Y; Delotterie, D F; Vail, M G; Sakata, K

    2016-01-01

    Reduced promoter IV-driven expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated in stress and major depression. We previously reported that defective promoter IV (KIV) caused depression-like behavior in young adult mice, which was reversed more effectively by enriched environment treatment (EET) than antidepressants. The effects of promoter IV-BDNF deficiency and EET over the life stages remain unknown. Since early-life development (ED) involves dynamic epigenetic processes, we hypothesized that EET during ED would provide maximum antidepressive effects that would persist later in life due to enhanced, long-lasting BDNF induction. We tested this hypothesis by determining EET effects across three life stages: ED (0–2 months), young adult (2–4 months), and old adult (12–14 months). KIV mice at all life stages showed depression-like behavior in the open-field and tail-suspension tests compared with wild-type mice. Two months of EET reduced depression-like behavior in ED and young adult, but not old adult mice, with the largest effect in ED KIV mice. This effect lasted for 1 month after discontinuance of EET only in ED mice. BDNF protein induction by EET in the hippocampus and frontal cortex was also the largest in ED mice and persisted only in the hippocampus of ED KIV mice after discontinuance of EET. No gender-specific effects were observed. The results suggest that defective promoter IV causes depression-like behavior, regardless of age and gender, and that EET during ED is particularly beneficial to individuals with promoter IV-BDNF deficiency, while additional treatment may be needed for older adults. PMID:27648918

  10. Reduced anxiety-like behavior and altered hippocampal morphology in female p75NTR exon IV-/- mice.

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    Zoe ePuschban

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of the neurotrophin receptor p75NTR in adult basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, precursor cells in the subventricular cell layer and the subgranular cell layer of the hippocampus has been linked to alterations in learning as well as anxiety- and depression- related behaviors. In contrast to previous studies performed in a p75NTR exonIII-/- model still expressing the short isoform of the p75NTR, we focused on locomotor and anxiety–associated behavior in p75NTR exonIV-/- mice lacking both p75NTR isoforms. Comparing p75NTR exonIV-/- and wildtype mice for both male and female animals showed an anxiolytic-like behavior as evidenced by increased central activities in the open field paradigm and flex field activity system as well as higher numbers of open arm entries in the elevated plus maze test in female p75NTR knockout mice.Morphometrical analyses of dorsal and ventral hippocampus revealed a reduction of width of the dentate gyrus and the granular cell layer in the dorsal but not ventral hippocampus in male and female p75NTR exonIV -/- mice. We conclude that germ-line deletion of p75NTR seems to differentially affect morphometry of dorsal and ventral dentate gyrus and that p75NTR may play a role in anxiety-like behavior, specifically in female mice.

  11. Removal of 238Pu(IV) from mice by poly-catechoylate, -hydroxamate or -hydroxypyridinonate ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durbin, P.W.; Jeung, N.; Rodgers, S.J.; Turowski, P.N.; Weitl, F.L.; White, D.L.; Raymond, K.N.; California Univ., Berkeley, CA

    1989-01-01

    Binding of actinide (IV) by plasma proteins impedes excretion. Facilitation of elimination with chelating agents is the only known way to reduce carcinogenic risk. Iron-sequestering agents produced by micro-organisms contain metal-binding groups that bind Pu(IV) at pH 7.4 (catechol, CAM, in enterobactin; hydroxamate, X, in the ferrioaxamines; hydroxypyridinone, HOPO). Our synthetic ligands contain up to four such groups linked by alkyl chains or attached to desferrioxamine (DFO) or diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid (DPTA). 238 Pu excretion was tested in mice given 30 μmol.kg -1 of a ligand. Ligands that removed as much or more Pu than CaNa 3 -DTPA(≥70% of injected Pu(% ID)) are, in decreasing order of effectiveness: (1) Fe(III)-3,4,3-LIHOPO, (2) DFO-HOPO, (3) 3,4,3-LIHOPO, (4) 3,4,3-LICAM(C). Orally administered ligands 1-4, (5) 3,4,3-LICAM(S) and (6) ZnNa-DTPA-DX removed as much or more Pu than CaNa 3 -DTPA (≥ 15% ID). Ligands 1-4 and 6 injected 24 h after the Pu removed ≥ 5% ID more than control excretion (equivalent to or better than CaNa 3 -DTPA). All the new ligands at a dosage of 0.3 μmol.kg -1 removed a significant amount of Pu compared with controls: CaNa 3 -DTPA was ineffective. Ligand 3 is acutely toxic at high dosage, but the others appear to be of low toxicity. The HOPO ligands and ZnNa-DTPA-DX are recommended for further study. (author)

  12. Astragaloside IV attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis of mice by counteracting oxidative stress at multiple levels.

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    Yixin He

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic autoimmune neuroinflammatory disease found mostly in young adults in the western world. Oxidative stress induced neuronal apoptosis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of MS. In current study, astragaloside IV (ASI, a natural saponin molecule isolated from Astragalus membranceus, given at 20 mg/kg daily attenuated the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE in mice significantly. Further studies disclosed that ASI treatment inhibited the increase of ROS and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, down-regulation of SOD and GSH-Px activities, and elevation of iNOS, p53 and phosphorylated tau in central nervous system (CNS as well as the leakage of BBB of EAE mice. Meanwhile, the decreased ratio of Bcl-2/Bax was reversed by ASI. Moreover, ASI regulated T-cell differentiation and infiltration into CNS. In neuroblast SH-SY5Y cells, ASI dose-dependently reduced cellular ROS level and phosphorylation of tau in response to hydrogen peroxide challenge by modulation of Bcl-2/Bax ratio. ASI also inhibited activation of microglia both in vivo and in vitro. iNOS up-regulation induced by IFNγ stimulation was abolished by ASI dose-dependently in BV-2 cells. In summary, ASI prevented the severity of EAE progression possibly by counterbalancing oxidative stress and its effects via reduction of cellular ROS level, enhancement of antioxidant defense system, increase of anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory pathways, as well as modulation of T-cell differentiation and infiltration into CNS. The study suggested ASI may be effective for clinical therapy/prevention of MS.

  13. Astragaloside IV attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis of mice by counteracting oxidative stress at multiple levels.

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    He, Yixin; Du, Min; Gao, Yan; Liu, Hongshuai; Wang, Hongwei; Wu, Xiaojun; Wang, Zhengtao

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune neuroinflammatory disease found mostly in young adults in the western world. Oxidative stress induced neuronal apoptosis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of MS. In current study, astragaloside IV (ASI), a natural saponin molecule isolated from Astragalus membranceus, given at 20 mg/kg daily attenuated the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice significantly. Further studies disclosed that ASI treatment inhibited the increase of ROS and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, down-regulation of SOD and GSH-Px activities, and elevation of iNOS, p53 and phosphorylated tau in central nervous system (CNS) as well as the leakage of BBB of EAE mice. Meanwhile, the decreased ratio of Bcl-2/Bax was reversed by ASI. Moreover, ASI regulated T-cell differentiation and infiltration into CNS. In neuroblast SH-SY5Y cells, ASI dose-dependently reduced cellular ROS level and phosphorylation of tau in response to hydrogen peroxide challenge by modulation of Bcl-2/Bax ratio. ASI also inhibited activation of microglia both in vivo and in vitro. iNOS up-regulation induced by IFNγ stimulation was abolished by ASI dose-dependently in BV-2 cells. In summary, ASI prevented the severity of EAE progression possibly by counterbalancing oxidative stress and its effects via reduction of cellular ROS level, enhancement of antioxidant defense system, increase of anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory pathways, as well as modulation of T-cell differentiation and infiltration into CNS. The study suggested ASI may be effective for clinical therapy/prevention of MS.

  14. Trypanosoma cruzi I and IV stocks from Brazilian Amazon are divergent in terms of biological and medical properties in mice.

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    Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro

    Full Text Available In the Brazilian Amazon, clinical and epidemiological frameworks of Chagas disease are very dissimilar in relation to the endemic classical areas of transmission, possibly due to genetic and biological characteristics of the circulating Trypanosoma cruzi stocks. Twenty six T. cruzi stocks from Western Amazon Region attributed to the TcI and TcIV DTUs were comparatively studied in Swiss mice to test the hypothesis that T. cruzi clonal structure has a major impact on its biological and medical properties.Seventeen parameters were assayed in mice infected with 14 T. cruzi strains belonging to DTU TcI and 11 strains typed as TcIV. In comparison with TcI, TcIV stocks promoted a significantly shorter pre-patent period (p<0.001, a longer patent period (p<0.001, higher values of mean daily parasitemia (p = 0.009 and maximum of parasitemia (p = 0.015, earlier days of maximum parasitemia (p<0.001 and mortality (p = 0.018, higher mortality rates in the acute phase (p = 0.047, higher infectivity rates (p = 0.002, higher positivity in the fresh blood examination (p<0.001, higher positivity in the ELISA at the early chronic phase (p = 0.022, and a higher positivity in the ELISA at the late chronic phase (p = 0.003. On the other hand TcI showed higher values of mortality rates in the early chronic phase (p = 0.014, higher frequency of mice with inflammatory process in any organ (p = 0.005, higher frequency of mice with tissue parasitism in any organ (p = 0.027 and a higher susceptibility to benznidazole (p = 0.002 than TcIV. Survival analysis showing the time elapsed from the day of inoculation to the beginning of the patent period was significantly shorter for TcIV strains and the death episodes triggered following the infection with TcI occurred significantly later in relation to TcIV. The notable exceptions come from positivity in the hemocultures and PCR, for which the results were similar.T. cruzi stocks

  15. Hepatoprotective Effects of Total Triterpenoids and Total Flavonoids from Vitis vinifera L against Immunological Liver Injury in Mice

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    Tao Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Suosuo grape (the fruits of Vitis vinifera L has been used for prevention and treatment of liver diseases in Uighur folk medicine in China besides its edible value. In this study, the hepatoprotective effects of total triterpenoids (VTT and total flavonoids (VTF from Suosuo grape were evaluated in Bacille-Calmette-Guerin- (BCG- plus-lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced immunological liver injury (ILI in mice. Various dose groups (50, 150, and 300 mg/kg of VTT and VTF alleviated the degree of liver injury of ILI mice, effectively reduced the BCG/LPS-induced elevated liver index and spleen index, hepatic nitric oxide (NO, and malondialdehyde (MDA content, increased liver homogenate alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST levels, and restored hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in ILI mice. VTT and VTF also significantly inhibited intrahepatic expression of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-2 in ILI mice and increased intrahepatic expression of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10. Moreover, the increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was significantly downregulated by VTT and VTF in liver tissue of ILI mice. These results are comparable to those of biphenyl dicarboxylate (DDB, the reference hepatoprotective agent and suggest that VTT and VTF play a protective role against immunological liver injury, which may have important implications for our understanding of the immunoregulatory mechanisms of this plant.

  16. Total Flavonoids from Mimosa Pudica Protects Carbon Tetrachloride -Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice

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    Zhen-qin QIU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the protective effect of total flavonoids from Mimosa pudica on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice. Methods: CCl4-induced acute liver injury model in mice was established. The activity of ALT and AST, the content of serum albumin (Alb and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC were determined. The content of malondiadehyde (MDA was measured and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD was determined. The histopathological changes of liver were observed.Results: Compared with CCl4 modle group, each dose group of total flavonouida from Mimosa pudica couldreduced the activity of ALT and AST in mice obviously (P<0.01, indicating they had remarkably protective effect on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice. high and middle dose groups of total flavonouida from Mimosa pudica couldincrease the content of Alb in mice (P<0.01. Each dose group of total flavonouida from Mimosa pudica could enhance the level of T-AOC (P<0.01. each dose group of total flavonouida from Mimosa pudica could lower the content of liver homogenate MDA but enhance the activity of SOD in a dose-depended manner (P<0.01. Conclusion: Total flavones from Mimosa Pudica have obvious protective effect on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice.

  17. ENDF/B-IV representation of the 238U total neutron cross section in the resolved resonance energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Saussure, G.; Olsen, D.K.; Perez, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    The ENDF/B-IV prescription fails to represent correctly the 238 U total (and scattering) cross section between the levels of the resolved range. It is shown how this representation can be improved by properly accounting for the contribution of levels outside the resolved region to the cross section at energies inside the resolved region, and by substituting the more precise multilevel Breit-Wigner formula for the presently used single-level formula. The importance of computing accurately the minima in the total cross section is illustrated by comparing values of the self-shielded capture resonance integral computed with ENDF/B-IV and with a more accurate cross section model

  18. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibition enhances the intestinotrophic effect of glucagon-like peptide-2 in rats and mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, B; Thulesen, J; Kissow, Hannelouise

    2000-01-01

    ; 15 mg VP; 40 microg GLP-2, 40 microg GLP-2+15 mg VP; 40 microg GLP-2 (3-33). Mice were treated for 10 days with: saline; 5 microg GLP-2; 5 microg GLP-2+1.5 mg VP; 25 microg GLP-2; 25 microg GLP-2 (3-33). In both cases, body weight, intestinal weight, length, and morphometric data were measured. After...... (4.68 +/- 0.11%, relative to body weight), compared with the two control groups, [3.01 +/- 0.06% (VP) and 2.94 +/- 0.07% (NaCl)] and GLP-2 alone (3.52 +/- 0.10%). In mice, the growth effect of 5 microg GLP-2+VP was comparable with that of 25 microg GLP-2. GLP-2 (3-33) had no effect in rats......, but it had a weak effect on intestinal growth in mice. The extensive GLP-2 degradation in rats can be reduced by VP, and DPP-IV inhibition markedly enhances the intestinotrophic effect of GLP-2 in both rats and mice. We propose that DPP-IV inhibition may be considered to enhance the efficacy of GLP-2...

  19. Total Phenolics and Total Flavonoids Contents and Hypnotic Effect in Mice of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Seed Extract

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    Aye Moh Moh San

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. have been traditionally used for treatment of various complications including insomnia and anxiety. They are popularly used as sedative and hypnotic drugs in China, Korea, Myanmar, Vietnam, and other Asian countries. However, no scientific proof on hypnotic activity of Z. mauritiana seeds (ZMS was reported. In this study, the hypnotic activity of 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS was observed on the loss of righting reflex in mice using pentobarbital-induced sleep mice method. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the extract were also determined. The results showed that the 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS contained total phenolics  mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g extract and total flavonoids  mg quercetin equivalent (QE/g extract. Oral administration of the extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg significantly increased the sleeping time in mice intraperitoneally administered with sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/kg body weight. These results supported the traditional use of ZMS for the treatment of insomnia. The seeds of Z. mauritiana should be further developed as an alternative sedative and/or hypnotic product.

  20. Double incretin receptor knockout (DIRKO) mice reveal an essential role for the enteroinsular axis in transducing the glucoregulatory actions of DPP-IV inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansotia, Tanya; Baggio, Laurie L; Delmeire, Dominique

    2004-01-01

    with GIPR(-/-) or GLP-1R(-/-) mice. Similarly, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and the response to forskolin were well preserved in perifused DIRKO islets. Although the dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors valine pyrrolidide (Val-Pyr) and SYR106124 lowered glucose and increased plasma insulin...

  1. Improvement of diabetes, obesity and hypertension in type 2 diabetic KKAy mice by bis(allixinato)oxovanadium(IV) complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Yusuke; Yoshikawa, Yutaka; Yoshida, Jiro; Kodera, Yukihiro; Katoh, Akira; Takada, Jitsuya; Sakurai, Hiromu

    2006-01-01

    Previously, we found that bis(allixinato)oxovanadium(IV) (VO(alx) 2 ) exhibits a potent hypoglycemic activity in type 1-like diabetic mice. Since the enhancement of insulin sensitivity is involved in one of the mechanisms by which vanadium exerts its anti-diabetic effects, VO(alx) 2 was further tested in type 2 diabetes with low insulin sensitivity. The effect of oral administration of VO(alx) 2 was examined in obesity-linked type 2 diabetic KKA y mice. Treatment of VO(alx) 2 for 4 weeks normalized hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, hypercholesterolemia and hypertension in KKA y mice; however, it had no effect on hypoadiponectinemia. VO(alx) 2 also improved hyperleptinemia, following attenuation of obesity in KKA y mice. This is the first example in which a vanadium compound improved leptin resistance in type 2 diabetes by oral administration. On the basis of these results, VO(alx) 2 is proposed to enhance not only insulin sensitivity but also leptin sensitivity, which in turn improves diabetes, obesity and hypertension in an obesity-linked type 2 diabetic animal

  2. Determination of total antioxidant capacity by a new spectrophotometric method based on Ce(IV) reducing capacity measurement.

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    Ozyurt, Dilek; Demirata, Birsen; Apak, Resat

    2007-02-28

    Dietary antioxidants widely found in fruits and vegetables may serve the task of reducing oxidative damage in humans induced by free radicals and reactive oxygen species under 'oxidative stress' conditions. The aim of this work is to develop a simple, low-cost, sensitive, and diversely applicable indirect spectrophotometric method for the determination of total antioxidant capacity of several plants. The method is based on the oxidation of antioxidants with cerium(IV) sulfate in dilute sulfuric acid at room temperature. The Ce(IV) reducing capacity of the sample is measured under carefully adjusted conditions of oxidant concentration and pH such that only antioxidants and not other organic compounds would be oxidized. The spectrophotometric determination of the remaining Ce(IV) was performed after completion of reaction with antioxidants. Quercetin and gallic acid were used as standards for flavonoids and phenolic acids, respectively, and results of antioxidant measurements were reported as trolox equivalents. The developed procedure was successfully applied to the assay of total antioxidant capacity due to simple compounds such as trolox, quercetin, gallic acid, ascorbic acid, catechin, naringin, naringenin, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid, and due to phenolic acids and flavonoids in the arieal parts of nettle (Urtica Dioica L.). Blank correction of significantly absorbing plant extracts at 320nm could be made with the aid of spectrophotometric titration. Plant selection was made in respect to high antioxidant content, and extraction was made with water. The proposed method was reproducible, and the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacities (TEAC coefficients) of the tested antioxidant compounds were correlated to those found by reference methods such as ABTS and CUPRAC. Since the TEAC coefficients found with the proposed method of naringin-naringenin and rutin-catechin pairs were close to each other, this Ce(IV)-based assay

  3. Treatment with 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin ameliorated symptoms of Bartter syndrome type IV caused by mutated Bsnd in mice.

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    Nomura, Naohiro; Kamiya, Kazusaku; Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Yui, Naofumi; Chiga, Motoko; Sohara, Eisei; Rai, Tatemitu; Sakaki, Sei; Uchida, Shinich

    2013-11-22

    Mutations of BSND, which encodes barttin, cause Bartter syndrome type IV. This disease is characterized by salt and fluid loss, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, and sensorineural hearing impairment. Barttin is the β-subunit of the ClC-K chloride channel, which recruits it to the plasma membranes, and the ClC-K/barttin complex contributes to transepithelial chloride transport in the kidney and inner ear. The retention of mutant forms of barttin in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is etiologically linked to Bartter syndrome type IV. Here, we report that treatment with 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), an Hsp90 inhibitor, enhanced the plasma membrane expression of mutant barttins (R8L and G47R) in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. Administration of 17-AAG to Bsnd(R8L/R8L) knock-in mice elevated the plasma membrane expression of R8L in the kidney and inner ear, thereby mitigating hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, and hearing loss. These results suggest that drugs that rescue ER-retained mutant barttin may be useful for treating patients with Bartter syndrome type IV. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nicotine reward and affective nicotine withdrawal signs are attenuated in calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kia J Jackson

    Full Text Available The influx of Ca(2+ through calcium-permeable nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs leads to activation of various downstream processes that may be relevant to nicotine-mediated behaviors. The calcium activated protein, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV phosphorylates the downstream transcription factor cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB, which mediates nicotine responses; however the role of CaMKIV in nicotine dependence is unknown. Given the proposed role of CaMKIV in CREB activation, we hypothesized that CaMKIV might be a crucial molecular component in the development of nicotine dependence. Using male CaMKIV genetically modified mice, we found that nicotine reward is attenuated in CaMKIV knockout (-/- mice, but cocaine reward is enhanced in these mice. CaMKIV protein levels were also increased in the nucleus accumbens of C57Bl/6 mice after nicotine reward. In a nicotine withdrawal assessment, anxiety-related behavior, but not somatic signs or the hyperalgesia response are attenuated in CaMKIV -/- mice. To complement our animal studies, we also conducted a human genetic association analysis and found that variants in the CaMKIV gene are associated with a protective effect against nicotine dependence. Taken together, our results support an important role for CaMKIV in nicotine reward, and suggest that CaMKIV has opposing roles in nicotine and cocaine reward. Further, CaMKIV mediates affective, but not physical nicotine withdrawal signs, and has a protective effect against nicotine dependence in human genetic association studies. These findings further indicate the importance of calcium-dependent mechanisms in mediating behaviors associated with drugs of abuse.

  5. [Study on total glucosides of peony preventing non-obese diabetic mice from sialoadenitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Lei; He, Jing; Hua, Hong

    2011-04-01

    To investigate the immunosuppressive effect of total glucosides of peony (TGP) on sialoadenitis in non-obese diabetic mice (NOD mice) and explore its possible mechanism. 27 female five-week-old NOD mice were randomly divided into three groups: TGP, hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and normal saline (NS) group. One week later, they were administered intragastrically in TGP, HCQ and NS respectively. Three mice from each group were sacrificed at the age of 10, 15 and 20 weeks. The saliva flow, serum and submandibular glands were collected at these time points. Histological changes of submandibular glands were examined by HE staining. The expression of autoantibodies (SSA, SSB and anti-alpha-fodrin) and associated cytokines in serum were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Compared with the NS group, salivary flow was significantly increased, the extent of the histological changes were ameliorated, the autoantibodies in serum were significantly decreased and the imbalance of Th1/Th2 cytokines was remedied in the mice treated with TGP and HCQ. There were no significant differences between the two groups treated with TGP and HCQ (P > 0.05). TGP can effectively ameliorate sialoadenitis on NOD mice. The mechanism was thought to be associated with the protection of submandibular gland from intense inflammation and the correction of Th1/Th2 cytokines imbalance.

  6. Unscheduled DNA synthesis in spleen cells of mice exposed to low doses of total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuschl, H.; Kovac, R.; Hruby, E.

    1983-07-01

    Unscheduled DNA synthesis was induced by UV irradiation of spleen cells obtained from C 57 Bl mice after repeated total body irradiation of 0.05 Gy 60 Co (0.00125 Gy/mice) and determined autoradiographically. An enhancement in the ability for repair of UV induced DNA lesions was observed in cells of gamma irradiated animals. While the amount of 3 H-thymidine incorporated per cell was increased, the percentage of labeled cells remained unchanged. The present results are compared with previous data on low dose radiation exposure in men. (Author) [de

  7. Long-term survival of skin allografts in mice treated with fractionated total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavin, S.; Strober, S.; Fuks, Z.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1976-01-01

    Treatment of recipient Balb/c mice with fractionated, high-dose total lymphoid irradiation, a procedure commonly used in the therapy of human malignant lymphomas, resulted in fivefold prolongation of the survival of C57BL/Ka skin allografts despite major histocompatibility differences between the strains (H-2/sup d/ and H-2/sup b/, respectively). Infusion of 10 7 (C57BL/Ka x Balb/c)F 1 bone marrow cells after total lymphoid irradiation further prolonged C57BL/Ka skin graft survival to more than 120 days. Total lymphoid irradiation may eventually prove useful in clinical organ transplantation

  8. Behavioural consequences of an 8 Gy total body irradiation in mice: Regulation by interleukin-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Meeren, A.; Lebaron-Jacobs, L.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of an 8 Gy γ total body irradiation (TBI) on exploration and locomotion activities as well as temperature were studied in C57BL6/J mice. Survival, body weight, and blood cell counts were also assessed in irradiated mice treated with placebo or interleukin (IL)-4. The efficacy of IL-4 treatment on improvement in exploration activity was evaluated. The study was carried out from 3 h to 30 days following exposure. Our results showed a biphasic response to irradiation concerning the exploration activity of mice. Irradiated mice had reduced activity as early as 3 h after exposure, with recovery of activity within 24 h. The exploration activity again decreased 4 days after irradiation and the recovery occurred slowly after day 17. IL-4 ameliorated the exploration status in mice in both phases. The locomotion activity was studied using a telemetry apparatus. A similar pattern to that of the exploration data was observed, with a minimal activity observed between days 13 and 17. A radiation-induced hypothermia was also noticed over the same time period. (author)

  9. Anti-tumor effect of total body irradiation of low doses on WHT/Ht mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Miyako; Sakamoto, Kiyohiko

    1987-01-01

    The effect of low dose (0.05 - 1.0 Gy) of total body irradiation (TBI) on non-tumor bearing and tumor bearing mice were investigated. Mice received TBI of 0.1 Gy during 6 - 12 hours before tumor cell inoculation demonstrated to need larger number of tumor cells (approximately 2.5 times) for 50 per cent tumor incidence, compared to recipient mice not to receive TBI. On the other hand, in tumor bearing mice given 0.1 Gy of TBI only tumor cell killing effect was not detected, however enhancement of tumor cell killing effect and prolonged growth delay were observed when tumor bearing mice were treated with 0.1 Gy of TBI in combined with local irradiation on tumors, especially cell killing effect was remarkable in dose range over 6 Gy of local exposure. The mechanism of the effect of 0.1 Gy TBI is considered to be host mediated reactions from the other our experimental results. (author)

  10. Behavioural consequences of an 8 Gy total body irradiation in mice: Regulation by interleukin-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Meeren, A.; Lebaron-Jacobs, L. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Dept. de Protection de la sante de l' Homme et de Dosimetrie, Section Autonome de Radiobiologie Appliquee a la Medecine, IPSN, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2001-02-01

    The effects of an 8 Gy {gamma} total body irradiation (TBI) on exploration and locomotion activities as well as temperature were studied in C57BL6/J mice. Survival, body weight, and blood cell counts were also assessed in irradiated mice treated with placebo or interleukin (IL)-4. The efficacy of IL-4 treatment on improvement in exploration activity was evaluated. The study was carried out from 3 h to 30 days following exposure. Our results showed a biphasic response to irradiation concerning the exploration activity of mice. Irradiated mice had reduced activity as early as 3 h after exposure, with recovery of activity within 24 h. The exploration activity again decreased 4 days after irradiation and the recovery occurred slowly after day 17. IL-4 ameliorated the exploration status in mice in both phases. The locomotion activity was studied using a telemetry apparatus. A similar pattern to that of the exploration data was observed, with a minimal activity observed between days 13 and 17. A radiation-induced hypothermia was also noticed over the same time period. (author)

  11. A comparative study of total body irradiation as a method of inducing granulocyte depletion in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogman, M.J.J.T.; Cornelissen, I.M.H.A.; Berden, J.H.M.; Jong, J. de; Koene, R.A.P.

    1984-01-01

    Since conventional methods of inducing depletion of polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs) in mice, such as treatment with cytostatic drugs and anti-PMN sera, proved to be insufficient to induce a stable PMN depletion for several days, and were accompanied by considerable toxic side effects, we induced neutrophil depletion in mice by total body irradiation (TBI) in a single dose of 6.0 Gy (600 rads.) at a dose rate of 0.20 Gy/min. This treatment reduced the number of PMNs in the peripheral circulation to values below 150/μl from day 3-10 after irradiation. The number of lymphocytes fell simultaneously. Platelet counts remained above 60% of normal values during the first 7 days after irradiation. Complement levels were not significantly affected by TBI. The results show that TBI of 6.0 Gy induces pronounced and stable PMN depletion in mice for at least 7 days. Furthermore, under an aseptic regimen the mice can be kept in good condition and losses are less than 5%. (Auth.)

  12. The homeostatic and circadian sleep recovery responses after total sleep deprivation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dispersyn, Garance; Sauvet, Fabien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Ciret, Sylvain; Drogou, Catherine; Leger, Damien; Gallopin, Thierry; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2017-10-01

    Many studies on sleep deprivation effects lack data regarding the recovery period. We investigated the 2-day homeostatic and circadian sleep recovery response to 24 h of total sleep deprivation (TSD) induced by brief rotation of an activity wheel. Eight mice were implanted with telemetry transmitters (DSI F40-EET) that recorded simultaneously their electroencephalography (EEG), locomotor activity and temperature during 24 h of baseline (BSL), TSD and 2 days of recovery (D1 and D2). In a second experiment, two groups of five non-implanted mice underwent TSD or ad libitum sleep, after which they were killed, adrenal glands were weighed and blood was collected for analysis of corticosterone concentration. During TSD mice were awake at least 97% of the time, with a consecutive sleep rebound during D1 that persisted during D2. This was characterized by increases of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep (44.2 ± 6.9% for D1 and 43.0 ± 7.7% for D2 versus 33.8 ± 9.2% for BSL) and the relative delta band power (179.2 ± 34.4% for D1 and 81.9 ± 11.2% for D2). Greater NREM and REM sleep amounts were observed during the 'light' periods. Temperature and locomotor activity characteristics were unchanged during D1 and D2 versus BSL. In non-implanted mice, corticosterone levels as well as adrenal gland and overall body weights did not differ between TSD and ad libitum sleep groups. In conclusion, 24 h of TSD in an activity wheel without stress responses influence homeostatic sleep regulation with no effect on the circadian regulation over at least 2 days of recovery in mice. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  13. Synthesized Peptides from Yam Dioscorin Hydrolysis in Silico Exhibit Dipeptidyl Peptidase-IV Inhibitory Activities and Oral Glucose Tolerance Improvements in Normal Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yin-Shiou; Han, Chuan-Hsiao; Lin, Shyr-Yi; Hou, Wen-Chi

    2016-08-24

    RRDY, RL, and DPF were the top 3 of 21 peptides for inhibitions against dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) from the pepsin hydrolysis of yam dioscorin in silico and were further investigated in a proof-of-concept study in normal ICR mice for regulating glucose metabolism by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The sample or sitagliptin (positive control) was orally administered by a feeding gauge; 30 min later, the glucose loads (2.5 g/kg) were performed. RRDY, yam dioscorin, or sitagliptin preload, but not DPF, lowered the area under the curve (AUC0-120) of blood glucose and DPP-IV activity and elevated the AUC0-120 of blood insulin, which showed significant differences compared to control (P dioscorin might be beneficial in glycemic control in normal mice and need further investigations in diabetic animal models.

  14. Adiponectin has a pivotal role in the cardioprotective effect of CP-3(iv), a selective CD36 azapeptide ligand, after transient coronary artery occlusion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, David N; Bessi, Valérie L; Ménard, Liliane; Piquereau, Jérôme; Proulx, Caroline; Febbraio, Maria; Lubell, William D; Carpentier, André C; Burelle, Yan; Ong, Huy; Marleau, Sylvie

    2018-02-01

    CD36 is a multiligand receptor involved in lipid metabolism. We investigated the mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective effect of CP-3(iv), an azapeptide belonging to a new class of selective CD36 ligands. The role of CP-3(iv) in mediating cardioprotection was investigated because CD36 signaling leads to activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, a transcriptional regulator of adiponectin. CP-3(iv) pretreatment reduced infarct size by 54% and preserved hemodynamics in C57BL/6 mice subjected to 30 min coronary ligation and reperfusion but had no effect in CD36-deficient mice. The effects of CP-3(iv) were associated with an increase in circulating adiponectin levels, epididymal fat adiponectin gene expression, and adiponectin transcriptional regulators ( Pparg, Cebpb, Sirt1) after 6 h of reperfusion. Reduced myocardial oxidative stress and apoptosis were observed along with an increase in expression of myocardial adiponectin target proteins, including cyclooxygenase-2, phospho-AMPK, and phospho-Akt. Moreover, CP-3(iv) increased myocardial performance in isolated hearts, whereas blockade of adiponectin with an anti-adiponectin antibody abrogated it. CP-3(iv) exerts cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (MI/R) injury and dysfunction, at least in part, by increasing circulating and myocardial adiponectin levels. Hence, both paracrine and endocrine effects of adiponectin may contribute to reduced reactive oxygen species generation and apoptosis after MI/R, in a CD36-dependent manner.-Huynh, D. N., Bessi, V. L., Ménard, L., Piquereau, J., Proulx, C., Febbraio, M., Lubell, W. D., Carpentier, A. C., Burelle, Y., Ong, H., Marleau, S. Adiponectin has a pivotal role in the cardioprotective effect of CP-3(iv), a selective CD36 azapeptide ligand, after transient coronary artery occlusion in mice.

  15. [Therapeutic effect of total glucosides of paeony on lupus nephritis in MRL/lpr mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhao-Xia; Yang, Shao-Feng; Wu, Qi-Fu; Lu, Ying; Chen, Yu-Yao; Nie, Xiao-Li; Jie, Hong-Yu; Qi, Jing-Min; Wang, Fan-Sheng

    2011-04-01

    To observe the therapeutic effect of total glucosides of paeony (TGP) on lupus nephritis (LN) in MRL/lpr mice. MRL/lpr mice with lupus nephritis were randomized into model group and TGP group. The urinary protein content was detected using Coomassie brilliant blue, and the serum levels of IgG anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibodies and antinuclear antibodies (ANA) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The changes in the renal pathology were examined microscopically, and the spleen and thymus were weighed to calculate the spleen and thymus indexes. At 15 and 30 days after TGP administration, the urinary protein content in the TGP group was significantly lower than that in the model group (PTGP treatment significantly lowered the serum levels of anti-dsDNA antibodies and ANA and the weight and index of spleen (PTGP treatment, the urinary protein content and the levels of anti-dsDNA antibodies and ANA decreased significantly at 15 and 30 days after TGP administration (PTGP administration, the urinary protein content was significantly lowered in the TGP group as compared to that at 15 days (PTGP can reduce urinary protein content and serum levels of anti-dsDNA antibodies and ANA, and lessen renal pathology in MRL/lpr mice with lupus nephritis, suggesting its therapeutic effect on lupus nephritis.

  16. Depletion and repopulation of lymphocytes in Peyer's patches of mice after total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermak, T.H.; Steger, H.J.; Owen, R.L.; Strober, S.

    1988-01-01

    The depletion and repopulation of lymphocytes in specific cellular domains of mouse Peyer's patches were examined following total lymphoid irradiation (TLI). BALB/c mice 5-months-old were given 17 fractionated doses of irradiation to a total of 3400 to 4250 rads over a 4-week period, and Peyer's patches were examined by immunohistochemistry at 1 to 4 days and 1 to 4 weeks after TLI. Cryostat sections were labeled with monoclonal antibodies directed against B220 (B cells), Thy-1.2 (all T cells), L3T4 (helper T cells), and Ly-2 (cytotoxic/suppressor T cells). In depleted mice, Peyer's patches were greatly reduced in size in comparison to controls, although the structural framework of follicles, domes, and interfollicular areas was still present. B cells in follicles were reduced to a small core of B220+ cells interspersed with nonlymphocytic cells. T cells were virtually eliminated from the patch except for a small population of Thy-1.2+ cells that were neither L3T4+ nor Ly-2+ in follicle domes. During early stages of repopulation at 1 to 2 weeks after TLI, follicles increased in size and were populated by helper T cells but Peyer's patches lacked discrete interfollicular T cell regions. At 3 to 4 weeks after TLI, T cell regions were found in interfollicular areas. The results indicate that morphologically distinct cellular domains are maintained in Peyer's patches after TLI which are sequentially repopulated by immigrating lymphocytes

  17. Differences in the acute intestinal syndrome after partial and total abdominal irradiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewit, L.; Oussoren, Y.; Bartelink, H.; Stewart, F.A.

    1985-01-01

    The acute intestinal syndrome in mice was analysed after partial (PAI) and total abdominal irradiation (TAI). The LDsub(50/15) was significantly higher after PAI (16.3 Gy) than after TAI(14.3 Gy). The dose-response curve for maximal weight loss also showed a shift of 1.8-2 Gy to higher doses after PAI compared with TAI. The X-ray survival curve for duodenal crypt cells was shifted by only 0.6 Gy for PAI and TAI. In order to assess the possible role of radiation-induced leucopenia and the influence of irradiating the spleen (shielded with PAI), lethality, weight loss and blood leucocyte counts were compared after PAI and TAI in splenectomized and non-splenectomized mice. No major difference in leucopenia was found between the different treatment groups, whereas the differences in lethality and weight loss between PAI and TAI remained the same. Shielding the spleen in the partial abdominal field therefore did not contribute to the difference in LDsub(50/15). These findings imply that the increased LDsub(50/15) after PAI compared with TAI was mainly due to shielding of a small part of the bowel (about 13 per cent of the abdominal area). (author)

  18. Total glucosides of peony attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiling; Ma, Xiaomeng; Zhu, Dong Liang; Chen, Li; Jiang, Ying; Zhou, Linli; Cen, Lei; Pi, Rongbiao; Chen, Xiaohong

    2015-07-15

    Total glucosides of peony (TGP), an active compound extracted from the roots of Paeonia lactiflora Pall, has wide pharmacological effects on nervous system. Here we examined the effects of TGP on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an established model of multiple sclerosis (MS). The results showed that TGP can reduce the severity and progression of EAE in C57 BL/6 mice. In addition, TGP also down-regulated the Th1/Th17 inflammatory response and prevented the reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase of EAE. These findings suggest that TGP could be a potential therapeutic agent for MS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Anticonvulsant properties of the total alkaloid fraction of Rauvolfia ligustrina Roem. et Schult. in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucindo J. Quintans-Júnior

    Full Text Available Rauvolfia ligustrina Roem et. Schult (Apocynaceae, commonly known as "paratudo" and "arrebenta-boi" is a small tree found in Brazilian Northeastern. Previous studies have demonstrated depressant and anticonvulsant properties of the ethanol extract of Rauvolfia ligustrina. The aim of the present study was the determination of the lethal dose 50% (LD50 and the effects of total alkaloid fraction (TAF of the aerial parts of R. ligustrina in animal models of convulsion. It was found that the acute toxicity of TAF was 127.8 (112.5-145.2 mg/kg (i.p. in mice. TAF (20 mg/kg, ip significantly increased (p < 0.05 the latencies of clonic seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ and picrotoxin (PIC. However, TAF did not protect the animals in maximal electroshock (MES induced seizures. These results suggest that TAF of R. ligustrina possesses anticonvulsant properties.

  20. Antibody responses to allergen Lol pIV are suppressed following adoptive transfer of B lymphocytes from the internal image anti-idiotypic antibody-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, E M; Kisil, F T

    1995-10-01

    An internal image anti-idiotypic antibody, designated B1/1, was generated against an idiotope (Id91) of the monoclonal antibody (mAb91) specific for Lol pIV. The administration of B1/1 in PBS, at doses ranging from 100 ng to 100 micrograms/mouse, to syngeneic Balb/c mice resulted in the suppression of the formation of anti-Lol pIV antibodies that possessed the Id91. Spleen cells obtained from the mice 2 weeks after the treatment with B1/1 (25 micrograms/mouse) were adoptively transferred intravenously into the syngeneic recipients which were challenged intraperitoneally with Lol pIV in alum 2 hr after the transfer. The recipients were boosted with Lol pIV 14 days later. It was demonstrated that the transfer of splenic B cells (but not of T cells) from B1/1-treated donors induced a significant suppression of not only the level of IgE and IgG antibodies to Lol pIV, but also the level of antibodies possessing the Id91. Treatment of the B cells with mAb91 plus complement abrogated their ability to transfer the suppression. This study indicates that the treatment with the anti-Id B1/1 generated B cells that were characterized, serologically, as possessing the anti-Id-like antibodies on their surface and were responsible for transferring the suppression of the formation of antibodies to allergen Lol pIV and the expression of Id91.

  1. Resistance to mycobacteria in mice treated with fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and in mice reconstituted with allogeneic bone marrow cells following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mor, N.; Lutsky, I.; Weiss, L.; Morecki, S.; Slavin, S.

    1985-01-01

    The increased clinical use of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) as an immunosuppressive adjunct in transplantation suggested the need for determining the effects of TLI on the in vivo susceptibility of animals to infections controlled by cell-mediated immunity. TLI-treated, TLI-treated and splenectomized, and chimeric mice prepared with TLI were inoculated in the hind foot pad with Mycobacterium marinum or Mycobacterium leprae. Although M. marinum organisms multiplied in greater numbers in the TLI mice, ultimately they were destroyed as effectively in TLI mice as in the non-irradiated control mice. M. leprae multiplied at the same rate and to the same maximum in TLI mice as in controls. Mice previously challenged with M. marinum in one hind foot pad, and challenged subsequently with the same organism in the opposite hind foot pad, showed a solid immunity against this reinfection. It appears that upon recovery from the immediate effects of radiotherapy TLI-treated mice are able to mount an effective immune response to experimental infection with M. marinum and M. leprae

  2. Resistance to mycobacteria in mice treated with fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and in mice reconstituted with allogeneic bone marrow cells following radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mor, N.; Lutsky, I.; Weiss, L.; Morecki, S.; Slavin, S.

    1985-01-01

    The increased clinical use of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) as an immunosuppressive adjunct in transplantation suggested the need for determining the effects of TLI on the in vivo susceptibility of animals to infections controlled by cell-mediated immunity. TLI-treated, TLI-treated and splenectomized, and chimeric mice prepared with TLI were inoculated in the hind foot pad with Mycobacterium marinum or Mycobacterium leprae. Although M. marinum organisms multiplied in greater numbers in the TLI mice, ultimately they were destroyed as effectively in TLI mice as in the non-irradiated control mice. M. leprae multiplied at the same rate and to the same maximum in TLI mice as in controls. Mice previously challenged with M. marinum in one hind foot pad, and challenged subsequently with the same organism in the opposite hind foot pad, showed a solid immunity against this reinfection. It appears that upon recovery from the immediate effects of radiotherapy TLI-treated mice are able to mount an effective immune response to experimental infection with M. marinum and M. leprae.

  3. Protective effect of Asparagus racemosus root extract against lethal total - body electron beam radiation induced damage in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharmila, K.P.; Bhandary, B. Satheesh Kumar; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Bhat, Vadish S.; Shetty, Jayaram; Peter, Alex John; Jose, Jerish M.; Fernandes, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the protective effect of Asparagus Racemosus Root ethanolic extract (ARE) in Swiss albino mice against acute lethal total - body Electron beam irradiation. Swiss Albino mice were used for the assessment of radiation induced sickness and 30 day survival analysis. Survival studies were determined using the Kaplan-Meier survival curves. The maximum survival was observed in the experimental mice pretreated with 200 mg/kg.b.wt. of ARE which also reduced the radiation sickness characteristics. This dose was considered as an optimal dose for radioprotection. Treatment of mice with ARE before irradiation delayed the onset of mortality as compared with the untreated irradiated controls. Present findings demonstrate the potential of ARE in mitigating radiation-induced mortality, which may be attributed to its free radical scavenging and increased antioxidant potential

  4. Pretreatment red blood cell total folate is associated with response to pemetrexed in stage IV non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Stephen J.; Vitale, Steven; Zhang, Suhong; Aggarwal, Charu; Evans, Tracey L.; Alley, Evan W.; Cohen, Roger B.; Langer, Corey J.; Blair, Ian A.; Vachani, Anil; Whitehead, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Pemetrexed inhibits folate-dependent enzymes involved in pyrimidine and purine synthesis. Prior studies of genetic variation in these enzymes as predictors of pemetrexed efficacy have yielded inconsistent results. We investigated whether red blood cell (RBC) total folate, a phenotypic rather than genotypic marker of cellular folate status, was associated with response to pemetrexed-based chemotherapy in advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients with stage IV non-squamous NSCLC receiving first-line chemotherapy containing pemetrexed. Pretreatment RBC total folate was quantified using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. We then compared objective response rate (ORR) between patients with RBC total folate concentrations above and below an optimal cut-off value determined from the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. A logistic regression model was used to adjust for age, sex, and use of bevacizumab. Results The ORR was 62% (32 of 52 patients). ROC analysis was used to establish that a RBC total folate cutoff value of 364.6 nM optimally discriminated between pemetrexed responders and non-responders. Patients with RBC total folate below 364.5 nM had an ORR of 27%, compared to 71% in patients with RBC total folate above this value (p=0.01). This difference persisted after adjusting for age, sex, and use of bevacizumab (OR 0.07, 95% CI 0.01 - 0.57, p=0.01). Conclusions Low pretreatment RBC total folate is associated with inferior response to pemetrexed-based chemotherapy in stage IV non-squamous NSCLC. Larger, multicenter studies are needed to validate RBC total folate as a predictive marker of pemetrexed response. PMID:27863923

  5. Pretreatment Red Blood Cell Total Folate Concentration Is Associated With Response to Pemetrexed in Stage IV Nonsquamous Non-Small-cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Stephen J; Vitale, Steven; Zhang, Suhong; Aggarwal, Charu; Evans, Tracey L; Alley, Evan W; Cohen, Roger B; Langer, Corey J; Blair, Ian A; Vachani, Anil; Whitehead, Alexander S

    2017-03-01

    Pemetrexed inhibits folate-dependent enzymes involved in pyrimidine and purine synthesis. Previous studies of genetic variation in these enzymes as predictors of pemetrexed efficacy have yielded inconsistent results. We investigated whether red blood cell (RBC) total folate, a phenotypic rather than genotypic, marker of cellular folate status was associated with the response to pemetrexed-based chemotherapy in advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients with stage IV nonsquamous NSCLC receiving first-line chemotherapy containing pemetrexed. The pretreatment RBC total folate level was quantified using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. We then compared the objective response rate (ORR) between patients with RBC total folate concentrations greater than and less than an optimal cutoff value determined from the receiver operating characteristic curve. A logistic regression model was used to adjust for age, sex, and the use of bevacizumab. The ORR was 62% (32 of 52 patients). Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to establish that a RBC total folate cutoff value of 364.6 nM optimally discriminated between pemetrexed responders and nonresponders. Patients with RBC total folate  364.5 nM (P = .01). This difference persisted after adjusting for age, sex, and the use of bevacizumab (odds ratio, 0.07; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.57; P = .01). A low pretreatment RBC total folate was associated with an inferior response to pemetrexed-based chemotherapy in stage IV nonsquamous NSCLC. Larger, multicenter studies are needed to validate RBC total folate as a predictive marker of pemetrexed response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Initial Experience with IV Ketamine Infusion for Treatment of Post Sternotomy Pain in a Patient with a Total Artificial Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Dermot P; Loyferman, Rusty; Yumul, Roya; Louy, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The implantation of total artificial hearts (TAH) via midline sternotomy for the treatment of severe biventricular cardiac dysfunction is associated with complex postoperative pain management. Ketamaine increases blood pressure by raising sympathetic outflow and cardiac output; however, ketamine is a direct vasodilator on isolated arterial tissues. In the setting of a TAH with a mechanically fixed cardiac output, a ketamine infusion for postoperative pain control has the potential to decrease blood pressure due to direct arterial vasodilation. We present the initial experience with a ketamine infusion in a patient with a TAH with minimal observed decreases in blood pressure and significantly improved postoperative pain.

  7. M cells and granular mononuclear cells in Peyer's patch domes of mice depleted of their lymphocytes by total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermak, T.H.; Steger, H.J.; Strober, S.; Owen, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    The cytoarchitecture of Peyer's patches that were depleted of their lymphocytes by total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) was examined with particular attention to the effects on M cells in the follicle epithelium and on mononuclear cells in follicle domes underlying the epithelium. Five-month-old, specific pathogen-free Balb/c mice were irradiated with 200-250 rad/day, five times a week to a total dose of 3400-4250, and their Peyer's patches were either fixed for electron microscopy or frozen for immunohistochemistry 1-4 days after completion of irradiation. Control mice were examined at the same time intervals. Follicle domes of TLI mice had approximately one fourth the epithelial surface area of domes of control mice. Within the epithelium, lymphoid cells were virtually depleted after TLI, and yet the epithelium contained M cells. In control mice, most M cells were accompanied by lymphoid cells in invaginations of the apical-lateral cell membrane. In TLI mice, most M cells did not have such apical-lateral invaginations and were columnar shaped. Other than lacking lymphocytes, these cells appeared to be mature M cells. Some M cells did have lymphoid cells or granular mononuclear cells below their basal membranes, adjacent to the basal lamina. Below the epithelium, the proportion of granular mononuclear cells was greatly increased following TLI. The retention of M cells and the increase in proportion of granular mononuclear cells in follicle domes are consistent with selective depletion of lymphocytes following TLI. Persistence of M cells without lymphocytic invaginations after TLI suggests that M cells can differentiate in the absence of, or at least in the presence of very few, lymphocytes, and that invagination by lymphocytes is not necessary to maintain mature M cell morphology

  8. Use of i.v. radionuclide total body arteriography to evaluate arterial bypass shunts--a new method--a review of several cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, D.C.; Jain, C.U.; Patel, D.; Gould, L.; Schaefer, H.; Maghazeh, P.; Giovanniello, J.

    1990-01-01

    Currently, Doppler ultrasound and contrast angiography are the main imaging procedures being used to evaluate arterial bypass shunts. IV radionuclide total body arteriography (TBA) is another useful imaging procedure for evaluation of bypass shunts. The authors reviewed 33 patients, 19 women and 14 men, ranging in age from forty-three to eighty-five, who had TBA done after arterial bypass surgery. Ten patients had multiple shunts and 5 had multiple follow-up studies. In total there were 80 shunts, including 43 femoropopliteal, 16 axillofemoral, 1 axillopopliteal, 13 crossover femorofemoral, and 7 aortofemoral shunts. Sixty-two of the 80 shunts were patent, 14 were occluded, and 4 had partial occlusion. The results were confirmed by Doppler studies, contrast angiograms, and/or surgical exploration without false positives or false negatives. Since the radiotracer used was 99mTc-labeled red blood cells, a MUGA study can also be performed immediately following TBA in the same injection. Twenty-eight patients had gated cardiac blood pool studies (MUGA) done; 16 had abnormal wall motion and diminished ventricular function. TBA requires only a single IV injection of radiotracer (less than 1 cc) in the upper limb. The imaging times for total body arterial and perfusion images are seventy seconds and five minutes respectively. Both total body arterial and perfusion images clearly demonstrated the entire course of shunts (single or multiple); underlying and coexisting arterial abnormalities, e g, occlusive disease (27 patients), or aneurysm (3 patients); and related perfusion changes in the extremities. TBA has unique features. It permits a complete, excellent visualization of the bypass graft without the hazard of contrast media injection. It is a simple and a virtually noninvasive procedure, particularly useful for preoperative workups and postoperative follow-ups

  9. Effects of Zinc Compound on Body Weight and Recovery of Bone Marrow in Mice Treated with Total Body Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yii Huang

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate if zinc compound would have effects on body weight loss and bone marrow suppression induced by total body irradiation (TBI. ICR mice were divided randomly into two groups and treated with test or control compounds. The test compound contained zinc (amino acid chelated with bovine prostate extract, and the control was reverse osmosis pure water (RO water. One week after receiving the treatment, mice were unirradiated, or irradiated with 6 or 3 Gy by 6MV photon beams to the total body. Body weight changes were examined at regular intervals. Three and 5 weeks after the radiation, animals were sacrificed to examine the histologic changes in the bone marrow. Lower body weight in the period of 1-5 weeks after radiation and poor survival rate were found after the 6 Gy TBI, as compared with the 3 Gy groups. The median survival time after 6 Gy and 3 Gy TBI for mice given the test compound were 26 and 76 days, respectively, and the corresponding figures were 14 and 70 days, respectively, for mice given the control compound (p < 0.00001. With zinc supplement, the mean body weight in mice which received the same dose of radiation was 7-8 g heavier than in the water-supplement groups during the second and third weeks (p < 0.05. Hence, there was no statistically significant difference in survival rate between zinc and water supplement in mice given the same dose of irradiation. Histopathologically there was less recovery of bone marrow cells in the 6Gy groups compared with the 3Gy groups. In the 3 Gy water-supplement group, the nucleated cells and megakaryocytes were recovered in the fifth week when recovery was still not seen in the 6Gy group. With zinc supplement, these cells were recovered in the third week. In this study, we found that zinc is beneficial to body weight in mice treated with TBI. Histologic examination of bone marrow showed better recovery of bone marrow cells in groups of mice fed with zinc. This study

  10. Hematologic status of mice submitted to sublethal total body irradiation with mixed neutron-gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herodin, F.; Court, L.

    1989-01-01

    The hematologic status of mice exposed to sublethal whole body irradiation with mixed neutron-gamma radiation (mainly neutrons) is studied. A slight decrease of the blood cell count is still observed below 1 Gy. The recovery of bone marrow granulocyte-macrophage progenitors seems to require more time than after pure gamma irradiation [fr

  11. Long-term inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV improves glucose tolerance and preserves islet function in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimer, M Kvist; Holst, Jens Juul; Ahrén, B

    2002-01-01

    DPPIV activity to 0.01+/-0.03 mU/ml vs 3.26+/-0.19 mU/ml in controls (PGlucose tolerance after gastric glucose gavage, as judged by the area under the curve for plasma glucose levels over the 120 min study period, was increased after 8 weeks by NVP DPP728 in mice fed normal diet (P=0.......029) and in mice fed a high-fat diet (P=0.036). This was accompanied by increased plasma levels of insulin and intact GLP-1. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from islets isolated from NVP DPP728-treated animals after 8 weeks of treatment was increased as compared with islets from control animals at 5.6, 8...... and such mice rendered glucose-intolerant and insulin-resistant by feeding a high-fat diet. DESIGN: In mice fed a standard diet (11% fat) or a high-fat diet (58% fat), NVP DPP728 (0.12 micromol/g body weight) was administered in the drinking water for an 8 week period. RESULTS: DPPIV inhibition reduced plasma...

  12. Genistein protects against biomarkers of delayed lung sequelae in mice surviving high-dose total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, R.M.; Barshishat-Kupper, M.; Mog, S.R.; Mccart, E.A.; Prasanna, P.G.S.; Landauer, M.R.; Davis, T.A.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of genistein on 30-day survival and delayed lung injury were examined in C57BL/6J female mice. A single subcutaneous injection of vehicle (PEG-400) or genistein (200 mg/kg) was administered 24 h before total body irradiation (7.75 Gy 60 Co, 0.6 Gy/min). Experimental groups were: No treatment+Sham (NC), Vehicle+Sham (VC), Genistein+Sham (GC), Radiation only (NR), Vehicle+Radiation (VR), Genistein+Radiation (GR). Thirty-day survivals after 7.75 Gy were: NR 23%, VR 53%, and GR 92%, indicating significant protection from acute radiation injury by genistein. Genistein also mitigated radiation-induced weight loss on days 13-28 postirradiation. First generation lung fibroblasts were analyzed for micronuclei 24 h postirradiation. Fibroblasts from the lungs of GR-treated mice had significantly reduced micronuclei compared with NR mice. Collagen deposition was examined by histochemical staining. At 90 days postirradiation one half of the untreated and vehicle irradiated mice had focal distributions of small collagen-rich plaques in the lungs, whereas all of the genistein-treated animals had morphologically normal lungs. Radiation reduced the expression of COX-2, transforming growth factor-β receptor (TGFβR) I and II at 90 days after irradiation. Genistein prevented the reduction in TGFβRI. However, by 180 days postirradiation, these proteins normalized in all groups. These results demonstrate that genistein protects against acute radiation-induced mortality in female mice and that GR-treated mice have reduced lung damage compared to NR or VR. These data suggest that genistein is protective against a range of radiation injuries. (author)

  13. Genistein Protects Against Biomarkers of Delayed Lung Sequelae in Mice Surviving High-Dose Total Body Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DAY, Regina M.; BARSHISHAT-KUPPER, Michal; MOG, Steven R.; MCCART, Elizabeth A.; PRASANNA, P. G. S.; DAVIS, Thomas A.; LANDAUER, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of genistein on 30-day survival and delayed lung injury were examined in C57BL/6J female mice. A single subcutaneous injection of vehicle (PEG-400) or genistein (200 mg/kg) was administered 24 h before total body irradiation (7.75 Gy 60Co, 0.6 Gy/min). Experimental groups were: No treatment + Sham (NC), Vehicle + Sham (VC), Genistein + Sham (GC), Radiation only (NR), Vehicle + Radiation (VR), Genistein + Radiation (GR). Thirty-day survivals after 7.75 Gy were: NR 23%, VR 53%, and GR 92%, indicating significant protection from acute radiation injury by genistein. Genistein also mitigated radiation-induced weight loss on days 13–28 postirradiation. First generation lung fibroblasts were analyzed for micronuclei 24 h postirradiation. Fibroblasts from the lungs of GR-treated mice had significantly reduced micronuclei compared with NR mice. Collagen deposition was examined by histochemical staining. At 90 days postirradiation one half of the untreated and vehicle irradiated mice had focal distributions of small collagen-rich plaques in the lungs, whereas all of the genistein-treated animals had morphologically normal lungs. Radiation reduced the expression of COX-2, transforming growth factor-β receptor (TGFβR) I and II at 90 days after irradiation. Genistein prevented the reduction in TGFβRI. However, by 180 days postirradiation, these proteins normalized in all groups. These results demonstrate that genistein protects against acute radiation-induced mortality in female mice and that GR-treated mice have reduced lung damage compared to NR or VR. These data suggest that genistein is protective against a range of radiation injuries. PMID:18434686

  14. Ganoderma lucidum total triterpenes prevent γ-radiation induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smina, T P; Joseph, Jini; Janardhanan, K K

    2016-11-01

    The in vivo radio-protective effect of total triterpenes isolated from Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst was evaluated using Swiss albino mice, by pre-treatment with total triterpenes for 14 days, followed by a whole body exposure to γ-radiation. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) were analysed in liver and brain homogenates. The extent of lipid and protein peroxidation was also estimated in liver and brain homogenates after irradiation. Protection of radiation-induced DNA strand breaks in peripheral blood lymphocytes and bone marrow cells was assessed using the comet assay. Total triterpenes were highly effective in reducing the levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation to near normal values in both liver and brain tissues. Total triterpenes, when administered in vivo, were also found to be successful in restoring the antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH level in liver and brain of irradiated mice. Administration of total triterpenes, prior to radiation exposure, significantly decreased the DNA strand breaks. The results of the present study thus revealed the potential therapeutic use of Ganoderma total triterpenes as an adjuvant in radiation therapy.

  15. The effect of whole body or total-head x irradiation of the metallophilic cells in the mice spleen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Osamu; Matsueda, Yasutoshi; Mizuguchi, Hiroshi; Moriguchi, Kenzo; Ogata, Kunitoshi; Sugie, Tsuneto

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify morphological changes of the reticuloendothelial cells in the spleen following X-irradiation by Katsura's silver impregnation method. The animals used in this experiment were ddN female mice weighing 20 to 25g. The mice were given X-irradiation to the total-head (1,500R) or whole body (300R). The metallophilic cells in the spleen of control mice were of the small foamy type in the follicle, the large stellate type in the marginal metallophils, the small branching type in the marginal zone and the small foamy or round type in the red pulp, respectively. The metallophilic cells decreased immediately after whole body irradiation and the number of cells returned to normal in from 10 to 14 days. On the other hand, the number of the metallophilic cells in the follicle and the perifollicular region increased immediately after total-head X-irradiation. This state continued for several days. In the marginal zone and red pulp, the number of amoebian type cells appeared from 24 hours after irradiation and the number of cells in total-head irradiation group were more clearly distinguishable than in the whole body irradiated group. (author)

  16. Effect of dietary poly unsaturated fatty acids on total brain lipid concentration and anxiety levels of electron beam irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchetha Kumari; Bekal, Mahesh

    2013-01-01

    The whole brain irradiation causes injury to the nervous system at various levels. Omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids are very much essential for the growth and development of nervous system. Dietary supplementation of these nutrients will promote the development of injured neuronal cells. Therefore this study was undertaken to establish the role of Omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids on total brain lipid concentration, lipid peroxidation and anxiety levels in the irradiated mice. The effect of Electron Beam Radiation (EBR) on total brain lipid concentration, lipid peroxidation and anxiety level were investigated in male Swiss albino mice. The study groups were subjected to a sub-lethal dose of EBR and also the flax seed extract and fish oil were given orally to the irradiated mice. Irradiated groups show significant elevation in anxiety levels when compared to control group, indicating the acute radiation effects on the central nervous system. But the oral supplementation of dietary PUFA source decrees the anxiety level in the irradiated group. The analysis of lipid peroxidation showed a significant level of changes when compared between control and radiation groups. Dietary PUFA supplementation showed a significant level of decrease in the lipid peroxidation in the irradiated groups. The observation of total lipids in brain shows decrease in concentration in the irradiated groups, the differences in the variables follow the similar patterns as of that the MDA levels. This study suggests that the dietary intake of PUFAs may help in prevention and recovery of the oxidative stress caused by radiation. (author)

  17. Acute total sleep deprivation potentiates amphetamine-induced locomotor-stimulant effects and behavioral sensitization in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Luis P; Fukushiro, Daniela F; Hollais, André W; Mári-Kawamoto, Elisa; Costa, Jacqueline M; Berro, Laís F; Aramini, Tatiana C F; Wuo-Silva, Raphael; Andersen, Monica L; Tufik, Sergio; Frussa-Filho, Roberto

    2014-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that a prolonged period (48 h) of paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) potentiates amphetamine (AMP)-induced behavioral sensitization, an animal model of addiction-related neuroadaptations. In the present study, we examined the effects of an acute short-term deprivation of total sleep (TSD) (6h) on AMP-induced behavioral sensitization in mice and compared them to the effects of short-term PSD (6 h). Three-month-old male C57BL/6J mice underwent TSD (experiment 1-gentle handling method) or PSD (experiment 2-multiple platforms method) for 6 h. Immediately after the sleep deprivation period, mice were tested in the open field for 10 min under the effects of saline or 2.0 mg/kg AMP. Seven days later, to assess behavioral sensitization, all of the mice received a challenge injection of 2.0 mg/kg AMP and were tested in the open field for 10 min. Total, peripheral, and central locomotion, and grooming duration were measured. TSD, but not PSD, potentiated the hyperlocomotion induced by an acute injection of AMP and this effect was due to an increased locomotion in the central squares of the apparatus. Similarly, TSD facilitated the development of AMP-induced sensitization, but only in the central locomotion parameter. The data indicate that an acute period of TSD may exacerbate the behavioral effects of AMP in mice. Because sleep architecture is composed of paradoxical and slow wave sleep, and 6-h PSD had no effects on AMP-induced hyperlocomotion or sensitization, our data suggest that the deprivation of slow wave sleep plays a critical role in the mechanisms that underlie the potentiating effects of TSD on both the acute and sensitized addiction-related responses to AMP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Long-Term Effects of Stem Cells on Total-Body Irradiated Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyalkina, M. V.; Alchinova, I. B.; Yakovenko, E. N.; Medvedeva, Yu S.; Saburina, I. N.; Karganov, M. Yu

    2017-01-01

    C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to γ-radiation in a sublethal dose of 7.5 Gy. In 3 hours injection 106/mouse of bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells stem cells intravenously to experimental group was done. Methods used: body weight measurement, open field behavior, subfraction composition of blood serum (laser correlation spectroscopy, LCS), histological examination of the spleen, liver, and pancreas, count of T and B cells, white blood formula. After 1.5 and 3 months the general trend towards intermediate position of the parameters observed in the experimental between those in intact and irradiated controls attests to partial protective/restorative effects of the injected cells.

