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Sample records for mice immunized intranasally

  1. Intranasal treatment with a novel immunomodulator mediates innate immune protection against lethal pneumonia virus of mice.

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    Martinez, Elisa C; Garg, Ravendra; Shrivastava, Pratima; Gomis, Susantha; van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia

    2016-11-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children. There are no licensed RSV vaccines available, and the few treatment options for high-risk individuals are either extremely costly or cause severe side effects and toxicity. Immunomodulation mediated by a novel formulation consisting of the toll-like receptor 3 agonist poly(I:C), an innate defense regulator peptide and a polyphosphazene (P-I-P) was evaluated in the context of lethal infection with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM). Intranasal delivery of a single dose of P-I-P protected adult mice against PVM when given 24 h prior to challenge. These animals experienced minimal weight loss, no clinical disease, 100% survival, and reduced lung pathology. Similar clinical outcomes were observed in mice treated up to 3 days prior to infection. P-I-P pre-treatment induced early mRNA and protein expression of key chemokine and cytokine genes, reduced the recruitment of neutrophils and eosinophils, decreased virus titers in the lungs, and modulated the delayed exacerbated nature of PVM disease without any short-term side effects. On day 14 post-infection, P-I-P-treated mice were confirmed to be PVM-free. These results demonstrate the capacity of this formulation to prevent PVM and possibly other viral respiratory infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Intranasal Immunization with Pressure Inactivated Avian Influenza Elicits Cellular and Humoral Responses in Mice.

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    Shana P C Barroso

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses pose a serious global health threat, particularly in light of newly emerging strains, such as the avian influenza H5N1 and H7N9 viruses. Vaccination remains the primary method for preventing acquiring influenza or for avoiding developing serious complications related to the disease. Vaccinations based on inactivated split virus vaccines or on chemically inactivated whole virus have some important drawbacks, including changes in the immunogenic properties of the virus. To induce a greater mucosal immune response, intranasally administered vaccines are highly desired as they not only prevent disease but can also block the infection at its primary site. To avoid these drawbacks, hydrostatic pressure has been used as a potential method for viral inactivation and vaccine production. In this study, we show that hydrostatic pressure inactivates the avian influenza A H3N8 virus, while still maintaining hemagglutinin and neuraminidase functionalities. Challenged vaccinated animals showed no disease signs (ruffled fur, lethargy, weight loss, and huddling. Similarly, these animals showed less Evans Blue dye leakage and lower cell counts in their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid compared with the challenged non-vaccinated group. We found that the whole inactivated particles were capable of generating a neutralizing antibody response in serum, and IgA was also found in nasal mucosa and feces. After the vaccination and challenge we observed Th1/Th2 cytokine secretion with a prevalence of IFN-γ. Our data indicate that the animals present a satisfactory immune response after vaccination and are protected against infection. Our results may pave the way for the development of a novel pressure-based vaccine against influenza virus.

  3. Enhanced mucosal and systemic immune response with intranasal immunization of mice with HIV peptides entrapped in PLG microparticles in combination with Ulex Europaeus-I lectin as M cell target.

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    Manocha, Monika; Pal, Pramod Chandra; Chitralekha, K T; Thomas, Beena Elizabeth; Tripathi, Vinita; Gupta, Siddhartha Dutta; Paranjape, Ramesh; Kulkarni, Smita; Rao, D Nageswara

    2005-12-01

    The predominant route of HIV infection is through the sexual transmission via M cells. Most of the peptide and protein vaccines show poor transport across the epithelial barrier and are commonly administered by parenteral route. In the present study four HIV peptides from envelope (gp 41-LZ (leucine zipper), gp 41-FD (fusion domain) and gp120-C2) and regulatory (Nef) region in poly lactic-co-glycolide (PLG) micro-particle delivery were evaluated in mice of outbred and with different genetic background to compare immune response versus MHC restriction. Out of the combinational and single routes of immunization attempted, the single route maintained the IgG, IgA and sIgA in sera and washes for longer duration as compared to combinational routes in which the response was declined. The study demonstrated that single intranasal immunization offered significantly higher immune response (pPP>or=SP. The cytokine measurement profile of IL-2, IFN-gamma and IL-6 and low levels of IL-4 in the cultural supernatants of SP, PP and LP showed mixed CD4(+) Th1 and Th2 immune response. The p24 assay showed high percent inhibition of HIV-IIIB virus with sera and washes obtained from intranasal route. Thus, overall the study highlighted the combination of UEA-1 lectin with HIV peptides in micro-particles through intranasal immunization generated systemic as well as mucosal immune response.

  4. Partial protective effect of intranasal immunization with recombinant Toxoplasma gondii rhoptry protein 17 against toxoplasmosis in mice.

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    Hai-Long Wang

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that infects a variety of mammals, including humans. An effective vaccine for this parasite is therefore needed. In this study, RH strain T. gondii rhoptry protein 17 was expressed in bacteria as a fusion with glutathione S-transferase (GST and the recombinant proteins (rTgROP17 were purified via GST-affinity chromatography. BALB/c mice were nasally immunised with rTgROP17, and induction of immune responses and protection against chronic and lethal T. gondii infections were investigated. The results revealed that mice immunised with rTgROP17 produced high levels of specific anti-rTgROP17 IgGs and a mixed IgG1/IgG2a response of IgG2a predominance. The systemic immune response was associated with increased production of Th1 (IFN-γand IL-2 and Th2 (IL-4 cytokines, and enhanced lymphoproliferation (stimulation index, SI in the mice immunised with rTgROP17. Strong mucosal immune responses with increased secretion of TgROP17-specific secretory IgA (SIgA in nasal, vaginal and intestinal washes were also observed in these mice. The vaccinated mice displayed apparent protection against chronic RH strain infection as evidenced by their lower liver and brain parasite burdens (59.17% and 49.08%, respectively than those of the controls. The vaccinated mice also exhibited significant protection against lethal infection of the virulent RH strain (survival increased by 50% compared to the controls. Our data demonstrate that rTgROP17 can trigger strong systemic and mucosal immune responses against T. gondii and that ROP17 is a promising candidate vaccine for toxoplasmosis.

  5. An adenovirus vectored mucosal adjuvant augments protection of mice immunized intranasally with an adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease virus subunit vaccine.

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    Alejo, Diana M; Moraes, Mauro P; Liao, Xiaofen; Dias, Camila C; Tulman, Edan R; Diaz-San Segundo, Fayna; Rood, Debra; Grubman, Marvin J; Silbart, Lawrence K

    2013-04-26

    Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a highly contagious pathogen that causes severe morbidity and economic losses to the livestock industry in many countries. The oral and respiratory mucosae are the main ports of entry of FMDV, so the stimulation of local immunity in these tissues may help prevent initial infection and viral spread. E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) has been described as one of the few molecules that have adjuvant activity at mucosal surfaces. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of replication-defective adenovirus 5 (Ad5) vectors encoding either of two LT-based mucosal adjuvants, LTB or LTR72. These vectored adjuvants were delivered intranasally to mice concurrent with an Ad5-FMDV vaccine (Ad5-A24) to assess their ability to augment mucosal and systemic humoral immune responses to Ad5-A24 and protection against FMDV. Mice receiving Ad5-A24 plus Ad5-LTR72 had higher levels of mucosal and systemic neutralizing antibodies than those receiving Ad5-A24 alone or Ad5-A24 plus Ad5-LTB. The vaccine plus Ad5-LTR72 group also demonstrated 100% survival after intradermal challenge with a lethal dose of homologous FMDV serotype A24. These results suggest that Ad5-LTR72 could be used as an important tool to enhance mucosal and systemic immunity against FMDV and potentially other pathogens with a common route of entry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mucosal and Systemic Immune Responses to Influenza H7N9 Antigen HA1-2 Co-Delivered Intranasally with Flagellin or Polyethyleneimine in Mice and Chickens.

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    Song, Li; Xiong, Dan; Song, Hongqin; Wu, Lili; Zhang, Meihua; Kang, Xilong; Pan, Zhiming; Jiao, Xinan

    2017-01-01

    Consecutive cases of human infection with H7N9 influenza viruses since 2013 in China have prompted efforts to develop an effective treatment. Subunit vaccines introduced by intranasal administration can block an infection at its primary site; flagellin (fliC) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) have been shown to be potent adjuvants. We previously generated the hemagglutinin (HA)1-2-fliC fusion protein consisting of the globular head domain (HA1-2; amino acids 62-284) of HA fused with Salmonella typhimurium fliC. In the present study, we investigated its effectiveness of both flagellin and PEI as mucosal adjuvants for the H7N9 influenza subunit vaccine. Mice immunized intranasally with HA1-2-fliC and HA1-2-PEI showed higher HA1-2-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgA titers in serum, nasal wash, and bronchial alveolar lavage fluid. Moreover, splenocyte activation and proliferation and the number of HA1-2-specific interferon (IFN)-γ- and interleukin (IL)-4-producing splenocytes were markedly increased in the fliC and PEI groups; in the latter, there were more cells secreting IL-4 than IFN-γ, suggesting that fliC induced T helper type (Th)1 and Th2 immune responses, and PEI induced Th2-biased responses, consistent with the serum antibody isotype pattern (IgG1/IgG2a ratio). Furthermore, virus challenge was performed in a chicken model. The results showed that chickens receiving fliC and PEI adjuvant vaccine exhibited robust immune responses leading to a significant reduction in viral loads of throat and cloaca compared to chickens receiving only HA1-2. These findings provide a basis for the development of H7N9 influenza HA1-2 mucosal subunit vaccines.

  7. Evaluation of an intranasal virosomal vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus in mice: effect of TLR2 and NOD2 ligands on induction of systemic and mucosal immune responses.

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    Muhammad Shafique

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: RSV infection remains a serious threat to newborns and the elderly. Currently, there is no vaccine available to prevent RSV infection. A mucosal RSV vaccine would be attractive as it could induce mucosal as well as systemic antibodies, capable of protecting both the upper and lower respiratory tract. Previously, we reported on a virosomal RSV vaccine for intramuscular injection with intrinsic adjuvant properties mediated by an incorporated lipophilic Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2 ligand. However, it has not been investigated whether this virosomal RSV vaccine candidate would be suitable for use in mucosal immunization strategies and if additional incorporation of other innate receptor ligands, like NOD2-ligand, could further enhance the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the vaccine. OBJECTIVE: To explore if intranasal (IN immunization with a virosomal RSV vaccine, supplemented with TLR2 and/or NOD2-ligands, is an effective strategy to induce RSV-specific immunity. METHODS: We produced RSV-virosomes carrying TLR2 (Pam3CSK4 and/or NOD2 (L18-MDP ligands. We tested the immunopotentiating properties of these virosomes in vitro, using TLR2- and/or NOD2-ligand-responsive murine and human cell lines, and in vivo by assessing induction of protective antibody and cellular responses upon IN immunization of BALB/c mice. RESULTS: Incorporation of Pam3CSK4 and/or L18-MDP potentiates the capacity of virosomes to activate (antigen-presenting cells in vitro, as demonstrated by NF-κB induction. In vivo, incorporation of Pam3CSK4 in virosomes boosted serum IgG antibody responses and mucosal antibody responses after IN immunization. While L18-MDP alone was ineffective, incorporation of L18-MDP in Pam3CSK4-carrying virosomes further boosted mucosal antibody responses. Finally, IN immunization with adjuvanted virosomes, particularly Pam3CSK4/L18-MDP-adjuvanted-virosomes, protected mice against infection with RSV, without priming for enhanced

  8. Oral immunization of mice with gamma-irradiated Brucella neotomae induces protection against intraperitoneal and intranasal challenge with virulent B. abortus 2308.

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    Dabral, Neha; Martha-Moreno-Lafont; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Vemulapalli, Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Brucella spp. are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular coccobacilli that cause one of the most frequently encountered zoonosis worldwide. Humans naturally acquire infection through consumption of contaminated dairy and meat products and through direct exposure to aborted animal tissues and fluids. No vaccine against brucellosis is available for use in humans. In this study, we tested the ability of orally inoculated gamma-irradiated B. neotomae and B. abortus RB51 in a prime-boost immunization approach to induce antigen-specific humoral and cell mediated immunity and protection against challenge with virulent B. abortus 2308. Heterologous prime-boost vaccination with B. abortus RB51 and B. neotomae and homologous prime-boost vaccination of mice with B. neotomae led to the production of serum and mucosal antibodies specific to the smooth LPS. The elicited serum antibodies included the isotypes of IgM, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgG3. All oral vaccination regimens induced antigen-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells capable of secreting IFN-γ and TNF-α. Upon intra-peritoneal challenge, mice vaccinated with B. neotomae showed the highest level of resistance against virulent B. abortus 2308 colonization in spleen and liver. Experiments with different doses of B. neotomae showed that all tested doses of 10(9), 10(10) and 10(11) CFU-equivalent conferred significant protection against the intra-peritoneal challenge. However, a dose of 10(11) CFU-equivalent of B. neotomae was required for affording protection against intranasal challenge as shown by the reduced bacterial colonization in spleens and lungs. Taken together, these results demonstrate the feasibility of using gamma-irradiated B. neotomae as an effective and safe oral vaccine to induce protection against respiratory and systemic infections with virulent Brucella.

  9. [Comparison of immune response after oral and intranasal immunization with recombinant Lactobacillus casei expressing ETEC F41].

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    Liu, Jiankui; Wei, Chunhua; Hou, Xilin; Wang, Guihua; Yu, Liyun

    2009-04-01

    In order to represent a promising strategy for mucosal vaccination, oral or intranasal immunization of Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) BALB/c mice were performed. The mucosal immunity, systemic immune and protective immune responses were compared after immunization with the recombinant Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) harboring enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) F41. The recombinant fusion proteins were detected by Western blot. Surface localization of the fusion protein was verified by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Six-week-old female SPF BALB/c mice (160 heads) were divided into 4 groups for immunization and control. Oral and intranasal immunization of mice was performed with the recombinant strain L. casei harboring pLA-F41 or pLA. For oral immunization, the mice were inoculated daily on days 0 to 4, 7 to 11, 21 to 25, and 49 to 53. A lighter schedule was used for nasal immunization (days 0 to 2, 7 to 9, 21 and 49). Specific anti-F41 IgG antibody in the serum and specific anti-F41 secret immunoglobulin A (sIgA) antibody in the lung, intestines, vagina fluid and feces of mice were detected by indirect ELISA. The mice orally or intranasally immunized with pLA-F41/L. casei and pLA/IL. casei were challenged with standard-type ETEC F41 (C83919) (2 x 10(3) LD50). Mice immunized with pLA-F41/L. casei could produce remarkable anti-F41 antibody level. More than 90% survived in oral immunization group whereas more than 85% survived in intranasal immunization group after challenged with C83919, all dead in the control group. Ninety percent of the pups survived in oral immunization group whereas 80% survived in intranasal immunization group after challenged with C83919, but only a 5% survival rate for pups that were either immunized with a control pLA vector or unimmunized. Oral or intranasal immunization with recombinant L. casei displaying ETEC F41 antigens on the surface induced effective and similar systemic and mucosal immune responses against the

  10. Prolonged protection against Intranasal challenge with influenza virus following systemic immunization or combinations of mucosal and systemic immunizations with a heat-labile toxin mutant.

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    Zhou, Fengmin; Goodsell, Amanda; Uematsu, Yasushi; Vajdy, Michael

    2009-04-01

    Seasonal influenza virus infections cause considerable morbidity and mortality in the world, and there is a serious threat of a pandemic influenza with the potential to cause millions of deaths. Therefore, practical influenza vaccines and vaccination strategies that can confer protection against intranasal infection with influenza viruses are needed. In this study, we demonstrate that using LTK63, a nontoxic mutant of the heat-labile toxin from Escherichia coli, as an adjuvant for both mucosal and systemic immunizations, systemic (intramuscular) immunization or combinations of mucosal (intranasal) and intramuscular immunizations protected mice against intranasal challenge with a lethal dose of live influenza virus at 3.5 months after the second immunization.

  11. Tailorable Trimethyl chitosans as adjuvant for intranasal immunization

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    Verheul, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Tailorable Trimethyl Chitosans as Adjuvant for Intranasal Immunization Active vaccination has proven to be the most (cost) effective tool in the fight against infectious diseases. Nowadays, most vaccines are administered via parenteral injection. However, the risk of contaminated needles and need

  12. Toxoplasma gondii: humoral and cellular immune response of BALB/c mice immunized via intranasal route with rTgROP2 Toxoplasma gondii: avaliação da resposta imune humoral e celular de camundongos BALB/c imunizados pela via nasal com rTgROP2

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    Michelle Igarashi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available TgROP2 is an intracellular protein associated with rhoptries of Toxoplama gondii and an antigen component of a candidate vaccine for toxoplasmosis. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of rTgROP2 to stimulate humoral and cellular immune responses in BALB/c mice via intranasal injection. TgROP2 partial coding sequence was (196-561 amplified by PCR from genomic T. gondii RH strain DNA and cloned into the pTrcHis expression vector. Escherichia coli Rosetta 2 cells transformed with pTrcHis-TgROP2 showed high levels (~1 mg.mL-1 of recombinant protein after 4 hours of IPTG induction. Recombinant TgROP2 exhibited an apparent Mr equal to 54 kDa. In order to test immunogenicity of the recombinant protein, 10 BALB/c mice received 10 µg of rROP2 protein + 10 µg of Quil-A via intranasal injection. Doses were administered at days 0, 21, and 42. Three animals were euthanized and used to evaluate cell-ular immune response on day 62. Five (50% and two (20% out of ten animals produced IgG (DO mean = 0.307; cut-off = 0.240 and IgA (DO mean = 0.133, cut-off = 0.101, respectively, by ELISA on day 62. The proliferation of splenocytes revealed high stimulation index (SI when co-cultured with 5, 10 and 15 µg.mL-1 of rTgROP2. These results indicate that intranasal immunization with recombinant protein ROP2 plus Quil-A can elicit both cellular and humoral immune responses in BALB/c mice.TgROP2 é uma proteína localizada nas roptrias do Toxoplasma gondii, sendo um antígeno candidato a componente de uma vacina contra a toxoplasmose. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a eficácia da TgROP2 recombinante em estimular a resposta imune celular e humoral de camundongos BALB/c após estímulo intranasal. A sequência da TgROP2 foi amplificada pela PCR a partir da cepa RH e clonada em vetor de expressão pTrc-His. Após a transformação em Escherichia coli- Rosetta 2, a pTrcHis-TgROP2 exibiu alto nível de expressão após 4 horas de indu

  13. Preparation of ESAT-6 Nanoparticles and Evaluation of Humoral Immunity after Intranasal Administration

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    H Najminezhad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Among several tuberculosis vaccine candidates for replacement of BCG, ESAT-6 protein has a special role. Since mycobacterium tuberculosis infection most often attacks the lungs, intranasal rout can be regarded as appropriate methods for tuberculosis vaccines and drug delivery. One of the appropriate systems for intranasal vaccine delivery is using biodegradable nanoparticles. Among biodegradable polymers, chitosan polymer has great features to increase the response of immunity system. This study aimed to investigate the specific humoral immune response of mice model after encapsulation of recombinant ESAT-6 antigen in chitosan nanoparticles. Methods: The chitosan nanoparticles containing ESAT-6 antigen were synthesized by ionic gelation. Nanoparticle properties including morphology, particle size, zeta potential, encapsulation rates, and protein release were measured in vitro. The immunization was performed through the nose for 3 times on days 0 and 14 and 28. 2 weeks after last administration, blood samples were collected and specific IgG titers were measured by indirect ELISA. Results: The nanoparticles synthesized had appropriate properties. The mean size of resulting nanoparticles was 242.8 nm by excellent antigen loading capacity (95.23 %. The vitro release of antigen from nanoparticles after 200 hours was detected as 67.5%. The Level of IgG antibody showed significant increase in the group that had received chitosan nanoparticles containing ESAT-6 compared with other groups. Conclusion: ESAT-6 protein was encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles successfully. Administration of chitosan nanoparticles can be a suitable method for administration of humoral immunity antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis through intranasal rout.

  14. Intranasal vaccination promotes detrimental Th17-mediated immunity against influenza infection.

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    Asher Maroof

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza disease is a global health issue that causes significant morbidity and mortality through seasonal epidemics. Currently, inactivated influenza virus vaccines given intramuscularly or live attenuated influenza virus vaccines administered intranasally are the only approved options for vaccination against influenza virus in humans. We evaluated the efficacy of a synthetic toll-like receptor 4 agonist CRX-601 as an adjuvant for enhancing vaccine-induced protection against influenza infection. Intranasal administration of CRX-601 adjuvant combined with detergent split-influenza antigen (A/Uruguay/716/2007 (H3N2 generated strong local and systemic immunity against co-administered influenza antigens while exhibiting high efficacy against two heterotypic influenza challenges. Intranasal vaccination with CRX-601 adjuvanted vaccines promoted antigen-specific IgG and IgA antibody responses and the generation of polyfunctional antigen-specific Th17 cells (CD4(+IL-17A(+TNFα(+. Following challenge with influenza virus, vaccinated mice transiently exhibited increased weight loss and morbidity during early stages of disease but eventually controlled infection. This disease exacerbation following influenza infection in vaccinated mice was dependent on both the route of vaccination and the addition of the adjuvant. Neutralization of IL-17A confirmed a detrimental role for this cytokine during influenza infection. The expansion of vaccine-primed Th17 cells during influenza infection was also accompanied by an augmented lung neutrophilic response, which was partially responsible for mediating the increased morbidity. This discovery is of significance in the field of vaccinology, as it highlights the importance of both route of vaccination and adjuvant selection in vaccine development.

  15. Intranasal delivery of E-selectin reduces atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice.

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    Xinhui Li

    Full Text Available Mucosal tolerance to E-selectin prevents stroke and protects against ischemic brain damage in experimental models of stroke studying healthy animals or spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats. A reduction in inflammation and neural damage was associated with immunomodulatory or "tolerogenic" responses to E-selectin. The purpose of the current study on ApoE deficient mice is to assess the capacity of this stroke prevention innovation to influence atherosclerosis, a major underlying cause for ischemic strokes; human E-selectin is being translated as a potential clinical prevention strategy for secondary stroke. Female ApoE-/- mice received intranasal delivery of E-selectin prior to (pre-tolerization or simultaneously with initiation of a high-fat diet. After 7 weeks on the high-fat diet, lipid lesions in the aorta, serum triglycerides, and total cholesterol were assessed as markers of atherosclerosis development. We also assessed E-selectin-specific antibodies and cytokine responses, in addition to inflammatory responses that included macrophage infiltration of the aorta and altered gene expression profiles of aortic mRNA. Intranasal delivery of E-selectin prior to initiation of high-fat chow decreased atherosclerosis, serum total cholesterol, and expression of the leucocyte chemoattractant CCL21 that is typically upregulated in atherosclerotic lesions of ApoE-/- mice. This response was associated with the induction of E-selectin specific cells producing the immunomodulatory cytokine IL-10 and immunosuppressive antibody isotypes. Intranasal administration of E-selectin generates E-selectin specific immune responses that are immunosuppressive in nature and can ameliorate atherosclerosis, a major risk factor for ischemic stroke. These results provide additional preclinical support for the potential of induction of mucosal tolerance to E-selectin to prevent stroke.

  16. Protective effect of intranasal immunization with Neospora caninum membrane antigens against murine neosporosis established through the gastrointestinal tract

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    Ferreirinha, Pedro; Dias, Joana; Correia, Alexandra; Pérez-Cabezas, Begoña; Santos, Carlos; Teixeira, Luzia; Ribeiro, Adília; Rocha, António; Vilanova, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Neospora caninum is an Apicomplexa parasite that in the last two decades was acknowledged as the main pathogenic agent responsible for economic losses in the cattle industry. In the present study, the effectiveness of intranasal immunization with N. caninum membrane antigens plus CpG adjuvant was assessed in a murine model of intragastrically established neosporosis. Immunized mice presented a lower parasitic burden in the brain on infection with 5 × 107 tachyzoites, showing that significant protection was achieved by this immunization strategy. Intestinal IgA antibodies raised by immunization markedly agglutinated live N. caninum tachyzoites whereas previous opsonization with IgG antibodies purified from immunized mice sera reduced parasite survival within macrophage cells. Although an IgG1 : IgG2a ratio < 1 was detected in the immunized mice before and after infection, indicative of a predominant T helper type 1 immune response, no increased production of interferon-γ was detected in the spleen or mesenteric lymph nodes of the immunized mice. Altogether, these results show that mucosal immunization with N. caninum membrane proteins plus CpG adjuvant protect against intragastrically established neosporosis and indicate that parasite-specific mucosal and circulating antibodies have a protective role against this parasitic infection. PMID:24128071

  17. Intranasal immunization with protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis induces a long-term immunological memory response.

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    Woo, Sun-Je; Kang, Seok-Seong; Park, Sung-Moo; Yang, Jae Seung; Song, Man Ki; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

    2015-10-01

    Although intranasal vaccination has been shown to be effective for the protection against inhalational anthrax, establishment of long-term immunity has yet to be achieved. Here, we investigated whether intranasal immunization with recombinant protective antigen (rPA) of Bacillus anthracis induces immunological memory responses in the mucosal and systemic compartments. Intranasal immunization with rPA plus cholera toxin (CT) sustained PA-specific antibody responses for 6 months in lung, nasal washes, and vaginal washes as well as serum. A significant induction of PA-specific memory B cells was observed in spleen, cervical lymph nodes (CLNs) and lung after booster immunization. Furthermore, intranasal immunization with rPA plus CT remarkably generated effector memory CD4(+) T cells in the lung. PA-specific CD4(+) T cells preferentially increased the expression of Th1- and Th17-type cytokines in lung, but not in spleen or CLNs. Collectively, the intranasal immunization with rPA plus CT promoted immunologic memory responses in the mucosal and systemic compartments, providing long-term immunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Local Th17/IgA immunity correlate with protection against intranasal infection with Streptococcus pyogenes.

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    Rasmus Mortensen

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus, GAS is responsible for a wide array of infections. Respiratory transmission via droplets is the most common mode of transmission but it may also infect the host via other routes such as lesions in the skin. To advance the development of a future vaccine against GAS, it is therefore important to investigate how protective immunity is related to the route of vaccine administration. To explore this, we examined whether a parenterally administered anti-GAS vaccine could protect against an intranasal GAS infection or if this would require locally primed immunity. We foundd that a parenteral CAF01 adjuvanted GAS vaccine offered no protection against intranasal infection despite inducing strong systemic Th1/Th17/IgG immunity that efficiently protected against an intraperitoneal GAS infection. However, the same vaccine administered via the intranasal route was able to induce protection against repeated intranasal GAS infections in a murine challenge model. The lack of intranasal protection induced by the parenteral vaccine correlated with a reduced mucosal recall response at the site of infection. Taken together, our results demonstrate that locally primed immunity is important for the defense against intranasal infection with Streptococcus pyogenes.

  19. [The humoral immune response in mice induced by recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing HIV-1 gag].

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    Zhao, Xiaofei; Zhang, Cairong; Liu, Xiaojuan; Ma, Zhenghai

    2014-11-01

    To analyze the humoral immune response induced by recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing HIV-1 gag in mice immunized orally, intranasally, subcutaneously or in the combined way of above three. Fifty BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 5 groups, 10 mice per group. The mice were immunized consecutively three times at two week intervals with 10(9) CFU of recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing gag through oral, intranasal, subcutaneous administration or the mix of them. The mice that were immunized orally with Lactococcus lactis containing PMG36e served as a control group. The sera of mice were collected before primary immunization and 2 weeks after each immunization to detect the gag specific IgG by ELISA. Compared with the control group, the higher titer of serum gag specific IgG was detected in the four groups immunized with recombinant Lactococcus lactis expressing gag, and it was the highest in the mixed immunization group (PLactococcus lactis expressing gag can induce humoral immune response in mice by oral, intranasal, subcutaneous injection or the mix of them, and the mixed immunization can enhance the immune effects of Lactococcus lactis vector vaccine.

  20. Engineering intranasal mRNA vaccines to enhance lymph node trafficking and immune responses.

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    Li, Man; Li, You; Peng, Ke; Wang, Ying; Gong, Tao; Zhang, Zhirong; He, Qin; Sun, Xun

    2017-12-01

    Intranasal mRNA vaccination provides immediate immune protection against pandemic diseases. Recent studies have shown that diverse forms of polyethyleneimine (PEI) have potent mucosal adjuvant activity, which could significantly facilitate the delivery of intranasal mRNA vaccines. Nevertheless, optimizing the chemical structure of PEI to maximize its adjuvanticity and decrease its toxicity remains a challenge. Here we show that the chemical structure of PEI strongly influences how well nanocomplexes of PEI and mRNA migrate to the lymph nodes and elicit immune responses. Conjugating cyclodextrin (CD) with PEI600 or PEI2k yielded CP (CD-PEI) polymers with different CD/PEI ratios. We analyzed the delivery efficacy of CP600, CP2k, and PEI25k as intranasal mRNA vaccine carriers by evaluating the lymph nodes migration and immune responses. Among these polymers, CP2k/mRNA showed significantly higher in vitro transfection efficiency, stronger abilities to migrate to lymph nodes and stimulate dendritic cells maturation in vivo, which further led to potent humoral and cellular immune responses, and showed lower local and systemic toxicity than PEI25k/mRNA. These results demonstrate the potential of CD-PEI2k/mRNA nanocomplex as a self-adjuvanting vaccine delivery vehicle that traffics to lymph nodes with high efficiency. As we face outbreaks of pandemic diseases such as Zika virus, intranasal mRNA vaccination provides instant massive protection against highly variant viruses. Various polymer-based delivery systems have been successfully applied in intranasal vaccine delivery. However, the influence of molecular structure of the polymeric carriers on the lymph node trafficking and dendritic cell maturation is seldom studied for intranasal vaccination. Therefore, engineering polymer-based vaccine delivery system and elucidating the relationship between molecular structure and the intranasal delivery efficiency are essential for maximizing the immune responses. We hereby

  1. Intranasal immunization with chitosan/pCETP nanoparticles inhibits atherosclerosis in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis.

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    Yuan, Xiying; Yang, Xiaorong; Cai, Danning; Mao, Dan; Wu, Jie; Zong, Li; Liu, Jingjing

    2008-07-04

    In search of a convenient and pain-free route of administration of DNA vaccine against atherosclerosis, the plasmid pCR-X8-HBc-CETP (pCETP) encoding B-cell epitope of cholesteryl ester transfer protein C-terminal fragment displayed by Hepatitis B virus core particle was condensed with chitosan to form chitosan/pCETP nanoparticles. Cholesterol-fed rabbits were then intranasally immunized with the chitosan/pCETP nanoparticles to evaluate antiatherogenic effects. The results showed that significant serum antibodies against CETP were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent analysis and verified by Western blot analysis. The significant anti-CETP IgG lasted for 21 weeks in the rabbits immunized intranasally. Moreover, the atherogenic index was significantly lower compared with the saline control (5.95 versus 2.39, pnanoparticles was 59.2% less than those treated with saline (29.0+/-10.9% versus 71.0+/-14.4%, pintramuscularly injected with pCETP solution (29.0+/-10.9% versus 21.2+/-14.2%, p>0.05). Thus, chitosan/pCETP nanoparticles could significantly attenuate the progression of atherosclerosis by intranasal immunization. The results suggested that intranasal administration could be potentially developed as a vaccination route against atherosclerosis.

  2. Chimeric plant virus particles administered nasally or orally induce systemic and mucosal immune responses in mice

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    Brennan, F.R.; Bellaby, T.; Helliwell, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    The humoral immune responses to the D2 peptide of fibronectin-binding protein B (FnBP) of Staphylococcus aureus, expressed on the plant virus cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), were evaluated after mucosal delivery to mice. Intranasal immunization of these chimeric virus particles (CVPs), either alone...

  3. Local Th17/IgA immunity correlate with protection against intranasal infection with Streptococcus pyogenes

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    Mortensen, Rasmus; Christensen, Dennis; Hansen, Lasse Bøllehuus

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus, GAS) is responsible for a wide array of infections. Respiratory transmission via droplets is the most common mode of transmission but it may also infect the host via other routes such as lesions in the skin. To advance the development of a future...... vaccine against GAS, it is therefore important to investigate how protective immunity is related to the route of vaccine administration. To explore this, we examined whether a parenterally administered anti-GAS vaccine could protect against an intranasal GAS infection or if this would require locally...... primed immunity. We foundd that a parenteral CAF01 adjuvanted GAS vaccine offered no protection against intranasal infection despite inducing strong systemic Th1/Th17/IgG immunity that efficiently protected against an intraperitoneal GAS infection. However, the same vaccine administered via...

  4. Intranasal Immunization Using Mannatide as a Novel Adjuvant for an Inactivated Influenza Vaccine and Its Adjuvant Effect Compared with MF59.

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    Shu-Ting Ren

    Full Text Available Intranasal vaccination is more potent than parenteral injection for the prevention of influenza. However, because the poor efficiency of antigen uptake across the nasal mucosa is a key issue, immunostimulatory adjuvants are essential for intranasal vaccines. The immunomodulator mannatide or polyactin (PA has been used for the clinical treatment of impaired immunity in China, but its adjuvant effect on an inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (ITIV via intranasal vaccination is unclear. To explore the adjuvant effect of PA, an inactivated trivalent influenza virus with or without PA or MF59 was instilled intranasally once a week in BALB/c mice. Humoral immunity was assessed by both the ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition (HI methods using antigen-specific antibodies. Splenic lymphocyte proliferation and the IFN-γ level were measured to evaluate cell-mediated immunity. The post-vaccination serum HI antibody geometric mean titers (GMTs for the H1N1 and H3N2 strains, antigen-specific serum IgG and IgA GMTs, mucosal SIgA GMT, splenic lymphocyte proliferation, and IFN-γ were significantly increased in the high-dose PA-adjuvanted vaccine group. The seroconversion rate and the mucosal response for the H3N2 strain were significantly elevated after high-dose PA administration. These adjuvant effects of high-dose PA for the influenza vaccine were comparable with those of the MF59 adjuvant, and abnormal signs or pathological changes were not found in the evaluated organs. In conclusion, PA is a novel mucosal adjuvant for intranasal vaccination with the ITIV that has safe and effective mucosal adjuvanticity in mice and successfully induces both serum and mucosal antibody responses and a cell-mediated response.

  5. Prevention or early cure of type 1 diabetes by intranasal administration of gliadin in NOD mice

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    Funda, David; Fundova, Petra; Hansen, Axel Kornerup

    2014-01-01

    gluten-free diets prevent T1D in animal models. Herewith we investigated whether intranasal (i.n.) administration of gliadin or gluten may arrest the diabetogenic process. I.n. administration of gliadin to 4-week-old NOD mice significantly reduced the diabetes incidence. Similarly, the insulitis...

  6. Protection of mice against the highly pathogenic VVIHD-J by DNA and fowlpox recombinant vaccines, administered by electroporation and intranasal routes, correlates with serum neutralizing activity.

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    Bissa, Massimiliano; Quaglino, Elena; Zanotto, Carlo; Illiano, Elena; Rolih, Valeria; Pacchioni, Sole; Cavallo, Federica; De Giuli Morghen, Carlo; Radaelli, Antonia

    2016-10-01

    The control of smallpox was achieved using live vaccinia virus (VV) vaccine, which successfully eradicated the disease worldwide. As the variola virus no longer exists as a natural infection agent, mass vaccination was discontinued after 1980. However, emergence of smallpox outbreaks caused by accidental or deliberate release of variola virus has stimulated new research for second-generation vaccine development based on attenuated VV strains. Considering the closely related animal poxviruses that also arise as zoonoses, and the increasing number of unvaccinated or immunocompromised people, a safer and more effective vaccine is still required. With this aim, new vectors based on avian poxviruses that cannot replicate in mammals should improve the safety of conventional vaccines, and protect from zoonotic orthopoxvirus diseases, such as cowpox and monkeypox. In this study, DNA and fowlpox (FP) recombinants that expressed the VV L1R, A27L, A33R, and B5R genes were generated (4DNAmix, 4FPmix, respectively) and tested in mice using novel administration routes. Mice were primed with 4DNAmix by electroporation, and boosted with 4FPmix applied intranasally. The lethal VV IHD-J strain was then administered by intranasal challenge. All of the mice receiving 4DNAmix followed by 4FPmix, and 20% of the mice immunized only with 4FPmix, were protected. The induction of specific humoral and cellular immune responses directly correlated with this protection. In particular, higher anti-A27 antibodies and IFNγ-producing T lymphocytes were measured in the blood and spleen of the protected mice, as compared to controls. VV IHD-J neutralizing antibodies in sera from the protected mice suggest that the prime/boost vaccination regimen with 4DNAmix plus 4FPmix may be an effective and safe mode to induce protection against smallpox and poxvirus zoonotic infections. The electroporation/intranasal administration routes contributed to effective immune responses and mouse survival. Copyright

  7. Effective Respiratory CD8 T-Cell Immunity to Influenza Virus Induced by Intranasal Carbomer-Lecithin-Adjuvanted Non-replicating Vaccines

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    Gasper, David J.; Neldner, Brandon; Plisch, Erin H.; Rustom, Hani; Imai, Hirotaka; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Suresh, M.

    2016-01-01

    CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are critical for clearing many viral infections, and protective CTL memory can be induced by vaccination with attenuated viruses and vectors. Non-replicating vaccines are typically potentiated by the addition of adjuvants that enhance humoral responses, however few are capable of generating CTL responses. Adjuplex is a carbomer-lecithin-based adjuvant demonstrated to elicit robust humoral immunity to non-replicating antigens. We report that mice immunized with non-replicating Adjuplex-adjuvanted vaccines generated robust antigen-specific CTL responses. Vaccination by the subcutaneous or the intranasal route stimulated systemic and mucosal CTL memory respectively. However, only CTL memory induced by intranasal vaccination was protective against influenza viral challenge, and correlated with an enhancement of memory CTLs in the airways and CD103+ CD69+ CXCR3+ resident memory-like CTLs in the lungs. Mechanistically, Myd88-deficient mice mounted primary CTL responses to Adjuplex vaccines that were similar in magnitude to wild-type mice, but exhibited altered differentiation of effector cell subsets. Immune potentiating effects of Adjuplex entailed alterations in the frequency of antigen-presenting-cell subsets in vaccine draining lymph nodes, and in the lungs and airways following intranasal vaccination. Further, Adjuplex enhanced the ability of dendritic cells to promote antigen-induced proliferation of naïve CD8 T cells by modulating antigen uptake, its intracellular localization, and rate of processing. Taken together, we have identified an adjuvant that elicits both systemic and mucosal CTL memory to non-replicating antigens, and engenders protective CTL-based heterosubtypic immunity to influenza A virus in the respiratory tract. Further, findings presented in this manuscript have provided key insights into the mechanisms and factors that govern the induction and programming of systemic and protective memory CTLs in the

  8. Intranasal immunization of baculovirus displayed hemagglutinin confers complete protection against mouse adapted highly pathogenic H7N7 reassortant influenza virus.