  19. Ganoderma lucidum total triterpenes attenuate DLA induced ascites and EAC induced solid tumours in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smina, T P; Mathew, J; Janardhanan, K K

    2016-04-30

    G. lucidum total triterpenes were assessed for its apoptosis-inducing and anti-tumour activities. The ability of the total triterpenes to induce apoptosis was evaluated in Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) and Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell lines. Total triterpenes were found to be highly cytotoxic to DLA and EAC cell lines with IC50 values 5 ± 0.32 and 7.9 ± 0.2 µg/ml respectively. Total triterpenes induced apoptosis in both cell lines which is evident from the DNA fragmentation assay. Anti-tumour activity was accessed using DLA induced solid and EAC induced ascites tumour models in Swiss albino mice. Administration of 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg b. wt. total triterpenes showed 11.86, 27.27 and 40.57% increase in life span of animals in ascites tumour model. Treatment with 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg b. wt. total triterpenes exhibited 76.86, 85.01 and 91.03% inhibition in tumour volume and 67.96, 72.38 and 77.90% inhibition in tumour weight respectively in the solid tumour model. The study reveals the significant dose-dependent anti-tumour activity of total triterpenes in both models. Total triterpenes were more active against the solid tumour than the ascites tumour. The anti-oxidant potential and ability to induce cell-specific apoptosis could be contributing to its anti-tumour activities.

  20. Adeno-associated virus (AAV-mediated suppression of Ca2+/calmodulin kinase IV activity in the nucleus accumbens modulates emotional behaviour in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bading Hilmar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV controls activity-dependent gene transcription by regulating the activity of the cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB. This signaling pathway is involved in gating emotional responses in the CNS but previous studies did not address the potential roles of CaMKIV in discrete brain regions. In the present study, we aimed at specifically dissecting the role of CaMKIV in the nucleus accumbens of adult mice. Results We used recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV-mediated gene transfer of a dominant-negative CaMKIV variant (rAAV-dnCaMKIV to inhibit endogenous CaMKIV in the nucleus accumbens. rAAV-dnCaMKIV treated animals were subjected to a battery of tests including, prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response, open field, social interaction and anxiety-related behaviour. We found that basal locomotor activity in the open field, and prepulse inhibition or startle performance were unaltered in mice infected with rAAV-dnCaMKIV in the nucleus accumbens. However, anxiogenic effects were revealed in social interaction testing and the light/dark emergence test. Conclusion Our findings suggest a modulatory role of CaMKIV in the nucleus accumbens in anxiety-like behaviour but not sensorimotor gating.

  1. Long-Term Effects of Stem Cells on Total-Body Irradiated Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyalkina, M V; Alchinova, I B; Yakovenko, E N; Medvedeva, Yu S; Saburina, I N; Karganov, M Yu

    2017-01-01

    C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to γ-radiation in a sublethal dose of 7.5 Gy. In 3 hours injection 10 6 /mouse of bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells stem cells intravenously to experimental group was done. Methods used: body weight measurement, open field behavior, subfraction composition of blood serum (laser correlation spectroscopy, LCS), histological examination of the spleen, liver, and pancreas, count of T and B cells, white blood formula. After 1.5 and 3 months the general trend towards intermediate position of the parameters observed in the experimental between those in intact and irradiated controls attests to partial protective/restorative effects of the injected cells. (paper)

  2. The Effects of Vitex agnus castus Total Extract on Spermatogenesis of Balb/C Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ramezani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction & Objective: Vitex agnus castus (Verbenaceae is a phytoestrogeic herb native to the Middle East and southern Europe. It has clinical usage in so many countries. In this research, the effects of Vitex agnus castus extract was investigated on spermatogenesis of male Balb/C mice. Materials & Methods: This is an experimental study in which adult male mice were chosen and divided into 3 groups: control, vehicle, and experimental. Animals were daily injected (i.p. with 65, 165 265, 365, and 465 mg/kg of seed extract for ten consecutive days. Then the animals were weighed and eventually killed by cervical dislocation 2 weeks after the last injection. The caudal part of the right epididymis was used for sperm counting. After macroscopic investigation (weight, diameter and volume of testes tissues were fixed in Buin's fixative. Tissues were cut at 5 µm, stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H& E.Ccollected data was analyzed by the SPSS software by using one-way ANOVA. Results: No significant differences in body weight, volume, weight and diameter of testes was seen. Light microscopic studies showed a significant reduction in germinal epithelium in doses of 265 and 365 mg/kg and increased of interstitial tissue area in doses of 265, 365, and 465 mg/kg of extract. There was no significant difference in epithelium thickness and of the diameter of the epididymis. Germinal cells contained pyknotic nuclei and several holes that were found scattered in the tubules. Testis also showed a general disarrangement in various germinal elements of seminiferous tubules. Result of sperms count indicated a significant decreasing of spermatozoa in animals which received 265 and 365 mg/kg of extract. Conclusion: Vitex agnus castus contains essential oils, iridoid glycosides, flavonoids diterpenes, and essential fatty acids. The results suggest that its contraceptive effects is related to its flavonoids and essential fatty acids but further studies is

  3. Hippophae leaf extract (SBL-1) countered radiation induced dysbiosis in jejunum of total body 60Cobalt gamma - irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beniwal, C.S.; Madhu Bala

    2014-01-01

    Single dose of SBL-1 administered at the rate 30 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) 30 min prior to whole body 60 Co-gamma-irradiation at lethal dose (10 Gy), rendered >90% survival in comparison to zero survival in the non-SBL-1 treated 60 Co-gamma-irradiated (10 Gy) mice population (J Herbs Spices Med Plants, 2009; 15(2): 203-215). Present study investigated the effect of SBL-1 on jejunal microbiota in lethally irradiated mice. Study was performed with inbred Swiss albino Strain 'A' male mice (age 9 weeks) weighing 28±2 g. The animals were maintained under controlled environment at 26±2℃; 12 h light/dark cycle and offered standard animal food (Golden feed, Delhi) as well as tap water ad libitum. Metagenomic DNA was extracted, purified and quantified from jejunum of the mice. Universal primers (27f and 1492r) were used to amplify the 16S rRNA DNA from the metagenomic DNA. Amplicons were sequenced, vector contamination and chimeras were removed. The sequences (GenBank Accession No: KF681283 to KF681351) were taxonomically classified by using Sequence Match program, Ribosomal Database Project as well as by nucleotide-BLAST (E-value: 10, database: 16S rRNA gene sequences, Bacteria and Archea). Phylogenetic Tree was prepared using MEGA 5.2 package, using maximum likelihood algorithm after sequence alignment by MUSCLE. Thermus aquaticus was used as out-group to construct rooted tree. Branch stability was assessed by bootstrap analysis. Untreated animals and the animals treated with SBL-1 had 100% Lactobacillus; 60 Co gamma-irradiated animals had 55% Cohaesibacter (Alphaproteobacteria); 27% Mycoplasma (Tenericutes) and only 18% Lactobacillus; animals treated with SBL-1 prior to irradiation had 89% Lactobacillus and 11% Clostridium. This study demonstrated that treatment with SBL-1 at radioprotective doses before total body irradiation with lethal dose (10 Gy) countered the jejunal dysbiosis. (author)

  4. p38 MAPK Inhibitor Insufficiently Attenuates HSC Senescence Administered Long-Term after 6 Gy Total Body Irradiation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Lu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Senescent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs accumulate with age and exposure to stress, such as total-body irradiation (TBI, which may cause long-term myelosuppression in the clinic. However, the methods available for long-term myelosuppression remain limited. Previous studies have demonstrated that sustained p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK activation in HSCs following exposure to TBI in mice and the administration of its inhibitor twenty-four hours after TBI may partially prevent long-term myelosuppression. However, long-term myelosuppression is latent and identified long after the administration of radiation. In this study, we investigated the effects of SB203580 (a small molecule inhibitor of p38 MAPK on long-term myelosuppression induced by TBI. Mice with hematopoietic injury were injected intraperitoneally with SB203580 every other day five times beginning 70 days after 6 Gy of 137Cs γ ray TBI. Our results at 80 days demonstrated that SB203580 did not significantly improve the TBI-induced long-term reduction of peripheral blood cell and bone marrow nucleated cell (BMNC counts, or defects in hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs and HSC clonogenic function. SB203580 reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS production and p-p38 expression; however, SB203580 had no effect on p16 expression in the HSCs of mice. In conclusion, these findings suggest that treatment with SB203580 70 days after TBI in mice inhibits the ROS-p38 oxidative stress pathway; however, it has no therapeutic effect on long-term myelosuppression induced by TBI.

  5. Protective effects of total extracts of Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae) roots on streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohui; Liang, Tao; Wen, Qingwei; Lin, Xing; Tang, Jingzhi; Zuo, Qiaoyun; Tao, Liqun; Xuan, Feifei; Huang, Renbin

    2014-01-01

    In Chinese culture, the roots of Averrhoa carambola L. have long been used for medical purposes due to their potent pharmaceutical activities, such as improving digestive function and treating diabetes. Recently, we prepared extracts of Averrhoa carambola L. root (EACR), which were isolated from Averrhoa carambola L. roots using ethanol or water. This study was designed to investigate the potential effects of EACR on streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic mice and to explore the underlying mechanism of these effects. Male mice were injected with STZ through the tail vein (120 mg/kg body weight) and were identified as a diabetic mouse model when the level of blood glucose was ≥11.1 mmol/L. Subsequently, the mice were administered EACR (150, 300, 600, 1200 mg/kg body weight/d) and metformin (320 mg/kg body weight/d) via intragastric gavage for three weeks. The results indicated that EACR significantly decreased the serum levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs) and free fatty acids (FFAs), whereas the content of serum insulin was elevated. In addition, the expressions of apoptosis-related regulators (including caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9) and the apoptosis-induced protein Bax were markedly down-regulated by EACR, whereas the expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein was notably increased. Furthermore, EACR could protect the diabetic mice against the STZ-induced apoptosis of pancreatic β cells. Taken together, these findings indicate that EACR plays an effective hyperglycemic role that is associated with ameliorating metabolic functions and with inhibiting apoptosis in pancreas tissue. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Protective Effects of Total Extracts of Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae Roots on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Xu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Chinese culture, the roots of Averrhoa carambola L. have long been used for medical purposes due to their potent pharmaceutical activities, such as improving digestive function and treating diabetes. Methods: Recently, we prepared extracts of Averrhoa carambola L. root (EACR, which were isolated from Averrhoa carambola L. roots using ethanol or water. This study was designed to investigate the potential effects of EACR on streptozotocin (STZ diabetic mice and to explore the underlying mechanism of these effects. Male mice were injected with STZ through the tail vein (120 mg/kg body weight and were identified as a diabetic mouse model when the level of blood glucose was ≥11.1 mmol/L. Subsequently, the mice were administered EACR (150, 300, 600, 1200 mg/kg body weight/d and metformin (320 mg/kg body weight/d via intragastric gavage for three weeks. Results: The results indicated that EACR significantly decreased the serum levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TGs and free fatty acids (FFAs, whereas the content of serum insulin was elevated. In addition, the expressions of apoptosis-related regulators (including caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9 and the apoptosis-induced protein Bax were markedly down-regulated by EACR, whereas the expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein was notably increased. Furthermore, EACR could protect the diabetic mice against the STZ-induced apoptosis of pancreatic β cells. Conclusion: Taken together, these findings indicate that EACR plays an effective hyperglycemic role that is associated with ameliorating metabolic functions and with inhibiting apoptosis in pancreas tissue.

  7. Modulation of total IgE levels in serum of normal and athymic nude BALB/c mice by cells and exogenous antigenic stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Akker, van den T.W.; Soeting, P.W.C.; Oudenaren, van A.; Benner, R.

    1989-01-01

    Several different grades of T-system impairment were studied for their effects on the total serum IgE concentration in BALB/c mice. Homozygous athymic nu/nu mice and their heterozygous nu/ littermates were compared for serum IgE levels while kept under either barrier-maintained or conventional

  8. Antioxidant Activities of Total Phenols of Prunella vulgaris L. in Vitro and in Tumor-bearing Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Shi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Prunella vulgaris L. (PV, Labiatae is known as a self-heal herb. The different extracts of dried spikes were studied for the best antioxidant active compounds. The 60% ethanol extract (P-60 showed strong antioxidant activity based on the results of 2,2’-azino-di(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS˙+, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay methods. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and LC/MS analysis showed that the main active compounds in P-60 were phenols, such as caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, rutin and quercetin. Total phenols were highly correlated with the antioxidant activity (R2 = 0.9988 in ABTS˙+; 0.6284 in DPPH and 0.9673 FRAP tests. P-60 could inhibit significantly the tumor growth in C57BL/6 mice. It can also been showed that increased superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA content in serum of tumor-bearing mice. These results suggested that P-60 extract had high antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo and total phenols played an important role in antioxidant activity for inhibition of tumor growth.

  9. High diagnostic accuracy of the Sysmex XT-2000iV delta total nucleated cells on effusions for feline infectious peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Alessia; Stranieri, Angelica; Rossi, Gabriele; Paltrinieri, Saverio

    2015-06-01

    The ΔWBC (the ratio between DIFF and BASO counts of the Sysmex XT-2000iV), hereafter defined as ΔTNC (total nucleated cells), is high in effusions due to feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), as cells are entrapped in fibrin clots formed in the BASO reagent. Similar clots form in the Rivalta's test, a method with high diagnostic accuracy for FIP. The objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy for FIP and the optimal cutoff of ΔTNC. After a retrospective search of our database, DIFF and BASO counts, and the ΔTNC from cats with and without FIP were compared to each other. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+, LR-) were calculated. A ROC curve was designed to determine the cutoff for best sensitivity and specificity. Effusions from 20 FIP and 31 non-FIP cats were analyzed. The ΔTNC was higher (P  2.5 had 100% specificity. The ΔTNC has a high diagnostic accuracy for FIP-related effusions by providing an estimate of precipitable proteins, as the Rivalta's test, in addition to the cell count. As fibrin clots result in false lower BASO counts, the ΔTNC is preferable to the WBC count generated by the BASO channel alone in suspected FIP effusions. © 2015 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  10. Effect of total flavonoid in rabdosia rubescens on tolerant mice models under cerebral anoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Kang

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: The total flavonoid in rabdosia rubescens can stimulate an endogenous protective mechanism by inducing the release of low levels of cytokines NO and NOS, which reduces the release of serum NSE, relieves the brain tissue ischemia-reperfusion injury, and further improves the protection effect of ischemic preconditioning on brain injury. The damage of brain tissue ischemia and reperfusion, and further improve the ischemia Protective effect of preconditioning on brain injury.

  11. Protective effect of total flavones of Abelmoschus manihot L. Medic against poststroke depression injury in mice and its action mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei; Jiang, Qiu-Hong; Hao, Ji-Li; Zhou, Lan-Lan

    2009-03-01

    Total flavones of Abelmoschus manihot L. Medic (TFA) is the major active component isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Abelmoschus manihot L. Medic. We investigated the protective effect of TFA against poststroke depression (PSD) injury in mice and its action mechanism. A mouse model of PSD was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MACO) 30 min/reperfusion, followed by isolation feeding and chronic unpredictable mild stress for 2 weeks. Treatment groups received TFA at three different doses (160, 80, and 40 mg/kg, p.o.) or fluoxetine (Flu, 2.5 mg/kg, p.o.) daily for 24 days. Change in behavior, brain tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were measured. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was detected by immunohistochemistry, and mRNA expression of BDNF and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Treatment with TFA (160, 80, and 40 mg/kg) significantly ameliorated mice escape-directed behavioral impairment induced by PSD, markedly reduced MDA levels, and increased the activity of SOD, GSH-Px close to normal levels. TFA administration also attenuated PSD-induced neuronal death/losses, upregulated expression of BDNF both at mRNA and protein levels, as well as CREB mRNA levels. TFA had a protective effect against PSD injury in mice. Cardioprotection involves the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and upregulation of BDNF-CREB levels in the hippocampus, which may also be important mechanism of its antidepressants. This potential protection makes TFA a promising therapeutic agent for the PSD. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. A comparative study on inhibition of total astragalus saponins and astragaloside IV on TNFR1-mediated signaling pathways in arterial endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin-she Liu

    Full Text Available Both total astragalus saponins (AST and it's main component astragaloside IV (ASIV have been used in China as cardiovascular protective medicines. However, the anti-inflammatory activities that are beneficial for cardiovascular health have never been compared directly and the molecular mechanisms remain unresolved. This study was conducted to compare the inhibitory effects of these drugs on TNFα-induced cell responses, related signaling pathways, and the underlying mechanisms in mouse arterial endothelial cells.Real-time qRT-PCR was performed to determine the expression of cell adhesion molecule (CAM genes. Immunofluorescent staining was used to detect the nuclear translocation of transcription factor NF-κB-p65. Western Blot analysis was used to identify TNFα-induced NF-κB-p65 phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, and caspase-3 cleavage. Cell surface proteins were isolated and TNFα receptor-1(TNFR1 expression was determined. The results suggest that both AST and ASIV attenuate TNFα-induced up-regulation of CAMs mRNA and upstream nuclear translocation and phosphorylation of NF-κB-p65. However, TNFR1-mediated IκBα degradation, cleavage of caspase-3 and apoptosis were inhibited only by AST. These differences in the actions of AST and ASIV could be explained by the presence of other components in AST, such as ASII and ASIII, which also had an inhibitory effect on TNFR1-induced IκBα degradation. Moreover, AST, but not ASIV, was able to reduce TNFR1 protein level on the cell surface. Furthermore, mechanistic investigation demonstrated that TNFR1-mediated IκBα degradation was reversed by the use of TAPI-0, an inhibitor of TNFα converting enzyme (TACE, suggesting the involvement of TACE in the modulation of surface TNFR1 level by AST.ASIV was not a better inhibitor than AST, at least on the inhibition of TNFα-induced inflammatory responses and TNFR1-mediated signaling pathways in AECs. The inhibitory effect of AST was caused by the

  13. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2016.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  14. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2014.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  15. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2015.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  16. Effects of total glucosides of peony on AQP-5 and its mRNA expression in submandibular glands of NOD mice with Sjogren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G-L; Pu, X-H; Yu, G-Y; Li, T-Y

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the effects of total glucosides of peony (TGP) on pathological change, Aquaporin-5 (AQP-5) and its mRNA expression in submandibular glands of non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice with Sjogren's Syndrome, to investigate its regulation on secretion of salivary glands. 40 NOD mice were randomly divided into model group, TGP group, hydroxychloroquine group, combination group (n = 10). For TGP group, the mice were intragastrically administrated with 0.4 ml TGP dilution per day in accordance with 300 g/kg dose; for hydroxychloroquine group, the mice were intragastrically administrated with 0.4 ml hydroxychloroquine per day in accordance with 60 mg/kg dose; for the combination group, the mice were intragastrically administrated with 0.4 ml TGP dilution and 0.4 ml hydroxychloroquine. 8 weeks later, the mice were sacrificed, and submandibular glands were collected by anatomy. Pathological changes of submandibular gland were observed under a light microscope; AQP-5 protein in submandibular glands was detected by immunohistochemical staining; and AQP-5 mRNA expression in submandibular glands was detected by RT-PCR. The lymphocytic infiltration score of model mice was significantly higher than that of other groups. The pathological morphology and score of NOD mice were significantly improved after administration, and the combination group was superior to the hydroxychloroquine group and TGP group (p TGP group and the combination group were higher than the hydroxychloroquine group (p TGP may improve pathological damage of submandibular glands of NOD mouse with Sjogren's syndrome by upregulating AQP-5 and its mRNA expression in submandibular glands.

  17. An enhanced cerium(IV)-rhodamine 6G chemiluminescence system using guest-host interactions in a lab-on-a-chip platform for estimating the total phenolic content in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Haddabi, Buthaina; Al Lawati, Haider A J; Suliman, FakhrEldin O

    2016-04-01

    Two chemiluminescence-microfluidic (CL-MF) systems, e.g., Ce(IV)-rhodamine B (RB) and Ce(IV)-rhodamine 6G (R6G), for the determination of the total phenolic content in teas and some sweeteners were evaluated. The results indicated that the Ce(IV)-R6G system was more sensitive in comparison to the Ce(IV)-RB CL system. Therefore, a simple (CL-MF) method based on the CL of Ce(IV)-R6G was developed, and the sensitivity, selectivity and stability of this system were evaluated. Selected phenolic compounds (PCs), such as quercetin (QRC), catechin (CAT), rutin (RUT), gallic acid (GA), caffeic acid (CA) and syringic acid (SA), produced analytically useful chemiluminescence signals with low detection limits ranging from 0.35 nmol L(-1) for QRC to 11.31 nmol L(-1) for SA. The mixing sequence and the chip design were crucial, as the sensitivity and reproducibility could be substantially affected by these two factors. In addition, the anionic surfactant (i.e., sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)) can significantly enhance the CL signal intensity by as much as 300% for the QRC solution. Spectroscopic studies indicated that the enhancement was due to a strong guest-host interaction between the cationic R6G molecules and the anionic amphiphilic environment. Other parameters that could affect the CL intensities of the PCs were carefully optimized. Finally, the method was successfully applied to tea and sweetener samples. Six different tea samples exhibited total phenolic/antioxidant levels from 7.32 to 13.5 g per 100g of sample with respect to GA. Four different sweetener samples were also analyzed and exhibited total phenolic/antioxidant levels from 500.9 to 3422.9 mg kg(-1) with respect to GA. The method was selective, rapid and sensitive when used to estimate the total phenolic/antioxidant level, and the results were in good agreement with those reported for honey and tea samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Total glucosides of paeony suppresses experimental autoimmune uveitis in association with inhibition of Th1 and Th2 cell function in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xue-Tao; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Wen-Hua; Peng, Man-Qiang; Lin, Ding

    2018-01-01

    Total glucosides of paeony (TGP) are active components extracted from the roots of Paeonia lactiflora Pall. In this study, we investigated the role and mechanisms of TGP in experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) model of mice. The C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into three groups: sham group, EAU-control group, and EAU-TGP group. Clinical score of images of the eye fundus were taken on 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after induction of EAU. The concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines in intraocular fluid were measured at 14 days after EAU induction with the use of a multiplex assay system. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the frequency of CD4+, CD8+, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), and CD4+/CD8+ ratio in spleen and lymph nodes. Western blotting was used to measure expressions of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway-related proteins in retina. Clinical scores for uveitis were lower in TGP-treated EAU mice than those without TGP treatment. Importantly, the concentrations of cytokines induced by T-helper 1 (Th1) and T-helper 2 (Th2) cells in intraocular fluid were reduced in EAU mice treated with TGP. Furthermore, the frequency of CD4+, IFN-γ, and CD4+/CD8+ ratio was decreased and the frequency of CD8+ was increased in spleen and lymph nodes of mice treated with TGP. The anti-inflammatory effects of TGP were mediated by inhibiting the MAPK signaling pathways. Our results showed that TGP suppressed uveitis in mice via the inhibition of Th1 and Th2 cell function. Thus, TGP may be a promising therapeutic strategy for uveitis, as well as other ocular inflammatory diseases.

  19. Protective role of Hippopahe leaves against kidney damage in total body 60Co-gamma-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, Manu; Prasad, Jagdish; Bala, Madhu

    2012-01-01

    Hippophae rhamnoides has diverse therapeutic applications in Indian, Chinese and Tibetan medicine. Our earlier studies have shown that pretreatment with Hippophae leaf extract rendered >90% survival in mice population. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of our herbal preparation from Hippophae leaf against radiation induced kidney damage. The study was conducted with Strain 'A' male mice weighing approximately 28 ±2 g. The mice were administered Hippophae leaf extract, 30 minutes prior to 60 cobalt-gamma irradiation. The weight of kidneys and histological changes in kidney tissues at the light microscopic level were examined at 2, 5, 7, 10 and 15 days after treatment. The results showed that no significant change was observed in kidney weight after 60 cobalt-gamma irradiation. The glomerular damage in the form of glomerular sclerosis and percentage of damaged glomeruli; tubular damage in form of tubular dilations; apoptosis, and interstitial hemorrhages in renal cortex was also observed after radiation treatment. The pretreatment with Hippophae leaf extract countered most of the histological alterations induced by radiation. In comparison to radiation alone group, there was a significant decrease (p 60 cobalt gamma radiation induced damage. (author)

  20. Two types of T helper cells in mice: Differences in cellular immune functions and cytokine secretion - selective reduction of one type after total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, H.Z.

    1989-01-01

    As observed from a large panel of mouse T helper clones, there are at least two subsets of CD4 + T cells that both differ in function and demonstrate distinct patterns of cytokine secretion after antigen or mitogen stimulation. Th1 cells synthesize IL-2, INF-γ and lymphotoxin. They produce a DTH reaction in the footpads of naive mice. In addition, Th1 cells are required for the generation of CTL, and they appear to augment IgG2a antibody production. In contrast, by secreting IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6, Th2 cells play an essential role in humoral immunity. TLI consists of high dose, fractionated irradiation delivered selectively to the major lymphoid tissues. Four to six weeks after TLI, the CD4 + cells of the treated mice (counted as a percentage of the total spleen lymphocytes) recover to the similar levels as those in normal BALB/c mice. These CD4 + cells can help normal syngeneic B cells to produce a vigorous antibody response to TNP-KLH in adoptive cell transfer experiments, but the same cells are inactive in the MLR, and they fail to transfer DTH in TNP-KLH primed syngeneic BALB/c mice

  1. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci That Determine Plasma Total-Cholesterol and Triglyceride Concentrations in DDD/Sgn and C57BL/6J Inbred Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-ichi Suto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available DDD/Sgn mice have significantly higher plasma lipid concentrations than C57BL/6J mice. In the present study, we performed quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping for plasma total-cholesterol (CHO and triglyceride (TG concentrations in reciprocal F2 male intercross populations between the two strains. By single-QTL scans, we identified four significant QTL on chromosomes (Chrs 1, 5, 17, and 19 for CHO and two significant QTL on Chrs 1 and 12 for TG. By including cross direction as an interactive covariate, we identified separate significant QTL on Chr 17 for CHO but none for TG. When the large phenotypic effect of QTL on Chr 1 was controlled by composite interval mapping, we identified three additional significant QTL on Chrs 3, 4, and 9 for CHO but none for TG. QTL on Chr 19 was a novel QTL for CHO and the allelic effect of this QTL significantly differed between males and females. Whole-exome sequence analysis in DDD/Sgn mice suggested that Apoa2 and Acads were the plausible candidate genes underlying CHO QTL on Chrs 1 and 5, respectively. Thus, we identified a multifactorial basis for plasma lipid concentrations in male mice. These findings will provide insight into the genetic mechanisms of plasma lipid metabolism.

  2. Two-Stage Progressive Femoral Lowering Followed by Cementless Total Hip Arthroplasty for Treating Crowe IV-Hartofilakidis Type 3 Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binazzi, Roberto

    2015-05-01

    High developmental dysplasia of the hip is commonly treated with total hip arthroplasty and shortening osteotomy. We present a two stage technique, consisting of progressive femoral lowering followed by total hip arthroplasty. The clinico-radiographic results of eleven patients (twelve hips) who were operated on with the two-stage technique were evaluated at a mean follow-up of 11 ± 5 years. At the final follow-up, ten patients (eleven hips) had a mean Harris hip score of 85 ± 5 points with no implant loosening. One patient (one hip) was revised at 5 years due to infection. No neurovascular complications were observed in any patients. With this technique, we could place the cup in the anatomical position and obtain complete limb symmetry with excellent clinical results at long-term. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: IV. Non-linear change in behavioural phenotype of mice in response to short-term calorie restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusseau, David; Mitchell, Sharon E; Barros, Ceres; Derous, Davina; Green, Cara; Chen, Luonan; Han, Jing-Dong Jackie; Wang, Yingchun; Promislow, Daniel E L; Douglas, Alex; Speakman, John R

    2015-08-25

    Animals have to adjust their activities when faced with caloric restriction (CR) to deal with reduced energy intake. If CR is pronounced, allostasis can push individuals into alternate physiological states which can result in important health benefits across a wide range of taxa. Here we developed a new approach to determine the changes in behavioural phenotype associated with different levels of CR. We exposed C57BL/6 male mice to graded CR (from 0 to 40%) for three months and defined their behavioural phenotype using hidden Markov models of their movement and body temperature. All 40% CR mice exhibited a state-shift in behavioural phenotype and only some exposed to 30% CR did. We show for the first time that mice changed their activity characteristics rather than changed their activities. This new phenotyping approach provides an avenue to determine the mechanisms linking CR to healthspan.

  4. Ontogeny of B lymphocyte function. IV. Kinetics of maturation of B lymphocytes from fetal and neonatal mice when transferred into adult irradiated hosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherr, D.; Szewczuk, M.R.; Siskind, G.W.

    1977-01-01

    Lethally irradiated mice reconstituted with adult T cells and neonatal or fetal B cells produce an anti-DNP response of restricted heterogeneity of affinity when compared with the response of mice reconstituted with T and B cells from adult donors. The capacity to reconstitute adult mice to give a heterogeneous response matures between 7 and 10 days after birth. The maturation of B cells from day-15 fetal or neonatal donors to produce a heterogeneous response was followed in the adult, cell transfer recipient by immunizing them at different times after cell transfer. It was found that B cells both from day-15 fetal mice and from neonatal mice acquire the capacity to produce a heterogeneous response within 3 days in the adult, cell transfer recipient. Thus, the B cell population matures more rapidly in the cell transfer recipient than in the intact donor. The kinetics of maturation in the adult recipient is the same for B cells from day-15 fetal and neonatal donors. The data imply that all information required to produce a fully heterogeneous response is already present in the day-15 fetus. In addition, the data strongly support the hypothesis that a factor in the adult mouse acts to induce this step in the maturation of the B lymphocyte population. Thus, the data seem to be inconsistent with the view that the timing of the occurrence of this differentiation event is precoded in an internal cell clock in the B lymphocyte line. Clearly, B cells from day-15 fetal mice are already capable of differentiating in response to the inducing factor which is present in the adult animal

  5. Influence of radiation field and fractionation schedule of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on the induction of suppressor cells and stable chimerism after bone marrow transplantation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waer, M.; Ang, K.K.; van der Schueren, E.; Vandeputte, M.

    1984-01-01

    When BALB/c mice received 17 daily fractions of 2 Gy each of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI, total dose 34 Gy) and 30 x 10 6 C 57 B1 bone marrow cells (BM) on the day after the last fraction, stable bone marrow chimerism without signs of graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) was obtained in 84% of the animals. On the contrary, in BALB/c mice receiving only seven fractions of TLI (total dose 14 Gy), all bone marrow grafts were rejected. When the last two fractions of a 14-Gy TLI course were given without shielding the extra lymphatic tissues (combined total lymphoid + total body irradiation, TLBI), chimerism could be induced in 53% of the animals. When this 14-Gy TLBI schedule was used, it was even possible to administer four fractions per day (multiple fractions per day schedule, MFD), thus reducing the overall treatment time to 2 consecutive days. After this concentrated form of TLBI, chimerism was detected in 35% of the animals. As in the 34-Gy TLI schedule, graft-vs-host reaction could not be prevented in the 14-Gy TLBI schedule when spleen lymphocytes (10 x 10 6 ) were added to the BM inocolum. Leucopenia or suppression of the phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced blastogenesis could not predict which schedule would result in a successful allogeneic bone marrow take. Suppressor cells of the mixed lymphocyte reaction, on the other hand, were only found in the spleen of BALB/c mice treated with the TLI or TLBI schedules, which also resulted in stable bone marrow chimerism

  6. Total Lignans of Schisandra chinensis Ameliorates Aβ1-42-Induced Neurodegeneration with Cognitive Impairment in Mice and Primary Mouse Neuronal Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhao

    Full Text Available Lignan compounds extracted from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz. Baill. have been reported to possess various biological activities, and have potential in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. This study was designed to investigate the effects of total lignans of Schisandra chinensis (TLS on cognitive function and neurodegeneration in the model of AD induced by Aβ1-42 in vivo and in vitro. It was found that intragastric infusion with TLS (50 and 200 mg/kg to Aβ1-42-induced mice significantly increased the number of avoidances in the shuttle-box test and swimming time in the target quadrant in the Morris water maze test. TLS at dose of 200 mg/kg significantly restored the activities of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, as well as the level of malondialdehyde (MDA both in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex in mice. Results of histopathological examination indicated that TLS noticeably ameliorated the neurodegeneration in the hippocampus in mice. On the other hand, TLS (100 μM could protect the Aβ1-42-induced primary mouse neuronal cells by blocking the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, change the expressions of Bcl-2 (important regulator in the mitochondria apoptosis pathway. Moreover, TLS also decreased the activity of β-secretase 1 (BACE1, crucial protease contributes to the hydrolysis of amyloid precursor protein (APP, and inhibited the expression of JKN/p38, which involved in the MAPKs signaling pathways in both mice and primary mouse neuronal cells. In summary, TLS might protect against cognitive deficits and neurodegeneration by releasing the damage of oxidative stress, inhibiting the expression of BACE1 and the MAPKs inflammatory signaling pathways.

  7. Uptake of carbon monoxide by C3H mice following X irradiation of lung only or total-body irradiation with 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappaport, D.S.; Niewoehner, D.E.; Kim, T.H.; Song, C.W.; Levitt, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    Carbon monoxide uptake (V/sub co/) and ventilation rate (VR) of C3H mice were determined at 14 weeks following either X irradiation of lungs only or total-body irradiation with 60 Co at different dose rates. Following localized X irradiation of lung at 97 /sub c/Gy/min there was a reduction in V/sub co/, which was inversely related to radiation dose, with a small reduction below control levels being detected at 7 Gy, the lowest dose tested. An increase in VR could be detected only at doses of 11 Gy, or more. Another group of animals received 11.5 Gy total-body irradiation at either 26.2 or 4.85 /sub c/Gy/min fllowed by transplantation with syngeneic bone marrow. Following total-body irradiation, V/sub co/ was significantly reduced by about 37% at the higher dose rate and 23% at the lower dose rate. In contrast, a trend toward elevated VR was detected only at the higher dose rate.The results indicate that V/sub co/ is a sensitive indicator of radiation-induced lung injury and that under the experimental conditions used V/sub co/ is a more sensitive indicator of radiation-induced lung injury in C3H mice than VR

  8. IVS Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    International VLBI Service (IVS) is an international collaboration of organizations which operate or support Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) components. The goals are: To provide a service to support geodetic, geophysical and astrometric research and operational activities. To promote research and development activities in all aspects of the geodetic and astrometric VLBI technique. To interact with the community of users of VLBI products and to integrate VLBI into a global Earth observing system.

  9. Ionizing radiation and autoimmunity: Induction of autoimmune disease in mice by high dose fractionated total lymphoid irradiation and its prevention by inoculating normal T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, N.; Sakaguchi, S.; Miyai, K.

    1992-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can functionally alter the immune system and break self-tolerance. High dose (42.5 Gy), fractionated (2.5 Gy 17 times) total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on mice caused various organ-specific autoimmune diseases, such as gastritis, thyroiditis, and orchitis, depending on the radiation dosages, the extent of lymphoid irradiation, and the genetic background of the mouse strains. Radiation-induced tissue damage is not the primary cause of the autoimmune disease because irradiation of the target organs alone failed to elicit the autoimmunity and shielding of the organs from irradiation was unable to prevent it. In contrast, irradiation of both the thymus and the peripheral lymphoid organs/tissues was required for efficient induction of autoimmune disease by TLI. TLI eliminated the majority of mature thymocytes and the peripheral T cells for 1 mo, and inoculation of spleen cell, thymocyte, or bone marrow cell suspensions (prepared from syngeneic nonirradiated mice) within 2 wk after TLI effectively prevented the autoimmune development. Depletion of T cells from the inocula abrogated the preventive activity. CD4 + T cells mediated the autoimmune prevention but CD8 + T cells did not. CD4 + T cells also appeared to mediate the TLI-induced autoimmune disease because CD4 + T cells from disease-bearing TLI mice adoptively transferred the autoimmune disease to syngeneic naive mice. Taken together, these results indicate that high dose, fractionated ionizing radiation on the lymphoid organs/tissues can cause autoimmune disease by affecting the T cell immune system, rather than the target self-Ags, presumably by altering T cell-dependent control of self-reactive T cells. 62 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Total glucosides of paeony inhibit the inflammatory responses of mice with allergic contact dermatitis by restoring the balanced secretion of pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun; Yuan, Jun; Wu, Hua-Xun; Chang, Yan; Wang, Qing-Tong; Wu, Yu-Jing; Zhou, Peng; Yang, Xiao-Dan; Yu, Jun; Wei, Wei

    2015-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the regulation exerted by the total glucosides of paeony (TGP) on the production of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-10 and IL-17 in the serum and lymphocytes of mice with allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). ACD in mice was induced by the repeated application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) to their skins. The mice were orally administered TGP (35, 70, and 140mg/kg/d) and prednisone (Pre, 5mg/kg/d) from day 1 to day 7 after immunization. The inflammatory responses were evaluated by ear swelling and histological examination. Thymocyte proliferation was assayed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H tetrazolium bromide assay. The cytokine production in the serum and lymphocytes supernatant was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results indicated that the topical application of DNCB to the skin provoked obvious inflammatory responses. The oral administration of TGP (70 and 140mg/kg/d) and Pre (5mg/kg/d) significantly inhibited skin inflammation, decreased the thymus and spleen indices, and inhibited thymocyte proliferation in mice treated with DNCB. Further study indicated that TGP increased IL-4 and IL-10 production but decreased the production of IL-2 and IL-17 in the serum and lymphocyte supernatant. The correlation analysis suggested significantly positive correlations between IL-2 and IL-17 production and the severity of skin inflammation, whereas negative correlations were obtained for IL-4 and IL-10 production and skin inflammation. In summary, these results suggest that the therapeutic effects of TGP on ACD may result from its regulation of the imbalanced secretion of IL-2/IL-4 and IL-10/IL-17. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bone marrow transplantation across major histocompatibility barriers in mice. II. T cell requirement for engraftment in total lymphoid irradiation-conditioned recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallera, D.A.; Soderling, C.C.; Carlson, G.J.; Kersey, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    Studies were undertaken to examine the role of T lymphocytes in engraftment of bone marrow (BM) in animals conditioned with total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) prior to transplantation across major histocompatibility barriers. Donor BM (added as a source of lymphohematopoietic stem cells) and spleen cells (added as a source of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)-causing cells) were pretreated in vitro with monoclonal anti-Thy-1.2 plus complement (C). T cell-depleted grafts were then give to allogeneic mice conditioned with 900 rad of single dose TLI plus cyclophosphamide (CY). These mice did not engraft. Even in the absence of added spleen cells, elimination of the small T cell population from donor BM grafts prevented engraftment compared with animals that received the same conditioning regimen and untreated donor cells. These control animals demonstrated uniform evidence of engraftment about 1 month after transplantation. Similar findings were reported when recipients were conditioned with fractionated 17 x 200-rad TLI. In TLI plus CY-conditional recipients, we have also observed that increasing the donation of treated bone marrow cells still did not result in significant engraftment. Furthermore, graft failure in mice receiving normal dosages of anti-Thy-1.2 plus C-treated donor cells was not a strain-restricted phenomenon. Moreover, removal of bone marrow T cells with monoclonal anti-Lyt-1 plus complement also resulted in graft failure in TLI-conditioned recipients. In contrast to TLI conditioning, when Thy-1.2 plus C-treated donor cells were given to recipients conditioned with total body irradiation (TBI), a high percentage of engraftment was demonstrated by an H-2 microcytotoxicity assay. Plausible mechanisms for there findings are discussed

  12. Abrogation of bone marrow allograft resistance in mice by increased total body irradiation correlates with eradication of host clonable T cells and alloreactive cytotoxic precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, E.; Lapidot, T.; Gozes, D.; Singer, T.S.; Reisner, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Host-vs-graft activity presents a major obstacle for transplantation of T cell-depleted bone marrow in HLA-mismatched patients. In a primate model, conditioned exactly like leukemia patients, it was shown that residual host clonable T cells, as well as alloreactive cytotoxic precursors, were present in peripheral blood and spleen after completion of cytoreduction. We have now extended this study in a mouse model for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. C 3 H/HeJ mice were treated by 9 Gy total body irradiation (TBI), and 24 hr later their spleen cells were cultured in the presence of T cell growth factor and phytohemagglutinin according to the limit dilution procedure. After 7 days of culture the average frequency of clonable cells was 2.5 X 10(-3) compared with 37 X 10(-3) in the spleens of normal mice. The T cell derivation of the growing cells was ascertained by complement-mediated cytotoxicity with anti-Thy-1 as well as with anti-Lyt-2 and anti-Ly-3T4. In parallel, we found that the initial engraftment rate of bone marrow allograft in mice given 9 Gy TBI was lower than that found in recipients of syngeneic marrow. The initial engraftment rate was measured by the number of colony-forming units in the spleen and by splenic uptake of 125 IUdR. A slight increase in TBI from 9 Gy to 11 Gy markedly reduced the difference in the number of spleen colony-forming units or the IUdR uptake between recipients of allogeneic and syngeneic bone marrow. This increase in TBI also coincided with eradication of detectable clonable T cells. Moreover, in mice transplanted with T cell-depleted bone marrow after 9 Gy TBI, we also demonstrate that cytotoxicity against donor-type target cells is present in the spleen 10 to 14 days posttransplantation, whereas in mice treated by 11 Gy TBI such alloreactivity could not be detected

  13. Short-Term Total Sleep-Deprivation Impairs Contextual Fear Memory, and Contextual Fear-Conditioning Reduces REM Sleep in Moderately Anxious Swiss Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munazah F. Qureshi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The conditioning tasks have been widely used to model fear and anxiety and to study their association with sleep. Many reports suggest that sleep plays a vital role in the consolidation of fear memory. Studies have also demonstrated that fear-conditioning influences sleep differently in mice strains having a low or high anxiety level. It is, therefore, necessary to know, how sleep influences fear-conditioning and how fear-conditioning induces changes in sleep architecture in moderate anxious strains. We have used Swiss mice, a moderate anxious strain, to study the effects of: (i sleep deprivation on contextual fear conditioned memory, and also (ii contextual fear conditioning on sleep architecture. Animals were divided into three groups: (a non-sleep deprived (NSD; (b stress control (SC; and (c sleep-deprived (SD groups. The SD animals were SD for 5 h soon after training. We found that the NSD and SC animals showed 60.57% and 58.12% freezing on the testing day, while SD animals showed significantly less freezing (17.13% only; p < 0.001 on the testing day. Further, we observed that contextual fear-conditioning did not alter the total amount of wakefulness and non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. REM sleep, however, significantly decreased in NSD and SC animals on the training and testing days. Interestingly, REM sleep did not decrease in the SD animals on the testing day. Our results suggest that short-term sleep deprivation impairs fear memory in moderate anxious mice. It also suggests that NREM sleep, but not REM sleep, may have an obligatory role in memory consolidation.

  14. Late complications following total-body irradiation and bone marrow rescue in mice: predominance of glomerular nephropathy and hemolytic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Down, J.D.; Berman, A.J.; Mauch, P.; Warhol, M.

    1990-01-01

    Late mortality and pathology were assessed in various mouse strains following total-body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation. Long-term survival data revealed both radiation dose- and strain-dependent onset of mortality between 1 and 2 years post-treatment. Renal damage appeared to have contributed to the late mortality in most treatment groups as shown by glomerular lesions, elevated blood urea nitrogen and an accompanying fall in hematocrit. Hemolysis was deduced to be the major cause of anemia, as concluded from results of 51 Cr-labeled erythrocyte survival. No decrease in erythropoiesis was evident as seen from spleen and bone marrow 59 Fe uptake. These findings are together consistent with the manifestation of a hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) with kidney glomeruli representing the principal sites of injury responsible for both renal dysfunction and microangiopathic hemolysis. (author)

  15. Late complications following total-body irradiation and bone marrow rescue in mice: predominance of glomerular nephropathy and hemolytic anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Down, J.D.; Berman, A.J.; Mauch, P. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA)); Warhol, M. (Pennsylvania Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (USA). Dept. of Pathology); Yeap, B. (Dana Farber Cancer Inst., Boston, MA (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Late mortality and pathology were assessed in various mouse strains following total-body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation. Long-term survival data revealed both radiation dose- and strain-dependent onset of mortality between 1 and 2 years post-treatment. Renal damage appeared to have contributed to the late mortality in most treatment groups as shown by glomerular lesions, elevated blood urea nitrogen and an accompanying fall in hematocrit. Hemolysis was deduced to be the major cause of anemia, as concluded from results of {sup 51}Cr-labeled erythrocyte survival. No decrease in erythropoiesis was evident as seen from spleen and bone marrow {sup 59}Fe uptake. These findings are together consistent with the manifestation of a hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) with kidney glomeruli representing the principal sites of injury responsible for both renal dysfunction and microangiopathic hemolysis. (author).

  16. Donor hematopoiesis in mice following total lymphoid irradiation requires host T-regulatory cells for durable engraftment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Antonia M. S.; Poyser, Jessica; Küpper, Natascha J.; Burnett, Cassandra; Ko, Rose M.; Kohrt, Holbrook E.K.; Florek, Mareike; Zhang, Pei; Negrin, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) with antithymocyte globulin (ATG) is a unique regimen that prepares recipients for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation by targeting lymph nodes, while sparing large areas of the bone marrow. TLI is reported to increase the frequency of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T-regulatory cells (Treg) relative to conventional T cells. In this study, barriers to hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) engraftment following this nonmyeloablative conditioning were evaluated. TLI/ATG resulted in profound lymphoablation but endogenous host HSC remained. Initial donor HSC engraftment occurred only in radiation exposed marrow sites, but gradually distributed to bone marrow outside the radiation field. Sustained donor engraftment required host lymphoid cells insofar as lymphocyte deficient Rag2γc−/− recipients had unstable engraftment compared with wild-type. TLI/ATG treated wild-type recipients had increased proportions of Treg that were associated with increased HSC frequency and proliferation. In contrast, Rag2γc−/− recipients who lacked Treg did not. Adoptive transfer of Treg into Rag2γc−/− recipients resulted in increased cell cycling of endogenous HSC. Thus, we hypothesize that Treg influence donor engraftment post-TLI/ATG by increasing HSC cell cycling, thereby promoting the exit of host HSC from the marrow niche. Our study highlights the unique dynamics of donor hematopoiesis following TLI/ATG, and the effect of Treg on HSC activity. PMID:24591203

  17. Asteroids IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Patrick; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Bottke, William F.

    . Asteroids, like planets, are driven by a great variety of both dynamical and physical mechanisms. In fact, images sent back by space missions show a collection of small worlds whose characteristics seem designed to overthrow our preconceived notions. Given their wide range of sizes and surface compositions, it is clear that many formed in very different places and at different times within the solar nebula. These characteristics make them an exciting challenge for researchers who crave complex problems. The return of samples from these bodies may ultimately be needed to provide us with solutions. In the book Asteroids IV, the editors and authors have taken major strides in the long journey toward a much deeper understanding of our fascinating planetary ancestors. This book reviews major advances in 43 chapters that have been written and reviewed by a team of more than 200 international authorities in asteroids. It is aimed to be as comprehensive as possible while also remaining accessible to students and researchers who are interested in learning about these small but nonetheless important worlds. We hope this volume will serve as a leading reference on the topic of asteroids for the decade to come. We are deeply indebted to the many authors and referees for their tremendous efforts in helping us create Asteroids IV. We also thank the members of the Asteroids IV scientific organizing committee for helping us shape the structure and content of the book. The conference associated with the book, "Asteroids Comets Meteors 2014" held June 30-July 4, 2014, in Helsinki, Finland, did an outstanding job of demonstrating how much progress we have made in the field over the last decade. We are extremely grateful to our host Karri Muinonnen and his team. The editors are also grateful to the Asteroids IV production staff, namely Renée Dotson and her colleagues at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, for their efforts, their invaluable assistance, and their enthusiasm; they made life as

  18. Determination of Non-Transferrin Bound Iron, Transferrin Bound Iron, Drug Bound Iron and Total Iron in Serum in a Rats after IV Administration of Sodium Ferric Gluconate Complex by Simple Ultrafiltration Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometric Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali K. Matta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, sensitive and specific ultrafiltration inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantification of non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI, transferrin bound iron (TBI, drug bound iron (DI and total iron (TI in the same rat serum sample after intravenous (IV administration of iron gluconate nanoparticles in sucrose solution (Ferrlecit®. Ultrafiltration with a 30 kDa molecular cut-off filter was used for sample cleanup. Different elution solvents were used to separate each form of iron from sample serum. Isolated fractions were subjected to inductively-coupled mass spectrometric analysis after microwave digestion in 4% nitric acid. The reproducibility of the method was evaluated by precision and accuracy. The calibration curve demonstrated linearity from 5–500 ng/mL with a regression (r2 of more than 0.998. This method was effectively implemented to quantify rat pharmacokinetic study samples after intravenous administration of Ferrlecit®. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic (PK study of Ferrlecit in rats. The colloidal iron followed first order kinetics with half-life of 2.2 h and reached background or pre-dose levels after 12 h post-dosing. The drug shown a clearance of 0.31 mL/min/kg and volume of distribution of 0.05 L/kg. 19.4 ± 2.4 mL/h/kg.

  19. Influence of overall treatment time in a fractionated total lymphoid irradiation as an immunosuppressive therapy in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waer, M.; Ang, K.K.; Vandeputte, M.; Van der Schueren, E.

    1982-01-01

    Three groups of C 57 /BL/Ka mice received total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in a total dose of 34 Gy in three different fractionation schedules. The tolerance of all different schedules was excellent. No difference in the peripheral white blood cell and lymphocyte counts nor the degree of immunosuppression as measured by phytohaemaglutinin or concanavalin A induced blastogenesis and mixed lymphocyte reaction were observed at the end of the treatment and up to 200 days. When bone marrow transplantation was performed one day after the end of each schedule, chimerism without signs of graft versus host disease was induced in all the groups. However, from the results in a limited number of animals it seems that concentrated schedules were less effective for chimerism induction. It has been demonstrated that it is possible to reduce drastically the overall treatment time for TLI before bone marrow transplantation. Further investigations are necessary in order to determine the optimal time-dose-fractionation factors and the different perameters involved in the transplantation

  20. Total body 100-mGy X-irradiation does not induce Alzheimer's disease-like pathogenesis or memory impairment in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bing; Tanaka, Kaoru; Ji, Bin

    2014-01-01

    The cause and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are poorly understood. Possible cognitive and behavioral consequences induced by low-dose radiation are important because humans are exposed to ionizing radiation from various sources. Early transcriptional response in murine brain to low-dose X-rays (100 mGy) has been reported, suggesting alterations of molecular networks and pathways associated with cognitive functions, advanced aging and AD. To investigate acute and late transcriptional, pathological and cognitive consequences of low-dose radiation, we applied an acute dose of 100-mGy total body irradiation (TBI) with X-rays to C57BL/6J Jms mice. We collected hippocampi and analyzed expression of 84 AD-related genes. Mouse learning ability and memory were assessed with the Morris water maze test. We performed in vivo PET scans with 11 C-PIB, a radiolabeled ligand for amyloid imaging, to detect fibrillary amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) accumulation, and examined characteristic AD pathologies with immunohistochemical staining of amyloid precursor protein (APP), Aβ, tau and phosphorylated tau (p-tau). mRNA studies showed significant downregulation of only two of 84 AD-related genes, Apbb1 and Lrp1, at 4 h after irradiation, and of only one gene, Il1α, at 1 year after irradiation. Spatial learning ability and memory were not significantly affected at 1 or 2 years after irradiation. No induction of amyloid fibrillogenesis or changes in APP, Aβ, tau, or p-tau expression was detected at 4 months or 2 years after irradiation. TBI induced early or late transcriptional alteration in only a few AD-related genes but did not significantly affect spatial learning, memory or AD-like pathological change in mice. (author)

  1. Protective effects of total alkaloids from Dendrobium crepidatum against LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice and its chemical components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Ren, Jie; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Xin; Zhang, Mian; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Zhang, Chaofeng

    2018-05-01

    Dendrobium crepidatum was one of the sources of Herba Dendrobii, a famous and precious traditional Chinese medicine. Indolizine-type alkaloids are the main characteristic ingredients of D. crepidatum, which possesses a variety of changeable skeletons. In the present study, we found that the total alkaloids of D. crepidatum (TAD) can inhibit the production of nitric oxide (NO) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages and showed protective effects against LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice through downregulating the TLR4-mediated MyD88/MAPK signaling pathway. Further phytochemical study showed that six previously undescribed indolizine-type compounds, including a racemic mixture (dendrocrepidine A-E) were isolated from TAD. Meanwhile, dendrocrepidine F was separated into a pair of enantiomers by a chiral chromatography, and their absolute configurations were assigned by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The isomer (-)-dendrocrepidine F showed higher anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting NO production in LPS-treated macrophages with an IC 50 value of 13.3 μM. Taken together, indolizine-type alkaloids are the active components of D. crepidatum through downregulating the TLR4-mediated pathway, indicating some kind of therapy of TAD for ALI treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhanced Design Alternative IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, N.E.

    1999-01-01

    This report evaluates Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) IV as part of the second phase of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) effort. The EDA IV concept was compared to the VA reference design using criteria from the Design Input Request for LADS Phase II EDA Evaluations (CRWMS M and O 1999b) and (CRWMS M and O 1999f). Briefly, the EDA IV concept arranges the waste packages close together in an emplacement configuration known as line load. Continuous pre-closure ventilation keeps the waste packages from exceeding their 350 C cladding and 200 C (4.3.6) drift wall temperature limits. This EDA concept keeps relatively high, uniform emplacement drift temperatures (post-closure) to drive water away from the repository and thus dry out the pillars between emplacement drifts. The waste package is shielded to permit human access to emplacement drifts and includes an integral filler inside the package to reduce the amount of water that can contact the waste form. Closure of the repository is desired 50 years after first waste is emplaced. Both backfill and drip shields will be emplaced at closure to improve post-closure performance. The EDA IV concept includes more defense-in-depth layers than the VA reference design because of its backfill, drip shield, waste package shielding, and integral filler features. These features contribute to the low dose-rate to the public achieved during the first 10,000 years of repository life as shown in Figure 3. Investigation of the EDA IV concept has led to the following general conclusions: (1) The total life cycle cost for EDA IV is about $21.7 billion which equates to a $11.3 billion net present value (both figures rounded up). (2) The incidence of design basis events for EDA IV is similar to the VA reference design. (3) The emplacement of the waste packages in drifts will be similar to the VA reference design. However, heavier equipment may be required because the shielded waste package will be heavier. (4) The heavier

  3. A randomized multicenter comparison of hybrid sirolimus-eluting stents with bioresorbable polymer versus everolimus-eluting stents with durable polymer in total coronary occlusion: rationale and design of the Primary Stenting of Occluded Native Coronary Arteries IV study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeuwen Koen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Percutaneous recanalization of total coronary occlusion (TCO was historically hampered by high rates of restenosis and reocclusions. The PRISON II trial demonstrated a significant restenosis reduction in patients treated with sirolimus-eluting stents compared with bare metal stents for TCO. Similar reductions in restenosis were observed with the second-generation zotarolimus-eluting stent and everolimus-eluting stent. Despite favorable anti-restenotic efficacy, safety concerns evolved after identifying an increased rate of very late stent thrombosis (VLST with drug-eluting stents (DES for the treatment of TCO. Late malapposition caused by hypersensitivity reactions and chronic inflammation was suggested as a probable cause of these VLST. New DES with bioresorbable polymer coatings were developed to address these safety concerns. No randomized trials have evaluated the efficacy and safety of the new-generation DES with bioresorbable polymers in patients treated for TCO. Methods/Design The prospective, randomized, single-blinded, multicenter, non-inferiority PRISON IV trial was designed to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and angiographic outcome of hybrid sirolimus-eluting stents with bioresorbable polymers (Orsiro; Biotronik, Berlin, Germany compared with everolimus-eluting stents with durable polymers (Xience Prime/Xpedition; Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, CA, USA in patients with successfully recanalized TCOs. In total, 330 patients have been randomly allocated to each treatment arm. Patients are eligible with estimated duration of TCO ≥4 weeks with evidence of ischemia in the supply area of the TCO. The primary endpoint is in-segment late luminal loss at 9-month follow-up angiography. Secondary angiographic endpoints include in-stent late luminal loss, minimal luminal diameter, percentage of diameter stenosis, in-stent and in-segment binary restenosis and reocclusions at 9-month follow-up. Additionally, optical coherence

  4. Total lymphoid irradiation reduces IgG autoantibody production and enhances specific antibody responses in NZB/NZW F1 mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farinas, M.C.; Strober, S.

    1989-07-01

    Thymus-independent primary antibody responses were studied in young and old (9 months) untreated and TLI-treated NZB/NZW and BALB/c mice. Untreated old NZB/NZW mice had a low primary response to Brucella abortus (BA) as compared to that of young NZB/NZW and BALB/c mice. However, TLI treatment resulted in a 130-fold increase in the IgG anti-BA primary antibody response at day 21 postimmunization, achieving similar levels to those of young NZB/NZW or nonautoimmune BALB/c mice. Anti-TNP responses to trinitrophenylated BA or Ficoll were masked by high background levels of anti-TNP antibodies. Despite the increase in the anti-BA response, spontaneous immunoglobulin secretion and autoantibody levels were markedly decreased after TLI in old NZB/NZW mice.

  5. Total lymphoid irradiation reduces IgG autoantibody production and enhances specific antibody responses in NZB/NZW F1 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farinas, M.C.; Strober, S.

    1989-01-01

    Thymus-independent primary antibody responses were studied in young and old (9 months) untreated and TLI-treated NZB/NZW and BALB/c mice. Untreated old NZB/NZW mice had a low primary response to Brucella abortus (BA) as compared to that of young NZB/NZW and BALB/c mice. However, TLI treatment resulted in a 130-fold increase in the IgG anti-BA primary antibody response at day 21 postimmunization, achieving similar levels to those of young NZB/NZW or nonautoimmune BALB/c mice. Anti-TNP responses to trinitrophenylated BA or Ficoll were masked by high background levels of anti-TNP antibodies. Despite the increase in the anti-BA response, spontaneous immunoglobulin secretion and autoantibody levels were markedly decreased after TLI in old NZB/NZW mice

  6. Reduced biliary sterol output with no change in total faecal excretion in mice expressing a human apolipoprotein A-I variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolini, Cinzia; Caligari, Silvia; Gilio, Donatella; Manzini, Stefano; Busnelli, Marco; Montagnani, Marco; Locatelli, Marcello; Diani, Erika; Giavarini, Flavio; Caruso, Donatella; Roda, Enrico; Roda, Aldo; Sirtori, Cesare R; Chiesa, Giulia

    2012-10-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo)A-I(M) (ilano), is a molecular variant of apoA-I(wild-type), associated with dramatically low HDL-cholesterol levels, but no increased risk for cardiovascular disease. In view of the present uncertainties on the role of apoA-I in liver cholesterol removal by way of bile acids and neutral sterols, and of the greater capacity of apoA-I(M) (ilano) to remove arterial cholesterol, biliary sterol metabolism was evaluated in transgenic mice expressing apoA-I(M) (ilano). ApoA-I(M) (ilano) mice were fed a high-cholesterol/high-fat diet, and compared with human apoA-I(wild-type) mice. Plasma lipid levels, hepatic bile flow and composition, hepatic and intestinal cholesterol and bile acid content, and faecal sterol content were measured. Moreover, the expression of hepatic ABCA1, SR-B1 and that of hepatic and intestinal genes involved in bile acid metabolism were evaluated. The dietary treatment led to a strong elevation in HDL-cholesterol levels in A-I(M) (ilano) mice, associated with an increased expression of hepatic ABCA1. ApoA-I(M) (ilano) mice showed lower cholesterol output from the liver compared with apoA-I(wild-type) mice, in the absence of liver sterol accumulation. Faecal excretion of neutral sterols and bile acids was similar in the two mouse lines. In spite of a different response to the dietary challenge, with an increased ABCA1 expression and a lower hepatic cholesterol output in apoA-I(M) (ilano) mice, the net sterol excretion is comparable in the two transgenic lines. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Docetaxel chronopharmacology in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampellini, M; Filipski, E; Liu, X H; Lemaigre, G; Li, X M; Vrignaud, P; François, E; Bissery, M C; Lévi, F

    1998-09-01

    Docetaxel tolerance and antitumor efficacy could be enhanced if drug administration was adapted to circadian rhythms. This hypothesis was investigated in seven experiments involving a total of 626 male B6D2F1 mice, synchronized with an alternation of 12 h of light and 12 h of darkness (12:12), after i.v. administration of docetaxel. In experiment (Exp) 1, the drug was given once a week (wk) for 6 wks (20 mg/kg/wk) or for 5 wks (30 mg/kg/wk) at one of six circadian times, during light when mice were resting [3, 7, or 11 hours after light onset (HALO)], or during darkness, when mice were active (15, 19, or 23 HALO). Endpoints were survival and body weight change. In Exp 2 and 3, docetaxel (30 mg/kg/wk) was administered twice, 1 wk apart, at one of four circadian stages (7, 11, 19, or 23 HALO). Endpoints were hematological and intestinal toxicities. In Exp 4, circadian changes in cell cycle phase distribution and BCL-2 immunofluorescence were investigated in bone marrow as possible mechanisms of docetaxel tolerability rhythm. In Exp 5 to 7, docetaxel was administered to mice bearing measurable P03 pancreatic adenocarcinoma (270-370 mg), with tumor weight and survival as endpoints. Mice from Exp 5 and 6 received a weekly schedule of docetaxel at one of six circadian stages (20 or 30 mg/kg/wk at 3, 7, 11, 15, 19, or 23 HALO). In Exp 7, docetaxel (30 mg/kg) was given every 2 days (day 1, 3, 5 schedule) at 7, 11, 19, or 23 HALO. Docetaxel dosing in the second half of darkness (19 or 23 HALO) resulted in significantly worse toxicity than its administration during the light span (3, 7, or 11 HALO). The survival rate ranged from 56.3% in the mice treated at 23 HALO to 93.8 or 87.5% in those injected at 3 or 11 HALO, respectively (Exp 1, P active at 11 HALO (percentage increase in life span, 390%) and least active at 23 HALO (210%). Docetaxel tolerability and antitumor efficacy were simultaneously enhanced by drug dosing in the light span, when mice were resting. Mechanisms

  8. IV treatment at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other IV treatments you may receive after you leave the hospital include: Treatment for hormone deficiencies Medicines for severe nausea that cancer chemotherapy or pregnancy may cause Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for pain (this is IV ...