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    Subaschandrabose Rajesh Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Avian influenza A H7N7 virus poses a pandemic threat to human health because of its ability for direct transmission from domestic poultry to humans and from human to human. The wide zoonotic potential of H7N7 combined with an antiviral immunity inhibition similar to pandemic 1918 H1N1 and 2009 H1N1 influenza viruses is disconcerting and increases the risk of a putative H7N7 pandemic in the future, underlining the urgent need for vaccine development against this virus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we developed a recombinant vaccine by expressing the H7N7-HA protein on the surface of baculovirus (Bac-HA. The protective efficacy of the live Bac-HA vaccine construct was evaluated in a mouse model by challenging mice immunized intranasally (i.n. or subcutaneously (s.c. with high pathogenic mouse adapted H7N7 reassorted strain. Although s.c. injection of live Bac-HA induced higher specific IgG than i.n. immunization, the later resulted in an elevated neutralization titer. Interestingly, 100% protection from the lethal viral challenge was only observed for the mice immunized intranasally with live Bac-HA, whereas no protection was achieved in any other s.c. or i.n. immunized mice groups. In addition, we also observed higher mucosal IgA as well as increased IFN-γ and IL-4 responses in the splenocytes of the surviving mice coupled with a reduced viral titer and diminished histopathological signs in the lungs. CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that protection from high pathogenic H7N7 (NL/219/03 virus requires both mucosal and systemic immune responses in mice. The balance between Th1 and Th2 cytokines is also required for the protection against the H7N7 pathogen. Intranasal administration of live Bac-HA induced all these immune responses and protected the mice from lethal viral challenge. Therefore, live Bac-HA is an effective vaccine candidate against H7N7 viral infections.

  9. A nonproliferating parvovirus vaccine vector elicits sustained, protective humoral immunity following a single intravenous or intranasal inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Gene A; Brogdon, Jennifer L; Constant, Stephanie L; Tattersall, Peter

    2004-02-01

    An ideal vaccine delivery system would elicit persistent protection following a single administration, preferably by a noninvasive route, and be safe even in the face of immunosuppression, either inherited or acquired, of the recipient. We have exploited the unique life cycle of the autonomous parvoviruses to develop a nonproliferating vaccine platform that appears to both induce priming and continually boost a protective immune response following a single inoculation. A crippled parvovirus vector was constructed, based on a chimera between minute virus of mice (MVM) and LuIII, which expresses Borrelia burgdorferi outer surface protein A (OspA) instead of its coat protein. The vector was packaged into an MVM lymphotropic capsid and inoculated into naive C3H/HeNcr mice. Vaccination with a single vector dose, either intravenously or intranasally, elicited high-titer anti-OspA-specific antibody that provided protection from live spirochete challenge and was sustained over the lifetime of the animal. Both humoral and cell-mediated Th(1) immunity was induced, as shown by anti-OspA immunoglobulin G2a antibody and preferential gamma interferon production by OspA-specific CD4(+) T cells.

  10. Conditioned social preference, but not place preference, produced by intranasal oxytocin in female mice.

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    Kosaki, Yutaka; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2016-04-01

    Oxytocin (OT) has been implicated in a variety of mammalian reproductive and social behaviors, and the use of intranasal OT for clinical purposes is on the rise. However, basic actions of OT, including the rewarding or reinforcing properties of the drug, are currently not fully understood. In this study, the authors investigated whether intranasally administered OT has different reinforcing properties for social and nonsocial stimuli and whether such effects are variable between male and female subjects. Conditioned social preference (CSP) and conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigms were used to examine social and nonsocial reinforcing properties of OT. In CSP, the presence of a same-sex unfamiliar conspecific was repeatedly paired with intranasal OT, while a different conspecific was associated with saline. The reinforcing effect of OT was assessed in a postconditioning choice test under a drug-free condition. In CPP, the 2 conspecifics were replaced with nonsocial black and white compartments. The authors found that intranasal OT (12 μg) in females supported the formation of CSP (Experiment 1) but not CPP (Experiment 3). Neither CSP (Experiment 2) nor CPP (Experiment 4) was formed in males. Extended conditioning with higher dose OT (36 μg), however, abolished the initial CSP in females and produced an aversion to the OT-paired stimulus mouse. Experiment 5 indicated that it was the repeated administrations rather than the higher dose that produced the abolition of the original preference. Overall, the current results demonstrate for the first time a sex- and stimulus-dependent reinforcing property of intranasal OT in mice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. [Evaluation of immunogenicity and safety of 2 immunizations with allantoic intranasal live influenza vaccine Ultragrivac].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkina, L N; Mazurkova, N A; Ternovoĭ, V A; Bulychev, L E; Tumanov, Iu V; Skarnovich, M O; Kabanov, A S; Ryndiuk, N N; Kuzubov, V I; Mironov, A N; Stavskiĭ, E A; Drozdov, I G

    2011-01-01

    Evaluate reactogenicity, safety and immunogenicity in phase 2 clinical trials of 2 immunization schedules with Ultragrivac--an allantoic intranasal life influenza vaccine based on A/17/ duck/Potsdam/86/92 [17/H5] reassortant strain. 4 groups of volunteers participated in the study: group 1--40 individuals were vaccinated twice with a 10 day interval; group 2--40 individuals were vaccinated twice with a 21 day interval; group 3 (control)--10 individuals received placebo twice with a 10 day interval; group 4 (control)--10 individuals received placebo twice with a 21 day interval. Local (secretory IgA), cellular and humoral immune response were evaluated. Humoral immunity was evaluated by the intensity of increase of geometric mean antibody titers against 2 influenza virus strains A/17/duck/Potsdam/86/92 [17/H5] and A/chicken/Suzdalka/Nov-1 1/2005 (H5N1), and by the level of significant (4 times or more) antibody seroconversions after the vaccination. After the use of Ultragrivac the level of secretory IgA in the nasal cavity of vaccinated volunteers in the groups with revaccination intervals of 10 and 21 days increased significantly. The second immunization with 10 or 21 day intervals significantly increased postvaccinal humoral immune response. Humoral immune response induction after 2 vaccinations with 10 day interval was no less effective than with 21 day interval. Ultragrivac allantoic intranasal live influenza vaccine is areactogenic, harmless for vaccinated individuals, safe for those around, and has immunogenic properties against not only homologous virus A(H5N2), but also against influenza strain A(H5N1).

  12. Reduced immune responses in chimeric mice engrafted with bone marrow cells from mice with airways inflammation.

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    Scott, Naomi M; Ng, Royce L X; McGonigle, Terence A; Gorman, Shelley; Hart, Prue H

    2015-11-01

    During respiratory inflammation, it is generally assumed that dendritic cells differentiating from the bone marrow are immunogenic rather than immunoregulatory. Using chimeric mice, the outcomes of airways inflammation on bone marrow progenitor cells were studied. Immune responses were analyzed in chimeric mice engrafted for >16 weeks with bone marrow cells from mice with experimental allergic airways disease (EAAD). Responses to sensitization and challenge with the allergen causing inflammation in the bone marrow-donor mice were significantly reduced in the chimeric mice engrafted with bone marrow cells from mice with EAAD (EAAD-chimeric). Responses to intranasal LPS and topical fluorescein isothiocyanate (non-specific challenges) were significantly attenuated. Fewer activated dendritic cells from the airways and skin of the EAAD-chimeric mice could be tracked to the draining lymph nodes, and may contribute to the significantly reduced antigen/chemical-induced hypertrophy in the draining nodes, and the reduced immune responses to sensitizing allergens. Dendritic cells differentiating in vitro from the bone marrow of >16 weeks reconstituted EAAD-chimeric mice retained an ability to poorly prime immune responses when transferred into naïve mice. Dendritic cells developing from bone marrow progenitors during airways inflammation are altered such that daughter cells have reduced antigen priming capabilities.

  13. Intranasal siRNA administration reveals IGF2 deficiency contributes to impaired cognition in Fragile X syndrome mice.

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    Pardo, Marta; Cheng, Yuyan; Velmeshev, Dmitry; Magistri, Marco; Eldar-Finkelman, Hagit; Martinez, Ana; Faghihi, Mohammad A; Jope, Richard S; Beurel, Eleonore

    2017-03-23

    Molecular mechanisms underlying learning and memory remain imprecisely understood, and restorative interventions are lacking. We report that intranasal administration of siRNAs can be used to identify targets important in cognitive processes and to improve genetically impaired learning and memory. In mice modeling the intellectual deficiency of Fragile X syndrome, intranasally administered siRNA targeting glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β), histone deacetylase-1 (HDAC1), HDAC2, or HDAC3 diminished cognitive impairments. In WT mice, intranasally administered brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) siRNA or HDAC4 siRNA impaired learning and memory, which was partially due to reduced insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF2) levels because the BDNF siRNA- or HDAC4 siRNA-induced cognitive impairments were ameliorated by intranasal IGF2 administration. In Fmr1 -/- mice, hippocampal IGF2 was deficient, and learning and memory impairments were ameliorated by IGF2 intranasal administration. Therefore intranasal siRNA administration is an effective means to identify mechanisms regulating cognition and to modulate therapeutic targets.

  14. Intranasal boosting with an adenovirus-vectored vaccine markedly enhances protection by parenteral Mycobacterium bovis BCG immunization against pulmonary tuberculosis.

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    Santosuosso, Michael; McCormick, Sarah; Zhang, Xizhong; Zganiacz, Anna; Xing, Zhou

    2006-08-01

    Parenterally administered Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine confers only limited immune protection from pulmonary tuberculosis in humans. There is a need for developing effective boosting vaccination strategies. We examined a heterologous prime-boost regimen utilizing BCG as a prime vaccine and our recently described adenoviral vector expressing Ag85A (AdAg85A) as a boost vaccine. Since we recently demonstrated that a single intranasal but not intramuscular immunization with AdAg85A was able to induce potent protection from pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge in a mouse model, we compared the protective effects of parenteral and mucosal booster immunizations following subcutaneous BCG priming. Protection by BCG prime immunization was not effectively boosted by subcutaneous BCG or intramuscular AdAg85A. In contrast, protection by BCG priming was remarkably boosted by intranasal AdAg85A. Such enhanced protection by intranasal AdAg85A was correlated to the numbers of gamma interferon-positive CD4 and CD8 T cells residing in the airway lumen of the lung. Our study demonstrates that intranasal administration of AdAg85A represents an effective way to boost immune protection by parenteral BCG vaccination.

  15. Intranasal immunization with fusion protein MrpH·FimH and MPL adjuvant confers protection against urinary tract infections caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Mehri; Asadi Karam, Mohammad Reza; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Oloomi, Mana; Jafari, Anis; Bouzari, Saeid

    2015-04-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and Proteus mirabilis are among the most common infections in the world. Currently there are no vaccines available to confer protection against UTI in humans. In this study, the immune responses and protection of FimH of UPEC with MrpH antigen of P. mirabilis in different vaccine formulations with and without MPL adjuvant were assessed. Mice intranasally immunized with the novel fusion protein MrpH·FimH induced a significant increase in IgG and IgA in serum, nasal wash, vaginal wash, and urine samples. Mice immunized with fusion MrpH·FimH also showed a significant boost in cellular immunity. Addition of MPL as the adjuvant enhanced FimH and MrpH specific humoral and cellular responses in both systemic and mucosal samples. Vaccination with MrpH·FimH alone or in combination with MPL showed the highest efficiency in clearing bladder and kidney infections in mice challenged with UPEC and P. mirabilis. These findings may indicate that the protection observed correlates with the systemic, mucosal and cellular immune responses induced by vaccination with these preparations. Our data suggest MrpH·FimH fusion protein with or without MPL as adjuvant could be potential vaccine candidates for elimination of UPEC and P. mirabilis. These data altogether are promising and these formulations are good candidates for elimination of UPEC and P. mirabilis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Immunization with r-Lactococcus lactis expressing outer membrane protein A of Shigella dysenteriae type-1: evaluation of oral and intranasal route of administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagnik, B; Sharma, D; Padh, H; Desai, P

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the comparative immunogenic potential of food grade Lactococcus lactis expressing outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of Shigella dysenteriae type-1 (SD-1) when administered either orally or intranasally. OmpA of SD-1 was cloned and expressed first in Escherichia coli and then in L. lactis. Presence of recombinant gene was confirmed by restriction enzyme digestion and immunoblot analysis. Using immobilized metal affinity chromatography, OmpA was purified from recombinant E. coliBL21 (DE3) and subcutaneously administered in BALB/c mice. Detection of OmpA-specific IgG antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) confirmed the immunogenicity of OmpA. In order to establish r-L. lactis as a mucosal delivery vehicle, it was administered orally and nasally in BALB/c mice. Serum IgG and faecal IgA were assessed through ELISA to compare the relative potential of immunization routes and immunogenic potential of r-L. lactis. Immunization via the oral route proved superior to intranasal exposure. Recombinant L. lactis expressing OmpA of SD-1 was found to be immunogenic. Oral administration of r-L. lactis elicited higher systemic and mucosal immune response when compared with the nasal route. Using food grade recombinant L. lactis has implications in the development of a prophylactic against multidrug-resistant Shigella, which can be used as a prospective vaccine candidate. Evaluating mucosal routes of immunization demonstrated that the oral route of administration elicited better immune response against OmpA of Shigella. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Neuroprotective and regenerative roles of intranasal Wnt-3a administration after focal ischemic stroke in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zheng Zachory; Zhang, James Ya; Taylor, Tammi M; Gu, Xiaohuan; Zhao, Yingying; Wei, Ling

    2018-03-01

    Wnt signaling is a conserved pathway involved in expansion of neural progenitors and lineage specification during development. However, the role of Wnt signaling in the post-stroke brain has not been well-elucidated. We hypothesized that Wnt-3a would play an important role for neurogenesis and brain repair. Adult male mice were subjected to a focal ischemic stroke targeting the sensorimotor cortex. Mice that received Wnt-3a (2 µg/kg/day, 1 h after stroke and once a day for the next 2 days, intranasal delivery) had reduced infarct volume compared to stroke controls. Wnt-3a intranasal treatment of seven days upregulated the expression of brain-derived growth factor (BDNF), increased the proliferation and migration of neuroblasts from the subventricular zone (SVZ), resulting in increased numbers of newly formed neurons and endothelial cells in the peri-infarct zone. Both the molecular and cellular effects of Wnt-3a were blocked by the Wnt specific inhibitors XAV-939 or Dkk-1. In functional assays, Wnt-3a treatment enhanced the local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) in the peri-infarct, as well as improved sensorimotor functions in a battery of behavioral tests. Together, our data demonstrates that the Wnt-3a signaling can act as a dual neuroprotective and regenerative factor for the treatment of ischemic stroke.

  18. A paramyxovirus-vectored intranasal vaccine against Ebola virus is immunogenic in vector-immune animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lijuan; Sanchez, Anthony; Ward, Jerrold M; Murphy, Brian R; Collins, Peter L; Bukreyev, Alexander

    2008-08-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) causes outbreaks of a highly lethal hemorrhagic fever in humans. The virus can be transmitted by direct contact as well as by aerosol and is considered a potential bioweapon. Because direct immunization of the respiratory tract should be particularly effective against infection of mucosal surfaces, we previously developed an intranasal vaccine based on replication-competent human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) expressing EBOV glycoprotein GP (HPIV3/EboGP) and showed that it is immunogenic and protective against a high dose parenteral EBOV challenge. However, because the adult human population has considerable immunity to HPIV3, which is a common human pathogen, replication and immunogenicity of the vaccine in this population might be greatly restricted. Indeed, in the present study, replication of the vaccine in the respiratory tract of HPIV3-immune guinea pigs was found to be restricted to undetectable levels. This restriction appeared to be based on both neutralizing antibodies and cellular or other components of the immunity to HPIV3. Surprisingly, even though replication of HPIV3/EboGP was highly restricted in HPIV3-immune animals, it induced a high level of EBOV-specific antibodies that nearly equaled that obtained in HPIV3-naive animals. We also show that the previously demonstrated presence of functional GP in the vector particle was not associated with increased replication in the respiratory tract nor with spread beyond the respiratory tract of HPIV3-naive guinea pigs, indicating that expression and functional incorporation of the attachment/penetration glycoprotein of this systemic virus did not mediate a change in tissue tropism.

  19. Development and evaluation of chitosan microspheres for tetanus, diphtheria and divalent vaccines: a comparative study of subcutaneous and intranasal administration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Fahima M; Fahmy, Sahar A; El-Sayed, Aly M; Al-Sawahli, Majid M

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to use the new technologies to induce immunity with minimum number of vaccination sessions to ensure compliance with reducing cost. To develop single shot vaccines of tetanus, diphtheria and divalent toxoids microsphere's formulations and to induce their immune response after intranasal and subcutaneous administration in mice. The microspheres were prepared using different concentrations of chitosan. Microsphere's morphology, particle size analysis, encapsulation efficiency and antigen integrity were performed and the best formulations were selected for in vitro and in vivo testing in mice. The developed microspheres have a yield percent of 70.3-91.5%. In vitro release of antigens indicated that tetanus release was increased up to 75 and 81% post T5 and TD5 formulations respectively, whereas diphtheria cumulative release increased up to 74 and 69% post D3 and TD5, respectively. Antibody levels produced were lower than that obtained from alum adsorbed vaccine but higher than the minimum level required to induce immunogenicity (>0.01 IU/mL). The subcutaneous route of administration was superior over the intranasal route in producing higher antibody levels. Chitosan microspheres were developed successfully and prove that chitosan represents a good candidate for vaccines delivery.

  20. Microneedle Vaccination Elicits Superior Protection and Antibody Response over Intranasal Vaccination against Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1 in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Hyung Shin

    Full Text Available Influenza is one of the critical infectious diseases globally and vaccination has been considered as the best way to prevent. In this study, immunogenicity and protection efficacy between intranasal (IN and microneedle (MN vaccination was compared using inactivated swine-origin influenza A/H1N1 virus vaccine. Mice were vaccinated by MN or IN administration with 1 μg of inactivated H1N1 virus vaccine. Antigen-specific antibody responses and hemagglutination-inhibition (HI titers were measured in all immunized sera after immunization. Five weeks after an immunization, a lethal challenge was performed to evaluate the protective efficacy. Furthermore, mice were vaccinated by IN administration with higher dosages (> 1 μg, analyzed in the same manner, and compared with 1 μg-vaccine-coated MN. Significantly higher antigen-specific antibody responses and HI titer were measured in sera in MN group than those in IN group. While 100% protection, slight weight loss, and reduced viral replication were observed in MN group, 0% survival rate were observed in IN group. As vaccine dose for IN vaccination increased, MN-immunized sera showed much higher antigen-specific antibody responses and HI titer than other IN groups. In addition, protective immunity of 1 μg-MN group was similar to those of 20- and 40 μg-IN groups. We conclude that MN vaccination showed more potential immune response and protection than IN vaccination at the same vaccine dosage.

  1. Pulmonary permeability assessed by fluorescent-labeled dextran instilled intranasally into mice with LPS-induced acute lung injury.

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    Honglei Chen

    Full Text Available Several different methods have been used to assess pulmonary permeability in response to acute lung injury (ALI. However, these methods often involve complicated procedures and algorithms that are difficult to precisely control. The purpose of the current study is to establish a feasible method to evaluate alterations in lung permeability by instilling fluorescently labeled dextran (FITC-Dextran intranasally.For the mouse model of direct ALI, lipopolysaccharide (LPS was administered intranasally. FITC-Dextran was instilled intranasally one hour before the mice were euthanized. Plasma fluorescence intensities from the LPS group were significantly higher than in the control group. To determine the reliability and reproducibility of the procedure, we also measured the lung wet-to-dry weight ratio, the protein concentration of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, tight and adherens junction markers and pathological changes. Consistent results were observed when the LPS group was compared with the control group. Simultaneously, we found that the concentration of plasma FITC-Dextran was LPS dose-dependent. The concentration of plasma FITC-Dextran also increased with initial intranasal FITC-Dextran doses. Furthermore, increased fluorescence intensity of plasma FITC-Dextran was found in the intraperitoneally LPS-induced ALI model.In conclusion, the measurement of FITC-Dextran in plasma after intranasal instillation is a simple, reliable, and reproducible method to evaluate lung permeability alterations in vivo. The concentration of FITC-Dextran in the plasma may be useful as a potential peripheral biomarker of ALI in experimental clinical studies.

  2. Pulmonary permeability assessed by fluorescent-labeled dextran instilled intranasally into mice with LPS-induced acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Honglei; Wu, Shaoping; Lu, Rong; Zhang, Yong-guo; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Sun, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Several different methods have been used to assess pulmonary permeability in response to acute lung injury (ALI). However, these methods often involve complicated procedures and algorithms that are difficult to precisely control. The purpose of the current study is to establish a feasible method to evaluate alterations in lung permeability by instilling fluorescently labeled dextran (FITC-Dextran) intranasally. For the mouse model of direct ALI, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was administered intranasally. FITC-Dextran was instilled intranasally one hour before the mice were euthanized. Plasma fluorescence intensities from the LPS group were significantly higher than in the control group. To determine the reliability and reproducibility of the procedure, we also measured the lung wet-to-dry weight ratio, the protein concentration of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, tight and adherens junction markers and pathological changes. Consistent results were observed when the LPS group was compared with the control group. Simultaneously, we found that the concentration of plasma FITC-Dextran was LPS dose-dependent. The concentration of plasma FITC-Dextran also increased with initial intranasal FITC-Dextran doses. Furthermore, increased fluorescence intensity of plasma FITC-Dextran was found in the intraperitoneally LPS-induced ALI model. In conclusion, the measurement of FITC-Dextran in plasma after intranasal instillation is a simple, reliable, and reproducible method to evaluate lung permeability alterations in vivo. The concentration of FITC-Dextran in the plasma may be useful as a potential peripheral biomarker of ALI in experimental clinical studies.

  3. Comparison of subcutaneous versus intranasal immunization of male koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) for induction of mucosal and systemic immunity against Chlamydia pecorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Courtney A; Timms, Peter; Andrew, Dean; Rawlinson, Galit; Brumm, Jacqui; Nilsson, Karen; Beagley, Kenneth W

    2015-02-11

    Chlamydia pecorum infections are debilitating in the koala, contributing significantly to morbidity and mortality, with current antibiotic treatments having minimal success and adversely affecting gut microflora. This, combined with the sometimes-asymptomatic nature of the infection, suggests that an efficacious anti-chlamydial vaccine is required to control chlamydial infections in the koala. To date vaccination studies have focused primarily on female koalas, however, given the physiological differences between male and female reproductive tracts, we tested the efficacy of a vaccine in 12 captive male koalas. We evaluated the potential of both subcutaneous and intranasal vaccine delivery to elicit mucosal immunity in male koalas. Our results showed that both intranasal and subcutaneous delivery of a vaccine consisting of C. pecorum major outer membrane protein (MOMP) and the adjuvant immunostimulating complex (ISC) induced significant immune responses in male koalas. Subcutaneous immunization elicited stronger cell-mediated responses in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL), and greater plasma antibody levels whereas the intranasal immunization elicited stronger humoral responses in urogenital tract (UGT) secretions. This is the first time a Chlamydia vaccine has been tested in the male koala and the first assessment of a mucosal vaccination route in this species. Our results suggest that vaccination of male koalas can elicit mucosal immunity and could contribute to the long-term survivability of wild populations of the koala. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Microbiota is an essential element for mice to initiate a protective immunity against Vaccinia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Maurício T; Andrade, Ana C S P; Oliveira, Graziele P; Calixto, Rafael S; Oliveira, Danilo B; Souza, Éricka L S; Trindade, Giliane S; Nicoli, Jacques R; Kroon, Erna G; Martins, Flaviano S; Abrahão, Jônatas S

    2016-02-01

    The gastrointestinal tract of vertebrates harbors one of the most complex ecosystems known in microbial ecology and this indigenous microbiota almost always has a profound influence on host-parasite relationships, which can enhance or reduce the pathology of the infection. In this context, the impact of the microbiota during the infection of several viral groups remains poorly studied, including the family Poxviridae. Vaccinia virus (VACV) is a member of this family and is the causative agent of bovine vaccinia, responsible for outbreaks that affect bovines and humans. To determine the influence of the microbiota in the development of the disease caused by VACV, a comparative study using a murine model was performed. Germ-free and conventional, 6- to 7-week-old Swiss NIH mice were infected by tail scarification and intranasally with VACV. Moreover, immunosuppression and microbiota reposition were performed, to establish the interactions among the host's immune system, microbiota and VACV. The data demonstrate that the microbiota is essential for the effective immune response of mice against VACV in intranasal inoculation and to control the virus at the primary site of infection. Furthermore, this study is the first to show that Swiss conventional mice are refractory to the intranasal infection of VACV. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Immunity to Trichinella spiralis in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakelin, D.; Wilson, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    Irradiation prevented the accelerated expulsion of Trichinella spiralis from mice immunized by transfer of immune mesenteric lymph node cells (IMLNC) or by prior infection. Nevertheless, worms in irradiated immune mice were smaller and less fecund than those in controls. In adoptively immunized and irradiated mice expulsion could not be achieved by increasing the numbers of IMLNC transferred, although the effect upon worm length was more severe. Thus IMLNC express a direct, anti-worm immunity which is independent of their role in worm expulsion. IMLNC cause expulsion in irradiated mice only when adequate levels of bone marrow-derived cells are available. The results are discussed in terms of a possible antibody-mediated basis for direct anti-worm immunity. (author)

  6. Intranasal administration of live Lactobacillus species facilitates protection against influenza virus infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Ha-Na; Lee, Dong-Hun; Lee, Yu-Na; Park, Jae-Keun; Yuk, Seong-Su; Yang, Si-Yong; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Woo, Seo-Hyung; Kim, Hyoung-Moon; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2012-01-01

    Influenza virus infections continue to be a significant public health problem. For improved therapies and preventive measures against influenza, there has been an increased tendency in modern medicine involving the use of probiotics. In this study, we compared the protective efficacy of various live and dead Lactobacillus species against challenge with influenza virus in mice according to the administration route and dose. In addition, to understand the underlying mechanism behind this clinical protective effect, we performed immunologic assays including examination of IgA levels and cytokine profiles in the lung. The survival rate of mice receiving intranasal administration of Lactobacillus was higher than after oral administration, and administration of live bacteria was more protective than of dead bacteria. The lung levels of interleukin (IL)-12 and IgA were significantly increased (PLactobacillus strains on influenza virus infection. Therefore, for clinical applications, selection of effective strains could be critical and individually optimized application regimens of the selected strains are required. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Intramuscular Priming and Intranasal Boosting Induce Strong Genital Immunity Through Secretory IgA in Minipigs Infected with Chlamydia trachomatis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Bøje, Sarah; Erneholm, Karin; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Jungersen, Gregers; Andersen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    International efforts in developing a vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis have highlighted the need for novel immunization strategies for the induction of genital immunity. In this study, we evaluated an intramuscular (IM) prime/intranasal boost vaccination strategy in a Göttingen Minipig model with a reproductive system very similar to humans. The vaccine was composed of C. trachomatis subunit antigens formulated in the Th1/Th17 promoting CAF01 adjuvant. IM priming immunizations with CAF01 induced a significant cell-mediated interferon gamma and interleukin 17A response and a significant systemic high-titered neutralizing IgG response. Following genital challenge, intranasally boosted groups mounted an accelerated, highly significant genital IgA response that correlated with enhanced bacterial clearance on day 3 post infection. By detecting antigen-specific secretory component (SC), we showed that the genital IgA was locally produced in the genital mucosa. The highly significant inverse correlation between the vaginal IgA SC response and the chlamydial load suggests that IgA in the minipig model is involved in protection against C. trachomatis. This is important both for our understanding of protective immunity and future vaccination strategies against C. trachomatis and genital pathogens in general. PMID:26734002

  8. A single intranasal administration of virus-like particle vaccine induces an efficient protection for mice against human respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yue-Ying; Fu, Yuan-Hui; Yan, Yi-Fei; Hua, Ying; Ma, Yao; Zhang, Xiu-Juan; Song, Jing-Dong; Peng, Xiang-Lei; Huang, Jiaqiang; Hong, Tao; He, Jin-Sheng

    2017-08-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important pediatric pathogen causing acute viral respiratory disease in infants and young children. However, no licensed vaccines are currently available. Virus-like particles (VLPs) may bring new hope to producing RSV VLP vaccine with high immunogenicity and safety. Here, we constructed the recombinants of matrix protein (M) and fusion glycoprotein (F) of RSV, respectively into a replication-deficient first-generation adenoviral vector (FGAd), which were used to co-infect Vero cells to assemble RSV VLPs successfully. The resulting VLPs showed similar immunoreactivity and function to RSV virion in vitro. Moreover, Th1 polarized response, and effective mucosal virus-neutralizing antibody and CD8 + T-cell responses were induced by a single intranasal (i.n.) administration of RSV VLPs rather than intramuscular (i.m.) inoculation, although the comparable RSV F-specific serum IgG and long-lasting RSV-specific neutralizing antibody were detected in the mice immunized by both routes. Upon RSV challenge, VLP-immunized mice showed increased viral clearance but decreased signs of enhanced lung pathology and fewer eosinophils compared to mice immunized with formalin-inactivated RSV (FI-RSV). In addition, a single i.n. RSV VLP vaccine has the capability to induce RSV-specific long-lasting neutralizing antibody responses observable up to 15 months. Our results demonstrate that the long-term and memory immune responses in mice against RSV were induced by a single i.n. administration of RSV VLP vaccine, suggesting a successful approach of RSV VLPs as an effective and safe mucosal vaccine against RSV infection, and an applicable and qualified platform of FGAd-infected Vero cells for VLP production. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Preventive Activity against Influenza (H1N1 Virus by Intranasally Delivered RNA-Hydrolyzing Antibody in Respiratory Epithelial Cells of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungchan Cho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The antiviral effect of a catalytic RNA-hydrolyzing antibody, 3D8 scFv, for intranasal administration against avian influenza virus (H1N1 was described. The recombinant 3D8 scFv protein prevented BALB/c mice against H1N1 influenza virus infection by degradation of the viral RNA genome through its intrinsic RNA-hydrolyzing activity. Intranasal administration of 3D8 scFv (50 μg/day for five days prior to infection demonstrated an antiviral activity (70% survival against H1N1 infection. The antiviral ability of 3D8 scFv to penetrate into epithelial cells from bronchial cavity via the respiratory mucosal layer was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR, and histopathological examination. The antiviral activity of 3D8 scFv against H1N1 virus infection was not due to host immune cytokines or chemokines, but rather to direct antiviral RNA-hydrolyzing activity of 3D8 scFv against the viral RNA genome. Taken together, our results suggest that the RNase activity of 3D8 scFv, coupled with its ability to penetrate epithelial cells through the respiratory mucosal layer, directly prevents H1N1 virus infection in a mouse model system.

  10. Intranasal IFNγ extends passive IgA antibody protection of mice against Mycobacterium tuberculosis lung infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reljic, R; Clark, S O; Williams, A; Falero-Diaz, G; Singh, M; Challacombe, S; Marsh, P D; Ivanyi, J

    2006-01-01

    Intranasal inoculation of mice with monoclonal IgA against the α-crystallin (acr1) antigen can diminish the tuberculous infection in the lungs. As this effect has been observed only over a short-term, we investigated if it could be extended by inoculation of IFNγ 3 days before infection, and further coinoculations with IgA, at 2 h before and 2 and 7 days after aerosol infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. This treatment reduced the lung infection at 4 weeks more than either IgA or IFNγ alone (i.e. 17-fold, from 4·2 × 107 to 2·5 × 106 CFU, P = 0·006), accompanied also by lower granulomatous infiltration of the lungs. IFNγ added prior to infection of mouse peritoneal macrophages with IgA-opsonized bacilli resulted in a synergistic increase of nitric oxide and TNFα production and a 2–3 fold decrease in bacterial counts. Our improved results suggest, that combined treatment with IFNγ and IgA could be developed towards prophylactic treatment of AIDS patients, or as an adjunct to chemotherapy. PMID:16487246

  11. Intramuscular Priming and Intranasal Boosting Induce Strong Genital Immunity Through Secretory IgA in Minipigs Infected with Chlamydia trachomatis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Bøje, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    with a reproductive system very similar to humans. The vaccine was composed of C. trachomatis subunit antigens formulated in the Th1/Th17 promoting CAF01 adjuvant. IM priming immunizations with CAF01 induced a significant cell-mediated interferon gamma and interleukin 17A response and a significant systemic high......-titered neutralizing IgG response. Following genital challenge, intranasally boosted groups mounted an accelerated, highly significant genital IgA response that correlated with enhanced bacterial clearance on day 3 post infection. By detecting antigen-specific secretory component (SC), we showed that the genital Ig...

  12. Vaccine-mediated immune responses to experimental pulmonary Cryptococcus gattii infection in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok K Chaturvedi

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus gattii is a fungal pathogen that can cause life-threatening respiratory and disseminated infections in immune-competent and immune-suppressed individuals. Currently, there are no standardized vaccines against cryptococcosis in humans, underlying an urgent need for effective therapies and/or vaccines. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of intranasal immunization with C. gattii cell wall associated (CW and/or cytoplasmic (CP protein preparations to induce protection against experimental pulmonary C. gattii infection in mice. BALB/c mice immunized with C. gattii CW and/or CP protein preparations exhibited a significant reduction in pulmonary fungal burden and prolonged survival following pulmonary challenge with C. gattii. Protection was associated with significantly increased pro-inflammatory and Th1-type cytokine recall responses, in vitro and increased C. gattii-specific antibody production in immunized mice challenged with C. gattii. A number of immunodominant proteins were identified following immunoblot analysis of C. gattii CW and CP protein preparations using sera from immunized mice. Immunization with a combined CW and CP protein preparation resulted in an early increase in pulmonary T cell infiltrates following challenge with C. gattii. Overall, our studies show that C. gattii CW and CP protein preparations contain antigens that may be included in a subunit vaccine to induce prolonged protection against pulmonary C. gattii infection.

  13. Novel thermal-sensitive hydrogel enhances both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses by intranasal vaccine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Youbin; Wu, Shipo; Hou, Lihua; Wei, Wei; Zhou, Meng; Su, Zhiguo; Wu, Jie; Chen, Wei; Ma, Guanghui

    2012-08-01

    A novel thermal sensitive hydrogel was formulated with N-[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium) propyl] chitosan chloride (HTCC) and α, β-glycerophosphate (α, β-GP). A serial of hydrogels containing different amount of GP and HTCC with diverse quarternize degree (QD, 41%, 59%, 79.5%, and 99%) were prepared and characterized by rheological method. The hydrogel was subsequently evaluated for intranasal vaccine delivery with adenovirus based Zaire Ebola virus glycoprotein antigen (Ad-GPZ). Results showed that moderate quarternized HTCC (60% and 79.5%) hydrogel/antigen formulations induced highest IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a antibody titers in serum, as well as mucosal IgA responses in lung wash, which may attributed to the prolonged antigen residence time due to the thermal-sensitivity of this hydrogel. Furthermore, CD8(+) splenocytes for IFN-γ positive cell assay and the release profile of Th1/Th2 type cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-10, and IL-4) showed that hydrogel/Ad-GPZ generated an overwhelmingly enhanced Th1 biased cellular immune response. In addition, this hydrogel displayed low toxicity to nasal tissue and epithelial cells even by frequently intranasal dosing of hydrogel. All these results strongly supported this hydrogel as a safe and effective delivery system for nasal immunization. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of Asian dust particles on immune adjuvant effects and airway inflammation in asthma model mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kurai

    Full Text Available An Asian dust storm (ADS contains airborne particles that affect conditions such as asthma, but the mechanism of exacerbation is unclear. The objective of this study was to compare immune adjuvant effects and airway inflammation induced by airborne particles collected on ADS days and the original ADS soil (CJ-1 soil in asthma model mice.Airborne particles were collected on ADS days in western Japan. NC/Nga mice were co-sensitized by intranasal instillation with ADS airborne particles and/or Dermatophagoides farinae (Df, and with CJ-1 soil and/or Df for 5 consecutive days. Df-sensitized mice were stimulated with Df challenge intranasally at 7 days after the last Df sensitization. At 24 hours after challenge, serum allergen specific antibody, differential leukocyte count and inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF were measured, and airway inflammation was examined histopathologically.Co-sensitization with ADS airborne particles and Df increased the neutrophil and eosinophil counts in BALF. Augmentation of airway inflammation was also observed in peribronchiolar and perivascular lung areas. Df-specific serum IgE was significantly elevated by ADS airborne particles, but not by CJ-1 soil. Levels of interleukin (IL-5, IL-13, IL-6, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 were higher in BALF in mice treated with ADS airborne particles.These results suggest that substances attached to ADS airborne particles that are not in the original ADS soil may play important roles in immune adjuvant effects and airway inflammation.