  9. Synthesis and evaluation of artificial antigens for astragaloside IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-lan Yu

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to produce artificial antigens for astragaloside IV that could be used to prepare antibodies against astragaloside IV screened in Radix astragali (Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch Bunge, Fabaceae and its preparations, using an indirect ELISA. Astragaloside IV was coupled to carrier proteins, bovine serum albumin and ovalbumin using the sodium periodate method and was then evaluated using SDS-PAGE, MALDI-TOF MS and animal immunizations. The coupling ratio of astragaloside IV to bovine serum albumin ratio was determined to be thirteen, and the indirect ELISA demonstrated that three groups of mice immunized with astragaloside IV-bovine serum albumin produced anti-astragaloside IV- bovine serum albumin-specific antibody, with a minimum serum titer of 1:9600. A method for synthesizing highly immunogenic astragaloside IV artificial antigens was successfully developed thus indicating its feasibility in the establishment of a fast immunoassay for astragaloside IV content determination in Radix astragali and its products.

  10. Effect of the Total Extract of Averrhoacarambola (Oxalidaceae Root on the Expression Levels of TLR4 and NF-κB in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Xu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Averrhoacarambola L., which is a folk medicine used in diabetes mellitus (DM in ancient China, has been reported to have anti-diabetic efficacy. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypoglycemic effect of the extract of Averrhoacarambola L. root (EACR on the regulation of the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4-Nuclear-factor kappa B (NF-κB pathway in B pathway in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic mice. Methods: the mice were injected with STZ (120 mg/kg body weight via a tail vein. After 72 h, the mice with FBG = 11.1 mmol/L were confirmed as having diabetes. Subsequently, the mice were treated intragastrically with EACR (300, 600, 1200 mg/kg body weight/d and metformin (320 mg/kg body weight/d for 14 days. Results: As a result the serum fasting blood glucose (FBG, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a levels were decreased following EACR administration. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the pancreatic tissue expression levels of TLR4 and NF-κB were downregulated after EACR administration. EACR suppressed pancreatic mRNA expression level of TLR4 and blocked the downstream NF-κB pathway in the pancreas. According to Western blot analysis EACR suppressed pancreatic TLR4 and NF-κB protein expression levels. Histopathological examination of the pancreas showed that STZ-induced pancreas lesions were alleviated by the EACR treatment. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the modulation of the IL-6 and TNF-a inflammatory cytokines and the suppression of the TLR4-NF-κB pathway are most likely involved in the anti-hyperglycemic effect of EACR in STZ-induced diabetic mice.

  11. [Effects of Total Ginsenosides and Volatile Oil of Acorus tatarinowii Co-Administration on Ability of Learning and Memory and Apoptosis in Alzheimer's Disease Mice Model Induced By D-Galactose and Aluminium Chloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Min-zhen; Huang, Li-ping; Fang, Yong-qi

    2015-05-01

    To observe the effects of the co-administration of total ginsenosides and volatile oil of Acorus tatarinowii on the ability of learning and memory and apoptosis in Alzheimer's disease (AD) mice model induced by D-galactose and aluminium chloride. 50 Kunming (KM) mice were randomly divided into normal group, model group, Aricept group (1 mg/kg), Ding Zhi Wan group (10 g/kg) and co-administration of total ginsenosides and volatile oil of Acorus tatarinowii group (co-administered group, the doses of volatile oil of Acorus tatarinowii and total ginsenosides were 30 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg, respectively). In addition to normal group, mice in other groups were given D-galactose 150 mg/ (kg x d), ip, and aluminium chloride 5 mg/kg, ig, once daily for 40 days. At the same time, mice in the treated groups were administrated with the corresponding drug from the 20th day after the modeling, once daily for 40 days. Water maze and avoiding darkness experiments were used to test learning and memory abilities; Aβ1-42 and BCL-2 content in cortex and hippocampus were detected by ELISA; the vitalities of acetyl cholinesterase ( AChE) and acetylcholine transferase (ChAT) were detected by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) vitalities were detected by a water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-1) method; the content of malondialdehyde ( MDA) in cortex and hippocampus were detected by the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) method; senile plaque on Aβ1-42 precipitation were observed by immunohistochemistry; brain tissues were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE). As compared with model group, in the co-administered group, the time of AD mice swimming, the numbers of blind area and electric shock reduced significantly (P < 0.05), and the latent period was prolonged (P < 0.05); AChE activity and levels of Aβ1-42 and MDA in cortex and hippocampus were decreased significantly (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01); ChAT and SOD activities as well as BCL-2 content were increased significantly

  12. Generation IV national program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preville, M.; Sadhankar, R.; Brady, D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the Generation IV National Program. This program involves evolutionary and innovative design with significantly higher efficiencies (∼50% compared to present ∼30%) - sustainable, economical, safe, reliable and proliferation resistant - for future energy security. The Generation IV Forum (GIF) effectively leverages the resources of the participants to meet these goals. Ten countries signed the GIF Charter in 2001

  13. Three further triterpenoid saponins from Gleditsia caspica fruits and protective effect of the total saponin fraction on cyclophosphamide-induced genotoxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melek, Farouk R; Aly, Fawzia A; Kassem, Iman A A; Abo-Zeid, Mona A M; Farghaly, Ayman A; Hassan, Zeinab M

    2015-01-01

    Three triterpenoidal saponins were isolated from the saponin fraction derived from a Gleditsia caspica Desf. methanolic fruit extract. The isolated saponins were identified as gleditsiosides B, C, and Q based on spectral data. The saponin-containing fraction was evaluated in vivo for genotoxic and antigenotoxic activities. The fraction caused no DNA damage in Swiss albino male mice treated with a dose of 45 mg/kg body weight for 24 h, although it significantly inhibited the number of chromosomal aberrations induced by cyclophosphamide (CP) in bone marrow and germ cells when applied before or after CP administration. The inhibitory indices in chromosomal aberrations were 59% and 41% for bone marrow and 48% and 43% for germ cells, respectively. In addition, the saponin fraction was found to reduce the viability of the human tumor cell line MCF-7 in a dose-dependent manner with an extrapolated IC50 value in the range of 220 μg/mL.

  14. Dynamics evaluation of total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a in the serum of mice immunized with radioattenuated paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Estefania M.N.; Andrade, Antero S.R.; Reis, Bernardo S.; Goes, Alfredo M.

    2007-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the fungus agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a deep-seated systemic infection of humans. Up to the moment no vaccine has still been reported. The potential of gamma radiation for pathogens attenuation and vaccine development was explored in this work. In our laboratory we developed radioattenuated yeast cells of P. brasiliensis and the aim of the present work was to evaluate the antibody production dynamics in mice immunized with this cells. Were analyzed the IgG antibodies titers as well as the type of response by analyzing the IgG1 and IgG2a antibody pattern in the course of infection. The mice were divided in two groups that were immunized one time and two times respectively. The mice infected with the virulent P. brasiliensis showed a high level of antibody production while the infection with the radioattenuated yeast did not significantly change the antibody level. The level of IgG raised in both immunized groups after the challenge. In the group immunized one time was not observed a significant difference between the levels of both subclasses when compared with the control. After the challenge of the group immunized two times the IgG2a levels increased significantly when analyzed 90 days post challenge. We concluded that a pattern related to the disease control was apparent in the group submitted to two immunizations. The mice had not developed a totally polarized pattern of TH1/TH2 response but a trend to a TH1 response was evident. (author)

  15. Dynamics evaluation of total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a in the serum of mice immunized with radioattenuated paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Estefania M.N.; Andrade, Antero S.R. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: estefaniabio@yahoo.com.br; antero@cdtn.br; Reis, Bernardo S.; Goes, Alfredo M. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia]. E-mail: brsgarbi@mono.icb.ufmg.br; goes@mono.icb.ufmg.br

    2007-07-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the fungus agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, a deep-seated systemic infection of humans. Up to the moment no vaccine has still been reported. The potential of gamma radiation for pathogens attenuation and vaccine development was explored in this work. In our laboratory we developed radioattenuated yeast cells of P. brasiliensis and the aim of the present work was to evaluate the antibody production dynamics in mice immunized with this cells. Were analyzed the IgG antibodies titers as well as the type of response by analyzing the IgG1 and IgG2a antibody pattern in the course of infection. The mice were divided in two groups that were immunized one time and two times respectively. The mice infected with the virulent P. brasiliensis showed a high level of antibody production while the infection with the radioattenuated yeast did not significantly change the antibody level. The level of IgG raised in both immunized groups after the challenge. In the group immunized one time was not observed a significant difference between the levels of both subclasses when compared with the control. After the challenge of the group immunized two times the IgG2a levels increased significantly when analyzed 90 days post challenge. We concluded that a pattern related to the disease control was apparent in the group submitted to two immunizations. The mice had not developed a totally polarized pattern of TH1/TH2 response but a trend to a TH1 response was evident. (author)

  16. Neptunium (IV) oxalate solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luerkens, D.W.

    1983-07-01

    The equilibrium solubility of neptunium (IV) oxalate in nitric/oxalic acid solutions was determined at 22 0 C, 45 0 C, and 60 0 C. The concentrations of nitric/oxalic acid solutions represented a wide range of free oxalate ion concentration. A mathematical solubility model was developed which is based on the formation of the known complexes of neptunium (IV) oxalate. the solubility model uses a simplified concentration parameter which is proportional to the free oxalate ion concentration. The solubility model can be used to estimate the equilibrium solubility of neptunium (IV) oxalate over a wide range of oxalic and nitric acid concentrations at each temperature

  17. Single administration of p2TA (AB103, a CD28 antagonist peptide, prevents inflammatory and thrombotic reactions and protects against gastrointestinal injury in total-body irradiated mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salida Mirzoeva

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to elucidate the action of the CD28 mimetic peptide p2TA (AB103 that attenuates an excessive inflammatory response in mitigating radiation-induced inflammatory injuries. BALB/c and A/J mice were divided into four groups: Control (C, Peptide (P; 5 mg/kg of p2TA peptide, Radiation (R; total body irradiation with 8 Gy γ-rays, and Radiation + Peptide (RP; irradiation followed by p2TA peptide 24 h later. Gastrointestinal tissue damage was evaluated by analysis of jejunum histopathology and immunohistochemistry for cell proliferation (Cyclin D1 and inflammation (COX-2 markers, as well as the presence of macrophages (F4/80. Pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and KC as well as fibrinogen were quantified in plasma samples obtained from the same mice. Our results demonstrated that administration of p2TA peptide significantly reduced the irradiation-induced increase of IL-6 and fibrinogen in plasma 7 days after exposure. Seven days after total body irradiation with 8 Gy of gamma rays numbers of intestinal crypt cells were reduced and villi were shorter in irradiated animals compared to the controls. The p2TA peptide delivery 24 h after irradiation led to improved morphology of villi and crypts, increased Cyclin D1 expression, decreased COX-2 staining and decreased numbers of macrophages in small intestine of irradiated mice. Our study suggests that attenuation of CD28 signaling is a promising therapeutic approach for mitigation of radiation-induced tissue injury.

  18. SAGE IV Pathfinder

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Utilizing a unique, new occultation technique involving imaging, the SAGE IV concept will meet or exceed the quality of previous SAGE measurements at a small...

  19. Acute Phase Response and Neutrophils : Lymphocyte Ratio in Response to Astaxanthin in Staphylococcal Mice Mastitis Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshering Dolma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the immunotherapeutic effect of astaxanthin (AX on total clinical score (TCS, C-reactive protein (CRP, and neutrophil : lymphocyte ratio in mice mastitis model challenged with pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus. Twenty-four lactating mice were divided in 4 equal groups: group I mice served as normal healthy control, group II, positive control, were challenged with pathogenic S. aureus, group III mice were challenged and treated with AX, and group IV were treated with amoxicillin plus sulbactum. The TCS was higher in postchallenged mice; however it was significantly higher in group II untreated mice as compared to group III and group IV mice. The neutrophil was higher and lymphocyte count was lower in group II mice at 120 hrs post challenge (PC. The CRP was positive in all the challenged group at 24 hrs PC, but it remained positive till 120 hrs PC in group II. The parameters are related to enhancement of the mammary defense and reduction of inflammation. Hence AX may be used alone or as an adjunct therapy with antibiotic for amelioration of mastitis. Development of such therapy may be useful to reduce the antibiotic burden in management of intramammary infection.

  20. THE SL2S GALAXY-SCALE LENS SAMPLE. IV. THE DEPENDENCE OF THE TOTAL MASS DENSITY PROFILE OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES ON REDSHIFT, STELLAR MASS, AND SIZE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Treu, Tommaso; Suyu, Sherry H.; Gavazzi, Raphaël; Marshall, Philip J.; Auger, Matthew W.; Nipoti, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    We present optical and near-infrared spectroscopy obtained at Keck, Very Large Telescope, and Gemini for a sample of 36 secure strong gravitational lens systems and 17 candidates identified as part of the Strong Lensing Legacy Survey. The deflectors are massive early-type galaxies in the redshift range z d = 0.2-0.8, while the lensed sources are at z s = 1-3.5. We combine these data with photometric and lensing measurements presented in the companion paper III and with lenses from the Sloan Lens Advanced Camera for Surveys and Lènses Structure and Dynamics surveys to investigate the cosmic evolution of the internal structure of massive early-type galaxies over half the age of the universe. We study the dependence of the slope of the total mass density profile, γ' (ρ(r)∝r -γ ' ), on stellar mass, size, and redshift. We find that two parameters are sufficient to determine γ' with less than 6% residual scatter. At fixed redshift, γ' depends solely on the surface stellar mass density ∂γ'/∂Σ * = 0.38 ± 0.07, i.e., galaxies with denser stars also have steeper slopes. At fixed M * and R eff , γ' depends on redshift, in the sense that galaxies at a lower redshift have steeper slopes (∂γ'/∂z = –0.31 ± 0.10). However, the mean redshift evolution of γ' for an individual galaxy is consistent with zero dγ'/dz = –0.10 ± 0.12. This result is obtained by combining our measured dependencies of γ' on z, M * ,R eff with the evolution of the R eff -M * taken from the literature, and is broadly consistent with current models of the formation and evolution of massive early-type galaxies. Detailed quantitative comparisons of our results with theory will provide qualitatively new information on the detailed physical processes at work

  1. THE SL2S GALAXY-SCALE LENS SAMPLE. IV. THE DEPENDENCE OF THE TOTAL MASS DENSITY PROFILE OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES ON REDSHIFT, STELLAR MASS, AND SIZE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Treu, Tommaso; Suyu, Sherry H. [Physics Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Gavazzi, Raphaël [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS-Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98bis bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Marshall, Philip J. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Auger, Matthew W. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Nipoti, Carlo, E-mail: sonnen@physics.ucsb.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2013-11-10

    We present optical and near-infrared spectroscopy obtained at Keck, Very Large Telescope, and Gemini for a sample of 36 secure strong gravitational lens systems and 17 candidates identified as part of the Strong Lensing Legacy Survey. The deflectors are massive early-type galaxies in the redshift range z{sub d} = 0.2-0.8, while the lensed sources are at z{sub s} = 1-3.5. We combine these data with photometric and lensing measurements presented in the companion paper III and with lenses from the Sloan Lens Advanced Camera for Surveys and Lènses Structure and Dynamics surveys to investigate the cosmic evolution of the internal structure of massive early-type galaxies over half the age of the universe. We study the dependence of the slope of the total mass density profile, γ' (ρ(r)∝r{sup -γ{sup '}}), on stellar mass, size, and redshift. We find that two parameters are sufficient to determine γ' with less than 6% residual scatter. At fixed redshift, γ' depends solely on the surface stellar mass density ∂γ'/∂Σ{sub *} = 0.38 ± 0.07, i.e., galaxies with denser stars also have steeper slopes. At fixed M{sub *} and R{sub eff}, γ' depends on redshift, in the sense that galaxies at a lower redshift have steeper slopes (∂γ'/∂z = –0.31 ± 0.10). However, the mean redshift evolution of γ' for an individual galaxy is consistent with zero dγ'/dz = –0.10 ± 0.12. This result is obtained by combining our measured dependencies of γ' on z, M{sub *},R{sub eff} with the evolution of the R{sub eff}-M{sub *} taken from the literature, and is broadly consistent with current models of the formation and evolution of massive early-type galaxies. Detailed quantitative comparisons of our results with theory will provide qualitatively new information on the detailed physical processes at work.

  2. IV access in dental practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, J J

    2009-04-01

    Intravenous (IV) access is a valuable skill for dental practitioners in emergency situations and in IV sedation. However, many people feel some apprehension about performing this procedure. This article explains the basic principles behind IV access, and the relevant anatomy and physiology, as well as giving a step-by-step guide to placing an IV cannula.

  3. Low Dose Total Body Irradiation Combined With Recombinant CD19-Ligand × Soluble TRAIL Fusion Protein is Highly Effective Against Radiation-resistant B-precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih M. Uckun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In high-risk remission B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BPL patients, relapse rates have remained high post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT even after the use of very intensive total body irradiation (TBI-based conditioning regimens, especially in patients with a high “minimal residual disease” (MRD burden. New agents capable of killing radiation-resistant BPL cells and selectively augmenting their radiation sensitivity are therefore urgently needed. We report preclinical proof-of-principle that the potency of radiation therapy against BPL can be augmented by combining radiation with recombinant human CD19-Ligand × soluble TRAIL (“CD19L–sTRAIL” fusion protein. CD19L–sTRAIL consistently killed radiation-resistant primary leukemia cells from BPL patients as well as BPL xenograft cells and their leukemia-initiating in vivo clonogenic fraction. Low dose total body irradiation (TBI combined with CD19L–sTRAIL was highly effective against (1 xenografted CD19+ radiochemotherapy-resistant human BPL in NOD/SCID (NS mice challenged with an otherwise invariably fatal dose of xenograft cells derived from relapsed BPL patients as well as (2 radiation-resistant advanced stage CD19+ murine BPL with lymphomatous features in CD22ΔE12xBCR-ABL double transgenic mice. We hypothesize that the incorporation of CD19L–sTRAIL into the pre-transplant TBI regimens of patients with very high-risk BPL will improve their survival outcome after HSCT.

  4. Multielement analysis of swiss mice brains with Alzheimer's disease induced by beta amyloid oligomers using a portable total reflection X-ray fluorescence system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Danielle S.; Brigido, Matheus M.; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Ferreira, Sergio S.; Souza, Amanda S.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive dementia that, in early stages, manifests as a profound inability to form new memories. The pathological features of AD include β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, loss of neurons and synapses, and activation of glia cells. Recently, several groups have raised the 'metal hypothesis' of AD. Metal ions, such as Cu and Zn, have been demonstrated to modulate amyloid aggregation along different pathways. Extensive research has been conducted on the effects of metals on Aβ aggregation and all of them have shown that both Cu and Zn accelerate the aggregation by shortening, or eliminating, the lag phase associated with the amyloid fibrillation process. The metal ions mentioned previously may have an important impact on the protein misfolding and the progression of the neurodegenerative process. The TXRF technique is very important, because can be used to identify and quantify trace elements present in the sample at very low concentrations (μg.g"-"1). In this work, three groups of females were studied: control, AD10 and AD100. The groups AD10 and AD100 were given a single intracerebroventricular injection of 10 pmol and 100 pmol of oligomers of β-amyloid peptide respectively to be induced AD. The TXRF measurements were performed using a portable total reflection X-ray fluorescence system developed in the Laboratory of Nuclear Instrumentation (LIN/UFRJ) that uses an X-ray tube with a molybdenum anode operating at 40 kV and 500 mA used for the excitation and a detector Si-PIN with energy resolution of 145 eV at 200 eV. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rubidium. Results showed differences in the elemental concentration in some brain regions between the AD groups and the control group. (author)

  5. Multielement analysis of swiss mice brains with Alzheimer's disease induced by beta amyloid oligomers using a portable total reflection X-ray fluorescence system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Danielle S.; Brigido, Matheus M.; Anjos, Marcelino J.; Ferreira, Sergio S.; Souza, Amanda S.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: marcelin@uerj.br, E-mail: amandass@bioqmed.ufrj.br, E-mail: ferreira@bioqmed.ufrj.br, E-mail: amandass@bioqmed.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica Armando Dias Tavares (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive dementia that, in early stages, manifests as a profound inability to form new memories. The pathological features of AD include β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques, intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, loss of neurons and synapses, and activation of glia cells. Recently, several groups have raised the 'metal hypothesis' of AD. Metal ions, such as Cu and Zn, have been demonstrated to modulate amyloid aggregation along different pathways. Extensive research has been conducted on the effects of metals on Aβ aggregation and all of them have shown that both Cu and Zn accelerate the aggregation by shortening, or eliminating, the lag phase associated with the amyloid fibrillation process. The metal ions mentioned previously may have an important impact on the protein misfolding and the progression of the neurodegenerative process. The TXRF technique is very important, because can be used to identify and quantify trace elements present in the sample at very low concentrations (μg.g{sup -1}). In this work, three groups of females were studied: control, AD10 and AD100. The groups AD10 and AD100 were given a single intracerebroventricular injection of 10 pmol and 100 pmol of oligomers of β-amyloid peptide respectively to be induced AD. The TXRF measurements were performed using a portable total reflection X-ray fluorescence system developed in the Laboratory of Nuclear Instrumentation (LIN/UFRJ) that uses an X-ray tube with a molybdenum anode operating at 40 kV and 500 mA used for the excitation and a detector Si-PIN with energy resolution of 145 eV at 200 eV. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rubidium. Results showed differences in the elemental concentration in some brain regions between the AD groups and the control group. (author)

  6. Internet Economics IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    edts.): Internet Economics IV Technical Report No. 2004-04, August 2004 Information Systems Laboratory IIS, Departement of Computer Science University of...level agreements (SLA), Information technology (IT), Internet address, Internet service provider 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18... technology and its economic impacts in the Internet world today. The second talk addresses the area of AAA protocol, summarizing authentication

  7. Uranium (IV) carboxylates - I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satpathy, K C; Patnaik, A K [Sambalpur Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1975-11-01

    A few uranium(IV) carboxylates with monochloro and trichloro acetic acid, glycine, malic, citric, adipic, o-toluic, anthranilic and salicylic acids have been prepared by photolytic methods. The I.R. spectra of these compounds are recorded and basing on the spectral data, structure of the compounds have been suggested.

  8. PLATO IV Accountancy Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondy, Dorothy, Comp.

    The catalog was compiled to assist instructors in planning community college and university curricula using the 48 computer-assisted accountancy lessons available on PLATO IV (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operation) for first semester accounting courses. It contains information on lesson access, lists of acceptable abbreviations for…

  9. Role for Lyt-2+ T cells in resistance to cutaneous leishmaniasis in immunized mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, J.P.; Muller, I.; Louis, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The role of Lyt-2+ T cells in immunologic resistance to cutaneous leishmaniasis was analyzed by comparing infection patterns in resistant C57BL/6 mice and susceptible BALB/c mice induced to heal their infections after sub-lethal irradiation or i.v. immunization, with similar mice treated in vivo with anti-Lyt-2 antibodies. Administration of anti-Lyt-2 mAb resulted in a dramatic reduction in the number of lymphoid cells expressing the Lyt-2+ phenotype. Such treatment led to enhanced disease in both resistant C57BL/6 and irradiated BALB/c mice, as assessed by lesion size, but did not affect the capacity of these mice to ultimately resolve their infections. In contrast, anti-Lyt-2 treatment totally blocked the induction of resistance in i.v. immunized mice. These results suggest, that Lyt-2+ T cells may play a role in immunity to a Leishmania major infection and that their relative importance to resistance may depend on how resistance is induced

  10. A sputnik IV saga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, Charles A.

    2009-12-01

    The Sputnik IV launch occurred on May 15, 1960. On May 19, an attempt to deorbit a 'space cabin' failed and the cabin went into a higher orbit. The orbit of the cabin was monitored and Moonwatch volunteer satellite tracking teams were alerted to watch for the vehicle demise. On September 5, 1962, several team members from Milwaukee, Wisconsin made observations starting at 4:49 a.m. of a fireball following the predicted orbit of Sputnik IV. Requests went out to report any objects found under the fireball path. An early morning police patrol in Manitowoc had noticed a metal object on a street and had moved it to the curb. Later the officers recovered the object and had it dropped off at the Milwaukee Journal. The Moonwarch team got the object and reported the situation to Moonwatch Headquarters at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. A team member flew to Cambridge with the object. It was a solid, 9.49 kg piece of steel with a slag-like layer attached to it. Subsequent analyses showed that it contained radioactive nuclei produced by cosmic ray exposure in space. The scientists at the Observatory quickly recognized that measurements of its induced radioactivity could serve as a calibration for similar measurements of recently fallen nickel-iron meteorites. Concurrently, the Observatory directorate informed government agencies that a fragment from Sputnik IV had been recovered. Coincidently, a debate in the UN Committee on Peaceful Uses of Outer Space involved the issue of liability for damage caused by falling satellite fragments. On September 12, the Observatory delivered the bulk of the fragment to the US Delegation to the UN. Two days later, the fragment was used by US Ambassador Francis Plimpton as an exhibit that the time had come to agree on liability for damage from satellite debris. He offered the Sputnik IV fragment to USSR Ambassador P.D. Morozov, who refused the offer. On October 23, Drs. Alla Massevitch and E.K. Federov of the USSR visited the

  11. Experimental immunologically mediated aplastic anemia (AA) in mice: cyclosporin A fails to protect against AA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knospe, W.H.; Steinberg, D.; Gratwohl, A.; Speck, B.

    1984-01-01

    Immunologically mediated aplastic anemia (AA) in mice was induced by the i.v. injection of 10(7) lymph node cells (LNC) from H-2k identical but Mls mismatched CBA/J donor mice into previously irradiated (600 rad total body gamma) C3H/HeJ mice. Cyclosporin A (CsA), 25 mg/kg, was administered subcutaneously from day -1 to day 30. Control mice included C3H/HeJ mice which received 600 rad alone, C3H/HeJ mice which received 600 rad plus CsA as above, and C3H/HeJ mice which received 600 rad total body irradiation followed by 10(7) LNC from CBA/J donors. CsA failed to prevent lethal AA. These results suggest that the pathogenetic mechanisms operating in immunologically mediated AA differ from the mechanisms operating in rodents transplanted with allogeneically mismatched marrow or spleen cells which develop graft-versus-host disease. The results are consistent with a non-T cell-dependent mechanism causing the AA

  12. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  13. Direct complexonometric determination of thorium (IV), uranium (IV), neptunium (IV), plutonium (IV) by titration of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid with xylenol orange as indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rykov, A.G.; Piskunov, E.M.; Timofeev, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to develop a method of determining Th(IV), U(IV), Np(N) and Pu(IV) in acid solutions by titration with diethylenetriamine pentacetic acid, the indicator being xylenol orange. It has been established that Th, U, Np and Pu can be determined to within 0.5-1.5%. Th and U in quantities of tens of milligrams can be determined with greater accuracy, attaining hundredths of one per cent. During titration the determination is not hindered by singly- and doubly-charged metal ions, trivalent lanthanides and actinides, except plutonium. The proposed method can be used to determine U(IV) in the presence of considerable quantities of U(VI) and Np(IV) in the presence of Np(V). Total concentrations of uranium or neptunium are determined by reducing uranium (VI) or neptunium (V) by a standard method (for example, using metallic lead, cadmium or zinc amalgam) to the tetravalent state and applying the method described in the paper. (E.P.)

  14. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  15. Hepatic imaging in stage IV-S neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franken, E.A. Jr.; Smith, W.L.; Iowa Univ., Iowa City; Cohen, M.D.; Kisker, C.T.; Platz, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    Stage IV-S neuroblastoma describes a group of infants with tumor spread limited to liver, skin, or bone marrow. Such patients, who constitute about 25% of affected infants with neuroblastoma, may expect spontaneous tumor remission. We report 18 infants with Stage IV-S neuroblastoma, 83% of whom had liver involvement. Imaging investigations included Technetium 99m sulfur colloid scan, ultrasound, and CT. Two patterns of liver metastasis were noted: ill-defined nodules or diffuse tumor throughout the liver. Distinction of normal and abnormal liver with diffuse type metastasis could be quite difficult, particularly with liver scans. We conclude that patients with Stage IV-S neuroblastoma have ultrasound or CT examination as an initial workup, with nuclear medicine scans reserved for followup studies. (orig.)

  16. Diaquatetrabromidotin(IV trihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ye

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [SnBr4(H2O2]·3H2O, forms large colourless crystals in originally sealed samples of tin tetrabromide. It constitutes the first structurally characterized hydrate of SnBr4 and is isostructural with the corresponding hydrate of SnCl4. It is composed of SnIV atoms octahedrally coordinated by four Br atoms and two cis-related water molecules. The octahedra exhibit site symmetry 2. They are arranged into columns along [001] via medium–strong O—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the two lattice water molecules (one situated on a twofold rotation axis while the chains are interconnected via longer O—H...Br hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network.

  17. Cyclopentadienyluranium(IV) acetylacetonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnall, K.W.; Edwards, J.; Rickard, C.E.F.; Tempest, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    Cyclopentadienyluranium(IV) acetylacetonate complexes, (eta 5 C 5 H 5 )UClsub(3-x)(acac)sub(x), where x = 1 or 2, and the corresponding bis triphenylphosphine oxide (tppo) complexes have been prepared. The bis cyclopentadienyl complexes, (eta 5 C 5 H 5 ) 2 U(acac) 2 and (eta 5 C 5 H 5 ) 2 UCl(acac)(tppo) 2 have also been prepared and are stable with respect to disproportionation, whereas (eta 5 C 5 H 5 ) 2 UCl(acac) is not. The IR and UV/visible spectra of the complexes are reported, together with some additional information on the UCl 2 (acac) 2 thf and -tppo systems. (author)

  18. Solubility study of Tc(IV) oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, D.J.; Fan, X.H.

    2005-01-01

    The deep geological disposal of the high level radioactive wastes is expected to be a safer disposal method in most countries. The long-lived fission product 99 Tc is present in large quantities in nuclear wastes and its chemical behavior in aqueous solution is of considerable interest. Under oxidizing conditions technetium exists as the anionic species TcO 4 - whereas under the reducing conditions, expected to exist in a deep geological repository, it is generally predicted that technetium will be present as TcO 2 ·nH 2 O. Hence, the mobility of Tc(IV) in reducing groundwater may be limited by the solubility of TcO 2 ·nH 2 O under these conditions. Due to this fact it is important to investigate the solubility of TcO 2 ·nH 2 O. The solubility determines the release of radionuclides from waste form and is used as a source term in radionuclide migration analysis in performance assessment of radioactive waste repository. Technetium oxide was prepared by reduction of a technetate solution with Sn 2 + . The solubility of Tc(IV) oxide has been determined in simulated groundwater and redistilled water under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The effects of pH and CO 3 2- concentration of solution on solubility of Tc(IV) oxide were studied. The concentration of total technetium and Tc(IV) species in the solutions were periodically determined by separating the oxidized and reduced technetium species using a solvent extraction procedure and counting the beta activity of the 99 Tc with a liquid scintillation counter. The experimental results show that the rate of oxidation of Tc(IV) in simulated groundwater and redistilled water is about (1.49-1.86) x 10 -9 mol/(L·d) under aerobic conditions, but Tc(IV) in simulated groundwater and redistilled water is not oxidized under anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic or anaerobic conditions the solubility of Tc(IV) oxide in simulated groundwater and redistilled water is equal on the whole after centrifugation or ultrafiltration. The

  19. Solubility of Tc(IV) oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, D.J.; Fan, X.H.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The deep geological disposal of the high level radioactive wastes is expected to be a safer disposal method in most countries. The long-lived fission product 99 Tc is present in large quantities in nuclear wastes and its chemical behavior in aqueous solution is of considerable interest. Under the reducing conditions, expected to exist in a deep geological repository, it is generally predicted that technetium will be present as TcO 2 .nH 2 O. The solubility of Tc(IV) is used as a source term in performance assessment of radioactive waste repository. Technetium oxide was prepared by reduction of a technetate solution with Sn 2+ . The solubility of Tc(IV) oxide has been determined in simulated groundwater and re-distilled water under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The effects of pH and CO 3 2- concentration of solution on solubility of Tc(IV) oxide were studied. The concentration of total technetium and Tc(IV) species in the solutions were periodically determined by separating the oxidized and reduced technetium species using a solvent extraction procedure and counting the beta activity of the 99 Tc with a liquid scintillation counter. The experimental results show that the rate of oxidation of Tc(IV) in simulated groundwater and re-distilled water is about (1.49∼1.86) x 10 -9 mol/(L.d) under aerobic conditions, but Tc(IV) in simulated groundwater and re-distilled water is not oxidized under anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic or anaerobic conditions the solubility of Tc(IV) oxide in simulated groundwater and re-distilled water is equal on the whole after centrifugation or ultrafiltration. The solubility of Tc(IV) oxide decreases with the increase of pH at pH 10 and is pH independent in the range 2 -8 to 10 -9 mol/L at 2 3 2- concentration. These data could be used to estimate the Tc(IV) solubility for cases where solubility limits transport of technetium in reducing environments of high-level waste repositories. (authors)

  20. Comparative Analysis of Inpatient Costs for Obstetrics and Gynecology Surgery Patients Treated With IV Acetaminophen and IV Opioids Versus IV Opioid-only Analgesia for Postoperative Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ryan N; Pham, An T; Lovelace, Belinda; Balaban, Stela; Wan, George J

    2017-10-01

    Recovery from obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN) surgery, including hysterectomy and cesarean section delivery, aims to restore function while minimizing hospital length of stay (LOS) and medical expenditures. Our analyses compare OB/GYN surgery patients who received combination intravenous (IV) acetaminophen and IV opioid analgesia with those who received IV opioid-only analgesia and estimate differences in LOS, hospitalization costs, and opioid consumption. We performed a retrospective analysis of the Premier Database between January 2009 and June 2015, comparing OB/GYN surgery patients who received postoperative pain management with combination IV acetaminophen and IV opioids with those who received only IV opioids starting on the day of surgery and continuing up to the second postoperative day. We performed instrumental variable 2-stage least-squares regressions controlling for patient and hospital covariates to compare the LOS, hospitalization costs, and daily opioid doses (morphine equivalent dose) of IV acetaminophen recipients with that of opioid-only analgesia patients. We identified 225 142 OB/GYN surgery patients who were eligible for our study of whom 89 568 (40%) had been managed with IV acetaminophen and opioids. Participants averaged 36 years of age and were predominantly non-Hispanic Caucasians (60%). Multivariable regression models estimated statistically significant differences in hospitalization cost and opioid use with IV acetaminophen associated with $484.4 lower total hospitalization costs (95% CI = -$760.4 to -$208.4; P = 0.0006) and 8.2 mg lower daily opioid use (95% CI = -10.0 to -6.4), whereas the difference in LOS was not significant, at -0.09 days (95% CI = -0.19 to 0.01; P = 0.07). Compared with IV opioid-only analgesia, managing post-OB/GYN surgery pain with the addition of IV acetaminophen is associated with decreased hospitalization costs and reduced opioid use.

  1. Congenital bilateral neuroblastoma (stage IV-S): case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Hee; Lee, Hee Jung; Woo, Seong Ku; Lee, Sang Rak; Kim, Heung Sik

    2002-01-01

    Congenital neonatal neuroblastoma is not uncommon but bilateral adrenal neuroblastoma is rare, accounting for about ten percent of neuroblastomas in children. We report the US the MR findings of a stage IV-S congenital bilateral neuroblastoma occurring in a one-day-old neonate

  2. Totally James

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  3. Primary observation on adherent function of bone marrow stromal cells in mice post combined radiation-burn injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xinghua; Luo Chengji; Guo Chaohua; Wang Ping; Deng Xuecai

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the adherent function of bone marrow stromal cells in hematopoietic inductive microenvironment post combined radiation-burn injury. Methods: The expression of cell adhesion molecules including vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), fibro-connection (Fn), laminin (Ln) and collagen type IV (Col IV) on bone marrow stromal cells cultured in vitro was detected by flow cytometry and the binding capacity of bone marrow mononuclear cells to stromal cell adherence layer was tested by cell binding assay and cell binding blocking assay respectively from mice treated with 5.0 Gy γ-ray 15% of total body surface area (TBSA), third-degree burn injury and combined irradiation-burn injury, respectively. Results: 1. The expression levels of molecules mentioned above in burn-injured mice were the highest. The molecules levels in control mice were greater than those in radiation-injured mice, which were lower than those in mice with combined radiation-burn injury. 2. The binding capacity of stromal cell adherence layer in burn-injured mice was greater than that in control mice, and significantly increased from 3 to 7 days post injury as compared with that in controls, radiation-injured mice and combined radiation-burn-injured mice, respectively (P < 0.05-0.01). Contrarily, the capacity of binding in the radiation-injured and combined radiation-burn-injured mice was the lowest from 3 to 7 days post injury. 3. The binding rate of bone marrow mononuclear cells to stromal cell adherence layer descended in different degrees after pre-treatment with monoclonal antibodies directed to VCAM-1, Fn, Ln, or Col IV respectively or VCAM-1 combined with anti-Fn, anti-Ln or anti-Col IV, respectively, in stromal cell adherence layer. Conclusion: The damage of cell adherent function for bone marrow hematopoietic inductive microenvironment post combined radiation-burn injury might be one of the important factors in hematopoietic disorder in combined radiation-burn injury

  4. Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendroth-Asmussen, Lisa; Aksglaede, Lise; Gernow, Anne B

    2016-01-01

    molecular genetic analyses confirmed glycogen storage disease Type IV with the finding of compound heterozygosity for 2 mutations (c.691+2T>C and c.1570C>T, p.R524X) in the GBE1 gene. We conclude that glycogen storage disease Type IV can cause early miscarriage and that diagnosis can initially be made...

  5. About the structure and stability of complex carbonates of thorium (IV), cerium (IV), zirconium (IV), hafnium (IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dervin, Jacqueline

    1972-01-01

    This research thesis addressed the study of complex carbonates of cations of metals belonging to the IV A column, i.e. thorium (IV), zirconium (IV), hafnium (IV), and also cerium (IV) and uranium (VI), and more particularly focused on ionic compounds formed in solution, and also on the influence of concentration and nature of cations on stability and nature of the formed solid. The author first presents methods used in this study, discusses their precision and scope of validity. She reports the study of the formation of different complex ions which have been highlighted in solution, and the determination of their formation constants. She reports the preparation and study of the stability domain of solid complexes. The next part reports the use of thermogravimetric analysis, IR spectrometry, and crystallography for the structural study of these compounds

  6. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    An outline review notes recent work on total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) as a means of preparing patients for grafts and particularly for bone-marrow transplantation. T.L.I. has proved immunosuppressive in rats, mice, dogs, monkeys and baboons; when given before bone-marrow transplantation, engraftment took place without, or with delayed rejection or graft-versus-host disease. Work with mice has indicated that the thymus needs to be included within the irradiation field, since screening of the thymus reduced skin-graft survival from 50 to 18 days, though irradiation of the thymus alone has proved ineffective. A more lasting tolerance has been observed when T.L.I. is followed by an injection of donor bone marrow. 50% of mice treated in this way accepted allogenic skin grafts for more than 100 days, the animals proving to be stable chimeras with 50% of their peripheral blood lymphocytes being of donor origin. Experiments of a similar nature with dogs and baboons were not so successful. (U.K.)

  7. Shatavarins (containing Shatavarin IV) with anticancer activity from the roots of Asparagus racemosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Shankar K.; Prakash, Neswi S.; Sundaram, Ramachandran

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The anticancer activity of shatavarins (containing shatavarin IV) isolated from the roots of Asparagus racemosus (Wild) was evaluated using in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Material and Methods: The shatavarin IV was isolated from ethyl acetate insoluble fraction (AR-2B) of chloroform:methanol (2:1) (AR-2) extract of A. racemosus roots. The cytotoxicity (in vitro) of shatavarin IV and other shatavarins rich fraction was carried out using of MTT assay using MCF-7 (human breast cancer), HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma), and A-498 (human kidney carcinoma) cell lines. The in vivo anticancer activity of shatavarins (containing shatavarin IV) was evaluated against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) tumor bearing mice. Results: The isolated shatavarin IV (84.69 %) along with shatavarins rich fraction, coded AR-2B containing 5.05% shatavarin IV showed potent cytotoxicity. Oral administration of AR-2B to tumor bearing mice at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 10 days, showed significant reduction in percent increase in body weight, tumor volume, packed cell volume, viable tumor cell count, and increased non-viable cell count when compared to the untreated mice of the EAC control group. The restoration of hematological parameters towards normalcy was also observed. Conclusion: The result suggests that the shatavarins (containing shatavarin IV) rich fraction (AR-2B) exhibits significant anticancer activity in both in vitro and in vivo experimental models. PMID:23248403

  8. Direct Bandgap Group IV Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-21

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0049 Direct Bandgap group IV Materials Hung Hsiang Cheng NATIONAL TAIWAN UNIVERSITY Final Report 01/21/2016 DISTRIBUTION A...NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) NATIONAL TAIWAN UNIVERSITY 1 ROOSEVELT RD. SEC. 4 TAIPEI CITY, 10617 TW 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING...14. ABSTRACT Direct bandgap group IV materials have been long sought for in both academia and industry for the implementation of photonic devices

  9. Generation IV reactors: economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupraz, B.; Bertel, E.

    2003-01-01

    The operating nuclear reactors were built over a short period: no more than 10 years and today their average age rounds 18 years. EDF (French electricity company) plans to renew its reactor park over a far longer period : 30 years from 2020 to 2050. According to EDF this objective implies 3 constraints: 1) a service life of 50 to 60 years for a significant part of the present operating reactors, 2) to be ready to built a generation 3+ unit in 2020 which infers the third constraint: 3) to launch the construction of an EPR (European pressurized reactor) prototype as soon as possible in order to have it operating in 2010. In this scheme, generation 4 reactor will benefit the feedback experience of generation 3 and will take over in 2030. Economic analysis is an important tool that has been used by the generation 4 international forum to select the likely future reactor systems. This analysis is based on 4 independent criteria: the basic construction cost, the construction time, the operation and maintenance costs and the fuel cycle cost. This analysis leads to the evaluation of the global cost of electricity generation and of the total investment required for each of the reactor system. The former defines the economic competitiveness in a de-regulated energy market while the latter is linked to the financial risk taken by the investor. It appears, within the limits of the assumptions and models used, that generation 4 reactors will be characterized by a better competitiveness and an equivalent financial risk when compared with the previous generation. (A.C.)

  10. Lack of promoter IV-driven BDNF transcription results in depression-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, K; Jin, L; Jha, S

    2010-10-01

    Transcription of Bdnf is controlled by multiple promoters, in which promoter IV contributes significantly to activity-dependent Bdnf transcription. We have generated promoter IV mutant mice [brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-KIV] in which promoter IV-driven expression of BDNF is selectively disrupted by inserting a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-STOP cassette within the Bdnf exon IV locus. BDNF-KIV animals exhibited depression-like behavior as shown by the tail suspension test (TST), sucrose preference test (SPT) and learned helplessness test (LHT). In addition, BDNF-KIV mice showed reduced activity in the open field test (OFT) and reduced food intake in the novelty-suppressed feeding test (NSFT). The mutant mice did not display anxiety-like behavior in the light and dark box test and elevated plus maze tests. Interestingly, the mutant mice showed defective response inhibition in the passive avoidance test (PAT) even though their learning ability was intact when measured with the active avoidance test (AAT). These results suggest that promoter IV-dependent BDNF expression plays a critical role in the control of mood-related behaviors. This is the first study that directly addressed the effects of endogenous promoter-driven expression of BDNF in depression-like behavior. © 2010 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  11. Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Moris E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.

  12. Free-format RPG IV

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Jim

    2013-01-01

    This how-to guide offers a concise and thorough introduction to the increased productivity, better readability, and easier program maintenance that comes with the free-format style of programming in RPG IV. Although free-format information is available in IBM manuals, it is not separated from everything else, thereby requiring hours of tedious research to track down the information needed. This book provides everything one needs to know to write RPG IV in the free-format style, and author Jim Martin not only teaches rules and syntax but also explains how this new style of coding has the pot

  13. 11. IV avati Draakoni galeriis...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Tanel Saare (sünd. 1979) näitus "Gott und huhn episode IV: seed shower". Eksponeeritakse väljavõtteid aktsioonidest aastatel 2000-2004 Turus, Nürnbergis, Berliinis, Lohusalus ja Soulis. Osa aktsioone toimus koos rühmitusega Non Grata

  14. Subchronic Exposure to Arsenic Represses the TH/TRβ1-CaMK IV Signaling Pathway in Mouse Cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai Guan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that arsenic (As impaired learning and memory by down-regulating calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMK IV in mouse cerebellum. It has been documented that the thyroid hormone receptor (TR/retinoid X receptor (RXR heterodimer and thyroid hormone (TH may be involved in the regulation of CaMK IV. To investigate whether As affects the TR/RXR heterodimer and TH, we determined As concentration in serum and cerebellum, 3,5,3’-triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxin (T4 levels in serum, and expression of CaMK IV, TR and RXR in cerebellum of mice exposed to As. Cognition function was examined by the step-down passive avoidance task and Morris water maze (MWM tests. Morphology of the cerebellum was observed by Hematoxylin-Eosin staining under light microscope. Our results showed that the concentrations of As in the serum and cerebellum of mice both increased with increasing As-exposure level. A significant positive correlation was found between the two processes. Adeficit in learning and memory was found in the exposed mice. Abnormal morphologic changes of Purkinje cells were observed in cerebellum of the exposed mice. Moreover, the cerebellar expressions of CaMK IV protein and the TRβ gene, and TRβ1 protein were significantly lower in As-exposed mice than those in controls. Subchronic exposure to As appears to increase its level in serum and cerebella of mice, impairing learning and memory and down-regulating expression of TRβ1 as well as down-stream CaMK IV. It is also suggested that the increased As may be responsible for down-regulation of TRβ1 and CaMK IV in cerebellum and that the down-regulated TRβ1 may be involved in As-induced impairment of learning and memory via inhibiting CaMK IV and its down-stream pathway.

  15. Subchronic Exposure to Arsenic Represses the TH/TRβ1-CaMK IV Signaling Pathway in Mouse Cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Huai; Li, Shuangyue; Guo, Yanjie; Liu, Xiaofeng; Yang, Yi; Guo, Jinqiu; Li, Sheng; Zhang, Cong; Shang, Lixin; Piao, Fengyuan

    2016-01-26

    We previously reported that arsenic (As) impaired learning and memory by down-regulating calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMK IV) in mouse cerebellum. It has been documented that the thyroid hormone receptor (TR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR) heterodimer and thyroid hormone (TH) may be involved in the regulation of CaMK IV. To investigate whether As affects the TR/RXR heterodimer and TH, we determined As concentration in serum and cerebellum, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxin (T4) levels in serum, and expression of CaMK IV, TR and RXR in cerebellum of mice exposed to As. Cognition function was examined by the step-down passive avoidance task and Morris water maze (MWM) tests. Morphology of the cerebellum was observed by Hematoxylin-Eosin staining under light microscope. Our results showed that the concentrations of As in the serum and cerebellum of mice both increased with increasing As-exposure level. A significant positive correlation was found between the two processes. Adeficit in learning and memory was found in the exposed mice. Abnormal morphologic changes of Purkinje cells were observed in cerebellum of the exposed mice. Moreover, the cerebellar expressions of CaMK IV protein and the TRβ gene, and TRβ1 protein were significantly lower in As-exposed mice than those in controls. Subchronic exposure to As appears to increase its level in serum and cerebella of mice, impairing learning and memory and down-regulating expression of TRβ1 as well as down-stream CaMK IV. It is also suggested that the increased As may be responsible for down-regulation of TRβ1 and CaMK IV in cerebellum and that the down-regulated TRβ1 may be involved in As-induced impairment of learning and memory via inhibiting CaMK IV and its down-stream pathway.

  16. Lowered serum dipeptidyl peptidase IV activity in patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van West, D; Monteleone, P; Di Lieto, A; De Meester, I; Durinx, C; Scharpe, S; Lin, A; Maj, M; Maes, M

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are accompanied by lower serum activity of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV, EC 3.4.14.5), a membrane-bound serine protease that catalyses the cleavage of dipeptides from the amino-terminus of oligo- and polypeptides. Substrates of DPP IV are, amongst others, neuroactive eptides, such as substance P, growth hormone releasing hormone, neuropeptide Y, and peptide YY. DPP IV activity was measured in the serum of 21 women with anorexia nervosa, 21 women with bulimia nervosa and 18 normal women. Serum DPP IV activity was significantly lower in patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa than in the normal controls. In the total study group, there were significant and inverse relationships between serum DPP IV activity and the total scores on the Bulimic Investigatory Test, Edinburgh, the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI) and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. In the total study group no significant correlations between DPP IV and age, body weight or body mass index could be found. It is concluded that lowered serum DPP IV activity takes part in the pathophysiology of anorexia and bulimia nervosa. It is hypothesised that a combined dysregulation of DPP IV and neuroactive peptides, which are substrates of DPP IV, e.g. neuropeptide Y and peptide YY, could be an integral component of eating disorders.

  17. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV in two human glioma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sedo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that dipeptidyl peptidase IV [DPP-IV, EC 3.4.14.5] takes part in the metabolism of biologically active peptides participating in the regulation of growth and transformation of glial cells. However, the knowledge on the DPP-IV expression in human glial and glioma cells is still very limited. In this study, using histochemical and biochemical techniques, the DPP-IV activity was demonstrated in two commercially available human glioma cell lines of different transformation degree, as represented by U373 astrocytoma (Grade III and U87 glioblastoma multiforme (Grade IV lines. Higher total activity of the enzyme, as well as its preferential localisation in the plasma membrane, was observed in U87 cells. Compared to U373 population, U87 cells were morphologically more pleiomorphic, they were cycling at lower rate and expressing less Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein. The data revealed positive correlation between the degree of transformation of cells and activity of DPP-IV. Great difference in expression of this enzyme, together with the phenotypic differences of cells, makes these lines a suitable standard model for further 57 studies of function of this enzyme in human glioma cells.

  18. Locally advanced breast cancer (stage III and stage IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baracat, F.F.; Grabert, H.; Lima, G.R. de; Pontes, M.; Ferraro, O.; Santana, A.; Brook, E.S.

    1987-01-01

    The results concerning to the treatment of 193 patients with locally advanced breast cancer-stage III and stage IV are analysed. All the patients were treated with radical radiotherapy plus total mastectomy about 6 weeks later; 53 pacients received also chemotherapy (CMF - 12 courses) and 52 were oophorectomized. (M.A.C) [pt

  19. Uruguay; 2011 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2011-01-01

    This 2011 Article IV Consultation highlights that the growth momentum in Uruguay has continued into 2011 but a slowdown is under way, led by weaker exports and slower public investment. Uruguay’s economic and financial vulnerabilities are modest, and the government has reduced debt vulnerabilities significantly and built important financial buffers. Executive Directors have commended authorities’ skillful macroeconomic management that has underpinned Uruguay’s excellent economic performance, ...

  20. Austria; 2013 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents details of Austria’s 2013 Article IV Consultation. Austria has been growing economically but is facing challenges in the financial sector. Full implementation of medium-term fiscal adjustment plans require specifying several measures and plans that need gradual strengthening to take expected further bank restructuring cost into account. It suggests that strong early bank intervention and resolution tools, a better designed deposit insurance system, and a bank-financed reso...

  1. Immune mechanisms in Ehrlich ascites tumor growth in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marusic, M.

    1979-01-01

    Normal mice immunised with irradiated Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells rejected EAT challenge given 2 weeks later but T-cell-deficient thymectomised lethally irradiated, and bone-marrow-reconstituted (TIR) mice succumbed. However, when TIR mice were injected i.v. with thymus, lymph node, or spleen cells from normalsyngetic donors immediately following i.p. injection of irradiated EAT cells, they rejected the subsequent tumor challenge. This induction of immunity in TIR mice was shown to be T-cell dependent. Spleen cells from EAT- bearing mice given immediately after irradiated tumor cells were also able to promote rejection of EAT challenge in TIR mice. Spleen cells from EAT-immune mice inhibited EAT growth when admixed with tumor cells prior to i.p. injection into normal recipients, but had no effect on progressive tumor growth when given i.v. immediately after i.p. tumor injection. Immune serum inhibited i.p. EAT growth when given either i.p. or i.v. Whereas inhibition of EAT growth by admixed spleen cells was shown to be T-cell independent. The data indicate that T lymphocytes are required only in the induction phase of the immune reponse of mice against EAT, while the efferent phase of the response is accomplished by serum antibodies, perhaps through an interaction with host macrophages. (author)

  2. Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV and orthopaedic complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W; Guinot, A; Marleix, S; Chapuis, M; Fraisse, B; Violas, P

    2013-11-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV (HSAN-IV) is a very rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of unexplained fever, extensive anhidrosis, total insensitivity to pain, hypotonia, and mental retardation. The most frequent complications of this disease are corneal scarring, multiple fractures, joint deformities, osteomyelitis, and disabling self-mutilations. We reported the case of a 12-year-old boy. The goal was to discuss our decision-making and compare this case with cases described in the literature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Crystalline cerium(IV) phosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, R.G.; Clearfield, A.

    1976-01-01

    The ion exchange behaviour of seven crystalline cerium(IV) phosphates towards some of the alkali metal cations is described. Only two of the compounds (A and C) possess ion exchange properties in acidic solutions. Four others show some ion exchange characteristics in basic media with some of the alkali cations. Compound G does not behave as an ion exchanger in solutions of pH + , but show very little Na + uptake. Compound E undergoes ion exchange with Na + and Cs + , but not with Li+. Both Li + and Na + are sorbed by compounds A and C. The results are indicative of structures which show steric exclusion phenomena. (author)

  4. PREPARATION OF OXOPORPHINATOMANGANESE (IV) COMPLEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willner, I.; Otvos, J.; Calvin, M.

    1980-07-01

    Oxo-manganese-tetraphenylporphyrin (O=Mn{sup IV}-TPP) has been prepared by an oxygen-transfer reaction from iodosylbenzene to MnIITPP and characterized by its i.r. and field desorption mass spectra, which are identical to those of the product obtained by direct oxidation of Mn{sup III}(TPP) in an aqueous medium; it transfers oxygen to triphenylphosphine to produce triphenylphosphine oxide, and it is suggested that similar intermediates are important in oxygen activation by cytochrome P-450 as well as in the photosynthetic evolution of oxygen.

  5. Solubility study of Tc(IV) in a granitic water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, D.J.; Yao, J.; Wang, B.; Bruggeman, C.; Maes, N.

    2007-01-01

    The deep geological disposal of the high level radioactive wastes is expected to be a safe disposal method in most countries. The long-lived fission product 99 Tc is present in large quantities in nuclear wastes and its chemical behavior in aqueous solution is of considerable interest. Under oxidizing conditions technetium exists as the anionic species TcO 4 - whereas under the reducing conditions, expected to exist in a deep geological repository, it is generally predicted that technetium will be present as TcO 2 .nH 2 O. Hence, the mobility of Tc(IV) in reducing groundwater may be limited by the solubility of TcO 2 .nH 2 O under these conditions. Due to this fact it is important to investigate the solubility of TcO 2 .nH 2 O. The solubility determines the release of radionuclides from waste form and is used as a source term in radionuclide migration analysis in performance assessment of radioactive waste repository. Technetium(IV) was prepared by reduction of a technetate solution with Sn 2+ . The solubility of Tc(IV) has been determined in simulated groundwater and redistilled water under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The effects of pH and CO 3 2- concentration of solution on solubility of Tc(IV) were studied. The concentration of total technetium and Tc(IV) species in the solutions were periodically determined by separating the oxidized and reduced technetium species using a solvent extraction procedure and counting the beta activity of the 99 Tc with a liquid scintillation counter. The experimental results show that the rate of oxidation of Tc(IV) in simulated groundwater and redistilled water is about (1.49 ∝ 1.86) x 10 -9 mol L -1 d -1 under aerobic conditions, while no Tc(IV) oxidation was detected in simulated groundwater and redistilled water under anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic or anaerobic conditions the solubility of Tc(IV) in simulated groundwater and redistilled water is equal on the whole after centrifugation or ultrafiltration. The

  6. Test Review: Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yiting; Lai, Mark H. C.; Xu, Yining; Zhou, Yuanyuan

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the "Advanced Clinical Solutions for WAIS-IV and WMS-IV". The "Advanced Clinical Solutions (ACS) for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition" (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008) and the "Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition" (WMS-IV; Wechsler, 2009) was published by Pearson in 2009. It is a…

  7. Sensitive method for the determination of different S(IV) species in cloud and fog water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammel, G

    1996-08-01

    Suppressed ion chromatography has been applied to the determination of S(IV) species in cloud and fog water in the range 0.012-2.4 mg S(IV)-S/L. The samples have been preserved prior to storage and S(IV) species have been determined as hydroxy methanesulfonate (HMS) together with the low molecular weight carboxylic acid anions, formate and acetate. Samples have been divided and treated differently such that total S(IV) as well as the non-oxidizable fraction of S(IV) (as given by the reactivity with H(2)O(2), added in surplus) could be determined. The difference between the two corresponds to the S(IV) fraction subjected to oxididation, which is of paramount interest in cloud and fogwater chemistry.

  8. Some oxozirconium(IV) compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, R C; Gupta, S K; Parmar, S S; Vasisht, S K [Punjab Univ., Chandigarh (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    1976-01-01

    Some new oxozirconium(IV) complexes, ZrO(An)/sub 2/, ZrO(Gly)/sub 2/, ZrO(HSal)/sub 2/, ZrO(HPth)/sub 2/, ZrO(Pic)/sub 2/(HPic)/sub 2/, and ZrO(Quin)/sub 2/(HQuin)/sub 2/ have been isolated from the reactions of ZrO(CH/sub 3/COO)/sub 2/CH/sub 3/COOH with anthranilic acid (HAn), glycine (HGly), salicylic acid (H/sub 2/Sal), phthalic acid (H/sub 2/Pth), picolinic acid (HPic), and 8-quinolinol (HQuin) respectively. Their important infrared bands and wherever possible molar conductance and molecular weight have been reported.

  9. Induction of immune resistance against L1210 lymphatic leukemia in mice after chemoradiotherapy of the leukemia and reconstitution with bone marrow purged from the leukemia with mafosfamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorski, T.; Kawalec, M.

    1988-01-01

    Lymphatic leukemia L1210-bearing semisyngeneic Balb/c x DBA/2Wf F1 (CD2F1) mice were subjected to chemoradiotherapy (2 x 100 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide i.p. and 1000 cGy of total body irradiation) and reconstitution with 10(7) syngeneic bone marrow cells i.v. The bone marrow obtained from leukemic mice was previously ex vivo purged of the leukemia cells with mafosfamide (ASTA Z7654) and stored in liquid nitrogen. Eight weeks after cytoreductive therapy and bone marrow transplantation we tried to immunize the mice against the lethal dose of the leukemia by i.p. injections of L1210-Maf cells (L1210 cells treated in vitro with mafosfamide for inhibition of their growth). About 75% of such mice were able to reject the subsequent 10(3) L1210 leukemia cell challenge, as compared with 70% of normal immunized mice and 55% of mice reconstituted with bone marrow cells not treated with mafosfamide

  10. Role of Mitochondrial Complex IV in Age-Dependent Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Soro-Arnaiz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with progressive white adipose tissue (WAT enlargement initiated early in life, but the molecular mechanisms involved remain unknown. Here we show that mitochondrial complex IV (CIV activity and assembly are already repressed in white adipocytes of middle-aged mice and involve a HIF1A-dependent decline of essential CIV components such as COX5B. At the molecular level, HIF1A binds to the Cox5b proximal promoter and represses its expression. Silencing of Cox5b decreased fatty acid oxidation and promoted intracellular lipid accumulation. Moreover, local in vivo Cox5b silencing in WAT of young mice increased the size of adipocytes, whereas restoration of COX5B expression in aging mice counteracted adipocyte enlargement. An age-dependent reduction in COX5B gene expression was also found in human visceral adipose tissue. Collectively, our findings establish a pivotal role for CIV dysfunction in progressive white adipocyte enlargement during aging, which can be restored to alleviate age-dependent WAT expansion.

  11. Expressions for the Total Yaw Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    1. Introduction 1 2. Mathematical Notation 1 3. Total Yaw Expression Derivations 2 3.1 First Derivation 2 3.2 Second Derivation 4 3.3 Other...4 iv Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 1. Introduction The total yaw angle, γt , of a ballistic projectile is... elevation angles from spherical coordinates.∗ We again place point A at the end point of V. Now imagine a plane parallel to the y-z plane that includes

  12. Effect of Pb-acetate on Testicle Weight and Volume of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israhnanto Isradji

    2011-12-01

    Design and Method: Eighty male mice placed in individual cages according to the group. Food and drink provided ad libitum. The treatment of male mice given for 6 weeks. Treatment with 0.2 ml distilled water to PI, P II were given a solution of 400 ppm Pb acetate total of 0.2 ml, P III was given a solution of 1000 ppm Pb acetate as many as 0.2 ml, and P IV were given a solution of 2000 ppm Pb acetate total of 0,2 ml by using a gastric sonde, every morning once a day for 42 days. At week 7, mice were surgery to take the testis. Testicular volume was measured and weighed. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, hypothesis is accepted when p 0.05, testis weight obtained by ANOVA test probability of 0.216 (> 0.05, mean Pb -acetate had no effect on testis weight and volume. Conclusion: Pb-acetate had no effect on testis weight and volume (Sains Medika, 3(2:150-156.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: glycogen storage disease type IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Glycogen storage disease type IV Glycogen storage disease type IV Printable PDF Open All ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Glycogen storage disease type IV (GSD IV) is an ...

  14. A cerium(IV)-carbon multiple bond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregson, Matthew; Lu, Erli; McMaster, Jonathan; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J.; Liddle, Stephen T. [Nottingham Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Chemistry

    2013-12-02

    Straightforward access to a cerium(IV)-carbene complex was provided by one-electron oxidation of an anionic ''ate'' cerium(III)-carbene precursor, thereby avoiding decomposition reactions that plague oxidations of neutral cerium(III) compounds. The cerium(IV)-carbene complex is the first lanthanide(IV)-element multiple bond and involves a twofold bonding interaction of two electron pairs between cerium and carbon. [German] Auf direktem Wege zu einem Cer(IV)-Carbenkomplex gelangt man durch die Einelektronenoxidation einer anionischen Carben-Cerat(III)-Vorstufe. So werden Zersetzungsprozesse vermieden, die die Oxidation neutraler Cer(III)-Verbindungen erschweren. Der Cer(IV)-Carbenkomplex enthaelt die erste Lanthanoid(IV)-Element-Mehrfachbindung; dabei binden Cer und Kohlenstoff ueber zwei Elektronenpaare.

  15. iväkoti Riemula

    OpenAIRE

    Alanko, Reetta; Ihanamäki, Katja

    2012-01-01

    Opinnäytetyössä kuvataan yleisesti päivähoidon kehitystä Suomessa sekä päivähoitoa yrittäjän näkökulmasta, tuoden esille sen tämän päivän haasteet ja mahdollisuudet. Työssä on pohdittu yhteistyön merkitystä kunnan kanssa ja sitä, miten kunta voi osaltaan joko rajoittaa tai edesauttaa yksityisen päivähoitoyrityksen toimintaa. Opinnäytetyössä kerrotaan teoriassa Päiväkoti Riemula nimisen, erityispäivähoitopalveluita tarjoavan yrityksen perustamiseen liittyvistä suunnitelmista. Suunnitelluss...

  16. Cloning Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Atsuo

    2017-08-01

    Viable and fertile mice can be generated by somatic nuclear transfer into enucleated oocytes, presumably because the transplanted somatic cell genome becomes reprogrammed by factors in the oocyte. The first somatic cloned offspring of mice were obtained by directly injecting donor nuclei into recipient enucleated oocytes. When this method is used (the so-called Honolulu method of somatic cell nuclear transfer [SCNT]), the donor nuclei readily and completely condense within the enucleated metaphase II-arrested oocytes, which contain high levels of M-phase-promoting factor (MPF). It is believed that the condensation of the donor chromosomes promotes complete reprogramming of the donor genome within the mouse oocytes. Another key to the success of mouse cloning is the use of blunt micropipettes attached to a piezo impact-driving micromanipulation device. This system saves a significant amount of time during the micromanipulation of oocytes and thus minimizes the loss of oocyte viability in vitro. For example, a group of 20 oocytes can be enucleated within 10 min by an experienced operator. This protocol is composed of seven parts: (1) preparing micropipettes, (2) setting up the enucleation and injection micropipettes, (3) collecting and enucleating oocytes, (4) preparing nucleus donor cells, (5) injecting donor nuclei, (6) activating embryos and culturing, and (7) transferring cloned embryos. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  17. Apolipoprotein A-IV constrains HPA and behavioral stress responsivity in a strain-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Amy E B; Zhang, Jintao; Myers, Brent; Ko, Chih-Wei; Wang, Fei; Tso, Patrick; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M

    2017-12-01

    There is a critical gap in our knowledge of the mechanisms that govern interactions between daily life experiences (e.g., stress) and metabolic diseases, despite evidence that stress can have profound effects on cardiometabolic health. Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) is a protein found in chylomicrons (lipoprotein particles that transport lipids throughout the body) where it participates in lipid handling and the regulation of peripheral metabolism. Moreover, apoA-IV is expressed in brain regions that regulate energy balance including the arcuate nucleus. Given that both peripheral and central metabolic processes are important modulators of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity, the present work tests the hypothesis that apoA-IV activity affects stress responses. As emerging data suggests that apoA-IV actions can vary with background strain, we also explore the strain-dependence of apoA-IV stress regulation. These studies assess HPA axis, metabolic (hyperglycemia), and anxiety-related behavioral responses to psychogenic stress in control (wildtype) and apoA-IV-deficient (KO) mice on either the C57Bl/6J (C57) or 129×1/SvJ (129) background strain. The results indicate that apoA-IV KO increases post-stress corticosterone and anxiety-related behavior specifically in the 129 strain, and increases stress-induced hyperglycemia exclusively in the C57 strain. These data support the hypothesis that apoA-IV is a novel factor that limits stress reactivity in a manner that depends on genetic background. An improved understanding of the complex relationship among lipid homeostasis, stress sensitivity, and genetics is needed to optimize the development of personalized treatments for stress- and metabolism-related diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Extended analysis of Cu IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinders, E.; Uijlings, P.

    1980-01-01

    Wavelength data and classifications of 974 Cu IV lines in the region 750-1275 Angstroem are presented. Most of the lines have been classified as transitions from the previously unknown high even configurations 3d 7 5s and 3d 7 4d to 3d 7 4p. The configuration 3d 7 4d is seriously perturbed by 3d 6 4s 2 . The analysis resulted in the identification of 27 levels of 3d 7 5s and 113 levels of (3d 7 4d + 3d 6 4s 2 ) which are reported. The earlier published levels of 3d 7 4s and 3d 7 4p have to be shifted downward as a consequence of improved wavelength data. Radial paramter values, resulting from least-squares fits, are compared to Hartree-Fock values. The eigenvectors obtained in the parametric fitting are used to calculate transition probabilities in intermediate coupling. The relation between the observed intensities of the transitions 3d 7 4d-3d 7 4p and 3d 7 Ss-3d 7 4p is compared to the relation between theoretical values of the transition integrals obtained from Hartree-Fock calculations. A spectroscopic value for the ionization potentials is calculated from the 3d 7 ns configurations. (orig.)

  19. Studies of binary cerium(IV)-praseodymium(IV) and cerium(IV)-terbium(IV) oxides as pigments for ceramic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furtado, L.M.L.

    1991-01-01

    It was investigated a series of pigments of general composition Ce 1-x Pr x O 2 , and Ce x Tb y O 2 , exhibiting radish and brown colors, respectively, and high temperature stability. The pigments were obtained by dissolving appropriate amounts of the pure lanthanide oxides in acids and precipitating the rare earths as mixed oxalates, which were isolated and calcined under air, at 1000 0 C. X-Ray powder diffractograms were consistent with a cubic structure for the pigments. Magnetic susceptibility measurements, using Gouy method, indicated the presence of Pr(IV) ions in the Ce 1-x Pr x O 2 pigments and of Terbium predominantly as Tb(III) ions in the Ce-tb mixed oxides. A new method, based on suspension of solid samples in PVA-STB gels (STB = sodium tetradecaborate), was employed for the measurements of the electronic spectra of the pigments. The thermal behaviour the pigments was investigated by the calcination of the oxalates in the temperature range of 500 to 1200 O C, from 10 to 60 minutes. (author)

  20. Light microscopic study of the effect of new antischistosmal drug (myrrh extract) on the liver of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoud, Ahmed M A; el Ebiary, Faika H; Ibrahim, Suzi H

    2005-12-01

    The efficacy of purified oleo-resin extract of myrrh derived from Commiphora molmol tree, (known as Mirazid) was studied against an Egyptian strain of Schistosoma mansoni in mice. Seventy adult male mice were used in this study. They were divided into 4 groups: G.I: consisted of control noninfected nontreated mice. G.II: comprised the noninfected treated mice and was subdivided into two subgroups, subgroup II-A: included mice which received Myrrh extract dissolved in cremophore EL and subgroup II-B: included mice which were treated with cremophore EL. G.III: consisted of the infected nontreated animals and G.IV: included infected mice which were treated with myrrh extract. The drug was given 8 weeks post infection in a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight/day for 5 successive days. All animals were sacrificed after 12 weeks from the beginning of the experiment. Liver paraffin sections were prepared and stained with H&E, Masson's Trichrome stain, PAS stain and Wilder's technique. A morphometric study was performed for the mean number and perimeter of the granulomas. Area percentage of the total collagen content around central veins as well as in portal areas was also estimated. The livers of the animals in G.II which received either myrrh extract (subgroup II-A) or cremophore EL (subgroup II-B) showed a more or less normal histological profile when compared to G.I (noninfected-nontreated group). G.IV (Infected treated G.) showed complete preservation of the hepatic architecture. Most of the hepatocytes appeared almost normal. The reticular network in the central part of the granulomas as well as in the portal tracts appeared rarefied. The hepatic reticular network was preserved. A significant decrease in the number and size of granulomas with significant reduction in the collagen content deposition in portal tracts and around central veins was detected when compared to G.III (infected nontreated mice). The data of this study proved the efficacy of myrrh as a promising

  1. Zirconium (IV) complexes with some polymethylenediimines | Na ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The syntheses of zirconium (IV) complexes have been carried out by the reaction of oxozirconium (IV) chloride with the appropriate diimines (Schiff bases). The complexes were isolated as yellow solids which are stable to heat. The complexes were found to be insoluble in most solvents. The infrared spectra, elemental ...

  2. Astragaloside IV liposomes ameliorates adriamycin-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: The rats were given a single tail intravenous injection of adriamycin (6 mg/kg) within 1 week, and then divided into four groups including normal, model, benazepril and astragaloside IV liposomes group. They were all orally administered dosage of benazepril and astragaloside IV liposomes once daily for 8 weeks.

  3. Generation IV reactors: international projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carre, F.; Fiorini, G.L.; Kupitz, J.; Depisch, F.; Hittner, D.

    2003-01-01

    Generation IV international forum (GIF) was initiated in 2000 by DOE (American department of energy) in order to promote nuclear energy in a long term view (2030). GIF has selected 6 concepts of reactors: 1) VHTR (very high temperature reactor system, 2) GHR (gas-cooled fast reactor system), 3) SFR (sodium-cooled fast reactor system, 4) SCWR (super-critical water-cooled reactor system), 5) LFR (lead-cooled fast reactor system), and 6) MFR (molten-salt reactor system). All these 6 reactor systems have been selected on criteria based on: - a better contribution to sustainable development (through their aptitude to produce hydrogen or other clean fuels, or to have a high energy conversion ratio...) - economic profitability, - safety and reliability, and - proliferation resistance. The 6 concepts of reactors are examined in the first article, the second article presents an overview of the results of the international project on innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles (INPRO) within IAEA. The project finished its first phase, called phase-IA. It has produced an outlook into the future role of nuclear energy and defined the need for innovation. The third article is dedicated to 2 international cooperations: MICANET and HTR-TN. The purpose of MICANET is to propose to the European Commission a research and development strategy in order to develop the assets of nuclear energy for the future. Future reactors are expected to be more multiple-purposes, more adaptable, safer than today, all these developments require funded and coordinated research programs. The aim of HTR-TN cooperation is to promote high temperature reactor systems, to develop them in a long term perspective and to define their limits in terms of burn-up and operating temperature. (A.C.)

  4. Thermodynamic data for predicting concentrations of Th(IV), U(IV), Np(IV), and Pu(IV) in geologic environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Dhanpat; Roa, Linfeng; Weger, H.T.; Felmy, A.R. [Battelle, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) (United States); Choppin, G.R. [Florida State University (United States); Yui, Mikazu [Waste Isolation Research Division, Tokai Works, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1999-01-01

    This report provides thermodynamic data for predicting concentrations of Th(IV), U(IV), Np(IV), and Pu(IV) in geologic environments, and contributes to an integration of the JNC chemical thermodynamic database, JNC-TDB (previously PNC-TDB), for the performance analysis of geological isolation system for high-level radioactive wastes. Thermodynamic data for the formation of complexes or compounds with hydroxide, chloride, fluoride, carbonate, nitrate, sulfate and phosphate are discussed in this report. Where data for specific actinide(IV) species was lacking, the data were selected based on chemical analogy to other tetravalent actinides. In this study, the Pitzer ion-interaction model is used to extrapolate thermodynamic constants to zero ionic strength at 25degC. (author)

  5. Materials for generation-IV nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, M. G.

    2009-01-01

    Materials science and materials development are key issues for the implementation of innovative reactor systems such as those defined in the framework of the Generation IV. Six systems have been selected for Generation IV consideration: gas-cooled fast reactor, lead-cooled fast reactor, molten salt-cooled reactor, sodium-cooled fast reactor, supercritical water-cooled reactor, and very high temperature reactor. The structural materials need to resist much higher temperatures, higher neutron doses and extremely corrosive environment, which are beyond the experience of the current nuclear power plants. For this reason, the first consideration in the development of Generation-IV concepts is selection and deployment of materials that operate successfully in the aggressive operating environments expected in the Gen-IV concepts. This paper summarizes the Gen-IV operating environments and describes the various candidate materials under consideration for use in different structural applications. (author)

  6. Engineering design of the Aries-IV gaseous divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, M.Z.; Najmabadi, F.; Sharafat, S.

    1994-01-01

    ARIES-IV is a conceptual, D-T burning, steady-state tokamak fusion reactor producing 1000 MWe net. It operates in the second plasma stability regime. The structural material is SiC composite and the primary coolant is helium at 10MPa base pressure. ARIES-IV uses double-null divertors for particle control. Total thermal power recovered from the divertors is 425MW, which is 16% of the total reactor thermal power. Among the desirable goals of divertor design were to avoid the use of tungsten and to use the same structural material and primary coolant as in the blanket design. In order to reduce peak heat flux, the innovative gaseous divertor has been used in ARIES-IV. A gaseous divertor reduces peak heat flux by increasing the surface area and by distributing particle and radiation energy more uniformly. Another benefit of gaseous divertor is the reduction of plasma temperature in the divertor chamber, so that material erosion due to sputtering, can be diminished. This makes the use of low-Z material possible in a gaseous divertor

  7. Quaternary epitopes of α345(IV) collagen initiate Alport post-transplant anti-GBM nephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olaru, Florina; Luo, Wentian; Wang, Xu-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Alport post-transplant nephritis (APTN) is an aggressive form of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease that targets the allograft in transplanted patients with X-linked Alport syndrome. Alloantibodies develop against the NC1 domain of α5(IV) collagen, which occurs in normal kidneys, including...... of alloantibodies against allogeneic collagen IV. Some alloantibodies targeted alloepitopes within α5NC1 monomers, shared by α345NC1 and α1256NC1 hexamers. Other alloantibodies specifically targeted alloepitopes that depended on the quaternary structure of α345NC1 hexamers. In Col4a5-null mice, immunization...... with native forms of allogeneic collagen IV exclusively elicited antibodies to quaternary α345NC1 alloepitopes, whereas alloimmunogens lacking native quaternary structure elicited antibodies to shared α5NC1 alloepitopes. These results imply that quaternary epitopes within α345NC1 hexamers may initiate...

  8. Systemic Correction of Murine Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV by an AAV-Mediated Gene Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Haiqing; Zhang, Quan; Brooks, Elizabeth D; Yang, Chunyu; Thurberg, Beth L; Kishnani, Priya S; Sun, Baodong

    2017-03-01

    Deficiency of glycogen branching enzyme (GBE) causes glycogen storage disease type IV (GSD IV), which is characterized by the accumulation of a less branched, poorly soluble form of glycogen called polyglucosan (PG) in multiple tissues. This study evaluates the efficacy of gene therapy with an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector in a mouse model of adult form of GSD IV (Gbe1 ys/ys ). An AAV serotype 9 (AAV9) vector containing a human GBE expression cassette (AAV-GBE) was intravenously injected into 14-day-old Gbe1 ys/ys mice at a dose of 5 × 10 11 vector genomes per mouse. Mice were euthanized at 3 and 9 months of age. In the AAV-treated mice at 3 months of age, GBE enzyme activity was highly elevated in heart, which is consistent with the high copy number of the viral vector genome detected. GBE activity also increased significantly in skeletal muscles and the brain, but not in the liver. The glycogen content was reduced to wild-type levels in muscles and significantly reduced in the liver and brain. At 9 months of age, though GBE activity was only significantly elevated in the heart, glycogen levels were significantly reduced in the liver, brain, and skeletal muscles of the AAV-treated mice. In addition, the AAV treatment resulted in an overall decrease in plasma activities of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and creatine kinase, and a significant increase in fasting plasma glucose concentration at 9 months of age. This suggests an alleviation of damage and improvement of function in the liver and muscles by the AAV treatment. This study demonstrated a long-term benefit of a systemic injection of an AAV-GBE vector in Gbe1 ys/ys mice.

  9. Adduct formation in Ce(IV) thenolytrifluoroacetonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anufrieva, S.I.; Polyakova, G.V.; Snezhko, N.I.; Pechurova, N.I.; Martynenko, L.I.; Spitsyn, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    The literature contains no information on adduct formation in Ce(IV) β-diketonates with additional ligands. Since tetrakis-β-diketonates of Ce(IV) have four six-membered chelate rings, we can suppose that the introduction of an additional monodentate or bidentate ligand into the coordination sphere of Ce(IV) β-diketonates would lead to an increase in the coordination number (CN) of the Ce(IV) to nine or ten. The possibility of realization of such a high CN for Ce(IV) has not been proved; a study of adduct formation by Ce(IV) tetrakis-β-diketonates is thus of theoretical interest. Such an investigation might also be of practical interest, because the introduction of an additional ligand into the coordination sphere of a rare-earth β-diketonate usually increases the solubility of the β-diketonate in nonpolar solvents and increases the volatility of the compound; such a modification of the properties is important for various practical purposes. The aim of our work was to study the possibility of separating solid adducts of Ce(IV) tetrakis-thenoyltrifluoroacetonate with certain oxygen-containing and nitrogen-containing donor monodentate and bidentate ligands, and also to investigate their properties. As the β-diketone we used thenoyltrifluoroacetone (HTTFA), since in a parallel investigation it was found that Ce(TTFA) 4 has a high oxidation-reduction stability

  10. Differences in correlation of mRNA gene expression in mice sensitive and resistant to radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, C.J.; Piedboeuf, B.; Finkelstein, J.N.; Baggs, R.; Rubin, P.

    1995-01-01

    Fibrosis, characterized by the accumulation of collagen, is a late result of thoracic irradiation. The purpose of this study was to determine if extracellular matrix protein and transforming growth factor β mRNA expression are altered late in the course of pulmonary fibrosis after irradiation, and then to determine if these changes differ between two strains of mice which vary in their sensitivity to radiation. Radiation-sensitive (C57BL/6) and radiation-resistant (C3H/HeJ) mice were irradiated with a single dose of 5 or 12.5 Gy to the thorax. Total lung RNA was prepared and immobilized by Northern and slot blotting and hybridized with radiolabeled cDNA probes for collagens I, III and IV, fibronectin, and transforming growth factor β 1 and β 3 . Autoradiographic data were quantified by video densitometry and results normalized to a control probe encoding for glyceralde-hyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Alterations in mRNA abundance were observed in the sensitive mice at all times, while levels in the resistant mice were unaffected until 26 weeks after irradiation. The relationship between extracellular matrix protein per se and increased mRNA abundance suggests that late matrix protein accumulation may be a function of gene expression. Differences in levels of transforming growth factor βmRNA may lead to strain-dependent variation in fibrotic response and may also contribute to the radiation-induced component of pulmonary fibrosis. 32 refs., 5 figs

  11. The rate of adverse events during IV conscious sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwamburger, Nathan T; Hancock, Raymond H; Chong, Chol H; Hartup, Grant R; Vandewalle, Kraig S

    2012-01-01

    Conscious sedation has become an integral part of dentistry; it is often used to reduce anxiety or fear in some patients during oral surgery, periodontal surgery, implant placement, and general dentistry procedures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of adverse events during IV conscious sedation provided by credentialed general dentists and periodontists in the United States Air Force (USAF). Sedation clinical records (Air Force Form 1417) from calendar year 2009 were requested from all USAF bases. A total of 1,468 records were reviewed and 19 adverse events were noted in 17 patients. IV complication (infiltration) was the most common adverse event. The overall adverse event rate was 1.3 per 100 patients treated. The results of this study show that moderate sedation provided by general dentists and periodontists in the USAF has a low incidence of adverse events, and conscious sedation remains a viable option for providers for the reduction of anxiety in select patients.

  12. Expression of oxidative phosphorylation components in mitochondria of long-living Ames dwarf mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Borg, Holly M; Johnson, W Thomas; Rakoczy, Sharlene G

    2012-02-01

    Reduced signaling of the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) pathway is associated with extended life span in several species. Ames dwarf mice are GH-deficient and live >50% longer than wild-type littermates. Previously, we have shown that tissues from Ames mice exhibit elevated levels of antioxidative enzymes, less H(2)O(2) production, and lower oxidative damage suggesting that mitochondrial function may differ between genotypes. To explore the relationship between hormone deficiency and mitochondria in mice with extended longevity, we evaluated activity, protein, and gene expression of oxidative phosphorylation components in dwarf and wild-type mice at varying ages. Liver complex I + III activity was higher in dwarf mice compared to wild-type mice. The activity of I + III decreased between 3 and 20 months of age in both genotypes with greater declines in wild-type mice in liver and skeletal muscle. Complex IV activities in the kidney were elevated in 3- and 20-month-old dwarf mice relative to wild-type mice. In Ames mice, protein levels of the 39 kDa complex I subunit were elevated at 20 months of age when compared to wild-type mouse mitochondria for every tissue examined. Kidney and liver mitochondria from 20-month-old dwarf mice had elevated levels of both mitochondrially-encoded and nuclear-encoded complex IV proteins compared to wild-type mice (p dwarf mice. Overall, we found that several components of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system were elevated in Ames mice. Mitochondrial to nuclear DNA ratios were not different between genotypes despite the marked increase in PGC-1α levels in dwarf mice. The increased OXPHOS activities, along with lower ROS production in dwarf mice, predict enhanced mitochondrial function and efficiency, two factors likely contributing to long-life in Ames mice.

  13. Market opportunities: U.S. - PADD IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    The current supply and demand balance, the short and long term expectations and marketing opportunities for Canadian crude oil in PADD IV, the Rocky Mountain region in the US, were reviewed. It was suggested that market opportunities in PADD IV are derived from the following four factors: (1) crude oil declines within that area, (2) federal regulations, (3) competitive presence with markets, and (4) population growth. The overall conclusion was that Canadian producers and PADD IV refiners will be looking at an ever-growing relationship based on freight equalized world crude prices. 8 tabs., 5 figs

  14. Zinc metabolism in genetically obese mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, M.L.; Failla, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that the concentrations and total amounts of several essential trace metals in various tissues of genetically obese rodents differ markedly from lean controls. In the present studies the absorption, retention and tissue distribution of zinc was compared in obese (ob/ob) and lean (+/?) C57BL/6J mice. When administered 0.1 and 1 umole 65 Zn by stomach tube and killed after 4 h, fasted 10 week old obese mice had 2.7 and 2.2 times more radioactivity in their carcasses, respectively, than age-matched lean mice. Higher levels of 65 Zn were also present in the intestinal mucosa of obese mice. To eliminate possible differences in the effects of fasting and gastric emptying rates between the phenotypes, zinc absorption and retention were determined according to the method of Heth and Hoekstra. Analysis of data revealed that obese and lean mice absorbed 43 and 18% of the oral dose, respectively. Also, the rate of 65 Zn excretion between 2 and 6 days post-treatment was similar for obese and lean mice. After 6 days obese mice had significantly lower levels of radioisotope in skin, muscle plus bone, spleen and testes and higher levels of 65 Zn in liver, small intestine and adipose tissue compared to tissues from lean mice. These results demonstrate increased absorption, altered tissue distribution and similar excretion of zinc in ob/ob mice

  15. Diorganotin(IV) Complexes with Methionine Methyl Ester. Equilibria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IV) (DBT) and diphenyltin(IV) (DPT) was investigated at 25 °C and 0.1 mol dm–3 ionic strength in water for dimethyltin(IV) and in 50 % dioxane–water mixture for dibutyltin(IV) and diphenyltin(IV). Methionine methyl ester forms1:1 and 1:2 ...

  16. Periodontal Disease Part IV: Periodontal Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Turnbull, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    In Part IV of this article, the author describes two periodontal infections, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (trench mouth) and periodontal abscess, both acute painful conditions for which patients may seek advice from their family physician rather than their dentist.

  17. Safety assessment for Generation IV nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leahy, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Risk and Safety Working Group (RSWG) was created to develop an effective approach for the safety of Generation IV advanced nuclear energy systems. Recent RSWG work has focused on the definition of an integrated safety assessment methodology (ISAM) for evaluating the safety of Generation IV systems. ISAM is an integrated 'tool-kit' consisting of 5 analytical techniques that are available and matched to appropriate stages of Generation IV system concept development: 1) qualitative safety features review - QSR, 2) phenomena identification and ranking table - PIRT, 3) objective provision tree - OPT, 4) deterministic and phenomenological analyses - DPA, and 5) probabilistic safety analysis - PSA. The integrated methodology is intended to yield safety-related insights that help actively drive the evolving design throughout the technology development cycle, potentially resulting in enhanced safety, reduced costs, and shortened development time

  18. Determination of uranium (IV) by flow voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Anqing

    1987-01-01

    According to the quantitative reaction of U(IV) and Fe(III) in H 2 SO 4 as well as the relation between current and concentration of substance detected, U(IV) has been determined indirectly by measurement of the electrolysis current of residual Fe(III). The columniform electrode used is made of glass carbon particles. At the range of U(IV) from a few micrograms to 40 μg, the linear relation is excellent. The relative standard deviation is within ±4%. The interference of Fe(II), Ti(IV) and U(VI) is negligible but of Ti(III) is serious. This method has been successfully applied in the determination of actual samples (both out line and on line). Main advantages of this procedure are rapid, simple, small amount of sample (only at microgram level) and easy to realize automation, able to use for on line or process analysis

  19. IV&V Project Assessment Process Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driskell, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) will launch NASA's Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). This launch vehicle will provide American launch capability for human exploration and travelling beyond Earth orbit. SLS is designed to be flexible for crew or cargo missions. The first test flight is scheduled for December 2017. The SLS SRR/SDR provided insight into the project development life cycle. NASA IV&V ran the standard Risk Based Assessment and Portfolio Based Risk Assessment to identify analysis tasking for the SLS program. This presentation examines the SLS System Requirements Review/System Definition Review (SRR/SDR), IV&V findings for IV&V process validation correlation to/from the selected IV&V tasking and capabilities. It also provides a reusable IEEE 1012 scorecard for programmatic completeness across the software development life cycle.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: mucopolysaccharidosis type IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enzymes, GAGs accumulate within cells, specifically inside the lysosomes . Lysosomes are compartments in the cell that break down ... that cause molecules to build up inside the lysosomes are called lysosomal storage disorders. In MPS IV, ...

  1. Effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on social development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Zeeba D; Kennedy, Bruce; Katzman, Aaron; Lahvis, Garet P; Kosofsky, Barry E

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) in humans and animals has been shown to impair social development. Molecules that mediate synaptic plasticity and learning in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), specifically brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its downstream signaling molecule, early growth response protein 1 (egr1), have been shown to affect the regulation of social interactions (SI). In this study we determined the effects of PCE on SI and the corresponding ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in developing mice. Furthermore, we studied the PCE-induced changes in the constitutive expression of BDNF, egr1 and their transcriptional regulators in the mPFC as a possible molecular mechanism mediating the altered SI. In prenatal cocaine-exposed (PCOC) mice we identified increased SI and USV production at postnatal day (PD) 25, and increased SI but not USVs at PD35. By PD45 the expression of both social behaviors normalized in PCOC mice. At the molecular level, we found increased BDNF exon IV and egr1 mRNA in the mPFC of PCOC mice at PD30 that normalized by PD45. This was concurrent with increased EGR1 protein in the mPFC of PCOC mice at PD30, suggesting a role of egr1 in the enhanced SI observed in juvenile PCOC mice. Additionally, by measuring the association of acetylation of histone 3 at lysine residues 9 and 14 (acH3K9,14) and MeCP2 at the promoters of BDNF exons I and IV and egr1, our results provide evidence of promoter-specific alterations in the mPFC of PCOC juvenile mice, with increased association of acH3K9,14 only at the BDNF exon IV promoter. These results identify a potential PCE-induced molecular alteration as the underlying neurobiological mechanism mediating the altered social development in juvenile mice. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Current status of NPP generation IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yohanes Dwi Anggoro; Dharu Dewi; Nurlaila; Arief Tris Yuliyanto

    2013-01-01

    Today development of nuclear technology has reached the stage of research and development of Generation IV nuclear power plants (advanced reactor systems) which is an innovative development from the previous generation of nuclear power plants. There are six types of power generation IV reactors, namely: Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR), Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR), Lead-cooled Fast Reactor (LFR), Molten Salt Reactor (MSR), and Super Critical Water-cooled Reactor (SCWR). The purpose of this study is to know the development of Generation IV nuclear power plants that have been done by the thirteen countries that are members of the Gen IV International Forum (GIF). The method used is review study and refers to various studies related to the current status of research and development of generation IV nuclear power. The result of this study showed that the systems and technology on Generation IV nuclear power plants offer significant advances in sustainability, safety and reliability, economics, and proliferation resistance and physical protection. In addition, based on the research and development experience is estimated that: SFR can be used optimally in 2015, VHTR in 2020, while NPP types GFR, LFR, MSR, and SCWR in 2025. Utilization of NPP generation IV said to be optimal if fulfill the goal of NPP generation IV, such as: capable to generate energy sustainability and promote long-term availability of nuclear fuel, minimize nuclear waste and reduce the long term stewardship burden, has an advantage in the field of safety and reliability compared to the previous generation of NPP and VHTR technology have a good prospects in Indonesia. (author)

  3. Dsm-iv hypochondriasis in primary care

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar, JI; Gara, M; Waitzkin, H; Silver, RC; Holman, A; Compton, W

    1998-01-01

    The object of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of the DSM-IV diagnosis of hypochondriasis in a primary care setting. A large sample (N = 1456) of primary care users was given a structured interview to make diagnoses of mood, anxiety, and somatoform disorders and estimate levels of disability. The prevalence of hypochondriasis (DSM-IV) was about 3%. Patients with this disorder had higher levels of medically unexplained symptoms (abridged somatization) and were more impair...

  4. COBRA-IV wire wrap data comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, T.E.; George, T.L.; Wheeler, C.L.

    1979-02-01

    Thermal hydraulic analyses of hexagonally packed wire-wrapped fuel assemblies are complicated by the induced crossflow between adjacent subchannels. The COBRA-IV computer code simultaneously solves the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of fuel assemblies. The modifications and the results are presented which are predicted by the COBRA-IV calculation. Comparisons are made with data measured in five experimental models of a wire-wrapped fuel assembly

  5. Necrostatin-1 rescues mice from lethal irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhentai; Epperly, Michael; Watkins, Simon C; Greenberger, Joel S; Kagan, Valerian E; Bayır, Hülya

    2016-04-01

    There is an emerging need in new medical products that can mitigate and/or treat the short- and long-term consequences of radiation exposure after a radiological or nuclear terroristic event. The direct effects of ionizing radiation are realized primarily via apoptotic death pathways in rapidly proliferating cells within the initial 1-2days after the exposure. However later in the course of the radiation disease necrotic cell death may ensue via direct and indirect pathways from increased generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here we evaluated radiomitigative potential of necrostatin-1 after total body irradiation (TBI) and the contribution of necroptosis to cell death induced by radiation. Circulating TNFα levels were increased starting on d1 after TBI and associated with increased plasmalemma permeability in ileum of irradiated mice. Necrostatin-1 given iv. 48h after 9.5Gy TBI attenuated radiation-induced receptor interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) serine phosphorylation in ileum and improved survival vs. vehicle. Utilizing apoptosis resistant cytochrome c(-/-) cells, we showed that radiation can induce necroptosis, which is attenuated by RNAi knock down of RIPK1 and RIPK3 or by treatment with necrostatin-1 or -1s whereas 1-methyl-L-tryptophan, an indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase inhibitor, did not exhibit radiomitigative effect. This suggests that the beneficial effect of necrostatin-1 is likely through inhibition of RIPK1-mediated necroptotic pathway. Overall, our data indicate that necroptosis, a form of programmed necrosis, may play a significant role in cell death contributing to radiation disease and mortality. This study provides a proof of principle that necrostatin-1 and perhaps other RIPK1 inhibitors are promising therapeutic agents for radiomitigation after TBI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Surfactant protein D is proatherogenic in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Grith L; Madsen, Jens; Kejling, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an important innate immune defense molecule that mediates clearance of pathogens and modulates the inflammatory response. Moreover, SP-D is involved in lipid homeostasis, and pulmonary accumulation of phospholipids has previously been observed in SP-D-deficient (Spd......-/-) mice. Atherogenesis involves both inflammation and lipid deposition, and we investigated the role of SP-D in the development of atherosclerosis. SP-D synthesis was localized to vascular endothelial cells. Atherosclerotic lesion areas were 5.6-fold smaller in the aortic roots in Spd-/- mice compared...... with wild-type C57BL/6N mice on an atherogenic diet. HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly elevated in Spd-/- mice. Treatment of Spd-/- mice with a recombinant fragment of human SP-D resulted in decreases of HDL-C (21%) as well as total cholesterol (26%), and LDL cholesterol (28%). Plasma TNF...

  7. The Role of Type IV Collagen in Developing Lens in Mouse Fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Jalali

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sExtracellular matrix (ECM and basement membrane (BM play important roles in many developmental processes during development and after birth. Among the components of the BM, collagen fibers specially type IV are the most important parts. The aim of this study was to determine the time when collagen type IV appears in the BM of lens structure during mouse embryonic development.Materials and MethodsIn this experimental study, 22 female Balb/C mice were randomly selected and were kept under normal condition, finding vaginal plug was assumed as day zero of pregnancy. From embryonic day 10 to 20, all specimens were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and their heads were fixed, serially sectioned and immunohistochemistry study for tracing collagen type IV in lens were carried out.ResultsOur data revealed that collagen type IV appeared at the early stage of gestation day 12 in BM of anterior epithelial lens cells and the amount of this protein gradually increased until days 15-17 in ECM and posterior capsule epithelium. After this period, severe reaction was not observed in any part of the lens.ConclusionThese findings establish the important role of collagen IV in developing optic cup and any changes during critical period of pregnancy may be result in severe visual system defect

  8. Synthesis and characterization of chiral thorium(IV) and uranium(IV) benzamidinate complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoene, Sebastian; Maerz, Juliane; Kaden, Peter; Patzschke, Michael; Ikeda-Ohno, Atsushi [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Chemistry of the F-Elements

    2017-06-01

    Two chiral benzamidinate complexes of tetravalent actinides (Th(IV) and U(IV)) were synthesized using a salt metathesis reaction of the corresponding actinide(IV) tetrachlorides and the potassium salt of the chiral benzamidine (S,S)-N,N-Bis-(1-phenylethyl)-benzamidine ((S)-HPEBA). The structure of the complexes was determined with single crystal X-ray diffraction. These are the first examples of chiral amidinate complexes of actinides.

  9. KENO IV: an improved Monte Carlo criticality program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, L.M.; Cross, N.F.

    1975-11-01

    KENO IV is a multigroup Monte Carlo criticality program written for the IBM 360 computers. It executes rapidly and is flexibly dimensioned so the allowed size of a problem (i.e., the number of energy groups, number of geometry cards, etc., are arbitrary) is limited only by the total data storage required. The input data, with the exception of cross sections, fission spectra and albedos, may be entered in free form. The geometry input is quite simple to prepare and complicated three-dimensional systems can often be described with a minimum of effort. The results calculated by KENO IV include k-effective, lifetime and generation time, energy-dependent leakages and absorptions, energy- and region-dependent fluxes and region-dependent fission densities. Criticality searches can be made on unit dimensions or on the number of units in an array. A summary of the theory utilized by KENO IV, a section describing the logical program flow, a compilation of the error messages printed by the code and a comprehensive data guide for preparing input to the code are presented. 14 references

  10. Mutation in GNE Downregulates Peroxiredoxin IV Altering ER Redox Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanana, Pratibha; Padhy, Gayatri; Bhargava, Kalpana; Arya, Ranjana

    2017-12-01

    GNE myopathy is a rare neuromuscular genetic disorder characterized by early adult onset and muscle weakness due to mutation in sialic acid biosynthetic enzyme, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase (GNE). More than 180 different GNE mutations are known all over the world with unclear pathomechanism. Although hyposialylation of glycoproteins is speculated to be the major cause, but cellular mechanism leading to loss of muscle mass has not yet been deciphered. Besides sialic acid biosynthesis, GNE affects other cellular functions such as cell adhesion and apoptosis. In order to understand the effect of mutant GNE protein on cellular functions, differential proteome profile of HEK293 cells overexpressing pathologically relevant recombinant mutant GNE protein (D207V and V603L) was analyzed. These cells, along with vector control and wild-type GNE-overexpressing cells, were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS). In the study, 10 differentially expressed proteins were identified. Progenesis same spots software revealed downregulation of peroxiredoxin IV (PrdxIV), an ER-resident H 2 O 2 sensor that regulates neurogenesis. Significant reduction in mRNA and protein levels of PrdxIV was observed in GNE mutant cell lines compared with vector control. However, neither total reactive oxygen species was altered nor H 2 O 2 accumulation was observed in GNE mutant cell lines. Interestingly, ER redox state was significantly affected due to reduced normal GNE enzyme activity. Our study indicates that downregulation of PrdxIV affects ER redox state that may contribute to misfolding and aggregation of proteins in GNE myopathy.

  11. Fate of tumor cells injected into left ventricle of heart in BALB/c mice: role of natural killer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, P; Hokland, P; Heron, I

    1988-01-01

    The arrest, retention, and elimination (i.e., clearance) of radiolabeled YAC-1 lymphoma cells injected either iv or into the left ventricle (LV) of the heart were studied in male BALB/c mice, with special emphasis on the role of natural killer (NK) cells. After iv injection YAC-1 cells were...

  12. Regulation of levels of serum antibodies to ryegrass pollen allergen Lol pIV by an internal image anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, E M; Kisil, F T

    1995-03-01

    A murine monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibody (anti-Id), designated B1/1, was produced against an idiotope of a murine antibody (mAb91), which recognizes the epitope, site A, of allergen Lol pIV, one of the major groups of allergens in ryegrass (Lolium perenne) pollen. The ability of B1/1 to modulate the antibody responses to Lol pIV was investigated in murine model systems. In the first system, B1/1-keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) conjugate was administered to treat three different strains of mice (C57BL/6, BALB/c and C3H). In the second and third model systems, a solution of B1/1 in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was used to treat syngeneic BALB/c mice at various doses and time intervals, respectively. The treatment with either form of B1/1, administered at doses ranging from 100 ng to 100 micrograms mouse, resulted in a reduction of the levels of the antibodies to Lol pIV. In particular, the level of IgE antibodies to Lol pIV was greatly reduced. The administration of a single intravenous (i.v.) injection of a solution of B1/1 8 weeks prior to the challenge with Lol pIV was still effective in reducing the level of antibodies to the allergen. Moreover, the level of antibodies to Lol pIV that expressed the idiotope mAb91 was also markedly decreased. By contrast, it was observed that the level of antibodies to Lol pIV in mice pretreated with B1/1 in PBS at a dose of 10 ng/mouse increased (albeit slightly) compared to that in mice treated with control mAb. These experimental models lend themselves for investigating the mechanism(s) by which an anti-Id modulates antibody responses to a grass pollen allergen.

  13. Underutilization of IV nitrates in the treatment of acute heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Mohapradeep; Hawkey, Sean; Baig, Fatima; Choy, Anna Maria; Lang, Chim C

    2015-08-01

    Acute heart failure (AHF) is a growing public health concern with high inhospital mortality and costs. Clinical practice guidelines, underpinned by positive randomized controlled trials, recommend the early use of intravenous (IV) nitrates in the treatment of AHF. However, the "real-world" usage of IV nitrates has not been clearly defined. The objective of this study was to examine the use of IV nitrates in the treatment of AHF as recommended by clinical practice guidelines. A case-record analysis was conducted of all admissions with AHF at a large teaching hospital. Of the 81 AHF patients (mean age 77 ± 11, mean SBP 130 ± 27 mmHg) enrolled for this analysis, only 5 (6%) received IV nitrates at the time of AHF admission. Forty (49%, mean age 77 ± 11, mean SBP 131 ± 27 mmHg) of these 81 patients met the guideline criteria for suitability for IV nitrates and only 5 (12%) of these received them during this admission. Patients who received IV nitrates were more likely to have higher blood pressure and all had myocardial ischemia as a precipitant. Seventy-five (93%) of the total population received loop diuretics on admission. Overall, this study shows that loop diuretics remain the first-line therapy in AHF with little use of IV nitrates, despite recommendations from clinical practice guidelines. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Analysis of hepatic gene expression during fatty liver change due to chronic ethanol administration in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, H.-Q.; Je, Young-Tae; Kim, Mingoo; Kim, Ju-Han; Kong, Gu; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Yoon, Byung-IL; Lee, Mi-Ock; Lee, Byung-Hoon

    2009-01-01

    Chronic consumption of ethanol can cause cumulative liver damage that can ultimately lead to cirrhosis. To explore the mechanisms of alcoholic steatosis, we investigated the global intrahepatic gene expression profiles of livers from mice administered alcohol. Ethanol was administered by feeding the standard Lieber-DeCarli diet, of which 36% (high dose) and 3.6% (low dose) of the total calories were supplied from ethanol for 1, 2, or 4 weeks. Histopathological evaluation of the liver samples revealed fatty changes and punctate necrosis in the high-dose group and ballooning degeneration in the low-dose group. In total, 292 genes were identified as ethanol responsive, and several of these differed significantly in expression compared to those of control mice (two-way ANOVA; p < 0.05). Specifically, the expression levels of genes involved in hepatic lipid transport and metabolism were examined. An overall net increase in gene expression was observed for genes involved in (i) glucose transport and glycolysis, (ii) fatty acid influx and de novo synthesis, (iii) fatty acid esterification to triglycerides, and (iv) cholesterol transport, de novo cholesterol synthesis, and bile acid synthesis. Collectively, these data provide useful information concerning the global gene expression changes that occur due to alcohol intake and provide important insights into the comprehensive mechanisms of chronic alcoholic steatosis

  15. High cost of stage IV pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brem, Harold; Maggi, Jason; Nierman, David; Rolnitzky, Linda; Bell, David; Rennert, Robert; Golinko, Michael; Yan, Alan; Lyder, Courtney; Vladeck, Bruce

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate and analyze the cost of treatment for stage IV pressure ulcers. A retrospective chart analysis of patients with stage IV pressure ulcers was conducted. Hospital records and treatment outcomes of these patients were followed up for a maximum of 29 months and analyzed. Costs directly related to the treatment of pressure ulcers and their associated complications were calculated. Nineteen patients with stage IV pressure ulcers (11 hospital-acquired and 8 community-acquired) were identified and their charts were reviewed. The average hospital treatment cost associated with stage IV pressure ulcers and related complications was $129,248 for hospital-acquired ulcers during 1 admission, and $124,327 for community-acquired ulcers over an average of 4 admissions. The costs incurred from stage IV pressure ulcers are much greater than previously estimated. Halting the progression of early stage pressure ulcers has the potential to eradicate enormous pain and suffering, save thousands of lives, and reduce health care expenditures by millions of dollars. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Contribution of IVS to IGGOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothnagel, A.

    2002-05-01

    Since its inauguration in 1999, the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry has made significant progress in the coordination and utilisation of worldwide VLBI resources. Improving the visibility of the IVS components to a wider public in turn led to a higher motivation of the individuals to contribute to the global effort. Not only the number of IVS components but also their investments in terms of funds and manpower demonstrate the increased awareness of the importance of this joint international endeavour. The different demands of the users but also of the contributors often require the definition of priorities which are only being acceptable due to the existence of a strong umbrella organisation like the IVS. Significant progress has also been made in the area of routine data analysis and combination of results. By now, six IVS Analysis Centers provide the redundancy necessary for a robust combination of the results. The use of ITRF2000 station coordinates as the basis for the IVS combined EOP series is the most recent step towards the generation of a consistent chain from the quasi-inertial frame of radio sources to system Earth.

  17. Solubility studies of Np(IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yingjie; Yao Jun; Jiao Haiyang; Ren Lihong; Zhou Duo; Fan Xianhua

    2001-01-01

    The solubility of Np(IV) in simulated underground water and redistilled water has been measured with the variations of pH(6-12) and storage time (0-100 d) in the presence of reductant (Na 2 S 2 O 4 , metallic Fe). All experiments are performed in a low oxygen concentration glove box containing high purity Ar(99.99%), with an oxygen content of less than 5 x 10 -6 mol/mol. Experimental results show that the variation of pH in solution has little effect on the solubility of Np(IV) in the two kinds of water; the measured solubility of Np(IV) is affected by the composition of solution; with Na 2 S 2 O 4 as a reductant, the solubility of Np(IV) in simulated underground water is (9.23 +- 0.48) x 10 -10 mol/L, and that in redistilled water is (8.31 +- 0.35) x 10 -10 mol/L; with metallic Fe as a reductant, the solubility of Np(IV) in simulated underground water is (1.85 +- 0.56) x 10 -9 mol/L, and that in redistilled water is (1.48 +- 0.66) x 10 -9 mol/L

  18. Synthesis, spectroscopic, structural and thermal characterizations of vanadyl(IV) adenine complex prospective as antidiabetic drug agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Megharbel, Samy M.; Hamza, Reham Z.; Refat, Moamen S.

    2015-01-01

    The vanadyl(IV) adenine complex; [VO(Adn)2]ṡSO4; was synthesized and characterized. The molar conductivity of this complex was measured in DMSO solution that showed an electrolyte nature. Spectroscopic investigation of the green solid complex studied here indicate that the adenine acts as a bidentate ligand, coordinated to vanadyl(IV) ions through the nitrogen atoms N7 and nitrogen atom of amino group. Thus, from the results presented the vanadyl(IV) complex has square pyramid geometry. Further characterizations using thermal analyses and scanning electron techniques was useful. The aim of this paper was to introduce a new drug model for the diabetic complications by synthesized a novel mononuclear vanadyl(IV) adenine complex to mimic insulin action and reducing blood sugar level. The antidiabetic ability of this complex was investigated in STZ-induced diabetic mice. The results suggested that VO(IV)/adenine complex has antidiabetic activity, it improved the lipid profile, it improved liver and kidney functions, also it ameliorated insulin hormone and blood glucose levels. The vanadyl(IV) complex possesses an antioxidant activity and this was clear through studying SOD, CAT, MDA, GSH and methionine synthase. The current results support the therapeutic potentiality of vanadyl(IV)/adenine complex for the management and treatment of diabetes.

  19. On the stabilization of niobium(V) solutions by zirconium(IV) and hafnium(IV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, E.; Bjerre, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    Niobium cannot be separated from zirconium or hafnium when these elements occur together in solution with common anions such as chloride and sulphate. This is ascribed to the co-polymerization of niobium(V) and the hydrolysed ionic species of zirconium(IV) and hafnium(IV) to form colloidal...

  20. Complexation of the An(IV) by NTA; Complexation des An(IV) par le NTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonin, L. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)]|[CEA Valrho, Lab. de Chimie des Actinides (LCA), 30 - Marcoule (France)

    2006-07-01

    In the framework of the Nuclear and Environmental Toxicology program, developed in France, it has been decided to take again the studies concerning the actinides decorporation. A similar study of the neptunium complexation by the citrate ions has been carried out on the complexation of Np(IV) with the nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA). The NTA can be considered as a model molecule of the de-corporating molecules (amino-carboxy- ligand). The results of the spectrophotometric measurements being encouraging, the behaviour of several actinides at the same oxidation state (+IV) (Th(IV), U(IV), Np(IV), and Pu(IV)) has been determined. The experimental results are presented. In order to determine the structure of the complexes of stoichiometry 1:2 An(IV)-(NTA){sub 2} in solution, quantic chemistry calculations and EXAFS measurements have been carried out in parallel. These studies confirm the presence of An(IV)-nitrogen bonds whose length decreases from thorium to plutonium and indicate the presence of a water molecule bound to the thorium and the uranium (coordination number 8 for Np/Pu, 9 for Th/U). The evolution of the complexation constants determined in this study in terms of 1/r (r ionic radius of the cation taking into account its coordination number 8 or 9) confirms the change of the coordination number between Th/U and Np/Pu. (O.M.)

  1. Transuranium perrhenates: Np(IV), Pu(IV) and (III), Am (III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestre, Jean-Paul; Freundlich, William; Pages, Monique

    1977-01-01

    Synthesis in aqueous solution and by solid state reactions, crystallographical characterization and study of the stability of some transuranium perrhenates: Asup(n+)(ReO 4 - )sub(n) (A=Np(IV), Pu(IV), Pu(III), Am(III) [fr

  2. Synthetic (+)-antroquinonol exhibits dual actions against insulin resistance by triggering AMP kinase and inhibiting dipeptidyl peptidase IV activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, C Y; Sulake, R S; Huang, P-K; Shih, H-Y; Sie, H-W; Lai, Y-K; Chen, C; Weng, C F

    2015-01-01

    The fungal product (+)-antroquinonol activates AMP kinase (AMPK) activity in cancer cell lines. The present study was conducted to examine whether chemically synthesized (+)-antroquinonol exhibited beneficial metabolic effects in insulin-resistant states by activating AMPK and inhibiting dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) activity. Effects of (+)-antroquinonol on DPP IV activity were measured with a DPPIV Assay Kit and effects on GLP-1-induced PKA were measured in AR42J cells. Translocation of the glucose transporter 4, GLUT4, induced either by insulin-dependent PI3K/AKT signalling or by insulin-independent AMPK activation, was assayed in differentiated myotubes. Glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation were assayed in L6 myocytes. Mice with diet-induced obesity were used to assess effects of acute and chronic treatment with (+)-antroquinonol on glycaemic control in vivo. The results showed that of (+)-antroquinonol (100 μM ) inhibited the DPP IV activity as effectively as the clinically used inhibitor, sitagliptin. The phosphorylation of AMPK Thr(172) in differentiated myotubes was significantly increased by (+)-antroquinonol. In cells simultaneously treated with S961 (insulin receptor antagonist), insulin and (+)-antroquinonol, the combination of (+)-antroquinonol plus insulin still increased both GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake. Further, (+)-antroquinonol and sitagliptin reduced blood glucose, when given acutely or chronically to DIO mice. Chemically synthesized (+)-antroquinonol exhibits dual effects to ameliorate insulin resistance, by increasing AMPK activity and GLUT4 translocation, along with inhibiting DPP IV activity. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. Oxochloroalkoxide of the Cerium (IV and Titanium (IV as oxides precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Luiz Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cerium (IV and Titanium (IV oxides mixture (CeO2-3TiO2 was prepared by thermal treatment of the oxochloroisopropoxide of Cerium (IV and Titanium (IV. The chemical route utilizing the Cerium (III chloride alcoholic complex and Titanium (IV isopropoxide is presented. The compound Ce5Ti15Cl16O30 (iOPr4(OH-Et15 was characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR and TG/DTG. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the oxides resulting from the thermal decomposition of the precursor at 1000 degreesC for 36 h indicated the formation of cubic cerianite (a = 5.417Å and tetragonal rutile (a = 4.592Å and (c = 2.962 Å, with apparent crystallite sizes around 38 and 55nm, respectively.

  4. Spectroscopy and chemistry of uranium IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folcher, G.; Rigny, P.

    1980-06-01

    Different fundamental research papers on uranium IV are presented, some were never edited. Molecular spectroscopy was used for identification and structural study of uranium IV in aqueous or organic solutions. The fields studied are: coordination, stereochemistry, electronic structure and chemical properties. For interpretation of results some studies were made with solid compounds or with thorium compounds or thorium complexes. Knowledge of actinides chemistry is improved, uranium and thorium being models for 5 f ions, extractive chemistry is better understood and new applications are possible [fr

  5. Vectorization at the KENO-IV code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asai, K.; Higuchi, K.; Katakura, J.

    1986-01-01

    The multigroup criticality safety code KENO-IV has been vectorized and tested on the FACOM VP-100 vector processor. At first, the vectorized KENO-IV on a scalar processor was slower than the original one by a factor of 1.4 because of the overhead introduced by vectorization. Making modifications of algorithms and techniques for vectorization, the vectorized version has become faster than the original one by a factor of 1.4 on the vector processor. For further speedup of the code, some improvements on compiler and hardware, especially on addition of Monte Carlo pipelines to the vector processor, are discussed

  6. Functions in Free-Format RPG IV

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Jim

    2009-01-01

    Written especially for programmers adopting a free-format style, this manual explores the role of functions in writing RPG IV programs. Demonstrating the potential of functions, many topics are explored such as details about existing RPG IV built-in functions, writing new functions, using ILE concepts to use C functions, and utilizing IBM API's functions. Explaining how to write small programs, either as sub-procedures or modules, and how to gather those parts together to make programs that are easy to write and maintain, this is a natural next step for programmers familiar with a free-format

  7. Gen IV. Technical and economical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaluzny, Y.; Legee, F.

    2010-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with development of nuclear reactor type of Generation IV. He concluded that: - Nuclear energy is competitive with regards to the other generation sources; Its competitiveness also increases with CO 2 cost. Considering the nuclear cost breakdown of LWR reactors, it turns out that the uranium is currently not in the range of a threshold for FBR deployment; - The global balance of uranium supply and demand and also innovation required to fulfil GEN IV objectives would probably imply the emergence of fast reactor competitiveness after the turn of the mid-century; - We shall need fast reactors in the coming decade.

  8. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  9. Total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000177.htm Total parenteral nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  10. Technique of total thyroidectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    It is essential to define the various surgical procedures that are carried out for carcinoma of the thyroid gland. They are thyroid gland, subtotal lobectomy, total thyroidectomy and near total thyroidectomy

  11. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  12. Combination of Radiation and Burn Injury Alters FDG Uptake in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Edward A.; Winter, David; Tolman, Crystal; Paul, Kasie; Hamrahi, Victoria; Tompkins, Ronald; Fischman, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure and burn injury have both been shown to alter glucose utilization in vivo. The present study was designed to study the effect of burn injury combined with radiation exposure, on glucose metabolism in mice using [18F] Fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG). Groups of male mice weighing approximately 30g were studied. Group 1 was irradiated with a 137Cs source (9 Gy). Group 2 received full thickness burn injury on 25% total body surface area followed by resuscitated with saline (2mL, IP). Group 3 received radiation followed 10 minutes later by burn injury. Group 4 were sham treated controls. After treatment, the mice were fasted for 23 hours and then injected (IV) with 50 µCi of 18FDG. One hour post injection, the mice were sacrificed and biodistribution was measured. Positive blood cultures were observed in all groups of animals compared to the shams. Increased mortality was observed after 6 days in the burn plus radiated group as compared to the other groups. Radiation and burn treatments separately or in combination produced major changes in 18FDG uptake by many tissues. In the heart, brown adipose tissue (BAT) and spleen, radiation plus burn produced a much greater increase (p<0.0001) in 18FDG accumulation than either treatment separately. All three treatments produced moderate decreases in 18FDG accumulation (p<0.01) in the brain and gonads. Burn injury, but not irradiation, increased 18FDG accumulation in skeletal muscle; however the combination of burn plus radiation decreased 18FDG accumulation in skeletal muscle. This model may be useful for understanding the effects of burns + irradiation injury on glucose metabolism and in developing treatments for victims of injuries produced by the combination of burn plus irradiation. PMID:23143615

  13. Hepcidin protects against lethal E. coli sepsis in mice inoculated with isolates from septic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanova, Deborah; Raychev, Antoan; Deville, Jaime; Humphries, Romney; Campeau, Shelley; Ruchala, Piotr; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Ganz, Tomas; Bulut, Yonca

    2018-05-07

    Iron is an essential micronutrient for most microbes and their hosts. Mammalian hosts respond to infection by inducing the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin, which causes iron sequestration and a rapid decrease in plasma and extracellular iron concentration (hypoferremia). Previous studies showed that hepcidin regulation of iron is essential for protection from infection-associated mortality with the siderophilic pathogens Yersinia enterocolitica and Vibrio vulnificus However, the evolutionary conservation of the hypoferremic response to infection suggests that not only rare siderophilic bacteria but also common pathogens may be targeted by this mechanism. We tested 10 clinical isolates of E. coli from children with sepsis and found that both genetic (hepcidin knockout, HKO) and iatrogenic iron overload (IV iron) potentiated infection with 8 out of 10 studied isolates: after peritoneal injection of E. coli , iron-loaded mice developed sepsis with 60% to 100% mortality within 24h while control wild type mice suffered 0% mortality. Using one strain for more detailed study, we show that iron overload allowed rapid bacterial multiplication and dissemination. We further found that the presence of non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI) in circulation is more important than total plasma or tissue iron in rendering mice susceptible to infection and mortality. Post infection treatment of HKO mice with just two doses of the hepcidin agonist PR73 abolished NTBI and completely prevented sepsis-associated mortality. We demonstrate that siderophilic phenotype extends to clinically common pathogens. The use of hepcidin agonists promises to be an effective early intervention in patients with infections and dysregulated iron metabolism. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  15. Endocochlear potential depends on Cl− channels: mechanism underlying deafness in Bartter syndrome IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickheit, Gesa; Maier, Hannes; Strenzke, Nicola; Andreescu, Corina E; De Zeeuw, Chris I; Muenscher, Adrian; Zdebik, Anselm A; Jentsch, Thomas J

    2008-01-01

    Human Bartter syndrome IV is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by congenital deafness and severe renal salt and fluid loss. It is caused by mutations in BSND, which encodes barttin, a β-subunit of ClC-Ka and ClC-Kb chloride channels. Inner-ear-specific disruption of Bsnd in mice now reveals that the positive potential, but not the high potassium concentration, of the scala media depends on the presence of these channels in the epithelium of the stria vascularis. The reduced driving force for K+-entry through mechanosensitive channels into sensory hair cells entails a profound congenital hearing loss and subtle vestibular symptoms. Although retaining all cell types and intact tight junctions, the thickness of the stria is reduced early on. Cochlear outer hair cells degenerate over several months. A collapse of endolymphatic space was seen when mice had additionally renal salt and fluid loss due to partial barttin deletion in the kidney. Bsnd−/− mice thus demonstrate a novel function of Cl− channels in generating the endocochlear potential and reveal the mechanism leading to deafness in human Bartter syndrome IV. PMID:18833191

  16. Bis(4-methylpiperidinium hexachloridostannate(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Helliwell

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, (C6H14N2[SnCl6], is built of 4-methylpiperidinium cations, occupying special positions on the mirror plane, and hexachloridostannate(IV anions on a special position of 2/m symmetry. The ions are linked via N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds into chains running along the b axis.

  17. The carbonate complexation of plutonium(IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobart, D.E.; Palmer, P.D.; Newton, T.W.

    1985-01-01

    Plutonium(IV) carbonate complexes are expected to be of particular importance in typical groundwaters at the Yucca Mountain site of the candidate nuclear waste repository being studied by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project. The chemistry of these complexes is also important in the areas of nuclear fuel reprocessing and purification, actinide separations, and environmental studies. This report describes initial experiments performed to determine the identity and equilibrium quotients of plutonium(IV) carbonate complexes. These experiments were performed at pH values between 7.2 and 9.6 using a spectrophotometric method. In addition, a brief review of the published literature on Pu(IV) carbonate complexes is presented. Since Pu(IV) exhibits low solubility in the near-neutral pH range, a complex-competition reaction where citrate ligands compete with carbonate ions for the plutonium will be employed. This will permit us to study the pure carbonate system; study the mixed carbonate/citrate system, and confirm and extend the literature work on the pure citrate system. The current experiments have demonstrated the existence of at least three distinct species in the pH region studied. This work will continue in the extended study of the pure citrate system, followed by the investigation of the citrate/carbonate complex/competition reaction. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Painlevé IV coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermudez, David; Contreras-Astorga, Alonso; Fernández C, David J.

    2014-01-01

    A simple way to find solutions of the Painlevé IV equation is by identifying Hamiltonian systems with third-order differential ladder operators. Some of these systems can be obtained by applying supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSY QM) to the harmonic oscillator. In this work, we will construct families of coherent states for such subset of SUSY partner Hamiltonians which are connected with the Painlevé IV equation. First, these coherent states are built up as eigenstates of the annihilation operator, then as displaced versions of the extremal states, both involving the related third-order ladder operators, and finally as extremal states which are also displaced but now using the so called linearized ladder operators. To each SUSY partner Hamiltonian corresponds two families of coherent states: one inside the infinite subspace associated with the isospectral part of the spectrum and another one in the finite subspace generated by the states created through the SUSY technique. - Highlights: • We use SUSY QM to obtain Hamiltonians with third-order differential ladder operators. • We show that these systems are related with the Painlevé IV equation. • We apply different definitions of coherent states to these Hamiltonians using the third-order ladder operators and some linearized ones. • We construct families of coherent states for such systems, which we called Painlevé IV coherent states

  19. Resonance transition array of Yb IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, V.; Sugar, J.

    1976-01-01

    Nineteen pairs of lines in the wavelength range of 800--1300 A were identified as transitions to the two levels of the ground term of Yb IV, 4f 13 2 F. The 2 F 5 / 2 -- 2 F 7 / 2 interval is 10 214.0 cm -1 with an rms deviation of 0.4 cm -1

  20. Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Y-12 Plant, K-25 Site, and ORNL are managed by DOE's Operating Contractor (OC), Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) for DOE. Operation associated with the facilities by the Operating Contractor and subcontractors, DOE contractors and the DOE Federal Building result in the generation of industrial solid wastes as well as construction/demolition wastes. Due to the waste streams mentioned, the Y-12 Industrial Waste Landfill IV (IWLF-IV) was developed for the disposal of solid industrial waste in accordance to Rule 1200-1-7, Regulations Governing Solid Waste Processing and Disposal in Tennessee. This revised operating document is a part of a request for modification to the existing Y-12 IWLF-IV to comply with revised regulation (Rule Chapters 1200-1-7-.01 through 1200-1-7-.08) in order to provide future disposal space for the ORR, Subcontractors, and the DOE Federal Building. This revised operating manual also reflects approved modifications that have been made over the years since the original landfill permit approval. The drawings referred to in this manual are included in Drawings section of the package. IWLF-IV is a Tennessee Department of Environmental and Conservation/Division of Solid Waste Management (TDEC/DSWM) Class 11 disposal unit

  1. IV-DSA of vertigo patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiromi; Ito, Masatoshi; Takita, Kimio; Matsuzawa, Taiju.

    1988-01-01

    With IV-DSA(Intra-Venous Digital Subtraction Angiography), we examined the relations between vertigo or dizziness and asymmetries of cervical vertebral arteries. In this time, as the asymmetries we chose next three; hemi-stenosis, hemi-occulusion and hemi-strong tortuosity. In the appearance of the asymmetries, there was no differance between those who complain vertigo or dizziness and others. (author)

  2. 21 CFR 1308.14 - Schedule IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schedule IV. 1308.14 Section 1308.14 Food and... isomers is possible: (1) Fenfluramine 1670 (e) Stimulants. Unless specifically excepted or unless listed... the following substances having a stimulant effect on the central nervous system, including its salts...