  15. Awake, long-term intranasal insulin treatment does not affect object memory, odor discrimination, or reversal learning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Genevieve A; Fadool, Debra Ann

    2017-05-15

    Intranasal insulin delivery is currently being used in clinical trials to test for improvement in human memory and cognition, and in particular, for lessening memory loss attributed to neurodegenerative diseases. Studies have reported the effects of short-term intranasal insulin treatment on various behaviors, but less have examined long-term effects. The olfactory bulb contains the highest density of insulin receptors in conjunction with the highest level of insulin transport within the brain. Previous research from our laboratory has demonstrated that acute insulin intranasal delivery (IND) enhanced both short- and long-term memory as well as increased two-odor discrimination in a two-choice paradigm. Herein, we investigated the behavioral and physiological effects of chronic insulin IND. Adult, male C57BL6/J mice were intranasally treated with 5μg/μl of insulin twice daily for 30 and 60days. Metabolic assessment indicated no change in body weight, caloric intake, or energy expenditure following chronic insulin IND, but an increase in the frequency of meal bouts selectively in the dark cycle. Unlike acute insulin IND, which has been shown to cause enhanced performance in odor habituation/dishabituation and two-odor discrimination tasks in mice, chronic insulin IND did not enhance olfactometry-based odorant discrimination or olfactory reversal learning. In an object memory recognition task, insulin IND-treated mice did not perform differently than controls, regardless of task duration. Biochemical analyses of the olfactory bulb revealed a modest 1.3 fold increase in IR kinase phosphorylation but no significant increase in Kv1.3 phosphorylation. Substrate phosphorylation of IR kinase downstream effectors (MAPK/ERK and Akt signaling) proved to be highly variable. These data indicate that chronic administration of insulin IND in mice fails to enhance olfactory ability, object memory recognition, or a majority of systems physiology metabolic factors - as reported to

  16. Use of a Guinea pig-specific transcriptome array for evaluation of protective immunity against genital chlamydial infection following intranasal vaccination in Guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Shradha; Gupta, Rishein; Veselenak, Ronald L; Li, Yansong; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Murthy, Ashlesh K; Cap, Andrew P; Guentzel, M Neal; Chambers, James P; Zhong, Guangming; Rank, Roger G; Pyles, Richard B; Arulanandam, Bernard P

    2014-01-01

    Guinea pigs have been used as a second animal model to validate putative anti-chlamydial vaccine candidates tested in mice. However, the lack of guinea pig-specific reagents has limited the utility of this animal model in Chlamydia sp. vaccine studies. Using a novel guinea pig-specific transcriptome array, we determined correlates of protection in guinea pigs vaccinated with Chlamydia caviae (C. caviae) via the intranasal route, previously reported by us and others to provide robust antigen specific immunity against subsequent intravaginal challenge. C. caviae vaccinated guinea pigs resolved genital infection by day 3 post challenge. In contrast, mock vaccinated animals continued to shed viable Chlamydia up to day 18 post challenge. Importantly, at day 80 post challenge, vaccinated guinea pigs experienced significantly reduced genital pathology - a sequelae of genital chlamydial infections, in comparison to mock vaccinated guinea pigs. Sera from vaccinated guinea pigs displayed antigen specific IgG responses and increased IgG1 and IgG2 titers capable of neutralizing GPIC in vitro. Th1-cellular/inflammatory immune genes and Th2-humoral associated genes were also found to be elevated in vaccinated guinea pigs at day 3 post-challenge and correlated with early clearance of the bacterium. Overall, this study provides the first evidence of guinea pig-specific genes involved in anti-chlamydial vaccination and illustrates the enhancement of the utility of this animal model in chlamydial pathogenesis.

  17. Intranasal cotinine improves memory, and reduces depressive-like behavior, and GFAP+ cells loss induced by restraint stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Urrutia, Nelson; Mendoza, Cristhian; Alvarez-Ricartes, Nathalie; Oliveros-Matus, Patricia; Echeverria, Florencia; Grizzell, J Alex; Barreto, George E; Iarkov, Alexandre; Echeverria, Valentina

    2017-09-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), chronic psychological stress, and major depressive disorder have been found to be associated with a significant decrease in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity in the hippocampus of rodents. Cotinine is an alkaloid that prevents memory impairment, depressive-like behavior and synaptic loss when co-administered during restraint stress, a model of PTSD and stress-induced depression, in mice. Here, we investigated the effects of post-treatment with intranasal cotinine on depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors, visual recognition memory as well as the number and morphology of GFAP+ immunoreactive cells, in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of mice subjected to prolonged restraint stress. The results revealed that in addition to the mood and cognitive impairments, restraint stress induced a significant decrease in the number and arborization of GFAP+ cells in the brain of mice. Intranasal cotinine prevented these stress-derived symptoms and the morphological abnormalities GFAP+ cells in both of these brain regions which are critical to resilience to stress. The significance of these findings for the therapy of PTSD and depression is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Design and evaluation of mucoadhesive microemulsion for neuroprotective effect of ibuprofen following intranasal route in the MPTP mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Surjyanarayan; Mandal, Snigdha Das; Chuttani, Krishna; Sawant, Krutika K; Subudhi, Bharat Bhushan

    2016-08-01

    The present study is to investigate the neuroprotective effect of ibuprofen by intranasal administration of mucoadhesive microemulsion (MMEI) against inflammation-mediated by dopaminergic neurodegeneration in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Ibuprofen-loaded polycarbophil-based MMEI was developed by using response surface methodology (RSM). Ibuprofen with dose of 2.86 mg/kg/day was administered intranasally to male C57BL/6 mice for two consecutive weeks which were pre-treated with four intraperitoneal injections of MPTP (20 mg/kg of body weight) at 2 h intervals. Immunohistochemistry was performed. Optimal MMEI was stable and non-ciliotoxic with 66.29 ± 4.15 nm as average globule size and -20.9 ± 3.98 mV as zeta potential. PDI value and transmission electron microscopy result showed the narrow globule size distribution of MMEI. The result showed that all three independent variables had a significant effect (p open-field test findings revealed the significant improvement in motor performance and gross behavioral activity of the mice. The results from in vivo study and immunohistochemistry showed that nasal administration of Ibuprofen significantly reduced the MPTP-mediated dopamine depletion. Furthermore TH neurons count in the substantia nigra and the density of striatal dopaminergic nerve terminals were found to be significant higher for ibuprofen treated groups. Findings of the investigation revealed that Ibuprofen through developed MMEI was shown to protect neurons against MPTP-induced injury in the Substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and striatum and hence, could be a promising approach for brain targeting of Ibuprofen through intranasal route to treat PD.

  19. Immunity to Babesia in mice I. Adoptive transfer of immunity to Babesia rodhaini with immune spleen cells and the effect of irradiation on the protection of immune mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuil, H.; Zivkovic, D.; Seinen, W.; Albers-van Bemmel, C.M.G.; Speksnijder, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Immunisation of Balb/c mice against Babesia rodhaini by an amicarbalide- controlled infection resulted in a solid immunity which lasted for 216 days. With spleen cells of immune mice protection could be transferred both to naive mice pretreated with cyclophosphamide. Treatment of naive mice with

  20. Recombinant Invasive Lactococcus lactis Carrying a DNA Vaccine Coding the Ag85A Antigen Increases INF-γ, IL-6, and TNF-α Cytokines after Intranasal Immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Mancha-Agresti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains a major threat throughout the world and in 2015 it caused the death of 1.4 million people. The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin is the only existing vaccine against this ancient disease; however, it does not provide complete protection in adults. New vaccines against TB are eminently a global priority. The use of bacteria as vehicles for delivery of vaccine plasmids is a promising vaccination strategy. In this study, we evaluated the use of, an engineered invasive Lactococcus lactis (expressing Fibronectin-Binding Protein A from Staphylococcus aureus for the delivery of DNA plasmid to host cells, especially to the mucosal site as a new DNA vaccine against tuberculosis. One of the major antigens documented that offers protective responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the Ag85A. L. lactis FnBPA+ (pValac:Ag85A which was obtained and used for intranasal immunization of C57BL/6 mice and the immune response profile was evaluated. In this study we observed that this strain was able to produce significant increases in the amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-6 in the stimulated spleen cell supernatants, showing a systemic T helper 1 (Th1 cell response. Antibody production (IgG and sIgA anti-Ag85A was also significantly increased in bronchoalveolar lavage, as well as in the serum of mice. In summary, these findings open new perspectives in the area of mucosal DNA vaccine, against specific pathogens using a Lactic Acid Bacteria such as L. lactis.

  1. A new intranasal influenza vaccine based on a novel polycationic lipid-ceramide carbamoyl-spermine (CCS). II. Studies in mice and ferrets and mechanism of adjuvanticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even-Or, Orli; Joseph, Aviva; Itskovitz-Cooper, Noga; Samira, Sarit; Rochlin, Eli; Eliyahu, Hagit; Goldwaser, Itzik; Balasingam, Shobana; Mann, Alex J; Lambkin-Williams, Rob; Kedar, Eli; Barenholz, Yechezkel

    2011-03-16

    We recently showed that lipid assemblies comprised of a novel polycationic sphingolipid (ceramide carbamoyl-spermine, CCS) are an effective adjuvant/carrier when complexed with cholesterol (CCS/C) for influenza and other vaccines administered parenterally and intranasally (i.n.) in mice. Here we expand these studies to ferrets, an established model of influenza infection. We also address the question of why the CCS/C-based liposomal vaccine (also known as VaxiSome™) in mice is superior to vaccines based on liposomes of other lipid compositions (neutral, anionic or cationic). Ferrets immunized i.n. with CCS/C-influenza vaccine produced significantly higher hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers compared to ferrets immunized intramuscularly with the unadjuvanted influenza vaccine, indicating that the CCS/C-based vaccine is very immunogenic. Furthermore, the i.n. adjuvanted vaccine was shown to significantly reduce the severity of influenza virus infection in ferrets following homologous viral challenge as determined by weight loss, temperature rise and viral titer. No adverse reactions were observed. Pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies following i.n. administration in mice of CCS/C-based vaccine showed that both the lipids and antigens are retained in the nose and lung for at least 24h, and it appears that this retention correlates with the superior immunogenicity elicited by the adjuvanted vaccine formulation. The CCS lipid also increases production of cytokines (mainly IFN gamma, IL-2 and IL-12) and co-stimulatory molecules' expression, which might further explain the robust adjuvantation of this liposome-based vaccine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Neurotoxicity of low-dose repeatedly intranasal instillation of nano- and submicron-sized ferric oxide particles in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Bing; Feng Weiyue, E-mail: fengwy@mail.ihep.ac.cn; Zhu Motao; Wang Yun; Wang Meng [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Laboratory for Bio-Environmental Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety and Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics (China); Gu Yiqun [Maternity Hospital of Haidian District (China); Ouyang Hong; Wang Huajian; Li Ming; Zhao Yuliang, E-mail: zhaoyuliang@mail.ihep.ac.cn; Chai Zhifang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Laboratory for Bio-Environmental Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety and Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics (China); Wang Haifang [Peking University, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering (China)

    2009-01-15

    Olfactory tract has been demonstrated to be an important portal for inhaled solid nanoparticle transportation into the central nervous system (CNS). We have previously demonstrated that intranasally instilled Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles could transport into the CNS via olfactory pathway. In this study, we investigated the neurotoxicity and size effect of repeatedly low-dose (130 {mu}g) intranasal exposure of nano- and submicron-sized Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles (21 nm and 280 nm) to mice. The biomarkers of oxidative stress, activity of nitric oxide synthases and release of monoamine neurotransmitter in the brain were studied. Our results showed that significant oxidative stress was induced by the two sizes of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles. The activities of GSH-Px, Cu,Zn-SOD, and cNOS significantly elevated and the total GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio significantly decreased in the olfactory bulb and hippocampus after the nano- and submicron-sized Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particle treatment (p < 0.05). The nano-sized Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} generally induced greater alteration and more significant dose-effect response than the submicron-sized particle did. Some slight perturbation of monoamine neurotransmitters were found in the hippocampus after exposure to the two sizes of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particle. The TEM image showed that some ultrastructural alterations in nerve cells, including neurodendron degeneration, membranous structure disruption and lysosome increase in the olfactory bulb, slight dilation in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and lysosome increase in the hippocampus were induced by the nano-sized Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} treatment. In contrast, in the submicron-sized Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} treated mice, slightly swollen mitochondria and some vacuoles were observed in the olfactory bulb and hippocampus, respectively. These results indicate that intranasal exposure of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles could induce more severe oxidative stress and nerve cell damage in the brain than the

  3. Fibroblast activation protein is dispensable in the anti-influenza immune response in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sioh-Yang Tan

    Full Text Available Fibroblast activation protein alpha (FAP is a unique dual peptidase of the S9B serine protease family, being capable of both dipeptidyl peptidase and endopeptidase activities. FAP is expressed at low level in healthy adult organs including the pancreas, cervix, uterus, submaxillary gland and the skin, and highly upregulated in embryogenesis, chronic inflammation and tissue remodelling. It is also expressed by cancer-associated stromal fibroblasts in more than 90% of epithelial tumours. FAP has enzymatic and non-enzymatic functions in the growth, immunosuppression, invasion and cell signalling of tumour cells. FAP deficient mice are fertile and viable with no gross abnormality, but little data exist on the role of FAP in the immune system. FAP is upregulated in association with microbial stimulation and chronic inflammation, but its function in infection remains unknown. We showed that major populations of immune cells including CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, B cells, dendritic cells and neutrophils are generated and maintained normally in FAP knockout mice. Upon intranasal challenge with influenza virus, FAP mRNA was increased in the lungs and lung-draining lymph nodes. Nonetheless, FAP deficient mice showed similar pathologic kinetics to wildtype controls, and were capable of supporting normal anti-influenza T and B cell responses. There was no evidence of compensatory upregulation of other DPP4 family members in influenza-infected FAP-deficient mice. FAP appears to be dispensable in anti-influenza adaptive immunity.

  4. Mucosal Immunity and Protective Efficacy of Intranasal Inactivated Influenza Vaccine Is Improved by Chitosan Nanoparticle Delivery in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Dhakal

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Annually, swine influenza A virus (SwIAV causes severe economic loss to swine industry. Currently used inactivated SwIAV vaccines administered by intramuscular injection provide homologous protection, but limited heterologous protection against constantly evolving field viruses, attributable to the induction of inadequate levels of mucosal IgA and cellular immune responses in the respiratory tract. A novel vaccine delivery platform using mucoadhesive chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs administered through intranasal (IN route has the potential to elicit strong mucosal and systemic immune responses in pigs. In this study, we evaluated the immune responses and cross-protective efficacy of IN chitosan encapsulated inactivated SwIAV vaccine in pigs. Killed SwIAV H1N2 (δ-lineage antigens (KAg were encapsulated in chitosan polymer-based nanoparticles (CNPs-KAg. The candidate vaccine was administered twice IN as mist to nursery pigs. Vaccinates and controls were then challenged with a zoonotic and virulent heterologous SwIAV H1N1 (γ-lineage. Pigs vaccinated with CNPs-KAg exhibited an enhanced IgG serum antibody and mucosal secretory IgA antibody responses in nasal swabs, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluids, and lung lysates that were reactive against homologous (H1N2, heterologous (H1N1, and heterosubtypic (H3N2 influenza A virus strains. Prior to challenge, an increased frequency of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferation, and recall IFN-γ secretion by restimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells in CNPs-KAg compared to control KAg vaccinates were observed. In CNPs-KAg vaccinated pigs challenged with heterologous virus reduced severity of macroscopic and microscopic influenza-associated pulmonary lesions were observed. Importantly, the infectious SwIAV titers in nasal swabs [days post-challenge (DPC 4] and BAL fluid (DPC 6 were significantly (p < 0.05 reduced in CNPs-KAg vaccinates but not in KAg vaccinates when compared

  5. Mucosal Immunity and Protective Efficacy of Intranasal Inactivated Influenza Vaccine Is Improved by Chitosan Nanoparticle Delivery in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Santosh; Renu, Sankar; Ghimire, Shristi; Shaan Lakshmanappa, Yashavanth; Hogshead, Bradley T; Feliciano-Ruiz, Ninoshkaly; Lu, Fangjia; HogenEsch, Harm; Krakowka, Steven; Lee, Chang Won; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J

    2018-01-01

    Annually, swine influenza A virus (SwIAV) causes severe economic loss to swine industry. Currently used inactivated SwIAV vaccines administered by intramuscular injection provide homologous protection, but limited heterologous protection against constantly evolving field viruses, attributable to the induction of inadequate levels of mucosal IgA and cellular immune responses in the respiratory tract. A novel vaccine delivery platform using mucoadhesive chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) administered through intranasal (IN) route has the potential to elicit strong mucosal and systemic immune responses in pigs. In this study, we evaluated the immune responses and cross-protective efficacy of IN chitosan encapsulated inactivated SwIAV vaccine in pigs. Killed SwIAV H1N2 (δ-lineage) antigens (KAg) were encapsulated in chitosan polymer-based nanoparticles (CNPs-KAg). The candidate vaccine was administered twice IN as mist to nursery pigs. Vaccinates and controls were then challenged with a zoonotic and virulent heterologous SwIAV H1N1 (γ-lineage). Pigs vaccinated with CNPs-KAg exhibited an enhanced IgG serum antibody and mucosal secretory IgA antibody responses in nasal swabs, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids, and lung lysates that were reactive against homologous (H1N2), heterologous (H1N1), and heterosubtypic (H3N2) influenza A virus strains. Prior to challenge, an increased frequency of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferation, and recall IFN-γ secretion by restimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells in CNPs-KAg compared to control KAg vaccinates were observed. In CNPs-KAg vaccinated pigs challenged with heterologous virus reduced severity of macroscopic and microscopic influenza-associated pulmonary lesions were observed. Importantly, the infectious SwIAV titers in nasal swabs [days post-challenge (DPC) 4] and BAL fluid (DPC 6) were significantly ( p  influenza nanovaccine may be an ideal candidate vaccine for use in pigs, and pig is a

  6. Intranasal delivery of hypoxia-preconditioned bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells enhanced regenerative effects after intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jinmei; Wei, Zheng Zachory; Gu, Xiaohuan; Zhang, James Ya; Zhang, Yongbo; Li, Jimei; Wei, Ling

    2015-10-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke (ICH) causes high mortality and morbidity with very limited treatment options. Cell-based therapy has emerged as a novel approach to replace damaged brain tissues and promote regenerative processes. In this study we tested the hypothesis that intranasally delivered hypoxia-preconditioned BMSCs could reach the brain, promote tissue repair and improve functional recovery after ICH. Hemorrhagic stroke was induced in adult C57/B6 mice by injection of collagenase IV into the striatum. Animals were randomly divided into three groups: sham group, intranasal BMSC treatment group, and vehicle treatment group. BMSCs were pre-treated with hypoxic preconditioning (HP) and pre-labeled with Hoechst before transplantation. Behavior tests, including the mNSS score, rotarod test, adhesive removal test, and locomotor function evaluation were performed at varying days, up to 21days, after ICH to evaluate the therapeutic effects of BMSC transplantation. Western blots and immunohistochemistry were performed to analyze the neurotrophic effects. Intranasally delivered HP-BMSCs were identified in peri-injury regions. NeuN+/BrdU+ co-labeled cells were markedly increased around the hematoma region, and growth factors, including BDNF, GDNF, and VEGF were significantly upregulated in the ICH brain after BMSC treatment. The BMSC treatment group showed significant improvement in behavioral performance compared with the vehicle group. Our data also showed that intranasally delivered HP-BMSCs migrated to peri-injury regions and provided growth factors to increase neurogenesis after ICH. We conclude that intranasal administration of BMSC is an effective treatment for ICH, and that it enhanced neuroregenerative effects and promoted neurological functional recovery after ICH. Overall, the investigation supports the potential therapeutic strategy for BMSC transplantation therapy against hemorrhagic stroke. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevention of early cure of type 1 diabetes by intranasal administration of gliadin in NOD mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Funda, David P.; Fundová, Petra; Hansen, A. K.; Buschard, K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2014) E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/09/1640; GA MZd(CZ) NS10340 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : gliadin * diabetes * diabetes 1 type * NOD mice Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  8. Induction of mucosal immune responses and protection of cattle against direct-contact challenge by intranasal delivery with foot-and-mouth disease virus antigen mediated by nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan L

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Li Pan,1,2 Zhongwang Zhang,1,2 Jianliang Lv,1,2 Peng Zhou,1,2 Wenfa Hu,1,2 Yuzhen Fang,1,2 Haotai Chen,1,2 Xinsheng Liu,1,2 Junjun Shao,1,2 Furong Zhao,1,2 Yaozhong Ding,1,2 Tong Lin,1,2 Huiyun Chang,1,2 Jie Zhang,1,2 Yongguang Zhang,1,2 Yonglu Wang1,2 1State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, National Foot-and-Mouth Disease Reference Laboratory, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS, Lanzhou, Gansu, People’s Republic of China; 2Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: The aim of this study was to enhance specific mucosal, systemic, and cell-mediated immunity and to induce earlier onset of protection against direct-contact challenge in cattle by intranasal delivery of a nanoparticle-based nasal vaccine against type A foot-and-mouth disease (FMD. In this study, two kinds of nanoparticle-based nasal vaccines against type A FMD were designed: (1 chitosan-coated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA loaded with plasmid DNA (Chi-PLGA-DNA and (2 chitosan-trehalose and inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV (Chi-Tre-Inactivated. Cattle were immunized by an intranasal route with nanoparticles and then challenged for 48 hours by direct contact with two infected donor cattle per pen. Donors were inoculated intradermally in the tongue 48 hours before challenge, with 0.2 mL cattle-passaged FMDV. Serological and mucosal antibody responses were evaluated, and virus excretion and the number of contact infections were quantified. FMDV-specific secretory immunoglobulin (IgA (sIgA antibodies in nasal washes were initially detected at 4 days postvaccination (dpv with two kinds of nanoparticles. The highest levels of sIgA expression were observed in nasal washes, at 10 dpv, from animals with Chi-PLGA-DNA nanoparticles, followed by animals immunized once by intranasal route with

  9. Intranasal Cotinine Plus Krill Oil Facilitates Fear Extinction, Decreases Depressive-Like Behavior, and Increases Hippocampal Calcineurin A Levels in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Ricartes, Nathalie; Oliveros-Matus, Patricia; Mendoza, Cristhian; Perez-Urrutia, Nelson; Echeverria, Florencia; Iarkov, Alexandre; Barreto, George E; Echeverria, Valentina

    2018-02-27

    Failure in fear extinction is one of the more troublesome characteristics of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cotinine facilitates fear memory extinction and reduces depressive-like behavior when administered 24 h after fear conditioning in mice. In this study, it was investigated the behavioral and molecular effects of cotinine, and other antidepressant preparations infused intranasally. Intranasal (IN) cotinine, IN krill oil, IN cotinine plus krill oil, and oral sertraline were evaluated on depressive-like behavior and fear retention and extinction after fear conditioning in C57BL/6 mice. Since calcineurin A has been involved in facilitating fear extinction in rodents, we also investigated changes of calcineurin in the hippocampus, a region key on contextual fear extinction. Short-term treatment with cotinine formulations was superior to krill oil and oral sertraline in reducing depressive-like behavior and fear consolidation and enhancing contextual fear memory extinction in mice. IN krill oil slowed the extinction of fear. IN cotinine preparations increased the levels of calcineurin A in the hippocampus of conditioned mice. In the light of the results, the future investigation of the use of IN cotinine preparations for the extinction of contextual fear memory and treatment of treatment-resistant depression (TRD) in PTSD is discussed.

  10. Intranasal Coadministration of the Cry1Ac Protoxin with Amoebal Lysates Increases Protection against Naegleria fowleri Meningoencephalitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Hernández, Saúl; Rodríguez-Monroy, Marco A.; López-Revilla, Rubén; Reséndiz-Albor, Aldo A.; Moreno-Fierros, Leticia

    2004-01-01

    Cry1Ac protoxin has potent mucosal and systemic adjuvant effects on antibody responses to proteins or polysaccharides. In this work, we examined whether Cry1Ac increased protective immunity against fatal Naegleria fowleri infection in mice, which resembles human primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. Higher immunoglobulin G (IgG) than IgA anti-N. fowleri responses were elicited in the serum and tracheopulmonary fluids of mice immunized by the intranasal or intraperitoneal route with N. fowleri lysates either alone or with Cry1Ac or cholera toxin. Superior protection against a lethal challenge with 5 × 104 live N. fowleri trophozoites was achieved for immunization by the intranasal route. Intranasal immunization of N. fowleri lysates coadministered with Cry1Ac increased survival to 100%; interestingly, immunization with Cry1Ac alone conferred similar protection to that achieved with amoebal lysates alone (60%). When mice intranasally immunized with Cry1Ac plus lysates were challenged with amoebae, both IgG and IgA mucosal responses were rapidly increased, but only the increased IgG response persisted until day 60 in surviving mice. The brief rise in the level of specific mucosal IgA does not exclude the role that this isotype may play in the early defense against this parasite, since higher IgA responses were detected in nasal fluids of mice intranasally immunized with lysates plus either Cry1Ac or cholera toxin, which, indeed, were the treatments that provided the major protection levels. In contrast, serum antibody responses do not seem to be related to the protection level achieved. Both acquired and innate immune systems seem to play a role in host defense against N. fowleri infection, but further studies are required to elucidate the mechanisms involved in protective effects conferred by Cry1Ac, which may be a valuable tool to improve mucosal vaccines. PMID:15271892

  11. Cross-immunity between syngeneic tumors in mice immunized with gamma-irradiated ascites tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Hajime; Waga, Takashi; Sato, Tatsusuke; Ogasawara, Masamichi; Ito, Izumi

    1980-01-01

    C3H/He mice immunized repeatedly with irradiated (13,000 rads 60 Co) MM46 or MM48, both transplantable ascites mammary carcinomas of the same strain, were subcutaneously challenged with the identical or the different tumor. In mice immunized with irradiated MM46, the growth of challenges of not only MM46 but also MM48 was inhibited. On the other hand, in mice immunized with irradiated MM48, the growth of challenges of MM48 was inhibited, but the inhibition of the growth of MM46 was not observed. Cross-immunity, therefore, was shown by immunization with MM46 but not with MM48. These findings were considered to indicate that MM46 expressed cross-immunity against MM48 because of its high resistance to the irradiation, and that MM48 did not show cross-immunity to MM46 because of its low resistance to the irradiation. (author)

  12. Intranasal delivery of cationic PLGA nano/microparticles-loaded FMDV DNA vaccine encoding IL-6 elicited protective immunity against FMDV challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Wang

    Full Text Available Mucosal vaccination has been demonstrated to be an effective means of eliciting protective immunity against aerosol infections of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV and various approaches have been used to improve mucosal response to this pathogen. In this study, cationic PLGA (poly(lactide-co-glycolide nano/microparticles were used as an intranasal delivery vehicle as a means administering FMDV DNA vaccine encoding the FMDV capsid protein and the bovine IL-6 gene as a means of enhancing mucosal and systemic immune responses in animals. Three eukaryotic expression plasmids with or without bovine IL-6 gene (pc-P12A3C, pc-IL2AP12A3C and pc-P12AIL3C were generated. The two latter plasmids were designed with the IL-6 gene located either before or between the P12A and 3C genes, respectively, as a means of determining if the location of the IL-6 gene affected capsid assembly and the subsequent immune response. Guinea pigs and rats were intranasally vaccinated with the respective chitosan-coated PLGA nano/microparticles-loaded FMDV DNA vaccine formulations. Animals immunized with pc-P12AIL3C (followed by animals vaccinated with pc-P12A3C and pc-IL2AP12A3C developed the highest levels of antigen-specific serum IgG and IgA antibody responses and the highest levels of sIgA (secretory IgA present in mucosal tissues. However, the highest levels of neutralizing antibodies were generated in pc-IL2AP12A3C-immunized animals (followed by pc-P12AIL3C- and then in pc-P12A3C-immunized animals. pc-IL2AP12A3C-immunized animals also developed stronger cell mediated immune responses (followed by pc-P12AIL3C- and pc-P12A3C-immunized animals as evidenced by antigen-specific T-cell proliferation and expression levels of IFN-γ by both CD4+ and CD8+ splenic T cells. The percentage of animals protected against FMDV challenge following immunizations with pc-IL2AP12A3C, pc-P12AIL3C or pc-P12A3C were 3/5, 1/5 and 0/5, respectively. These data suggested that intranasal delivery

  13. Intestinal immunity in hypopituitary dwarf mice: effects of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Darcy, Justin; Cai, Chuan; Jin, Junfei; Bartke, Andrzej; Cao, Deliang

    2018-03-02

    Hypopituitary dwarf mice demonstrate advantages of longevity, but little is known of their colon development and intestinal immunity. Herein we found that Ames dwarf mice have shorter colon and colonic crypts, but larger ratio of mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) over body weight than age-matched wild type (WT) mice. In the colonic lamina propria (cLP) of juvenile Ames mice, more inflammatory neutrophils (Ā: 0.15% vs. 0.03% in WT mice) and monocytes (Ā: 7.97% vs. 5.15%) infiltrated, and antigen presenting cells CD11c+ dendritic cells (Ā: 1.39% vs. 0.87%), CD11b+ macrophages (Ā: 3.22% vs. 0.81%) and gamma delta T (γδ T) cells (Ā: 5.56% vs. 1.35%) were increased. In adult Ames dwarf mice, adaptive immune cells, such as IL-17 producing CD4+ T helper (Th17) cells (Ā: 8.3% vs. 4.7%) were augmented. In the MLNs of Ames dwarf mice, the antigen presenting and adaptive immune cells also altered when compared to WT mice, such as a decrease of T-regulatory (Treg) cells in juvenile Ames mice (Ā: 7.7% vs.10.5%), but an increase of Th17 cells (Ā: 0.627% vs.0.093%). Taken together, these data suggest that somatotropic signaling deficiency influences colon development and intestinal immunity.

  14. Comparing the immune response to a novel intranasal nanoparticle PLGA vaccine and a commercial BPI3V vaccine in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Fawad; Earley, Bernadette; Cassidy, Joseph P; Markey, Bryan; Doherty, Simon; Welsh, Michael D

    2015-08-21

    There is a need to improve vaccination against respiratory pathogens in calves by stimulation of local immunity at the site of pathogen entry at an early stage in life. Ideally such a vaccine preparation would not be inhibited by the maternally derived antibodies. Additionally, localized immune response at the site of infection is also crucial to control infection at the site of entry of virus. The present study investigated the response to an intranasal bovine parainfluenza 3 virus (BPI3V) antigen preparation encapsulated in PLGA (poly dl-lactic-co-glycolide) nanoparticles in the presence of pre-existing anti-BPI3V antibodies in young calves and comparing it to a commercially available BPI3V respiratory vaccine. There was a significant (P administration of the nanoparticle vaccine an early immune response was induced that continued to grow until the end of study and was not observed in the other treatment groups. Virus specific serum IgG response to both the nanoparticle vaccine and commercial live attenuated vaccine showed a significant (P local mucosal immunity induced by nanoparticle vaccine has obvious potential if it translates into enhanced protective immunity in the face of virus outbreak.

  15. Studies on the transfer of protective immunity with lymphoid cells from mice immune to malaria sporozoites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhave, J.P.; Strickland, G.T.; Jaffe, H.A.; Ahmed, A.

    1978-01-01

    In an effort to understand the mechanisms involved in the protective immunity to malarial sporozoites, an A/J mouse/Plasmodium berghei model was studied. Protective immunity could consistently be adoptively transferred only by using sublethal irradiation of recipients (500 R); a spleen equivalent (100 x 10 6 ) of donor cells from immune syngeneic mice; and a small booster immunization (1 x 10 4 ) of recipients with irradiation-attenuated sporozoites. Recipient animals treated in this manner were protected from lethal challenge with 1 x 10 4 nonattenuated sporozoites. Immune and nonimmune serum and spleen cells from nonimmune animals did not protect recipient mice. Fewer immune spleen cells (50 x 10 6 ) protected some recipients. In vitro treatment of immune spleen cells with anti-theta sera and complement abolished their ability to transfer protection. This preliminary study suggests that protective sporozoite immunity can be transferred with cells, and that it is T cell dependent

  16. Induction of protective immunity against toxoplasmosis in mice by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that mice immunized by pcROP1 with or without alum produced high Th1 immune response compared with control groups. This type of DNA vaccine prolonged slightly the survival time. The current study showed that ROP1 DNA vaccine can induced partial protective response against toxoplasmosis.

  17. Effect of Ketoprofen on Immune Cells in Mice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    immune system. Ketoprofen is frequently used to treat different medical conditions. It may affect immune system at therapeutically effective doses. Therefore in ... Animals [9]. ELISPOT assay. After 7 days of treatment, mice were sacrificed and their spleens were removed. Spleen cells were separated on magnetic cell ...

  18. Metabolic and adaptive immune responses induced in mice infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated metabolic and immuno-inflammatory responses of mice infected with tissue-dwelling larvae of Trichinella zimbabwensis and explored the relationship between infection, metabolic parameters and Th1/Th17 immune responses. Sixty (60) female BALB/c mice aged between 6 to 8 weeks old were ...

  19. Immune mechanisms in Ehrlich ascites tumor growth in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marusic, M.

    1979-01-01

    Normal mice immunised with irradiated Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells rejected EAT challenge given 2 weeks later but T-cell-deficient thymectomised lethally irradiated, and bone-marrow-reconstituted (TIR) mice succumbed. However, when TIR mice were injected i.v. with thymus, lymph node, or spleen cells from normalsyngetic donors immediately following i.p. injection of irradiated EAT cells, they rejected the subsequent tumor challenge. This induction of immunity in TIR mice was shown to be T-cell dependent. Spleen cells from EAT- bearing mice given immediately after irradiated tumor cells were also able to promote rejection of EAT challenge in TIR mice. Spleen cells from EAT-immune mice inhibited EAT growth when admixed with tumor cells prior to i.p. injection into normal recipients, but had no effect on progressive tumor growth when given i.v. immediately after i.p. tumor injection. Immune serum inhibited i.p. EAT growth when given either i.p. or i.v. Whereas inhibition of EAT growth by admixed spleen cells was shown to be T-cell independent. The data indicate that T lymphocytes are required only in the induction phase of the immune reponse of mice against EAT, while the efferent phase of the response is accomplished by serum antibodies, perhaps through an interaction with host macrophages. (author)

  20. NADH oxidase functions as an adhesin in Streptococcus pneumoniae and elicits a protective immune response in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Muchnik

    Full Text Available The initial event in disease caused by S. pneumoniae is adhesion of the bacterium to respiratory epithelial cells, mediated by surface expressed molecules including cell-wall proteins. NADH oxidase (NOX, which reduces free oxygen to water in the cytoplasm, was identified in a non-lectin enriched pneumococcal cell-wall fraction. Recombinant NOX (rNOX was screened with sera obtained longitudinally from children and demonstrated age-dependent immunogenicity. NOX ablation in S. pneumoniae significantly reduced bacterial adhesion to A549 epithelial cells in vitro and their virulence in the intranasal or intraperitoneal challenge models in mice, compared to the parental strain. Supplementation of Δnox WU2 with the nox gene restored its virulence. Saturation of A549 target cells with rNOX or neutralization of cell-wall residing NOX using anti-rNOX antiserum decreased adhesion to A549 cells. rNOX-binding phages inhibited bacterial adhesion. Moreover, peptides derived from the human proteins contactin 4, chondroitin 4 sulfotraferase and laminin5, homologous to the insert peptides in the neutralizing phages, inhibited bacterial adhesion to the A549 cells. Furthermore, rNOX immunization of mice elicited a protective immune response to intranasal or intraperitoneal S. pneumoniae challenge, whereas pneumococcal virulence was neutralized by anti-rNOX antiserum prior to intraperitoneal challenge. Our results suggest that in addition to its enzymatic activity, NOX contributes to S. pneumoniae virulence as a putative adhesin and thus peptides derived from its target molecules may be considered for the treatment of pneumococcal infections. Finally, rNOX elicited a protective immune response in both aerobic and anaerobic environments, which renders NOX a candidate for future pneumococcal vaccine.

  1. A single immunization with a recombinant canine adenovirus expressing the rabies virus G protein confers protective immunity against rabies in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianwei; Faber, Milosz; Papaneri, Amy; Faber, Marie-Luise; McGettigan, James P.; Schnell, Matthias J.; Dietzschold, Bernhard

    2006-01-01

    Rabies vaccines based on live attenuated rabies viruses or recombinant pox viruses expressing the rabies virus (RV) glycoprotein (G) hold the greatest promise of safety and efficacy, particularly for oral immunization of wildlife. However, while these vaccines induce protective immunity in foxes, they are less effective in other animals, and safety concerns have been raised for some of these vaccines. Because canine adenovirus 2 (CAV2) is licensed for use as a live vaccine for dogs and has an excellent efficacy and safety record, we used this virus as an expression vector for the RVG. The recombinant CAV2-RV G produces virus titers similar to those produced by wild-type CAV2, indicating that the RVG gene does not affect virus replication. Comparison of RVG expressed by CAV2-RV G with that of vaccinia-RV G recombinant virus (V-RG) revealed similar amounts of RV G on the cell surface. A single intramuscular or intranasal immunization of mice with CAV2-RVG induced protective immunity in a dose-dependent manner, with no clinical signs or discomfort from the virus infection regardless of the route of administration or the amount of virus

  2. Transfer of adoptive immunity to tuberculosis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefford, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    A system is described for studying adoptive immunity to tuberculosis in syngeneic mice. Donor mice were immunized with 10 4 BCG intravenously, and lymphoid cells were harvested 28 days later. Adoptive immunity was measured in recipient mice in terms of the inhibition of growth of BCG in the liver and spleen following intravenous injection. Adoptive immunity was expressed optimally when recipients were sublethally irradiated (500 R), challenged with 10 4 to 10 5 viable organisms, and given sensitized lymphoid cells intravenously. Adoptive immunity was not manifest until 14 days after challenge and was effective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv as well as BCG. Immunity could be conferred by spleen, lymph node, peritoneal exudate, and resident peritoneal (washout) cells. The lymphoid cells conferring immunity were shown to be thymus-dependent lymphocytes by virtue of their nonadherence to glass wool and sensitivity to anti-theta serum plus complement. The sensitized cells were relatively susceptible to both in vitro and in vivo x irradiation

  3. A single intranasal immunization with a subunit vaccine formulation induces higher mucosal IgA production than live respiratory syncytial virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Ravendra; Theaker, Michael; Martinez, Elisa C.; Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia van

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes serious respiratory illness in infants and elderly. RSV infection induces short-lived immunity, which leaves people prone to re-infection. In contrast, the RSV fusion (F) protein formulated with a novel adjuvant (∆F/TriAdj) elicits long term protective immunity. A comparison of RSV-immunized mice to mice vaccinated with a single dose of ∆F/TriAdj showed no difference in IgG1 and IgG2a production; however, local IgA secreting memory B cell development and B cell IgA production were significantly lower in RSV vaccinated mice than in ∆F/TriAdj-immunized mice. This indicates a potential reason as to why long-term immunity is not induced by RSV infection. The comparison also revealed that germinal center lymphocyte populations were higher in ∆F/TriAdj-vaccinated mice. Furthermore, ∆F/TriAdj induced higher gene expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), as well as IL-6, IL-21, TGF-β cytokines, which are key players in IgA class switch recombination, ultimately leading to a sustained long-term memory response. - Highlights: •Immune responses to adjuvanted RSV F protein, ∆F/TriAdj, and RSV were compared. •∆F/TriAdj stimulates more local IgA production than RSV. •∆F/TriAdj induces more local IgA secreting memory B cells than RSV. •Germinal center lymphocyte populations are higher in ∆F/TriAdj-vaccinated mice. •∆F/TriAdj induces higher gene expression of AID, IL-6, IL-21, and TGF-β than RSV.

  4. A single intranasal immunization with a subunit vaccine formulation induces higher mucosal IgA production than live respiratory syncytial virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, Ravendra [VIDO-InterVac, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E3 (Canada); Theaker, Michael [Microbiology & Immunology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E3 (Canada); Martinez, Elisa C. [VIDO-InterVac, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E3 (Canada); Microbiology & Immunology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada SK S7N 5E3 (Canada); Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia van, E-mail: sylvia.vandenhurk@usask.ca [VIDO-InterVac, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E3 (Canada); Microbiology & Immunology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E3 (Canada)

    2016-12-15

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes serious respiratory illness in infants and elderly. RSV infection induces short-lived immunity, which leaves people prone to re-infection. In contrast, the RSV fusion (F) protein formulated with a novel adjuvant (∆F/TriAdj) elicits long term protective immunity. A comparison of RSV-immunized mice to mice vaccinated with a single dose of ∆F/TriAdj showed no difference in IgG1 and IgG2a production; however, local IgA secreting memory B cell development and B cell IgA production were significantly lower in RSV vaccinated mice than in ∆F/TriAdj-immunized mice. This indicates a potential reason as to why long-term immunity is not induced by RSV infection. The comparison also revealed that germinal center lymphocyte populations were higher in ∆F/TriAdj-vaccinated mice. Furthermore, ∆F/TriAdj induced higher gene expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), as well as IL-6, IL-21, TGF-β cytokines, which are key players in IgA class switch recombination, ultimately leading to a sustained long-term memory response. - Highlights: •Immune responses to adjuvanted RSV F protein, ∆F/TriAdj, and RSV were compared. •∆F/TriAdj stimulates more local IgA production than RSV. •∆F/TriAdj induces more local IgA secreting memory B cells than RSV. •Germinal center lymphocyte populations are higher in ∆F/TriAdj-vaccinated mice. •∆F/TriAdj induces higher gene expression of AID, IL-6, IL-21, and TGF-β than RSV.

  5. Variant-specific immunity to Plasmodium berghei in pregnant mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Megnekou, Rosette; Hviid, Lars; Staalsoe, Trine

    2009-01-01

    for recrudescence-type IEs are related to the protection of pregnant mice from maternal anemia, low birth weight, and decreased litter size. We conclude that the model replicates many of the key parasitological and immunological features of PAM, although the P. berghei genome does not encode proteins homologous...... to the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 adhesins, which are of key importance in P. falciparum malaria. The study of P. berghei malaria in pregnant, immune mice can be used to gain significant new insights regarding malaria pathogenesis and immunity in general and regarding PAM in particular....

  6. Use of a Guinea Pig-Specific Transcriptome Array for Evaluation of Protective Immunity against Genital Chlamydial Infection following Intranasal Vaccination in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-11

    modulation in several innate immunity markers particularly associated with NK cells and Th1/Th2 specific cytokines and chemokines in immunized guinea pigs...reduced antigen-specific activation (IL-12 and IFN-c production) of CD4+ T cells isolated from lymphoid tissues and genital tract, and an associated...CD4+ T cells [12, 13]. However, due to differences in immunological responses [23, 24, 25, 26], and chlamydial strain susceptibilities between mice

  7. Intranasal administration of a therapeutic HIV vaccine (Vacc-4x induces dose-dependent systemic and mucosal immune responses in a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Brekke

    Full Text Available Vacc-4x, a Gag p24-based therapeutic HIV vaccine, has been shown to reduce viral load set-points after intradermal administration. In this randomized controlled pilot study we investigate intranasal administration of Vacc-4x with Endocine as adjuvant.Safety and immunogenicity were tested in patients on effective ART. They were randomized to low, medium or high dose Vacc-4x or adjuvant alone, administered four times at weekly intervals with no booster. Vacc-4x-specific T cell responses were measured in vitro by proliferation and in vivo by a single DTH skin test at the end of study. Nasal and rectal mucosal secretions were analyzed for Vacc-4x-specific antibodies by ELISA. Immune regulation induced by Vacc-4x was assessed by functional blockade of the regulatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β.Vacc-4x proliferative T cell responses increased only among the vaccinated (p ≤ 0.031. The low dose group showed the greatest increase in Vacc-4x CD8+T cell responses (p = 0.037 and developed larger DTH (p = 0.005 than the adjuvant group. Rectal (distal Vacc-4x IgA and IgG antibodies also increased (p = 0.043 in this group. In contrast, the high dose generated higher nasal (local Vacc-4x IgA (p = 0.028 and serum IgG (p = 0.030 antibodies than the adjuvant. Irrespective of dose, increased Vacc-4x CD4+T cell responses were associated with low proliferation (r = -0.82, p < 0.001 and high regulation (r = 0.61, p = 0.010 at baseline.Intranasal administration of Vacc-4x with Endocine was safe and induced dose-dependent vaccine-specific T cell responses and both mucosal and systemic humoral responses. The clinical significance of dose, immune regulation and mucosal immunity warrants further investigation.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01473810.

  8. Neuroprotective effects of agmatine in mice infused with a single intranasal administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheus, Filipe C; Aguiar, Aderbal S; Castro, Adalberto A; Villarinho, Jardel G; Ferreira, Juliano; Figueiredo, Cláudia P; Walz, Roger; Santos, Adair R S; Tasca, Carla I; Prediger, Rui D S

    2012-12-01

    We have recently demonstrated that rodents treated intranasally with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) suffered impairments in olfactory, cognitive, emotional and motor functions associated with time-dependent disruption of dopaminergic neurotransmission in different brain structures conceivably analogous to those observed during different stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). Agmatine, an endogenous arginine metabolite, has been proposed as a novel neuromodulator that plays protective roles in several models of neuronal cellular damage. In the present study we demonstrated that repeated treatment with agmatine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) during 5 consecutive days increased the survival rate (from 40% to 80%) of 15-month-old C57BL/6 female mice infused with a single intranasal (i.n.) administration of MPTP (1 mg/nostril), improving the general neurological status of the surviving animals. Moreover, pretreatment with agmatine was found to attenuate short-term social memory and locomotor activity impairments observed at different periods after i.n. MPTP administration. These behavioral benefits of exogenous agmatine administration were accompanied by a protection against the MPTP-induced decrease of hippocampal glutamate uptake and loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta of aging mice, without altering brain monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) activity. These results provide new insights in experimental models of PD, indicating that agmatine represents a potential therapeutic tool for the management of cognitive and motor symptoms of PD, together with its neuroprotective effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Effect of vitamine A on mice immune response induced by specific periodontal pathogenic bacteria-immunization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao-Ping; Zhou, Xiao-Jia; Liu, Hong-Li; DU, Li-Li; Toshihisa, Kawai

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamine-A deficiency on the induction of specific periodontal pathogenic bacteria A. actinomycetetemcomitans(Aa) immunization. BALB/c mice were fed with vitamine A-depleted diet or control regular diet throughout the whole experiment period. After 2 weeks, immunized formalin-killed Aa to build immunized models, 6 weeks later, sacrificed to determine specific antibody-IgG, IgM and sub-class IgG antibody titers in serum, and concentration of IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α and RANKL in T cell supernatant were measured by ELISA and T cell proliferation was measured by cintilography. SPSS 11.5 software package was used for statistical analysis. The levels of whole IgG and IgM antibody which were immunized by Aa significantly elevated, non-immune group was unable to produce any antibody. Compared with Aa immunized+RD group, the level of whole IgG in Aa immunized+VAD group was significantly higher (Pvitamin-A diet can increase the immunized mice's susceptibility to periodontal pathogenic bacteria and trigger or aggravate immune inflammatory response. Adequate vitamin A is an important factor in maintaining body health. Supported by Natural Science Foundation of Liaoning Province (Grant No.20092139) and Science and Technology Program of Shenyang Municipality (Grant No.F10-149-9-32).

  10. Report 10. Cooperative immune responses of different generations of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savtsova, Z.D.; Kovbasyuk, S.A.; Yudina, O.Yu.; Zaritskaya, M.Yu.; Voejkova, I.M.; Orlovskij, A.A.; Indyk, V.M.; Serkiz, Ya.I.

    1991-01-01

    The immune status of mice has been assessed by the whole complex of data. The permanent action of low-level radiation has been shown to suppress considerably the rate of reactions of the delayed-type hypersensitivity and graft-versus host disease, as well as NK and specific cytolytic T-lymphocyte activity. The dynamics of accumulation and the levels of antibodies in the serum, lung and trachea extracts are virtually invariable. The resistance of experimental animals to influenza is lower than that of non-irradiated mice of the same line and age. The data obtained indicate that the immune disturbances revealed are connected not only with the alteration of lymphoid cell populations, but also with the alteration of the immune regulation mechanisms

  11. [Immunization with Bifidobacterium bifidum-vectored OprI vaccine of Pseudomonas aeruginosa enhances inhibitory effect on P. aeruginosa in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Li, Wengui

    2017-08-01

    Objective To study the pulmonary bacterial loads, splenocyte proliferation, distributions of T cell subsets and cell apoptosis in mice immunized with Bifidobacterium bifidum-vectored OprI (Bb-OprI) vaccine of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and challenged with P. aeruginosa PA01 strain. Methods BALB/c mice were immunized with 5×10 9 CFUs of vaccine by intragastric administration, 3 times a week for 3 weeks, and challenged intranasally with 5×10 6 CFUs of PA01 strain at the fourth week after the first immunization. At the second week after the challenge, all mice were sacrificed to separate their lungs and spleens, and the pulmonary bacterial loads were counted. The proliferation of the splenocytes was determined by MTT assay. The splenic CD4 + , CD8 + T cell subsets and the apoptotic rate of splenocytes were detected by flow cytometry. Results The number of pulmonary bacterial colonies in the mice immunized with the vaccine and challenged with PA01 strain decreased, while the proliferation of splenocytes and the proportion of CD4 + T cells markedly increased, and the apoptosis of splenocytes was notably reduced. Conclusion The intragastric vaccination of recombinant Bb-OprI vaccine can increase the proportion of CD4 + T cells and enhance the inhibitory effect on P. aeruginosa.

  12. Immunity to sporozoite-induced malaria infection in mice. I. The effect of immunization of T and B cell-deficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, D.H.; Tigelaar, R.E.; Weinbaum, F.I.

    1977-01-01

    The cellular basis of immunity to sporozoites was investigated by examining the effect of immunization of T and B cell-deficient C57BL/6N x BALB/c AnN F 1 (BLCF 1 ) mice compared to immunocompetent controls. Immunization of T cell-deficient (ATX-BM-ATS) BLCF 1 mice with x-irradiated sporozoites did not result in the generation of protective immunity. The same immunization protocols protected all immunocompetent controls. In contrast, B cell-deficient (μ-suppressed) BLCF 1 mice were protected by immunization in the majority of cases. The absence of detectable serum circumsporozoite precipitins or sporozoite neutralizing activity in the μ-suppressed mice that resisted a sporozoite challenge suggests a minor role for these humoral factors in protection. These data demonstrate a preeminent role for T cells in the induction of protective immunity in BLCF 1 mice against a P. berghei sporozoite infection

  13. Effect of pulmonary irradiation from inhaled 90Y on immunity to Listeria monocytogenes in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, A.; Lundgren, D.L.; McClellan, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    The immunological response of mice subjected to irradiation from particles deposited in the lungs and challenged with Listeria monocytogenes was investigated. Mice, exposed by inhalation to 90 Y (a beta-emitting radionuclide) in relatively insoluble fused aluminosilicate particles, were immunized with L. monocytogenes either before or after exposure. Two additional groups of mice were either immunized or irradiated only. A group of control mice received no irradiation or immunization. The beta radiation dose absorbed by the lungs of each mouse at time of challenge averaged 10,000 rads. Fourteen days after immunization, all mice were challenged with 2 LD 50 doses of L. monocytogenes via the respiratory route. Survival of all immunized mice either with or without exposure to 90 Y varied from 90 to 100% as compared to 10 to 20% for the mice irradiated only and for control mice through 14 days after challenge. Pulmonary clearance of inhaled L. monocytogenes during the first 4 hr after challenge was suppressed in the mice irradiated only but not in those immunized only, or in the immunized and irradiated groups, and control mice. There appeared to be a suppression of proliferation of L. monocytogenes in lungs and spleen in the immunized groups 72 hr after challenge, whereas the lungs and spleens of the mice irradiated only and the control mice had extensive bacterial invasion. It was concluded that the 10,000 rads of beta radiation absorbed by the lungs did not suppress the immune mechanisms of the immunized mice

  14. Combined intranasal nerve growth factor and ventricle neural stem cell grafts prolong survival and improve disease outcome in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shi-Jiang; Gong, Yan-Hua; Lin, Yan-Chen

    2017-08-24

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal disease that selectively involves motor neurons. Neurotrophic factor supplementation and neural stem cell (NSC) alternative therapy have been used to treat ALS. The two approaches can affect each other in their pathways of action, and there is a possibility for synergism. However, to date, there have been no studies demonstrating the effects of combined therapy in the treatment of ALS. In this study, for the first time, we adopted a method involving the intranasal administration of nerve growth factor combined with lateral ventricle NSC transplantation using G93A-SOD1 transgenic mice as experimental subjects to explore the treatment effect of this combined therapy in ALS. We discover that the combined therapy increase the quantity of TrkA receptors, broaden the migration of exogenous NSCs, further promote active proliferation in neurogenic regions of the brain and enhance the preservation of motor neurons in the spinal cord. Regarding physical activity, the combined therapy improved motor functions, further postponed ALS onset and extended the survival time of the mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. In Vivo Imaging of Influenza Virus Infection in Immunized Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Czakó

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Immunization is the cornerstone of seasonal influenza control and represents an important component of pandemic preparedness strategies. Using a bioluminescent reporter virus, we demonstrate the application of noninvasive in vivo imaging system (IVIS technology to evaluate the preclinical efficacy of candidate vaccines and immunotherapy in a mouse model of influenza. Sequential imaging revealed distinct spatiotemporal kinetics of bioluminescence in groups of mice passively or actively immunized by various strategies that accelerated the clearance of the challenge virus at different rates and by distinct mechanisms. Imaging findings were consistent with conclusions derived from virus titers in the lungs and, notably, were more informative than conventional efficacy endpoints in some cases. Our findings demonstrate the reliability of IVIS as a qualitative approach to support preclinical evaluation of candidate medical countermeasures for influenza in mice.

  16. The Design of New Adjuvants for Mucosal Immunity to Neisseria meningitidis B in Nasally Primed Neonatal Mice for Adult Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the value of detoxified Shiga toxins Stx1 and Stx2 (toxoids of Escherichia coli as mucosal adjuvants in neonatal mice for immunogenicity against the outer membrane proteins (OMPs of Neisseria meningitidis B. Mucosal immunization has been shown to be effective for the induction of antigen-specific immune responses in both the systemic and mucosal compartments. Systemic antibody levels (IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, IgM, and IgA and mucosal IgM and IgA were measured by ELISA using an N. meningitidis as an antigen. In addition, IFN-γ and IL-6 production were measured after stimulated proliferation of immune cells. Intranasal administration elicited a higher anti-OMP IgA response in both saliva and vaginal fluids. Our results suggest that both Stx1 and Stx2 toxoids are effective mucosal adjuvants for the induction of Ag-specific IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies. The toxoids significantly enhanced the IgG and IgM response against OMPs with a potency equivalent to CT, with the response being characterized by both IgG1 and IgG2a isotypes, and increased IFN-gamma production. Additionally, bactericidal activity was induced with IgG and IgM antibodies of high avidity. These results support the use of the new toxoids as potent inducing adjuvants that are particularly suitable for mucosal immunization.

  17. Immunization of C57BL/6 Mice with GRA2 Combined with MPL Conferred Partial Immune Protection against Toxoplasma gondii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaie, Jalal; Amiri, Samira; Homayoun, Robab; Azimi, Ebrahim; Mohabati, Reyhaneh; Berizi, Mahboobe; Sadaie, M. Reza; Golkar, Majid

    2018-01-01

    We have previously reported that immunization with GRA2 antigen of Toxoplasma gondii induces protective immunity in CBA/J (H2k) and BALB/c mice (H2d). We aimed to examine whether immunization of a distinct strain of rodent with recombinant dense granule antigens (GRA2) combined with monophosphorryl lipid A (MPL) adjuvant elicits protective immune response against T. gondii. C57BL/6 (H2b haplotype) mice were immunized with GRA2, formulated in MPL adjuvant. Strong humoral response, predominantly of IgG1 subclass and cellular response, IFN-γ, was detected at three weeks post immunization. Mice immunized with GRA2 had significantly (p < 0.01) fewer brain cysts than those in the adjuvant group, upon challenge infection. Despite the production of a strong antibody response, IFN-γ production and brain cyst reduction were not significant when the immunized mice were infected four months after the immunization. We can conclude that GRA2 immunization partially protects against T. gondii infection in C57BL/6 mice, though the potency and longevity of this antigen as a standalone vaccine may vary in distinct genetic backgrounds. This observation further emphasizes the utility of GRA2 for incorporation into a multi-antigenic vaccine against T. gondii.

  18. Carbon black nanoparticle exposure during middle and late fetal development induces immune activation in male offspring mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, Yasser S.; Shimizu, Ryuhei; Onoda, Atsuto; Takeda, Ken; Umezawa, Masakazu

    2015-01-01

    Increasing exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) has raised concerns regarding their health and safety profiles in humans and animals, especially in developing organisms, which may display increased sensitivity to NP toxicity. The present study examined the effects of gestational exposure to carbon black NP (CB-NP) on the development of the offspring immune system. Pregnant mice were exposed to CB-NP (95 μg/kg body weight) by intranasal instillation on gestational days 9 and 15. The thymus and spleen were collected from their offspring mice on postnatal day (PND) 1, 3 and 5. Thymocyte and splenocyte phenotypes were examined by determining the expression of cell-surface molecules using flow cytometry. Gene expression in the thymus and spleen was examined using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Prenatal exposure to CB-NP increased total thymocytes and their immunophenotypes (CD4 − CD8 − and CD4 + CD8 + cells). It also induced an increase in total lymphocytes, and CD4 − CD8 − , particularly CD3 − B220 − cells, at PND 5 in the spleen of newborn male offspring, reflecting the stimulation of immature splenocytes. Furthermore, mRNA expression of genes related to the induction of peripheral tolerance (i.e. thymic Traf6) was upregulated. These data suggest that respiratory exposure to CB-NP during middle and late gestation may have allergic or inflammatory effects in male offspring, and may provide initial information on the potential developmental immunotoxicity of nanoparticles

  19. Duox2-induced innate immune responses in the respiratory epithelium and intranasal delivery of Duox2 DNA using polymer that mediates immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yung Jin; Kim, Hyun Jik

    2018-05-01

    Respiratory mucosa especially nasal epithelium is well known as the first-line barrier of air-borne pathogens. High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are detected in in vitro cultured human epithelial cells and in vivo lung. With identification of NADPH oxidase (Nox) system of respiratory epithelium, the antimicrobial role of ROS has been studied. Duox2 is the most abundant Nox isoform and produces the regulated amount of ROS in respiratory epithelium. Duox2-derived ROS are involved in antiviral innate immune responses but more studies are needed to verify the mechanism. In respiratory epithelium, Duox2-derived ROS is critical for recognition of virus through families retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) at the early stage of antiviral innate immune responses. Various secreted interferons (IFNs) play essential roles for antiviral host defense by downstream cell signaling, and transcription of IFN-stimulated genes is started to suppress viral replication. Type I and type III IFNs are verified more responsible for influenza A virus (IAV) infection in respiratory epithelium and Duox2 is required to regulate IFN-related immune responses. Transient overexpression of Duox2 using cationic polymer polyethylenimine (PEI) induces secretion of type I and type III IFNs and significantly attenuated IAV replication in respiratory epithelium. Here, we discuss Duox2-mediated antiviral innate immune responses and the role of Duox2 as a mucosal vaccine to resist respiratory viral infection.

  20. Intranasal and sublingual delivery of inactivated polio vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraan, Heleen; Soema, Peter; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Kersten, Gideon

    2017-05-09

    Polio is on the brink of eradication. Improved inactivated polio vaccines (IPV) are needed towards complete eradication and for the use in the period thereafter. Vaccination via mucosal surfaces has important potential advantages over intramuscular injection using conventional needle and syringe, the currently used delivery method for IPV. One of them is the ability to induce both serum and mucosal immune responses: the latter may provide protection at the port of virus entry. The current study evaluated the possibilities of polio vaccination via mucosal surfaces using IPV based on attenuated Sabin strains. Mice received three immunizations with trivalent sIPV via intramuscular injection, or via the intranasal or sublingual route. The need of an adjuvant for the mucosal routes was investigated as well, by testing sIPV in combination with the mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin. Both intranasal and sublingual sIPV immunization induced systemic polio-specific serum IgG in mice that were functional as measured by poliovirus neutralization. Intranasal administration of sIPV plus adjuvant induced significant higher systemic poliovirus type 3 neutralizing antibody titers than sIPV delivered via the intramuscular route. Moreover, mucosal sIPV delivery elicited polio-specific IgA titers at different mucosal sites (IgA in saliva, fecal extracts and intestinal tissue) and IgA-producing B-cells in the spleen, where conventional intramuscular vaccination was unable to do so. However, it is likely that a mucosal adjuvant is required for sublingual vaccination. Further research on polio vaccination via sublingual mucosal route should include the search for safe and effective adjuvants, and the development of novel oral dosage forms that improve antigen uptake by oral mucosa, thereby increasing vaccine immunogenicity. This study indicates that both the intranasal and sublingual routes might be valuable approaches for use in routine vaccination or outbreak control in the period after

  1. Curdlan sulfate-O-linked quaternized chitosan nanoparticles: potential adjuvants to improve the immunogenicity of exogenous antigens via intranasal vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu; Huang, Shengshi; Lu, Lu; Song, Xinlei; Li, Pingli; Wang, Fengshan

    2018-01-01

    The development of ideal vaccine adjuvants for intranasal vaccination can provide convenience for many vaccinations. As an ideal intranasal vaccine adjuvant, it should have the properties of assisting soluble antigens to pass the mucosal barrier and potentiating both systemic and mucosal immunity via nasal administration. By using the advantages of polysaccharides, which can promote both T-helper 1 and 2 responses, curdlan sulfate (CS)- O -(2-hydroxyl)propyl-3-trimethyl ammonium chitosan chloride ( O -HTCC) nanoparticles were prepared by interacting CS with O -HTCC, and the adjuvancy of the nanoparticles was investigated. The results showed that the polysaccharide-based nanoparticles induced the proliferation and activation of antigen-presenting cells. High protein-loading efficiency was obtained by testing with the model antigen ovalbumin (Ova), and the Ova adsorbed onto the cationic CS/ O -HTCC complexes was taken up easily by the epithelium. To evaluate the capacity of the Ova/CS/ O -HTCC nanoparticles for immune enhancement in vivo, we collected and analyzed immunocytes, serum, and mucosal lavage fluid from intranasally vaccinated mice. The results showed that Ova/CS/ O -HTCC nanoparticles induced activation and maturation of antigen-presenting cells and provoked the proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes more significantly compared to the immunization of Ova mixed with aluminum hydroxide gel. Furthermore, CS/ O -HTCC evoked a significantly higher level of Ova-specific antibodies. Therefore, these results suggest that CS/ O -HTCC nanoparticles are ideal vaccine adjuvants for soluble antigens used in intranasal or mucosal vaccination.

  2. Human IgG repertoire of malaria antigen-immunized human immune system (HIS) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Raquel Tayar; Sahi, Vincent; Huang, Jing; Tsuji, Moriya

    2017-08-01

    Humanized mouse models present an important tool for preclinical evaluation of new vaccines and therapeutics. Here we show the human variable repertoire of antibody sequences cloned from a previously described human immune system (HIS) mouse model that possesses functional human CD4+ T cells and B cells, namely HIS-CD4/B mice. We sequenced variable IgG genes from single memory B-cell and plasma-cell sorted from splenocytes or whole blood lymphocytes of HIS-CD4/B mice that were vaccinated with a human plasmodial antigen, a recombinant Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (rPfCSP). We demonstrate that rPfCSP immunization triggers a diverse B-cell IgG repertoire composed of various human VH family genes and distinct V(D)J recombinations that constitute diverse CDR3 sequences similar to humans, although low hypermutated sequences were generated. These results demonstrate the substantial genetic diversity of responding human B cells of HIS-CD4/B mice and their capacity to mount human IgG class-switched antibody response upon vaccination. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Antigenic variants of influenza A virus, PR8 strain. I. Their development during serial passage in the lungs of partially immune mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GERBER, P; LOOSLI, C G; HAMBRE, D

    1955-06-01

    Antigenically different strains of mouse-adapted PR8 influenza A virus have been produced by 17 serial passages of the virus in the lungs of mice immunized with the homologous agent. Comparative serological tests show that the variant strains share antigenic components with the parent strain but the dominant antigen is different. By means of antibody absorption it was shown that the "new" antigenic component of the variant was already present in minor amounts up to the eighth passage and thereafter gained prominence with continued passage in vaccinated mice. Groups of mice vaccinated with either the PR8-S or T(21) virus and having comparable antibody titers showed no growth of virus in the lungs following aid-borne challenge with homologous strains. On the other hand, following heterologous air-borne challenge no deaths occurred, but virus grew in the lungs of both groups of vaccinated mice. Almost unrestricted virus multiplication took place in the lungs of mice vaccinated with the parent strain and challenged with the PR8-T(21) virus which resulted in extensive consolidation. Less virus grew in the lungs of the mice vaccinated with the variant strains and challenged with the PR8-S virus. In these animals only microscopic evidence of changes due to virus growth in the lungs was observed. The successful serial passage of PR8 influenza A virus in immunized animals was dependent on the initial selection of mice with uniformly low H.I. antibody titers as determined on tail blood, and the intranasal instillation of sufficient virus to favor the survival of those virus particles least related to the antibodies present. The epidemiological implications of these observations are discussed briefly.

  4. Linear DNA vaccine prepared by large-scale PCR provides protective immunity against H1N1 influenza virus infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Chen, Quanjiao; Li, Shuntang; Zhang, Chenyao; Li, Shanshan; Liu, Min; Mei, Kun; Li, Chunhua; Ma, Lixin; Yu, Xiaolan

    2017-06-01

    Linear DNA vaccines provide effective vaccination. However, their application is limited by high cost and small scale of the conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) generally used to obtain sufficient amounts of DNA effective against epidemic diseases. In this study, a two-step, large-scale PCR was established using a low-cost DNA polymerase, RKOD, expressed in Pichia pastoris. Two linear DNA vaccines encoding influenza H1N1 hemagglutinin (HA) 1, LEC-HA, and PTO-LEC-HA (with phosphorothioate-modified primers), were produced by the two-step PCR. Protective effects of the vaccines were evaluated in a mouse model. BALB/c mice were immunized three times with the vaccines or a control DNA fragment. All immunized animals were challenged by intranasal administration of a lethal dose of influenza H1N1 virus 2 weeks after the last immunization. Sera of the immunized animals were tested for the presence of HA-specific antibodies, and the total IFN-γ responses induced by linear DNA vaccines were measured. The results showed that the DNA vaccines but not the control DNA induced strong antibody and IFN-γ responses. Additionally, the PTO-LEC-HA vaccine effectively protected the mice against the lethal homologous mouse-adapted virus, with a survival rate of 100% versus 70% in the LEC-HA-vaccinated group, showing that the PTO-LEC-HA vaccine was more effective than LEC-HA. In conclusion, the results indicated that the linear H1N1 HA-coding DNA vaccines induced significant immune responses and protected mice against a lethal virus challenge. Thus, the low-cost, two-step, large-scale PCR can be considered a potential tool for rapid manufacturing of linear DNA vaccines against emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. An immune stimulating complex (iscom) subunit rabies vaccine protects dogs and mice against street rabies challenge.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Fekadu; J.H. Schaddock; J. Ekströ m; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); D.W. Sanderlin; B. Sundquist; B. Morein (Bror)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractDogs and mice were immunized with either a rabies glycoprotein subunit vaccine incorporated into an immune stimulating complex (ISCOM) or a commercial human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) prepared from a Pitman Moore (PM) rabies vaccine strain. Pre-exposure vaccination of mice with two

  6. Effect of prolonged continuous irradiation of humoral immunity of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillova, E.N.; Muksinova, K.N.; Skukovskaya, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    Changes in the content and function of cell populations and subpopulations involved in the humoral response of mice to the thymus-dependent antigen were investigated. The effect was followed during a prolonged continuous exposure to 137 C gamma-emitter (total dose - 5 Gy and daily dose - 12 cGy for 22 hours) and after its termination. The data obtained give evidence for a decrease of the pool of polypotent lymphocyte precursors (CFUs), stable moderate hypoplasia of central and peripheral organs of the immune system, distinct inhibition of antibody production at the expense of reduced activity of precursors of lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes and T-helpers. In the remote post-irradiation period residual radiation damage was seen in polypotent and committed precursors of lymphocytes and T-helpers, which was responsible for the trend towards the decline of antibody production, hypoplasia in the spleen and lymph nodes being persistent

  7. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing the hemagglutinin of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus induces cross-protective immunity against Eurasian 'avian-like' H1N1 swine viruses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrucci, Maria R; Facchini, Marzia; Di Mario, Giuseppina; Garulli, Bruno; Sciaraffia, Ester; Meola, Monica; Fabiani, Concetta; De Marco, Maria A; Cordioli, Paolo; Siccardi, Antonio; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Donatelli, Isabella

    2014-05-01

    To examine cross-reactivity between hemagglutinin (HA) derived from A/California/7/09 (CA/09) virus and that derived from representative Eurasian "avian-like" (EA) H1N1 swine viruses isolated in Italy between 1999 and 2008 during virological surveillance in pigs. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing the HA gene of CA/09 virus (MVA-HA-CA/09) was used as a vaccine to investigate cross-protective immunity against H1N1 swine viruses in mice. Two classical swine H1N1 (CS) viruses and four representative EA-like H1N1 swine viruses previously isolated during outbreaks of respiratory disease in pigs on farms in Northern Italy were used in this study. Female C57BL/6 mice were vaccinated with MVA/HA/CA/09 and then challenged intranasally with H1N1 swine viruses. Cross-reactive antibody responses were determined by hemagglutination- inhibition (HI) and virus microneutralizing (MN) assays of sera from MVA-vaccinated mice. The extent of protective immunity against infection with H1N1 swine viruses was determined by measuring lung viral load on days 2 and 4 post-challenge. Systemic immunization of mice with CA/09-derived HA, vectored by MVA, elicited cross-protective immunity against recent EA-like swine viruses. This immune protection was related to the levels of cross-reactive HI antibodies in the sera of the immunized mice and was dependent on the similarity of the antigenic site Sa of H1 HAs. Our findings suggest that the herd immunity elicited in humans by the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus could limit the transmission of recent EA-like swine HA genes into the influenza A virus gene pool in humans. © 2013 The Authors Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Cross-immunity among mammary carcinomas in C3H/HE mice immunized with gamma-irradiated tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waga, Takashi

    1980-01-01

    By immunization with gamma-irradiated (13,000 rad) tumor cells, cross-immunity between ascites mammary carcinomas and among solid mammary carcinomas in C3H/He mice was studied. The results were as follows: (1) Two ascites mammary carcinomas designated MM 46 (high vitality) and MM 48 (intermediate vitality) were used in this experiment. The immunization with the tumor of high vitality (MM 46) induced strong cross-immunity against the challenge of the tumor of intermediate vitality (MM 48). The immunization with the tumor of intermediate vitality (MM 48) induced weak cross-immunity against the challenge of the tumor of high vitality (MM 46). (2) Three solid mammary carcinomas designated MT 10 (intermediate vitality), MT 7 (high vitality) and MT X (the highest vitality) were used in this experiment. The immunization with the tumor of high vitality (MT 7) induced strong cross-immunity against the challenge of the tumor of intermediate vitality (MT 10), and induced moderate cross-immunity against the challenge of the tumor of the highest vitality (MT X). The immunization with the tumor of intermediate vitality (MT 10) induced moderate cross-immunity against the challenge of the tumor of high vitality (MT 7), but could not induce any cross-immunity against the challenge of the tumor of the highest vitality (MT X). (author)

  9. Immunization with the recombinant antigen Ss-IR induces protective immunity to infection with Strongyloides stercoralis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, David; Hess, Jessica A; Mejia, Rojelio; Nolan, Thomas J; Lok, James B; Lustigman, Sara; Nutman, Thomas B

    2011-10-19

    Human intestinal infections with the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis remain a significant problem worldwide and a vaccine would be a useful addition to the tools available to prevent and control this infection. The goal of this study was to test single antigens for their efficacy in a vaccine against S. stercoralis larvae in mice. Alum was used as the adjuvant in these studies and antigens selected for analysis were either recognized by protective human IgG (Ss-TMY-1, Ss-EAT-6, and Ss-LEC-5) or were known to be highly immunogenic in humans (Ss-NIE-1 and Ss-IR). Only mice immunized with the Ss-IR antigen demonstrated a significant decrease of approximately 80% in the survival of larval parasites in the challenge infection. Antibodies, recovered from mice with protective immunity to S. stercoralis after immunization with Ss-IR, were used to locate the antigen in the larvae. Confocal microscopy revealed that IgG from mice immunized with Ss-IR bound to the surface of the parasites and observations by electron microscopy indicated that IgG bound to granules in the glandular esophagus. Serum collected from mice immunized with Ss-IR passively transferred immunity to naïve mice. These studies demonstrate that Ss-IR, in combination with alum, induces high levels of protective immunity through an antibody dependent mechanism and may therefore be suitable for further development as a vaccine against human strongyloidiasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Differential protective effects of immune lymphoid cells against transplanted line Ib leukemia and immune polioencephalomyelitis. [X radiation, mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffey, P.S.; Lukasewycz, O.A.; Olson, D.S.; Murphy, W.H.

    1978-12-01

    The capacity of immune cells obtained from the major lymphoid compartments to protect C58 mice from transplanted line Ib leukemia, and from an age-dependent autoimmune CNS disease (immune polioencephalomyelitis = IPE) elicited by immunizing old C58 mice with inactivated Ib cells was quantified. Cells used for comparative adoptive protection tests were harvested from the major lymphoid compartments 14 to 15 days after young C58 mice were immunized with inactivated Ib cell preparations. Regression curves were plotted from survival data and the log/sub 10/PD/sub 50/ values were determined. Immune spleen (ISC) and peritoneal cells (IPEC) were significantly more protective against transplanted Ib cells than immune lymph node (ILNC), thymic (ITC), and marrow cells (IMC). In contrast, IPEC and IMC were not protective against IPE and ITC were only marginally protective. ILNC afforded significant protection to transplantable leukemia but were only marginally protective to IPE. When ISC were treated with anti-thy 1.2 serum and complement, protection against transplanted leukemia and IPE was reduced > 99%. When donors of immune lymphoid cells were treated with 12.5 mg of cortisone acetate daily for 2 days before lymphoid cells were harvested, protection against transplanted Ib cells by ISC was reduced by approximately 90% whereas protection against IPE was totally eliminated. Considered together, these results indicate that the protective mechanisms to transplantable leukemia and IPE differ significantly in the same indicator mouse strain.

  11. Cold-Adapted Influenza and Recombinant Adenovirus Vaccines Induce Cross-Protective Immunity against pH1N1 Challenge in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soboleski, Mark R.; Gabbard, Jon D.; Price, Graeme E.; Misplon, Julia A.; Lo, Chia-Yun; Perez, Daniel R.; Ye, Jianqiang; Tompkins, S. Mark; Epstein, Suzanne L.

    2011-01-01

    Background The rapid spread of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus (pH1N1) highlighted problems associated with relying on strain-matched vaccines. A lengthy process of strain identification, manufacture, and testing is required for current strain-matched vaccines and delays vaccine availability. Vaccines inducing immunity to conserved viral proteins could be manufactured and tested in advance and provide cross-protection against novel influenza viruses until strain-matched vaccines became available. Here we test two prototype vaccines for cross-protection against the recent pandemic virus. Methodology/Principal Findings BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were intranasally immunized with a single dose of cold-adapted (ca) influenza viruses from 1977 or recombinant adenoviruses (rAd) expressing 1934 nucleoprotein (NP) and consensus matrix 2 (M2) (NP+M2-rAd). Antibodies against the M2 ectodomain (M2e) were seen in NP+M2-rAd immunized BALB/c but not C57BL/6 mice, and cross-reacted with pH1N1 M2e. The ca-immunized mice did not develop antibodies against M2e. Despite sequence differences between vaccine and challenge virus NP and M2e epitopes, extensive cross-reactivity of lung T cells with pH1N1 peptides was detected following immunization. Both ca and NP+M2-rAd immunization protected BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice against challenge with a mouse-adapted pH1N1 virus. Conclusion/Significance Cross-protective vaccines such as NP+M2-rAd and ca virus are effective against pH1N1 challenge within 3 weeks of immunization. Protection was not dependent on recognition of the highly variable external viral proteins and could be achieved with a single vaccine dose. The rAd vaccine was superior to the ca vaccine by certain measures, justifying continued investigation of this experimental vaccine even though ca vaccine is already available. This study highlights the potential for cross-protective vaccines as a public health option early in an influenza pandemic. PMID:21789196

  12. Cold-adapted influenza and recombinant adenovirus vaccines induce cross-protective immunity against pH1N1 challenge in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R Soboleski

    Full Text Available The rapid spread of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus (pH1N1 highlighted problems associated with relying on strain-matched vaccines. A lengthy process of strain identification, manufacture, and testing is required for current strain-matched vaccines and delays vaccine availability. Vaccines inducing immunity to conserved viral proteins could be manufactured and tested in advance and provide cross-protection against novel influenza viruses until strain-matched vaccines became available. Here we test two prototype vaccines for cross-protection against the recent pandemic virus.BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were intranasally immunized with a single dose of cold-adapted (ca influenza viruses from 1977 or recombinant adenoviruses (rAd expressing 1934 nucleoprotein (NP and consensus matrix 2 (M2 (NP+M2-rAd. Antibodies against the M2 ectodomain (M2e were seen in NP+M2-rAd immunized BALB/c but not C57BL/6 mice, and cross-reacted with pH1N1 M2e. The ca-immunized mice did not develop antibodies against M2e. Despite sequence differences between vaccine and challenge virus NP and M2e epitopes, extensive cross-reactivity of lung T cells with pH1N1 peptides was detected following immunization. Both ca and NP+M2-rAd immunization protected BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice against challenge with a mouse-adapted pH1N1 virus.Cross-protective vaccines such as NP+M2-rAd and ca virus are effective against pH1N1 challenge within 3 weeks of immunization. Protection was not dependent on recognition of the highly variable external viral proteins and could be achieved with a single vaccine dose. The rAd vaccine was superior to the ca vaccine by certain measures, justifying continued investigation of this experimental vaccine even though ca vaccine is already available. This study highlights the potential for cross-protective vaccines as a public health option early in an influenza pandemic.