  3. Painlevé IV coherent states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermudez, David, E-mail: david.bermudez@weizmann.ac.il [Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Departamento de Física, Cinvestav, A.P. 14-740, 07000 México D.F. (Mexico); Contreras-Astorga, Alonso, E-mail: aloncont@iun.edu [Department of Mathematics and Actuarial Science, Indiana University Northwest, 3400 Broadway, Gary IN 46408 (United States); Departamento de Física, Cinvestav, A.P. 14-740, 07000 México D.F. (Mexico); Fernández C, David J., E-mail: david@fis.cinvestav.mx [Departamento de Física, Cinvestav, A.P. 14-740, 07000 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-11-15

    A simple way to find solutions of the Painlevé IV equation is by identifying Hamiltonian systems with third-order differential ladder operators. Some of these systems can be obtained by applying supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSY QM) to the harmonic oscillator. In this work, we will construct families of coherent states for such subset of SUSY partner Hamiltonians which are connected with the Painlevé IV equation. First, these coherent states are built up as eigenstates of the annihilation operator, then as displaced versions of the extremal states, both involving the related third-order ladder operators, and finally as extremal states which are also displaced but now using the so called linearized ladder operators. To each SUSY partner Hamiltonian corresponds two families of coherent states: one inside the infinite subspace associated with the isospectral part of the spectrum and another one in the finite subspace generated by the states created through the SUSY technique. - Highlights: • We use SUSY QM to obtain Hamiltonians with third-order differential ladder operators. • We show that these systems are related with the Painlevé IV equation. • We apply different definitions of coherent states to these Hamiltonians using the third-order ladder operators and some linearized ones. • We construct families of coherent states for such systems, which we called Painlevé IV coherent states.

  4. National Coastal Condition Report IV (2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCCR IV data shows an overall condition score of 3.0 for the nation’s coastal waters; although this score has improved substantially since 1990, the overall condition of the nation’s coastal resources continues to be rated fair.

  5. IVS: Current Status and Future Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrend, D.; Nothnagel, A.; Petrachenko, W. T.; Tuccari, G.

    2016-12-01

    The International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) is a globally operating service that coordinates and performs Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) activities through its constituent components. The VLBI activities are associated with the creation, provision, dissemination, and archiving of relevant VLBI data and products. The products mostly pertain to the determination of the celestial and terrestrial reference frames, the Earth orientation parameters (EOP), atmospheric parameters as well as other ancillary parameters. The IVS observational network currently consists of about 40 radio telescopes worldwide. Subsets of these telescopes (8-12 stations) participate in 24-hour observing sessions that are run several times per week and in 1-hour intensive sessions for UT1 determination every day. The current VLBI network was developed mainly in the 1970s and 1980s. A number of factors, including aging infrastructure and demanding new scientific requirements, started to challenge its future sustainability and relevance. In response, the IVS and other groups developed and started implementing the next generation VLBI system, called VGOS (VLBI Global Observing System), at existing and new sites. The VGOS network is expected to reach maturity in the early 2020s. We describe the current status, progress, and anticipated prospects of geodetic/astrometric VLBI and the IVS.

  6. Scylla IV-P theta pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, A.G.; Chandler, G.I.; Ekdahl, C.A. Jr.; Lillberg, J.W.; Machalek, M.D.; Seibel, F.T.

    1976-01-01

    Scylla IV-P is a flexible, linear theta pinch designed to investigate high-density linear concepts, end-stoppering, alternate heating methods, and plasma injection techniques relevant to a pure fusion reactor and/or a fusion-fission hybrid system. The construction and experimental arrangement of the device are briefly described

  7. Diabetic kidney lesions of GIPRdn transgenic mice: podocyte hypertrophy and thickening of the GBM precede glomerular hypertrophy and glomerulosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbach, Nadja; Schairer, Irene; Blutke, Andreas; Kautz, Sabine; Siebert, Angela; Göke, Burkhard; Wolf, Eckhard; Wanke, Ruediger

    2009-04-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease and the largest contributor to the total cost of diabetes care. Rodent models are excellent tools to gain more insight into the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. In the present study, we characterize the age-related sequence of diabetes-associated kidney lesions in GIPR(dn) transgenic mice, a novel mouse model of early-onset diabetes mellitus. Clinical-chemical analyses as well as qualitative and quantitative morphological analyses of the kidneys of GIPR(dn) transgenic animals and nontransgenic littermate controls were performed at 3, 8, 20, and 28 wk of age. Early renal changes of transgenic mice consisted of podocyte hypertrophy, reduced numerical volume density of podocytes in glomeruli, and homogenous thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, followed by renal and glomerular hypertrophy as well as mesangial expansion and matrix accumulation. At 28 wk of age, glomerular damage was most prominent, including advanced glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial lesions, and proteinuria. Real-time PCR demonstrated increased glomerular expression of Col4a1, Fn1, and Tgfb1. Immunohistochemistry revealed increased mesangial deposition of collagen type IV, fibronectin, and laminin. The present study shows that GIPR(dn) transgenic mice exhibit renal changes that closely resemble diabetes-associated kidney alterations in humans. Data particularly from male transgenic mice indicate that podocyte hypertrophy is directly linked to hyperglycemia, without the influence of mechanical stress. GIPR(dn) transgenic mice are considered an excellent new tool to study the mechanisms involved in onset and progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  8. Gen IV Materials Handbook Implementation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittenhouse, P.; Ren, W.

    2005-01-01

    A Gen IV Materials Handbook is being developed to provide an authoritative single source of highly qualified structural materials information and materials properties data for use in design and analyses of all Generation IV Reactor Systems. The Handbook will be responsive to the needs expressed by all of the principal government, national laboratory, and private company stakeholders of Gen IV Reactor Systems. The Gen IV Materials Handbook Implementation Plan provided here addresses the purpose, rationale, attributes, and benefits of the Handbook and will detail its content, format, quality assurance, applicability, and access. Structural materials, both metallic and ceramic, for all Gen IV reactor types currently supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) will be included in the Gen IV Materials Handbook. However, initial emphasis will be on materials for the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). Descriptive information (e.g., chemical composition and applicable technical specifications and codes) will be provided for each material along with an extensive presentation of mechanical and physical property data including consideration of temperature, irradiation, environment, etc. effects on properties. Access to the Gen IV Materials Handbook will be internet-based with appropriate levels of control. Information and data in the Handbook will be configured to allow search by material classes, specific materials, specific information or property class, specific property, data parameters, and individual data points identified with materials parameters, test conditions, and data source. Details on all of these as well as proposed applicability and consideration of data quality classes are provided in the Implementation Plan. Website development for the Handbook is divided into six phases including (1) detailed product analysis and specification, (2) simulation and design, (3) implementation and testing, (4) product release, (5) project/product evaluation, and (6) product

  9. Coordination and solvent extraction behaviour of oxozirconium(IV), thorium(IV) and dioxouranium(VI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    The systematic liquid-liquid extraction behaviour of oxozirconium (IV), thorium(IV) and dioxouranium(VI) have been investigated using a number of synthesised and commercial chelating extractants. The synergism or antagonism for these processes in presence of neutral donor ligands have also been identified and the conditions for separation and isolation of pure individual metal ions have been established. The coordination behaviour of oxozirconium(IV), thorium(IV) and dioxouranium(VI) with a large number of mono- and polydentate ligands have been studied. With oxozirconium(IV), invariably always a cyclic, tetranuclear species is obtained, derived from the tetrameric structure of the parent ZrOCl 2 .8H 2 O which is actually (Zr 4 (OH) 8 (H 2 O) 16 )Cl 8 .12H 2 O. No simple, monomeric oxozirconium(IV) complex was obtained. Uranium(VI) and thorium(IV) form a wide variety of complexes of higher coordination numbers and several bi- and trinuclear complexes were also characterised where the two adjacent metal centres are joined to each other by a double hydroxo-bridge. (author). 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  10. MACKLIB-IV: a library of nuclear response functions generated with the MACK-IV computer program from ENDF/B-IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.; Abdou, M.A.

    1978-03-01

    MACKLIB-IV employs the CTR energy group structure of 171 neutron groups and 36 gamma groups. A retrieval computer program is included with the library to permit collapsing into any other energy group structure. The library is in the new format of the ''MACK-Activity Table'' which uses a fixed position for each specific response function. This permits the user when employing the library with present transport codes to obtain directly the nuclear responses (e.g. the total nuclear heating) summed for all isotopes and integrated over any geometrical volume. The response functions included in the library are neutron kerma factor, gamma kerma factor, gas production and tritium-breeding functions, and all important reaction cross sections. Pertinent information about the library and a graphical display of six response functions for all materials in the library are given

  11. Nickel sensitisation in mice: a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Pål; Wäckerle-Men, Ying; Senti, Gabriela; Kündig, Thomas M

    2010-06-01

    The market release of new domestic and industrial chemical and metal products requires certain safety certification, including testing for skin sensitisation. Although various official guidelines have described how such testing is to be done, the validity of the available test models are in part dubious, for which reason regulatory agencies and research aim to further improve and generalise the models for testing of skin sensitisation. We applied a recently published murine model of nickel allergy as to test its applicability in a regulatory setting and to study and better understand the events leading to type-IV hypersensitivity. Nickel was chosen as model hapten since it induces allergic contact dermatitis with high incidence in the general population. Typically, C57BL/6 mice were sensitised and challenged by intradermal applications of nickel, and cutaneous inflammation was analysed by the mouse ear-swelling test, by histology, and by lymphocyte reactivity in vitro. Surprisingly, the study suggested that the skin reactions observed were results of irritant reactions rather than of adaptive immune responses. Non-sensitised mice responded with cutaneous inflammation and in vitro lymphocyte reactivity which were comparable with nickel-sensitised mice. Furthermore, histological examinations as well as experiments in T-cell deficient mice demonstrated that lymphocytes were not involved and that nickel caused an irritant contact dermatitis rather a true allergic type-IV contact dermatitis. The authors question the validity of the described murine model of nickel allergy. Copyright 2010 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germain Dominique P

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV, the vascular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS, is an inherited connective tissue disorder defined by characteristic facial features (acrogeria in most patients, translucent skin with highly visible subcutaneous vessels on the trunk and lower back, easy bruising, and severe arterial, digestive and uterine complications, which are rarely, if at all, observed in the other forms of EDS. The estimated prevalence for all EDS varies between 1/10,000 and 1/25,000, EDS type IV representing approximately 5 to 10% of cases. The vascular complications may affect all anatomical areas, with a tendency toward arteries of large and medium diameter. Dissections of the vertebral arteries and the carotids in their extra- and intra-cranial segments (carotid-cavernous fistulae are typical. There is a high risk of recurrent colonic perforations. Pregnancy increases the likelihood of a uterine or vascular rupture. EDS type IV is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait that is caused by mutations in the COL3A1 gene coding for type III procollagen. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs, non-invasive imaging, and the identification of a mutation of the COL3A1 gene. In childhood, coagulation disorders and Silverman's syndrome are the main differential diagnoses; in adulthood, the differential diagnosis includes other Ehlers-Danlos syndromes, Marfan syndrome and Loeys-Dietz syndrome. Prenatal diagnosis can be considered in families where the mutation is known. Choriocentesis or amniocentesis, however, may entail risk for the pregnant woman. In the absence of specific treatment for EDS type IV, medical intervention should be focused on symptomatic treatment and prophylactic measures. Arterial, digestive or uterine complications require immediate hospitalisation, observation in an intensive care unit. Invasive imaging techniques are contraindicated. Conservative approach is usually recommended when caring for a vascular

  13. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Dominique P

    2007-01-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV, the vascular type of Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS), is an inherited connective tissue disorder defined by characteristic facial features (acrogeria) in most patients, translucent skin with highly visible subcutaneous vessels on the trunk and lower back, easy bruising, and severe arterial, digestive and uterine complications, which are rarely, if at all, observed in the other forms of EDS. The estimated prevalence for all EDS varies between 1/10,000 and 1/25,000, EDS type IV representing approximately 5 to 10% of cases. The vascular complications may affect all anatomical areas, with a tendency toward arteries of large and medium diameter. Dissections of the vertebral arteries and the carotids in their extra- and intra-cranial segments (carotid-cavernous fistulae) are typical. There is a high risk of recurrent colonic perforations. Pregnancy increases the likelihood of a uterine or vascular rupture. EDS type IV is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait that is caused by mutations in the COL3A1 gene coding for type III procollagen. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs, non-invasive imaging, and the identification of a mutation of the COL3A1 gene. In childhood, coagulation disorders and Silverman's syndrome are the main differential diagnoses; in adulthood, the differential diagnosis includes other Ehlers-Danlos syndromes, Marfan syndrome and Loeys-Dietz syndrome. Prenatal diagnosis can be considered in families where the mutation is known. Choriocentesis or amniocentesis, however, may entail risk for the pregnant woman. In the absence of specific treatment for EDS type IV, medical intervention should be focused on symptomatic treatment and prophylactic measures. Arterial, digestive or uterine complications require immediate hospitalisation, observation in an intensive care unit. Invasive imaging techniques are contraindicated. Conservative approach is usually recommended when caring for a vascular complication in a patient suffering

  14. Mechanical Loading Attenuates Radiation-Induced Bone Loss in Bone Marrow Transplanted Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govey, Peter M.; Zhang, Yue; Donahue, Henry J.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure of bone to ionizing radiation, as occurs during radiotherapy for some localized malignancies and blood or bone marrow cancers, as well as during space travel, incites dose-dependent bone morbidity and increased fracture risk. Rapid trabecular and endosteal bone loss reflects acutely increased osteoclastic resorption as well as decreased bone formation due to depletion of osteoprogenitors. Because of this dysregulation of bone turnover, bone’s capacity to respond to a mechanical loading stimulus in the aftermath of irradiation is unknown. We employed a mouse model of total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation simulating treatment of hematologic cancers, hypothesizing that compression loading would attenuate bone loss. Furthermore, we hypothesized that loading would upregulate donor cell presence in loaded tibias due to increased engraftment and proliferation. We lethally irradiated 16 female C57Bl/6J mice at age 16 wks with 10.75 Gy, then IV-injected 20 million GFP(+) total bone marrow cells. That same day, we initiated 3 wks compression loading (1200 cycles 5x/wk, 10 N) in the right tibia of 10 of these mice while 6 mice were irradiated, non-mechanically-loaded controls. As anticipated, before-and-after microCT scans demonstrated loss of trabecular bone (-48.2% Tb.BV/TV) and cortical thickness (-8.3%) at 3 wks following irradiation. However, loaded bones lost 31% less Tb.BV/TV and 8% less cortical thickness (both pbones also had significant increases in trabecular thickness and tissue mineral densities from baseline. Mechanical loading did not affect donor cell engraftment. Importantly, these results demonstrate that both cortical and trabecular bone exposed to high-dose therapeutic radiation remain capable of an anabolic response to mechanical loading. These findings inform our management of bone health in cases of radiation exposure. PMID:27936104

  15. Immunochemical and autoantigenic properties of the globular domain of basement membrane collagen (type IV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Mark, H; Oberbäumer, I; Timpl, R; Kemler, R; Wick, G

    1985-02-01

    Polyclonal rabbit antibodies raised against the globular domain NC1 of collagen IV from human placenta and a mouse tumor react with conformational antigenic determinants present on the NC1 hexamers and also with the three major subunits obtained after dissociation. The antibodies recognized unique structures within basement membranes and showed a broad tissue reactivity but only limited species cross-reactivity. Using these antibodies, it was possible to detect small amounts of collagen IV antigens from cell cultures and in serum. Monoclonal rat antibodies against mouse NC1 revealed a similar reaction potential. Autoantibodies could be produced in mice against mouse NC1 which react with kidney and lung basement membranes in a pathological manner, mimicking Goodpasture syndrome.

  16. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of DSTA4637A: A novel THIOMAB™ antibody antibiotic conjugate against Staphylococcus aureus in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chenguang; Lehar, Sophie; Gutierrez, Johnny; Rosenberger, Carrie M; Ljumanovic, Nina; Dinoso, Jason; Koppada, Neelima; Hong, Kyu; Baruch, Amos; Carrasco-Triguero, Montserrat; Saad, Ola; Mariathasan, Sanjeev; Kamath, Amrita V

    DSTA4637A, a novel THIOMAB™ antibody antibiotic conjugate (TAC) against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), is currently being investigated as a potential therapy against S. aureus infections. Structurally, TAC is composed of an anti-S. aureus antibody linked to a potent antibiotic, dmDNA31. The goal of the current study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) of TAC in mice, assess the effect of S. aureus infection on its PK, and evaluate its pharmacodynamics (PD) by measuring the bacterial load in various organs at different timepoints following TAC treatment. Plasma concentrations of 3 analytes, total antibody (TAb), antibody-conjugated dmDNA31 (ac-dmDNA31), and unconjugated dmDNA31, were measured in these studies. In non-infected mice (target antigen absent), following intravenous (IV) administration of a single dose of TAC, systemic concentration-time profiles of both TAb and ac-dmDNA31 were bi-exponential and characterized by a short distribution phase and a long elimination phase as expected for a monoclonal antibody-based therapeutic. Systemic exposures of both TAb and ac-dmDNA31 were dose proportional over the dose range tested (5 to 50 mg/kg). In a mouse model of systemic S. aureus infection (target antigen present), a single IV dose of TAC demonstrated PK behavior similar to that in the non-infected mice, and substantially reduced bacterial load in the heart, kidney, and bones on 7 and 14 d post dosing. These findings have increased our understanding of the PK and PK/PD of this novel molecule, and have shown that at efficacious dose levels the presence of S. aureus infection had minimal effect on TAC PK.

  17. A study on the antitumour effect of total flavonoids from Pteris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper was to investigate the inhibitory effect of total flavonoids from Pteris multifida Poir on growth of transplanted H22 tumour in mice. H22 tumour-bearing mice model was established; the experimental animals were divide/d into the model group, Pteris multifida Poir total flavonoids high-, low-dose ...

  18. Development of a transplantable glioma tumour model from genetically engineered mice: MRI/MRS/MRSI characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciezka, Magdalena; Acosta, Milena; Herranz, Cristina; Canals, Josep M; Pumarola, Martí; Candiota, Ana Paula; Arús, Carles

    2016-08-01

    The initial aim of this study was to generate a transplantable glial tumour model of low-intermediate grade by disaggregation of a spontaneous tumour mass from genetically engineered models (GEM). This should result in an increased tumour incidence in comparison to GEM animals. An anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (OA) tumour of World Health Organization (WHO) grade III was obtained from a female GEM mouse with the S100β-v-erbB/inK4a-Arf (+/-) genotype maintained in the C57BL/6 background. The tumour tissue was disaggregated; tumour cells from it were grown in aggregates and stereotactically injected into C57BL/6 mice. Tumour development was followed using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), while changes in the metabolomics pattern of the masses were evaluated by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/Spectroscopic Imaging (MRS/MRSI). Final tumour grade was evaluated by histopathological analysis. The total number of tumours generated from GEM cells from disaggregated tumour (CDT) was 67 with up to 100 % penetrance, as compared to 16 % in the local GEM model, with an average survival time of 66 ± 55 days, up to 4.3-fold significantly higher than the standard GL261 glioblastoma (GBM) tumour model. Tumours produced by transplantation of cells freshly obtained from disaggregated GEM tumour were diagnosed as WHO grade III anaplastic oligodendroglioma (ODG) and OA, while tumours produced from a previously frozen sample were diagnosed as WHO grade IV GBM. We successfully grew CDT and generated tumours from a grade III GEM glial tumour. Freezing and cell culture protocols produced progression to grade IV GBM, which makes the developed transplantable model qualify as potential secondary GBM model in mice.

  19. Total Quality Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity. The panel presentations and Keynote speeches revolving around the theme of total quality leadership provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management (TQM). The presentations from the conference are summarized.

  20. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...

  1. Lipid Emulsion Administered Intravenously or Orally Attenuates Triglyceride Accumulation and Expression of Inflammatory Markers in the Liver of Nonobese Mice Fed Parenteral Nutrition Formula123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kyoko; Hao, Lei; Wray, Amanda E.; Ross, A. Catharine

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of hepatic TG and development of hepatic steatosis (HS) is a serious complication of the use of parenteral nutrition (PN) formulas containing a high percentage of dextrose. But whether fat emulsions or other nutrients can ameliorate the induction of HS by high-carbohydrate diets is still uncertain. We hypothesized that administration of a lipid emulsion (LE; Intralipid) and/or the vitamin A metabolite retinal (RAL) will reduce hepatic TG accumulation and attenuate indicators of inflammation. C57BL/6 male mice were fed PN formula as their only source of hydration and nutrition for 4–5 wk. In Expt. 1, mice were fed PN only or PN plus treatment with RAL (1 μg/g orally), LE (200 μL i.v.), or both LE and RAL. In Expt. 2, LE was orally administered at 4 and 13.5% of energy to PN-fed mice. All PN mice developed HS compared with mice fed normal chow (NC) and HS was reduced by LE. The liver TG mass was lower in the PN+LE and PN+RAL+LE groups compared with the PN and PN+RAL groups (P < 0.01) and in the 4% and 13.5% PN+LE groups compared with PN alone. Hepatic total retinol was higher in the RAL-fed mice (P < 0.0001), but RAL did not alter TG mass. mRNA transcripts for fatty acid synthase (Fasn) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (Srebpf1) were higher in the PN compared with the NC mice, but FAS protein and Srebpf1 mRNA were lower in the PN+LE groups compared with PN alone. The inflammation marker serum amyloid P component was also reduced. In summary, LE given either i.v. or orally may be sufficient to reduce the steatotic potential of orally fed high-dextrose formulas and may suppress the early development of HS during PN therapy. PMID:23325918

  2. Identification of novel dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory peptides in camel milk protein hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongonierma, Alice B; Paolella, Sara; Mudgil, Priti; Maqsood, Sajid; FitzGerald, Richard J

    2018-04-01

    Nine novel dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory peptides (FLQY, FQLGASPY, ILDKEGIDY, ILELA, LLQLEAIR, LPVP, LQALHQGQIV, MPVQA and SPVVPF) were identified in camel milk proteins hydrolysed with trypsin. This was achieved using a sequential approach combining liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), qualitative/quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) and confirmatory studies with synthetic peptides. The most potent camel milk protein-derived DPP-IV inhibitory peptides, LPVP and MPVQA, had DPP-IV half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC 50 ) of 87.0 ± 3.2 and 93.3 ± 8.0 µM, respectively. DPP-IV inhibitory peptide sequences identified within camel and bovine milk protein hydrolysates generated under the same hydrolysis conditions differ. This was linked to differences in enzyme selectivity for peptide bond cleavage of camel and bovine milk proteins as well as dissimilarities in their amino acid sequences. Camel milk proteins contain novel DPP-IV inhibitory peptides which may play a role in the regulation of glycaemia in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Administration and Scoring Errors of Graduate Students Learning the WISC-IV: Issues and Controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrazik, Martin; Janzen, Troy M.; Dombrowski, Stefan C.; Barford, Sean W.; Krawchuk, Lindsey L.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 19 graduate students enrolled in a graduate course conducted 6 consecutive administrations of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition (WISC-IV, Canadian version). Test protocols were examined to obtain data describing the frequency of examiner errors, including administration and scoring errors. Results identified 511…

  4. Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems – Volume IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neven Duić

    2016-12-01

    In total 32 manuscripts were published in Volume IV, all of them reviewed by at least two reviewers. The Journal of Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems would like to thank reviewers for their contribution to the quality of the published manuscripts.

  5. DSM-IV hypochondriasis in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, J I; Gara, M; Waitzkin, H; Silver, R C; Holman, A; Compton, W

    1998-05-01

    The object of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of the DSM-IV diagnosis of hypochondriasis in a primary care setting. A large sample (N = 1456) of primary care users was given a structured interview to make diagnoses of mood, anxiety, and somatoform disorders and estimate levels of disability. The prevalence of hypochondriasis (DSM-IV) was about 3%. Patients with this disorder had higher levels of medically unexplained symptoms (abridged somatization) and were more impaired in their physical functioning than patients without the disorder. Of the various psychopathologies examined, major depressive syndromes were the most frequent among patients with hypochondriasis. Interestingly, unlike somatization disorder, hypochondriasis was not related to any demographic factor. Hypochondriasis is a relatively rare condition in primary care that is largely separable from somatization disorder but seems closely intertwined with the more severe depressive syndromes.

  6. Generation-IV nuclear reactors, SFR concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufour, P.

    2010-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with development of sodium-cooled fast reactors and lead-cooled fast reactors. He concluded that: - SFR is a proved concept that has never achieved industrial deployment; - The GEN IV objectives need to reconsider the design of both the core and the reactor design : innovations are being analysed; Future design will benefit from considerable feedback of design, licensing, construction and operation of PX, SPX, etc.

  7. Generation IV nuclear plant design strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altin, V.

    2007-01-01

    In this presentation Generation IV nuclear reactor design criteria are examined under the light of known nuclear properties of fissile and fertile nuclei. Their conflicting nature is elucidated along with the resulting inevitability of a multitude of designs. The designs selected as candidates for further development are evaluated with respect to their potential to serve the different design criteria, thereby revealing their more difficult aspects of realization and the strong research challenges lying ahead

  8. Genome Sequencing and Analysis Conference IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    J. Craig Venter and C. Thomas Caskey co-chaired Genome Sequencing and Analysis Conference IV held at Hilton Head, South Carolina from September 26--30, 1992. Venter opened the conference by noting that approximately 400 researchers from 16 nations were present four times as many participants as at Genome Sequencing Conference I in 1989. Venter also introduced the Data Fair, a new component of the conference allowing exchange and on-site computer analysis of unpublished sequence data.

  9. United Arab Emirates; 2013 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2013-01-01

    This staff report on United Arab Emirates 2013 Article IV Consultation highlights economic policies and development. Against a backdrop of political stability, confidence has further increased, tourism has been firm, demand from expatriates from the broader region has increased, and capital inflows have strengthened amid high global liquidity. The real estate sector, which had been impaired since the 2009 crisis, has stabilized in Abu Dhabi and has started to recover in Dubai. Dubai aims to b...

  10. Dipyridinium tribromidochloridobis(4-chlorophenylstannate(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Mun Lo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The tin atom in the substituted ammonium stannate(IV, (C5H6N2[SnBr3(C6H4Cl2Cl], lies on a center of symmetry in a distorted octahedral coordination geometry. Each independent halogen site is occupied by bromine and chlorine anions in an approximate 3:1 ratio. The pyridinium cation forms a hydrogen bond to only one of the halogen atoms.

  11. Structure of tetrakis(salicylaldehydato)thorium(IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, R J; Rickard, C E.F. [Auckland Univ. (New Zealand). Dept. of Chemistry

    1977-01-01

    The structure of tetrakis(salicylaldehydato)thorium(IV) has been determined by single crystal X-ray crystallography. The crystals are tetragonal, a = 10.214, b = 23.744 A, space group P4/sub 1/. The molecules are eight coordinate, the coordination polyhedron being a dodecahedron with approximate Dsub(2d) symmetry. The dodecahedral A sites are occupied by the aldehydic oxygens and the phenolic oxygens occupy the B sites.

  12. IVS contribution to the next ITRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Sabine; Messerschmitt, Linda; Thaller, Daniela

    2015-04-01

    Generating the contribution of the International VLBI Service (IVS) to the next ITRF (ITRF2013 or ITRF2014) was the main task of the IVS Combination Center at the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy (BKG, Germany) in 2014. Starting with the ITRF2005, the IVS contribution to the ITRF is an intra-technique combined solution using multiple individual contributions from different institutions. For the upcoming ITRF ten international institutions submitted data files for a combined solution. The data files contain 24h VLBI sessions from the late 1970s until the end of 2014 in SINEX file format containing datum free normal equations with station coordinates and Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP). All contributions have to meet the IVS standards for ITRF contribution in order to guarantee a consistent combined solution. In the course of the generation of the intra-technique combined solution, station coordinate time series for each station as well as a Terrestrial Reference Frame based on the contributed VLBI data (VTRF) were generated and analyzed. Preliminary results using data until the end of 2013 show a scaling factor of -0.47 ppb resulting from a 7-parameter Helmert transformation of the VTRF w.r.t. ITRF2008, which is comparable to the scaling factor that was determined in the precedent ITRF generation. An internal comparison of the EOPs between the combined solution and the individual contributions as well as external comparisons of the EOP series were carried out in order to assure a consistent quality of the EOPs. The data analyses, the combination procedure and results of the combined solution for station coordinates and EOP will be presented.

  13. Sandia Pulse Reactor-IV Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuscher, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed, designed and operated fast burst reactors for over 20 years. These reactors have been used for a variety of radiation effects programs. During this period, programs have required larger irradiation volumes primarily to expose complex electronic systems to postulated threat environments. As experiment volumes increased, a new reactor was built so that these components could be tested. The Sandia Pulse Reactor-IV is a logical evolution of the two decades of fast burst reactor development at Sandia

  14. Plutonium(IV) hydrous polymer chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, L.M.; Dodson, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    The hydrous polymer chemistry of Pu(IV) in aqueous nitric acid solutions has been a subject of considerable interest for several years. This interest stems mainly from the fact that most nuclear fuel reprocessing schemes based on the Purex process can be hampered by the occurrence of polymer. As a result, an understanding and control of the parameters that affect polymer formation during reprocessing are studied. 2 refs

  15. Mutagenicity of nicotine in Schistosoma mansoni - infected mice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of meiotic chromosomes showed significant elevation in the Schistosoma-infected mice. Administration of nicotine to infected mice substantially increased the percentages of micronucleated cells and total CAs. The percentage of chromosomal abnormalities in spermatocyte metaphase-I cells increased significantly ...

  16. REVIEW - Thermal Physiology of Laboratory Mice: Defining Thermoneutrality

    Science.gov (United States)

    In terms of total number of publications, the laboratory mouse (Mus musculus) has emerged as the most popular test subject in biomedical research. Mice are used as models to study obesity, diabetes, eNS diseases and variety of other pathologies. Mice are classified as homeotherms...

  17. Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Yongbin; Cai, Yunqiang; Liu, Xubao; Peng, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is a complicated surgical procedure and rarely been reported. This study was conducted to investigate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic total pancreatectomy. Patients and Methods: Three patients underwent laparoscopic total pancreatectomy between May 2014 and August 2015. We reviewed their general demographic data, perioperative details, and short-term outcomes. General morbidity was assessed using Clavien–Dindo classification and delayed gastric emptying (DGE) was evaluated by International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) definition. Diagnosis and Outcomes: The indications for laparoscopic total pancreatectomy were intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) (n = 2) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) (n = 1). All patients underwent laparoscopic pylorus and spleen-preserving total pancreatectomy, the mean operative time was 490 minutes (range 450–540 minutes), the mean estimated blood loss was 266 mL (range 100–400 minutes); 2 patients suffered from postoperative complication. All the patients recovered uneventfully with conservative treatment and discharged with a mean hospital stay 18 days (range 8–24 days). The short-term (from 108 to 600 days) follow up demonstrated 3 patients had normal and consistent glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level with acceptable quality of life. Lessons: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is feasible and safe in selected patients and pylorus and spleen preserving technique should be considered. Further prospective randomized studies are needed to obtain a comprehensive understanding the role of laparoscopic technique in total pancreatectomy. PMID:28099344

  18. Ionizing radiation risk assessment, BEIR IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    This report of the Subpanel discusses the potential impact on Federal agencies and indicates individual risk factors that could be used by them in risk assessment. The approach used in this CIRRPC report was to consider the risk factors presented in BEIR IV for each radionuclide (or group radioelements) and to make some judgments regarding their validity and/or the uncertainties involved. The coverage of Radon-222 and its progeny dominated the BEIR IV report and this Subpanel felt is was proper to devote more attention to this radionuclide family. This risk factor presented in BEIR IV for radon is 350 cancer deaths per million person-working level months (WLM) of exposure for a lifetime. There is a range of opinions on the conversion from WLM to absorbed dose. As discussed in the text, the use of the WLM concept makes it difficult or infeasible to compare the risk factor for radon with that of other radionuclides which are based on organ dose. This report also includes a discussion of certain fundamental scientific and operational issues that may have decisive effect upon risk factor selection. These adjunct items are dealt with under separate headings and include discussions of threshold dose considerations, extrapolation to low doses, and age at exposure

  19. Estonian total ozone climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Eerme

    Full Text Available The climatological characteristics of total ozone over Estonia based on the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS data are discussed. The mean annual cycle during 1979–2000 for the site at 58.3° N and 26.5° E is compiled. The available ground-level data interpolated before TOMS, have been used for trend detection. During the last two decades, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO corrected systematic decrease of total ozone from February–April was 3 ± 2.6% per decade. Before 1980, a spring decrease was not detectable. No decreasing trend was found in either the late autumn ozone minimum or in the summer total ozone. The QBO related signal in the spring total ozone has an amplitude of ± 20 DU and phase lag of 20 months. Between 1987–1992, the lagged covariance between the Singapore wind and the studied total ozone was weak. The spring (April–May and summer (June–August total ozone have the best correlation (coefficient 0.7 in the yearly cycle. The correlation between the May and August total ozone is higher than the one between the other summer months. Seasonal power spectra of the total ozone variance show preferred periods with an over 95% significance level. Since 1986, during the winter/spring, the contribution period of 32 days prevails instead of the earlier dominating 26 days. The spectral densities of the periods from 4 days to 2 weeks exhibit high interannual variability.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere – composition and chemistry; volcanic effects – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology

  20. Total photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, P.

    1985-06-01

    The present discussion is limited to a presentation of the most recent total photonuclear absorption experiments performed with real photons at intermediate energy, and more precisely in the region of nucleon resonances. The main sources of real photons are briefly reviewed and the experimental procedures used for total photonuclear absorption cross section measurements. The main results obtained below 140 MeV photon energy as well as above 2 GeV are recalled. The experimental study of total photonuclear absorption in the nuclear resonance region (140 MeV< E<2 GeV) is still at its beginning and some results are presented

  1. [Total artificial heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antretter, H; Dumfarth, J; Höfer, D

    2015-09-01

    To date the CardioWest™ total artificial heart is the only clinically available implantable biventricular mechanical replacement for irreversible cardiac failure. This article presents the indications, contraindications, implantation procedere and postoperative treatment. In addition to a overview of the applications of the total artificial heart this article gives a brief presentation of the two patients treated in our department with the CardioWest™. The clinical course, postoperative rehabilitation, device-related complications and control mechanisms are presented. The total artificial heart is a reliable implant for treating critically ill patients with irreversible cardiogenic shock. A bridge to transplantation is feasible with excellent results.

  2. Revised and extended analysis of Br IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riyaz, A.; Rahimullah, K.; Tauheed, A.

    2014-01-01

    The spectrum of three-times ionized bromine Br IV has been studied in the 319–2350 Å wavelength region. The spectrum was recorded on a 3-m normal incidence vacuum spectrograph at the St. Francis Xavier University, Antigonish (Canada) and 6.65-m grazing incidence spectrograph at the Zeeman laboratory (Amsterdam). The light sources used were a triggered spark and sliding spark, respectively. The ground configuration of Br IV 3d 10 4s 2 4p 2 , the excited configurations 3d 10 4s4p 3 +3d 10 4s 2 4p (4d+5d+6d+5s+6s+7s) in the odd parity system and 3d 10 4s 2 4p (5p+4f+5f)+3d 10 4s4p 2 (4d+5s)+3d 10 4p 4 in the even parity system have been studied. Relativistic Hartree–Fock (HFR) and least squares fitted (LSF) parametric calculations were used to interpret the observed spectrum. 120 Levels of Br IV have now been established, 58 being new. Among 424 spectral lines, 277 are newly classified. The levels 4s4p 35 S 2 , 4s 2 4p4d 3 F 4 and 4p5p ( 3 P 0,1 , 3 D 1,2 , 3 S 1 ) are revised. We estimate the accuracy of our measured wavelength for sharp and unblended lines to be ±0.005 Å. The ionization limit is determined as 385,390±100 cm −1 (47.782±0.012 eV). -- Highlights: • The spectrum of Br was recorded on a 3-m spectrograph with triggered spark source. • Atomic transitions for Br IV were identified to established new energy levels. • CI calculations with relativistic corrections were made for theoretical predictions. • Weighted oscillator strength (gf) and transition probabilities (gA) were calculated. • Ionization potential of Br IV was determined experimentally

  3. Total 2004 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  4. Total synthesis of ciguatoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamajima, Akinari; Isobe, Minoru

    2009-01-01

    Something fishy: Ciguatoxin (see structure) is one of the principal toxins involved in ciguatera poisoning and the target of a total synthesis involving the coupling of three segments. The key transformations in this synthesis feature acetylene-dicobalthexacarbonyl complexation.

  5. Total 2004 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  6. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty rehabilitat......The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...... rehabilitation. Since hospital stay duration has decreased considerably, the need for post-discharge physiotherapy may also have changed. Thus, the indication for and types of rehabilitation programmes need to be studied within the context of fast-track knee arthroplasty....

  7. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty rehabilitat......The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...... rehabilitation. Since hospital stay duration has decreased considerably, the need for post-discharge physiotherapy may also have changed. Thus, the indication for and types of rehabilitation programmes need to be studied within the context of fast-track knee arthroplasty. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Feb-23...

  8. Supravaginal eller total hysterektomi?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvardsen, L; Madsen, E M

    1994-01-01

    There has been a decline in the rate of hysterectomies in Denmark in general over the last thirteen years, together with a rise in the number of supravaginal operations over the last two years. The literature concerning the relative merits of the supravaginal and the total abdominal operation is ...... indicate a reduced frequency of orgasm after the total hysterectomy compared with the supravaginal operation. When there are technical problems peroperatively with an increased urologic risk the supravaginal operation is recommended....

  9. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen

  10. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2017-11-22

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  11. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha M.; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  12. Primary Tumor Thickness is a Prognostic Factor in Stage IV Melanoma: A Retrospective Study of Primary Tumor Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luen, Stephen; Wong, Siew Wei; Mar, Victoria; Kelly, John W; McLean, Catriona; McArthur, Grant A; Haydon, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Stage IV melanoma exhibits a diverse range of tumor biology from indolent to aggressive disease. Many important prognostic factors have already been identified. Despite this, the behavior of metastatic melanoma remains difficult to predict. We sought to determine if any primary tumor characteristics affect survival following the diagnosis of stage IV melanoma. All patients diagnosed with stage IV melanoma between January 2003 and December 2012 were identified from the Victorian Melanoma Service database. Retrospective chart review was performed to collect data on primary tumor characteristics (thickness, ulceration, mitotic rate, melanoma subtype, or occult primary). Known and suspected prognostic factors were additionally collected (time to diagnosis of stage IV disease, age, sex, stage, receipt of chemotherapy, and era of recurrence). The effect of primary tumor characteristics on overall survival from the date of diagnosis of stage IV disease was assessed. A total of 227 patients with a median follow-up of 5 years from diagnosis of stage IV disease were identified. Median overall survival of the cohort was 250 days.Of the primary tumor characteristics assessed, only tumor thickness affected survival from diagnosis of stage IV disease, hazard ratio=1.09 (1.02 to 1.16), P=0.008. This remained significant in multivariate analysis, P=0.007. Other primary tumor characteristics did not significantly influence survival. Primary tumor thickness is a significant prognostic factor in stage IV melanoma. Our data suggest that the biology of the primary melanoma may persist to influence the behavior of metastatic disease.

  13. New spectroscopic results in Xe II, Xe III, and Xe IV

    OpenAIRE

    Reyna Almandos, Jorge Guillermo; Gallardo, Mario; Garavaglia, Mario J.

    1982-01-01

    New results obtained in spontaneous xenon spectrum employing a conventional pulsed gaseous laser tube as light source, are presented in this work. A total of 626 spectral lines has been ionically assigned as follows: 50 to Xe II spectrum, 103 to Xe III spectrum, arid 222 to Xe IV spectrum. 30 Lines previously assigned to Xe II were reassigned as belonging to Xe III, 94 lines were assigned with some doubts to Xe II-III spectrum and 84 lines to Xe Ill-IV spectrum. Also there were clas...

  14. Hydrogen content in Zircaloy-IV by neutron emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granada, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility of using thermal neutron transmission techniques to determine the initial hydrogen content in Zry-IV is discussed in this work. The usual conditions of very low H concentration (∼ 10-20 ppm in weight) in the alloy, require a high degree of accuracy in the relevant cross sections in order to obtain reliable values of that concentration from the measured transmission spectra. Total cross sections corresponding to the metallic alloy and to hydrogen in that matrix were evaluated using interaction models developed in this Laboratory, for neutrons covering the range from subthermal up to epithermal energies. The sensitivity of this method as a function of neutron energy is discussed, and an optimized and self consistent procedure for data analysis after a transmission experiment is proposed. (Author) [es

  15. Radiation and cadmium induced biochemical changes in the kidney of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bissa, Prashant; Purohit, Suresh; Purohit, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation causes deleterious effects in all forms of life due to increasing utilization and production of modern technology, a simultaneous exposure of organisms to heavy metals is also unavoidable. The concomitant exposure to cadmium chloride and ionizing radiation might produce deleterious effect upon biological system. The total environmental burden of toxicants may have greater effect as against their individual impact as expected by their nature. So interaction between radiation and other toxicants represents a field of great potential importance. Therefore, the present study was planned to evaluate the effect of cadmium and radiation alone or in combination, on the kidney of Swiss albino mice. In the present investigation, adult male mice were divided into four groups. Group I included Sham irradiated normal mice. Group II was treated with Cadmium Chloride at the dose of 20 ppm while Group III was exposed to 5.0 Gy of gamma rays. Animals of Group IV were treated with both Cadmium Chloride and 5.0 Gy of gamma radiation. The animals from each group were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at each post treatment interval of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days. In Cadmium Chloride treated group the values of total proteins and cholesterol declined up to day-14 thereafter the values increased up to day-28 without reaching to the normal. The values of glycogen, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase activities increased up to day-14 then decreased up to day-28 without reaching to the norma. Mice exposed to 5.0 Gy of gamma rays showed increased in the values of total proteins, glycogen, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase activities increased up to day-24 and declined thereafter up to day-28 . Whereas the value of cholesterol decreased up to day-14 and then increased up to day-28 without reaching to the normal level. Combined exposure to Cadmium chloride and radiation registered similar pattern of decrease and increase but the changes were more pronounced in all the

  16. A Si IV/O IV Electron Density Diagnostic for the Analysis of IRIS Solar Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, P. R.; Keenan, F. P.; Milligan, R. O.; Peter, H.

    2018-04-01

    Solar spectra of ultraviolet bursts and flare ribbons from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) have suggested high electron densities of > {10}12 cm‑3 at transition region temperatures of 0.1 MK, based on large intensity ratios of Si IV λ1402.77 to O IV λ1401.16. In this work, a rare observation of the weak O IV λ1343.51 line is reported from an X-class flare that peaked at 21:41 UT on 2014 October 24. This line is used to develop a theoretical prediction of the Si IV λ1402.77 to O IV λ1401.16 ratio as a function of density that is recommended to be used in the high-density regime. The method makes use of new pressure-dependent ionization fractions that take account of the suppression of dielectronic recombination at high densities. It is applied to two sequences of flare kernel observations from the October 24 flare. The first shows densities that vary between 3× {10}12 and 3× {10}13 cm‑3 over a seven-minute period, while the second location shows stable density values of around 2× {10}12 cm‑3 over a three-minute period.

  17. Total body irradiation for children with malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanuki, Eiichi; Maeno, Toshio; Kamata, Rikisaburo; Tanaka, Yoshiaki; Mugishima, Hideo [Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-12-01

    Total body irradiation combined with high dose chemotherapy has been performed just before bone marrow transplantation in 35 children with advanced malignancies, with the object of achieving successful transplantation and improving the prognosis. Simulation was performed as follows: back scatter, flatness, dose accumulation using randophantom and dose distribution using a thermo-luminescence dosimeter and linac-graphy. The standard error of dose distribution was within 10%. In neuroblastoma, of which there were 14 cases in stage IV and one case in stage III, the 5-year survival rate was 55%. In leukemia, of which all cases were in the high-risk group (7 cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 2 of acute myeloblastic leukemia) the 5-year survival rate was 55%. The 5 cases having first remission survived disease-free while the 4 cases having non-first remission died. In malignant lymphoma (6 cases in stage IV and one case in stage III, with bulky mass) the 5-year survival rate was 67%. Four cases with other diagnoses (severe aplastic anemia, and others) all survived. As yet no side effects resulting from total body irradiation have been recognized in our cases, but a longer follow-up period is necessary to observe possible late side effects. (author).

  18. Men and mice: Relating their ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Sulagna; Sengupta, Pallav

    2016-05-01

    Since the late 18th century, the murine model has been widely used in biomedical research (about 59% of total animals used) as it is compact, cost-effective, and easily available, conserving almost 99% of human genes and physiologically resembling humans. Despite the similarities, mice have a diminutive lifespan compared to humans. In this study, we found that one human year is equivalent to nine mice days, although this is not the case when comparing the lifespan of mice versus humans taking the entire life at the same time without considering each phase separately. Therefore, the precise correlation of age at every point in their lifespan must be determined. Determining the age relation between mice and humans is necessary for setting up experimental murine models more analogous in age to humans. Thus, more accuracy can be obtained in the research outcome for humans of a specific age group, although current outcomes are based on mice of an approximate age. To fill this gap between approximation and accuracy, this review article is the first to establish a precise relation between mice age and human age, following our previous article, which explained the relation in ages of laboratory rats with humans in detail. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Total volume versus bouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinapaw, Mai; Klakk, Heidi; Møller, Niels Christian

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Examine the prospective relationship of total volume versus bouts of sedentary behaviour (SB) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with cardiometabolic risk in children. In addition, the moderating effects of weight status and MVPA were explored. SUBJECTS....../METHODS: Longitudinal study including 454 primary school children (mean age 10.3 years). Total volume and bouts (i.e. ≥10 min consecutive minutes) of MVPA and SB were assessed by accelerometry in Nov 2009/Jan 2010 (T1) and Aug/Oct 2010 (T2). Triglycerides, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio (TC:HDLC ratio......, with or without mutual adjustments between MVPA and SB. The moderating effects of weight status and MVPA (for SB only) were examined by adding interaction terms. RESULTS: Children engaged daily in about 60 min of total MVPA and 0-15 min/week in MVPA bouts. Mean total sedentary time was around 7 h/day with over 3...

  20. Collagen type IV at the fetal-maternal interface

    OpenAIRE

    Oefner, C M; Sharkey, A; Gardner, L; Critchley, H; Oyen, M; Moffett, A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Extracellular matrix proteins play a crucial role in influencing the invasion of trophoblast cells. However the role of collagens and collagen type IV (col-IV) in particular at the implantation site is not clear. Methods Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the distribution of collagen types I, III, IV and VI in endometrium and decidua during the menstrual cycle and the first trimester of pregnancy. Expression of col-IV alpha chains during the reproductive cycle ...

  1. Of mice and men

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    At the end of March , sixty mice were irradiated at the synchro-cyclotron in the course of an experimental programme studying radiation effects on mice and plants (Vicia faba bean roots) being carried out by the CERN Health Physics Group.

  2. Antiatherogenic effects of oleanolic acid in apolipoprotein E knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels Henrik; Hansson, Nicolaj Christopher; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Rosalia

    2011-01-01

    were investigated in vitro. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was visualized using immunoblotting. As opposed to WT and fluvastatin- and vehicle-treated mice, OA-fed ApoE(-/-) mice gained no weight during the treatment period. Plasma concentrations of total-cholesterol and triglyceride were...... in combination with OA (100 mg/kg/day), fluvastatin (5 mg/kg/day) or vehicle, with wild type (WT) mice serving as controls. After 8 weeks of treatment atherosclerotic plaque areas in the aortic arch and plasma lipid concentrations were determined. Vasoconstriction and relaxation of the proximal part of aorta...... not significantly reduced by OA- or fluvastatin treatment. Plaque area of vehicle-treated mice was 25%, but only 14% in OA- and 19% in fluvastatin-treated mice. As compared to WT, vasoconstriction to phenylephrine was attenuated in ApoE(-/-) mice. The NOS inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) enhanced...

  3. Adrenergic pathway activation enhances brown adipose tissue metabolism: A [18 F]FDG PET/CT study in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirbolooki, M. Reza; Upadhyay, Sanjeev Kumar; Constantinescu, Cristian C.; Pan, Min-Liang; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Pharmacologic approaches to study brown adipocyte activation in vivo with a potential of being translational to humans are desired. The aim of this study was to examine pre- and postsynaptic targeting of adrenergic system for enhancing brown adipose tissue (BAT) metabolism quantifiable by [ 18 F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ([ 18 F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in mice. Methods: A β 3 -adrenoreceptor selective agonist (CL 316243), an adenylyl cyclase enzyme activator (forskolin) and a potent blocker of presynaptic norepinephrine transporter (atomoxetine), were injected through the tail vein of Swiss Webster mice 30 minutes before intravenous (iv) administration of [ 18 F]FDG. The mice were placed on the PET/CT bed for 30 min PET acquisition followed by 10 min CT acquisition for attenuation correction and anatomical delineation of PET images. Results: Activated interscapular (IBAT), cervical, periaortic and intercostal BAT were observed in 3-dimentional analysis of [ 18 F]FDG PET images. CL 316243 increased the total [ 18 F]FDG standard uptake value (SUV) of IBAT 5-fold greater compared to that in placebo-treated mice. It also increased the [ 18 F]FDG SUV of white adipose tissue (2.4-fold), and muscle (2.7-fold), as compared to the control. There was no significant difference in heart, brain, spleen and liver uptakes between groups. Forskolin increased [ 18 F]FDG SUV of IBAT 1.9-fold greater than that in placebo-treated mice. It also increased the [ 18 F]FDG SUV of white adipose tissue (2.2-fold) and heart (5.4-fold) compared to control. There was no significant difference in muscle, brain, spleen, and liver uptakes between groups. Atomoxetine increased [ 18 F]FDG SUV of IBAT 1.7-fold greater than that in placebo-treated mice. There were no significant differences in all other organs compared to placebo-treated mice except liver (1.6 fold increase). A positive correlation between SUV levels of IBAT and CT Hounsfield unit (HU

  4. The MICE Online Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is designed to test transverse cooling of a muon beam, demonstrating an important step along the path toward creating future high intensity muon beam facilities. Protons in the ISIS synchrotron impact a titanium target, producing pions which decay into muons that propagate through the beam line to the MICE cooling channel. Along the beam line, particle identification (PID) detectors, scintillating fiber tracking detectors, and beam diagnostic tools identify and measure individual muons moving through the cooling channel. The MICE Online Systems encompass all tools; including hardware, software, and documentation, within the MLCR (MICE Local Control Room) that allow the experiment to efficiently record high quality data. Controls and Monitoring (C&M), Data Acquisition (DAQ), Online Monitoring and Reconstruction, Data Transfer, and Networking all fall under the Online Systems umbrella. C&M controls all MICE systems including the target, conventional an...

  5. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitory activity of protein hydrolyzates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Type 2 diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder. Recently, dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors that protect incretin hormones from being cleaved by DPP-IV have been used as drugs to control glycemia. This study examined the potential hypoglycemic effect of amaranth grain storage protein hydrolyzates ...

  6. 77 FR 64398 - Order of Succession for HUD Region IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... Region IV AGENCY: Office of Field Policy and Management, HUD. ACTION: Notice of Order of Succession... Field Offices (Region IV). This Order of Succession supersedes all previous Orders of Succession for HUD Region IV. DATES: Effective Date: October 9, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lawrence D. Reynolds...

  7. Total versus subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimbel, Helga; Zobbe, Vibeke; Andersen, Anna Birthe

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare total and subtotal abdominal hysterectomy for benign indications, with regard to urinary incontinence, postoperative complications, quality of life (SF-36), constipation, prolapse, satisfaction with sexual life, and pelvic pain at 1-year postoperative. Eighty...... women chose total and 105 women chose subtotal abdominal hysterectomy. No significant differences were found between the 2 operation methods in any of the outcome measures at 12 months. Fourteen women (15%) from the subtotal abdominal hysterectomy group experienced vaginal bleeding and three women had...

  8. Qualità totale e mobilità totale Total Quality and Total Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Trieste

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available FIABA ONLUS (Italian Fund for Elimination of Architectural Barriers was founded in 2000 with the aim of promoting a culture of equal opportunities and, above all, it has as its main goal to involve public and private institutions to create a really accessible and usable environment for everyone. Total accessibility, Total usability and Total mobility are key indicators to define quality of life within cities. A supportive environment that is free of architectural, cultural and psychological barriers allows everyone to live with ease and universality. In fact, people who access to goods and services in the urban context can use to their advantage time and space, so they can do their activities and can maintain relationships that are deemed significant for their social life. The main aim of urban accessibility is to raise the comfort of space for citizens, eliminating all barriers that discriminate people, and prevent from an equality of opportunity. “FIABA FUND - City of ... for the removal of architectural barriers” is an idea of FIABA that has already affected many regions of Italy as Lazio, Lombardy, Campania, Abruzzi and Calabria. It is a National project which provides for opening a bank account in the cities of referring, in which for the first time, all together, individuals and private and public institutions can make a donation to fund initiatives for the removal of architectural barriers within its own territory for a real and effective total accessibility. Last February the fund was launched in Rome with the aim of achieving a Capital without barriers and a Town European model of accessibility and usability. Urban mobility is a prerequisite to access to goods and services, and to organize activities related to daily life. FIABA promotes the concept of sustainable mobility for all, supported by the European Commission’s White Paper. We need a cultural change in management and organization of public means, which might focus on

  9. Revised and extended analysis of Br IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyaz, A.; Rahimullah, K.; Tauheed, A.

    2014-01-01

    The spectrum of three-times ionized bromine Br IV has been studied in the 319-2350 Å wavelength region. The spectrum was recorded on a 3-m normal incidence vacuum spectrograph at the St. Francis Xavier University, Antigonish (Canada) and 6.65-m grazing incidence spectrograph at the Zeeman laboratory (Amsterdam). The light sources used were a triggered spark and sliding spark, respectively. The ground configuration of Br IV 3d104s24p2, the excited configurations 3d104s4p3+3d104s24p (4d+5d+6d+5s+6s+7s) in the odd parity system and 3d104s24p (5p+4f+5f)+3d104s4p2 (4d+5s)+3d104p4 in the even parity system have been studied. Relativistic Hartree-Fock (HFR) and least squares fitted (LSF) parametric calculations were used to interpret the observed spectrum. 120 Levels of Br IV have now been established, 58 being new. Among 424 spectral lines, 277 are newly classified. The levels 4s4p35S2, 4s24p4d 3F4 and 4p5p (3P0, 1, 3D1, 2, 3S1) are revised. We estimate the accuracy of our measured wavelength for sharp and unblended lines to be ±0.005 Å. The ionization limit is determined as 385,390±100 cm-1 (47.782±0.012 eV).

  10. Synthesis and characterization of thorium(IV) and uranium(IV) complexes with Schiff bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radoske, Thomas; Maerz, Juliane; Kaden, Peter; Patzschke, Michael; Ikeda-Ohno, Atsushi [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Chemistry of the F-Elements

    2017-06-01

    We report herein the synthesis and characterization of several imine complexes of tetravalent thorium (Th(IV)) and uranium (U(IV)). The ligands investigated in this study are a Schiff base type, including the well-known salen ligand (H{sub 2}Le, Fig. 1). The complexation in solution was investigated by NMR measurements indicating paramagnetic effects of unpaired f-electrons of U(IV) on the ligand molecule. We also determined the solid-state molecular structures of the synthesized complexes by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The synthesized complexes show an eight-fold coordination geometry around the actinide center surrounded by two tetradentate ligands with 2N- and 2O-donor atoms.

  11. The kinetics of the cerium(IV)-uranium(IV) reaction at low sulfate concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaille, P.; Kikindai, T.

    1977-01-01

    The rate of oxidation of uranium(IV) by cerium(IV) was measured with a stopped-flow spectrophotometer at sulfuric acid concentrations of 2 x 10 -6 to 0.5 M. At a constant hydrogen ion concentration of 0.5 M, the maximum rate constant was observed for 2 x 10 -3 M sulfuric acid; at that concentration, two sulfate ions were involved in the activated complex. The dependence of the rate constant on the hydrogen ion concentration showed that the reaction paths involving one or two sulfate ions also involved one hydroxyl ion, whereas one hydrogen ion was involved in the five sulfate dependent path. Spectrophotometric measurements supported the existence of a hydrolyzed monosulfatocomplex of cerium(IV). (author)

  12. Thorium(IV) and zirconium(IV) complexes of oxygen donor ligands. Pt. 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, R.K.; Jain, P.C.; Kapur, V.; Sharma, S.; Srivastava, A.K.

    1980-01-01

    Crystalline thorium (IV) chelates with mono N-oxides of 2,2'-bipyridine (bipyNO) and 1,10-phenanthroline (phenNO), ThX 4 x 2L(X = Cl,Br,NO 3 or NCS) and ThX 4 x 3L(X = I or ClO 4 and L = bipyNO or phenNO) have been synthesised and characterized on the basis of i.r. spectra, molar conductance, molecular weights, t.g.a. and d.t.a. data. All the complexes are weakly diamagnetic and contain bipyNO and phenNO bonded to thorium(IV) through nitrogen and oxygen. The coordination number of thorium(IV) varies from six to twelve depending on the nature of the anions. (orig.) [de

  13. Gen IV Materials Handbook Functionalities and Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Weiju

    2009-01-01

    This document is prepared for navigation and operation of the Gen IV Materials Handbook, with architecture description and new user access initiation instructions. Development rationale and history of the Handbook is summarized. The major development aspects, architecture, and design principles of the Handbook are briefly introduced to provide an overview of its past evolution and future prospects. Detailed instructions are given with examples for navigating the constructed Handbook components and using the main functionalities. Procedures are provided in a step-by-step fashion for Data Upload Managers to upload reports and data files, as well as for new users to initiate Handbook access.

  14. General report of Technical Committee IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinendegen, L.E.

    1979-01-01

    During the report period, work in section IV of the Committee was continued on the molecular, cellular and organic levels with the aim to elucidate the origin, course and treatment possibility of the syndrome that may occur in the mammalian organism upon acute and chronic ionizing irradiation as a function of the radiation dose received. The investigations dealt a.o. with the effect of O 2 in protein radiolysis, recovery processes of the haematopoietic stem cells, delayed effects in the gastrointestical tract subsequent to local irradiation, and combination damage in the lungs and liver of rats upon combined cytostatic and radiation therapy. (orig./HP) [de

  15. Research in collegiate mathematics education IV

    CERN Document Server

    Dubinsky, Ed; Kaput, Jim

    2001-01-01

    This fourth volume of Research in Collegiate Mathematics Education (RCME IV) reflects the themes of student learning and calculus. Included are overviews of calculus reform in France and in the U.S. and large-scale and small-scale longitudinal comparisons of students enrolled in first-year reform courses and in traditional courses. The work continues with detailed studies relating students' understanding of calculus and associated topics. Direct focus is then placed on instruction and student comprehension of courses other than calculus, namely abstract algebra and number theory. The volume co

  16. A Gaussian IV estimator of cointegrating relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bårdsen, Gunnar; Haldrup, Niels

    2006-01-01

    In static single equation cointegration regression modelsthe OLS estimator will have a non-standard distribution unless regressors arestrictly exogenous. In the literature a number of estimators have been suggestedto deal with this problem, especially by the use of semi-nonparametricestimators. T......In static single equation cointegration regression modelsthe OLS estimator will have a non-standard distribution unless regressors arestrictly exogenous. In the literature a number of estimators have been suggestedto deal with this problem, especially by the use of semi...... in cointegrating regressions. These instruments are almost idealand simulations show that the IV estimator using such instruments alleviatethe endogeneity problem extremely well in both finite and large samples....

  17. New Materials for NGNP/Gen IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindeman, Robert W.; Marriott, Douglas L.

    2009-01-01

    The bounding conditions were briefly summarized for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) that is the leading candidate in the Department of Energy Generation IV reactor program. Metallic materials essential to the successful development and proof of concept for the NGNP were identified. The literature bearing on the materials technology for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors was reviewed with emphasis on the needs identified for the NGNP. Several materials were identified for a more thorough study of their databases and behavioral features relative to the requirements ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, Division 1, Subsection NH.

  18. Gen IV Materials Handbook Functionalities and Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Weiju [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    This document is prepared for navigation and operation of the Gen IV Materials Handbook, with architecture description and new user access initiation instructions. Development rationale and history of the Handbook is summarized. The major development aspects, architecture, and design principles of the Handbook are briefly introduced to provide an overview of its past evolution and future prospects. Detailed instructions are given with examples for navigating the constructed Handbook components and using the main functionalities. Procedures are provided in a step-by-step fashion for Data Upload Managers to upload reports and data files, as well as for new users to initiate Handbook access.

  19. Total lymphoid irradiation in rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vriesendorp, H.M.; Maat, B.; Hogeweg, B.

    Total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) consists of three contiguous fields, a mantle, an inverted Y and a spleen field. TLI induces a state of immunosuppression in patients with Hodgkin disease or in small rodents. Infusion of allogeneic bone marrow cells into mice after TLI led to the development split haemopoietic chimerism and indefinite survival of skin grafts from the bone marrow donor. A protocol for TLI was developed for rhesus monkeys to attempt to verify these interesting observations in a pre-clinical animal model. (Auth.)

  20. Emergence of group B Streptococcus serotype IV in women of child-bearing age in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kiely, R A

    2011-02-01

    This study determined the carriage rate and serotype distribution of group B Streptococcus (GBS) in women of child-bearing age in the southern region of Ireland. A total of 2000 vaginal swabs collected in two periods in 2004 and 2006 were examined and revealed a GBS carriage rate of 16·1%. Serotyping of isolates showed that serotypes Ia, II, III, IV, and V were the most prevalent. A high prevalence of serotype IV was found, increasing from 7·6% to 15·2% between 2004 and 2006. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis demonstrated considerable genetic heterogeneity in the serotype IV isolates. This serotype should be considered for inclusion in potential vaccines for use in Ireland.

  1. Topological characterisation and identification of critical domains within glucosyltransferase IV (GtrIV of Shigella flexneri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Anesh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The three bacteriophage genes gtrA, gtrB and gtr(type are responsible for O-antigen glucosylation in Shigella flexneri. Both gtrA and gtrB have been demonstrated to be highly conserved and interchangeable among serotypes while gtr(type was found to be specific to each serotype, leading to the hypothesis that the Gtr(type proteins are responsible for attaching glucosyl groups to the O-antigen in a site- and serotype- specific manner. Based on the confirmed topologies of GtrI, GtrII and GtrV, such interaction and attachment of the glucosyl groups to the O-antigen has been postulated to occur in the periplasm. Results In this study, the topology of GtrIV was experimentally determined by creating different fusions between GtrIV and a dual-reporter protein, PhoA/LacZ. This study shows that GtrIV consists of 8 transmembrane helices, 2 large periplasmic loops, 2 small cytoplasmic N- and C- terminal ends and a re-entrant loop that occurs between transmembrane helices III and IV. Though this topology differs from that of GtrI, GtrII, GtrV and GtrX, it is very similar to that of GtrIc. Furthermore, both the N-terminal periplasmic and the C-terminal periplasmic loops are important for GtrIV function as shown via a series of loop deletion experiments and the creation of chimeric proteins between GtrIV and its closest structural homologue, GtrIc. Conclusion The current study provides the basis for elucidating the structure and mechanism of action of this important O-antigen modifying glucosyltransferase.