  13. The effect of ghrelin upon the early immune response in lean and obese mice during sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Siegl

    Full Text Available It is well established that obesity-related hormones can have modulatory effects associated with the immune response. Ghrelin, a hormone mainly derived from endocrine cells of the gastric mucosa, regulates appetite, energy expenditure and body weight counteracting leptin, a hormone mainly derived from adipocytes. Additionally, receptors of both have been detected on immune cells and demonstrated an immune regulatory function during sepsis.In the present study, the effect of peripheral ghrelin administration on early immune response and survival was investigated with lean mice and mice with diet-induced obesity using cecal ligation and puncture to induce sepsis.In the obese group, we found that ghrelin treatment improved survival, ameliorated hypothermia, and increased hyperleptinemia as compared to the lean controls. We also observed that ghrelin treatment divergently regulated serum IL-1ß and TNF-α concentrations in both lean and obese septic mice. Ghrelin treatment initially decreased but later resulted in increased bacteriaemia in lean mice while having no impact upon obese mice. Similarly, ghrelin treatment increased early neutrophil oxidative burst while causing a decrease 48 hours after sepsis inducement.In conclusion, as the immune response to sepsis temporally changes, ghrelin treatment differentially mediates this response. Specifically, we observed that ghrelin conferred protective effects during the early phase of sepsis, but during the later phase deteriorated immune response and outcome. These adverse effects were more pronounced upon lean mice as compared to obese mice.

  14. Bioavailability of intranasal metoclopramide.

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, M J; Buss, D C; Ellershaw, J; Nash, A; Routledge, P A

    1989-01-01

    After intranasal administration of metoclopramide, (5 mg in 0.5 ml sterile water) the maximum plasma concentration of 13.5 +/- 7.3 (mean +/- s.d.) ng ml-1 was achieved. Absolute bioavailability was 50.5 +/- 29.5%, 110 +/- 41 min later. We conclude that the intranasal route does not allow rapid absorption of the drug and is not associated with greater bioavailability than the oral route.

  15. Immunizations with hepatitis B viral antigens and a TLR7/8 agonist adjuvant induce antigen-specific immune responses in HBV-transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Immunization with CL097-conjugated HBV-Ag reversed immune tolerance in HBV-Tg mice and induced antigen-specific immune responses. TLR7/8 agonists appear to be potent adjuvants for the induction of antigen-specific Th1 responses in an immune tolerant state.

  16. Immunization with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis radioattenuated yeast cells induces Th1 immune response in Balb/C mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Estefania M.N.; Andrade, Antero S.R.; Resende, Maria Aparecida de; Reis, Bernardo S.; Goes, Alfredo M.

    2009-01-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most prevalent mycosis in Latin America. To date, there is no effective vaccine. In our laboratory yeast cells of P. brasiliensis were attenuated by gamma irradiation. We defined an absorbed dose in which the pathogen loses the reproductive ability, while retaining the morphology, the synthesis and secretion of proteins and the oxidative metabolism. The immunization with these cells was able to confer protection in BALB/c mice. The aim of the present work was evaluate the immune response pathway activated in mice immunized with P. brasiliensis radioattenuated yeast cells. The protector effect was evaluated in BALB/c mice groups immunized once or twice, respectively. Each group was divided in three sub groups that were challenge 30, 45 or 60 days after the immunization. These groups were called G1A, G1B and G1C in the group immunized once and G2A, G2B and G2C in the group immunized twice. Recovery of CFUs and cytokines determination (IFN - γ, IL - 10 and IL IV 4) were performed three months post challenge. Quantitative RT-PCR was the method of choice used to quantify the expression of cytokines. The sera were collected weekly to evaluate the IgG antibody titers and the IgG1 and IgG2a pattern in the course of infection. A significant reduction in CFUs recovery was verified 90 days post challenge in mice submitted to one immunization: 73.0%, 96.0% and 76.3% for sub-groups G1A, G1B and G1C, respectively. In the group submitted to two immunizations, a remarkable increase in the protection was obtained. No CFUs was recovered from sub-groups G2B and G2C and very few CFUs (reduction of 98.6%) were recovered from the lungs of sub group G2A. In mice submitted to one immunization, Th1 and Th2 cytokines were simultaneously produced. In the group submitted to two immunizations, levels of IL-10 and IL-4 were very low, while IFN-γ production was maintained indicating that a Th1 pattern was dominant. For

  17. Immunization with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis radioattenuated yeast cells induces Th1 immune response in Balb/C mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Estefania M.N.; Andrade, Antero S.R. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: estefaniabio@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: antero@cdtn.br; Resende, Maria Aparecida de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia], e-mail: maresend@mono.icb.ufmg.br; Reis, Bernardo S.; Goes, Alfredo M. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia], e-mail: goes@mono.icb.ufmg.br, e-mail: brsgarbi@mono.icb.ufmg.br

    2009-07-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most prevalent mycosis in Latin America. To date, there is no effective vaccine. In our laboratory yeast cells of P. brasiliensis were attenuated by gamma irradiation. We defined an absorbed dose in which the pathogen loses the reproductive ability, while retaining the morphology, the synthesis and secretion of proteins and the oxidative metabolism. The immunization with these cells was able to confer protection in BALB/c mice. The aim of the present work was evaluate the immune response pathway activated in mice immunized with P. brasiliensis radioattenuated yeast cells. The protector effect was evaluated in BALB/c mice groups immunized once or twice, respectively. Each group was divided in three sub groups that were challenge 30, 45 or 60 days after the immunization. These groups were called G1A, G1B and G1C in the group immunized once and G2A, G2B and G2C in the group immunized twice. Recovery of CFUs and cytokines determination (IFN - {gamma}, IL - 10 and IL IV 4) were performed three months post challenge. Quantitative RT-PCR was the method of choice used to quantify the expression of cytokines. The sera were collected weekly to evaluate the IgG antibody titers and the IgG1 and IgG2a pattern in the course of infection. A significant reduction in CFUs recovery was verified 90 days post challenge in mice submitted to one immunization: 73.0%, 96.0% and 76.3% for sub-groups G1A, G1B and G1C, respectively. In the group submitted to two immunizations, a remarkable increase in the protection was obtained. No CFUs was recovered from sub-groups G2B and G2C and very few CFUs (reduction of 98.6%) were recovered from the lungs of sub group G2A. In mice submitted to one immunization, Th1 and Th2 cytokines were simultaneously produced. In the group submitted to two immunizations, levels of IL-10 and IL-4 were very low, while IFN-{gamma} production was maintained indicating that a Th1 pattern was

  18. Protective effect of yeast β-glucan on immune system of mice irradiated by carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; Lu Dong; Wei Wei; Jing Xigang; Wang Jufang; Li Wenjian

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. To detect Yeast β-glucan's protective effect on mice's immune system after C ion beam radiation, mice were used as the test model. We observed the weight, hair color and behavior of mice everyday within a 7 d period of time after irradiation. Meanwhile, the content of white blood cell, on the 2nd and 7th day after irradiation was detected. We detected the thymus and spleen SOD, GSH-PX activity and MDA content of the mice on the 8th day. The results showed that yeast β-glucan could reduce the rapid weight loss of mice, increase white blood cell content, increase thymus and spleen SOD, GSH-PX activity, decrease MDA content of thymus and spleen. These results indicate that yeast 13-glucan can protect mice's immune system against C ion beam radiation damage. (authors)

  19. Plasmodium chabaudi in mice. Adoptive transfer of immunity with enriched populations of spleen T and B lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, V.; Phillips, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    Thymectomized NIH and C57BL mice were more susceptible to Plasmodium chabaudi than controls, indicating a role for T cells in acquired immunity to the parasite. Enriched populations of T and B cells were prepared from the spleens of immune mice using nylon-wool columns, and were adoptively transferred to syngeneic non-irradiated mice or mice irradiated with 600 or 800 rad. Some immunity could usually be transferred with immune T, B and glass-wool (g.w.) filtered spleen cell populations. In the heavily irradiated mice g.w. filtered immune spleen cells gave the best protection and the immune T cells the least. Preliminary attempts to show synergistic activity between immune T and B cells in irradiated mice were not successful. (author)

  20. Borrelia burgdorferi infection and immunity in mice deficient in the fifth component of complement.

    OpenAIRE

    Bockenstedt, L K; Barthold, S; Deponte, K; Marcantonio, N; Kantor, F S

    1993-01-01

    When immunocompetent mice are inoculated with Borrelia burgdorferi, they develop acute arthritis and carditis that undergo spontaneous regression despite the persistence of infection. Specific T- and/or B-cell immunity appears to be necessary for resolution of disease manifestations. Humoral immune responses to B. burgdorferi are also important in prevention of B. burgdorferi infection, in that passive transfer of immune sera or protective monoclonal antibodies prevents the spirochete from es...

  1. Gamma-irradiated scrub typhus immunogens: development of cell-mediated immunity after vaccination of inbred mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerrells, T.R.; Palmer, B.A.; Osterman, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    Mice immunized with three injections of gamma-irradiated Karp strain of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi were evaluated for the presence of cell-mediated immunity by using delayed-type hypersensitivity, antigen-induced lymphocyte proliferation, and antigen-induced lymphokine production. These animals also were evaluated for levels of circulating antibody after immunization as well as for the presence of rickettsemia after intraperitoneal challenge with viable Karp rickettsiae. After immunization with irradiated Karp rickettsiae, a demonstrable cell-mediated immunity was present as evidenced by delayed-type hypersensitivity responsiveness, lymphocyte proliferation, and production of migration inhibition factor and interferon by immune spleen lymphocytes. Also, a reduction in circulating rickettsiae was seen in mice immunized with irradiated rickettsiae after challenge with 1,000 50% mouse lethal doses of viable, homologous rickettsiae. All responses except antibody titer and reduction of rickettsemia were similar to the responses noted in mice immunized with viable organisms. Antibody levels were lower in mice immunized with irradiated rickettsiae than in mice immunized with viable rickettsiae. Furthermore, mice that were immunized with viable rickettsiae demonstrated markedly lower levels of rickettsemia after intraperitoneal challenge compared with either mice immunized with irradiated rickettsiae or nonimmunized mice

  2. Induction of T helper 1 response by immunization of BALB/c mice with the gene encoding the second subunit of Echinococcus granulosus antigen B (EgAgB8/2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boutennoune H.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A pre-designed plasmid containing the gene encoding the second subunit of Echinococcus granulosus AgB8 (EgAgB8/2 was used to study the effect of the immunization route on the immune response in BALB/c mice. Mice were immunized with pDRIVEEgAgB8/ 2 or pDRIVE empty cassette using the intramuscular (i.m., intranasal (i.n. or the epidermal gene gun (g.g. routes. Analysis of the antibody response and cytokine data revealed that gene immunization by the i.m. route induced a marked bias towards a T helper type 1 (Th1 immune response as characterized by high IFN-γ gene expression and a low IgG1/IgG2a reactivity index (R.I. ratio of 0.04. The i.n. route showed a moderate IFN-γ expression but a higher IgG1/IgG2a R.I. ratio of 0.25 indicating a moderate Th1 response. In contrast, epidermal g.g. immunization induced a Th2 response characterized by high IL-4 expression and the highest IgG1/IgG2a R.I. ratio of 0.58. In conclusion, this study showed the advantage of genetic immunization using the i.m. route and i.n. over the epidermal g.g. routes in the induction of Th1 immunity in response to E. granulosus AgB gene immunization.

  3. Immune selection of tumor cells in TCR β-chain transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silaeva, Yulia Yu; Grinenko, Tatyana S; Vagida, Murad S; Kalinina, Anastasia A; Khromykh, Ludmila M; Kazansky, Dmitry B

    2014-10-01

    The concept of immunological surveillance implies that immunogenic variants of tumor cells arising in the organism can be recognized by the immune system. Tumor progression is provided by somatic evolution of tumor cells under the pressure of the immune system. The loss of MHC Class I molecules on the surface of tumor cells is one of the most known outcomes of immune selection. This study developed a model of immune selection based on the immune response of TCR 1d1 single β-chain transgenic B10.D2(R101) (K(d)I(d)D(b)) mice to allogeneic EL4 (H-2(b)) thymoma cells. In wild-type B10.D2(R101) mice, immunization with EL4 cells induced a vigorous CTL response targeted to the H-2K(b) molecule and results in full rejection of the tumor cells. In contrast, transgenic mice developed a compromised proliferative response in mixed-lymphocyte response assays and were unable to reject transplanted allogeneic EL4 cells. During the immune response to EL4 cells, CD8(+) T-lymphocytes with endogenous β-chains accumulated predominantly in the spleen of transgenic mice and only a small part of the T-lymphocytes expressing transgenic β-chains became CD8(+)CD44(+)CD62L(-) effectors. Then, instead of a full elimination of tumor cells as in wild-type mice, a reproducible prolonged equilibrium phase and subsequent escape was observed in transgenic mice that resulted in death of 90% of the mice in 40-60 days after grafting. Prolonged exposure of tumor cells to the pressure of the immune system in transgenic mice in vivo resulted in a stable loss of H-2K(b) molecules on the EL4 cell surface. Genetic manipulation of the T-lymphocyte repertoire was sufficient to reproduce the classic pattern of interactions between tumor cells and the immune system, usually observed in reliable syngeneic models of anti-tumor immunity. This newly-developed model could be used in further studies of immunoregulatory circuits common for transplantational and anti-tumor immune responses.

  4. Circumsporozoite Protein-Specific Kd-Restricted CD8+ T Cells Mediate Protective Antimalaria Immunity in Sporozoite-Immunized MHC-I-Kd Transgenic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the roles of CD8+ T cells and a major preerythrocytic antigen, the circumsporozoite (CS protein, in contributing protective antimalaria immunity induced by radiation-attenuated sporozoites, have been shown by a number of studies, the extent to which these players contribute to antimalaria immunity is still unknown. To address this question, we have generated C57BL/6 (B6 transgenic (Tg mice, expressing Kd molecules under the MHC-I promoter, called MHC-I-Kd-Tg mice. In this study, we first determined that a single immunizing dose of IrPySpz induced a significant level of antimalaria protective immunity in MHC-I-Kd-Tg mice but not in B6 mice. Then, by depleting various T-cell subsets in vivo, we determined that CD8+ T cells are the main mediator of the protective immunity induced by IrPySpz. Furthermore, when we immunized (MHC-I-Kd-Tg × CS-Tg F1 mice with IrPySpz after crossing MHC-I-Kd-Tg mice with PyCS-transgenic mice (CS-Tg, which are unable to mount PyCS-specific immunity, we found that IrPySpz immunization failed to induce protective antimalaria immunity in (MHC-I-Kd-Tg × CS-Tg F1 mice, thus indicating the absence of PyCS antigen-dependent immunity in these mice. These results indicate that protective antimalaria immunity induced by IrPySpz in MHC-I-Kd-Tg mice is mediated by CS protein-specific, Kd-restricted CD8+ T cells.

  5. PB1 as a potential target for increasing the breadth of T-cell mediated immunity to Influenza A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddbäck, Ida E M; Steffensen, Maria A; Pedersen, Sara R

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we showed that combined intranasal and subcutaneous immunization with a non-replicating adenoviral vector expressing NP of influenza A, strain PR8, induced long-standing protection against a range of influenza A viruses. However, H-2(b) mice challenged with an influenza A strain mutated...

  6. Immunization with Brucella VirB proteins reduces organ colonization in mice through a Th1-type immune response and elicits a similar immune response in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Cora N; Wanke, María Magdalena; Estein, Silvia M; Delpino, M Victoria; Monachesi, Norma E; Comercio, Elida A; Fossati, Carlos A; Baldi, Pablo C

    2015-03-01

    VirB proteins from Brucella spp. constitute the type IV secretion system, a key virulence factor mediating the intracellular survival of these bacteria. Here, we assessed whether a Th1-type immune response against VirB proteins may protect mice from Brucella infection and whether this response can be induced in the dog, a natural host for Brucella. Splenocytes from mice immunized with VirB7 or VirB9 responded to their respective antigens with significant and specific production of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), whereas interleukin-4 (IL-4) was not detected. Thirty days after an intraperitoneal challenge with live Brucella abortus, the spleen load of bacteria was almost 1 log lower in mice immunized with VirB proteins than in unvaccinated animals. As colonization reduction seemed to correlate with a Th1-type immune response against VirB proteins, we decided to assess whether such a response could be elicited in the dog. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from dogs immunized with VirB proteins (three subcutaneous doses in QuilA adjuvant) produced significantly higher levels of IFN-γ than cells from control animals upon in vitro stimulation with VirB proteins. A skin test to assess specific delayed-type hypersensitivity was positive in 4 out of 5 dogs immunized with either VirB7 or VirB9. As both proteins are predicted to locate in the outer membrane of Brucella organisms, the ability of anti-VirB antibodies to mediate complement-dependent bacteriolysis of B. canis was assessed in vitro. Sera from dogs immunized with either VirB7 or VirB9, but not from those receiving phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), produced significant bacteriolysis. These results suggest that VirB-specific responses that reduce organ colonization by Brucella in mice can be also elicited in dogs. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Inmunización intranasal con AFCo1 induce respuesta inmune de memoria, sistemica y mucosal en ratones neonatal

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    Julio A. Balboa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Neonates have a poorly developed immune system. Respiratory pathogens cause disease during early periods of live. Consequently, it is important to develop protective vaccines that induce immunity and immunological memory against respiratory pathogens early in life. Intranasal (i.n. route could be an effective via for immunization. Therefore, we explored the effectiveness of AF (Adjuvant Finlay PL1 (Proteoliposome from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B and its derivate Cochleate (AFCo1 by nasal route in neonatal mice. They were immunized i.n. 3 times 7 days apart and anti PL systemic and mucosal antibody response were measured by ELISA. In addition, a prime-boost strategy was used to evaluate the humoral immune response in neonate mice. The 3 doses of AFPL1 or AFCo1 induced significant levels of anti PL IgG antibodies in comparison whit control, but AFCo1 (2017 U/mL was significantly higher than AFPL1 (1107 U/mL. AFCo1 and AFPL1 induced a predominant Th1 pattern with IgG2a/IgG1 >1 by i.n. immunization and AFCo1 induced a high anti PL IgA saliva response in saliva. Interestingly, one nasally prime at 7 days of born and a memory one boost i.n. dose 9 weeks later with AFCo1 or AFPL1 showed similar specific IgG levels and IgG2a/IgG1 relation than 3 i.n. doses in adult mice. In conclusion, these results represent the first report of neonatal intranasal vaccination using AFCo1 capable to induce systemic and mucosal immunity and priming for memory.

  8. Evaluation of mucosal and systemic immune responses elicited by GPI-0100- adjuvanted influenza vaccine delivered by different immunization strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Liu

    Full Text Available Vaccines for protection against respiratory infections should optimally induce a mucosal immune response in the respiratory tract in addition to a systemic immune response. However, current parenteral immunization modalities generally fail to induce mucosal immunity, while mucosal vaccine delivery often results in poor systemic immunity. In order to find an immunization strategy which satisfies the need for induction of both mucosal and systemic immunity, we compared local and systemic immune responses elicited by two mucosal immunizations, given either by the intranasal (IN or the intrapulmonary (IPL route, with responses elicited by a mucosal prime followed by a systemic boost immunization. The study was conducted in BALB/c mice and the vaccine formulation was an influenza subunit vaccine supplemented with GPI-0100, a saponin-derived adjuvant. While optimal mucosal antibody titers were obtained after two intrapulmonary vaccinations, optimal systemic antibody responses were achieved by intranasal prime followed by intramuscular boost. The latter strategy also resulted in the best T cell response, yet, it was ineffective in inducing nose or lung IgA. Successful induction of secretory IgA, IgG and T cell responses was only achieved with prime-boost strategies involving intrapulmonary immunization and was optimal when both immunizations were given via the intrapulmonary route. Our results underline that immunization via the lungs is particularly effective for priming as well as boosting of local and systemic immune responses.

  9. Evaluation of Mucosal and Systemic Immune Responses Elicited by GPI-0100- Adjuvanted Influenza Vaccine Delivered by Different Immunization Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Heng; Patil, Harshad P.; de Vries-Idema, Jacqueline; Wilschut, Jan; Huckriede, Anke

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines for protection against respiratory infections should optimally induce a mucosal immune response in the respiratory tract in addition to a systemic immune response. However, current parenteral immunization modalities generally fail to induce mucosal immunity, while mucosal vaccine delivery often results in poor systemic immunity. In order to find an immunization strategy which satisfies the need for induction of both mucosal and systemic immunity, we compared local and systemic immune responses elicited by two mucosal immunizations, given either by the intranasal (IN) or the intrapulmonary (IPL) route, with responses elicited by a mucosal prime followed by a systemic boost immunization. The study was conducted in BALB/c mice and the vaccine formulation was an influenza subunit vaccine supplemented with GPI-0100, a saponin-derived adjuvant. While optimal mucosal antibody titers were obtained after two intrapulmonary vaccinations, optimal systemic antibody responses were achieved by intranasal prime followed by intramuscular boost. The latter strategy also resulted in the best T cell response, yet, it was ineffective in inducing nose or lung IgA. Successful induction of secretory IgA, IgG and T cell responses was only achieved with prime-boost strategies involving intrapulmonary immunization and was optimal when both immunizations were given via the intrapulmonary route. Our results underline that immunization via the lungs is particularly effective for priming as well as boosting of local and systemic immune responses. PMID:23936066

  10. Temporal and spatial interplay of microbiota and intestinal mucosa drive establishment of immune homeostasis in conventionalized mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aidy, El S.; Baarlen, van P.; Derrien, M.; Lindenbergh-Kortleve, D.J.; Hooiveld, G.J.; Levenez, F.; Dore, J.; Dekker, J.; Samsom, J.N.; Nieuwenhuis, E.E.S.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2012-01-01

    During colonization of germfree mice with the total fecal microbial community of their conventionally born and raised siblings (conventionalization), the intestinal mucosal immune system initiates and maintains a balanced immune response. However, the genetic regulation of these balanced,

  11. Altered tumor growth in vivo after immunization of mice with antitumor antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorczynski, R.M.; Kennedy, M.; Polidoulis, I.; Price, G.B.

    1984-01-01

    A comparison has been made between the growth patterns of two spontaneously appearing mammary adenocarcinomas in murine bone marrow radiation chimeras and in mice preimmunized with monoclonal antibodies (MAb) detecting embryo-associated antigenic determinants. A correlation was seen between the ability of the embryo-immunized chimeras to produce cytotoxic antibody to the tumors, as assessed by an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxic assay, and the permissiveness of the mice for growth of a tumor transplant. In addition, mice deliberately preimmunized with cytotoxic MAb (antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxic assay) allowed more rapid growth specifically of that tumor earlier found to be most sensitive to the MAb used for immunization. By comparing the changing antigenic phenotype of tumor cells serially passaged through different immunized, nonimmunized mice, evidence was found suggesting that immunization could cause either antigen modulation of transferred tumor cells or a (transient) selective advantage to antigenically discrete subpopulations within the heterogeneous tumor population. Finally, a study has been made of the growth pattern of tumor cells transplanted into mice immunized with rabbit antibodies directed against the murine MAb. In this case, tumor growth was slowed preferentially for the tumor reactive with the specific MAb, and again, predictable changes in the antigenic spectrum of tumor cells harvested from these animals were observed. Our overall findings are interpreted in terms of the involvement of networks of antibodies reacting with embryo-associated antigens in the regulation of growth of the murine mammary adenocarcinomas studied

  12. Immunological tolerance and tumor rejection in embryo-aggregated chimeric mice – Lessons for tumor immunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Alexander Y; Holle, Eric; Holle, Lori; Yu, Xianzhong; Schwamberger, Günter

    2008-01-01

    Rejection of transplanted tumors by the immune system is a rare event in syngeneic hosts, and is considered to be dependent on the local interaction of defensive immune reactions and tumor tolerance mechanisms. Here, we have enlisted the aid of a unique set of embryo-aggregated lineage chimeric mice derived from C57/BL6 and FVB donors to study the interplay between local and systemic tumor immunity and tolerance in rejection of mouse B16 melanoma cells, syngeneic to the C57/BL6 donor strain. Two variants of embryo-aggregated chimeric mice with either variable or no contribution of C57-derived cells to their skin were generated by the fusion of different ratios of morula stage blastomers. Chimeric mice were analyzed for s.c. growth of B16 tumors in comparison to their respective donor strains as well as normal F1 hybrids, and the relative frequencies of cellular components of the immune system by FACS analysis of peripheral blood or lymph node cells. B16 tumors grew significantly faster in mice with full chimerism in their skin as compared to syngeneic C57 or semi-syngeneic C57 × FVB F1 hosts. In contrast, s.c. tumor growth was either absent or significantly reduced in chimeric mice lacking C57-derived cells in their skin, but tolerant to C57 tissue in other organs. Comparison of the relative frequencies of various immune cells in the periphery via FACS-analysis did not reveal any significant differences between the two types of chimeric mice with respect to their donor strains. Our data suggest a complex interplay between mechanisms of local peripheral tolerance and innate antitumor mechanisms possibly involving NK cell allorecognition as a basis for the differential growth or rejection of B16 tumors in these unique chimeric mice, which we suggest to constitute a valuable new model system for the study of immune-mediated tumor rejection

  13. Dietary Animal Plasma Proteins Improve the Intestinal Immune Response in Senescent Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró, Lluïsa; Garcia-Just, Alba; Amat, Concepció; Polo, Javier; Moretó, Miquel; Pérez-Bosque, Anna

    2017-12-11

    Increased life expectancy has promoted research on healthy aging. Aging is accompanied by increased non-specific immune activation (inflammaging) which favors the appearance of several disorders. Here, we study whether dietary supplementation with spray-dried animal plasma (SDP), which has been shown to reduce the activation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) in rodents challenged by S. aureus enterotoxin B (SEB), and can also prevent the effects of aging on immune system homeostasis. We first characterized GALT in a mouse model of accelerated senescence (SAMP8) at different ages (compared to mice resistant to accelerated senescence; SAMR1). Second, we analyzed the SDP effects on GALT response to an SEB challenge in SAMP8 mice. In GALT characterization, aging increased the cell number and the percentage of activated Th lymphocytes in mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches (all, p < 0.05), as well as the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α in intestinal mucosa (both, p < 0.05). With respect to GALT response to the SEB challenge, young mice showed increased expression of intestinal IL-6 and TNF-α, as well as lymphocyte recruitment and activation (all, p < 0.05). However, the immune response of senescent mice to the SEB challenge was weak, since SEB did not change cell recruitment or the percentage of activated Th lymphocytes. Mice supplemented with SDP showed improved capacity to respond to the SEB challenge, similar to the response of the young mice. These results indicate that senescent mice have an impaired mucosal immune response characterized by unspecific GALT activation and a weak specific immune response. SDP supplementation reduces non-specific basal immune activation, allowing for the generation of specific responses.

  14. Dietary Animal Plasma Proteins Improve the Intestinal Immune Response in Senescent Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluïsa Miró

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased life expectancy has promoted research on healthy aging. Aging is accompanied by increased non-specific immune activation (inflammaging which favors the appearance of several disorders. Here, we study whether dietary supplementation with spray-dried animal plasma (SDP, which has been shown to reduce the activation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT in rodents challenged by S. aureus enterotoxin B (SEB, and can also prevent the effects of aging on immune system homeostasis. We first characterized GALT in a mouse model of accelerated senescence (SAMP8 at different ages (compared to mice resistant to accelerated senescence; SAMR1. Second, we analyzed the SDP effects on GALT response to an SEB challenge in SAMP8 mice. In GALT characterization, aging increased the cell number and the percentage of activated Th lymphocytes in mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer’s patches (all, p < 0.05, as well as the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α in intestinal mucosa (both, p < 0.05. With respect to GALT response to the SEB challenge, young mice showed increased expression of intestinal IL-6 and TNF-α, as well as lymphocyte recruitment and activation (all, p < 0.05. However, the immune response of senescent mice to the SEB challenge was weak, since SEB did not change cell recruitment or the percentage of activated Th lymphocytes. Mice supplemented with SDP showed improved capacity to respond to the SEB challenge, similar to the response of the young mice. These results indicate that senescent mice have an impaired mucosal immune response characterized by unspecific GALT activation and a weak specific immune response. SDP supplementation reduces non-specific basal immune activation, allowing for the generation of specific responses.

  15. Toxoplasma gondii vs ionizing radiation: cell and humoral immunity in spleen and gut of isogenic mice immunized with 60Co irradiated tachyzoites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galisteo Junior, Andres Jimenez

    2008-01-01

    We are developing a vaccine for toxoplasmosis, using ionizing radiation as a tool. Here we analyzed the production of systemic and intestinal immunity, with protection studies, in several strains of inbred mice, by oral or parenteral route, using 255 Gy irradiated tachyzoites of T. gondii RH strain, with challenge with cysts of ME- 49 strain. C57Bl/6j, BALB/c and C57Bl/6j IFN-γ -/- mice were immunized with 10 7 irradiated tachyzoites, be parenteral or oral route. Those preparations, both by parenteral or oral routes, induced the production of specific IgG, mainly of the lgG2b subclass, and IgA immunoglobulins in serum, , as determined by ELISA. IgM production was negligible. Parenteral immunized mice showed higher IgG avidity maturation, as compared to oral immunized mice. Fecal excretion of IgG, IgA and IgM was detected in stools of immunized animals, more intense in oral immunized mice. In cellular immunity studies, induced by antigen, with detection of cytokine production by quantitative real-time PCR, there are a great production of IFN-y by spleen cells, with lower levels in Peyer patches cells, where there are a greater IL-2 production. Challenge studies in immunized mice demonstrated protection to infection in all used schedules, greater in BALB/c mice. C57Bl/6j IFN-γ - /- mice, when immunized, showed no signs of disease and produced similar or greater levels of antibodies than wild type mice. They also excreted S-lgA and S-IgM in stools, but with low numbers of brain cysts in parenteral immunized mice, despite similar mortality. Our data points to a fair possibility of use of those irradiated parasites as an oral vaccine, devised to use for veterinary or wild felines vaccination, reducing the production of oocysts by those hosts and interrupting the chain transmission of human toxoplasmosis. (author)

  16. Antibody classes & subclasses induced by mucosal immunization of mice with Streptococcus pyogenes M6 protein & oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teloni, R; von Hunolstein, C; Mariotti, S; Donati, S; Orefici, G; Nisini, R

    2004-05-01

    Type-specific antibodies against M protein are critical for human protection as they enhance phagocytosis and are protective. An ideal vaccine for the protection against Streptococcus pyogenes would warrant mucosal immunity, but mucosally administered M-protein has been shown to be poorly immunogenic in animals. We used a recombinant M type 6 protein to immunize mice in the presence of synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs (immunostimulatory sequences: ISS) or cholera toxin (CT) to explore its possible usage in a mucosal vaccine. Mice were immunized by intranasal (in) or intradermal (id) administration with four doses at weekly intervals of M6-protein (10 microg/mouse) with or without adjuvant (ISS, 10 microg/mouse or CT, 0,5 microg/mouse). M6 specific antibodies were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay using class and subclass specific monoclonal antibodies. The use of ISS induced an impressive anti M-protein serum IgG response but when id administered was not detectable in the absence of adjuvant. When used in, M-protein in the presence of both ISS and CT induced anti M-protein IgA in the bronchoalveolar lavage, as well as specific IgG in the serum. IgG were able to react with serotype M6 strains of S. pyogenes. The level of antibodies obtained by immunizing mice in with M-protein and CT was higher in comparison to M-protein and ISS. The analysis of anti-M protein specific IgG subclasses showed high levels of IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b, and low levels of IgG3 when ISS were used as adjuvant. Thus, in the presence of ISS, the ratio IgG2a/IgG1 and (IgG2a+IgG3)/IgG1 >1 indicated a type 1-like response obtained both in mucosally or systemically vaccinated mice. Our study offers a reproducible model of anti-M protein vaccination that could be applied to test new antigenic formulations to induce an anti-group A Streptococcus (GAS) vaccination suitable for protection against the different diseases caused by this bacterium.

  17. Altered neurological function in mice immunized with early endosome antigen 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritzler Marvin J

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autoantibodies directed against the 160 kDa endosome protein early endosome antigen 1 (EEA1 are seen in patients with neurological diseases. To determine if antibodies to EEA1 have a neuropathological effect, mice from three major histocompatability haplotype backgrounds (H2q, H2b and H2d were immunized with EEA1 (amino acids 82–1411 that was previously shown to contain the target EEA1 epitopes. The mice were then subjected to five neuro-behavioural tests: grid walking, forelimb strength, open field, reaching and rotarod. Results The immunized SWR/J mice with sustained anti-EEA1 antibodies had significantly reduced forelimb strength than the control non-immune mice of the same strain, and BALB/CJ immune mice demonstrated significantly more forelimb errors on the grid walk test than the control group. Conclusions Antibodies to recombinant EEA1 in mice may mediate neurological deficits that are consistent with clinical features of some humans that spontaneously develop anti-EEA1 autoantibodies.

  18. Giardiasis in mice: analysis of humoral and cellular immune responses to Giardia muris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, R F; Roberts-Thomson, I C; Mitchell, G F

    1982-01-01

    Humoral and cellular immune responses have been evaluated in two inbred strains of mice which differ markedly in their susceptibility to infection with Giardia muris. Serum IgG and IgA antibody levels and IgA levels in intestinal washes were determined by a solid-phase radioimmunoassay using G. muris antigen prepared by sonication of trophozoites, while cell-mediated immunity was assessed by a radiometric ear-assay for delayed-type hypersensitivity. Following infection of BALB/c mice (resistant) and C3H/He mice (susceptible), the IgG and IgA antibody levels in serum progressively increased over the period of study with C3H/He mice having significantly higher titres of IgA antibodies than BALB/c late in the infection. Systemic immunization with G. muris trophozoites resulted in high titres of IgG antibodies in the serum. IgA antibodies were detected in intestinal washes 2 weeks after infection with a subsequent fall in levels in BALB/c mice but a progressive increase levels in C3H/He mice. Prior immunization resulted in IgA antibodies being detected earlier in the intestinal washings after a challenge infection. Delayed-type hypersensitivity to G. muris antigens could not be detected during an infection but a positive response was elicited following antigen priming in mice pretreated with cyclophosphamide. The immune responses evaluated in this study were assessed using a whole G. muris trophozoite sonicate and variations in the quantitative aspects of the responses did not account for observed differences in the course of infection in the two strains of mice.

  19. Antisporozoite antibodies in mice immunized with irradiation-attenuated Plasmodium berghei sporozoites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, R.; Silva, S.de; Strickland, G.T.

    1979-01-01

    Sera from NMRI/NIH mice were tested for the presence of IgM and IgG anti-sporozoite antibodies using the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Both IgM and IgG antibody titres were related to the number of immunizations with irradiation-attenuated Plasmodium berghei sporozoites, and protection from challenge with subsequent non-attenuated sporozoites correlated with the pre-challenge antibody titre. Sera taken five days following challenge showed marked reductions in antibody titres, except for the group receiving the maximum (four) immunizations. Groups immunized with frozen sporozoites or mosquito tissue antigen developed neither antibodies to sporozoites nor protective immunity; nor did animals infected with parasitized blood. However, sera from mice immunized four times with attenuated sporozoites demonstrated IFA titres to blood-stage antigens. The results showed that both IgM and IgG anti-sporozoite antibodies could be detected in mice immunized with attenuated-sporozoites by IFAT, and that the antibody titres correlated with protective immunity. Cross reaction with blood-stage antigens occurred, but the test should still prove useful. (author)

  20. Humoral immunity through immunoglobulin M protects mice from an experimental actinomycetoma infection by Nocardia brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Carmona, Mario C; Pérez-Rivera, Isabel

    2004-10-01

    An experimental model of infection with Nocardia brasiliensis, used as an example of a facultative intracellular pathogen, was tested. N. brasiliensis was injected into the rear foot pads of BALB/c mice to establish an infection. Within 30 days, infected animals developed a chronic actinomycetoma infection. Batch cultures of N. brasiliensis were used to purify P61, P38, and P24 antigens; P61 is a catalase, and P38 is a protease with strong caseinolytic activity. Active and passive immunizations of BALB/c mice with these three purified soluble antigens were studied. Protection was demonstrated for actively immunized mice. However, immunity lasted only 30 days. Other groups of immunized mice were bled at different times, and their sera were passively transferred to naive recipients that were then infected with N. brasiliensis. Sera collected 5, 6, and 7 days after donor immunization conferred complete, long-lasting protection. The protective effect of passive immunity decreased when sera were collected 2 weeks after donor immunization. However, neither the early sera (1-, 2-, and 3-day sera) nor the later sera (30- or 45-day sera) prevented the infection. Hyperimmune sera with the highest levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to N. brasiliensis antigens did not protect at all. The antigens tested induced two IgM peaks. The first peak was present 3 days after immunization but was not antigen specific and did not transfer protection. The second peak was evident 7 days after immunization, was an IgM response, was antigen specific, and conferred protection. This results clearly demonstrate that IgM antibodies protect the host against a facultative intracellular bacterium.

  1. Ageing and the humoral immune response in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankwater, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    The study presented in this thesis is concerned with changes in the humoral immune system as a function of age in different inbred mouse strains. Their capacity to develop humoral immune responses to experimentally given thymus-dependent and thymus-independent antigens under various conditions is compared. Furthermore, experiments employing thymus transplantation and thymic humoral factors which are directed at the restoration of the diminished T cell functions in old age are reported. (Auth.)

  2. Repetitive immunization enhances the susceptibility of mice to peripherally administered prions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Bremer

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of humans and animals to prion infections is determined by the virulence of the infectious agent, by genetic modifiers, and by hitherto unknown host and environmental risk factors. While little is known about the latter two, the activation state of the immune system was surmised to influence prion susceptibility. Here we administered prions to mice that were repeatedly immunized by two initial injections of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides followed by repeated injections of bovine serum albumin/alum. Immunization greatly reduced the required dosage of peripherally administered prion inoculum necessary to induce scrapie in 50% of mice. No difference in susceptibility was observed following intracerebral prion challenge. Due to its profound impact onto scrapie susceptibility, the host immune status may determine disease penetrance after low-dose prion exposure, including those that may give rise to iatrogenic and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

  3. Establishing a small animal model for evaluating protective immunity against mumps virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Pickar

    Full Text Available Although mumps vaccines have been used for several decades, protective immune correlates have not been defined. Recently, mumps outbreaks have occurred in vaccinated populations. To better understand the causes of the outbreaks and to develop means to control outbreaks in mumps vaccine immunized populations, defining protective immune correlates will be critical. Unfortunately, no small animal model for assessing mumps immunity exists. In this study, we evaluated use of type I interferon (IFN alpha/beta receptor knockout mice (IFN-α/βR-/- for such a model. We found these mice to be susceptible to mumps virus administered intranasally and intracranially. Passive transfer of purified IgG from immunized mice protected naïve mice from mumps virus infection, confirming the role of antibody in protection and demonstrating the potential for this model to evaluate mumps immunity.

  4. Mode of delivery shapes gut colonization pattern and modulates regulatory immunity in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Camilla Hartmann Friis; Andersen, Line Sidsel Fisker; Krych, Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    diabetes. In this study, we demonstrate that both C-section and cross-fostering with a genetically distinct strain influence the gut microbiota composition and immune key markers in mice. Gut microbiota profiling by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 454/FLX-based 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing...... electrophoresis profiles was evident in adult mice. However, the adult C-section-born mice had lower proportions of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells, tolerogenic CD103(+) dendritic cells, and less Il10 gene expression in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleens. This demonstrates long-term systemic effect on the regulatory...... and priming of regulatory immune system in mice, and mode of delivery strongly influences this....

  5. Inorganic elements in blood of mice immunized with snake venom using NAA and XRF techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metairon, S.; Zamboni, C.B.; Suzuki, M.F.; Lopes da Silva, L.F.F.; Rizzutto, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has the greatest diversity of snakes in the world and a large portion of them are venomous. Nowadays, Instituto Butantan (research center, at Brazil) produces various types of antivenom to meet the large number of incidences. In this investigation, mice were immunized with different species of Bothrops snake venom to evaluate the inorganic elements concentration in their blood by using NAA and XRF techniques. The results were compared with the control group (mice not immunized) and with human estimative. The data allows to evaluate the toxicity of these elements, important for clinical screening of patients submitted to immunological therapy. (author)

  6. Protein energy malnutrition decreases immunity and increases susceptibility to influenza infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew K; Cao, Weiping; Vora, Keyur P; De La Cruz, Juan; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Zaki, Sherif R; Katz, Jacqueline M; Sambhara, Suryaprakash; Gangappa, Shivaprakash

    2013-02-01

    Protein energy malnutrition (PEM), a common cause of secondary immune deficiency in children, is associated with an increased risk of infections. Very few studies have addressed the relevance of PEM as a risk factor for influenza. We investigated the influence of PEM on susceptibility to, and immune responses following, influenza virus infection using isocaloric diets providing either adequate protein (AP; 18%) or very low protein (VLP; 2%) in a mouse model. We found that mice maintained on the VLP diet, when compared to mice fed with the AP diet, exhibited more severe disease following influenza infection based on virus persistence, trafficking of inflammatory cell types to the lung tissue, and virus-induced mortality. Furthermore, groups of mice maintained on the VLP diet showed significantly lower virus-specific antibody response and a reduction in influenza nuclear protein-specific CD8(+) T cells compared with mice fed on the AP diet. Importantly, switching diets for the group maintained on the VLP diet to the AP diet improved virus clearance, as well as protective immunity to viral challenge. Our results highlight the impact of protein energy on immunity to influenza infection and suggest that balanced protein energy replenishment may be one strategy to boost immunity against influenza viral infections.

  7. Antibody study in canine distemper virus nucleocapsid protein gene-immunized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, B; Li, X Y; Zhu, T; Yuan, L; Hu, J P; Chen, J; Gao, W; Ren, W Z

    2015-04-10

    The gene for the nucleocapsid (N) protein of canine distemper virus was cloned into the pMD-18T vector, and positive recombinant plasmids were obtained by enzyme digestion and sequencing. After digestion by both EcoRI and KpnI, the plasmid was directionally cloned into the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA; the positive clone pcDNA-N was screened by electrophoresis and then transfected into COS-7 cells. Immunofluorescence analysis results showed that the canine distemper virus N protein was expressed in the cytoplasm of transfected COS-7 cells. After emulsification in Freund's adjuvant, the recombinant plasmid pcDNA-N was injected into the abdominal cavity of 8-week-old BABL/c mice, with the pcDNA original vector used as a negative control. Mice were immunized 3 times every 2 weeks. The blood of immunized mice was drawn 2 weeks after completing the immunizations to measure titer levels. The antibody titer in the pcDNA-N test was 10(1.62 ± 0.164), while in the control group this value was 10(0.52 ± 0.56), indicating that specific humoral immunity was induced in canine distemper virus nucleocapsid protein-immunized mice.

  8. Activation of antitumor immune responses by Ganoderma formosanum polysaccharides in tumor-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Li; Lu, Chiu-Ying; Hsueh, Ying-Chao; Liu, Wen-Hsiung; Chen, Chun-Jen

    2014-11-01

    Fungi of the genus Ganoderma are basidiomycetes that have been used as traditional medicine in Asia and have been shown to exhibit various pharmacological activities. We recently found that PS-F2, a polysaccharide fraction purified from the submerged culture broth of Ganoderma formosanum, stimulates the maturation of dendritic cells and primes a T helper 1 (Th1)-polarized adaptive immune response in vivo. In this study, we investigated whether the immune adjuvant function of PS-F2 can stimulate antitumor immune responses in tumor-bearing mice. Continuous intraperitoneal or oral administration of PS-F2 effectively suppressed the growth of colon 26 (C26) adenocarcinoma, B16 melanoma, and sarcoma 180 (S180) tumor cells in mice without adverse effects on the animals' health. PS-F2 did not cause direct cytotoxicity on tumor cells, and it lost the antitumor effect in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, and serum from PS-F2-treated tumor-bearing mice all exhibited antitumor activities when adoptively transferred to naïve animals, indicating that PS-F2 treatment stimulates tumor-specific cellular and humoral immune responses. These data demonstrate that continuous administration of G. formosanum polysaccharide PS-F2 can activate host immune responses against ongoing tumor growth, suggesting that PS-F2 can potentially be developed into a preventive/therapeutic agent for cancer immunotherapy.

  9. [Proteolytic activity of IgG-antibodies of mice, immunized by calf thymus histones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kit, Iu Ia; Korniĭ, N; Kril', I Ĭ; Mahorivs'ka, I B; Tkachenko, V; Bilyĭ, R O; Stoĭka, R S

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of the study was to determine the ability of histones to induce production of the proteolytically active IgG-antibodies in BALB/c mice. In order to perform this study 8 mice were immunized with the fraction of total calf thymus histones. IgGs were isolated from the serum of the immunized and not immunized animals by means of precipitation with 33% ammonium sulfate, followed by affinity chromatography on protein G-Sepharose column. Histones, myelin basic protein (MBP), lysozyme, BSA, ovalbumin, macroglobulin, casein and cytochrome c served as substrates for determining the proteolytic activity. It was found that IgGs from the blood serum of immunized mice are capable of hydrolyzing histone H1, core histone and MBP. On the contrary, the proteolytic activity of IgGs from the blood serum of not immunized mice was not detected. The absence of proteolytical enzymes in the fraction of IgGs was proven by HPLC chromatography. High levels of proteolytic activity toward histones have been also detected in affinity purified IgGs from blood serum of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, but not in healthy donors. These data indicate that eukaryotic histones may induce production of protabzymes in mammals. The possible origin of these protabzymes and their potential biological role in mammalians is discussed.

  10. CD8 Knockout Mice Are Protected from Challenge by Vaccination with WR201, a Live Attenuated Mutant of Brucella melitensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel L. Yingst

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available CD8+ T cells have been reported to play an important role in defense against B. abortus infection in mouse models. In the present report, we use CD8 knockout mice to further elucidate the role of these cells in protection from B. melitensis infection. Mice were immunized orally by administration of B. melitensis WR201, a purine auxotrophic attenuated vaccine strain, then challenged intranasally with B. melitensis 16M. In some experiments, persistence of WR201 in the spleens of CD8 knockout mice was slightly longer than that in the spleens of normal mice. However, development of anti-LPS serum antibody, antigen-induced production of γ-interferon (IFN-γ by immune splenic lymphocytes, protection against intranasal challenge, and recovery of nonimmunized animals from intranasal challenge were similar between normal and knockout animals. Further, primary Brucella infection was not exacerbated in perforin knockout and Fas-deficient mice and these animals’ anti-Brucella immune responses were indistinguishable from those of normal mice. These results indicate that CD8+ T cells do not play an essential role as either cytotoxic cells or IFN-γ producers, yet they do participate in a specific immune response to immunization and challenge in this murine model of B. melitensis infection.

  11. Enhanced Autoimmunity Associated with Induction of Tumor Immunity in Thyroiditis-Susceptible Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari, Suresh; Flynn, Jeffrey C.; Zulfiqar, Muhammad; Snower, Daniel P.; Elliott, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Immunotherapeutic modalities to bolster tumor immunity by targeting specific sites of the immune network often result in immune dysregulation with adverse autoimmune sequelae. To understand the relative risk for opportunistic autoimmune disorders, we studied established breast cancer models in mice resistant to experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT). EAT is a murine model of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, an autoimmune syndrome with established MHC class II control of susceptibility. The highly prevalent Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a prominent autoimmune sequela in immunotherapy, and its relative ease of diagnosis and treatment could serve as an early indicator of immune dysfunction. Here, we examined EAT-susceptible mice as a combined model for induction of tumor immunity and EAT under the umbrella of disrupted regulatory T cell (Treg) function. Methods: Tumor immunity was evaluated in female CBA/J mice after depleting Tregs by intravenous administration of CD25 monoclonal antibody and/or immunizing with irradiated mammary adenocarcinoma cell line A22E-j before challenge; the role of T cell subsets was determined by injecting CD4 and/or CD8 antibodies after tumor immunity induction. Tumor growth was monitored 3×/week by palpation. Subsequent EAT was induced by mouse thyroglobulin (mTg) injections (4 daily doses/week over 4 weeks). For some experiments, EAT was induced before establishing tumor immunity by injecting mTg+interleukin-1, 7 days apart. EAT was evaluated by mTg antibodies and thyroid infiltration. Results: Strong resistance to tumor challenge after Treg depletion and immunization with irradiated tumor cells required participation of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. This immunity was not altered by induction of mild thyroiditis with our protocol of Treg depletion and adjuvant-free, soluble mTg injections. However, the increased incidence of mild thyroiditis can be directly related to Treg depletion needed to achieve strong tumor immunity. Moreover

  12. Primer for non-immunologists on immune-deficient mice and their applications in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croy, B A; Linder, K E; Yager, J A

    2001-08-01

    Studies of immune deficiencies have a history as long as that of immunology. However, reports of two key spontaneous recessive mutations in mice (nude in 1966-1968 and scid in 1983) laid the foundations for widespread application of immune-deficient rodents to a broad range of research topics. More recently, technologies modifying the mouse genome by transgenesis, gene ablation and crossbreeding for lines with multiple immune deficits have provided a large number of new types of immunologically impaired mice. The primary goals of this overview are to help non-immunologists understand key differences between some of the immunodeficient strains, develop an appreciation for the value of information derived from immunodeficient mouse-based research and to encourage expanded, creative use of these specialized research animals. Secondary goals are to promote greater awareness of unexpected outcomes that can arise when working with genetically immune-deficient mice, the need for vigilance in maintaining these research animals, and the care required in interpretation of the data that immune-deficient modeling provides. Two illustrations on developing appropriate immune deficient animal models for a new research application conclude the review.

  13. Role for Lyt-2+ T cells in resistance to cutaneous leishmaniasis in immunized mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, J.P.; Muller, I.; Louis, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The role of Lyt-2+ T cells in immunologic resistance to cutaneous leishmaniasis was analyzed by comparing infection patterns in resistant C57BL/6 mice and susceptible BALB/c mice induced to heal their infections after sub-lethal irradiation or i.v. immunization, with similar mice treated in vivo with anti-Lyt-2 antibodies. Administration of anti-Lyt-2 mAb resulted in a dramatic reduction in the number of lymphoid cells expressing the Lyt-2+ phenotype. Such treatment led to enhanced disease in both resistant C57BL/6 and irradiated BALB/c mice, as assessed by lesion size, but did not affect the capacity of these mice to ultimately resolve their infections. In contrast, anti-Lyt-2 treatment totally blocked the induction of resistance in i.v. immunized mice. These results suggest, that Lyt-2+ T cells may play a role in immunity to a Leishmania major infection and that their relative importance to resistance may depend on how resistance is induced

  14. Investigation of radioprotective effects of aqueous extract of sauseurea obyallata on immune system of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guoliang; Li Wenhui; Guo Na; Hou Yu; Wang Chenghong; Li Tianqian; Yu Shuhui

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the radioprotective effects of test compound on immune system of mice from radiation injury. Methods: Immunologic function and general state of mice were shown by swimming experiment with the weighing of spleen, thymus and computing their indexs, hemolysin mensurate experiment and PHA stimulated lymphocyte transformation experiment. All mice were irradiated with 6 Gy and received the test compound by gavage for 14 days, 7 days before irradiation and 7 days after irradiation. All the indicators were measured according to established methods. The data went through Statistical analysis by spss11.5. Results: Irradiation has obvious influence on the immune function and systemic state of mice. In swimming experiment, mice in the treatment group swim longer than the model group, but is of no significant difference. The thymus indexes are higher in treatment groups than in model group, especially the HD group, compared with model group, the differences are obvious (P<0.05). There is no obvious difference between treatment groups and model group with OD value in hemolysin mensurate experiment. Conclusions: Aqueous Extract of Sauseurea Obyallata may have radioprotective effects on immune system of mice, which deserves further exploration in the compound preparing, analysis of Chemical Compositions and the dose and mode and the treatment duration of the compound. (authors)

  15. Induction of protective immune responses in mice by double DNA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of a double DNA vaccine encoding of Brucella melitensis omp31 gene and of Escherichia coli eae gene in inducing protective immune response in a mouse model. Methods: After performing PCR assays and cloning both the eae and omp31 genes, the generated DNA vaccines were ...

  16. p53 specific (auto)immunity in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauwen, Marjolein Monique

    2008-01-01

    Self-tolerance to p53 is a major potential limitation for the activation of the endogenous T-cell repertoire. So far, p53 specific CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell immunity has been described in cancer patients and healthy individuals. However, the restrictions of tolerance on the recruitment of p53 specific T

  17. Beryllium-induced immune response in C3H mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, J.M.; Bice, D.E.; Nikula, K.J. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Studies conducted at ITRI over the past several years have investigated whether Beagle dogs, monkeys, and mice are suitable models for human chronic beryllium-induced lung disease (CBD). Recent studies have focused on the histopathological and immunopathological changes occurring in A/J and C3H/HeJ mice acutely exposed by inhalation to Be metal. Lung lesions in both strains of mice included focal lymphocyte aggregates comprised primarily of B lymphocytes and lesser amounts of T-helper lymphocytes and microgranulomas consisting chiefly of macrophages and T-helper lymphocytes. The distribution of proliferating cells within the microgranulomas was similar to the distribution of T-helper cells. These results strongly suggested that A/J and C3H/HeJ mice responded to inhaled Be metal in a fashion similar to humans in terms of pulmonary lesions and the apparent in situ proliferation of T-helper cells. Results of these studies confirm lymphocyte involvement in the pulmonary response to inhaled Be metal.

  18. Anti-bacterial immunity to Listeria monocytogenes in allogeneic bone marrow chimera in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoe, K.; Good, R.A.; Yamamoto, K.

    1986-01-01

    Protection and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to the facultative intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.) were studied in allogeneic and syngeneic bone marrow chimeras. Lethally irradiated AKR (H-2k) mice were successfully reconstituted with marrow cells from C57BL/10 (B10) (H-2b), B10 H-2-recombinant strains or syngeneic mice. Irradiated AKR mice reconstituted with marrow cells from H-2-compatible B10.BR mice, [BR----AKR], as well as syngeneic marrow cells, [AKR----AKR], showed a normal level of responsiveness to the challenge stimulation with the listeria antigens when DTH was evaluated by footpad reactions. These mice also showed vigorous activities in acquired resistance to the L.m. By contrast, chimeric mice that had total or partial histoincompatibility at the H-2 determinants between donor and recipient, [B10----AKR], [B10.AQR----AKR], [B10.A(4R)----AKR], or [B10.A(5R)----AKR], were almost completely unresponsive in DTH and antibacterial immunity. However, when [B10----AKR] H-2-incompatible chimeras had been immunized with killed L.m. before challenge with live L.m., these mice manifested considerable DTH and resistance to L.m. These observations suggest that compatibility at the entire MHC between donor and recipient is required for bone marrow chimeras to be able to manifest DTH and protection against L.m. after a short-term immunization schedule. However, this requirement is overcome by a preceding or more prolonged period of immunization with L.m. antigens. These antigens, together with marrow-derived antigen-presenting cells, can then stimulate and expand cell populations that are restricted to the MHC (H-2) products of the donor type

  19. Extensive immune-mediated hippocampal damage in mice surviving infection with neuroadapted Sindbis virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Takashi; Griffin, Diane E.

    2003-01-01

    Viral infections of the central nervous system and immune responses to these infections cause a variety of neurological diseases. Infection of weanling mice with Sindbis virus causes acute nonfatal encephalomyelitis followed by clearance of infectious virus, but persistence of viral RNA. Infection with a neuroadapted strain of Sindbis virus (NSV) causes fatal encephalomyelitis, but passive transfer of immune serum after infection protects from fatal disease and infectious virus is cleared. To determine whether persistent NSV RNA is associated with neurological damage, we examined the brains of recovered mice and found progressive loss of the hippocampal gyrus, adjacent white matter, and deep cerebral cortex associated with mononuclear cell infiltration. Mice deficient in CD4 + T cells showed less tissue loss, while mice lacking CD8 + T cells showed lesions comparable to those in immunocompetent mice. Mice deficient in both CD4 + and CD8 + T cells developed severe tissue loss similar to immunocompetent mice and this was associated with extensive infiltration of macrophages. The number of CD4 + cells and macrophage/microglial cells, but not CD8 + cells, infiltrating the hippocampal gyrus was correlated with the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling positive pyramidal neurons. These results suggest that CD4 + T cells can promote progressive neuronal death and tissue injury, despite clearance of infectious virus

  20. Mice do not develop conditioned taste aversion because of immunity loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Jose

    2011-01-01

    This study intends to test the generation of conditioned taste aversion and conditioned immunodepression by daily paired administration of saccharin solution with cyclophosphamide, 15 mg/kg, for 4 days. One group of male mice of the outbred CD1 strain drank 0.15% saccharin and received 1 injection of cyclophosphamide, 15 mg/kg, for 4 days (paired group), another group (unpaired group) received the same doses of saccharin and cyclophosphamide noncontingently, the third group (cy60) received saccharin paired with cyclophosphamide, 60 mg/kg, and the fourth group (placebo) received saccharin in the absence of cyclophosphamide. All mice were immunized with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), 0.2 mg, 1 day before the treatments. Mice of the paired, unpaired and cy60 groups displayed a similarly decreased antibody response to KLH, but mice of the paired group did not develop an aversion to saccharin while mice of the cy60 group did. Besides, repeat presentation of saccharin to mice of the paired group did not alter their antibody response to ovalbumin compared with mice of the unpaired or placebo group. Taste aversion was not elicited in response to impaired immunity and the conditioned stimulus (saccharin) did not impair the antibody response. 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Long-term effect of oral immunization against influenza with a gamma-inactivated vaccine in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noack, K.; Tischner, H.; Pohl, W.D.; Braeuniger, S.; Nordheim, W.

    1986-01-01

    NMRI mice were immunized orally twice within 10 days with an influenza vaccine inactivated by gamma radiation. The immunization with a relatively low dosis led to the occurence of low specific antibody titer in the lung lavage fluid up to 6th month. Despite of the low titer, immunized mice were protected against aerogenic infection for about 6 months. Protection was demonstrated in comparison to non-immunized mice by a limited increase of cells in bronchoalveolar lavage, low virus titer in the lung and survival of most animals after a lethal aerosol challenge with the live virus. (author)

  2. Fusion-Expressed CTB Improves Both Systemic and Mucosal T-Cell Responses Elicited by an Intranasal DNA Priming/Intramuscular Recombinant Vaccinia Boosting Regimen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugan Qiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous study showed that CTB (Cholera toxin subunit B can be used as a genetic adjuvant to enhance the systemic immune responses. To further investigate whether it can also be used as a genetic adjuvant to improve mucosal immune responses, we constructed DNA and recombinant Tiantan vaccinia (rTTV vaccines expressing OVA-CTB fusion antigen. Female C57BL/6 mice were immunized with an intranasal DNA priming/intramuscular rTTV boosting regimen. OVA specific T-cell responses were measured by IFN-γ ELISPOT and specific antibody responses were determined by ELISA. Compared to the nonadjuvant group (pSV-OVA intranasal priming/rTTV-OVA intramuscular boosting, pSV-OVA-CTB intranasal priming/rTTV-OVA-CTB intramuscular boosting group significantly improved the magnitudes of T-cell responses at spleen (1562±567 SFCs/106 splenocytes versus 330±182 SFCs/106 splenocytes, P<0.01, mesenteric LN (96±83 SFCs/106 lymphocytes versus 1±2 SFCs/106 lymphocytes, P<0.05, draining LNs of respiratory tract (109±60 SFCs/106 lymphocytes versus 2±2 SFCs/106 lymphocytes, P<0.01 and female genital tract (89±48 SFCs/106 lymphocytes versus 23±21 SFCs/106 lymphocytes, P<0.01. These results collectively demonstrated that fusion-expressed CTB could act as a potent adjuvant to improve both systemic and mucosal T-cell responses.

  3. A DNA Vaccine Protects Human Immune Cells against Zika Virus Infection in Humanized Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohua Yi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A DNA vaccine encoding prM and E protein has been shown to induce protection against Zika virus (ZIKV infection in mice and monkeys. However, its effectiveness in humans remains undefined. Moreover, identification of which immune cell types are specifically infected in humans is unclear. We show that human myeloid cells and B cells are primary targets of ZIKV in humanized mice. We also show that a DNA vaccine encoding full length prM and E protein protects humanized mice from ZIKV infection. Following administration of the DNA vaccine, humanized DRAG mice developed antibodies targeting ZIKV as measured by ELISA and neutralization assays. Moreover, following ZIKV challenge, vaccinated animals presented virtually no detectable virus in human cells and in serum, whereas unvaccinated animals displayed robust infection, as measured by qRT-PCR. Our results utilizing humanized mice show potential efficacy for a targeted DNA vaccine against ZIKV in humans.

  4. Partial Protection of Mice against Trypanosoma cruzi after Immunizing with the TcY 72 Antigenic Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara M Gomes

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available A 72 kDa Trypanosoma cruzi glycoprotein recognized by the 164C11 monoclonal antibody (IgM isotype was purified by preparative electrophoresis. The antigenic preparation obtained, named TcY 72, was used to immunize C57Bl/10 mice. The following results were observed after immunization: (1 induction of higher titres of IgG than IgM antibodies, as evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence; (2 significant DTH after injection of epimastigotes in mice footpads; (3 peak parasitemia in immunized mice was significantly reduced and animals were negative by 13 days post-infection, although the mice still succumb to infection; (4 the phenotypic analysis of spleen cell populations showed a decrease in the CD4/CD8 ratio in immunized mice. Taken as a whole, these findings indicate that TcY 72 is immunogenic and potentially important for protective immunity.

  5. Evaluation of the immune response to CRA and FRA recombinant antigens of Trypanosoma cruzi in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Valéria Rêgo Alves; de Lorena, Virginia Maria Barros; Nakazawa, Mineo; da Silva, Ana Paula Galvão; Montarroyos, Ulisses; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Gomes, Yara de Miranda

    2003-01-01

    Humoral and cellular immune responses were evaluated in 44 C57BL/6 mice immunized with the Trypanosoma cruzi recombinant antigens CRA and FRA. Both antigens induced cutaneous immediate-type hypersensitivity response. The levels of IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgG3 were high in CRA immunized mice. IgG3 was the predominant isotype. Although no difference in antibody levels was observed in FRA-immunized mice when compared to control mice, both antigens were able to induce lymphoproliferation in immunized mice. Significant differences were observed between incorporation of [ H]- thymidine by spleen cell stimulated in vitro with CRA or FRA and the control group. These results suggest that CRA and FRA could be involved in mechanisms of resistance to Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

  6. Naa Technique for Clinical Investigation of Mice Immunized with BOTHROP Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamboni, C. B.; Aguiar, R. O.; Kovacs, L.; Suzuki, M.; Sant'Anna, O. A.

    2009-06-01

    In the present study Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique was used to determine sodium concentration in whole blood of mice immunized with Bothrops venom. With this value it was possible to perform clinical investigation in this animal model using whole blood.

  7. Comparison of adjuvants for immune potentiating properties and side effects in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenaars, P.P.A.M.; Hendriksen, C.F.M.; Koedam, M.A.; Claassen, I.; Claassen, E.

    1995-01-01

    Four types of adjuvants were evaluated as alternatives to the use of Freund's complete adjuvant in mice. The adjuvants evaluated included a water-in-oil emulsion (Specol), a microorganism (Lactobacillus), preformed immune-stimulating complexes (ISCOM) containing rabies virus glycoprotein and a

  8. Site requirements and kinetics of immune-dependent elimination of intravascularly administered lung stage schistosomula in mice immunized with highly irradiated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangold, B.L.; Dean, D.A.; Coulson, P.S.; Wilson, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were performed to compare the migration and survival of 75Se-labeled schistosomes, introduced by percutaneous cercarial exposure or by intravascular administration of 7-day-old lung stage schistosomula, in control and irradiated cercaria-immunized mice. Schistosomula were intravascularly introduced into the lungs, systemic organs and liver by injection via the femoral vein (FV), left ventricle (LV), and superior mesenteric vein (SMV), respectively. The fate of challenge larvae was examined by autoradiography of host tissues and by recovery of adult worms. It was found that both normal and immune elimination were site-dependent. In control mice 45%-60% of cercarial penetrants and lung schistosomula injected into the FV and LV were recoverable as adult worms, while a significantly greater number (70%-85%) were recoverable when lung schistosomula were injected into the SMV. In immunized mice, parasites introduced as either cercariae or FV-injected schistosomula were both highly sensitive to immune elimination. LV-injected schistosomula were also sensitive but to a slightly lesser degree. In contrast, schistosomula placed directly in the liver by SMV injection were totally insensitive to immune elimination. It was concluded that elimination of schistosomula in irradiated cercaria-immunized mice occurs in the lungs and/or in the systemic organs, but not in the liver. Also, it was concluded that immune elimination is not a rapid process, since more than 7 days were required after intravascular challenge for the development of demonstrable differences between control and immunized mice

  9. Role of Natural Killer Cells in the Innate Immune System After Intraportal Islet Transplantation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Y; Ishiyama, K; Ishida, N; Tanaka, Y; Ohdan, H

    Both liver natural killer (NK) and NK T cells of the innate immune system play a crucial role in islet graft loss after intraportal islet transplantation, although a relationship between NK and NK T cells in islet loss has not been proven. In this study, we investigated the role of NK cells in the innate immune system in islet graft loss after intraportal islet transplantation. To investigate the involvement of liver NK cells in islet destruction, we assessed the differences in graft survival after intraportal islet transplantation between CD1d -/- diabetic mice and NK cell-depleted CD1d -/- diabetic mice. The transplantation of 400 islets into the liver was sufficient to reverse hyperglycemia in wild-type diabetic mice (100%, 4/4). However, normoglycemia could not be achieved when 200 islets were transplanted (0%, 0/4). In contrast, intraportal transplantation of 200 islets in NK cell-depleted CD1d -/- diabetic mice ameliorated hyperglycemia in 71% of cases (5/7), whereas transplantation of the same number of islets in CD1d -/- diabetic mice did not (0%, 0/4). Histologic findings also confirmed that intact islets were observed in NK cell-depleted CD1d -/- diabetic mice, but were difficult to observe in CD1d -/- diabetic mice. The involvement of liver NK cells in the innate immune system related to islet graft loss after intraportal islet transplantation is revealed by improved graft survival and function in NK cell-depleted CD1d -/- diabetic mice. Our data reveal that regulation of NK cell activity is particularly important when insufficient islet numbers are used for transplantation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Lentinula edodes-derived polysaccharide rejuvenates mice in terms of immune responses and gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaofei; Yang, Jiguo; Ning, Zhengxiang; Zhang, Xuewu

    2015-08-01

    Aging is characterized by impaired immunity and unbalanced gut microbiota. Prebiotics have the capability to prevent or reverse age-related declines in health by modulating gut microbiota. Mushroom polysaccharides have been suggested to be potential prebiotics. However, their effects on the immunity and gut microbiota in aged mice have not been determined. This study firstly assessed the effects of a heteropolysaccharide L2 isolated from the fruit body of L. edodes on the immune response of aged mice, and then compared the composition of fecal microbiota in adult (N), old (O) and L2-treated old (Oa) mice using the high-throughput pyrosequencing technique. The results showed that L2 can restore the age-attenuated immune responses by increasing cytokine levels in peripheral blood. Moreover, L2 can partly reverse the age-altered composition of gut microbiota. The Euclidean distances (De) among 3 groups (N, O and Oa) are determined to be De(O, N) = 0.19, De(O, Oa) = 0.20, and De(N, Oa) = 0.10, i.e. there is a marked reduction in the distance from 0.19 to 0.1 by L2. This suggests the beneficial effects of L2 on enhancing immunity and improving gut health.

  11. Immunization of neonatal mice with LAMP/p55 HIV gag DNA elicits robust immune responses that last to adulthood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonhez Rigato, Paula; Maciel, Milton; Goldoni, Adriana Leticia; Piubelli, Orlando; Alves de Brito, Cyro; Fusaro, Ana Elisa; Eurico de Alencar, Liciana Xavier; August, Thomas; Torres Azevedo Marques, Ernesto; Silva Duarte, Alberto Jose da; Sato, Maria Notomi

    2010-01-01

    Successful T cell priming in early postnatal life that can generate effective long-lasting responses until adulthood is critical in HIV vaccination strategies because it prevents early sexual initiation and breastfeeding transmission of HIV. A chimeric DNA vaccine encoding p55 HIV gag associated with lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1; which drives the antigen to the MIIC compartment), has been used to enhance cellular and humoral antigen-specific responses in adult mice and macaques. Herein, we investigated LAMP-1/gag vaccine immunogenicity in the neonatal period in mice and its ability to generate long-lasting effects. Neonatal vaccination with chimeric LAMP/gag generated stronger Gag-specific immune responses, as measured by the breadth of the Gag peptide-specific IFN-γ, proliferative responsiveness, cytokine production and antibody production, all of which revealed activation of CD4+ T cells as well as the generation of a more robust CTL response compared to gag vaccine alone. To induce long-lived T and B cell memory responses, it was necessary to immunize neonates with the chimeric LAMP/gag DNA vaccine. The LAMP/gag DNA vaccine strategy could be particularly useful for generating an anti-HIV immune response in the early postnatal period capable of inducing long-term immunological memory.

  12. Intranasal delivery of influenza subunit vaccine formulated with GEM particles as an adjuvant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saluja, Vinay; Amorij, Jean P; van Roosmalen, Maarten L; Leenhouts, Kees; Huckriede, Anke; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; Frijlink, Henderik W

    Nasal administration of influenza vaccine has the potential to facilitate influenza control and prevention. However, when administered intranasally (i.n.), commercially available inactivated vaccines only generate systemic and mucosal immune responses if strong adjuvants are used, which are often

  13. Cytokine production in BALB/c mice immunized with radiation attenuated third stage larvae of the filarial nematode, Brugia pahangi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bancroft, A.J.; Devaney, E.; Grencis, R.K.; Else, K.J.

    1993-01-01

    BALB/c mice immunized with radiation-attenuated third stage larvae of the filarial nematode Brugia pahangi are strongly immune to challenge infection. Investigation of the profile of cytokines secreted by spleen cells from immune mice stimulated in vitro with either parasite Ag or with Con A revealed high levels of IL-5 and IL-9 and moderate levels of IL-4. In contrast, secretion of IFN-γ by spleen cells from immune animals was negligible. Spleen cells from control mice secreted low levels of all cytokines assayed. Levels of parasite-specific IgE were significantly elevated in immune animals and a peripheral blood eosinophilia was observed, which exhibited a biphasic distribution. Our results are consistent with the preferential expansion of Th2 cells in immune animals and provide the basis for dissecting the means by which radiation-attenuated larvae of filarial nematodes stimulate immunity. 5l refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Effect of dietary restriction on immune response of laboratory mice divergently selected for basal metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Książek, Aneta; Konarzewski, Marek

    2012-01-01

    To study whether dietary restriction (DR; 70% of ad lib. feeding)-elicited immunosuppression results from the trade-off between the costs of mounting an immune response and the metabolic costs of maintenance, we subjected mice from two divergent lines selected for high basal metabolic rate (H-BMR) and low BMR (L-BMR) to 4 wk of DR and then challenged them with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) antigen. Those line types differ genetically with respect to BMR and to the mass of metabolically expensive internal organs, which are larger in H-BMR mice. In mice of both line types, DR resulted in a significant reduction of body mass, an immune response, and the downsizing of spleen, lymph nodes, thymus, heart, and kidneys but not small intestines. DR resulted in a greater reduction of the spleen and lymph nodes in mice of the H-BMR line type, whereas the thymus was more affected in L-BMR line type. In contrast, immunization resulted in an increase of liver mass in DR mice of both line types. A comparison of the results of current and earlier studies on the same mouse line types suggests that metabolic trade-offs involving the costs of an immune response are more apparent when animals are forced to increase energy demands (e.g., by cold exposure) compared to when energy demands are decreased through DR. Our findings also suggest that divelrgent selection on BMR resulted in between-line-type differences in T-cell- and B-cell-mediated types of an immune response. More generally, our results indicate that production of a wide repertoire of antibodies is not correlated with high BMR.

  15. Differential immune responses to albumin adducts of reactive intermediates of trichloroethene in MRL+/+ mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Ping; Koenig, Rolf; Khan, M. Firoze; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Ansari, G.A.S.

    2007-01-01

    Trichloroethene (TCE) is an industrial degreasing solvent and widespread environmental contaminant. Exposure to TCE is associated with autoimmunity. The mode of action of TCE is via its oxidative metabolism, and most likely, immunotoxicity is mediated via haptenization of macromolecules and subsequent induction of immune responses. To better understand the role of protein haptenization through TCE metabolism, we immunized MRL+/+ mice with albumin adducts of various TCE reactive intermediates. Serum immunoglobulins and cytokine levels were measured to determine immune responses against haptenized albumin. We found antigen-specific IgG responses of the IgG subtypes IgG 1 , IgG 2a , and IgG 2b , with IgG 1 predominating. Serum levels of G-CSF were increased in immunized mice, suggesting macrophage activation. Liver histology revealed lymphocyte infiltration in the lobules and the portal area following immunization with formyl-albumin. Our findings suggest that proteins haptenized by metabolites of TCE may act as neo-antigens that can induce humoral immune responses and T cell-mediated hepatitis

  16. Genetic constraints in the induction of the immune response to Ehrlich ascites tumor in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marusic, M.; Perkins, E.H.

    1981-01-01

    A single injection of irradiated Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells induces immunity in normal mice but fails to do so in T-cell-deficient-thymectomized, lethally irradiated, bone marrow-reconstituted (TIR) mice. TIR mice injected with normal syngeneic T cells develop an immune response to EAT when injected with irradiated EAT cells and reject a subsequent tumor cell challenge. In the present studies allogeneic T cells were unable to protect against EAT in TIR recipients even if harvested from donors tolerant to the recipient's transplantation antigens and injected into the TIR mice tolerant to the transplantation antigens of the injected T cells. Tolerance was produced by establishing long-term radiation chimeras of the P → F 1 type. Semiallogeneic T cells also failed to afford protection against EAT in TIR recipients. Whereas tolerance to other parental-strain transplantation antigens did not reverse the inability of parental T cells (cells from P → F 1 chimeric donors) to protect against EAT in F 1 TIR mice, it did enable F 1 T cells to afford protection in P → F 1 TIR mice

  17. Ozone-Induced Nasal Type 2 Immunity in Mice Is Dependent on Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Kazuyoshi; Lewandowski, Ryan; Jackson-Humbles, Daven N; Li, Ning; Van Dyken, Steven J; Wagner, James G; Harkema, Jack R

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that elevated ambient concentrations of ozone are associated with activation of eosinophils in the nasal airways of atopic and nonatopic children. Mice repeatedly exposed to ozone develop eosinophilic rhinitis and type 2 immune responses. In this study, we determined the role of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in the pathogenesis of ozone-induced eosinophilic rhinitis by using lymphoid-sufficient C57BL/6 mice, Rag2(-/-) mice that are devoid of T cells and B cells, and Rag2(-/-)Il2rg(-/-) mice that are depleted of all lymphoid cells including ILCs. The animals were exposed to 0 or 0.8 ppm ozone for 9 consecutive weekdays (4 h/d). Mice were killed 24 hours after exposure, and nasal tissues were selected for histopathology and gene expression analysis. ILC-sufficient C57BL/6 and Rag2(-/-) mice exposed to ozone developed marked eosinophilic rhinitis and epithelial remodeling (e.g., epithelial hyperplasia and mucous cell metaplasia). Chitinase-like proteins and alarmins (IL-33, IL-25, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin) were also increased morphometrically in the nasal epithelium of ozone-exposed C57BL/6 and Rag2(-/-) mice. Ozone exposure elicited increased expression of Il4, Il5, Il13, St2, eotaxin, MCP-2, Gob5, Arg1, Fizz1, and Ym2 mRNA in C57BL/6 and Rag2(-/-) mice. In contrast, ozone-exposed ILC-deficient Rag2(-/-)Il2rg(-/-) mice had no nasal lesions or overexpression of Th2- or ILC2-related transcripts. These results indicate that ozone-induced eosinophilic rhinitis, nasal epithelial remodeling, and type 2 immune activation are dependent on ILCs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that ILCs play an important role in the nasal pathology induced by repeated ozone exposure.