  2. Medical students benefit from the use of ultrasound when learning peripheral IV techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Scott R; Borhart, Joelle; Antonis, Michael S

    2012-03-06

    Recent studies support high success rates after a short learning period of ultrasound IV technique, and increased patient and provider satisfaction when using ultrasound as an adjunct to peripheral IV placement. No study to date has addressed the efficacy for instructing ultrasound-naive providers. We studied the introduction of ultrasound to the teaching technique of peripheral IV insertion on first- and second-year medical students. This was a prospective, randomized, and controlled trial. A total of 69 medical students were randomly assigned to the control group with a classic, landmark-based approach (n = 36) or the real-time ultrasound-guided group (n = 33). Both groups observed a 20-min tutorial on IV placement using both techniques and then attempted vein cannulation. Students were given a survey to report their results and observations by a 10-cm visual analog scale. The survey response rate was 100%. In the two groups, 73.9% stated that they attempted an IV previously, and 63.7% of students had used an ultrasound machine prior to the study. None had used ultrasound for IV access prior to our session. The average number of attempts at cannulation was 1.42 in either group. There was no difference between the control and ultrasound groups in terms of number of attempts (p = 0.31). In both groups, 66.7% of learners were able to cannulate in one attempt, 21.7% in two attempts, and 11.6% in three attempts. The study group commented that they felt they gained more knowledge from the experience (p students feel they learn more when using ultrasound after a 20-min tutorial to place IVs and cannulation of the vein feels easier. Success rates are comparable between the traditional and ultrasound teaching approaches.

  3. Approximating a DSM-5 Diagnosis of PTSD Using DSM-IV Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosellini, Anthony J.; Stein, Murray B.; Colpe, Lisa J.; Heeringa, Steven G.; Petukhova, Maria V.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Schoenbaum, Michael; Ursano, Robert J.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Diagnostic criteria for DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are in many ways similar to DSM-IV criteria, raising the possibility that it might be possible to closely approximate DSM-5 diagnoses using DSM-IV symptoms. If so, the resulting transformation rules could be used to pool research data based on the two criteria sets. Methods The Pre-Post Deployment Study (PPDS) of the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) administered a blended 30-day DSM-IV and DSM-5 PTSD symptom assessment based on the civilian PTSD Checklist for DSM-IV (PCL-C) and the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5). This assessment was completed by 9,193 soldiers from three US Army Brigade Combat Teams approximately three months after returning from Afghanistan. PCL-C items were used to operationalize conservative and broad approximations of DSM-5 PTSD diagnoses. The operating characteristics of these approximations were examined compared to diagnoses based on actual DSM-5 criteria. Results The estimated 30-day prevalence of DSM-5 PTSD based on conservative (4.3%) and broad (4.7%) approximations of DSM-5 criteria using DSM-IV symptom assessments were similar to estimates based on actual DSM-5 criteria (4.6%). Both approximations had excellent sensitivity (92.6-95.5%), specificity (99.6-99.9%), total classification accuracy (99.4-99.6%), and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.96-0.98). Conclusions DSM-IV symptoms can be used to approximate DSM-5 diagnoses of PTSD among recently-deployed soldiers, making it possible to recode symptom-level data from earlier DSM-IV studies to draw inferences about DSM-5 PTSD. However, replication is needed in broader trauma-exposed samples to evaluate the external validity of this finding. PMID:25845710

  4. CSF total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    CSF total protein is a test to determine the amount of protein in your spinal fluid, also called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ... The normal protein range varies from lab to lab, but is typically about 15 to 60 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) ...

  5. Total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novack, D.H.; Kiley, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The multitude of papers and conferences in recent years on the use of very large megavoltage radiation fields indicates an increased interest in total body, hemibody, and total nodal radiotherapy for various clinical situations. These include high dose total body irradiation (TBI) to destroy the bone marrow and leukemic cells and provide immunosuppression prior to a bone marrow transplant, high dose total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) prior to bone marrow transplantation in severe aplastic anemia, low dose TBI in the treatment of lymphocytic leukemias or lymphomas, and hemibody irradiation (HBI) in the treatment of advanced multiple myeloma. Although accurate provision of a specific dose and the desired degree of dose homogeneity are two of the physicist's major considerations for all radiotherapy techniques, these tasks are even more demanding for large field radiotherapy. Because most large field radiotherapy is done at an extended distance for complex patient geometries, basic dosimetry data measured at the standard distance (isocenter) must be verified or supplemented. This paper discusses some of the special dosimetric problems of large field radiotherapy, with specific examples given of the dosimetry of the TBI program for bone marrow transplant at the authors' hospital

  6. Total design of participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Anders V.

    2016-01-01

    The idea of design as an art made not only for the people, but also by the people is an old dream going back at least to William Morris. It is, however, reappearing vigoriously in many kinds of design activism and grows out of the visions of a Total Design of society. The ideas of participation b...

  7. Total Quality Management Simplified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Pam

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that Total Quality Management (TQM) is one method that helps to monitor and improve the quality of child care. Lists four steps for a child-care center to design and implement its own TQM program. Suggests that quality assurance in child-care settings is an ongoing process, and that TQM programs help in providing consistent, high-quality…

  8. Total Quality Management Seminar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. The booklet contains seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) meaning of total quality management (TQM); (2) the customer; (3) the organization's culture; (4) comparison of management…

  9. Total photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, P.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental methods using real photon beams for measurements of total photonuclear absorption cross section σ(Tot : E/sub γ/) are recalled. Most recent σ(Tot : E/sub γ/)results for complex nuclei and in the nucleon resonance region are presented

  10. Total 2004 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This annual report of the Group Total brings information and economic data on the following topics, for the year 2004: the corporate governance, the corporate social responsibility, the shareholder notebook, the management report, the activities, the upstream (exploration and production) and downstream (refining and marketing) operating, chemicals and other matters. (A.L.B.)

  11. Total Water Management - Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current operations put different stresses on the environment and urban infrastructure. Total Water Management (TWM) is an approac...

  12. Treatment of wound sepsis in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brook, I.; Elliott, T.B.

    1989-01-01

    The local and systemic effect of penicillin therapy, supplemented by immunoglobulins, and pentoxifylline on wounds infected by Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated in mice irradiated with 6.5 Gy 60 Co γ-rays. Treatment with 62.5 mg/kg penicillin-G was administered for 10 days. Numbers of bacteria were significantly reduced from 7.3 (± 0.3) to 5.3 (± 0.4) log 10 CFU/mg ± muscle in treated animals. Administration of immunoglobulin G i.v. or pentoxifylline i.p. alone, or in addition to penicillin-G, did not further reduce the number of bacteria. Increase in the dose of penicillin to 250 mg/kg decreased the number of bacteria more than 62.5 mg/kg. Bacteria were recovered from spleens and/or livers of all 13 untreated mice, and only in six of the 13 penicillin-treated mice (P<0.05). Penicillin therapy reduced the systemic spread of S. aureus. (author)

  13. On the stabilization of NbV-solutions by ZrIV and HfIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, E.; Bjerre, A.B.

    1987-11-01

    Niobium cannot be separated from zirconium or hafnium when these elements occur together in solution with common anions such as Cl- and SO 4 --. This is ascribed to the copolymerisation of Nb v and the hydrolyzed ionic species of Zr IV v and Hf IV by which the colloidal particles are masked as Zr- and Hf-compounds. In HCl the particles are positively charged as opposed to when they are in sulphate solution where the Zr- and Hf- sulphate complexes confer a negative charge. The two cases are considered separately. (author)

  14. Spectroscopy study of ceramic pigments based on Ce(IV)-Pr(IV) oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furtado, L.; Toma, H.E.

    1991-01-01

    The synthesis and spectroscopic properties of a series of cerium(IV)-praseodimium(IV) oxide pigments are reported. The pigments exhibit brick-red colours and are suitable for ceramic applications because of their high temperature stability. Electronic absorption spectra of the pigments suspended in a gel matrix of polyvinyl alcohol-sodium tetradecaborate mixture, consists of broad band with gaussian components at 372 and 472nm. These bands are described to charge -transfer transitions from the occupied oxygen p-orbitals to the empty f levels of the lanthanides. (author)

  15. Changes in the pharmacokinetics of digoxin in polyuria in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice and lithium carbonate-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Kagami, Mai; Kobayashi, Yasushi; Ishii, Makoto; Toda, Takahiro; Ochiai, Wataru; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi

    2011-06-01

    In humans, digoxin is mainly eliminated through the kidneys unchanged, and renal clearance represents approximately 70% of the total clearance. In this study, we used the mouse models to examine digoxin pharmacokinetics in polyuria induced by diabetes mellitus and lithium carbonate (Li(2)CO(3)) administration, including mechanistic evaluation of the contribution of glomerular filtration, tubular secretion, and tubular reabsorption. After digoxin administration to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice, digoxin CL/F increased to approximately 2.2 times that in normal mice. After treatment with Li(2)CO(3) (0.2%) for 10 days, the CL/F increased approximately 1.1 times for normal mice and 1.6 times for STZ mice. Creatinine clearance (CLcr) and the renal mRNA expression levels of mdr1a did not differ significantly between the normal, STZ, and Li(2)CO(3)-treated mice. The urine volume of STZ mice was approximately 26 mL/day, 22 times that of normal mice. The urine volume of Li(2)CO(3)-treated mice increased approximately 7.3 times for normal mice and 2.3 times for STZ mice. These results suggest that the therapeutic effect of digoxin may be significantly reduced in the presence of polyuria either induced by diabetes mellitus or manifested as an adverse effect of Li(2)CO(3) in diabetic patients, along with increased urine volume.

  16. Antibody Drug Conjugates Differentiate Uptake and DNA Alkylation of Pyrrolobenzodiazepines in Tumors from Organs of Xenograft Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yong; Khojasteh, S Cyrus; Hop, Cornelis E C A; Erickson, Hans K; Polson, Andrew; Pillow, Thomas H; Yu, Shang-Fan; Wang, Hong; Dragovich, Peter S; Zhang, Donglu

    2016-12-01

    Pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD)-dimer is a DNA minor groove alkylator, and its CD22 THIOMAB antibody drug conjugate (ADC) demonstrated, through a disulfide linker, an efficacy in tumor reduction for more than 7 weeks with minimal body weight loss in xenograft mice after a single 0.5-1 mg/kg i.v. dose. The DNA alkylation was investigated here in tumors and healthy organs of mice to understand the sustained efficacy and tolerability. The experimental procedures included the collection of tumors and organ tissues of xenograft mice treated with the ADC followed by DNA isolation/hydrolysis/quantitation and payload recovery from reversible DNA alkylation. PBD-dimer formed a considerable amount of adducts with tissue DNA, representing approximately 98% (at 24 hours), and 99% (at 96 hours) of the total PBD-dimer in tumors, and 78-89% in liver and lung tissues, suggesting highly efficient covalent binding of the released PBD-dimer to tissue DNA. The amount of PBD-DNA adducts in tumor tissues was approximately 24-fold (at 24 hours) and 70-fold (at 96 hours) greater than the corresponding amount of adducts in liver and lung tissues. In addition, the DNA alkylation levels increased 3-fold to 4-fold from 24 to 96 hours in tumors [41/10 6 base pairs (bp) at 96 hours] but remained at the same level (1/10 6 bp) in livers and lungs. These results support the typical target-mediated cumulative uptake of ADC into tumors and payload release that offers an explanation for its sustained antitumor efficacy. In addition, the low level of DNA alkylation in normal tissues is consistent with the tolerability observed in mice. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  17. After SDSS-IV: Pioneering Panoptic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmeier, Juna; AS4 Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    I will describe the current plans for a next generation sky survey that will begin After SDSS-IV --- AS4. AS4 will be an unprecedented all-sky spectroscopic survey of over six million objects. It is designed to decode the history of the Milky Way galaxy, trace the emergence of the chemical elements, reveal the inner workings of stars, the growth of black holes, and investigate the origin of planets. It will provide the most comprehensive all-sky spectroscopy to multiply the science from the Gaia, TESS and eROSITA missions. AS4 will also create a contiguous spectroscopic map of the interstellar gas in the Milky Way and nearby galaxies that is 1,000 times larger than the state of the art, uncovering the self-regulation mechanisms of Galactic ecosystems. It will pioneer systematic, spectroscopic monitoring across the whole sky, revealing changes on timescales from 20 minutes to 20 years. The project is now developing new hardware to build on the SDSS-IV infrastructure, designing the detailed survey strategy, and actively seeking to complete its consortium of institutional and individual members.

  18. ARIES-IV Nested Shell Blanket Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.P.C.; Redler, K.; Reis, E.E.; Will, R.; Cheng, E.; Hasan, C.M.; Sharafat, S.

    1993-11-01

    The ARIES-IV Nested Shell Blanket (NSB) Design is an alternate blanket concept of the ARIES-IV low activation helium-cooled reactor design. The reference design has the coolant routed in the poloidal direction and the inlet and outlet plena are located at the top and bottom of the torus. The NSB design has the high velocity coolant routed in the toroidal direction and the plena are located behind the blanket. This is of significance since the selected structural material is SiC-composite. The NSB is designed to have key high performance components with characteristic dimensions of no larger than 2 m. These components can be brazed to form the blanket module. For the diverter design, we eliminated the use of W as the divertor coating material by relying on the successful development of the gaseous divertor concept. The neutronics and thermal-hydraulic performance of both blanket concepts are similar. The selected blanket and divertor configurations can also meet all the projected structural, neutronics and thermal-hydraulics design limits and requirements. With the selected blanket and divertor materials, the design has a level of safety assurance rate of I (LSA-1), which indicates an inherently safe design

  19. Development of generation IV nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kazuaki; Oka, Yoshiaki; Ogawa, Masuro; Ichimiya, Masakazu; Noda, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    The fifth 'Generation IV International Forum (GIF), Policy Group Meetings' was held at the Zen-Nikku Hotel in Tokyo, on September 19-20, 2002, under participations of Abraham, Secretary of DOE in U.S.A., Columbani, Secretary of CEA in France, Fujiie, Chairman of CAE in Japan, Kano, Parliamental Minister of MIS in Japan, and so on. Ten nations entering GIF (Argentina, Brazil, Canada, France, Japan, Korea, South Africa, Switzerland, U.K., and U.S.A.) selected six next generation nuclear energy concepts for objects of international cooperative research and development aiming at its practice by 2030. These concepts applicable to not only power generation, but also hydrogen production, sea water purification, and so on, are sodium liquid metal cooled reactor (Japan), high temperature gas cooled reactor (France), Super-critical pressure water cooled reactor (SCWR: Canada), Lead metal cooled reactor (Switzerland), Gas cooled fast reactor (U.S.A.), and molten salts reactor. On the generation IV nuclear reactor systems aiming to further upgrade their sustainability, safety, economical efficiency, and nuclear non proliferation, the 'Plans on Technical Development' (Road-map) to decide priority of their R and Ds has been cooperatively discussed under frameworks of international research cooperation by the GIF members nations. Here were shared descriptions on nuclear fuel cycle as a remise of technical evaluation and adopted concepts by Japanese participants contributing to making up the Road-map. (G.K.)

  20. How the Change in IBS Criteria From Rome III to Rome IV Impacts on Clinical Characteristics and Key Pathophysiological Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Imran; Törnblom, Hans; Palsson, Olafur S; Whitehead, William E; Simrén, Magnus

    2018-06-08

    The diagnostic criteria for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have recently been updated from Rome III to Rome IV. Whereas in Rome III a diagnosis of IBS entailed chronic abdominal pain or discomfort at least 3 days per month, in Rome IV the term discomfort has been removed and the frequency of abdominal pain increased to at least 1 day per week. We examined how this change in IBS criteria impacts on clinical characteristics and pathophysiological factors. A total of 542 Swedish subjects with Rome III IBS completed a baseline questionnaire enquiring for the number of abdominal pain days in the last 10 days; this was subsequently used as a surrogate marker to identify Rome IV IBS, in that (a) those with 0 or 1 day of pain were classed as Rome IV-negative, and (b) those with ≥2 days of pain were classed as Rome IV-positive. Comparisons were made between Rome IV-positive and -negative IBS groups for demographics, IBS subtype, gastrointestinal and psychological symptoms, somatisation, fatigue, disease-specific quality of life, rectal sensitivity, and oro-anal transit time. Overall, 85% of Rome III IBS patients fulfilled the Rome IV criteria for IBS, but 15% did not. Rome IV-positive subjects were significantly more likely to be female, have poorer quality of life, greater pain severity, bloating, somatisation, fatigue, and rectal sensitivity than Rome IV-negative subjects. There were no differences in severity of anxiety or depression, IBS subtypes, bowel habit dissatisfaction, or oro-anal transit time. Finally, increasing number of pain days correlated positively with symptoms and visceral hypersensitivity. Most Rome III-positive IBS patients seeking healthcare fulfil the Rome IV IBS criteria. They constitute a more severe group than those who lose their IBS diagnosis.

  1. Predicting DPP-IV inhibitors with machine learning approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jie; Li, Chanjuan; Liu, Zhihong; Du, Jiewen; Ye, Jiming; Gu, Qiong; Xu, Jun

    2017-04-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) is a promising Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) drug target. DPP-IV inhibitors prolong the action of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), improve glucose homeostasis without weight gain, edema, and hypoglycemia. However, the marketed DPP-IV inhibitors have adverse effects such as nasopharyngitis, headache, nausea, hypersensitivity, skin reactions and pancreatitis. Therefore, it is still expected for novel DPP-IV inhibitors with minimal adverse effects. The scaffolds of existing DPP-IV inhibitors are structurally diversified. This makes it difficult to build virtual screening models based upon the known DPP-IV inhibitor libraries using conventional QSAR approaches. In this paper, we report a new strategy to predict DPP-IV inhibitors with machine learning approaches involving naïve Bayesian (NB) and recursive partitioning (RP) methods. We built 247 machine learning models based on 1307 known DPP-IV inhibitors with optimized molecular properties and topological fingerprints as descriptors. The overall predictive accuracies of the optimized models were greater than 80%. An external test set, composed of 65 recently reported compounds, was employed to validate the optimized models. The results demonstrated that both NB and RP models have a good predictive ability based on different combinations of descriptors. Twenty "good" and twenty "bad" structural fragments for DPP-IV inhibitors can also be derived from these models for inspiring the new DPP-IV inhibitor scaffold design.

  2. Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitory activity of dimeric dihydrochalcone glycosides from flowers of Helichrysum arenarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Toshio; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Akaki, Junji; Kakihara, Namiko; Kuramoto, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Yurie; Hayakawa, Takao; Muraoka, Osamu; Wang, Li-Bo; Wu, Li-Jun; Nakamura, Seikou; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2015-10-01

    A methanol extract of everlasting flowers of Helichrysum arenarium L. Moench (Asteraceae) was found to inhibit the increase in blood glucose elevation in sucrose-loaded mice at 500 mg/kg p.o. The methanol extract also inhibited the enzymatic activity against dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV, IC50 = 41.2 μg/ml), but did not show intestinal α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. From the extract, three new dimeric dihydrochalcone glycosides, arenariumosides V-VII (2-4), were isolated, and the stereostructures were elucidated based on their spectroscopic properties and chemical evidence. Of the constituents, several flavonoid constituents, including 2-4, were isolated, and these isolated constituents were investigated for their DPP-IV inhibitory effects. Among them, chalconaringenin 2'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (16, IC50 = 23.1 μM) and aureusidin 6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (35, 24.3 μM) showed relatively strong inhibitory activities.

  3. Total 2003 Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document presents the 2003 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, 4. quarter 2003 results, full year 2003 results, upstream (key figures, proved reserves), downstream key figures, chemicals key figures, parent company accounts and proposed dividends, 2004 sensitivities, summary and outlook, operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2003: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refinery throughput by region, refined product sales by region, chemicals), impact of allocating contribution of Cepsa to net operating income by business segment: equity in income (loss) and affiliates and other items, Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  4. TOTAL PERFORMANCE SCORECARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca ȘERBAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the evolution of the Balanced Scorecard from a measurement instrument to a strategic performance management tool and to highlight the advantages of implementing the Total Performance Scorecard, especially for Human Resource Management. The study has been accomplished using the methodology of bibliographic study and various secondary sources. Implementing the classical Balanced Scorecard indicated over the years, repeatedly failure. It can be indicated that the crucial level is determined by the learning and growth perspective. It has been developed from a human perspective, which focused on staff satisfaction, innovation perspective with focus on future developments. Integrating the Total Performance Scorecard in an overall framework assures the company’s success, by keeping track of the individual goals, the company’s objectives and strategic directions. Like this, individual identity can be linked to corporate brand, individual aspirations to business goals and individual learning objectives to needed organizational capabilities.

  5. Totally parallel multilevel algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, Paul O.

    1988-01-01

    Four totally parallel algorithms for the solution of a sparse linear system have common characteristics which become quite apparent when they are implemented on a highly parallel hypercube such as the CM2. These four algorithms are Parallel Superconvergent Multigrid (PSMG) of Frederickson and McBryan, Robust Multigrid (RMG) of Hackbusch, the FFT based Spectral Algorithm, and Parallel Cyclic Reduction. In fact, all four can be formulated as particular cases of the same totally parallel multilevel algorithm, which are referred to as TPMA. In certain cases the spectral radius of TPMA is zero, and it is recognized to be a direct algorithm. In many other cases the spectral radius, although not zero, is small enough that a single iteration per timestep keeps the local error within the required tolerance.

  6. In vivo and ex vivo EPR detection of spin-labelled ovalbumin in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramović, Zrinka; Brgles, Marija; Habjanec, Lidija; Tomasić, Jelka; Sentjurc, Marjeta; Frkanec, Ruza

    2010-10-01

    In this study, spin-labelled ovalbumin (SL-OVA), free or entrapped in liposomes, was administered to mice subcutaneously (s.c.) or intravenously (i.v.) with the aim to determine the conditions for pharmacokinetic studies of spin-labelled proteins by EPR and to measure the time course of SL-OVA distribution in vivo in live mice and ex vivo in isolated organs. Upon s.c. administration, the decay of the EPR signal was followed for 60min at the site of application using an L-band EPR spectrometer. Within this time period, the signal of free SL-OVA was diminished by about 70%. It was estimated with the help of the oxidizing agent K(3)[(FeCN)(6)] that approximately 30% was a consequence of the spin label reduction to EPR non-visible hydroxylamine and about 40% was due to the SL-OVA elimination from the site of measurement. For liposome encapsulated SL-OVA, the intensity diminished only by approx. 40% in the same period, indicating that liposomes successfully protect the protein from reduction. EPR signal could not be detected directly over live mouse organs within 60min after s.c. application of SL-OVA. With the available L-band EPR spectrometer, the measurements at the site of s.c. application are possible if the amount of SL-OVA applied to a mouse is more than 3mg. For the pharmacokinetic studies of the protein distribution in organs after s.c. or i.v. injection the concentration of the spin-labelled protein should be more than 0.5mmol/kg. After i.v. administration, only ex vivo measurements were possible using an X-band EPR spectrometer, since the total amount of SL-OVA was not sufficient for in vivo detection and also because of rapid reduction of nitroxide. After 2min, the protein was preferentially distributed to liver and, to a smaller extent, to spleen.

  7. Report for 2011 from the Bordeaux IVS Analysis Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlot, Patrick; Bellanger, Antoine; Bourda, Geraldine; Collioud, Arnaud; Baudry, Alain

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Bordeaux IVS Analysis Center during the year 2011. The work focused on (i) regular analysis of the IVS-R1 and IVS-R4 sessions with the GINS software package; (ii) systematic VLBI imaging of the RDV sessions and calculation of the corresponding source structure index and compactness values; (iii) imaging of the sources observed during the 2009 International Year of Astronomy IVS observing session; and (iv) continuation of our VLBI observational program to identify optically-bright radio sources suitable for the link with the future Gaia frame. Also of importance is the enhancement of the IVS LiveWeb site which now comprises all IVS sessions back to 2003, allowing one to search past observations for session-specific information (e.g. sources or stations).

  8. Total space in resolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bonacina, I.; Galesi, N.; Thapen, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 5 (2016), s. 1894-1909 ISSN 0097-5397 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : total space * resolution random CNFs * proof complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.433, year: 2016 http://epubs.siam.org/doi/10.1137/15M1023269

  9. MFTF TOTAL benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choy, J.H.

    1979-06-01

    A benchmark of the TOTAL data base management system as applied to the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) data base was implemented and run in February and March of 1979. The benchmark was run on an Interdata 8/32 and involved the following tasks: (1) data base design, (2) data base generation, (3) data base load, and (4) develop and implement programs to simulate MFTF usage of the data base

  10. Total - annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This annual report presents the activities and results of TOTAL S.A., french society on oil and gas. It deals with statistics, the managers, key information on financial data and risk factors, information on the Company, unresolved Staff Comments, employees, major Shareholders, consolidated statements, markets, security, financial risks, defaults dividend arrearages and delinquencies, controls and procedures, code of ethics and financial statements. (A.L.B.)

  11. Total Absorption Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, B.; Gelletly, W.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of determining the distribution of beta decay strength (B(GT)) as a function of excitation energy in the daughter nucleus is discussed. Total Absorption Spectroscopy is shown to provide a way of determining the B(GT) precisely. A brief history of such measurements and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of this technique, is followed by examples of two recent studies using the technique. (authors)

  12. Angiotensin II blockade causes acute renal failure in eNOS-deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Schnermann

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Compared with wild-type mice, adult endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS knockout mice (eight months of age have increased blood pressure (BP (126±9 mmHg vs. 100±4 mmHg, and an increased renal vascular resistance (155±16 vs. 65±4 mmHg.min/ml. Renal vascular resistance responses to i.v. administration of noradrenaline were markedly enhanced in eNOS knockout mice. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR of anaesthetised eNOS -/- mice was 324±57 µl/min gKW, significantly lower than the GFR of 761±126 µl/min.gKW in wild-type mice. AT1-receptor blockade with i.v. candesartan (1—1.5 mg/kg reduced arterial blood pressure and renal vascular resistance, and increased renal blood flow (RBF to about the same extent in wild-type and eNOS -/- mice. Candesartan did not alter GFR in wild-type mice (761±126 vs. 720±95 µl/min.gKW, but caused a marked decrease in GFR in eNOS -/- mice (324.5±75.2 vs. 77±18 µl/min.gKW. A similar reduction in GFR of eNOS deficient mice was also caused by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibition. Afferent arteriolar granularity, a measure of renal renin expression, was found to be reduced in eNOS -/- compared with wild-type mice. In chronically eNOS-deficient mice, angiotensin II (Ang II is critical for maintaining glomerular filtration pressure and GFR, presumably through its effect on efferent arteriolar tone.

  13. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.

  14. Atlantic Flyway review: Region IV - Fall 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Chandler S.

    2004-01-01

    We welcome the Eden Mill station in northeastern Maryland to Region IV this year. With three stations reporting their worst year ever, we really need to be refreshed. After a cool and wet July, August was hot and wet in the east. Temperatures in September remained close to normal, but thanks to tropical storms Henri (6-8 Sep) and Isabel (18 Sep), rainfall was excessive in the Chesapeake Bay states. The entire Northeast had cool weather in October, starting with an early freeze on 3 Oct that triggered some good banding days in our region. Precipitation was unusually spotty in October, but plentiful at most of the Region IV stations. November temperatures were consistently well above the norm, starting with a record-breaking 81 ø in Baltimore on the 1st.Four of the five Maryland stations had their best day on 19 or 20 Oct. One might expect some of the Virginia coastal stations, Chincoteague, Kiptopeke, and Back Bay, to share the same best day, but they did not. Three stations reported an increase in birds per net hour this year, while seven had a decline. Summarizing the changes in rank in Table 2, Gray Catbird was the species with the most (5) increases in rank (in excess of decreases), followed by junco (4) and Myrtle Warbler and Swamp Sparrow (3 each). Yellowthroat had the most decreases (5), followed by redstart (3).Myrtle Warbler (4572) was once again the most commonly banded species in Region IV, followed by White-throated Sparrow (1723), Gray Catbird (1349), and Western Palm Warbler (1090). Michelle Davis' station on Key Biscayne is the envy of the rest of us. Her top eight species were all warblers and there was not a Myrtle among them. Imagine having Parula, Prairie, and Worm-eating warblers fighting for sixth place!Not showing among the top ten, however, are other surprises. Several banders commented on Sawwhet Owls and Bicknell's Thrushes. Deanna Dawson banded a Cerulean Warbler at Patuxent. Danny Bystrak caught 138 Swamp Sparrows at Jug Bay. In addition

  15. Is complete resection of high-risk stage IV neuroblastoma associated with better survival?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Fanny; Chung, Patrick Ho Yu; Tam, Paul Kwong Hang; Wong, Kenneth Kak Yuen

    2015-12-01

    The role of surgery in the management of stage IV neuroblastoma is controversial. In this study, we attempted to study if complete tumor resection had any impact on event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS). A retrospective analysis of patients with stage IV neuroblastoma between November 2000 and July 2014 in a tertiary referral center was performed. Demographics data, extent of surgical resection, and outcomes were analyzed. A total of 34 patients with stage IV neuroblastoma according to International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) were identified. The median age at diagnosis and operation was 3.5 (±1.9) years and 3.8 (±2.0) years, respectively. Complete gross tumor resection (CTR) was achieved in twenty-four patients (70.1%), in which one of the patients had nephrectomy and another had distal pancreatectomy. Gross total resection (GTR) with removal of >95% of tumor was performed in six patients (17.6%) and subtotal tumor resection (STR) with removal of >50%, but <95% of tumor was performed in four patients (11.8%). There was no statistical significance in terms of 5-year EFS and OS among the 3 groups. There was no surgery-related mortality or morbidity. From our center's experience, as there was no substantial survival benefit in stage IV neuroblastoma patients undergoing complete tumor resection, organ preservation and minimalization of morbidity should also be taken into consideration. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Dose-specific transcriptional responses in thyroid tissue in mice after 131I administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudqvist, Nils; Schüler, Emil; Parris, Toshima Z.; Langen, Britta; Helou, Khalil; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In the present investigation, microarray analysis was used to monitor transcriptional activity in thyroids in mice 24 h after 131 I exposure. The aims of this study were to 1) assess the transcriptional patterns associated with 131 I exposure in normal mouse thyroid tissue and 2) propose biomarkers for 131 I exposure of the thyroid. Methods: Adult BALB/c nude mice were i.v. injected with 13, 130 or 260 kBq of 131 I and killed 24 h after injection (absorbed dose to thyroid: 0.85, 8.5, or 17 Gy). Mock-treated mice were used as controls. Total RNA was extracted from thyroids and processed using the Illumina platform. Results: In total, 497, 546, and 90 transcripts were regulated (fold change ≥ 1.5) in the thyroid after 0.85, 8.5, and 17 Gy, respectively. These were involved in several biological functions, e.g. oxygen access, inflammation and immune response, and apoptosis/anti-apoptosis. Approximately 50% of the involved transcripts at each absorbed dose level were dose-specific, and 18 transcripts were commonly detected at all absorbed dose levels. The Agpat9, Plau, Prf1, and S100a8 gene expression displayed a monotone decrease in regulation with absorbed dose, and further studies need to be performed to evaluate if they may be useful as dose-related biomarkers for 131I exposure. Conclusion: Distinct and substantial differences in gene expression and affected biological functions were detected at the different absorbed dose levels. The transcriptional profiles were specific for the different absorbed dose levels. We propose that the Agpat9, Plau, Prf1, and S100a8 genes might be novel potential absorbed dose-related biomarkers to 131 I exposure of thyroid. Advances in knowledge: During the recent years, genomic techniques have been developed; however, they have not been fully utilized in nuclear medicine and radiation biology. We have used RNA microarrays to investigate genome-wide transcriptional regulations in thyroid tissue in mice after low

  17. Interval training by normobaric hypoxia accelerates the reinnervation of musculus extensor digitorum longus in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vardya, Irina; (Vard'ya); Mospanova, Svetlana V.

    2000-01-01

    Dokl Biol Sci. 2000 Mar-Apr;371:112-4. Interval training by normobaric hypoxia accelerates the reinnervation of musculus extensor digitorum longus in mice. Vard'ya IV , Mospanova SV , Portnov VV , Balezina OP , Koshelev VB . Department of Human and Animal Physiology, Faculty of Biology, Moscow St...... State University, Russia. PMID: 10833635 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Udgivelsesdato: 2000...

  18. Clinical value of the joint measurement of serum concentrations of type IV collagen and laminin in patients with diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lu; Wang Ping; Li Yongpei

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study clinical value of the joint measurement of serum concentrations of type IV collagen (IV C) and laminin (LN) in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN) by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Methods: Serum concentrations of IV C, LN were measured by RIA in 35 diabetic patients with normalbuminuria (group A), 28 cases of microalbuminuria (group B), 15 cases of macroalbuminuria (group C) and 30 normal subjects as control . Results: The serum concentrations of IV C, LN in total 78 diabetic patients [(97.6 ± 19.2), (132.4 ± 31.5) μg/L] were higher than that of the controls [(77.4 ± 8.2), (101.5 ± 17.6) μg/L, P<0.05], especially in group B and C, it was remarkably higher compared with the controls (P<0.05, P<0.01). There was significant positive correlation of serum IV C, LN to diabetic duration and the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER). Conclusions: The results suggest that the joint measurement of serum levels of IV C, LN and UAER in DN patients might better evaluate the development process of DN, and be of help for early diagnosis and treatment of DN. Serum levels of IV C, LN and UAER in DN patients may become the reliable clinical markers for assessing the severity and predicting the prognosis of DN

  19. Total Synthesis of Hyperforin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Chi P; Maimone, Thomas J

    2015-08-26

    A 10-step total synthesis of the polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol (PPAP) natural product hyperforin from 2-methylcyclopent-2-en-1-one is reported. This route was enabled by a diketene annulation reaction and an oxidative ring expansion strategy designed to complement the presumed biosynthesis of this complex meroterpene. The described work enables the preparation of a highly substituted bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-1,3,5-trione motif in only six steps and thus serves as a platform for the construction of easily synthesized, highly diverse PPAPs modifiable at every position.

  20. Total quality is people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    Confronted by changing market conditions and increased global competition, in 1983 the Commercial Nuclear Fuel Division (CNFD) of Westinghouse Electric embarked on an ambitious plan to make total quality the centerpiece of its long-term business strategy. Five years later, the division's efforts in making continuous quality improvement a way of life among its more than 2,000 employees gained national recognition when it was named a charter recipient of the Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award. What CNFD achieved during the 1980s was a cultural transformation, characterized by an empowered work force committed to a common vision. The company's quality program development strategy is described

  1. Total quality accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrijašević Maja

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of competitive "battle" shifted from the price towards non-price instruments, above all, towards quality that became the key variable for profitability increase and achievement of better comparative position of a company. Under such conditions, management of a company, which, according to the established and certified system of total quality, strives towards achieving of a better market position, faces the problem of quality cost measurement and determination. Management, above all, cost accounting can help in solving of this problem, but the question is how much of its potential is being used for that purpose.

  2. Total_Aktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten

    2008-01-01

    digitale medier er registreringen og muligheden for at opbevare og håndtere digital data uden begrænsninger. Oplevelse, registrering og bevaring knyttes sammen i en ny museal virkelighed, hvor samlingens særlige dokumentariske karakter og fokus, som er unikt for Museet for Samtidskunst, er i centrum...... at mikse deres personlige drinks. TOTAL_AKTION viser Hørbar#3, som er en videreudvikling af den første version. METASYN af Carl Emil Carlsen: Metadata er centralt for Carl Emil Carlsens projekt, der betragter museets samling som et ”univers” af værker (analoge og digitale), beskrivelser og relationer. I...

  3. Total Logistic Plant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Dorcak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Total Logistics Plant Solutions, plant logistics system - TLPS, based on the philosophy of advanced control processes enables complex coordination of business processes and flows and the management and scheduling of production in the appropriate production plans and planning periods. Main attributes of TLPS is to create a comprehensive, multi-level, enterprise logistics information system, with a certain degree of intelligence, which accepts the latest science and research results in the field of production technology and logistics. Logistic model of company understands as a system of mutually transforming flows of materials, energy, information, finance, which is realized by chain activities and operations

  4. Total Factbook 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the activities and results of the Group Total-Fina-Elf for the year 2003. It brings information and economic data on the following topics: the corporate and business; the upstream activities with the reserves, the costs, standardized measure and changes of discounted future net cash flow,oil and gas acreage, drilling, liquefied natural gas, pipelines; downstream activities with refining and marketing maps, refinery, petroleum products, sales, retail gasoline outlets; chemicals with sales and operating income by sector, major applications, base chemicals and polymers, intermediates and performance polymers. (A.L.B.)

  5. Total 2004 fact book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the activities and results of the Group Total-Fina-Elf for the year 2004. It brings information and economic data on the following topics: the corporate and business; the upstream activities with the reserves, the costs, standardized measure and changes of discounted future net cash flow,oil and gas acreage, drilling, liquefied natural gas, pipelines; downstream activities with refining and marketing maps, refinery, petroleum products, sales, retail gasoline outlets; chemicals with sales and operating income by sector, major applications, base chemicals and polymers, intermediates and performance polymers. (A.L.B.)

  6. TOTAL annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This 2003 annual report of the Group Total provides economical results and information of the society on the following topics: keys data, the corporate governance (Directors charter, board of directors, audit committee, nomination and remuneration committee, internal control procedures, compensation of directors and executive officers), the corporate social responsibility (environmental stewardship, the future of energy management, the safety enhancement, the human resources, ethics and local development), the investor relations, the management report, the upstream exploration and production, the downstream refining, marketing, trading and shipping, the chemicals and financial and legal information. (A.L.B.)

  7. Total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Henrik M.; Petersen, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a successful treatment of the osteoarthritic knee, which has increased dramatically over the last 30 years. The indication is a painful osteoarthritic knee with relevant radiographic findings and failure of conservative measures like painkillers and exercise...... surgeon seems to positively influence the rate of surgical complications and implant survival. The painful TKA knee should be thoroughly evaluated, but not revised except if a relevant indication can be established. The most frequent indications for revision are: aseptic loosening, instability, infection...

  8. Effect of visfatin on lipid profile of obese and diabetic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, R.; Hussain, M.M.; Aslam, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of visfatin on blood lipid levels in balb/c strain of albino mice. Design: Quasi experimental study. Place and duration of study: The study was carried out at the department of Physiology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi and National Institute of Health Sciences, Islamabad from April to December 2007. Material and Methods: One hundred and twenty balb/c strain albino mice were procured from NIH, Islamabad. After taking base line blood samples, mice were divided randomly into four groups. Animals in groups I and II were made obese by feeding high fat / high carbohydrate diet whereas mice in Groups III and IV were induced diabetes mellitus by injecting streptozotocin. Groups I (obese) and III (diabetic) served as controls whereas groups II (obese treated) and IV (diabetic treated) were administered visfatin injection. Terminal intracardiac blood sample was used to measure the serum lipid and visfatin levels. Results: Serum lipid levels were found increased in obese and diabetic groups as compared to healthy mice. The administration of recombinant-histidine soluble (mice) visfatin significantly (p< 0.01) decreased the serum lipid levels with concomitant increase in HDL levels (p< 0.01) in obese and diabetic groups of mice and were comparable with baseline normal values of healthy controls. Conclusion: Visfatin is a potential antilipidemic adipocytokine that probably modulates insulin sensitivity and decreases atherogenic lipids (triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL and VLDL) with concomitant increase in HDL in obesity and diabetes mellitus. (author)

  9. Nootropic nefiracetam inhibits proconvulsant action of peripheral-type benzodiazepines in epileptic mutant EL mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Yurie; Shiotani, Tadashi; Watabe, Shigeo; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Yoshii, Mitsunobu

    2004-10-01

    Piracetam and structurally related nootropics are known to potentiate the anticonvulsant effects of antiepileptic drugs. It remains to be seen, however, whether these nootropics inhibit proconvulsant actions of many toxic agents including Ro 5-4864, a specific agonist for peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors (PBR). The present study was designed to address this issue using EL mice, an animal model of epilepsy. In behavioral pharmacological experiments, EL mice were highly susceptible to convulsions induced by Ro 5-4864 (i.p.) in comparison with nonepileptic DDY mice. Nefiracetam administered orally to EL mice inhibited spontaneous seizures. In DDY mice, convulsions induced by Ro 5-4864 were prevented by nefiracetam when administered by i.v. injection. Aniracetam (i.v.) was partially effective, but piracetam and oxiracetam were ineffective as anticonvulsants. Binding assay for brain tissues revealed a higher density of mitochondrial PBR in EL mice compared with DDY mice. Binding of the PBR ligands Ro 5-4864 to either EL or DDY mouse brain was inhibited by micromolar concentrations of these nootropic agents in the sequence of nefiracetam > aniracetam > oxiracetam, piracetam. This rank order is identical to potency as anticonvulsants. These data suggest that nefiracetam may prevent toxic effects of PBR agonists through interacting with PBR.

  10. Goodpasture's autoimmune disease - A collagen IV disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedchenko, Vadim; Richard Kitching, A; Hudson, Billy G

    2018-05-12

    Goodpasture's (GP) disease is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the deposition of pathogenic autoantibodies in basement membranes of kidney and lung eliciting rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and pulmonary hemorrhage. The principal autoantigen is the α345 network of collagen IV, which expression is restricted to target tissues. Recent discoveries include a key role of chloride and bromide for network assembly, a novel posttranslational modification of the antigen, a sulfilimine bond that crosslinks the antigen, and the mechanistic role of HLA in genetic susceptibility and resistance to GP disease. These advances provide further insights into molecular mechanisms of initiation and progression of GP disease and serve as a basis for developing of novel diagnostic tools and therapies for treatment of Goodpasture's disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission region IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderburch, C.

    1996-01-01

    The NRC has established a policy to provide for the timely through and systematic inspection of significant operational events at nuclear power plants. This includes the use of an Augmented Inspection Team to determine the causes, conditions, and circumstances relevant to an event and to communicate its findings and conclusions to NRC management. In accordance with NRC Inspection Manual Chapter 0325. The Region IV Regional Administrator dispatched an Augmented Inspection Team to the Wolf Creek Nuclear Generating Station to review the circumstances surrounding a manual reactor trip on January 30, 1996, with the failure of five control rods to fully insert into the core, a failure of the turbine-driven auxiliary feedwater pump, and the subsequent loss of one train of the essential service water system

  12. Review of the BCI Competition IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangermann, Michael; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Aertsen, Ad; Birbaumer, Niels; Braun, Christoph; Brunner, Clemens; Leeb, Robert; Mehring, Carsten; Miller, Kai J.; Müller-Putz, Gernot R.; Nolte, Guido; Pfurtscheller, Gert; Preissl, Hubert; Schalk, Gerwin; Schlögl, Alois; Vidaurre, Carmen; Waldert, Stephan; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    The BCI competition IV stands in the tradition of prior BCI competitions that aim to provide high quality neuroscientific data for open access to the scientific community. As experienced already in prior competitions not only scientists from the narrow field of BCI compete, but scholars with a broad variety of backgrounds and nationalities. They include high specialists as well as students. The goals of all BCI competitions have always been to challenge with respect to novel paradigms and complex data. We report on the following challenges: (1) asynchronous data, (2) synthetic, (3) multi-class continuous data, (4) session-to-session transfer, (5) directionally modulated MEG, (6) finger movements recorded by ECoG. As after past competitions, our hope is that winning entries may enhance the analysis methods of future BCIs. PMID:22811657

  13. Titanium(IV), zirconium, hafnium and thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Paul L.; Ekberg, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Titanium can exist in solution in a number of oxidation states. The titanium(IV) exists in acidic solutions as the oxo-cation, TiO 2+ , rather than Ti 4+ . Zirconium is used in the ceramics industry and in nuclear industry as a cladding material in reactors where its reactivity towards hydrolysis reactions and precipitation of oxides may result in degradation of the cladding. In nature, hafnium is found together with zirconium and as a consequence of the contraction in ionic radii that occurs due to the 4f -electron shell, the ionic radius of hafnium is almost identical to that of zirconium. All isotopes of thorium are radioactive and, as a consequence of it being fertile, thorium is important in the nuclear fuel cycle. The polymeric hydrolysis species that have been reported for thorium are somewhat different to those identified for zirconium and hafnium, although thorium does form the Th 4 (OH) 8 8+ species.

  14. Ultrathin magnetic structures IV applications of nanomagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Heinrich, Bretislav

    2004-01-01

    The ability to understand and control the unique properties of interfaces has created an entirely new field of magnetism which already has a profound impact in technology and is providing the basis for a revolution in electronics. The last decade has seen dramatic progress in the development of magnetic devices for information technology but also in the basic understanding of the physics of magnetic nanostructures. Volume III describes thin film magnetic properties and methods for characterising thin film structure topics that underpin the present 'spintronics' revolution in which devices are based on combined magnetic materials and semiconductors. The present volume (IV) deals with the fundamentals of spintronics: magnetoelectronic materials, spin injection and detection, micromagnetics and the development of magnetic random access memory based on GMR and tunnel junction devices. Together these books provide readers with a comprehensive account of an exciting and rapidly developing field. The treatment is de...

  15. KENO-IV code benchmark calculation, (6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Yasushi; Naito, Yoshitaka; Yamakawa, Yasuhiro.

    1980-11-01

    A series of benchmark tests has been undertaken in JAERI in order to examine the capability of JAERI's criticality safety evaluation system consisting of the Monte Carlo calculation code KENO-IV and the newly developed multigroup constants library MGCL. The present report describes the results of a benchmark test using criticality experiments about Plutonium fuel in various shape. In all, 33 cases of experiments have been calculated for Pu(NO 3 ) 4 aqueous solution, Pu metal or PuO 2 -polystyrene compact in various shape (sphere, cylinder, rectangular parallelepiped). The effective multiplication factors calculated for the 33 cases distribute widely between 0.955 and 1.045 due to wide range of system variables. (author)

  16. Cranial nerves III, IV and VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine, I.J.; Smoker, W.R.; Kuta, A.J.; Felton, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    Because of advances in CT and MR imaging, accurate identification and evaluation of cranial nerve lesions is now possible. Cranial nerves III, IV, and VI, providing motor and sensory control of the eye, can be evaluated as a unit. In this paper, the authors present an overview of the anatomy and pathology of these cranial nerves. We first illustrate their normal anatomic pathways from the brain stem to the orbit. This is followed by clinical examples of patients with a variety of isolated and complex palsies of these three cranial nerves. This is accomplished by inclusion of ocular photographs, correlative imaging studies, and the use of diagrams. Knowledge of the gross and imaging anatomy and the ophthalmologic manifestations of pathology affecting these three cranial nerves permits a tailored approach to their evaluation

  17. (N-Benzyl-N-isopropyldithiocarbamatochloridodiphenyltin(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirah Faizah Abdul Muthalib

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The SnIV atom in the title organotin dithiocarbamate, [Sn(C6H52(C11H14NS2Cl], is penta-coordinated by an asymmetrically coordinating dithiocarbamate ligand, a Cl and two ispo-C atoms of the Sn-bound phenyl groups. The resulting C2ClS2 donor set defines a coordination geometry intermediate between square-pyramidal and trigonal-bipyramidal with a slight tendency towards the latter. The formation of close intramolecular C–H...Cl and C–H...S contacts precludes the Cl and S atoms from forming significant intermolecular contacts. The presence of C–H...π contacts leads to the formation of supramolecular arrays that stack along the b axis.

  18. IV Characterisation for the VELO Upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Franco Lima, Vinicius

    2018-01-01

    LHCb is a dedicated heavy flavour physics experiment that operates at the LHC. The LHCb collaboration plans to change key features of the present detectors for Run III, moving to a full detector readout at 40MHz and operating at a luminosity of 1-2x1033cm-2s-1. The new Vertex Locator (VELO) detector will use hybrid pixel detectors composed of silicon sensors bump-bonded to new VeloPix CMOS readout chips designed for the new 40MHz readout rate. We will present a novel way of delivering bias through the ASIC backside in order to test IV characteristics of sensors in vacuum before module construction. The appropriate laboratory setups developed to test VELO hybrids for production will also be discussed.

  19. The Elegy in the Aeneid Book IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Martins

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In Aeneid’s book IV, Virgil makes use of elegiac topics while narrating Dido and Aeneas’ ill-fated love, inserting these topics into the epic genre. Some key characteristics of elegiac lover, such as the furor by which he is taken when injured by Cupid’s dart; lover’s idleness; the mala fama that emerges from the love affair; and, lastly, the misera condition in which the lover is thrown to, always followed by a lament; all these has shown to be present in Aeneid’s book IV. So, in addition to evincing how epic genre, without losing its formal rigour, subsume other genres, in this case the elegiac one, this article observes how this procedure takes part in both Vergil’s intra-narrative and extra-narrative purpose when composing Aeneid. In the first case, if we bear in mind that books I to VI are concerned with the construction of Aeneas’ heroic ἦθος, the hero’s denial in staying together with the queen confirms, once again, his destiny, which is Rome’s foundation, that is conventionally of an epic hero – and not of an elegiac lover. As for the second one, it is first important to be aware of Vergil’s aim when composing Aeneid, which is to insert Rome’s history into a myth, which is the elegiac poem itself. Therefore, Dido’s abandonment and her following imprecation in verses 590-640 are used by the poet to justify, even if ironically, Carthaginians’ rivalry and violence against Romans throughout the Punic Wars, putting them as the result of a woman’s love frustration.

  20. Modcomp MAX IV System Processors reference guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, J.

    1990-10-01

    A user almost always faces a big problem when having to learn to use a new computer system. The information necessary to use the system is often scattered throughout many different manuals. The user also faces the problem of extracting the information really needed from each manual. Very few computer vendors supply a single Users Guide or even a manual to help the new user locate the necessary manuals. Modcomp is no exception to this, Modcomp MAX IV requires that the user be familiar with the system file usage which adds to the problem. At General Atomics there is an ever increasing need for new users to learn how to use the Modcomp computers. This paper was written to provide a condensed Users Reference Guide'' for Modcomp computer users. This manual should be of value not only to new users but any users that are not Modcomp computer systems experts. This Users Reference Guide'' is intended to provided the basic information for the use of the various Modcomp System Processors necessary to, create, compile, link-edit, and catalog a program. Only the information necessary to provide the user with a basic understanding of the Systems Processors is included. This document provides enough information for the majority of programmers to use the Modcomp computers without having to refer to any other manuals. A lot of emphasis has been placed on the file description and usage for each of the System Processors. This allows the user to understand how Modcomp MAX IV does things rather than just learning the system commands.

  1. New mono-organotin (IV) dithiocarbamate complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthalib, Amirah Faizah Abdul; Baba, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Eighteen new mono-organotin dithiocarbamate compounds derived each nine from methyltin(IV) and phenyltin(IV) reacted using in-situ method with various type of N-dialkylamine together with carbon disulphide with the ratio of 1:3:3. Elemental and gravimetric analysis showed that the general formula of these compounds were RSnCl[S 2 CNR′R″] 2 (R= Ph, CH 3 , R′ = CH 3 , C 2 H 5 , C 7 H 7 and R″ = C 2 H 5 , C 6 H 11 , iC 3 H 7 , C 7 H 7 ). These compounds had been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet spectroscopy, 1 H, 13 C NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray crystallography. The infrared spectra of these compounds showed three important peaks indicating the formation of dithiocarbamate compounds, ν(C N), ν(C S) and ν(Sn-S) band which present in the region of 1444–1519, 954–1098 and 318–349 cm −1 respectively. The ultraviolet-visible spectra showed an absorption band for the π - π* transition of N C S group in the range of 253 – 259 nm due to the intramolecular charge transfer of the ligand. The 13 C NMR spectra showed an important shift for δ(N 13 CS 2 ) in the range of 196.8 – 201.9 ppm.. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies showed three new structures with the general formula of PhSnCl[S 2 CN(Et)(i−Pr)] 2 , MeSnCl[S 2 CN(Me)(Cy)] 2 and MeSnCl[S 2 CN(i−Pr)(CH 2 Ph)] 2 . All structures having a distorted octahedral geometry set by CClS 4 donor atom from the two chelating dithiocarbamate ligands

  2. TOTAL user manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sally C.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1994-01-01

    Semi-Markov models can be used to analyze the reliability of virtually any fault-tolerant system. However, the process of delineating all of the states and transitions in the model of a complex system can be devastatingly tedious and error-prone. Even with tools such as the Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool (ASSIST), the user must describe a system by specifying the rules governing the behavior of the system in order to generate the model. With the Table Oriented Translator to the ASSIST Language (TOTAL), the user can specify the components of a typical system and their attributes in the form of a table. The conditions that lead to system failure are also listed in a tabular form. The user can also abstractly specify dependencies with causes and effects. The level of information required is appropriate for system designers with little or no background in the details of reliability calculations. A menu-driven interface guides the user through the system description process, and the program updates the tables as new information is entered. The TOTAL program automatically generates an ASSIST input description to match the system description.

  3. Role of intestinal microbes on body nitrogen accumulation in germfree, gnotobiotic and conventional mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, M; Nomura, T [Central Inst. for Experimental Animals, Tokyo (Japan); Kametka, M

    1974-10-01

    In order to observe the influence of intestinal microbes, nitrogen (N) of the carcasses and of the gut contents of 80-day-old germfree (GF), Escherichia coli (E. coli) or Staphylococcus epidermidis (Staph.) monocontaminated (at 56 days of age) gnotobiotic (GB) and conventional (CV) mice was estimated. The body weight of CV mice was greater than that of GF and both GB mice. The same tendencies were also shown in the weights of liver and kidney. However, there were no remarkable differences between GF and GB mice. Total N of the whole carcass per 100 g of body weight (except for intestinal contents) of CV mice was higher than that of other mice. The rank was CV, Staph., E. coli and GF mice. There was no major difference in /sup 15/N accumulation in the whole carcass, liver and leg muscles of three mice in each group two days after they were given a 0.2% /sup 15/N-labelled secondary ammonium phosphate-supplemented diet in any group, but accumulation in CV mice tended to be higher than in GF and GB mice. Total N of the whole intestinal contents per 100 g of body weight was high in GF, E. coli, Staph. and CV mice in that order. N in cecal contents in GF and both GB mice was remarkably higher than that in CV mice. The ratio of protein N to total N of gut contents showed almost the same tendencies in all groups until the lower part of the small intestine, however from the cecum the tendencies were different. CV mice showed an especially high protein N ratio and high total N per unit chromic oxide of intestinal contents until the cecum, but they decreased in the colon and rectum, which might suggest more reabsorption of non-protein N in the cecum, colon and rectum than in GF and both GB mice.

  4. Role of intestinal microbes on body nitrogen accumulation in germfree, gnotobiotic and conventional mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Masanori; Nomura, Tatsuji; Kametka, Masao.

    1974-01-01

    In order to observe the influence of intestinal microbes, nitrogen (N) of the carcasses and of the gut contents of 80-day-old germfree (GF), Escherichia coli (E. coli) or Staphylococcus epidermidis (Staph.) monocontaminated (at 56 days of age) gnotobiotic (GB) and conventional (CV) mice was estimated. The body weight of CV mice was greater than that of GF and both GB mice. The same tendencies were also shown in the weights of liver and kidney. However, there were no remarkable differences between GF and GB mice. Total N of the whole carcass per 100 g of body weight (except for intestinal contents) of CV mice was higher than that of other mice. The rank was CV, Staph., E. coli and GF mice. There was no major difference in 15 N accumulation in the whole carcass, liver and leg muscles of three mice in each group two days after they were given a 0.2% 15 N-labelled secondary ammonium phosphate-supplemented diet in any group, but accumulation in CV mice tended to be higher than in GF and GB mice. Total N of the whole intestinal contents per 100 g of body weight was high in GF, E. coli, Staph. and CV mice in that order. N in cecal contents in GF and both GB mice was remarkably higher than that in CV mice. The ratio of protein N to total N of gut contents showed almost the same tendencies in all groups until the lower part of the small intestine, however from the cecum the tendencies were different. CV mice showed an especially high protein N ratio and high total N per unit chromic oxide of intestinal contents until the cecum, but they decreased in the colon and rectum, which might suggest more reabsorption of non-protein N in the cecum, colon and rectum than in GF and both GB mice. (auth.)

  5. Zinc metabolism in genetically obese (ob/ob) mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, M.L.; Failla, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that the concentrations and total amounts of several essential trace metals in various tissues of genetically obese rodents differ markedly from those in lean controls. In the present studies the absorption, retention and tissue distribution of zinc and constitutive levels of zinc-metallothionein (Zn-MT) in selected tissues were compared in obese (ob/ob) and lean (+/?) C57BL/6J mice. When 5-, 10- and 22-wk-old mice were administered 1.2 mumol 65 Zn by stomach tube the apparent absorption of 65 Zn by obese mice was 1.5, 2.2 and 3.9 times higher, respectively, than that in age-matched lean mice. Retention of orally administered 65 Zn after 96 h was also substantially higher in obese mice than in lean mice. To assess the possible influences of hyperphagia and intestinal hypertrophy on the enhanced apparent absorption of 65 Zn by obese mice food intake by an additional group of obese mice was restricted to that of age-matched lean controls. When actual absorption of zinc was determined according to the method of Heth and Hoekstra, groups of ad libitum--fed obese, pair-fed obese and lean mice absorbed 38, 32 and 18% of administered 65 Zn, respectively. In contrast, the rate of 65 Zn excretion 2-6 d after oral or subcutaneous administration of the metal was similar for obese and lean mice. Unrestricted and pair-fed obese mice had significantly lower percentages of carcass 65 Zn present in skin, muscle plus bone, spleen and testes and higher percentages present in liver, small intestine and adipose tissue than lean mice

  6. Total process surveillance: (TOPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, J.H.P.

    1992-01-01

    A Total Process Surveillance system is under development which can provide, in real-time, additional process information from a limited number of raw measurement signals. This is achieved by using a robust model based observer to generate estimates of the process' internal states. The observer utilises the analytical reduncancy among a diverse range of transducers and can thus accommodate off-normal conditions which lead to transducer loss or damage. The modular hierarchical structure of the system enables the maximum amount of information to be assimilated from the available instrument signals no matter how diverse. This structure also constitutes a data reduction path thus reducing operator cognitive overload from a large number of varying, and possibly contradictory, raw plant signals. (orig.)

  7. Total and EDF invest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, St.

    2008-01-01

    So as to prepare the future of their industrial sector,the Total company plans to invest (14 billion Euros in 2008) to increase its production capacities and strengthen in of other activities as the liquefied natural gas and the renewable energies; EDF plans to inject 35 billion Euros over three years to multiply the new projects of power plants (wind turbines, coal in Germany, gas in Great Britain and nuclear power in Flamanville). EDF wants to exploit its knowledge of leader to run more than ten E.P.R.(European pressurized water reactor) in the world before 2020, projects are in examination with China, Great Britain, South Africa and United States. (N.C.)

  8. Total quality at source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiandone, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Total Quality at Source philosophy is based on optimizing the effectiveness of people in achieving ZERO-DEFECT results. In this paper a philosophy of what, I have come to perceive, it takes to get people to perform to the very best of their abilities and thereby achieve the best results they can, is presented. In the examples I shall describe I have played an instrumental role since it has become my belief that any job can always be done better provided that the people doing it can themselves become convinced that they can do better. Clearly there are many ideas on how to do this. The philosophy that I am presenting in this paper is based on my own experience, where I have both participated and observed it being applied; its effectiveness may be judged by the results. (author)

  9. Total ankle joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Ankle arthritis results in a stiff and painful ankle and can be a major cause of disability. For people with end-stage ankle arthritis, arthrodesis (ankle fusion) is effective at reducing pain in the shorter term, but results in a fixed joint, and over time the loss of mobility places stress on other joints in the foot that may lead to arthritis, pain and dysfunction. Another option is to perform a total ankle joint replacement, with the aim of giving the patient a mobile and pain-free ankle. In this article we review the efficacy of this procedure, including how it compares to ankle arthrodesis, and consider the indications and complications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Genetic analysis of intracapillary glomerular lipoprotein deposits in aging mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda A Noordmans

    Full Text Available Renal aging is characterized by functional and structural changes like decreased glomerular filtration rate, and glomerular, tubular and interstitial damage. To gain insight in pathways involved in renal aging, we studied aged mouse strains and used genetic analysis to identify genes associated with aging phenotypes.Upon morphological screening in kidneys from 20-month-old mice from 26 inbred strains we noted intracapillary PAS-positive deposits. The severity of these deposits was quantified by scoring of a total of 50 glomeruli per section (grade 0-4. Electron microscopy and immunohistochemical staining for apoE, apoB, apoA-IV and perilipin-2 was performed to further characterize the lesions. To identify loci associated with these PAS-positive intracapillary glomerular deposits, we performed haplotype association mapping.Six out of 26 mouse strains showed glomerular PAS-positive deposits. The severity of these deposits varied: NOD(0.97, NZW(0.41, NON(0.30, B10(0.21, C3 H(0.9 and C57BR(0.7. The intracapillary deposits were strongly positive for apoE and weakly positive for apoB and apoA-IV. Haplotype association mapping showed a strong association with a 30-Kb haplotype block on Chr 1 within the Esrrg gene. We investigated 1 Mb on each site of this region, which includes the genes Spata17, Gpatch2, Esrrg, Ush2a and Kctd3.By analyzing 26 aged mouse strains we found that some strains developed an intracapillary PAS and apoE-positive lesion and identified a small haplotype block on Chr 1 within the Esrrg gene to be associated with these lipoprotein deposits. The region spanning this haplotype block contains the genes Spata17, Gpatch2, Esrrg, Ush2a and Kctd3, which are all highly expressed in the kidney. Esrrg might be involved in the evolvement of these glomerular deposits by influencing lipid metabolism and possibly immune reponses.