  18. Immunological tolerance and tumor rejection in embryo-aggregated chimeric mice – Lessons for tumor immunity

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    Yu Xianzhong

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rejection of transplanted tumors by the immune system is a rare event in syngeneic hosts, and is considered to be dependent on the local interaction of defensive immune reactions and tumor tolerance mechanisms. Here, we have enlisted the aid of a unique set of embryo-aggregated lineage chimeric mice derived from C57/BL6 and FVB donors to study the interplay between local and systemic tumor immunity and tolerance in rejection of mouse B16 melanoma cells, syngeneic to the C57/BL6 donor strain. Methods Two variants of embryo-aggregated chimeric mice with either variable or no contribution of C57-derived cells to their skin were generated by the fusion of different ratios of morula stage blastomers. Chimeric mice were analyzed for s.c. growth of B16 tumors in comparison to their respective donor strains as well as normal F1 hybrids, and the relative frequencies of cellular components of the immune system by FACS analysis of peripheral blood or lymph node cells. Results B16 tumors grew significantly faster in mice with full chimerism in their skin as compared to syngeneic C57 or semi-syngeneic C57 × FVB F1 hosts. In contrast, s.c. tumor growth was either absent or significantly reduced in chimeric mice lacking C57-derived cells in their skin, but tolerant to C57 tissue in other organs. Comparison of the relative frequencies of various immune cells in the periphery via FACS-analysis did not reveal any significant differences between the two types of chimeric mice with respect to their donor strains. Conclusion Our data suggest a complex interplay between mechanisms of local peripheral tolerance and innate antitumor mechanisms possibly involving NK cell allorecognition as a basis for the differential growth or rejection of B16 tumors in these unique chimeric mice, which we suggest to constitute a valuable new model system for the study of immune-mediated tumor rejection.

  19. Immunization of Mice with a Live Transconjugant Shigella Hybrid Strain Induced Th1 and Th17 Cell-Mediated Immune Responses and Confirmed Passive Protection Against Heterologous Shigellae.

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    Nag, D; Koley, H; Sinha, R; Mukherjee, P; Sarkar, C; Withey, J H; Gachhui, R

    2016-02-01

    An avirulent, live transconjugant Shigella hybrid (LTSHΔstx) strain was constructed in our earlier study by introducing a plasmid vector, pPR1347, into a Shiga toxin gene deleted Shigella dysenteriae 1. Three successive oral administrations of LTSHΔstx to female adult mice produced comprehensive passive heterologous protection in their offspring against challenge with wild-type shigellae. Production of NO and different cytokines such asIL-12p70, IL-1β and IL-23 in peritoneal mice macrophages indicated that LTSHΔstx induced innate and adaptive immunity in mice. Furthermore, production of IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-17 in LTSH-primed splenic CD4+ T cell suggested that LTSHΔstx may induce Th1 and Th17 cell-mediated immune responses. Exponential increase of the serum IgG and IgA titre against whole shigellae was observed in immunized adult mice during and after the immunization with the highest peak on day 35. Antigen-specific sIgA was also determined from intestinal lavage of immunized mice. The stomach extracts of neonates from immunized mice, mainly containing mother's milk, contained significant levels of anti-LTSHΔstx immunoglobulin. These studies suggest that the LTSHΔstx could be a new live oral vaccine candidate against shigellosis in the near future. © 2015 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  20. Newborn Mice Vaccination with BCG.HIVA222 + MVA.HIVA Enhances HIV-1-Specific Immune Responses: Influence of Age and Immunization Routes

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    Narcís Saubi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We have evaluated the influence of age and immunization routes for induction of HIV-1- and M. tuberculosis-specific immune responses after neonatal (7 days old and adult (7 weeks old BALB/c mice immunization with BCG.HIVA222 prime and MVA.HIVA boost. The specific HIV-1 cellular immune responses were analyzed in spleen cells. The body weight of the newborn mice was weekly recorded. The frequencies of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells producing IFN-γ were higher in adult mice vaccinated intradermally and lower in adult and newborn mice vaccinated subcutaneously. In all cases the IFN-γ production was significantly higher when mice were primed with BCG.HIVA222 compared with BCGwt. When the HIV-specific CTL activity was assessed, the frequencies of specific killing were higher in newborn mice than in adults. The prime-boost vaccination regimen which includes BCG.HIVA222 and MVA.HIVA was safe when inoculated to newborn mice. The administration of BCG.HIVA222 to newborn mice is safe and immunogenic and increased the HIV-specific responses induced by MVA.HIVA vaccine. It might be a good model for infant HIV and Tuberculosis bivalent vaccine.

  1. Newborn Mice Vaccination with BCG.HIVA222 + MVA.HIVA Enhances HIV-1-Specific Immune Responses: Influence of Age and Immunization Routes

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    Saubi, Narcís; Im, Eung-Jun; Fernández-Lloris, Raquel; Gil, Olga; Cardona, Pere-Joan; Gatell, Josep Maria; Hanke, Tomáš; Joseph, Joan

    2011-01-01

    We have evaluated the influence of age and immunization routes for induction of HIV-1- and M. tuberculosis-specific immune responses after neonatal (7 days old) and adult (7 weeks old) BALB/c mice immunization with BCG.HIVA222 prime and MVA.HIVA boost. The specific HIV-1 cellular immune responses were analyzed in spleen cells. The body weight of the newborn mice was weekly recorded. The frequencies of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells producing IFN-γ were higher in adult mice vaccinated intradermally and lower in adult and newborn mice vaccinated subcutaneously. In all cases the IFN-γ production was significantly higher when mice were primed with BCG.HIVA222 compared with BCGwt. When the HIV-specific CTL activity was assessed, the frequencies of specific killing were higher in newborn mice than in adults. The prime-boost vaccination regimen which includes BCG.HIVA222 and MVA.HIVA was safe when inoculated to newborn mice. The administration of BCG.HIVA222 to newborn mice is safe and immunogenic and increased the HIV-specific responses induced by MVA.HIVA vaccine. It might be a good model for infant HIV and Tuberculosis bivalent vaccine. PMID:21603216

  2. Induction of the immune response suppression in mice inoculated with Candida albicans.

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    Valdez, J C; Mesón, D E; Sirena, A; de Petrino, S F; Eugenia, M; de Jorrat, B B; de Valdex, M G

    1986-03-01

    There is a controversy in respect to the immunological response (humoral or cellular) concerning the defense against Candida albicans. Candidosis would induce sub-populations of suppressor cells in the host cell-immune response. This report tries to show the effect of different doses of C. albicans (alive or heat-killed) on the expression of cell-mediated and humoral immunity. The effect upon cell immunity was determined by inoculating different lots of singeneic mice, doses of varied concentration of C. albicans and checking for delayed-type hipersensitivity (D.T.H.). D.T.H. was also controlled in syngeneic normal mice which had previously been injected with inoculated mice spleen cells. Humoral immunity was assayed by measuring the induced blastogenesis by Pokeweed Mitogen on spleen mononuclear cells with different doses of C. albicans. Results obtained show that the different doses gave origin to: Suppression of humoral and cell response (10(8) alive); Suppression of only humoral response (10(6) alive); Suppression of cell response and increase of humoral response (10(9) dead); Increase of both responses (10(8) dead).

  3. The intestinal flora is required to support antibody responses to systemic immunization in infant and germ free mice.

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    Lamousé-Smith, Esi S; Tzeng, Alice; Starnbach, Michael N

    2011-01-01

    The presence of a complex and diverse intestinal flora is functionally important for regulating intestinal mucosal immune responses. However, the extent to which a balanced intestinal flora regulates systemic immune responses is still being defined. In order to specifically examine whether the acquisition of a less complex flora influences responses to immunization in the pre-weaning stages of life, we utilize a model in which infant mice acquire an intestinal flora from their mothers that has been altered by broad-spectrum antibiotics. In this model, pregnant dams are treated with a cocktail of antibiotics that alters both the density and microbial diversity of the intestinal flora. After challenge with a subcutaneous immunization, the antibiotic altered flora infant mice have lower antigen specific antibody titers compared to control age-matched mice. In a second model, we examined germ free (GF) mice to analyze how the complete lack of flora influences the ability to mount normal antibody responses following subcutaneous immunization. GF mice do not respond well to immunization and introduction of a normal flora into GF mice restores the capacity of these mice to respond. These results indicate that a gastrointestinal flora reduced in density and complexity at critical time points during development adversely impacts immune responses to systemic antigens.

  4. Immune dysregulation may contribute to disease pathogenesis in spinal muscular atrophy mice.

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    Deguise, Marc-Olivier; De Repentigny, Yves; McFall, Emily; Auclair, Nicole; Sad, Subash; Kothary, Rashmi

    2017-02-15

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) has long been solely considered a neurodegenerative disorder. However, recent work has highlighted defects in many other cell types that could contribute to disease aetiology. Interestingly, the immune system has never been extensively studied in SMA. Defects in lymphoid organs could exacerbate disease progression by neuroinflammation or immunodeficiency. Smn depletion led to severe alterations in the thymus and spleen of two different mouse models of SMA. The spleen from Smn depleted mice was dramatically smaller at a very young age and its histological architecture was marked by mislocalization of immune cells in the Smn2B/- model mice. In comparison, the thymus was relatively spared in gross morphology but showed many histological alterations including cortex thinning in both mouse models at symptomatic ages. Thymocyte development was also impaired as evidenced by abnormal population frequencies in the Smn2B/- thymus. Cytokine profiling revealed major changes in different tissues of both mouse models. Consistent with our observations, we found that survival motor neuron (Smn) protein levels were relatively high in lymphoid organs compared to skeletal muscle and spinal cord during postnatal development in wild type mice. Genetic introduction of one copy of the human SMN2 transgene was enough to rescue splenic and thymic defects in Smn2B/- mice. Thus, Smn is required for the normal development of lymphoid organs, and altered immune function may contribute to SMA disease pathogenesis. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Oral treatment with enrofloxacin early in life promotes Th2-mediated immune response in mice.

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    Strzępa, Anna; Majewska-Szczepanik, Monika; Kowalczyk, Paulina; Woźniak, Dorota; Motyl, Sylwia; Szczepanik, Marian

    2016-02-01

    Th2 lymphocytes play a crucial role in the development of allergy. These pathologies are caused by coordinated production of the cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 that regulate the activity of eosinophils, basophils and B cells. According to the 'hygiene hypothesis', the reduced exposure to microorganisms favors allergy occurrence. The advances in medicine in the field of infection therapy promoted an increasing application of antibiotics which, apart from eliminating pathogens, also partially eliminate the microbiota. Epicutaneous (EC) immunization with ovalbumin (OVA) followed by OVA challenge was used to study the influence of partial gut flora depletion by oral treatment with enrofloxacin on type-2 immune response. Current work describes the influence of enrofloxacin application on anti-OVA antibody production and cytokine synthesis in young and adult mice. Immune response in adult mice is less sensitive to modification of natural gut flora. We observed that enrofloxacin treatment of adult mice leads to significant decrease of anti-OVA IgG2a production while synthesis of anti-OVA IgE was not changed. The production of type-1 (IFN-γ), type-2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13) and Th17-associated (IL-17A) cytokines was inhibited. On the other hand, treatment of young mice with enrofloxacin significantly upregulates the production of anti-OVA IgE and inhibits the secretion of anti-OVA IgG2a antibodies. Additionally, treatment with enrofloxacin early in life prior to OVA immunization results in increased production of type-2 (IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13) cytokines. Our results clearly indicate that the immune system is more vulnerable to decreased bacterial exposure early in life that may promote development of allergy. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  6. Immune response in the adipose tissue of lean mice infected with the protozoan parasite Neospora caninum

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    Teixeira, Luzia; Moreira, João; Melo, Joana; Bezerra, Filipa; Marques, Raquel M; Ferreirinha, Pedro; Correia, Alexandra; Monteiro, Mariana P; Ferreira, Paula G; Vilanova, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The adipose tissue can make important contributions to immune function. Nevertheless, only a limited number of reports have investigated in lean hosts the immune response elicited in this tissue upon infection. Previous studies suggested that the intracellular protozoan Neospora caninum might affect adipose tissue physiology. Therefore, we investigated in mice challenged with this protozoan if immune cell populations within adipose tissue of different anatomical locations could be differently affected. Early in infection, parasites were detected in the adipose tissue and by 7 days of infection increased numbers of macrophages, regulatory T (Treg) cells and T-bet+ cells were observed in gonadal, mesenteric, omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Increased expression of interferon-γ was also detected in gonadal adipose tissue of infected mice. Two months after infection, parasite DNA was no longer detected in these tissues, but T helper type 1 (Th1) cell numbers remained above control levels in the infected mice. Moreover, the Th1/Treg cell ratio was higher than that of controls in the mesenteric and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Interestingly, chronically infected mice presented a marked increase of serum leptin, a molecule that plays a role in energy balance regulation as well as in promoting Th1-type immune responses. Altogether, we show that an apicomplexa parasitic infection influences immune cellular composition of adipose tissue throughout the body as well as adipokine production, still noticed at a chronic phase of infection when parasites were already cleared from that particular tissue. This strengthens the emerging view that infections can have long-term consequences for the physiology of adipose tissue. PMID:25581844

  7. Trivalent combination vaccine induces broad heterologous immune responses to norovirus and rotavirus in mice.

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    Kirsi Tamminen

    Full Text Available Rotavirus (RV and norovirus (NoV are the two major causes of viral gastroenteritis (GE in children worldwide. We have developed an injectable vaccine design to prevent infection or GE induced with these enteric viruses. The trivalent combination vaccine consists of NoV capsid (VP1 derived virus-like particles (VLPs of GI-3 and GII-4 representing the two major NoV genogroups and tubular RV recombinant VP6 (rVP6, the most conserved and abundant RV protein. Each component was produced in insect cells by a recombinant baculovirus expression system and combined in vitro. The vaccine components were administered intramuscularly to BALB/c mice either separately or in the trivalent combination. High levels of NoV and RV type specific serum IgGs with high avidity (>50% as well as intestinal IgGs were detected in the immunized mice. Cross-reactive IgG antibodies were also elicited against heterologous NoV VLPs not used for immunization (GII-4 NO, GII-12 and GI-1 VLPs and to different RVs from cell cultures. NoV-specific serum antibodies blocked binding of homologous and heterologous VLPs to the putative receptors, histo-blood group antigens, suggesting broad NoV neutralizing activity of the sera. Mucosal antibodies of mice immunized with the trivalent combination vaccine inhibited RV infection in vitro. In addition, cross-reactive T cell immune responses to NoV and RV-specific antigens were detected. All the responses were sustained for up to six months. No mutual inhibition of the components in the trivalent vaccine combination was observed. In conclusion, the NoV GI and GII VLPs combination induced broader cross-reactive and potentially neutralizing immune responses than either of the VLPs alone. Therefore, trivalent vaccine might induce protective immune responses to the vast majority of circulating NoV and RV genotypes.

  8. Radiation Therapy Induces Macrophages to Suppress Immune Responses Against Pancreatic Tumors in Mice

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    Seifert, Lena; Werba, Gregor; Tiwari, Shaun; Ly, Nancy Ngoc Giao; Nguy, Susanna; Alothman, Sara; Alqunaibit, Dalia; Avanzi, Antonina; Daley, Donnele; Barilla, Rocky; Tippens, Daniel; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Hundeyin, Mautin; Mani, Vishnu R.; Hajdu, Cristina; Pellicciotta, Ilenia; Oh, Philmo; Du, Kevin; Miller, George

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims The role of radiation therapy in the treatment of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is controversial. Randomized controlled trials investigating the efficacy of radiation therapy in patients with locally advanced unresectable PDA have reported mixed results, with effects ranging from modest benefit to worse outcome, compared with control therapies. We investigated whether radiation causes inflammatory cells to acquire an immune-suppressive phenotype that limits the therapeutic effects of radiation on invasive PDAs and accelerates progression of pre-invasive foci. Methods We investigated the effects of radiation in p48Cre;LSL-KrasG12D (KC) and p48Cre;LSLKrasG12D;LSL-Trp53R172H (KPC) mice, as well as in C57BL/6 mice with orthotopic tumors grown from FC1242 cells derived from KPC mice. Some mice were given neutralizing antibodies against macrophage colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF1 or MCSF) or F4/80. Pancreata were exposed to doses of radiation ranging from 2–12 Gy and analyzed by flow cytometry. Results Pancreata of KC mice exposed to radiation had a higher frequency of advanced pancreatic intraepithelial lesions and more foci of invasive cancer than pancreata of unexposed mice (controls); radiation reduced survival time by more than 6 months. A greater proportion of macrophages from invasive and pre-invasive pancreatic tumors had an immune-suppressive, M2-like phenotype, compared with control mice. Pancreata from mice exposed to radiation had fewer CD8+ T cells than controls and greater numbers of CD4+ T cells of T-helper 2 and T-regulatory cell phenotypes. Adoptive transfer of T cells from irradiated PDA to tumors of control mice accelerated tumor growth. Radiation induced production of MCSF by PDA cells. An antibody against MCSF prevented radiation from altering the phenotype of macrophages in tumors, increasing the anti-tumor T-cell response and slowing tumor growth. Conclusions Radiation exposure causes macrophages in PDAs

  9. Immune Alterations in Male and Female Mice after 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose Administration

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    Dreau, Didier; Morton, Darla S.; Foster, Mareva; Swiggett, Jeanene P.; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1995-01-01

    Administration of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), an analog of glucose which inhibits glycolysis by competitive antagonism for phosphohexose isomerase, results in acute periods of intracellular glucoprivation and hyperglycemia resulting in hyperphagia. In addition to these changes in the carbohydrate metabolism, injection of 2-DG results in alterations of both the endocrine and neurological systems as suggested by modifications in oxytocin and glucocorticoid levels and norepinephrine production. Moreover, alterations of the immune response, such as a decrease in the in vitro proliferation of splenocytes after mitogen-stimulation, were observed in mice injected with 2-DG. Sex, genotype and environment are among the factors that may modulate effects of catecholamines and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis on these immune changes. Sexual dimorphism in immune function resulting from the effects of sex hormones on immune effector cells has been shown in both animals and humans. These observations have important implications, especially with regard to higher incidence of many autoimmune diseases in females. Evidence exists that reproductive hormones influence the immune system and increase the risk of immunologically related disorders in both animals and humans. Indeed, immunological responses in stressful situations may also be confounded by fluctuations of sex hormones especially in females. Lymphocyte distribution, cytoldne production, and the ability of lymphocyte to proliferate in vitro were analyzed in male and female mice to determine if sex influenced 2-DG immunomodulation. In addition, the influence of hormones, especially sex hormones, on these changes were evaluated.

  10. Effect of adjuvants on the humoral immune response to congopain in mice and cattle

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    Kateregga John

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated several adjuvants for their effects on the humoral immune response in both mice and cattle using the central domain of congopain (C2, the major cysteine protease of Trypanosoma congolense, as a model for developing a vaccine against animal trypanosomosis. The magnitude and sustainability of the immune response against C2 and the occurrence of a booster effect of infection, an indirect measure of the presence of memory cells, were determined by ELISA, while spectrofluorometry was used to determine and measure the presence of enzyme-inhibiting antibodies. Results Mice immunized with recombinant C2 in TiterMax™, Adjuphos™, purified saponin Quil A™ or Gerbu™ showed the best response according to the evaluation criteria and the latter three were chosen for the cattle vaccination study. The cattle were challenged with T. congolense four and a half months after the last booster. Cattle immunized with recombinant C2 in purified saponin Quil A™ showed the best antibody response according to the measured parameters. Conclusions We identified purified saponin Quil A™ as a good adjuvant for immunizations with C2. The results from this study will be useful in future attempts to develop an effective anti-disease vaccine against African trypanosomosis.

  11. Local immune response to primary infection and re-infection by Clonorchis sinensis in FVB mice.

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    Kim, Eun-Min; Yu, Hak Sun; Jin, Yan; Choi, Min-Ho; Bae, Young Mee; Hong, Sung-Tae

    2017-08-01

    Although Clonorchis sinensis lives in the bile duct, few studies have investigated the local immune response in the liver and bile duct. To investigate the local immune response to C. sinensis, we investigated the activation and recruitment of various immune cells and cytokine levels in the liver and bile duct lymph nodes (BLN) in FVB mice after primary infection and re-infection. Male 4-week-old FVB mice were divided into 6 experimental groups: uninfected controls, primary infection lasting 1week (PI 1w), primary infection lasting 4weeks (PI 4w), praziquantel treatment after PI 4w (Tx), re-infection lasting 1week after Tx (RI 1w), and re-infection lasting 4weeks after Tx (RI 4w). Recovery rates were 80.0% and 73.0% in PI 1w and PI 4w mice, respectively, but significantly decreased during re-infection to 26.6% in RI 1w and 13.3% in RI 4w. This result suggested that the mice were resistant to re-infection. In the liver, Kupffer cells were augmented 70-fold in PI 1w mice (Psinensis-specific IgG1 and IgG2a strongly increased in RI 1w mice. Secretion of C. sinensis-specific IgE reached a plateau at 4weeks after primary infection, and remained elevated in all infected groups. In conclusion, during infection with C. sinensis, Kupffer cells likely act as antigen-presenting cells, stimulating the Th2 cytokine production system. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Humoral immune response of mice injected with tocopherol after exposure to X-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, R.M.; Petrella, M.

    1987-01-01

    Serum haemagglutination (HA) titers have been determined for irradiated and non-irradiated mice responding to injection of two different concentrations of sheep red blood cells (SRBC) 24 to 48 hours after irradiation and immediate intraperitoneal injection of 2.5 mg DL alpha-tocopherol, the emulsifying vehicle, or saline. Mice maintained on tocopherol-deficient diets for 8 weeks post-weaning and those on regular diets exhibited increased IgG titers during peak response when injected with vitamin E. This partially alleviated the radiation-depression of the primary immune response induced by the smaller SRBC injection. This stimulatory effect was most significant in mice maintained on vitamin E-deficient diets. The HA titers of irradiated and non-irradiated mice maintained on normal rations were determined following a 10-fold increase in the SRBC inoculation. Antibody titer was greater following injection of the higher concentration of SRBC but post-irradiation injection of tocopherol immediately or 24 hours after irradiation did not enhance immune response. At the higher SRBC concentration maximum observed HA titers decreased with increasing dose of radiation; however, tocopherol had no significant dose-reducing effect. Tocopherol toxicity as manifested by depressed HA titers was observed occasionally in non-irradiated mice challenged with the higher concentration of SRBC

  13. Determination of inorganic elements in blood of mice immunized with Bothrops Snake venom using XRF and NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, L F F Lopes; Zamboni, C B; Bahovschi, V; Metairon, S; Suzuki, M F; Sant' Anna, O A; Rizzutto, M A

    2015-01-01

    In this work, mice genetically modified [H III line] were immunized against different Bothrops snake venoms to produce anti-Bothrops serum (antivenom). The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) techniques were used to evaluate Ca and Fe concentrations in blood of these immunized mice in order to establish a potential correlation between both phenotypes: antibody response and blood constituents after Bothrops venom administration. The results were compared with the control group (mice not immunized) and with human being estimative. These data are important for clinical screening of patients submitted to immunological therapy as well as the understanding of the envenoming mechanisms. (paper)

  14. Determination of inorganic elements in blood of mice immunized with Bothrops Snake venom using XRF and NAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes da Silva, L. F. F.; Zamboni, C. B.; Bahovschi, V.; Metairon, S.; Suzuki, M. F.; Sant'Anna, O. A.; Rizzutto, M. A.

    2015-07-01

    In this work, mice genetically modified [HIII line] were immunized against different Bothrops snake venoms to produce anti-Bothrops serum (antivenom). The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) techniques were used to evaluate Ca and Fe concentrations in blood of these immunized mice in order to establish a potential correlation between both phenotypes: antibody response and blood constituents after Bothrops venom administration. The results were compared with the control group (mice not immunized) and with human being estimative. These data are important for clinical screening of patients submitted to immunological therapy as well as the understanding of the envenoming mechanisms.

  15. Attenuated Escherichia coli strains expressing the colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) and a detoxified heat-labile enterotoxin (LThK63) enhance clearance of ETEC from the lungs of mice and protect mice from intestinal ETEC colonization and LT-induced fluid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Wyatt; Boedeker, Edgar C

    2013-03-15

    Although enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections are important causes of infantile and traveler's diarrhea there is no licensed vaccine available for those at-risk. Our goal is to develop a safe, live attenuated ETEC vaccine. We used an attenuated E. coli strain (O157:H7, Δ-intimin, Stx1-neg, Stx2-neg) as a vector (ZCR533) to prepare two vaccine strains, one strain expressing colonization factor antigen I (ZCR533-CFA/I) and one strain expressing CFA/I and a detoxified heat-labile enterotoxin (ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63) to deliver ETEC antigens to mucosal sites in BALB/c mice. Following intranasal and intragastric immunization with the vaccine strains, serum IgG and IgA antibodies were measured to the CFA/I antigen, however, only serum IgG antibodies were detected to the heat-labile enterotoxin. Intranasal administration of the vaccine strains induced respiratory and intestinal antibody responses to the CFA/I and LT antigens, while intragastric administration induced only intestinal antibody responses with no respiratory antibodies detected to the CFA/I and LT antigens. Mice immunized intranasally with the vaccine strains showed enhanced clearance of wild-type (wt) ETEC bacteria from the lungs. Mice immunized intranasally and intragastrically with the vaccine strains were protected from intestinal colonization following oral challenge with ETEC wt bacteria. Mice immunized intragastrically with the ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63 vaccine strain had less fluid accumulate in their intestine following challenge with ETEC wt bacteria or with purified LT as compared to the sham mice indicating that the immunized mice were protected from LT-induced intestinal fluid accumulation. Thus, mice intragastrically immunized with the ZCR533-CFA/I+LThK63 vaccine strain were able to effectively neutralize the activity of the LT enterotoxin. However, no difference in intestinal fluid accumulation was detected in the mice immunized intranasally with the vaccine strain as compared to the sham

  16. Vitamin B5 Reduces Bacterial Growth via Regulating Innate Immunity and Adaptive Immunity in Mice Infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

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    Wenting He

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which vitamins regulate immunity and their effect as an adjuvant treatment for tuberculosis have gradually become very important research topics. Studies have found that vitamin B5 (VB5 can promote epithelial cells to express inflammatory cytokines. We aimed to examine the proinflammatory and antibacterial effect of VB5 in macrophages infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB strain H37Rv and the therapeutic potential of VB5 in vivo with tuberculosis. We investigated the activation of inflammatory signal molecules (NF-κB, AKT, JNK, ERK, and p38, the expression of two primary inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6 and the bacterial burdens in H37Rv-infected macrophages stimulated with VB5 to explore the effect of VB5 on the inflammatory and antibacterial responses of macrophages. We further treated the H37Rv-infected mice with VB5 to explore VB5’s promotion of the clearance of H37Rv in the lungs and the effect of VB5 on regulating the percentage of inflammatory cells. Our data showed that VB5 enhanced the phagocytosis and inflammatory response in macrophages infected with H37Rv. Oral administration of VB5 decreased the number of colony-forming units of H37Rv in lungs of mice at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after infection. In addition, VB5 regulated the percentage of macrophages and promoted CD4+ T cells to express interferon-γ and interleukin-17; however, it had no effect on the percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. In conclusion, VB5 significantly inhibits the growth of MTB by regulating innate immunity and adaptive immunity.

  17. Immunotoxic effect of thiamethoxam in immunized mice with Brucella abortus cultural filtrate antigen

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    L. H. Salema

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was planned for determination the toxic effect of thiamethoxam (TMX in immunized mice with Brucella abortus culture filtrate antigen (CFBAgs (as a vaccine and its role of TMX on decrease activity of B. abortus antigen on eliciting of humoral and cellular immunity. Materials and Methods: To achieve these goals 60 female mice were used, 7-8 weeks age, they were divided equally into three groups (20 in each group and treated as follows: 1st group: Mice were immunized with CFBAgs intraperitoneally in two doses, 2 weeks intervals with (protein concentration 2 mg\\ml, 2nd group: Mice immunized as in the 1st group and was administrated orally with 1/10 lethal dose 50% of TMX (83.7 mg/kg B.W. for 4 weeks daily, 3rd group was administrated orally with 0.3 ml normal saline served as a control group. At day 28 post immunization (PI delayed type hypersensitivity (skin test was done, and serum samples were collected at day 30 (PI for detection of passive hemagglutination test (PHA; interferon gamma (IFN-γ which was done by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test in addition to phagocytes assay. Results: The results of skin test post injection with soluble antigen of B. abortus intradermally showed a high significantly mean values at p≤0.05 of footpad skin thickness in the 1st group of mice which recorded (0.51±0.002 mm as compared with the 2nd group of mice which showed (0.08±0.002 mm after 24 h; the mean values of skin thickness were declined in the 1st mice (0.46±0.002 and 2nd mice (0.070±0.001 at 48 h; control group showed a negative results. These results were agreed with results of serum levels of IFN-γ (pg/ml that showed that a significant increase the vaccinated 1st group (406.36±1.52, than those values in the 2nd group (151.61±0.89 and negative result in 3rd group (46.47±0.60, in addition to results of PHA test which showed a significant increase in antibody titer in the 1st group (139±12.16 with low level of serum antibody

  18. Impaired immune responses in the lungs of aged mice following influenza infection

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    Toapanta Franklin R

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Each year, influenza virus infection causes severe morbidity and mortality, particularly in the most susceptible groups including children, the elderly (>65 years-old and people with chronic respiratory diseases. Among the several factors that contribute to the increased susceptibility in elderly populations are the higher prevalence of chronic diseases (e.g. diabetes and the senescence of the immune system. Methods In this study, aged and adult mice were infected with sublethal doses of influenza virus (A/Puerto Rico/8/1934. Differences in weight loss, morbidity, virus titer and the kinetics of lung infiltration with cells of the innate and adaptive immune responses were analyzed. Additionally, the main cytokines and chemokines produced by these cells were also assayed. Results Compared to adult mice, aged mice had higher morbidity, lost weight more rapidly, and recovered more slowly from infection. There was a delay in the accumulation of granulocytic cells and conventional dendritic cells (cDCs, but not macrophages in the lungs of aged mice compared to adult animals. The delayed infiltration kinetics of APCs in aged animals correlated with alteration in their activation (CD40 expression, which also correlated with a delayed detection of cytokines and chemokines in lung homogenates. This was associated with retarded lung infiltration by natural killer (NK, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. Furthermore, the percentage of activated (CD69+ influenza-specific and IL-2 producer CD8+ T-cells was higher in adult mice compared to aged ones. Additionally, activation (CD69+ of adult B-cells was earlier and correlated with a quicker development of neutralizing antibodies in adult animals. Conclusion Overall, alterations in APC priming and activation lead to delayed production of cytokines and chemokines in the lungs that ultimately affected the infiltration of immune cells following influenza infection. This resulted in delayed activation of the

  19. Immune Humanization of Immunodeficient Mice Using Diagnostic Bone Marrow Aspirates from Carcinoma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner-Klein, Melanie; Proske, Judith; Werno, Christian; Schneider, Katharina; Hofmann, Hans-Stefan; Rack, Brigitte; Buchholz, Stefan; Ganzer, Roman; Blana, Andreas; Seelbach-Göbel, Birgit; Nitsche, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Tumor xenografts in immunodeficient mice, while routinely used in cancer research, preclude studying interactions of immune and cancer cells or, if humanized by allogeneic immune cells, are of limited use for tumor-immunological questions. Here, we explore a novel way to generate cancer models with an autologous humanized immune system. We demonstrate that hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) from bone marrow aspirates of non-metastasized carcinoma patients, which are taken at specialized centers for diagnostic purposes, can be used to generate a human immune system in NOD-scid IL2rγ(null) (NSG) and HLA-I expressing NSG mice (NSG-HLA-A2/HHD) comprising both, lymphoid and myeloid cell lineages. Using NSG-HLA-A2/HHD mice, we show that responsive and self-tolerant human T cells develop and human antigen presenting cells can activate human T cells. As critical factors we identified the low potential of bone marrow HSPCs to engraft, generally low HSPC numbers in patient-derived bone marrow samples, cryopreservation and routes of cell administration. We provide here an optimized protocol that uses a minimum number of HSPCs, preselects high-quality bone marrow samples defined by the number of initially isolated leukocytes and intra-femoral or intra-venous injection. In conclusion, the use of diagnostic bone marrow aspirates from non-metastasized carcinoma patients for the immunological humanization of immunodeficient mice is feasible and opens the chance for individualized analyses of anti-tumoral T cell responses. PMID:24830425

  20. Immune humanization of immunodeficient mice using diagnostic bone marrow aspirates from carcinoma patients.

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    Melanie Werner-Klein

    Full Text Available Tumor xenografts in immunodeficient mice, while routinely used in cancer research, preclude studying interactions of immune and cancer cells or, if humanized by allogeneic immune cells, are of limited use for tumor-immunological questions. Here, we explore a novel way to generate cancer models with an autologous humanized immune system. We demonstrate that hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs from bone marrow aspirates of non-metastasized carcinoma patients, which are taken at specialized centers for diagnostic purposes, can be used to generate a human immune system in NOD-scid IL2rγ(null (NSG and HLA-I expressing NSG mice (NSG-HLA-A2/HHD comprising both, lymphoid and myeloid cell lineages. Using NSG-HLA-A2/HHD mice, we show that responsive and self-tolerant human T cells develop and human antigen presenting cells can activate human T cells. As critical factors we identified the low potential of bone marrow HSPCs to engraft, generally low HSPC numbers in patient-derived bone marrow samples, cryopreservation and routes of cell administration. We provide here an optimized protocol that uses a minimum number of HSPCs, preselects high-quality bone marrow samples defined by the number of initially isolated leukocytes and intra-femoral or intra-venous injection. In conclusion, the use of diagnostic bone marrow aspirates from non-metastasized carcinoma patients for the immunological humanization of immunodeficient mice is feasible and opens the chance for individualized analyses of anti-tumoral T cell responses.

  1. Quantitative evaluation of blood elements by neutron activation analysis in mice immunized with Bothrops snake venoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamboni, C.B.; Metairon, S.; Suzuki, M.F.; Furtado, M.F.; Sant'Anna, O.A.; Tambourgi, D.V.

    2009-01-01

    Mice genetically selected for high antibody responsiveness (HIII) were immunized against different Bothrops species snake venoms from distinct region of Brazil. The Neutron Activation Analysis technique was used to evaluate the whole blood concentrations of elements of clinical relevance [Ca, Cl, K, Mg and Na] in order to establish a potential correlation between antibody response and blood constituents after Bothrops venom administration for clinical screening of envenomed patients. (author)

  2. Distinctive cellular immunity in genetically susceptible BALB/c mice recovered from Leishmania major infection or after subcutaneous immunization with killed parasites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liew, F.Y.; Dhaliwal, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Genetically susceptible BALB/c mice are refractory to further infection after recovery from Leishmania major infection after a sublethal dose of gamma-irradiation. In contrast, mice immunized with killed promastigotes s.c. develop exacerbated lesions after infection. Both groups of mice produce only a low level of specific antibody and no detectable cytotoxic T cells, but do have a strong antigen-specific DTH, which is adoptively transferable with Lyt-1+2-, L3T4+ T cells. Kinetic and histological studies revealed that mice immunized s.c. developed Jones-Mote hypersensitivity, peaking at 15 hr. with little mononuclear cell infiltration at the site of antigen administration; whereas mice that had recovered from infection developed tuberculin-type of reactivity, peaking at 24 to 48 hr, with intense mononuclear cell infiltration. Splenic T cells from recovered mice, when injected into the footpads of normal recipients together with live promastigotes, were able to retard lesion development; whereas T cells from s.c. immunized mice, when similarly transferred, accelerated disease progression. Antigen-specific culture supernatant of spleen cells from recovered mice also activated normal resident peritoneal macrophages to kill intracellular L. major amastigotes and tumor cells. Culture supernatants of spleen cells from s.c. immunized or normal mice were devoid of such activities. Part of the macrophage-activating potential can be inhibited by antibody specific for IFN-gamma. These results therefore demonstrate that whereas the Jones-Mote reaction is correlated with disease exacerbation, the tuberculin-type of DTH may be protective. Furthermore, in vivo immunity is directly related to the capacity of T cells to produce macrophage-activating factor

  3. Activation of specific cellular immunity toward murine leukemia in mice rejecting syngeneic somatic hybrid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, W.; Cohen, E.P.

    1977-01-01

    ASL-1 x LM(TK) - somatic hybrid cells form both H-2/sup a/ and H-2/sup k/ antigen complexes. After forming a localized tumor in syngeneic (A/J x C 3 H/HeJ)F 1 mice, they are rejected. Such mice are resistant to otherwise invariably lethal injections of ASL-1 cells, surviving for prolonged and, in some instances, indefinite periods. To examine the basis of immunity, the capacity of spleen cells from mice rejecting hybrid cells to stimulate the release of 51 Cr from labeled ASL-1 cells was investigated. Cells from the spleens of mice rejecting ASL-1 x LM(TK) - cells stimulated the release of 51 Cr from labeled ASL-1 cells, but not from Ehrlich ascites or P815 cells. Cells from mice injected with mitomycin-C-treated ASL-1 cells led to the release of 51 Cr from labeled ASL-1 cells as well, but the extent of 51 Cr release was approximately one-third as occurred in the presence of cells from hybrid cell-injected mice. Cells from noninjected mice or from mice injected with LM(TK) - cells failed to lead to the specific release of 51 Cr from ASL-1 cells. The presence of unlabeled ASL-1 cells, but not Ehrlich ascites cells, competitively inhibited the spleen cell-stimulated release of 51 Cr from labeled ASL-1 cells. Sera from A/J mice injected with mitomycin-C-treated ASL-1 cells contained antibodies specific for the tumor-associated antigen of ASL-1 cells

  4. Immunization of mice with LRP4 induces myasthenia similar to MuSK-associated myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Shuuichi; Motohashi, Norio; Takashima, Rumi; Kishi, Masahiko; Nishimune, Hiroshi; Shigemoto, Kazuhiro

    2017-11-01

    Since the first report of experimental animal models of myasthenia gravis (MG) with autoantibodies against low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4), there have not been any major reports replicating the pathogenicity of anti-LRP4 antibodies (Abs). Recent clinical studies have cast doubt on the specificity and pathogenicity of anti-LRP4 antibodies for MG, highlighting the need for further research. In this study, we purified antigens corresponding to the extracellular region of human LRP4 stably expressed with chaperones in 293 cells and used these antigens to immunize female A/J mice. Immunization with LRP4 protein caused mice to develop myasthenia having similar electrophysiological and histological features as are observed in MG patients with circulating Abs against muscle-specific kinase (MuSK). Our results clearly demonstrate that active immunization of mice with LRP4 proteins causes myasthenia similar to the MG induced by anti-MuSK Abs. Further experimental and clinical studies are required to prove the pathogenicity of anti-LRP4 Abs in MG patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of soybean oligosaccharides on intestinal microbial communities and immune modulation in mice

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    Yan Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Soybean oligosaccharides (SBOSs are potential prebiotics that may be used to improve immune function. Here, we investigated the effects of intragastric administration of SBOSs in mice to determine the effects on autochthonous intestinal microbial communities and immunological parameters. Results E: After 22-day administration, 4.0 g kg body weight (BW−1 SBOSs significantly enhanced the proliferation of bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria (LAB as compared to the control. This dose of SBOSs also significantly increased numbers of enterococci and decreased numbers of Clostridium perfringens. Treatment with 4.0 g kg BW−1 SBOSs also significantly increased the percentage of T-lymphocytes and lymphocyte proliferation as compared to the control, suggesting that SBOSs promoted cellular immunity in mice. Additionally, 4.0 g kg BW−1 SBOSs induced significant differences in hemolysin production, natural killer (NK cell activity, phagocytic activity, cytokine production, and immunoglobulin levels compared to the control. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated that intragastric administration of SBOSs at a dose of 4.0 g kg BW−1 improved the numbers of beneficial intestinal microbes and enhanced immunological function of mice. Therefore, these data supported that SBOSs may have applications as a prebiotic to improve immune responses in humans. Further studies are warranted.