  11. Are stage IV vestibular schwannomas preoperatively different from other stages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tringali, Stéphane; Dubreuil, Christian; Zaouche, Sandra; Ferber-Viart, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to focus on the clinical and paraclinical symptoms of patients suffering from Stage IV vestibular schwannomas (VSs). In this prospective study, we included 734 patients who have VS and candidates for operation. Patients were classified as having Stage I, II, III, or IV tumors according to Tos criteria as evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. PREOPERATIVE CLINICAL EVALUATION: We recorded the occurrence of complaints (%) and duration (yr) of hearing loss, tinnitus, and balance disorder. Preoperative paraclinical evaluation included pure-tone (PTA) and speech audiometry, auditory brainstem response (ABR) patterns, and vestibular deficit at videonystamography (VNG). Continuous variables were compared between Stage IV and other stages using analysis of variance. Qualitative variables expressed as a percentage of presence were compared between Stage IV and other stages using percentage comparison. Quantitative Parameters. Patients with Stage IV VS were significantly younger as compared with patients with other stages. Stage IV hearing loss was greater compared with other stages at 250 and 500 Hz but smaller at 2,000 and 8,000 Hz. We found no difference in the loss of PTA between Stage IV and the other stages. Speech discriminancy score was smaller in Stage IV. The durations of hearing loss, tinnitus, and balance disorders were similar whatever the tumor stage. Auditory brainstem response patterns showed no difference in Wave III latency between Stage IV VS and other stages, whereas Wave V latency and V-I interval were higher in Stage IV. Both ABR threshold and VNG caloric deficit were higher in Stage IV VS compared with other stages. Qualitative Parameters. The percentage of patients with Stage IV was lower than that with Stages II and III. The percentage of men and women was similar in all stages. The occurrence of hearing loss was similar in all stages, whereas that of tinnitus was lower in Stage IV compared with Stages I and II. In

  12. Speciation of Technetium(IV) in Bicarbonate Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alliot, I.; Fattahi, M. [Univ Nantes, CNRS, IN2P3, SUBATECH, EMN, Nantes (France); Alliot, C. [INSERM, U892, F-44093 Nantes 1 (France); GIP Arronax, F-44817 St Herblain (France); Vitorge, P. [CEA Saclay, LSRM, DEN DANS DPC SECR, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2009-11-15

    The technetium isotope {sup 99}Tc is a major fission product from nuclear reactors. Ultimately it is disposed of as radioactive waste since it has few applications outside of scientific research. Geochemical modeling of the dissolution of nuclear waste and of the solubility and speciation of the dissolved radionuclides in groundwater is an important part of the Performance Assessment for the safety of nuclear waste repositories. It relies on the availability of a critically assessed thermodynamic database. The potential of the Tc(VII)/Tc(IV) redox couple is measured here under various chemical conditions to verify the stoichiometries of Tc complexes and determine their stabilities: (i) -log{sub 10}[H{sup +}] in the range 7.0-10.0, for 0.3, 0.6, and 0.7 M [CO{sub 3}](total); (II) [CO{sub 3}](total) in the range 0.01-0.6 M at -log{sub 10}[H+] approximately 8.6; and (iii) [Tc(VII)]/[Tc(IV)] ratios of (6.02*10{sup -5} M)/10{sup -6} M) and (6.02*10{sup -5} M)/(6.02*10{sup -5} M) at -log{sub 10}[H+]= -9.1 and [CO{sub 3}](total) = 1 M. Assuming that Tc(VII), TcO{sub 4}{sup -} is the only species which exists under all the above chemical conditions, the potentiometric results can be interpreted by considering the presence of two hydroxide-carbonate monomeric complexes. The hydrolysis equilibrium between these two complexes is Tc(CO{sub 3})(OH){sub 2} + H{sub 2}O {r_reversible} Tc(CO{sub 3})(OH){sub 3}{sup -} + H{sup +} with -log{sub 10}[H{sup +}]{sub 1/2} = 8.69 {+-} 0.20, which is consistent with the -8.3 {+-} 0.6 corresponding hydrolysis constant of the NEA TDB review. 733 {+-} 44 mV/SHE and 575 {+-} 60 mV/SHE are measured for the standard potentials of the TcO{sub 4}{sup -}/Tc(CO{sub 3})(OH){sub 2}, and for the TcO{sub 4}{sup -}/Tc(CO{sub 3})(OH){sup 3-} redox couples respectively. The corresponding formation constants from TcO(OH){sub 2} are log{sub 10}K{sub 1,2} = 19.8 {+-} 0.5 and log{sub 10}K{sub 1,3} = 10.5 {+-} 0.5, to be compared with the 19.3 {+-} 0.3 and 11

  13. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy using superselective intraarterial infusion via superficial temporal artery for stage III, IV oral cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tohnai, Iwai; Shigetomi, Toshio [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Hayashi, Yasushi [Nagoya Second Red Cross Hospital (Japan)] (and others)

    2002-03-01

    Thirty-eight patients with stage III, IV oral cancer were treated by preoperative chemoradiotherapy using superselective intraarterial infusion via the superficial temporal artery. Radiotherapy (total dose: 40 Gy) and chemotherapy using CBDCA (total dose: 460 mg/m{sup 2}) were performed daily, followed by surgery. Catheter-insertion of 34 patients was done successfully. Four catheter insertions were not done successfully because of the anomaly of the artery such as common trunk of the lingual artery and the facial artery. The clinical effects were CR in 9 patients (26.5%) and PR in 25 (73.5%), and histopathological effects after surgery were grade III, IV in 10 (29.4%), grade IIb in 23 (67.6%), and grade IIa in 2 (5.8%). The 5-year cumulative survival rate was 67.8%. This superselective intra arterial infusion method could be the technique of choice for the treatment of oral cancer. (author)

  14. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy using superselective intraarterial infusion via superficial temporal artery for stage III, IV oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohnai, Iwai; Shigetomi, Toshio

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-eight patients with stage III, IV oral cancer were treated by preoperative chemoradiotherapy using superselective intraarterial infusion via the superficial temporal artery. Radiotherapy (total dose: 40 Gy) and chemotherapy using CBDCA (total dose: 460 mg/m 2 ) were performed daily, followed by surgery. Catheter-insertion of 34 patients was done successfully. Four catheter insertions were not done successfully because of the anomaly of the artery such as common trunk of the lingual artery and the facial artery. The clinical effects were CR in 9 patients (26.5%) and PR in 25 (73.5%), and histopathological effects after surgery were grade III, IV in 10 (29.4%), grade IIb in 23 (67.6%), and grade IIa in 2 (5.8%). The 5-year cumulative survival rate was 67.8%. This superselective intra arterial infusion method could be the technique of choice for the treatment of oral cancer. (author)

  15. Diacylglycerol lipase a knockout mice demonstrate metabolic and behavioral phenotypes similar to those of cannabinoid receptor 1 knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Powell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available After creating >4650 knockouts (KOs of independent mouse genes, we screened them by high-throughput phenotyping and found that cannabinoid receptor 1 (Cnr1 KO mice had the same lean phenotype published by others. We asked if our KOs of DAG lipase a or b (Dagla or Daglb, which catalyze biosynthesis of the endocannabinoid (EC 2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, or Napepld, which catalyzes biosynthesis of the EC anandamide, shared the lean phenotype of Cnr1 KO mice. We found that Dagla KO mice, but not Daglb or Napepld KO mice, were among the leanest of 3651 chow-fed KO lines screened. In confirmatory studies, chow- or high fat diet-fed Dagla and Cnr1 KO mice were leaner than wild type (WT littermates; when data from multiple cohorts of adult mice were combined, body fat was 47% and 45% lower in Dagla and Cnr1 KO mice, respectively, relative to WT values. In contrast, neither Daglb nor Napepld KO mice were lean. Weanling Dagla KO mice ate less than WT mice and had body weight similar to pair-fed WT mice, and adult Dagla KO mice had normal activity and VO2 levels, similar to Cnr1 KO mice. Our Dagla and Cnr1 KO mice also had low fasting insulin, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels, and after a glucose challenge had normal glucose but very low insulin levels. Dagla and Cnr1 KO mice also showed similar responses to a battery of behavioral tests. These data suggest: 1 the lean phenotype of young Dagla and Cnr1 KO mice is mainly due to hypophagia; 2 in pathways where ECs signal through Cnr1 to regulate food intake and other metabolic and behavioral phenotypes observed in Cnr1 KO mice, Dagla alone provides the 2-AG that serves as the EC signal; and 3 small molecule Dagla inhibitors with a pharmacokinetic profile similar to that of Cnr1 inverse agonists are likely to mirror the ability of these Cnr1 inverse agonists to lower body weight and improve glycemic control in obese patients with type 2 diabetes, but may also induce undesirable neuropsychiatric

  16. Collagen type IV at the fetal-maternal interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oefner, C M; Sharkey, A; Gardner, L; Critchley, H; Oyen, M; Moffett, A

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular matrix proteins play a crucial role in influencing the invasion of trophoblast cells. However the role of collagens and collagen type IV (col-IV) in particular at the implantation site is not clear. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the distribution of collagen types I, III, IV and VI in endometrium and decidua during the menstrual cycle and the first trimester of pregnancy. Expression of col-IV alpha chains during the reproductive cycle was determined by qPCR and protein localisation by immunohistochemistry. The structure of col-IV in placenta was examined using transmission electron microscopy. Finally, the expression of col-IV alpha chain NC1 domains and collagen receptors was localised by immunohistochemistry. Col-IV alpha chains were selectively up-regulated during the menstrual cycle and decidualisation. Primary extravillous trophoblast cells express collagen receptors and secrete col-IV in vitro and in vivo, resulting in the increased levels found in decidua basalis compared to decidua parietalis. A novel expression pattern of col-IV in the mesenchyme of placental villi, as a three-dimensional network, was found. NC1 domains of col-IV alpha chains are known to regulate tumour cell migration and the selective expression of these domains in decidua basalis compared to decidua parietalis was determined. Col-IV is expressed as novel forms in the placenta. These findings suggest that col-IV not only represents a structural protein providing tissue integrity but also influences the invasive behaviour of trophoblast cells at the implantation site. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Thermodynamic properties of actinide complexes. IV. Thorium(IV)- and uranyl(VI)-malonate systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Bernardo, P; Di Napoli, V; Cassol, A; Magon, L [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Padua (Italy). Lab. di Chimica e Tecnologia dei Radioelementi

    1977-01-01

    The stability constants and the enthalpies of formation of thorium(IV)- and uranyl(VI)-malonate complexes have been determined by potentiometric and calorimetric titrations in 1.00 M solutions of Na(ClO/sub 4/) at 25/sup 0/C. All complexes formed are found to be stabilized by a large entropy gain. The values for the stability constants agree with an ionic bonding model. The malonate behaves as a bidentate ligand forming only chelate complexes.

  18. Transient Analysis of Generation IV quick reactors; Analisis de Transitorios en Reactores Rapidos de Generacion IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, M.; Martin-Fuertes, F.

    2013-07-01

    As a complement to the attached code 3D neutron-CIEMAT thermohydraulic added a module to simulate transient. Temporary kinetics is resolved by factoring flow in a spatial part and another storm. MCNP provides the reactivity and updated spatial function and COBRA-IV calculates the temperature distribution. Temporary dependence of amplitude is calculated using time delayed neutron Kinetic equations. As an example of application, examines a transient loss of flow in MYRRHA, a lead-cooled experimental reactor.

  19. Complexes of uranium (IV) and thorium (IV) with α-picolinic acid, nicotinic acid, anthranilic acid and N-phenylanthranilic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.; Singh, R.

    1979-01-01

    Stable U(IV) and Th(IV) complexes with the title ligands have been synthesised from U(OAc) 4 , and Th(OAc) 4 . Magnetic susceptibilities, IR and reflectance spectra of U(IV) and IR spectra of Th(IV) complexes have been studied which indicate eight coordination for U(IV) in these chelates. (auth.)

  20. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Pomegranate (Punica granatum on Eimeria papillata-Induced Infection in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar S. O. Amer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coccidiosis is the most prevalent disease causing widespread economic loss, especially in poultry farms. Here, we investigated the effects of pomegranate peel extract (PPE on the outcome of coccidiosis caused by Eimeria papillata in mice. The data showed that mice infected with E. papillata and treated with PPE revealed a significant decrease in the output of oocysts in their faeces by day 5 p.i. Infection also induced inflammation and injury of the jejunum. This was evidenced (i as increases in reactive oxygen species, (ii, as increased neutrophils and decreased lymphocytes in blood (ii as increased mRNA levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, Bcl-2 gene, and of the cytokines interferon gamma (IFN-γ, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and interleukin-1β (IL-1β, and (iv as downregulation of mucin gene MUC2 mRNA. All these infection-induced parameters were significantly altered during PPE treatment. In particular, PPE counteracted the E. papillata-induced loss of the total antioxidant capacity. Our data indicated that PPE treatment significantly attenuated inflammation and injury of the jejunum induced by E. papillata infections.

  1. Computations of nuclear response functions with MACK-IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.; Gohar, Y.

    1978-01-01

    The MACK computer program calculates energy pointwise and multigroup nuclear response functions from basic nuclear data in ENDF/B format. The new version of the program, MACK-IV, incorporates major developments and improvements aimed at maximizing the utilization of available nuclear data and ensuring energy conservation in nuclear heating calculations. A new library, MACKLIB-IV, of nuclear response functions was generated in the CTR energy group structure of 171 neutron groups and 36 gamma groups. The library was prepared using MACK-IV and ENDF/B-IV and is suitable for fusion, fusion-fission hybrids, and fission applications

  2. 1L Mark-IV Target Design Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, Paul E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-16

    This presentation includes General Design Considerations; Current (Mark-III) Lower Tier; Mark-III Upper Tier; Performance Metrics; General Improvements for Material Science; General Improvements for Nuclear Science; Improving FOM for Nuclear Science; General Design Considerations Summary; Design Optimization Studies; Expected Mark-IV Performance: Material Science; Expected Mark-IV Performance: Nuclear Science (Disk); Mark IV Enables Much Wider Range of Nuclear-Science FOM Gains than Mark III; Mark-IV Performance Summary; Rod or Disk? Center or Real FOV?; and Project Cost and Schedule.

  3. BALTICA IV. Plant maintenance for managing life and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hietanen, S.; Auerkari, P. [eds.] [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland). Operational Reliability

    1998-12-31

    BALTICA IV International Conference on Plant Maintenance Managing Life and performance held on September 7-9, 1998 on board M/S Silja Symphony on its cruise between Helsinki-Stockholm and at Aavaranta in Kirkkonummi. The BALTICA IV conference provides a forum for the transfer of technology from applied research to practice. This is one of the two volumes of the proceedings of the BALTICA IV International Conference on Plant Maintenance Managing Life and Performance. The BALTICA IV conference focuses on new technology, recent experience and applications of condition and life management, and on improvements in maintenance strategies for safe and economical operation of power plants. (orig.)

  4. Computations of nuclear response functions with MACK-IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M A; Gohar, Y

    1978-01-01

    The MACK computer program calculates energy pointwise and multigroup nuclear response functions from basic nuclear data in ENDF/B format. The new version of the program, MACK-IV, incorporates major developments and improvements aimed at maximizing the utilization of available nuclear data and ensuring energy conservation in nuclear heating calculations. A new library, MACKLIB-IV, of nuclear response functions was generated in the CTR energy group structure of 171 neutron groups and 36 gamma groups. The library was prepared using MACK-IV and ENDF/B-IV and is suitable for fusion, fusion-fission hybrids, and fission applications.

  5. BALTICA IV. Plant maintenance for managing life and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hietanen, S; Auerkari, P [eds.; VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland). Operational Reliability

    1999-12-31

    BALTICA IV International Conference on Plant Maintenance Managing Life and performance held on September 7-9, 1998 on board M/S Silja Symphony on its cruise between Helsinki-Stockholm and at Aavaranta in Kirkkonummi. The BALTICA IV conference provides a forum for the transfer of technology from applied research to practice. This is one of the two volumes of the proceedings of the BALTICA IV International Conference on Plant Maintenance Managing Life and Performance. The BALTICA IV conference focuses on new technology, recent experience and applications of condition and life management, and on improvements in maintenance strategies for safe and economical operation of power plants. (orig.)

  6. New mono-organotin (IV) dithiocarbamate complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthalib, Amirah Faizah Abdul; Baba, Ibrahim [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Eighteen new mono-organotin dithiocarbamate compounds derived each nine from methyltin(IV) and phenyltin(IV) reacted using in-situ method with various type of N-dialkylamine together with carbon disulphide with the ratio of 1:3:3. Elemental and gravimetric analysis showed that the general formula of these compounds were RSnCl[S{sub 2}CNR′R″]{sub 2} (R= Ph, CH{sub 3}, R′ = CH{sub 3}, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, C{sub 7}H{sub 7} and R″ = C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, C{sub 6}H{sub 11}, iC{sub 3}H{sub 7}, C{sub 7}H{sub 7}). These compounds had been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet spectroscopy, {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray crystallography. The infrared spectra of these compounds showed three important peaks indicating the formation of dithiocarbamate compounds, ν(CN), ν(CS) and ν(Sn-S) band which present in the region of 1444–1519, 954–1098 and 318–349 cm{sup −1} respectively. The ultraviolet-visible spectra showed an absorption band for the π - π* transition of NCS group in the range of 253 – 259 nm due to the intramolecular charge transfer of the ligand. The {sup 13}C NMR spectra showed an important shift for δ(N{sup 13}CS{sub 2}) in the range of 196.8 – 201.9 ppm.. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies showed three new structures with the general formula of PhSnCl[S{sub 2}CN(Et)(i−Pr)]{sub 2}, MeSnCl[S{sub 2}CN(Me)(Cy)]{sub 2} and MeSnCl[S{sub 2}CN(i−Pr)(CH{sub 2}Ph)]{sub 2}. All structures having a distorted octahedral geometry set by CClS{sub 4} donor atom from the two

  7. The total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jason A; Shah, Keyur B; Quader, Mohammed A; Cooke, Richard H; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Rao, Kris K; Smallfield, Melissa C; Tchoukina, Inna; Tang, Daniel G

    2015-12-01

    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a form of mechanical circulatory support in which the patient's native ventricles and valves are explanted and replaced by a pneumatically powered artificial heart. Currently, the TAH is approved for use in end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, with an increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure, the number of patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation now far exceeds the number of available hearts. As a result, the use of mechanical circulatory support, including the TAH and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is growing exponentially. The LVAD is already widely used as destination therapy, and destination therapy for the TAH is under investigation. While most patients requiring mechanical circulatory support are effectively treated with LVADs, there is a subset of patients with concurrent right ventricular failure or major structural barriers to LVAD placement in whom TAH may be more appropriate. The history, indications, surgical implantation, post device management, outcomes, complications, and future direction of the TAH are discussed in this review.

  8. Dwarf Mice and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masternak, Michal M; Darcy, Justin; Victoria, Berta; Bartke, Andrzej

    2018-01-01

    Dwarf mice have been studied for many decades, however, the focus of these studies shifted in 1996 when it was shown by Brown-Borg and her coworkers that Ames dwarf (Prop1 df ) mice are exceptionally long-lived. Since then, Snell dwarf (Pit1 dw ) and growth hormone receptor knockout (GHR-KO, a.k.a. Laron dwarf) mice were also shown to be exceptionally long-lived, presumably due to their growth hormone (GH)-deficiency or -resistance, respectively. What is of equal importance in these dwarf mice is their extended health span, that is, these animals have a longer period of life lived free of frailty and age-related diseases. This review article focuses on recent studies conducted in these dwarf mice, which concerned brown and white adipose tissue biology, microRNA (miRNA) profiling, as well as early-life dietary and hormonal interventions. Results of these studies identify novel mechanisms linking reduced GH action with extensions of both life span and health span. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. The Role of Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV in Lung Metastasis of Breast Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Our studies focused on (1) cloning and sequencing of wild-type endothelial DPP IV (wtDPP IV) and preparation of truncated DPP IV ( tDPP IV); (2...that was identical to hepatic DPP IV. Acid extraction of rat lung yielded a tDPP IV, which was an effective inhibitor of breast cancer cell adhesion to

  10. Generation IV international forum 2002 - remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, S.

    2002-01-01

    Analyses and forecasts underscore the important role of nuclear power in energy supply in the 21st century. Important aspects in this respect are the conservation of fossil resources, the protection of the world's climate, and the continuity of supply. Present 1st and 2nd generation nuclear power plants ensure an economical and technically mature electricity supply. Advanced systems offering, e.g., higher efficiency of fuel utilization, simplified systems technology, and advanced safety characteristics, can make available additional benefits in using nuclear power. Upon an initiative of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), ten countries combine their efforts in developing such reactor concepts in the Generation IV International Forum (GIF). Argentina, Brazil, Canada, France, Japan, South Africa, South Korea, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States pursue the common objective in GIF to identify suitable nuclear power systems and promote their development up to the envisaged readiness for construction in 2030. Besides technical and economic questions of nuclear power generation, also other aspects must be considered with a view to the future use of nuclear power. The particularly relevant issues, such as the management of radioactive waste, the intensification of research and development, and international cooperation, have been taken up by the Bush administration at an early point in time and have been, or will be, incorporated in practical solutions, as in the case of the Yucca Mountain repository project. (orig.)

  11. LSPRAY-IV: A Lagrangian Spray Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    LSPRAY-IV is a Lagrangian spray solver developed for application with parallel computing and unstructured grids. It is designed to be massively parallel and could easily be coupled with any existing gas-phase flow and/or Monte Carlo Probability Density Function (PDF) solvers. The solver accommodates the use of an unstructured mesh with mixed elements of either triangular, quadrilateral, and/or tetrahedral type for the gas flow grid representation. It is mainly designed to predict the flow, thermal and transport properties of a rapidly vaporizing spray. Some important research areas covered as a part of the code development are: (1) the extension of combined CFD/scalar-Monte- Carlo-PDF method to spray modeling, (2) the multi-component liquid spray modeling, and (3) the assessment of various atomization models used in spray calculations. The current version contains the extension to the modeling of superheated sprays. The manual provides the user with an understanding of various models involved in the spray formulation, its code structure and solution algorithm, and various other issues related to parallelization and its coupling with other solvers.

  12. Development of intraepithelial T lymphocytes in the intestine of irradiated SCID mice by adult liver hematopoietic stem cells from normal mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagiwa, Satoshi; Seki, Shuhji; Shirai, Katsuaki; Yoshida, Yuhei; Miyaji, Chikako; Watanabe, Hisami; Abo, Toru

    1999-01-01

    Background/Aims: We recently reported the adult mouse liver to contain c-kit + stem cells that can give rise to multilineage leukocytes. This study was designed to determine whether or not adult mouse liver stem cells can generate intraepithelial T cells in the intestine as well as to examine the possibility that adult liver c-kit + stem cells originate from the fetal liver. Methods: Adult liver mononuclear cells, bone marrow (BM) cells, liver c-kit + cells or bone BM c-kit + cells of BALB/c mice were i.v. transferred into 4 Gy irradiated CB17/-SCID mice. In other experiments, fetal liver cells from Ly5.1 C57BL/6 mice and T cell depleted adult BM cells from Ly5.2 C57BL/6 mice were simultaneously transferred into irradiated C57BL/6 SCID mice (Ly5.2). At 1 to 8 weeks after cell transfer, the SCID mice were examined. Results: Not only BM cells and BM c-kit + cells but also liver mononuclear cells and liver c-kit + cells reconstituted γδT cells, CD4 + CD8 + double-positive T cells and CDiα + β - T cells of intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes of SCID mice. Injection of a mixture of fetal liver cells from Ly5.1 C57BL/6 mice and adult BM cells from Ly5.2 C57BL/6 mice into Ly5.2 C57BL/6 SCID mice induced both Ly5.1 and Ly5.2 T cells, while also generating c-kit + cells of both Ly5.1 and Ly5.2 origins in the liver. Conclusions: Adult mouse liver stem cells were able to generate intestinal intraepithelial T cells of the SCID mice, and it is thus suggested that some adult liver stem cells may indeed be derived from the fetal liver. (au)

  13. Stability constant determinations for technetium (IV) complexation with selected amino carboxylate ligands in high nitrate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omoto, Trevor; Wall, Nathalie A. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-10-01

    The stability constants for Tc(IV) complexation with the ligands IDA, NTA, HEDTA, and DTPA were determined in varied nitrate concentrations using liquid-liquid extraction methods. The determined log β{sub 101} stability constants at 0.5 M NaNO{sub 3} were found to be 9.2±0.3, 10.3±0.3, and 15.3±0.3 for IDA, NTA, and HEDTA, respectively. The log β{sub 111} stability constant for DTPA was determined to be 22.0±0.6. These determined stability constants show a slight decrease in magnitude as a function of increasing NaNO{sub 3} concentration. These stability constants were used to model the total dissolution of Tc(IV) in acidic aqueous solutions in the presence of each ligand. The results of these predictive models indicate that amino carboxylic ligands have a high potential for increasing the aqueous dissolution of Tc(IV); at pH 2.3, 0.01 M ligand yield dissolved Tc(IV) concentrations of 1.42.10{sup -5} M, 1.33.10{sup -5} M, 6.07.10{sup -6} M, 9.65.10{sup -7} M, for DTPA, HEDTA, NTA, and IDA, respectively.

  14. Intermittent hypoxia induces hyperlipidemia in lean mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianguo; Thorne, Laura N; Punjabi, Naresh M; Sun, Cheuk-Kwan; Schwartz, Alan R; Smith, Philip L; Marino, Rafael L; Rodriguez, Annabelle; Hubbard, Walter C; O'Donnell, Christopher P; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y

    2005-09-30

    Obstructive sleep apnea, a syndrome leading to recurrent intermittent hypoxia (IH), has been associated previously with hypercholesterolemia, independent of underlying obesity. We examined the effects of experimentally induced IH on serum lipid levels and pathways of lipid metabolism in the absence and presence of obesity. Lean C57BL/6J mice and leptin-deficient obese C57BL/6J-Lep(ob) mice were exposed to IH for five days to determine changes in serum lipid profile, liver lipid content, and expression of key hepatic genes of lipid metabolism. In lean mice, exposure to IH increased fasting serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, phospholipids (PLs), and triglycerides (TGs), as well as liver TG content. These changes were not observed in obese mice, which had hyperlipidemia and fatty liver at baseline. In lean mice, IH increased sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) levels in the liver, increased mRNA and protein levels of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (SCD-1), an important gene of TG and PL biosynthesis controlled by SREBP-1, and increased monounsaturated fatty acid content in serum, which indicated augmented SCD-1 activity. In addition, in lean mice, IH decreased protein levels of scavenger receptor B1, regulating uptake of cholesterol esters and HDL by the liver. We conclude that exposure to IH for five days increases serum cholesterol and PL levels, upregulates pathways of TG and PL biosynthesis, and inhibits pathways of cholesterol uptake in the liver in the lean state but does not exacerbate the pre-existing hyperlipidemia and metabolic disturbances in leptin-deficient obesity.

  15. Bone growth and turnover in progesterone receptor knockout mice.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickard, David J.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.; Evans, Glenda; Hefferan, Theresa E.; Hunter, Jaime C.; Waters, Katrina M.; Lydon, John P.; O' Malley, Bert W.; Khosla, Sundeep; Spelsberg, Thomas C.; Turner, Russell T.

    2008-05-01

    The role of progesterone receptor (PR) signaling in skeletal metabolism is controversial. To address whether signaling through the PR is necessary for normal bone growth and turnover, we performed histomorphometric and mCT analyses of bone from homozygous female PR knockout (PRKO) mice at 6, 12, and 26 weeks of age. These mice possess a null mutation of the PR locus, which blocks the gene expression of A and B isoforms of PR. Body weight gain, uterine weight gain and tibia longitudinal bone growth was normal in PRKO mice. In contrast, total and cortical bone mass were increased in long bones of post-pubertal (12 and 26-week-old) PRKO mice, whereas cancellous bone mass was normal in the tibia but increased in the humerus. The striking 57% decrease in cancellous bone from the proximal tibia metaphysis which occurred between 6 and 26 weeks in WT mice was abolished in PRKO mice. The improved bone balance in aging PRKO mice was associated with elevated bone formation and a tendency toward reduced osteoclast perimeter. Taken together, these findings suggest that PR signaling in mice attenuates the accumulation of cortical bone mass during adolescence and is required for early age-related loss of cancellous bone.

  16. Reactivation of Immunological Response in Lethally X-Irradiated Mice Treated with Isogeneic Bone Marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankovic, V.; Slijepcevic, M.; Hrsak, I. [Institute Ruder Boskovic, Zagreb, Yugoslavia (Croatia)

    1968-08-15

    Male and female C57BL/H and CBA/H mice aged 10-12 weeks were used as recipients and donors, respectively. All recipient mice were given a lethal whole-body X-irradiation dose (850 R for C57BL and 950 R for CBA mice) followed by iv injection of 10 x 106 isogeneic eosin-negative bone-marrow cells suspended in 0.5 ml of Hank's solution. The number of eosin-positive cells was less than 10%. The state of immunological responsiveness of irradiated recipients was measured at different time intervals up to 86 days after irradiation. The immune response to bacterial antigen was measured with the titre of agglutinating antibodies in serum six days after iv antigenic stimulation with a suspension of 2 x 10{sup 7} killed Salmonella typhimurium cells. The immune response to tissue antigens was evaluated by: (a) the effectiveness of the spleen cells from isologous radiation chimeric parental mice in preventing bone marrow from F{sub 1} (C57BL x CBA) hybrid donor from therapeutically affecting lethally irradiated F j recipient mice; (b) the effectiveness of the spleen cells in inducing splenom egaly in recipient F{sub 1} hybrid mice (Simonsen test). It was found that the responsiveness to bacterial antigens reappears much earlier and increases much faster than the immunological responsiveness to tissue antigens. (author)

  17. Incapacidad laboral total

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Díaz Tabares

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio longitudinal, descriptivo y retrospectivo con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento de la incapacidad permanente para el trabajo en el municipio "San Cristóbal" durante el decenio 1982-1991, y se aplicó el método de encuesta por el que se recogieron datos que fueron extraídos del modelo oficial de peritaje médico laboral y de la entrevista con el peritado. Los resultados fueron plasmados en tablas de contingencias donde se relacionan las variables por cada año estudiado, y se aplicó la prueba estadística de chi cuadrado. El número de individuos dictaminados con incapacidad laboral total fue de 693; predominó en reportes el año 1988 con 114 casos y muy discretamente el sexo femenino sobre el masculino, el grupo etáreo de 45 a 54 años con 360 casos y la artrosis como entidad valorada por ortopedia, con análisis estadísticos significativos. No resultó estadísticamente significativo, el predominio de la hipertensión arterial sistémica entre las entidades valoradas por la especialidad de medicina interna como causas de incapacidad laboral. Fue muy significativa la variación del número de dictaminados por la comisión en cada uno de los años estudiados y que el porcentaje de ellos que se encontraban realizando trabajos que demandan esfuerzo físico de moderado a intenso al momento de aplicar la encuesta, ascendió al 64,9.A longitudinal, descriptive and retrospective study was conducted in order to know the behavior of permanent labor disability at the municipality of San Cristóbal during 1982-1991. A survey was done to collect data taken from the official model of medical inspections and from the interview with the disabled worker. The results were shown in contingency tables where the variables are related by every year studied. The chi square statistical test was applied. The number of individuals with labor disability was 693. As for reports, the year 1988 predominated with 114. There was a discreet

  18. Persistent depletion of plasma gelsolin (pGSN) after exposure of mice to heavy silicon ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rithidech, Kanokporn Noy; Reungpatthanaphong, Paiboon; Tungjai, Montree; Jangiam, Witawat; Honikel, Louise; Whorton, Elbert B.

    2018-05-01

    Little is known about plasma proteins that can be used as biomarkers for early and late responses to radiation. The purpose of this study was to determine a link between depletion of plasma gelsolin (pGSN) and cell-death as well as inflammatory responses in the lung (one of the tissues known to be radiosensitive) of the same exposed CBA/CaJ mice after exposure to heavy silicon (28Si) ions. To prevent the development of multiple organ dysfunctions, pGSN (an important component of the extracellular actin-scavenging system) is responsible for the removal of actin that is released into the circulation during inflammation and from dying cells. We evaluated the levels of pGSN in plasma collected from groups of mice (5 mice in each) at 1 week (wk) and 1 month (1 mo) after exposure whole body to different doses of 28Si ions, i.e. 0, 0.1, 0.25, or 0.5 Gy (2 fractionated exposures, 15 days apart that totaled each selected dose). In the same mouse, the measurements of pGSN levels were coupled with the quantitation of injuries in the lung, determined by (a) the levels of cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (cleaved-PARP), a marker of apoptotic cell-death, (b) the levels of activated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and selected cytokines, i.e. tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and IL-6, from tissue-lysates of the lung. Further, the ratio of neutrophils and lymphocytes (N/L) was determined in the same mouse. Our data indicated: (i) the magnitude of pGSN depletion was dependent to radiation dose at both harvest times, (ii) a persistent depletion of pGSN up to 1 mo post-exposure to 0.25 or 0.5 Gy of 28Si ions, (iii) an inverse-correlation between pGSN depletion and increased levels of cleaved-PARP, including activated NF-κB/pro-inflammatory cytokines in the lung, and (iv) at both harvest times, statistically significant increases in the N/L ratio in groups of mice exposed to 0.5 Gy only. Our findings suggested that depletion in pGSN levels

  19. Prenatal effects of ancestral irradiation in inbred mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprackling, L.E.S.

    1975-01-01

    Mice from 13 inbred strains (S, Z, E, Bab, BaB, BrR, C, K, N, Q, G, CFW, CF1) received continuous cobalt 60 irradiation at low dose rates for varying numbers of consecutive generations. Some Bab and BaB mice had received continuous irradiation for from 24 to 31 generations and the other mice had up to six generations of continuous irradiation in their ancestry. At weaning, the mice were removed from the irradiation room and were mated within strains either to sibs or nonsibs. Ancestral and direct irradiation doses were calculated. The ancestral dose was the effective accumulated dose to the progeny of the mated mice. The direct dose was the amount of irradiation received by any mated female from her conception to her weaning. Each irradiated or control female was scored as fertile or sterile and in utero litter counts were made in pregnant females that were dissected past the tenth day of pregnancy; the sum of moles, dead embryos, and live embryos was the total in utero litter size. A ratio of the living embryos to the total number of embryos in utero was determined for each litter. An increase in ancestral or direct irradiation dose significantly decreased fertility in 11 of the 13 strains. The fertility curves for the pooled data were sigmoid in the area of the doses below those that caused complete sterility. Among the controls, there were significant strain differences in total litter size and in the ratio. Strain X--Y plots, with ancestral or direct doses plotted against total litter size or ratio, revealed the tendency for litter size to decrease as dose increased. The only trend shown for ratio was for the litters with ratios of 0.50 or less to appear more frequently among the irradiated mice. The few corpora lutea counts revealed nothing of significance. Generally, there was a definite trend toward fewer mice alive in utero among the irradiated mice

  20. 1. IV toimus Kõrvekülas... / Hele Ellermaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ellermaa, Hele

    2005-01-01

    Toimus Hans Christian Anderseni 200. sünniaastapäevale ja rahvusvahelisele lasteraamatupäevale pühendatud IV Tartumaa lasteraamatupäev. Konkursile laekus 172 joonistust, 14 kirjatööd ja 73 paberlõikepilti. Laste tööde näitus on avatud Kõrveküla raamatukogus kuni 16. IV

  1. 78 FR 45592 - DeltaPoint Capital IV, LP;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ..., Suite 160, Pittsford, NY 14534. The financing was contemplated for working capital. The financing is... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [License No. 02/02-0662] DeltaPoint Capital IV, LP; Notice Seeking... given that DeltaPoint Capital IV, L.P., 45 East Avenue, 6th Floor, Rochester, NY 14604, Federal...

  2. ADHD Rating Scale-IV: Checklists, Norms, and Clinical Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Danielle

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the "ADHD Rating Scale-IV: Checklist, norms, and clinical interpretation," is a norm-referenced checklist that measures the symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) according to the diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric…

  3. Equilibrium between Different Coordination Geometries in Oxidovanadium(IV) Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugone, Valeria; Garribba, Eugenio; Micera, Giovanni; Sanna, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    In this laboratory activity, the equilibrium between square pyramidal and octahedral V(IV)O[superscript 2+] complexes is described. We propose a set of experiments to synthesize and characterize two types of V(IV)O[superscript 2+] complexes. The experiment allows great flexibility and may be effectively used at a variety of levels and the activity…

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Organ Tin (IV) Complexes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2012-08-21

    Aug 21, 2012 ... the reference drug. In addition, within the diorganotin(IV) complexes, monomeric type (3) exhibited a slightly better activity as compared to the organodistannoxane dimer types (1 and 4). Key words: Preliminary in vitro cytotoxic assay, organotin(IV) complexes, comparison study. INTRODUCTION. Although ...

  5. Technical assistance and Article IV of the NPT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittencourt, H.F.S.

    1975-01-01

    The main concepts expressed in article IV of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) can also be found in the Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency. My predecessor, Mr. Upendra Goswami, wrote the following some years ago: ''Even today, after a lapse of 14 years, the IAEA often presents to the outside world the aspect of an organization in which the control activities loom large and the promotional activities appear as a bit of thin icing on a 'safeguards' cake. But a closer look at the organization today would convince the intelligent observer that whatever might have been the object of the founding fathers, the organization promotes peaceful uses no less vigorously than it controls proliferation of nuclear arms.'' Since the IAEA's technical assistance programme started in 1958 and the NPT only came into existence ten years later, it is quite clear that the IAEA already had considerable experience in promoting the peaceful uses of atomic energy. However, in my view, we should always keep in mind that the technical assistance programme derives primarily from the Statute of the IAEA through a liberal interpretation of the intentions of our founding fathers, and in fact emerges as the sum total of requests from developing Member States. Since its inception in 1958, the IAEA's technical assistance programme has undergone some changes in its orientation and it is to this matter that I would like to call attention. (author)

  6. Experimental facilities for Generation IV reactors research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krecanova, E.; Di Gabriele, F.; Berka, J.; Zychova, M.; Macak, J.; Vojacek, A.

    2013-06-01

    Centrum Vyzkumu Rez (CVR) is research and development Company situated in Czech Republic and member of the UJV group. One of its major fields is material research for Generation IV reactor concepts, especially supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR), very high temperature/gas-cooled fast reactor (VHTR/GFR) and lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR). The CVR is equipped by and is building unique experimental facilities which simulate the environment in the active zones of these reactor concepts and enable to pre-qualify and to select proper constructional materials for the most stressed components of the facility (cladding, vessel, piping). New infrastructure is founded within the Sustainable Energy project focused on implementation the Generation IV and fusion experimental facilities. The research of SCWR concept is divided to research and development of the constructional materials ensured by SuperCritical Water Loop (SCWL) and fuel components research on Fuel Qualification Test loop (SCWL-FQT). SCWL provides environment of the primary circuits of European SCWR, pressure 25 MPa, temperature 600 deg. C and its major purpose is to simulate behavior of the primary medium and candidate constructional materials. On-line monitoring system is included to collect the operational data relevant to experiment and its evaluation (pH, conductivity, chemical species concentration). SCWL-FQT is facility focused on the behavior of cladding material and fuel at the conditions of so-called preheater, the first pass of the medium through the fuel (in case of European SCWR concept). The conditions are 450 deg. C and 25 MPa. SCWL-FQT is unique facility enabling research of the shortened fuel rods. VHTR/GFR research covers material testing and also cleaning methods of the medium in primary circuit. The High Temperature Helium Loop (HTHL) enables exposure of materials and simulates the VHTR/GFR core environment to analyze the behavior of medium, especially in presence of organic compounds and

  7. Thiocyanato species of uranium(IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loyson, P.L.R.

    1974-12-01

    The aim of this thesis was to study the system U +4 /ClO 4 - /NCS - /HMPA/ - Solvent. This was done by means of various physical chemical methods. Spectrophotometric and conductometric evidence indicated that the following are the important species, which exist in acetone solution: (U(ClO 4 ) 3 .3acetone) + , (U(NCS) 3 .5acetone) + , (U 2 (NCS) 9 .6acetone) - , (U(NCS) 3 .2HMPA.3acetone) + , (U(NCS) 5 .2HMPA) - , (U(ClO 4 ) 3 .3HMPA) + , (U(NCS).5HMPA) +3 , (U(NCS) 2 .4HMPA) +2 and (U(NCS) 3 .3HMPA) + . The replacement of the large ClO 4 - ion by the much smaller NCS - anion results in a change in coordination of the U +4 , from six to eight. The formation of the species (U(NCS) 5 .2HMPA) - wasalso suggested by infrared studies and solubility determinations. The effect of a polar solvent on U(NCS) 4 .4HMPA was also studied, which indicated that, on solvation in methyl cyanide, U(NCS) 4 .4HMPA loses bound HMPA molecules. The ultimate goal of this project, i.e. the determination of the successive stability constants of the uranium(IV)thiocyanato complexes in acetone, was not reached, however, due to limitations of the computer program used. A qualitative treatment revealed that the stability of (U(NCS) 3 .5acetone) + , in acetone, is of the same order of magnitude as that of Co(NCS) 3 - ; similarly the species (U 2 (NCS) 9 .6acetone) - seems to be as stable as C0(NCS) 4 =. It was also indicated that excess U +4 cannot remove all bound NCS - from Co +2 . Finally the thiocyanato complexes of U +4 , relative to those of CO +2 , seem to be more stable in methyl cyanide, a N-donor solvent, than in acetone, an O-donor solvent

  8. Validation of practical notebook Morphophysiology IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Capote Martínez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the implementation of the Morphophysiology, 2007-2008 academic year, has shown a low achievement and motivation of students in individual and independent study. Most of them do not possess the skills or general intellectual development freelancing enough to assimilate the great independence required by this new learning model. Therefore, it was decided to introduce a new medium of instruction notebook handy morphophysiology IV which is an orientation guide for individual and independent study of students at the same time improves the management process of the educational process, whose usefulness is intended to validate. They surveyed 345 (94.8% who choose different specialties including Physical Culture. It was used in the survey, the questionnaire technique questions and answers, the closed first, and combining the direct and indirect, with some filter. This study was conducted through the comparison test of proportions between independent samples, using the Microstat statistical system, with a significance level of α = 0.05 (P <0.05. The 97.33% and 95.6% of students classified as necessary and useful respectively, the Practical Notebook, based on teaching assignments. The 67.84% of students suggests that the effectiveness of Practical Notebook is achieved when it is developed in a coordinated manner from staff student effort, reflections set out in groups or teams of study and the guiding role and facilitator professor, where it appears that forces develop participatory techniques. It is concluded that the Practical Notebook, acts as a methodological guide guiding, and developed through teaching assignments by students during individual and independent study, represents an effective tool for the learning process, contributing significantly to the improvement morphophysiology the curricular discipline.

  9. Effect of Guava Extract Administration on Megakaryocytes Amount in Mice Femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Atik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is a disease spread by mosquito’s bite. Dengue fever is marked by the presence of thrombocytopenia. Traditional crops such as guava are commonly used to treat dengue fever. This research aims to know the effect of guava extract administration towards megakaryocytes amount in mice femur. The study was conducted at the Laboratory of Pharmacology and Therapy, Histology Laboratory of Faculty of Medicine at Universitas Padjadjaran, Eijkman, Bandung from September until November 2016 using laboratory experimental study design. 20 Swiss webster mice strains were divided randomly into 4 groups. Group I and II were administered quinine 2.8 mg/20 grBW/day for 14 days to decrease amount of trombocytes. Group II and III were administered guava extract 0.785 mg/20 grBW/day for 5 days. Group IV was administered aquadest for 19 days. In the 27th day, the mice left femurs were collected and made into paraffin section preparations with hematoxylin-eosin staining and then observed under microscope. Group IV had the most megakaryocytes followed by Group II, III, and I. Based on Kruskal-Wallis test, a significant difference was shown (p<0.05. Mann-Whitney test showed that there were significant differences between Group I and Group II, III, and IV. Meanwhile there was no significant difference between normal mice and extract-given mice. Guava extract is proven statistically significant to increase the megakaryocytes amount in thrombocytopenic mice without increasing number of megakaryocytes in normal mice.

  10. Isolated cytochrome c oxidase deficiency in G93A SOD1 mice overexpressing CCS protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Marjatta; Leary, Scot C; Romain, Nadine; Pierrel, Fabien; Winge, Dennis R; Haller, Ronald G; Elliott, Jeffrey L

    2008-05-02

    G93A SOD1 transgenic mice overexpressing CCS protein develop an accelerated disease course that is associated with enhanced mitochondrial pathology and increased mitochondrial localization of mutant SOD1. Because these results suggest an effect of mutant SOD1 on mitochondrial function, we assessed the enzymatic activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes in the spinal cords of CCS/G93A SOD1 and control mice. CCS/G93A SOD1 mouse spinal cord demonstrates a 55% loss of complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) activity compared with spinal cord from age-matched non-transgenic or G93A SOD1 mice. In contrast, CCS/G93A SOD1 spinal cord shows no reduction in the activities of complex I, II, or III. Blue native gel analysis further demonstrates a marked reduction in the levels of complex IV but not of complex I, II, III, or V in spinal cords of CCS/G93A SOD1 mice compared with non-transgenic, G93A SOD1, or CCS/WT SOD1 controls. With SDS-PAGE analysis, spinal cords from CCS/G93A SOD1 mice showed significant decreases in the levels of two structural subunits of cytochrome c oxidase, COX1 and COX5b, relative to controls. In contrast, CCS/G93A SOD1 mouse spinal cord showed no reduction in levels of selected subunits from complexes I, II, III, or V. Heme A analyses of spinal cord further support the existence of cytochrome c oxidase deficiency in CCS/G93A SOD1 mice. Collectively, these results establish that CCS/G93A SOD1 mice manifest an isolated complex IV deficiency which may underlie a substantial part of mutant SOD1-induced mitochondrial cytopathy.

  11. Common molecular determinants of tarantula huwentoxin-IV inhibition of Na+ channel voltage sensors in domains II and IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yucheng; Jackson, James O; Liang, Songping; Cummins, Theodore R

    2011-08-05

    The voltage sensors of domains II and IV of sodium channels are important determinants of activation and inactivation, respectively. Animal toxins that alter electrophysiological excitability of muscles and neurons often modify sodium channel activation by selectively interacting with domain II and inactivation by selectively interacting with domain IV. This suggests that there may be substantial differences between the toxin-binding sites in these two important domains. Here we explore the ability of the tarantula huwentoxin-IV (HWTX-IV) to inhibit the activity of the domain II and IV voltage sensors. HWTX-IV is specific for domain II, and we identify five residues in the S1-S2 (Glu-753) and S3-S4 (Glu-811, Leu-814, Asp-816, and Glu-818) regions of domain II that are crucial for inhibition of activation by HWTX-IV. These data indicate that a single residue in the S3-S4 linker (Glu-818 in hNav1.7) is crucial for allowing HWTX-IV to interact with the other key residues and trap the voltage sensor in the closed configuration. Mutagenesis analysis indicates that the five corresponding residues in domain IV are all critical for endowing HWTX-IV with the ability to inhibit fast inactivation. Our data suggest that the toxin-binding motif in domain II is conserved in domain IV. Increasing our understanding of the molecular determinants of toxin interactions with voltage-gated sodium channels may permit development of enhanced isoform-specific voltage-gating modifiers.

  12. Mitochondrial-nuclear genome interactions in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Angela M; King, Adrienne L; Fetterman, Jessica L; Millender-Swain, Telisha; Finley, Rachel D; Oliva, Claudia R; Crowe, David R; Ballinger, Scott W; Bailey, Shannon M

    2014-07-15

    NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) involves significant changes in liver metabolism characterized by oxidative stress, lipid accumulation and fibrogenesis. Mitochondrial dysfunction and bioenergetic defects also contribute to NAFLD. In the present study, we examined whether differences in mtDNA influence NAFLD. To determine the role of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes in NAFLD, MNX (mitochondrial-nuclear exchange) mice were fed an atherogenic diet. MNX mice have mtDNA from C57BL/6J mice on a C3H/HeN nuclear background and vice versa. Results from MNX mice were compared with wild-type C57BL/6J and C3H/HeN mice fed a control or atherogenic diet. Mice with the C57BL/6J nuclear genome developed more macrosteatosis, inflammation and fibrosis compared with mice containing the C3H/HeN nuclear genome when fed the atherogenic diet. These changes were associated with parallel alterations in inflammation and fibrosis gene expression in wild-type mice, with intermediate responses in MNX mice. Mice with the C57BL/6J nuclear genome had increased State 4 respiration, whereas MNX mice had decreased State 3 respiration and RCR (respiratory control ratio) when fed the atherogenic diet. Complex IV activity and most mitochondrial biogenesis genes were increased in mice with the C57BL/6J nuclear or mitochondrial genome, or both fed the atherogenic diet. These results reveal new interactions between mitochondrial and nuclear genomes and support the concept that mtDNA influences mitochondrial function and metabolic pathways implicated in NAFLD.

  13. Mitochondrial-nuclear genome interactions in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Angela M.; King, Adrienne L.; Fetterman, Jessica L.; Millender-Swain, Telisha; Finley, Rachel D.; Oliva, Claudia R.; Crowe, David Ralph; Ballinger, Scott W.; Bailey, Shannon M.

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) involves significant changes in liver metabolism characterized by oxidative stress, lipid accumulation, and fibrogenesis. Mitochondrial dysfunction and bioenergetic defects also contribute to NAFLD. Herein, we examined whether differences in mtDNA influence NAFLD. To determine the role of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes in NAFLD, Mitochondrial-Nuclear eXchange (MNX) mice were fed an atherogenic diet. MNX mice have mtDNA from C57BL/6J mice on a C3H/HeN nuclear background and vice versa. Results from MNX mice were compared to wild-type C57BL/6J and C3H/HeN mice fed a control or atherogenic diet. Mice with the C57BL/6J nuclear genome developed more macrosteatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis compared with mice containing the C3H/HeN nuclear genome when fed the atherogenic diet. These changes were associated with parallel alterations in inflammation and fibrosis gene expression in wild-type mice, with intermediate responses in MNX mice. Mice with the C57BL/6J nuclear genome had increased State 4 respiration, whereas MNX mice had decreased State 3 respiration and RCR when fed the atherogenic diet. Complex IV activity and most mitochondrial biogenesis genes were increased in mice with the C57BL/6J nuclear or mitochondrial genome, or both fed the atherogenic diet. These results reveal new interactions between mitochondrial and nuclear genomes and support the concept that mtDNA influences mitochondrial function and metabolic pathways implicated in NAFLD. PMID:24758559

  14. Anti-human tissue factor antibody ameliorated intestinal ischemia reperfusion-induced acute lung injury in human tissue factor knock-in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interaction between the coagulation and inflammation systems plays an important role in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Anti-coagulation is an attractive option for ARDS treatment, and this has promoted development of new antibodies. However, preclinical trials for these antibodies are often limited by the high cost and availability of non-human primates. In the present study, we developed a novel alternative method to test the role of a humanized anti-tissue factor mAb in acute lung injury with transgenic mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human tissue factor knock-in (hTF-KI transgenic mice and a novel humanized anti-human tissue factor mAb (anti-hTF mAb, CNTO859 were developed. The hTF-KI mice showed a normal and functional expression of hTF. The anti-hTF mAb specifically blocked the pro-coagulation activity of brain extracts from the hTF-KI mice and human, but not from wild type mice. An extrapulmonary ARDS model was used by intestinal ischemia-reperfusion. Significant lung tissue damage in hTF-KI mice was observed after 2 h reperfusion. Administration of CNTO859 (5 mg/kg, i.v. attenuated the severity of lung tissue injury, decreased the total cell counts and protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and reduced Evans blue leakage. In addition, the treatment significantly reduced alveolar fibrin deposition, and decreased tissue factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity in the serum. This treatment also down-regulated cytokine expression and reduced cell death in the lung. CONCLUSIONS: This novel anti-hTF antibody showed beneficial effects on intestinal ischemia-reperfusion induced acute lung injury, which merits further investigation for clinical usage. In addition, the use of knock-in transgenic mice to test the efficacy of antibodies against human-specific proteins is a novel strategy for preclinical studies.

  15. An Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology for Generation IV Nuclear Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leahy, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Risk and Safety Working Group (RSWG) was created to develop an effective approach for the safety of Generation IV advanced nuclear energy systems. Early work of the RSWG focused on defining a safety philosophy founded on lessons learned from current and prior generations of nuclear technologies, and on identifying technology characteristics that may help achieve Generation IV safety goals. More recent RSWG work has focused on the definition of an integrated safety assessment methodology for evaluating the safety of Generation IV systems. The methodology, tentatively called ISAM, is an integrated 'toolkit' consisting of analytical techniques that are available and matched to appropriate stages of Generation IV system concept development. The integrated methodology is intended to yield safety-related insights that help actively drive the evolving design throughout the technology development cycle, potentially resulting in enhanced safety, reduced costs, and shortened development time.

  16. Testing and economical evaluation of U(IV) in Purex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoisington, J.E.; Hsu, T.C.

    1983-01-01

    The use of uranous nitrate, U(IV), as a plutonium reductant in the Purex solvent extraction process could significantly reduce the waste generation at the Savannah River Plant. The current reductant is a ferrous sulfamate (FS)/hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) mixture. The iron and sulfate in the FS are major contributors to waste generation. The U(IV) reductant oxidizes to U(VI) producing no waste. The Savannah River Laboratory has developed an efficient electrochemical cell for U(IV) production and has demonstrated the effectiveness of U(IV) as a plutonium reductant. Plant tests and economic analyses are currently being conducted to determine the cost effectiveness of U(IV) implementation. The results of recent studies are presented

  17. Crystal structure of ammonium divanadium(IV,V tellurium(IV heptaoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William T. A. Harrison

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The polyhedral building blocks of the layered inorganic network in the mixed-valence title compound, (NH4(VIVO2(VVO2(TeO3, are vertex-sharing VVO4 tetrahedra, distorted VIVO6 octahedra and TeO3 pyramids, which are linked by V—O—V and V—O—Te bonds, forming double layers lying parallel to (100. The presumed TeIV lone-pairs of electrons appear to be directed inwards into cavities in the double layers. The charge-balancing ammonium cations lie between the layers and probably interact with them via N—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  18. Plasma metabolism of apolipoprotein A-IV in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiselli, G.; Krishnan, S.; Beigel, Y.; Gotto, A.M. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    As assessed by molecular sieve chromatography and quantitation by a specific radioimmunoassay, apoA-IV is associated in plasma with the triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, to a high density lipoprotein (HDL) subfraction of smaller size than HDL3, and to the plasma lipoprotein-free fraction (LFF). In this study, the turnover of apoA-IV associated to the triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, HDL and LFF was investigated in vivo in normal volunteers. Human apoA-IV isolated from the thoracic duct lymph chylomicrons was radioiodinated and incubated with plasma withdrawn from normal volunteers after a fatty meal. Radioiodinated apoA-IV-labeled triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, HDL, and LFF were then isolated by chromatography on an AcA 34 column. Shortly after the injection of the radioiodinated apoA-IV-labeled triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, most of the radioactivity could be recovered in the HDL and LFF column fractions. On the other hand, when radioiodinated apoA-IV-labeled HDL or LFF were injected, the radioactivity remained with the originally injected fractions at all times. The residence time in plasma of 125 I-labeled apoA-IV, when injected in association with HDL or LFF, was 1.61 and 0.55 days, respectively. When 125 I-labeled apoA-IV was injected as a free protein, the radioactivity distributed rapidly among the three plasma pools in proportion to their mass. The overall fractional catabolic rate of apoA-IV in plasma was measured in the three normal subjects and averaged 1.56 pools per day. The mean degradation rate of apoA-IV was 8.69 mg/kg X day

  19. IV. Crossbred reproduction and constant slaughter mass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Higher reproduction and lower replacement rates lead to a higher proportion of terminally crossbred offspring to sell. Substantial improvement in herd .... growth below the knee and hock is completed at birth. In cattle and sheep there is hope ... reported highly significant total heterosis for birth mass in the. Angus X Hereford ...

  20. Of mice and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Troels Askhøj; Troelsen, Karin de Linde Lind; Larsen, Lars Allan

    2014-01-01

    CHD is part of the phenotype. Furthermore, mapping of genomic copy number variants and exome sequencing of CHD patients have led to the identification of a large number of candidate disease genes. Experiments in animal models, particularly in mice, have been used to verify human disease genes...

  1. Correlation functions for the distribution coefficients of U(IV) and Pu(III) ions between aqueous nitric acid and 30% TBP in an aliphatic diluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geldard, J.F.; Beyerlein, A.L.; Phillips, L.

    1985-09-01

    Distribution coefficient correlations for U(IV) and Pu(III) are obtained in terms of a modified form of the total nitrate ion salting strength that was successfully used to obtain distribution coefficient correlations for U(VI) and Pu(IV) in the earlier work of G.L. Richardson. The modification of salting strength was needed to account for the fact that the U(IV) distribution coefficients measured under conditions where U(VI) is present consistently fall below those obtained when it is absent. The correlations were incorporated into the mixer-settler computer model PUBG, and in the simulation of a 20-stage 1B partitioning contactor, calculated product stream concentrations were in excellent agreement with experiment. Earlier mixer-settler computer models, which failed to account for U(IV) distribution coefficients, predicted that U(IV) remained in the aqueous product stream, which is contrary to the experimental measurements.

  2. Correlation functions for the distribution coefficients of U(IV) and Pu(III) ions between aqueous nitric acid and 30% TBP in an aliphatic diluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geldard, J.F.; Beyerlein, A.L.; Phillips, L.

    1985-01-01

    Distribution coefficient correlations for U(IV) and Pu(III) are obtained in terms of a modified form of the total nitrate ion salting strength that was successfully used to obtain distribution coefficient correlations for U(VI) and Pu(IV) in the earlier work of G.L. Richardson. The modification of salting strength was needed to account for the fact that the U(IV) distribution coefficients measured under conditions where U(VI) is present consistently fall below those obtained when it is absent. The correlations were incorporated into the mixer-settler computer model PUBG, and in the simulation of a 20-stage 1B partitioning contactor, calculated product stream concentrations were in excellent agreement with experiment. Earlier mixer-settler computer models, which failed to account for U(IV) distribution coefficients, predicted that U(IV) remained in the aqueous product stream, which is contrary to the experimental measurements

  3. DSM-IV disorders in children with borderline to moderate intellectual disability. I: Prevalence and impact. [IF 3.6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.C.; Koot, H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence, comorbidity, and impact of DSM-IV disorders in 7- to 20-year-olds with intellectual disability. Method: A total of 474 children (response 86.8%) were randomly selected from a sample of students from Dutch schools for the intellectually disabled. Parents completed

  4. Examining the Stability of "DSM-IV" and Empirically Derived Eating Disorder Classification: Implications for "DSM-5"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Carol B.; Crow, Scott J.; Swanson, Sonja A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Mitchell, James E.; Agras, W. Stewart; Halmi, Katherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to derive an empirical classification of eating disorder symptoms in a heterogeneous eating disorder sample using latent class analysis (LCA) and to examine the longitudinal stability of these latent classes (LCs) and the stability of DSM-IV eating disorder (ED) diagnoses. Method: A total of 429…

  5. Cognitive and biochemical effects of monosodium glutamate and aspartame, administered individually and in combination in male albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Taweel, Gasem M; A, Zyadah M; Ajarem, Jamaan S; Ahmad, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame (ASM) individually and in combination on the cognitive behavior and biochemical parameters like neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices in the brain tissue of mice. Forty male Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into four groups of ten each and were exposed to MSG and ASM through drinking water for one month. Group I was the control and was given normal tap water. Groups II and III received MSG (8 mg/kg) and ASM (32 mg/kg) respectively dissolved in tap water. Group IV received MSG and ASM together in the same doses. After the exposure period, the animals were subjected to cognitive behavioral tests in a shuttle box and a water maze. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed and the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices were estimated in their forebrain tissue. Both MSG and ASM individually as well as in combination had significant disruptive effects on the cognitive responses, memory retention and learning capabilities of the mice in the order (MSG+ASM)>ASM>MSG. Furthermore, while MSG and ASM individually were unable to alter the brain neurotransmitters and the oxidative stress indices, their combination dose (MSG+ASM) decreased significantly the levels of neurotransmitters (dopamine and serotonin) and it also caused oxidative stress by increasing the lipid peroxides measured in the form of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and decreasing the level of total glutathione (GSH). Further studies are required to evaluate the synergistic effects of MSG and ASM on the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices and their involvement in cognitive dysfunctions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Borrmann type IV adenocarcinoma versus gastric lymphoma : spiral CT evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Bo Kyoung; Kim, Yun Hwan; Shin, Kue Hee; Hong, Suk Joo; Kim, Hong Weon; Park, Cheol Min; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Cho, Hyun Deuk

    1999-01-01

    To distinguish the spiral CT findings of Borrmann type IV adenocarcinoma from those of gastric lymphoma with diffuse gastric wall thickening. We retrospectively reviewed the spiral CT scans of 30 patients with Borrmann type IV adenocarcinoma and nine with gastric lymphoma with diffuse gastric wall thickening. In all patients the respective condition was pathologically confirmed by gastrectomy. CT scanning was performed after peroral administration of 500-700ml of water. A total of 120-140 ml bolus of nonionic contrast material was administered intravenously at a flow rate of 3 ml/sec and two-phase images were obtained at 35-45 sec(early phase) and 180 sec(delayed phase) after the start of bolus injection. Spiral CT was performed with 10mm collimation, 10mm/sec table feed and 10mm reconstruction. We evaluated the degree and homogeneity of enhancement of thickened entire gastric wall, and the enhancement pattern of gastric inner layer, as seen on early-phase CT scans. On early and delayed views, the thickness of gastric wall and the presence of perigastric fat infiltration were determined. The enhancement patterns of gastric inner layer were classified as either continuous or discontinuous thick enhancement, thin enhancement, or nonenhancement. The thickness of gastric wall was 1.2-3.5cm(mean 2.2cm) in cases of adenocarcinoma and 1.2-7.6cm(mean 4cm) in lymphoma. Perigastric fat infiltration was seen in 24 patients with adenocarcinoma(80%) and four with lymphoma(44%). In those with adenocarcinoma, the degree of enhancement of entire gastric wall was hyperdense in fifteen patients(50%) and isointense in eleven (37%). Seven patients with lymphoma(78%)showed hypodensity. In those with adenocarcinoma, continuous thick enhancement of gastric inner layer was seen in 18 patients(60%) and discontinuous thick enhancement in nine(30%). In lymphoma cases, no thick enhancement was observed. Thin enhancement of gastric inner layer was demonstrated in three patients with

  7. IUE observations of interstellar Si IV and C IV lines observed in the spectra of Wolf-Rayet stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.J.; Willis, A.J.; Wilson, R.

    1980-01-01

    Recent IUE observations of Wolf-Rayet stars show narrow absorption lines in the highly ionized species of Si IV and C IV. The strengths of these 'interstellar' Si IV and C IV lines observed in the spectra of 10 WR stars and two other early-type stars are compared. Of the WR sample, six stars exhibit very strong Si IV and C IV lines (Wsub(lambda) approximately 0.3 to 0.5 A) whilst the other four stars show much weaker lines (Wsub(lambda) approximately 0.1 A). There is no correlation between the strengths of these lines with either stellar distance or colour excess. The weaker absorptions may arise in the individual stellar H II regions, the observed strengths being consistent with those expected for stars with Tsub(eff) = 30 000 K. Five of the other stars which exhibit very strong absorptions lie in the line of sight to active interstellar regions (Cygnus and Carina nebulae) and it is considered probable that, in addition to their H II region components, the bulk of the strong Si IV and C IV absorptions originate in hot gas associated with these active regions. In the case of the WN5 star HD 50896 violet-displaced components are observed in the interstellar lines of low ionization species. These are thought to be produced in the ring nebula S308 surrounding HD 50896. (author)

  8. Bowel perforation in type IV vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Masri, H; Loong, T-H; Meurette, G; Podevin, J; Zinzindohoue, F; Lehur, P-A

    2018-05-01

    Spontaneous gastrointestinal (GI) perforation is a well-known complication occurring in patients suffering from Type IV vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS IV). The aim of the present study was to review the current literature on spontaneous GI perforation in EDS IV and illustrate the surgical management and outcome when possible. A systematic review of all the published data on EDS IV patients with spontaneous GI perforation between January 2000 and December 2015 was conducted using three major databases PUBMED, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trails. References of the selected articles were screened to avoid missing main articles. Twenty-seven published case reports and four retrospective studies, including 31 and 527 cases, respectively, matched the search criteria. A case from our institution was added. Mean age was 26 years (range 6-64 years). The most frequent site of perforation was the colon, particularly the sigmoid, followed by small bowel, upper rectum, and finally stomach. The majority of cases were initially managed with Hartmann's procedure. In recurrent perforations, total colectomy was performed. The reperforation rate was considerably higher in the "partial colectomy with anastomosis" group than in the Hartmann group. Colonic perforation is the most common spontaneous GI perforation in EDS IV patients. An unexpected fragility of the tissues should raise the possibility of a connective tissue disorder and prompt further investigation with eventual management of these high-risk patients with a multidisciplinary team approach in dedicated centres. In the emergency setting, a Hartmann procedure should be performed.

  9. A field study on chemistry, S(IV) oxidation rates and vertical transport during fog conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joos, F.; Baltensperger, U.

    An extensive fog study was carried out in the central plateu of Switzerland. Ninety-seven fog samples were collected along with aerosol filter and cascade impactor samples, and measurements of O 3, SO 2, NO, NO x, PAN, temperature, and wind speed and direction. Maximum levels in fogwater were 4.3, 4.4., 0.033, 1.7, 0.5, 0.024 and 9.2 mmol ℓ -1 for Cl -, NO 3-, NO 2-, SO 42-, S(IV), oxalate and NH 4+, respectively. pH varied between 2.9 and 7.1. Sixteen additional elements were determined in the fog samples by ICP. The sum of the concentrations of SO 42- and S(IV) agreed very with the total sulfur concentration as determined by ICP. A substantial excess of S(IV) (up to 0.2 mmol ℓ -1) compared to Henry and acid-base equilibrium calculations was found, which can probably be attributed to complex formations with aldehydes. S(IV) oxidation rates of up to 650 nmol ℓ -1 s -1 with ozone and of up to 100 nmol ℓ -1 s -1 with NO 2 were calculated. S(IV) oxidation due to PAN, NO 2- and Fe(III) was of minor importance. A substantial fraction of the major ions was present in the intersitial aerosol (aerosol particles < 4 μm) even during fog conditions. High correlations were found for NH 4+, NO 32-. From their ratios in the fog water and the aerosol (< 4 μm) it could be concluded that at least 40% of NO 3- and 20% of NH 4+ in fog water was due to gas phase scavenging. Increasing concentrations in fog water were found during fog dissipation. Concentrations decreased with increasing height. A vertical transport model including turbulent diffusion and droplet sedimentation is introduced, which matches the experimental data of this vertical profile.

  10. Closure of tubular patent ductus arteriosus with the Amplatzer Vascular Plug IV: feasibility and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruteau, Alban-Elouen; Lambert, Virginie; Riou, Jean-Yves; Angel, Claude-Yves; Belli, Emre; Petit, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Closure of tubular patent ductus arteriosus remains a challenging procedure. Anecdotal use of Amplatzer Vascular Plug IV for tubular ductus closure has been reported but feasibility and safety in a consecutive patients' series remain unknown. We performed a monocenter prospective study at the Marie Lannelongue Hospital in Paris, France. From 2009 to 2014, a total of 47 patients (39 infants, 3 children, and 5 adults) underwent ductus closure with the Plug IV. Ductus morphology was a type E in 34 (72.3%) patients and a type C in 13 (27.7%) patients. Ductus closure occurred in 39 (83.0%) infants at a median age of seven months (range: 3-23 months) and a median weight of 6.9 kg (range: 4.1-17.0 kg). A past history of prematurity and very low birth weight was found in 33 (70.2%) of them. Twelve (25.5%) patients had pulmonary hypertension. Mean Plug IV diameter was 1.9 ± 0.1 mm larger than the mean maximal ductus diameter. Early complete closure of the ductus was obtained in all patients. Early migration of an undersized Plug IV occurred in one (2.1%) patient and was suitable for percutaneous device retrieval. After a mean follow-up of 3.4 ± 1.4 years, all patients are alive and asymptomatic, no late complication occurred. Transcatheter closure of tubular ductus with the Amplatzer Vascular Plug IV can be safe and effective, with a 100% early occlusion rate. This device, suitable for a 4F sheath, is a new alternative for tubular ductus closure in low-body-weight infants. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Uptake by J774 macrophages of very-low-density lipoproteins isolated from apoE-deficient mice is mediated by a distinct receptor and stimulated by lipoprotein lipase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, W.L.; Sman van der - Beer, F. de; Vlijmen, B.J.M. van; Vark, L.C. van; Hofker, M.H.; Havekes, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo) E-deficient mice display marked accumulation in the plasma of VLDL deficient in both apoE and apoBl00 but containing apoB48, apoA-1, apoCs, and apoA-IV. Since apoE-deficient mice develop severe atherosclerotic lesions with lipid-laden macrophages, we reasoned that the uptake of

  12. Aqueous Extract of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii on Memory Impairment Induced by Ovariectomy in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Rubio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to test two different doses of aqueous extract of black maca on learning and memory in ovariectomized (OVX mice and their relation with malonalehyde (MDA, acetylcholinesterase (Ache and monoamine oxidase (MAO brain levels. Female mice were divided into five groups: (i naive (control, (ii sham, (iii OVX mice and OVX mice treated with (iv 0.50 g kg−1 and (v 2.00 g kg−1 black maca. Mice were orally treated with distilled water or black maca during 35 days starting 7 days after surgery. Memory and learning were assessed using the water Morris maze (from day 23–27 and the step-down avoidance test (days 34 and 35. At the end of each treatment, mice were sacrificed by decapitation and brains were dissected out for MDA, Ache and MAO determinations. Black maca (0.5 and 2.0 g/kg increased step-down latency when compared to OVX control mice. Black maca decreased MDA and Ache levels in OVX mice; whereas, no differences were observed in MAO levels. Finally, black maca improved experimental memory impairment induced by ovariectomy, due in part, by its antioxidant and Ache inhibitory activities.

  13. Aqueous Extract of Black Maca (Lepidium meyenii) on Memory Impairment Induced by Ovariectomy in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Julio; Qiong, Wang; Liu, Xinmin; Jiang, Zhen; Dang, Haixia; Chen, Shi-Lin; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to test two different doses of aqueous extract of black maca on learning and memory in ovariectomized (OVX) mice and their relation with malonalehyde (MDA), acetylcholinesterase (Ache) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) brain levels. Female mice were divided into five groups: (i) naive (control), (ii) sham, (iii) OVX mice and OVX mice treated with (iv) 0.50 g kg(-1) and (v) 2.00 g kg(-1) black maca. Mice were orally treated with distilled water or black maca during 35 days starting 7 days after surgery. Memory and learning were assessed using the water Morris maze (from day 23-27) and the step-down avoidance test (days 34 and 35). At the end of each treatment, mice were sacrificed by decapitation and brains were dissected out for MDA, Ache and MAO determinations. Black maca (0.5 and 2.0 g/kg) increased step-down latency when compared to OVX control mice. Black maca decreased MDA and Ache levels in OVX mice; whereas, no differences were observed in MAO levels. Finally, black maca improved experimental memory impairment induced by ovariectomy, due in part, by its antioxidant and Ache inhibitory activities.

  14. Studies on Th(IV) and Zr(IV) complexes of oxygen donor ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, R.K.; Srivastava, M.; Srivastava, A.K.

    1981-01-01

    In recent years a large number of complexes of amine N-oxides with a wide variety of metal salts have been isolated and characterized. Less attention has been paid to the aromatic amine N-oxides complexes with Th(IV) thiocyanate. In the present communication studies are reported on Th(IV) thiocyanate complexes of pyridine N-oxide (PyO), quinoline N-oxide (QO), isoquinoline N-oxide (IsqO), 2-picoline N-oxide (2-picO), 3-picoline N-oxide (3-picO) and 4-picoline N-oxide (4-picO) and comparisons are made with the existing complexes of 2,6-lutidine N-oxide (LNO), 2, 2'bipyridine N-N'-dioxide (BipyO 2 ), mono N-oxides of 2,2'-bipyridine (BipyNO) and 1,10-phenanthroline (PhenNO) and 1, 10-phenanthroline N-N'-dioxide (PhenO 2 ). The analytical data correspond to the composition Th(NCS) 4 .4L. The molar conductance of all the complexes in nitrobenzene in the range 2.5 to 4.5 Ω -1 cm 2 mol -1 indicate them to be non-electrolytes. The results of IR spectroscopy and thermogravimetry are given and discussed. (author)

  15. Synthetic Strategies for the Synthesis of Ternary Uranium(IV) and Thorium(IV) Fluorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepov, Vladislav V; Felder, Justin B; Zur Loye, Hans-Conrad

    2018-04-10

    A series of new U(IV) and Th(IV) fluorides, Na 7 U 6 F 31 (1), NaUF 5 (2), NaU 2 F 9 (3), KTh 2 F 9 (4), NaTh 2 F 9 (5), (H 3 O)Th 3 F 13 (6), and (H 3 O)U 3 F 13 (7), was obtained using hydrothermal and low-temperature flux methods. Mild hydrothermal reactions with uranyl acetate as a precursor yielded 1, 7, and the monoclinic polymorph of NaU 2 F 9 , whereas direct reactions between UF 4 and NaF led to the formation of 2 and orthorhombic NaU 2 F 9 (3). This highlights an unexpected difference in reaction products when different starting uranium sources are used. All seven compounds were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and their structures are compared on the basis of cation topology, revealing a close topological resemblance between fluorides on the basis of the layers observed in NaUF 5 (H 2 O). Phase-pure samples of 1, 2, and both polymorphs of NaU 2 F 9 were obtained, and their spectroscopic and magnetic properties were measured. The UV-vis data are dominated by the presence of U 4+ cations and agree well with the electronic transitions. Effective magnetic moments of the studied compounds were found to range from 3.08 to 3.59 μ B .

  16. Early Lung Adenocarcinoma in Mice: Micro-Computed Tomography Manifestations and Correlation with Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Deng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common fatal malignancy for both men and women and adenocarcinoma is the most common histologic type. Early diagnosis of lung cancer can significantly improve the survival rate of patients. This study aimed to investigate the micro-computed tomography (micro-CT manifestations of early lung adenocarcinoma (LAC in mice and to provide a new perspective for early clinical diagnosis. Early LAC models in 10 mice were established by subcutaneously injecting 1-methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG solution. Micro-CT scan and multiple planar reconstruction (MPR were used for mouse lungs. Micro-CT features of early LAC, especially the relationships between tumor and bronchus, were analyzed and correlated with pathology. Micro-CT findings of early LAC were divided into three types: non-solid (n = 8, 6%, partly solid (n = 85, 64% and totally solid (n = 39, 30%. Tumor-bronchus relationships, which could be observed in 110 of 132(83% LAC, were classified into four patterns: type I (n = 16, 15%, bronchus was truncated at the margin of the tumor; type II (n = 33, 30%, bronchus penetrated into the tumor with tapered narrowing and interruption; type III (n = 38, 35%, bronchus penetrated into the tumor with a patent and intact lumen; type IV (n = 99, 90%, bronchus ran at the border of the tumor with an intact or compressed lumen. Micro-CT manifestations of early LAC correlated well with pathological findings. Micro-CT can clearly demonstrate the features of mouse early LAC and bronchus-tumor relationships, and can also provide a new tool and perspective for the study of early LAC.

  17. Notas Ornitológicas Colombianas, IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugand Armando

    1948-06-01

    Full Text Available La lista siguiente, cuarta en la serte de mis notas ornitológicas colombianas (*, contiene noticias de algún interés relativas a elementos propios de la avifauna de Colombia y a varias especies migratorias que se encuentran de manera temporal en el territorio de este país. En total, 178 especies y subespecies se enumeran en este trabajo.

  18. Estrogen and progesterone receptors have distinct roles in the establishment of the hyperplastic phenotype in PR-A transgenic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simian, Marina; Bissell, Mina J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Shyamala, Gopalan

    2009-05-11

    Expression of the A and B forms of progesterone receptor (PR) in an appropriate ratio is critical for mammary development. Mammary glands of PR-A transgenic mice, carrying an additional A form of PR as a transgene, exhibit morphological features associated with the development of mammary tumors. Our objective was to determine the roles of estrogen (E) and progesterone (P) in the genesis of mammary hyperplasias/preneoplasias in PR-A transgenics. We subjected PR-A mice to hormonal treatments and analyzed mammary glands for the presence of hyperplasias and used BrdU incorporation to measure proliferation. Quantitative image analysis was carried out to compare levels of latency-associated peptide and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF{beta}1) between PR-A and PR-B transgenics. Basement membrane disruption was examined by immunofluorescence and proteolytic activity by zymography. The hyperplastic phenotype of PR-A transgenics is inhibited by ovariectomy, and is reversed by treatment with E + P. Studies using the antiestrogen ICI 182,780 or antiprogestins RU486 or ZK 98,299 show that the increase in proliferation requires signaling through E/estrogen receptor alpha but is not sufficient to give rise to hyperplasias, whereas signaling through P/PR has little impact on proliferation but is essential for the manifestation of hyperplasias. Increased proliferation is correlated with decreased TGF{beta}1 activation in the PR-A transgenics. Analysis of basement membrane integrity showed loss of laminin-5, collagen III and collagen IV in mammary glands of PR-A mice, which is restored by ovariectomy. Examination of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) showed that total levels of MMP-2 correlate with the steady-state levels of PR, and that areas of laminin-5 loss coincide with those of activation of MMP-2 in PR-A transgenics. Activation of MMP-2 is dependent on treatment with E and P in ovariectomized wild-type mice, but is achieved only by treatment with P in PR-A mice. These data

  19. Stability enhancement and electronic tunability of two-dimensional SbIV compounds via surface functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenhan; Guo, Shiying; Liu, Xuhai; Cai, Bo; Song, Xiufeng; Zhu, Zhen; Zhang, Shengli

    2018-01-01

    We propose a family of hydrogenated- and halogenated-SbIV (SbIVX-2) materials that simultaneously have two-dimensional (2D) structures, high stability and appealing electronic properties. Based on first-principles total-energy and vibrational-spectra calculations, SbIVX-2 monolayers are found both thermally and dynamically stable. Varying IV and X elements can rationally tune the electronic properties of SbIVX-2 monolayers, effectively modulating the band gap from 0 to 3.42 eV. Regarding such superior stability and broad band-gap range, SbIVX-2 monolayers are expected to be synthesized in experiments and taken as promising candidates for low-dimensional electronic and optoelectronic devices, such as blue-to-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LED) and photodetectors.

  20. Generation IV nuclear reactors: Current status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, Giorgio; Mancini, Mauro; Todeschini, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Generation IV nuclear power plants (GEN IV NPPs) are supposed to become, in many countries, an important source of base load power in the middle–long term (2030–2050). Nowadays there are many designs of these NPPs but for political, strategic and economic reasons only few of them will be deployed. International literature proposes many papers and reports dealing with GEN IV NPPs, but there is an evident difference in the types and structures of the information and a general unbiased overview is missing. This paper fills the gap, presenting the state-of-the-art for GEN IV NPPs technologies (VHTR, SFR, SCWR, GFR, LFR and MSR) providing a comprehensive literature review of the different designs, discussing the major R and D challenges and comparing them with other advanced technologies available for the middle- and long-term energy market. The result of this research shows that the possible applications for GEN IV technologies are wider than current NPPs. The economics of some GEN IV NPPs is similar to actual NPPs but the “carbon cost” for fossil-fired power plants would increase the relative valuation. However, GEN IV NPPs still require substantial R and D effort, preventing short-term commercial adoption. - Highlights: • Generation IV reactors are the middle–long term technology for nuclear energy. • This paper provides an overview and a taxonomy for the designs under consideration. • R and D efforts are in the material, heat exchangers, power conversion unit and fuel. • The life cycle costs are competitive with other innovative technologies. • The hydrogen economy will foster the development of Generation IV reactors

  1. Dissimilatory Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, D R

    1991-06-01

    The oxidation of organic matter coupled to the reduction of Fe(III) or Mn(IV) is one of the most important biogeochemical reactions in aquatic sediments, soils, and groundwater. This process, which may have been the first globally significant mechanism for the oxidation of organic matter to carbon dioxide, plays an important role in the oxidation of natural and contaminant organic compounds in a variety of environments and contributes to other phenomena of widespread significance such as the release of metals and nutrients into water supplies, the magnetization of sediments, and the corrosion of metal. Until recently, much of the Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction in sedimentary environments was considered to be the result of nonenzymatic processes. However, microorganisms which can effectively couple the oxidation of organic compounds to the reduction of Fe(III) or Mn(IV) have recently been discovered. With Fe(III) or Mn(IV) as the sole electron acceptor, these organisms can completely oxidize fatty acids, hydrogen, or a variety of monoaromatic compounds. This metabolism provides energy to support growth. Sugars and amino acids can be completely oxidized by the cooperative activity of fermentative microorganisms and hydrogen- and fatty-acid-oxidizing Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reducers. This provides a microbial mechanism for the oxidation of the complex assemblage of sedimentary organic matter in Fe(III)- or Mn(IV)-reducing environments. The available evidence indicates that this enzymatic reduction of Fe(III) or Mn(IV) accounts for most of the oxidation of organic matter coupled to reduction of Fe(III) and Mn(IV) in sedimentary environments. Little is known about the diversity and ecology of the microorganisms responsible for Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction, and only preliminary studies have been conducted on the physiology and biochemistry of this process.

  2. [New classification of Crowe type IV developmental dysplasia of the hip].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hai-yang; Zhou, Yong-gang; Zheng, Chong; Cao, Wen-zhe; Wang Sen; Wu, Wen-ming; Piao, Shang; Du, Yin-qiao

    2016-02-01

    To compare differences between Crowe IV developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) with secondary acetabulum and Crowe IV DDH without secondary acetabulum,and determine whether it is necessary to divide Crowe IV DDH into two subtypes. From June 2007 to May 2015,145 hips of 112 Crowe N patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty (THA) using S-ROM stem were divided into two groups: secondary acetabulum formaton group (group A) and no secondary acetabulum formaton group (group B). In group A,there were 12 females, 96 males,with an average age of (39.38 ± 11.19) years old. In group B, there were 2 females, 35 males, with an average age of (38.19 ± 10.92) years old. All the patients were evaluated by using Harris Hip Score. Radiographic evaluations were made preoperatively and during follow up. The differences between two groups were compared on dislocation height, canal flare index (CFI), subtrochanteric shortening osteotomy (SSTO) usage, pre- and post-operation Harris scores, complications. The dislocation height for group A was (4.74 ± 1.57) cm, while the dislocation height for group B was (3.12 ± 1.15) cm. Significantly difference was detected between two groups. The CFI for group A was 2.69 ± 0.68, while the CFI for group B was 3.42 ± 0.79, and the significantly difference was detected between two groups. Harris scores were totally improved from 58.18 ± 15.67 preoperatively to 91.20 ± 3.79 post-operatively and the difference was significant. Pre-operative Harris scores was 58.1 ± 15.3 in group A, 58.3 ± 16.9 in group B. Post-operative Harris scores was 91.0 ± 4.1 in group A, 91.0 ± 5.1 in group B. No significant difference was found on Harris scores between A and B preoperatively and post-operatively. Complications of 4 cases peri-prosthesis fracture, 4 cases dislocation and 4 cases nerve injury occur in group A; While only one case dislocation and one case nerve injury occur in group B. No statistical significance was detected. Crowe IV DDH with

  3. The adsorption of 117Snm(IV)-EDTMP on collagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yuqing; Luo Shunzhong; Pu Manfei; Bing Wenzeng; He Jiaheng; Wang Guanquan

    2002-01-01

    The adsorption and desorption characteristics of 117 Sn m (IV)-EDTMP on collage are studied, and compared with that on HA. The results show that the effects of pH and temperature on adsorption of 117 Sn m (IV)-EDTMP on collagen are similar to those on HA, and that the adsorption equilibrium and adsorption model of 117 Sn m (IV)-EDTMP on collagen are completely different from those on HA; 117 Sm m -EDTMP absorbed on collagen are extremely stable and almost could not be desorbed with normal saline or EDTMP

  4. Investigation of the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV): exploratory and higher order factor analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canivez, Gary L; Watkins, Marley W

    2010-12-01

    The present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; D. Wechsler, 2008a) standardization sample using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher order exploratory factor analysis (J. Schmid & J. M. Leiman, 1957) not included in the WAIS-IV Technical and Interpretation Manual (D. Wechsler, 2008b). Results indicated that the WAIS-IV subtests were properly associated with the theoretically proposed first-order factors, but all but one factor-extraction criterion recommended extraction of one or two factors. Hierarchical exploratory analyses with the Schmid and Leiman procedure found that the second-order g factor accounted for large portions of total and common variance, whereas the four first-order factors accounted for small portions of total and common variance. It was concluded that the WAIS-IV provides strong measurement of general intelligence, and clinical interpretation should be primarily at that level.

  5. Cost analysis of surgically treated pressure sores stage III and IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filius, A; Damen, T H C; Schuijer-Maaskant, K P; Polinder, S; Hovius, S E R; Walbeehm, E T

    2013-11-01

    Health-care costs associated with pressure sores are significant and their financial burden is likely to increase even further. The aim of this study was to analyse the direct medical costs of hospital care for surgical treatment of pressure sores stage III and IV. We performed a retrospective chart study of patients who were surgically treated for stage III and IV pressure sores between 2007 and 2010. Volumes of health-care use were obtained for all patients and direct medical costs were subsequently calculated. In addition, we evaluated the effect of location and number of pressure sores on total costs. A total of 52 cases were identified. Average direct medical costs in hospital were €20,957 for the surgical treatment of pressure sores stage III or IV; average direct medical costs for patients with one pressure sore on an extremity (group 1, n = 5) were €30,286, €10,113 for patients with one pressure sore on the trunk (group 2, n = 32) and €40,882 for patients with multiple pressure sores (group 3, n = 15). The additional costs for patients in group 1 and group 3 compared to group 2 were primarily due to longer hospitalisation. The average direct medical costs for surgical treatment of pressure sores stage III and IV were high. Large differences in costs were related to the location and number of pressure sores. Insight into the distribution of these costs allows identification of high-risk patients and enables the development of specific cost-reducing measures. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Interaction of chelating agents with cadmium in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eybl, V; Sýkora, J; Koutenský, J; Caisová, D; Schwartz, A; Mertl, F

    1984-01-01

    The influence of several chelating agents (CaDTPA, ZnDTPA, CaEDTA, ZnEDTA, DMSA, D-penicillamine and DMPS, DMP and DDC) on the acute toxicity of CdCl2 and on the whole body retention and tissue distribution of cadmium after the IV application of 115mCdCl2 was compared in mice. The chelating agents were applied immediately after the application of cadmium. CaDTPA, ZnDTPA and DMSA appeared to be the most effective antidotes. However, DMSA increased the amount of cadmium retained in kidneys. The treatment of cadmium-poisoned mice with the combination of DMSA (IP) and ZnDTPA (SC) (all the compounds were injected in equimolar dose) decreased the toxicity of cadmium more than treatment with one chelating agents (given in a 2:1 dose). However, by studying the effect of these chelating agents and their combination of the retention and distribution of Cd in mice, it was demonstrated that the combined application of the antidotes showed little or no improvement over the results obtained with the most effective of the individual components. In the urine of rats injected with CdCl2 and treated with the chelating agents (CaDTPA, ZnDTPA, DMSA), the presence of cadmium complexes was demonstrated. The formation of mixed ligand chelates in vivo was not proved. Experiments in mice given a single injection of 115mCd-labeled Cd complexes of DMPS, DMSA and DTPA showed a high retention of cadmium in the organisms after the IV application of CdDMPS and CdDMSA complexes. PMID:6734561

  7. Crystal structure of ammonium octacyanomolybdate(IV) and rubidium octacyanomolybdate(IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenishin, D.I.; Glovyak, T.; Mys' kiv, M.G.

    1985-11-01

    The crystal structure of ammonium octacyanomolybdate(IV) and rubidium octacyanomolybdate(IV) has been determined by the single-crystal method on a Syntex P2/sub 1/ automatic diffractometer: ((NH/sub 4/)/sub 4/ Mo(CN)/sub 4/) 0.5H/sub 2/O (I) (space group Pma2, a = 15.550(3), b = 14.118(3), c = 7.438(1) A, Z = 4, R = 0.062) and Rb/sub 4/(Mo(CN)/sub 8/). 3H/sub 2/O (II) (space group P4/sub 1/2/sub 1/2, a = 9.300(10, c = 21.807(3) A, Z = 4, R = 0.065). The Mo atoms in structure I occupy two special positions (2(b) and 2(c)) and are each surrounded by eight CN ligands. The mean value of the Mo-C distances for Mo(1) is equal to 2.216 A, and the corresponding value for Mo(2) is 2.235 A. The mean Mo-N lengths are practically identical in both molybdenum anions and are equal to 3.353 A. The mean values of the C identical with N bond lengths in the Mo(1) and Mo(2) anions are 1.118 and 1.137 A, respectively. The MoCn angles vary from 175.0 to 178.4/sup 0/. The coordination sphere of the Mo(1) atom corresponds to a dodecahedron with a single twofold symmetry axis, and the coordination polyhedron of the Mo(2) atom in an antiprism of m symmetry. In structure II the Mo-C distances are within the 2.130-2.160-A range, and the Mo-N distances range from 3.290 to 3.307 A. The MoCN angles vary from 176.0 to 179.3/sup 0/, and the coordination polyhedron of (MoC/sub 8/) is a dodecahedron of 2 symmetry. The existence of two types of coordination of Mo in structure I is presently the only example among the structurally studied octahyanomolybdates(IV).

  8. Doxorubicin plus tumor necrosis factor alpha combination treatments in EL4-lymphoma-bearing C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrke, M J; Verstovsek, S; Ujházy, P; Meer, J M; Eppolito, C; Maccubbin, D L; Mihich, E

    1998-02-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of a total of 42 single-agent or combination protocols involving doxorubicin (Adriamycin, ADM) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) were evaluated in the syngeneic murine lymphoma model, C57BL/6-EL4. Combination treatments were the most effective and the therapeutic effects were schedule-dependent; e.g. it was generally advantageous for ADM to precede TNFalpha administration. Two protocols selected for further study were 4 mg/kg ADM i.v. on days 1 and 8 plus TNFalpha, i.v., at either 16000 U (7 microg)/injection, on days 1 and 8 or 4000 U (1.7 microg)/injection, on days 11-15. Survival of mice bearing one of four EL4 sublines having different in vitro drug sensitivities was assessed. These sublines were E10 (ADM-sensitive/TNFalpha-resistant), E16 (sensitive/sensitive), ER2 (ADM-resistant/TNFalpha-sensitive) and ER13 (resistant/resistant). Between 80% and 100% long-term survivors (i.e. tumor free on day 60) were obtained with the two treatments in mice bearing ADM-sensitive sublines, even though one of these sublines, E10, was resistant to TNFalpha in vitro. Induction of long-term survival appeared, therefore, to correlate with in vitro defined sensitivity/resistance to ADM, but not to TNFalpha Treatment-induced modulations of tumoricidal immune effector functions were also examined. Taken together, the results indicated that induction of long-term survival involved complex interactions of: (1) ADM-induced tumor modifications, including, but not limited to, tumor debulking, (2) combination-treatment-induced modifications of splenic cytolytic T cell and macrophage activities, and (3) the restoration of thymus cellularity. Finally, when long-term survivors resulting from treatment of E10- or E16-bearing mice were implanted with ER2 on day 120, the majority survived, indicating that long-term immune memory, capable of recognizing drug resistant variants, had been established.

  9. Effect of Cr-Vi on skeletal muscles of albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabeel, H.

    2006-01-01

    Chromium plays an important role in normal carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, as it's an essential trace element in human nutrition. It was found that patients receiving long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN) without chromium developed glucose intolerance, weight loss and peripheral neuropathy Chromium is present in a normal diet at trace (but essential) levels. Occupational exposure is related to the industrial uses of chrome compounds in production and use of steels, pigments, leather tanning and wood preservation solutions, plating chemicals, and cement. Toxicity is predominantly associated with industrial exposures. Its trivalent form is the most stable form and can't cross the cell membrane. Hexavalent chromium crosses the cell membrane and is reduced to Cr- V, Cr-IV and Cr-111. Once in trivalent form it can combine with nuclear proteins and nucleic acids causing adverse effects and derangements. Hexavalent chromium compounds appear to have severe toxicity and almost all tissues of body are affected. To evaluate the effects on skeletal muscles, present study was carried out. The mice of experimental group (2wks, 4wks, 6wks and 8wks) were injected Potassium dichromate (K/sub 2/ Cr/sub 2/0/sub 7/) intraperitoneally according to experimental design. The drug caused slight to marked inflammation of skeletal muscle fibers and vaculations of nuclei was also observed indicating degenerative changes. (author)

  10. Urtica dioica leaves modulates hippocampal smoothened-glioma associated oncogene-1 pathway and cognitive dysfunction in chronically stressed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sita Sharan; Mahindroo, Neeraj; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2016-10-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Urtica dioica (UD) extract against chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)-induced associative memory dysfunction and attempted to explore the possible mechanism. Male Swiss albino mice (25-30g) were divided into six groups, viz. group-I received 0.3% carboxymethyl cellulose and served as control (CTRL), group II was exposed to CUS (21days) and received vehicle (CUS), group III was subjected to CUS and received Hypericum perforatum extract (350mg/kg, p.o.) (CUS+HYP), group IV received Hypericum perforatum extract (350mg/kg, p.o.) (CTRL+HYP); group V was subjected to CUS and received UD extract (50mg/kg, p.o.) (CUS+UD), group VI received UD extract (50mg/kg, p.o.) (CTRL+UD). CUS significantly induced body weight loss (p<0.05) and associative memory impairment in step down task (p<0.05) as compared to control mice. CUS significantly downregulated Smo (p<0.05), Gli1 (p<0.01), cyclin D1 (p<0.05), BDNF (p<0.01), TrKB (p<0.01) and MAPK1 (p<0.01) mRNA expression in hippocampus as compared to control mice. CUS significantly increased the levels of TBARS (p<0.01) and nitric oxide (p<0.001), and decreased catalase (p<0.001) and total thiol (p<0.01) in plasma resulting in oxidative stress and inflammation. Chronic UD administration significantly reverted CUS mediated body weight loss (p<0.05) and cognitive impairment (p<0.05). UD administration significantly decreased the levels of TBARS (p<0.01) and nitric oxide (p<0.05), and increased the levels of catalase (p<0.01) and total thiol (p<0.05) in plasma. Chronic UD administration significantly upregulated hippocampal Smo (p<0.05), Gli1 (p<0.001), cyclin D1 (p<0.05), BDNF (p<0.05), TrKB (p<0.05) and MAPK1 (p<0.05) in stressed mice. Further, UD extract did not reverse cyclopamine induced downregulation of Gli1 and Ptch1 mRNA in hippocampal slices. UD modulated Smo-Gli1 pathway in the hippocampus as well as exerted anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. UD extract might prove

  11. Mice take calculated risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheifets, Aaron; Gallistel, C R

    2012-05-29

    Animals successfully navigate the world despite having only incomplete information about behaviorally important contingencies. It is an open question to what degree this behavior is driven by estimates of stochastic parameters (brain-constructed models of the experienced world) and to what degree it is directed by reinforcement-driven processes that optimize behavior in the limit without estimating stochastic parameters (model-free adaptation processes, such as associative learning). We find that mice adjust their behavior in response to a change in probability more quickly and abruptly than can be explained by differential reinforcement. Our results imply that mice represent probabilities and perform calculations over them to optimize their behavior, even when the optimization produces negligible material gain.

  12. Quercetin Affects Erythropoiesis and Heart Mitochondrial Function in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina M. Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quercetin, a dietary flavonoid used as a food supplement, showed powerful antioxidant effects in different cellular models. However, recent in vitro and in vivo studies in mammals have suggested a prooxidant effect of quercetin and described an interaction with mitochondria causing an increase in O2∙- production, a decrease in ATP levels, and impairment of respiratory chain in liver tissue. Therefore, because of its dual actions, we studied the effect of quercetin in vivo to analyze heart mitochondrial function and erythropoiesis. Mice were injected with 50 mg/kg of quercetin for 15 days. Treatment with quercetin decreased body weight, serum insulin, and ceruloplasmin levels as compared with untreated mice. Along with an impaired antioxidant capacity in plasma, quercetin-treated mice showed a significant delay on erythropoiesis progression. Heart mitochondrial function was also impaired displaying more protein oxidation and less activity for IV, respectively, than no-treated mice. In addition, a significant reduction in the protein expression levels of Mitofusin 2 and Voltage-Dependent Anion Carrier was observed. All these results suggest that quercetin affects erythropoiesis and mitochondrial function and then its potential use as a dietary supplement should be reexamined.

  13. Pitx2 expression defines a left cardiac lineage of cells: evidence for atrial and ventricular molecular isomerism in the iv/iv mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campione, M.; Ros, M. A.; Icardo, J. M.; Piedra, E.; Christoffels, V. M.; Schweickert, A.; Blum, M.; Franco, D.; Moorman, A. F.

    2001-01-01

    The homeobox gene Pitx2 has been characterized as a mediator of left-right signaling in heart, gut, and lung morphogenesis. However, the relationship between the developmental role of Pitx2 and its expression pattern at the organ level has not been explored. In this study we focus on the role of

  14. Immunomodulatory and antioxidative activity of Cordyceps militaris polysaccharides in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-yu; Feng, Cui-ping; Li, Xing; Chang, Ming-chang; Meng, Jun-long; Xu, Li-jing

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the immune activation and reactive oxygen species scavenging activity of Cordyceps militaris polysaccharides (CMP) in vivo, 24 male and 24 female Kunming mice were randomly divided into four groups. The mice in the four experimental groups were administered 0 (normal control), 50, 100, or 200mg/kg/d body weight CMP via gavage. After 30 days, the viscera index, leukocyte count, differential leukocyte count, immunoglobulin (IgG) levels, and biochemical parameters were measured. The effect of CMP on the expression of tumor necrosis (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, and interleukin (IL)-1β in the spleens of experimental mice was investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that the administration of CMP improved the immune function in mice, significantly increased the spleen and thymus indices, the spleen lymphocyte activity, the total quantity of white blood cells, and IgG function in mice serum. CMP exhibited significant antioxidative activity in mice, and decreased malondialdehyde levels in vivo. CMP upregulated the expression of TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-1β mRNA in high-dose groups compared to that observed for the control mice. We can thus conclude that CMP effectively improved the immune function through protection against oxidative stress. CMP thus shows potential for development as drugs and health supplements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Differential androgenesis in gamma irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jihyang; Yoon, Yongdal [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    The Leydig cells of the testis account for at least 75% of the total testosterone produced in the normal adult male. Whereas the production of estrogen from androgen is catalyzed by aromatase cytochrome P450, which is found in many tissues, including gonad, brain, adipose tissue, bone, and heart. The gamma-irradiation causes the impairment of spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in male mice. The present study was performed to analyze changes in testosterone concentrations and expression of steroidogenic enzyme of mice after whole body gamma-irradiation. Eight-week-old male ICR mice were irradiated with 6.5 or 10 Gy. At days 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 after irradiation, testes were removed and processed for paraffin sections and isolation of mRNA. We calculated the gonad index from body and testis weight, and checked the testis volume. Hormonal analysis was performed by means of radioimmunoassay (RIA) in serum and intratesticular fluid. Semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to evaluate the expression kinetics of the apoptotic gene and the cytochrome P450 aromatase gene after irradiation. In gamma-irradiated mice, the body weight reduced in comparison to that of the control group. Therefore, gonad indices increased. The testosterone concentrations in serum and intratesticular fluid were significantly reduced. RT- PCR data represented that the expression of Fas, Fas ligand, and aromatase cytochrome P450 showed the specific patterns against control groups. These results indicated that gamma- irradiation of adult mice induced the alteration of androgenesis and suggested that might counteract the spermatogenesis.

  16. Use of tranexamic acid in total knee arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    MARRA, FRANCESCO; ROSSO, FEDERICA; BRUZZONE, MATTEO; BONASIA, DAVIDE EDOARDO; DETTONI, FEDERICO; ROSSI, ROBERTO

    2016-01-01

    Purpose different strategies have been developed to reduce blood loss in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The efficacy of both systemic and local tranexamic acid (TXA) administration is demonstrated in the literature. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of systemic, local and combined (systemic + local) administration of TXA in reducing blood loss after TKA. Methods we enrolled all patients submitted to a primary TKA in our department between November 2014 and August 2015. They were divided into three groups corresponding to the method of TXA administration used: intravenous (IV), intra-articular (IA), and a combination of the two. Demographic data, as well as preoperative hemoglobin and platelet levels, were collected. The primary outcome was the maximum hemoglobin loss, while the secondary outcomes were the amount of blood in the drain (cc/hour) and the rate of transfusions; postoperative pain was also assessed. Student’s t-test or a χ2 test was used to evaluate between-group differences, using p<0.05 as the cut-off for statistically significant differences. Results the sample comprised 34 patients: IV, 10 cases; IA, 15 cases, and combined (IV + IA), 9 cases. The average age of the patients was 71.1±6.4 years. No significant differences in the outcome measures were found between the groups, with the exception of a significantly lower maximum hemoglobin loss in the combined versus the IV group (p=0.02). There were no differences between the groups in the amount of blood in the drain or the rate of transfusions. Conclusions the data from this preliminary study, as well as data from the literature, confirm that TXA administration is safe and effective in reducing total blood loss in TKA, and no administration protocol seems to be superior to the others. Level of evidence Level II, prospective comparative study. PMID:28217656

  17. Level III and IV Ecoregions of the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information and downloadable maps and datasets for Level III and IV ecoregions of the continental United States. Ecoregions are areas of general similarity in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources.

  18. U(IV) fluorescence spectroscopy. A new speciation tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, Susanne; Brendler, Vinzenz [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Surface Processes; Steudtner, Robin [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology

    2017-06-01

    We combined absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy to study the speciation of U(IV) in solution in concentrations down to 10{sup -6} M uranium. With our time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence setup we could determine the fluorescence decay time of U(IV) in perchloric as well as in chloric acid with 2.6 ± 0.3 ns at room temperature and 148.4 ± 6.5 ns at liquid nitrogen temperature. For the U(IV) sulfate system, we observed a bathochromic shift and a peak shape modification in the fluorescence spectra with increasing sulfate concentration in solution. Thus, the potential of U(IV) fluorescence for speciation analysis could be proven.

  19. Determination of U(IV) and hydrazine nitrate by volumetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xi; Wang Nanjie; Zhang Tao; Wang Lin; Guo Yuhua

    2006-01-01

    To be determined U(IV) and hydrazine nitrate in exist together, chromium (VI) and 1,10-phenanthroline is used individually as oxidation titrator and indicator for U(IV), and N-bromineimino and methyl red is used individually as oxidation titrator and indicator for hydrazine nitrate, U(IV) and hydrazine nitrate in the same sample is determined sequentially in the nitric acid by adjusting concentration of nitric acid. Results show that the precision is better than 2.0% when the mass concentration of U(IV) is ranged over 5.5-205 mg/mL; and the precision is better than 2.0% when the concentration of hydrazine nitrate is ranged over 0.05-1.0 mol/L. (authors)

  20. Report for 2012 from the Bordeaux IVS Analysis Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlot, Patrick; Bellanger, Antoine; Bouffet, Romuald; Bourda, Geraldine; Collioud, Arnaud; Baudry, Alain

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Bordeaux IVS Analysis Center during the year 2012. The work focused on (i) regular analysis of the IVS-R1 and IVS-R4 sessions with the GINS software package; (ii) systematic VLBI imaging of the RDV sessions and calculation of the corresponding source structure index and compactness values; (iii) investigation of the correlation between astrometric position instabilities and source structure variations; and (iv) continuation of our VLBI observational program to identify optically-bright radio sources suitable for the link with the future Gaia frame. Also of importance is the 11th European VLBI Network Symposium, which we organized last October in Bordeaux and which drew much attention from the European and International VLBI communities.

  1. Complexation of Plutonium (IV) With Sulfate At Variable Temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Y. Xia; J.I. Friese; D.A. Moore; P.P. Bachelor; L. Rao

    2006-01-01

    The complexation of plutonium(IV) with sulfate at variable temperatures has been investigated by solvent extraction method. A NaBrO 3 solution was used as holding oxidant to maintain the plutonium(IV) oxidation state throughout the experiments. The distribution ratio of Pu(IV) between the organic and aqueous phases was found to decrease as the concentrations of sulfate were increased. Stability constants of the 1:1 and 1:2 Pu(IV)-HSO 4 - complexes, dominant in the aqueous phase, were calculated from the effect of [HSO 4 - ] on the distribution ratio. The enthalpy and entropy of complexation were calculated from the stability constants at different temperatures using the Van't Hoff equation

  2. Mandelazo I as a reagent for Zr(IV) determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakha, T.H.; Filip, P.; Stefan, N.

    1984-01-01

    A spectrometric study of the reaction of the Zr(IV) ions with Mandelazo I was carried out. Absorption spectra revealed that the maximum absorption of the zirconium compound appears at a wavelength (316 nm) different from the maxima of the reagent (253 and 390 nm). Beer-Lambert law is followed for zirconium concentrations of the order of 8.8 x 10 -5 M (i.e. 8 μg Zr(IV)/mL). Possible interferences of ions such as Be(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Al(III), Th(IV), U(VI), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II) and Ni(II) were investigated in connection with some masking agents such as SO 4 2- and C 2 O 4 2- . Also, the solid state Zr(IV)- Mandelazo I compound was prepared and characterized by nitrogen and thermogravimetric analyses

  3. [Mucolipidoses type IV in a patient with mapuche ancestry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Ch, Marta; Méndez C, José Ignacio; Concha G, María José; Huete L, Isidro; González B, Sergio; Durán S, Gloria P

    2008-07-01

    We report a 7 year-old girl with mapuche ancestors, diagnosed as a cerebral palsy since infancy and on active rehabilitation. She acquired motor and cognitive skills at 3 years of age. At 5 years of age, a slow neurological deterioration started, associated to visual impairment. Optic atrophy was added to the typical neurological exam of ataxic cerebral palsy and the diagnosis was re-considered. Neuroimaging showed a slow and progressive atrophy of intracerebral structures and ultramicroscopy revealed intracytoplasmatic inclusions in conjunctiva and skin, compatible with mucolipidoses type IV (ML-IV). ML-IV must be included in the differential diagnosis of cerebral palsy associated with loss of acquired skills and progressive visual impairment. Electron microscopy of skin or conjunctiva is a useful diagnostic test. Suspicion of ML-IV must not be restricted to Ashkenazi Jewish population.

  4. Radiation effects on DNA methylation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komura, J.; Kurishita, A.; Miyamura, Y.; Ono, T.; Tawa, R.; Sakurai, H.

    1992-01-01

    Effects of ionizing radiation on DNA methylation in liver, brain and spleen were examined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The total methylated cytosine level in the genome was reduced within 8 hours after 3.8 Gy of irradiation in liver of adult mice. But no appreciable effect was observed in brain and spleen. When mice were irradiated at newborn, liver DNA revealed no change in methylated cytosine level. Even though slight effects of radiation were detected in he methylation of the c-myc and c-fos genes, they were only temporary and no long-term effects were observed. These data suggest that the effect of radiation on DNA methylation in vivo is not prevailing a DNA damage, but rather influenced much through biological parameters. (author)

  5. Nordic Nuclear Materials Forum for Generation IV Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anghel, C.; Penttilae, S.

    2010-03-01

    A network for material issues for Generation IV nuclear power has been initiated within the Nordic countries. The objectives of the Generation IV Nordic Nuclear Materials Forum (NOMAGE4) are to put the basis of a sustainable forum for Gen IV issues, especially focussing on fuels, cladding, structural materials and coolant interaction. Other issues include reactor physics, dynamics and diagnostics, core and fuel design. The present report summarizes the work performed during the year 2009. The efforts made include identification of organisations involved in Gen IV issues in the Nordic countries, update of the forum website, http://www.studsvik.se/GenerationIV, and investigation of capabilities for research within the area of Gen IV. Within the NOMAGE4 project a seminar on Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems has been organized during 15-16th of October 2009. The aim of the seminar was to provide a forum for exchange of information, discussion on future research needs and networking of experts on Generation IV reactor concepts. As an outcome of the NOMAGE4, a few collaboration project proposals have been prepared/planned in 2009. The network was welcomed by the European Commission and was mentioned as an exemplary network with representatives from industries, universities, power companies and research institutes. NOMAGE4 has been invited to participate to the 'European Energy Research Alliance, EERA, workshop for nuclear structural materials' http://www.eera-set.eu/index.php?index=41 as external observers. Future plans include a new Nordic application for continuation of NOMAGE4 network. (author)

  6. Nordic Nuclear Materials Forum for Generation IV Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anghel, C. (Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)); Penttilae, S. (Technical Research Centre of Finland, VTT (Finland))

    2010-03-15

    A network for material issues for Generation IV nuclear power has been initiated within the Nordic countries. The objectives of the Generation IV Nordic Nuclear Materials Forum (NOMAGE4) are to put the basis of a sustainable forum for Gen IV issues, especially focussing on fuels, cladding, structural materials and coolant interaction. Other issues include reactor physics, dynamics and diagnostics, core and fuel design. The present report summarizes the work performed during the year 2009. The efforts made include identification of organisations involved in Gen IV issues in the Nordic countries, update of the forum website, http://www.studsvik.se/GenerationIV, and investigation of capabilities for research within the area of Gen IV. Within the NOMAGE4 project a seminar on Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems has been organized during 15-16th of October 2009. The aim of the seminar was to provide a forum for exchange of information, discussion on future research needs and networking of experts on Generation IV reactor concepts. As an outcome of the NOMAGE4, a few collaboration project proposals have been prepared/planned in 2009. The network was welcomed by the European Commission and was mentioned as an exemplary network with representatives from industries, universities, power companies and research institutes. NOMAGE4 has been invited to participate to the 'European Energy Research Alliance, EERA, workshop for nuclear structural materials' http://www.eera-set.eu/index.php?index=41 as external observers. Future plans include a new Nordic application for continuation of NOMAGE4 network. (author)

  7. Two-stage precipitation of neptunium (IV) oxalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luerkens, D.W.

    1983-07-01

    Neptunium (IV) oxalate was precipitated using a two-stage precipitation system. A series of precipitation experiments was used to identify the significant process variables affecting precipitate characteristics. Process variables tested were input concentrations, solubility conditions in the first stage precipitator, precipitation temperatures, and residence time in the first stage precipitator. A procedure has been demonstrated that produces neptunium (IV) oxalate particles that filter well and readily calcine to the oxide

  8. Two weeks of metformin treatment enhances mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle of AMPK kinase dead but not wild type mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jonas Møller; Larsen, Steen; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2013-01-01

    signaling. We investigated this by two weeks of oral metformin treatment of muscle specific kinase dead a(2) (KD) AMPK mice and wild type (WT) littermates. We measured mitochondrial respiration and protein activity and expressions of key enzymes involved in mitochondrial carbohydrate and fat metabolism...... and oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondrial respiration, HAD and CS activity, PDH and complex I-V and cytochrome c protein expression were all reduced in AMPK KD compared to WT tibialis anterior muscles. Surprisingly, metformin treatment only enhanced respiration in AMPK KD mice and thereby rescued...... the respiration defect compared to the WT mice. Metformin did not influence protein activities or expressions in either WT or AMPK KD mice.We conclude that two weeks of in vivo metformin treatment enhances mitochondrial respiration in the mitochondrial deficient AMPK KD but not WT mice. The improvement seems...

  9. Correlation of cytotoxicity with elimination of iodine-125 from nude mice inoculated with prelabeled human melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockshin, A.; Giovanella, B.C.; Quian, C.; Mendoza, J.T.; Vardeman, D.M.; Stehlin, J.S. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    BRO human melanoma cells were prelabeled in vitro with [125I]5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine ([125I]IdUrd) and inoculated into NIH-II nude mice ip, im, sc, or iv. Saline or diphtheria toxin (DT), which is selectively toxic to human cells compared to those of mice, was injected, and the loss of 125I from the animals was monitored daily with a whole-body gamma scintillation detector. For most of the inoculation sites DT accelerated the rate of 125I excretion and in all cases was cytotoxic for the inoculated cells as determined by host survival or measurement of visible tumor growth. Differences between the rates of 125I loss for DT-treated mice compared to untreated mice were most evident for cells inoculated ip or im. These results indicate that [125I]IdUrd prelabeling of human tumor cells inoculated in nude mice offers a rapid method for determination of cytotoxicity in vivo

  10. [Alterations in the protein content and dysfunction of high-density lipoproteins from hyperhomocysteinemic mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julve, Josep; Errico, Teresa Laura; Chen, Xiangyu; Santos, David; Freixa, Júlia; Porcel, Inmaculada; Cubero, Esther; Escolà-Gil, Joan Carles; Blanco-Vaca, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the proteic changes in high-density lipoproteins (HDL) induced by methionine-induced hyperhomocysteinemia in mice and its relationship with two of their main antiatherogenic properties. The oral administration of methionine resulted in an elevation (~8 times) in the plasma concentration of homocysteine. Hyperhomocysteinemia was inversely correlated with the plasma concentration of HDL cholesterol and its main protein component of HDL, apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, respectively. The cholesterol efflux in vivo from macrophages to HDL was decreased in hyperhomocysteinemic mice compared with the control mice. However, the reverse cholesterol transport from macrophages to feces remained unchanged. On the other hand, the ability of HDL from hyperhomocysteinemic mice to prevent the oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) was found decreased and associated with a concomitant reduction in the plasma activity of paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and the plasma concentration of apoA-I, and with a relative reduction in the apoA-IV content (~1.5 times) in the hyperhomocysteinemic HDL, respectively. The decrease in the ability of HDL from hyperhomocysteinemic mice to prevent LDL from oxidation was associated with a decrease in the apoA-I, PON1 and apoA-IV. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEA. All rights reserved.

  11. Total hip arthroplasty (S-ROM stem and subtrochanteric osteotomy for Crowe type IV developmental dysplasia of the hip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangtao Li

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: In the primary THA for the treatment of irreducible DDH, subtrochanteric oblique osteotomy combined with the freely-rotatable S-ROM stem provided favorable short term outcomes by affording both morphological and functional advantages.

  12. Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Asymptomatic Inflammatory (NIH-IV) Prostatitis in Chinese Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunlei; Zhang, Zhifu; Lu, Zheng; Liao, Ming; Zhang, Youjie; Xie, Yuanliang; Guo, Xuefeng; Yu, Xiaoxiang; Yang, Xiaobo; Gao, Yong; Tan, Aihua; Mo, Zengnan

    2013-01-01

    Background While many investigators have studied symptomatic prostatitis, little research has been done with regard to asymptomatic (NIH-IV) prostatitis. Purpose To describe the prevalence of and risk factors for NIH-IV prostatitis among a large male population. Methods The study population was comprised of 1,868 men at the second phase recruitment of a population-based cohort in China. Asymptomatic and symptomatic men were defined by the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis (CP) Symptom Index. Meanwhile, EPS specimens and their leukocyte count were collected. Lifestyle and demographic characteristics were obtained through a questionnaire. Results Prevalence of NIH-IV prostatitis was 21.1% among 1,868 asymptomatic men aged 19–78 years and increased with age. After adjusteing for potential confounding variables (age, smoking habits, alcohol drinking habits, education, physical activity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and diabetes), age remained a significant factor for NIH-IV prostatitis (OR = 1.35; 95% CI = 1.06–1.71; P = 0.01) and the risk of NIH-IV prostatitis was significantly higher in smokers≧15 pack/years than non-smokers (OR = 1.33; 95% CI = 1.01–1.75; P = 0.03). In addition, compared with non-drinkers, the OR of NIH-IV prostatitis in drinkers ≧1 drinks/week was 1.35 (95% CI = 1.03, 1.77, p = 0.02) after adjusting for the other variables above. In addition, having less than a college education may be a risk factor for NIH-IV prostatitis, although a statistically significant difference did not exist in our data (OR = 1.22; 95% CI = 0.97–1.52; P = 0.08). Conclusions Our findings suggest that NIH-IV prostatitis is prevalent in China. Age, smoking, drinking and lower education levels were associated with an increased risk of NIH-IV prostatitis. The prevalence of NIH-IV prostatitis should be taken into account when estimating the total prevalence of CP in future studies. PMID:23967188

  13. Degradation of type IV collagen by neoplastic human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheela, S.; Barrett, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    An assay for the degradation of type IV (basement membrane) collagen was developed as a biochemical marker for neoplastic cells from chemically transformed human skin fibroblasts. Type IV collagen was isolated from basement membrane of Syrian hamster lung and type I collagen was isolated from rat tails; the collagens were radioactively labelled by reductive alkylation. The abilities of normal (KD) and chemically transformed (Hut-11A) human skin fibroblasts to degrade the collagens were studied. A cell-associated assay was performed by growing either normal or transformed cells in the presence of radioactively labelled type IV collagen and measuring the released soluble peptides in the medium. This assay also demonstrated that KD cells failed to synthesize an activity capable of degrading type IV collagen whereas Hut-11A cells degraded type IV collagen in a linear manner for up to 4 h. Human serum at very low concentrations, EDTA and L-cysteine inhibited the enzyme activity, whereas protease inhibitors like phenylmethyl sulfonyl fluoride, N-ethyl maleimide or soybean trypsin inhibitor did not inhibit the enzyme from Hut-11A cells. These results suggest that the ability to degrade specifically type IV collagen may be an important marker for neoplastic human fibroblasts and supports a role for this collagenase in tumor cell invasion

  14. DSM-IV: a nosology sold before its time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, M; Jampala, V C; Sierles, F S; Taylor, M A

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether American psychiatrists believe that DSM-IV is being published too soon after DSM-III-R. The authors conducted a mail survey of the attitudes of practicing psychiatrists (N = 454), residency program directors (N = 128), residents (N = 1,331), and researchers (N = 196) toward the scheduled publication of DSM-IV in the early 1990s. They found that the majority of all four groups believed that DSM-IV is being published prematurely. In contrast to respondents who believed that the timing of DSM-IV is appropriate, those who indicated that it is being published too soon had more recently completed their residency training and also believed that DSM-III-R was published prematurely. There was no association between the psychiatrists' responses and their theoretical orientation, Board certification status, ownership of the DSM manuals, the length of time they had used DSM-III, and the diagnostic manual (DSM-III or DSM-III-R) they were currently using. The belief that DSM-IV is being published too soon could contribute to underuse of DSM-IV by substantial numbers of psychiatrists. Thus, to foster compliance with it, APA must preserve in its efforts to demonstrate that the advantages of publishing it in 1993 outweigh the disadvantages of adopting yet another manual.

  15. Psychological variables and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Carlton S; Gutierrez, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The MMPI-2 and WAIS-IV are commonly used together in neuropsychological evaluations yet little is known about their interrelationships. This study explored the potential influence of psychological factors on WAIS-IV performance in a sample of 180 predominantly male veteran referrals that underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological examination in a VA Medical Center. Exclusionary criteria included failed performance validity testing and self-report distortion on the MMPI-2. A Principal Components Analysis was performed on the 15 MMPI-2 content scales, yielding three broader higher-order psychological dimensions: Internalized Emotional Dysfunction (IED), Externalized Emotional Dysfunction (EED), and Fear. Level of IED was not related to performance on the WAIS-IV Full Scale IQ or its four indexes: (Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, and Processing Speed). EED was not related to WAIS-IV performance. Level of Fear, which encompasses health preoccupations (HEA) and distorted perceptions (BIZ), was significantly related to WAIS-IV Full Scale IQ and Verbal Comprehension. These results challenge the common use of high scores on the MMPI-2 IED measures (chiefly depression and anxiety) to explain deficient WAIS-IV performance. In addition, they provide impetus for further investigation of the relation between verbal intelligence and Fear.

  16. Assembling filamentous phage occlude pIV channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciano, D K; Russel, M; Simon, S M

    2001-07-31

    Filamentous phage f1 is exported from its Escherichia coli host without killing the bacterial cell. Phage-encoded protein pIV, which is required for phage assembly and secretion, forms large highly conductive channels in the outer membrane of E. coli. It has been proposed that the phage are extruded across the bacterial outer membrane through pIV channels. To test this prediction, we developed an in vivo assay by using a mutant pIV that functions in phage export but whose channel opens in the absence of phage extrusion. In E. coli lacking its native maltooligosacharride transporter LamB, this pIV variant allowed oligosaccharide transport across the outer membrane. This entry of oligosaccharide was decreased by phage production and still further decreased by production of phage that cannot be released from the cell surface. Thus, exiting phage block the pIV-dependent entry of oligosaccharide, suggesting that phage occupy the lumen of pIV channels. This study provides the first evidence, to our knowledge, for viral exit through a large aqueous channel.

  17. Loss of Col3a1, the gene for Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV, results in neocortical dyslamination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Jin Jeong

    Full Text Available It has recently been discovered that Collagen III, the encoded protein of the type IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS gene, is one of the major constituents of the pial basement membrane (BM and serves as the ligand for GPR56. Mutations in GPR56 cause a severe human brain malformation called bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria, in which neurons transmigrate through the BM causing severe mental retardation and frequent seizures. To further characterize the brain phenotype of Col3a1 knockout mice, we performed a detailed histological analysis. We observed a cobblestone-like cortical malformation, with BM breakdown and marginal zone heterotopias in Col3a1⁻/⁻ mouse brains. Surprisingly, the pial BM appeared intact at early stages of development but starting as early as embryonic day (E 11.5, prominent BM defects were observed and accompanied by neuronal overmigration. Although collagen III is expressed in meningeal fibroblasts (MFs, Col3a1⁻/⁻ MFs present no obvious defects. Furthermore, the expression and posttranslational modification of α-dystroglycan was undisturbed in Col3a1⁻/⁻ mice. Based on the previous finding that mutations in COL3A1 cause type IV EDS, our study indicates a possible common pathological pathway linking connective tissue diseases and brain malformations.

  18. Mitigation by Aloe Vera of cadmium chloride and radiation induced biochemical changes in the brain of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrawarti, Aruna; Kanwar, Om; Nayak, Kamal Kumar; Ranga, Deepti; Jangir, Ashok; Ram, Purkha

    2013-01-01

    Whole body exposure to ionizing radiation provokes oxidative damage, organ dysfunction and metabolic disturbance. Herbal drugs offer an alternative to the synthetic radioprotective compounds which are either non-toxic or less toxic. Aloe vera rich in polyphenolic compound is known to possess antioxidant properties. In the context, the present study, effect of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced changes in the brain of Swiss albino mice. For the purpose, six to eight weeks old male Swiss albino mice were selected and divided into seven groups:- Group I (Sham-irradiated), Group II (treated with cadmium chloride 20 ppm), Group III (Irradiated with 7.0 Gy gamma rays), Group IV (Both irradiated and treated with cadmium chloride solution), Group V (Cadmium and Aloe vera treated), Group VI (radiation and Aloe vera treated), Group VII (radiation, and cadmium chloride and Aloe vera treated). The animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at each post-treatment intervals of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days. The brain (cerebral cortex) was taken out and quantitatively analyzed for different biochemical parameters such as total proteins, glycogen, cholesterol, acid phosphatase activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, DNA and RNA. The value of cholesterol, glycogen, RNA, acid phosphatase activity, and alkaline phosphatase activity increased up to day-14 in non drug-treated groups and day-7 in Aloe vera treated groups and thereafter decreased up to day-28. The value of total proteins and DNA decreased up to day-14 in non drug-treated groups and day-7 in the drug treated groups then increased in all groups. In only cadmium chloride (Without and with drug) treated animals (Groups II and V) the value of cholesterol decreased during early intervals (days-14 and 7 respectively) and increased thereafter. Severe changes were observed after combined exposure to radiation and cadmium chloride showing synergistic effect. Aloe vera reduced the severity of damage and made the

  19. Caffeine and sleep-deprivation mediated changes in open-field behaviours, stress response and antioxidant status in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Onaolapo, J. Olakunle; Onaolapo, Y. Adejoke; Akanmu, A. Moses; Olayiwola, Gbola

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Effects of daily caffeine consumption on open-field behaviours, serum corticosterone and brain antioxidant levels were investigated after six hours of total sleep-deprivation in prepubertal mice. We tested the hypothesis that daily caffeine consumption may significantly alter behaviour, stress and antioxidative response of prepubertal mice to an acute episode of total sleep-deprivation. Methods: Prepubertal Swiss mice of both sexes were assigned to two main groups of 120 each (...

  20. [Effects of aquaporin-4 gene knockout on behavior changes and cerebral morphology during aging in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shengan; Lu, Yunbi; Zhang, Weiping

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the effects of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) gene knockout on the behavior changes and cerebral morphology during aging in mice,and to compare that of young and aged mice between AQP4 knockout mice (AQP4(-/-)) and wild type mice (AQP4(+/+)). Fifty-eight CD-1 mice were divided into four groups: young (2-3 months old) AQP4(-/-), aged (17-19 months old) AQP4(-/-), young AQP4(+/+) and aged AQP4(+/+). The activity levels and exploring behavior of mice were tested in open field. The neurons were stained with toluidine blue and NeuN, the astrocytes and microglia were stained with GFAP and Iba-1, respectively. The morphological changes of neuron, astrocyte and microglia were then analyzed. Compared with young mice, the total walking distance in open field of aged AQP4(+/+) mice and aged AQP4(-/-) mice decreased 41.2% and 44.1%, respectively (Ptime in the central area of open field. The density of neuron in cortex of aged AQP4(+/+) mice and aged AQP4(-/-) mice decreased 19.6% and 15.8%, respectively (P<0.05), while there was no difference in the thickness of neuron cell body in hippocampus CA1 region. The density of astrocyte in hippocampus CA3 region of aged AQP4(+/+) mice and aged AQP4(-/-) mice increased 57.7% and 64.3%, respectively (P<0.001), while there was no difference in the area of astrocyte. The area of microglia in hippocampus CA3 region of aged AQP4(+/+) mice and aged AQP4(-/-) mice increased 46.9% and 52.0%, respectively (P<0.01), while there was no difference in the density of microglia. Compared with AQP4(+/+) mice, the young and aged AQP4(-/-) mice showed smaller area of astrocyte in hippocampus CA3 region, reduced 18.0% in young mice and 23.6% in aged mice. There was no difference between AQP4(+/+) mice and AQP4(-/-) mice for other observed indexes. AQP4 may be involved in change of astrocyte and astrocyte-related behaviors during aging. AQP4 gene knockout may have limited effects on the change of neuron, microglia and most neuronal behaviors in aging