  6. The role of recombinant IL-12 in enhancing immune responses induced by hepatitis B vaccine in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Qun; Zhou Lixia; Zhao Yanrong; Miao Xiaoguang; Jin Jie; Ke Jinshan; Qin Xuliang; He Zheng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the role played by recombinant IL-12 in enhancing the intensity and quality of the immune response to hepatitis B vaccine in mice, and investigate the possibility of adding recombinant IL-12 as adjuvants to hepatitis B therapeutic vaccine. Methods: Recombinant IL-12 was injected together with hepatitis B vaccine into mice and special anti-HBsAb in the mice and the cellular immune responses were examined. Results: Recombinant IL-12 can obviously enhance T lymphocyte multiplication activity, accelerate excretion of cytokines IFN-γ and IL-2, and increase the IgG2a antibody in mice. Conclusion: Recombinant IL-12 can remarkably strengthen the cellular immune responses induced by the hepatitis B vaccine, and modulate the immune responses toward Thl. (authors)

  7. Integrated approach reveals diet, APOE genotype and sex affect immune response in APP mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kyong Nyon; Wolfe, Cody M; Fitz, Nicholas F; Letronne, Florent; Castranio, Emilie L; Mounier, Anais; Schug, Jonathan; Lefterov, Iliya; Koldamova, Radosveta

    2018-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder that is influenced by genetic and environmental risk factors, such as inheritance of ε4 allele of APOE (APOE4), sex and diet. Here, we examined the effect of high fat diet (HFD) on amyloid pathology and expression profile in brains of AD model mice expressing human APOE isoforms (APP/E3 and APP/E4 mice). APP/E3 and APP/E4 mice were fed HFD or Normal diet for 3months. We found that HFD significantly increased amyloid plaques in male and female APP/E4, but not in APP/E3 mice. To identify differentially expressed genes and gene-networks correlated to diet, APOE isoform and sex, we performed RNA sequencing and applied Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis. We determined that the immune response network with major hubs Tyrobp/DAP12, Csf1r, Tlr2, C1qc and Laptm5 correlated significantly and positively to the phenotype of female APP/E4-HFD mice. Correspondingly, we found that in female APP/E4-HFD mice, microglia coverage around plaques, particularly of larger size, was significantly reduced. This suggests altered containment of the plaque growth and sex-dependent vulnerability in response to diet. The results of our study show concurrent impact of diet, APOE isoform and sex on the brain transcriptome and AD-like phenotype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Babassu aqueous extract (BAE as an adjuvant for T helper (Th1-dependent immune responses in mice of a Th2 immune response-prone strain

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    Nascimento Flavia RF

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aqueous extract of a Brazilian palm-tree fruit - the babassu - (BAE exerts a clear immunostimulative activity in vivo. In the present work, the possibility that BAE can promote Th1 immune responses in mice of a Th2 immune response-prone strain - the BALB/c was investigated. BAE itself, and preparations consisting of Leishmania amazonensis promastigote extract (LE, adsorbed or not to Al(OH3, and in the presence or not of BAE, were used as immunogens. LE and Al(OH3 have been shown to preferentially elicit Th2 immune responses. Results The addition of BAE to LE-containing immunogenic preparations, adsorbed or not to Al(OH3, clearly promoted the in vitro production of interferon γ (IFN-γ, a major Th1-dependent cytokine, and not of interleukin (IL-4 (a Th2-dependent cytokine, by LE-stimulated splenocytes of immunized BALB/c mice. It also promoted the in vivo formation of IgG2a anti-LE antibodies. However, immunization with LE by itself led to an increased production of IL-4 by LE-stimulated splenocytes, and this production, albeit not enhanced, was not reduced by the addition of BAE to the immunogen. On the other hand, the IL-4 production by LE-stimulated splenocytes was significantly lower in mice immunized with a preparation containing Al(OH3-adsorbed LE and BAE than in mice immunized with the control preparation of Al(OH3-adsorbed LE without BAE. Moreover, an increased production of IFN-γ, and not of IL-4, was observed in the culture supernatants of splenocytes, from BAE-immunized mice, which were in vitro stimulated with BAE or which received no specific in vitro stimulus. No differences in IL-10 (an immunoregulatory cytokine levels in the supernatants of splenocytes from mice that were injected with BAE, in relation to splenocytes from control mice, were observed. The spontaneous ex vivo production of NO by splenocytes of mice that had been injected with BAE was significantly higher than the production of NO by

  9. Defective B cell response to T-dependent immunization in lupus-prone mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Haitao; Sobel, Eric S.; Morel, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    Lupus anti-nuclear Abs show the characteristics of Ag-driven T cell-dependent (TD) humoral responses. If autoAgs elicit the same response as exogenous Ags, lupus should enhance humoral responses to immunization. Blunted responses to various immunizations have, however, been reported in a significant portion of lupus patients. In this study, we show that lupus-prone B6.Sle1.Sle2.Sle3 (B6.TC) mice produce significantly less Ab in response to TD immunization than congenic controls, while producing significantly more total Ig. This blunted Ab response to TD Ag could be reconstituted with B6.TC B and CD4+ T cells. Multiple defects were found in the B6.TC response to NP-KLH as compared to total Ig, including a smaller percentage of B cells participating to the NP-response, a reduced entry into germinal centers, and highly defective production of NP-specific long-lived plasma cells in the bone marrow. B6.TC plasma cells expressed reduced levels of FcγRIIb, which suggests that reduced apoptosis in resident plasma cells prevents the establishment of newly-formed NP-specific plasma cells in bone marrow niches. Overall, these results show that lupus-prone mice responded differently to auto- and exogenous antigens and suggest that low FcγRIIb, hypergammaglobulinemia and high autoantibody production would be predictive of a poor response to immunization in lupus patients. PMID:18924209

  10. Increasing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Yield to Develop Mice with Human Immune Systems

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    Juan-Carlos Biancotti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs are unique in their capacity to give rise to all mature cells of the immune system. For years, HSC transplantation has been used for treatment of genetic and neoplastic diseases of the hematopoietic and immune systems. The sourcing of HSCs from human umbilical cord blood has salient advantages over isolation from mobilized peripheral blood. However, poor sample yield has prompted development of methodologies to expand HSCs ex vivo. Cytokines, trophic factors, and small molecules have been variously used to promote survival and proliferation of HSCs in culture, whilst strategies to lower the concentration of inhibitors in the culture media have recently been applied to promote HSC expansion. In this paper, we outline strategies to expand HSCs in vitro, and to improve engraftment and reconstitution of human immune systems in immunocompromised mice. To the extent that these “humanized” mice are representative of the endogenous human immune system, they will be invaluable tools for both basic science and translational medicine.

  11. Effects of fenbendazole on routine immune response parameters of BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cray, Carolyn; Villar, David; Zaias, Julia; Altman, Norman H

    2008-11-01

    Fenbendazole (FBZ) is an anthelmintic drug widely used to treat and prevent pinworm outbreaks in laboratory rodents. Although data in nonrodent species indicate possible effects of fenbendazole on the bone marrow and lymphocyte proliferation and function, little has been reported regarding possible effects on the rodent immune system. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of a therapeutic regimen of FBZ on immune parameters in BALB/c mice. Both 9-wk on-off and 5-wk continuous medicated feed protocols were assessed. No significant differences between normal and FBZ diet treated mice were observed in the following parameters: complete blood count, blood chemistry, quantitation of major T and B cell markers in spleen, quantitation of T cell markers in the thymus, spleen cell proliferation to T and B cell mitogens, bone marrow colony-forming cell assays, skin graft rejection, and primary and secondary humoral immune responses. These data indicate that FBZ treatment does not affect many standard broad measures of immune function.

  12. Systemic Immune Activation Leads to Neuroinflammation and Sickness Behavior in Mice

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    Steven Biesmans

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Substantial evidence indicates an association between clinical depression and altered immune function. Systemic administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS is commonly used to study inflammation-associated behavioral changes in rodents. In these experiments, we tested the hypothesis that peripheral immune activation leads to neuroinflammation and depressive-like behavior in mice. We report that systemic administration of LPS induced astrocyte activation in transgenic GFAP-luc mice and increased immunoreactivity against the microglial marker ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 in the dentate gyrus of wild-type mice. Furthermore, LPS treatment caused a strong but transient increase in cytokine levels in the serum and brain. In addition to studying LPS-induced neuroinflammation, we tested whether sickness could be separated from depressive-like behavior by evaluating LPS-treated mice in a panel of behavioral paradigms. Our behavioral data indicate that systemic LPS administration caused sickness and mild depressive-like behavior. However, due to the overlapping time course and mild effects on depression-related behavior per se, it was not possible to separate sickness from depressive-like behavior in the present rodent model.

  13. Stimulatory effect of low dose radiation on the immune function in tumor-bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ying; Li Xiujuan; Li Xiuyi; Liu Shuzheng

    1999-01-01

    Objective: The author aims at investigating the effect of whole body irradiation (WBI) with low dose radiation on immune function in tumor-bearing mice. Methods: C57BL/6J mine implanted with Lewis lung carcinoma cells in the right thighs were used as an experimental animal model. WBI with 75 mGy X-rays was given at the 10 th day after implantation and immunological parameters were detected 18 hours after irradiation. The immunological parameters included the spontaneous incorporation of 3 H-TdR into thymocytes, the number of splenocytes, the reaction of splenocytes to ConA and LPS, the splenic production of IL-2, the cytotoxic activities of natural killer (NK) and lymphokine activated killer cells (LAK) as well as specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Results: The immunological parameters of irradiated tumor-bearing mice were significantly increased compared with those of sham-irradiated tumor-bearing mice (P<0.05∼0.01). Conclusion: Low dose radiation could significantly increase the immune function of tumor-bearing mice, and this stimulatory effect may be of some potential significance in tumor therapy

  14. Effect of cytokine-encoding plasmid delivery on immune response to Japanese encephalitis virus DNA vaccine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharati, Kaushik; Appaiahgari, Mohan Babu; Vrati, Sudhanshu

    2005-01-01

    We have previously shown that immunization of mice with plasmid pMEa synthesizing Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) envelope protein induced anti-JEV humoral and cellular immune responses. We now show that intra-muscular co-administration of mice with pMEa and pGM-CSF, encoding murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor or pIL-2, encoding murine interleukin-2 given 4 days after pMEa, augmented anti-JEV antibody titers. This did not enhance the level of protection in immunized mice against JEV. However, intra-dermal co-administration of pMEa and pGM-CSF in mice using the gene gun, enhanced anti-JEV antibody titers resulting in an increased level of protection in mice against lethal JEV challenge.

  15. CT of intranasal pleomorphic adenoma

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    Clark, M.; Fatterpekar, G.M.; Mukherji, S.K.; Buenting, J. [Department of Radiology, 3324 Infirmary CB F 7510, University of North Carolina, School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7510 (United States)

    1999-08-01

    Intranasal pleomorphic adenoma is rare. We report the CT features this tumor in a 41-year-old woman who presented to us with right nasal obstruction and a 2-day history of epistaxis. (orig.) With 3 figs., 9 refs.

  16. Ocular myasthenia gravis induced by human acetylcholine receptor ϵ subunit immunization in HLA DR3 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaorong; Tuzun, Erdem; Saini, Shamsher S; Wang, Jun; Li, Jing; Aguilera-Aguirre, Leopoldo; Huda, Ruksana; Christadoss, Premkumar

    2015-12-01

    Extraocular muscles (EOM) are preferentially involved in myasthenia gravis (MG) and acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody positive MG patients may occasionally present with isolated ocular symptoms. Although experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) induced by whole AChR immunization closely mimics clinical and immunopathological aspects of MG, EOM are usually not affected. We have previously developed an EAMG model, which imitates EOM symptoms of MG by immunization of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) transgenic mice with α or γ-subunits of human AChR (H-AChR). To investigate the significance of the ϵ-subunit in ocular MG, we immunized HLA-DR3 and HLA-DQ8 transgenic mice with recombinant H-AChR ϵ-subunit expressed in Escherichia coli. HLA-DR3 transgenic mice showed significantly higher clinical ocular and generalized MG severity scores and lower grip strength values than HLA-DQ8 mice. H-AChR ϵ-subunit-immunized HLA-DR3 transgenic mice had higher serum anti-AChR antibody (IgG, IgG1, IgG2b, IgG2c and IgM) levels, neuromuscular junction IgG and complement deposit percentages than ϵ-subunit-immunized HLA-DQ8 transgenic mice. Control mice immunized with E. coli extract or complete Freund adjuvant (CFA) did not show clinical and immunopathological features of ocular and generalized EAMG. Lymph node cells of ϵ-subunit-immunized HLA-DR3 mice showed significantly higher proliferative responses than those of ϵ-subunit-immunized HLA-DQ8 mice, crude E. coli extract-immunized and CFA-immunized transgenic mice. Our results indicate that the human AChR ϵ-subunit is capable of inducing myasthenic muscle weakness. Diversity of the autoimmune responses displayed by mice expressing different HLA class II molecules suggests that the interplay between HLA class II alleles and AChR subunits might have a profound impact on the clinical course of MG. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Consequences of bisphenol a perinatal exposure on immune responses and gut barrier function in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaisé, Yann; Ménard, Sandrine; Cartier, Christel; Lencina, Corinne; Sommer, Caroline; Gaultier, Eric; Houdeau, Eric; Guzylack-Piriou, Laurence

    2018-01-01

    The potent immunomodulatory effect of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A during development and consequences during life span are of increasing concern. Particular interests have been raised from animal studies regarding the risk of developing food intolerance and infection. We aimed to identify immune disorders in mice triggered by perinatal exposure to bisphenol A. Gravid mice were orally exposed to bisphenol (50 μg/kg body weight/day) from day 15 of pregnancy until weaning. Gut barrier function, local and systemic immunity were assessed in adult female offspring. Mice perinatally exposed to bisphenol showed a decrease in ileal lysozyme expression and a fall of fecal antimicrobial activity. In offspring mice exposed to bisphenol, an increase in colonic permeability was observed associated with an increase in interferon-γ level and a drop of colonic IgA + cells and fecal IgA production. Interestingly, altered frequency of innate lymphoid cells type 3 occurred in the small intestine, with an increase in IgG response against commensal bacteria in sera. These effects were related to a defect in dendritic cell maturation in the lamina propria and spleen. Activated and regulatory T cells were decreased in the lamina propria. Furthermore, perinatal exposure to bisphenol promoted a sharp increase in interferon-γ and interleukin-17 production in the intestine and elicited a T helper 17 profile in the spleen. To conclude, perinatal exposure to bisphenol weakens protective and regulatory immune functions in the intestine and at systemic level in adult offspring. The increased susceptibility to inflammatory response is an interesting lead supporting bisphenol-mediated adverse consequences on food reactions and infections.

  18. Immunization against Rabies with Plant-Derived Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modelska, Anna; Dietzschold, Bernard; Sleysh, N.; Fu, Zhen Fang; Steplewski, Klaudia; Hooper, D. Craig; Koprowski, Hilary; Yusibov, Vidadi

    1998-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that recombinant plant virus particles containing a chimeric peptide representing two rabies virus epitopes stimulate virus neutralizing antibody synthesis in immunized mice. We show here that mice immunized intraperitoneally or orally (by gastric intubation or by feeding on virus-infected spinach leaves) with engineered plant virus particles containing rabies antigen mount a local and systemic immune response. After the third dose of antigen, given intraperitoneally, 40% of the mice were protected against challenge infection with a lethal dose of rabies virus. Oral administration of the antigen stimulated serum IgG and IgA synthesis and ameliorated the clinical signs caused by intranasal infection with an attenuated rabies virus strain.

  19. [Intestinal disorder of anaerobic bacteria aggravates pulmonary immune pathological injury of mice infected with influenza virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sha; Yan, Yuqi; Zhang, Mengyuan; Shi, Shanshan; Jiang, Zhenyou

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the relationship between the intestinal disorder of anaerobic bacteria and influenza virus infection, and the effect on pulmonary inflammatory cytokines in mice. Totally 36 mice were randomly divided into normal control group, virus-infected group and metronidazole treatment group (12 mice in each group). Mice in the metronidazole group were administrated orally with metronidazole sulfate for 8 days causing anaerobic bacteria flora imbalance; then all groups except the normal control group were treated transnasally with influenza virus (50 μL/d FM1) for 4 days to establish the influenza virus-infected models. Their mental state and lung index were observed, and the pathological morphological changes of lung tissues, caecum and intestinal mucosa were examined by HE staining. The levels of interleukin 4 (IL-4), interferon γ (IFN-γ), IL-10 and IL-17 in the lung homogenates were determined by ELISA. Compared with the virus control group, the metronidazole group showed obviously increased lung index and more serious pathological changes of the lung tissue and appendix inflammation performance. After infected by the FM1 influenza virus, IFN-γ and IL-17 of the metronidazole group decreased significantly and IL-4 and IL-10 levels were raised, but there was no statistically difference between the metronidazole and virus control groups. Intestinal anaerobic bacteria may inhibit the adaptive immune response in the lungs of mice infected with FM1 influenza virus through adjusting the lung inflammatory factors, affect the replication and clean-up time of the FM1 influenza virus, thus further aggravating pulmonary immune pathological injury caused by the influenza virus infection.

  20. Induction of cell-mediated immunity to Mycobacterium leprae in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, P.J.; Lefford, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    The immune response of mice to armadillo-derived, irradiation-killed Mycobacterium leprae (I-ML) was investigated. Following injection of 100 microgram of I-ML into the left hind footpads of mice, a state of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) was engendered to antigens of M. leprae. The evidence for CMI was as follows: (1) development of delayed-type hypersensitivity to both human tuberculin purified protein derivative and soluble M. leprae antigens; (2) T-lymphocyte-dependent macrophage activation at the inoculation site; (3) specific systemaic resistance to the cross-reactive species M. tuberculosis; and (4) immunopotentiation of the delayed-type hypersensitivity response to an unrelated antigen. The CMI induced by I-ML in aqueous suspension was greater than that obtained with the same antigen in water-in-oil emulsion, even though the latter generated a more severe reaction at the site of immunization. I-ML also induced a stronger CMI response than the corresponding dose of heat-killed BCG.

  1. Chloroquine Engages the Immune System to Eradicate Irradiated Breast Tumors in Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratikan, Josephine Anna; Sayre, James William; Schaue, Dörthe

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study used chloroquine to direct radiation-induced tumor cell death pathways to harness the antitumor activity of the immune system. Methods and Materials: Chloroquine given immediately after tumor irradiation increased the cure rate of MCaK breast cancer in C3H mice. Chloroquine blocked radiation-induced autophagy and drove MCaK cells into a more rapid apoptotic and more immunogenic form of cell death. Results: Chloroquine treatment made irradiated tumor vaccines superior at inducing strong interferon gamma-associated immune responses in vivo and protecting mice from further tumor challenge. In vitro, chloroquine slowed antigen uptake and degradation by dendritic cells, although T-cell stimulation was unaffected. Conclusions: This study illustrates a novel approach to improve the efficacy of breast cancer radiation therapy by blocking endosomal pathways, which enhances radiation-induced cell death within the field and drives antitumor immunity to assist therapeutic cure. The study illuminates and merges seemingly disparate concepts regarding the importance of autophagy in cancer therapy

  2. Apolipoprotein E-specific innate immune response in astrocytes from targeted replacement mice

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    Montine Thomas J

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inheritance of the three different alleles of the human apolipoprotein (apo E gene (APOE are associated with varying risk or clinical outcome from a variety of neurologic diseases. ApoE isoform-specific modulation of several pathogenic processes, in addition to amyloid β metabolism in Alzheimer's disease, have been proposed: one of these is innate immune response by glia. Previously we have shown that primary microglia cultures from targeted replacement (TR APOE mice have apoE isoform-dependent innate immune activation and paracrine damage to neurons that is greatest with TR by the ε4 allele (TR APOE4 and that derives from p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK activity. Methods Primary cultures of TR APOE2, TR APOE3 and TR APOE4 astrocytes were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. ApoE secretion, cytokine production, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB subunit activity were measured and compared. Results Here we showed that activation of primary astrocytes from TR APOE mice with LPS led to TR APOE-dependent differences in cytokine secretion that were greatest in TR APOE2 and that were associated with differences in NF-κB subunit activity. Conclusion Our results suggest that LPS activation of innate immune response in TR APOE glia results in opposing outcomes from microglia and astrocytes as a result of TR APOE-dependent activation of p38MAPK or NF-κB signaling in these two cell types.

  3. Cell-mediated immune suppression effect of rocket kerosene through dermal exposure in mice

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    Bing-xin XU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the effect of cell-mediated immune suppression effect of rocket kerosene (RK through dermal application in mice. Methods Skin delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH was used to observe the relation of the RK amount the skin exposed and the cellular immune inhibitory function. Different amount of the undiluted fuel was smeared directly onto the dorsal skin of mice. Mice in negative and positive control groups were treated with acetone. After the last exposure, all the mice except those in negative control group were allergized by evenly smearing with 1% dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB solution on their dorsum. Five days after allergy, 1% DNFB solution was smeared onto right ear of all mice to stimulate the allergic reaction. Twenty-four hours after attack, the auricle swelling, spleen index and thymus index in corresponding mice were determined. In the first series of experiments, different dosages of RK were applied once, and the ICR mice were randomly divided into negative control group, positive control group and experimental group (0.5ml/kg.BW×1, 1ml/kg.BW×1 and 2ml/kg.BW×1 group. In the second series of experiments, the certain and same dosage of RK was applied for different times, and the ICR mice were randomly divided into negative control group, positive control group and experimental group (0.5ml/kg.BW×1, 0.5mL/kg.BW×2, 0.5ml/kg.BW×3, 0.5ml/kg.BW×4 and 0.5mL/kg.BW×5 group. In the third series of experiments, the different dosages of RK were applied more than once, and the ICR mice were randomly divided into negative control group, positive control group and experimental group (0.5ml/kg.BW×5, 1ml/kg.BW×5 and 2ml/kg.BW×5 group. Lymphocyte proliferation experiment in vitrowas conducted to observe the persistent time of the cell-mediated immune suppression in mice by RK dermal exposure. The lymphocyte proliferation induced by concanavalin A (Con A was analyzed by MTT assay, and T lymphocyte subsets (CD3+, CD4+ and CD

  4. TRPV1 Antagonism by Capsazepine Modulates Innate Immune Response in Mice Infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA

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    Elizabeth S. Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of people suffer from severe malaria every year. The innate immune response plays a determinant role in host’s defence to malaria. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 modulates macrophage-mediated responses in sepsis, but its role in other pathogenic diseases has never been addressed. We investigated the effects of capsazepine, a TRPV1 antagonist, in malaria. C57BL/6 mice received 105 red blood cells infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA intraperitoneally. Noninfected mice were used as controls. Capsazepine or vehicle was given intraperitoneally for 6 days. Mice were culled on day 7 after infection and blood and spleen cell phenotype and activation were evaluated. Capsazepine decreased circulating but not spleen F4/80+Ly6G+ cell numbers as well as activation of both F4/80+and F4/80+Ly6G+ cells in infected animals. In addition, capsazepine increased circulating but not spleen GR1+ and natural killer (NK population, without interfering with natural killer T (NKT cell numbers and blood NK and NKT activation. However, capsazepine diminished CD69 expression in spleen NKT but not NK cells. Infection increased lipid peroxidation and the release of TNFα and IFNγ, although capsazepine-treated group exhibited lower levels of lipid peroxidation and TNFα. Capsazepine treatment did not affect parasitaemia. Overall, TRPV1 antagonism modulates the innate immune response to malaria.

  5. Radiation-resistant acquired immunity of vaccinated mice to Schistosoma mansoni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, R.; Coulson, P.S.; Dixon, B.; Wilson, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Vaccination of mice with attenuated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni induces specific acquired resistance to challenge infection. This resistance is immunologically-mediated, possibly via a delayed-type hypersensitivity. Studies of parasite migration have shown that the protective mechanism operates most effectively in the lungs of vaccinated mice. We have probed the mechanism by exposing mice to 500 rads of gamma radiation before challenge infection. Our results show that the effector mechanism operative against challenge larvae is resistant to radiation. In contrast, classical immune responses are markedly suppressed by the same treatment. While leukocyte populations in the blood fall dramatically after irradiation, numbers of cells recoverable by bronchoalveolar lavage are unaffected. We suggest that vaccination with attenuated cercariae establishes populations of sensitized cells in the lungs which trigger the mechanism of resistance when challenge schistosomula migrate through pulmonary capillary beds. Although the cells may be partially disabled by irradiation, they remain responsive to worm antigens and thereby capable of initiating the elimination mechanism. This hypothesis would explain the radiation resistance of vaccine-induced immunity to S. mansoni

  6. Active immunizations with peptide-DC vaccines and passive transfer with antibodies protect neutropenic mice against disseminated candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hong

    2016-01-04

    We previously report that peptide-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) vaccination, which targeting two peptides (Fba and Met6) expressed on the cell surface of Candida albicans, can induce high degree of protection against disseminated candidiasis in immunocompetent mice. Passive transfer of immune sera from the peptide immunized mice or peptide-related monoclonal antibodies demonstrated that protection was medicated by peptide-specific antibodies. In this study the efficacy of active and passive immunization against disseminated candidiasis was tested in mice with cyclophosphamide-induced neutropenia. Peptide-DC vaccines were given to mice prior to induction of neutropenia. We show active immunization with either Fba or Met6 peptide-DC vaccine significantly improved the survival and reduced the fungal burden of disseminated candidiasis in those immunocompromised mice. Importantly, we show that administration of two protective monoclonal antibodies also protect neutropenic mice against the disease, implying possibility of developing a successful passive immunotherapy strategy to treat the disease and protect against disseminated candidiasis. The results of this study are crucial as they address the fundamental questions as to whether the synthetic peptide vaccine induced immunity protects the host during a neutropenic episode. We anticipate that this peptide-vaccine study will serve as the foundation of future investigations into new peptide vaccines comprised of cell surface peptides from other medically important Candida species, as well as other fungi. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Active Immunizations with Peptide-DC Vaccines and Passive Transfer with Antibodies Protect Neutropenic Mice against Disseminated Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hong

    2015-01-01

    We previously report that peptide-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) vaccination, which targeting two peptides (Fba and Met6) expressed on the cell surface of Candida albicans, can induce high degree of protection against disseminated candidiasis in immunocompetent mice. Passive transfer of immune sera from the peptide immunized mice or peptide-related monoclonal antibodies demonstrated that protection was medicated by peptide-specific antibodies. In this study the efficacy of active and passive immunization against disseminated candidiasis was tested in mice with cyclophosphamide-induced neutropenia. Peptide-DC vaccines were given to mice prior to induction of neutropenia. We show active immunization with either Fba or Met6 peptide-DC vaccine significantly improved the survival and reduced the fungal burden of disseminated candidiasis in those immunocompromised mice. Importantly, we show that administration of two protective monoclonal antibodies also protect neutropenic mice against the disease, implying possibility of developing a successful passive immunotherapy strategy to treat the disease and protect against disseminated candidiasis. The results of this study are crucial as they address the fundamental questions as to whether the synthetic peptide vaccine induced immunity protects the host during a neutropenic episode. We anticipate that this peptide-vaccine study will serve as the foundation of future investigations into new peptide vaccines comprised of cell surface peptides from other medically important Candida species, as well as other fungi. PMID:26620842

  8. Restoration of the immune functions in aged mice by supplementation with a new herbal composition, HemoHIM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae-Ran; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2008-01-01

    The effect of a new herbal composition, HemoHIM, on immune functions was examined in aged mice, in which various immune responses had been impaired. The composition HemoHIM was prepared by adding the ethanol-insoluble fraction to the total water extract of a mixture of three edible herbs, Angelica Radix, Cnidium Rhizoma and Paeonia Radix. Supplementation to the aged mice with HemoHIM restored the proliferative response and cytokine production of splenocytes with a response to ConA. Also, HemoHIM recovered the NK cell activity which had been impaired in the aged mice. Meanwhile aging is known to reduce the Th1-like function, but not the Th2-like function, resulting in a Th1/Th2 imbalance. HemoHIM restored the Th1/Th2 balance in the aged mice through enhanced IFN-gamma and IgG2a production, and conversely a reduced IL-4 and IgG1 production. It was found that one factor for the Th1/Th2 imbalance in the aged mice was a lower production of IL-12p70. However, HemoHIM restored the IL-12p70 production in the aged mice. These results suggested that HemoHIM was effective for the restoration of impaired immune functions of the aged mice and therefore could be a good recommendation for immune restoration in elderly humans. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Immunization of mice with Lactobacillus casei expressing a beta-intimin fragment reduces intestinal colonization by Citrobacter rodentium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, P C D; da Silva, J B; Piazza, R M F; Eckmann, L; Ho, P L; Oliveira, M L S

    2011-11-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a common cause of diarrhea in children from developing countries. Intimate adhesion of the bacteria to intestinal cells occurs via binding of the adhesin intimin to the TIR receptor exposed on cell surfaces. Here, Lactobacillus casei expressing a fragment of β-intimin (L. casei-Int(cv)) was tested as mucosal vaccines in mice against intestinal colonization with the murine pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. Oral or sublingual immunization of C57BL/6 mice with L. casei-Int(cv) induced anti-Int(cv) IgA in feces but no IgG in sera. Conversely, anti-Int(cv) IgG was induced in the sera of mice after sublingual immunization with purified Int(cv). All vaccines were able to decrease C. rodentium recovery from feces. However, this reduction was more evident and sustained over time in mice immunized with L. casei-Int(cv) by the sublingual route. These mice also displayed an increase in interleukin 6 (IL-6) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) secretion by spleen cells 10 days after infection. Additionally, oral or sublingual immunization of C3H/HePas mice, which are highly susceptible to C. rodentium infection, with L. casei-Int(cv) induced anti-Int(cv) antibodies and significantly increased survival after challenge. Immunohistological analysis of colon sections revealed that C. rodentium was located in deep fractions of the tissue from C3H/HePas mice immunized with L. casei whereas superficial staining was observed in colon sections from mice immunized with L. casei-Int(cv.) The results indicate that vaccines composed of L. casei expressing intimin may represent a promising approach and that the C3H/HePas infection model with C. rodentium can be used to evaluate potential vaccines against EPEC.

  10. Immunization of Mice with Lactobacillus casei Expressing a Beta-Intimin Fragment Reduces Intestinal Colonization by Citrobacter rodentium ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, P. C. D.; da Silva, J. B.; Piazza, R. M. F.; Eckmann, L.; Ho, P. L.; Oliveira, M. L. S.

    2011-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a common cause of diarrhea in children from developing countries. Intimate adhesion of the bacteria to intestinal cells occurs via binding of the adhesin intimin to the TIR receptor exposed on cell surfaces. Here, Lactobacillus casei expressing a fragment of β-intimin (L. casei-Intcv) was tested as mucosal vaccines in mice against intestinal colonization with the murine pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. Oral or sublingual immunization of C57BL/6 mice with L. casei-Intcv induced anti-Intcv IgA in feces but no IgG in sera. Conversely, anti-Intcv IgG was induced in the sera of mice after sublingual immunization with purified Intcv. All vaccines were able to decrease C. rodentium recovery from feces. However, this reduction was more evident and sustained over time in mice immunized with L. casei-Intcv by the sublingual route. These mice also displayed an increase in interleukin 6 (IL-6) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) secretion by spleen cells 10 days after infection. Additionally, oral or sublingual immunization of C3H/HePas mice, which are highly susceptible to C. rodentium infection, with L. casei-Intcv induced anti-Intcv antibodies and significantly increased survival after challenge. Immunohistological analysis of colon sections revealed that C. rodentium was located in deep fractions of the tissue from C3H/HePas mice immunized with L. casei whereas superficial staining was observed in colon sections from mice immunized with L. casei-Intcv. The results indicate that vaccines composed of L. casei expressing intimin may represent a promising approach and that the C3H/HePas infection model with C. rodentium can be used to evaluate potential vaccines against EPEC. PMID:21900533

  11. Vaccination with DNA encoding truncated enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC factor for adherence-1 gene (efa-1’ confers protective immunity to mice infected with E. coli O157:H7

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    Roberto eRiquelme-Neira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC O157:H7 is the predominant causative agent of hemorrhagic colitis in humans and is the cause of haemolytic uraemic syndrome and other illnesses. Cattle have been implicated as the main reservoir of this organism. Here, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine encoding conserved sequences of truncated EHEC factor for adherence-1 (efa-1’ in a mouse model. Intranasal administration of plasmid DNA carrying the efa-1’ gene (pVAXefa-1’ into C57BL/6 mice elicited both humoral and cellular immune responses. In animals immunized with pVAXefa-1`, EHEC-secreted protein-specific IgM and IgG antibodies were detected in sera at day 45. Anti-EHEC-secreted protein sIgA was also detected in nasal and bronchoalveolar lavages. In addition, antigen-specific T-cell-proliferation, IL-10 and IFN-γ were observed upon re-stimulation with either heat-killed bacteria or EHEC-secreted proteins. Vaccinated animals were also protected against challenge with E. coli O157:H7 strain EDL933. These results suggest that DNA vaccine encoding efa-1´ have therapeutic potential in interventions against EHEC infections. This approach could lead to a new strategy in the production of vaccines that prevent infections in cattle.

  12. Effects of γ-rays on Th1 and Th2 immune function of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Wei; Cui Yufang; An Xiaoxia; Xu Han; Dong Bo; Liu Xiaolan; Luo Qingliang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of 6 Gy whole body γ-irradiation on immune function of Th1 and Th2 in mouse, and to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanism of immune system injury induced by irradiation. Methods: Surface marker and intracellular cytokines of lymphocytes were stained with fluorescence-labeled monoclonal antibodies, then the changes of lymphocyte subpopulations, especially the Th1 and Th2 in mouse peripheral blood and spleen were analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: (1) 1 d after 6 Gy y- irradiation, lymphocytic subsets of CD 19 + and CD 8 + in spleen decreased apparently and the percentages of them were only 30% and 41% of control groups respectively (P 19 + and 14 d for CD 8 + respectively, however, up to 21 d post-irradiation they still did not return to control level. (2) Th1 subpopulations in mouse peripheral blood and spleen were significantly reduced at 1 d after irradiation and were only 2.6% and 7.6% of control groups (P 4 + / CD 8 + were significantly increased at 1 d post-irradiation in mouse spleen because of swift reduction of CD 8 + cells. Interestingly, either in peripheral blood or in spleen in irradiated mice, the ratio of Th1/Th2 were evidently raised because of the decrement of Th1 cells, exhibited obviously a phenomenon of predominant immune response of Th2 cells. Conclusions: It is suggested that the depression of mouse immune function induced by 6 Gy γ-irradiation might be caused by changes of CD 4 + /CD 8 + ratio, especially the imbalance of Th1/Th2 function subpopulations. It is shown that the imbalance of Th1/Th2 function subpopulations plays an important role in radiation-induced immune injury, thus providing a better insight into the molecular mechanism and new strategies for prevent and treatment measures of immune injury by irradiation. (authors)

  13. Intranasal H5N1 vaccines, adjuvanted with chitosan derivatives, protect ferrets against highly pathogenic influenza intranasal and intratracheal challenge.

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    Alex J Mann

    Full Text Available We investigated the protective efficacy of two intranasal chitosan (CSN and TM-CSN adjuvanted H5N1 Influenza vaccines against highly pathogenic avian Influenza (HPAI intratracheal and intranasal challenge in a ferret model. Six groups of 6 ferrets were intranasally vaccinated twice, 21 days apart, with either placebo, antigen alone, CSN adjuvanted antigen, or TM-CSN adjuvanted antigen. Homologous and intra-subtypic antibody cross-reacting responses were assessed. Ferrets were inoculated intratracheally (all treatments or intranasally (CSN adjuvanted and placebo treatments only with clade 1 HPAI A/Vietnam/1194/2004 (H5N1 virus 28 days after the second vaccination and subsequently monitored for morbidity and mortality outcomes. Clinical signs were assessed and nasal as well as throat swabs were taken daily for virology. Samples of lung tissue, nasal turbinates, brain, and olfactory bulb were analysed for the presence of virus and examined for histolopathological findings. In contrast to animals vaccinated with antigen alone, the CSN and TM-CSN adjuvanted vaccines induced high levels of antibodies, protected ferrets from death, reduced viral replication and abrogated disease after intratracheal challenge, and in the case of CSN after intranasal challenge. In particular, the TM-CSN adjuvanted vaccine was highly effective at eliciting protective immunity from intratracheal challenge; serologically, protective titres were demonstrable after one vaccination. The 2-dose schedule with TM-CSN vaccine also induced cross-reactive antibodies to clade 2.1 and 2.2 H5N1 viruses. Furthermore ferrets immunised with TM-CSN had no detectable virus in the respiratory tract or brain, whereas there were signs of virus in the throat and lungs, albeit at significantly reduced levels, in CSN vaccinated animals. This study demonstrated for the first time that CSN and in particular TM-CSN adjuvanted intranasal vaccines have the potential to protect against significant

  14. Estrogen mediates innate and adaptive immune alterations to influenza infection in pregnant mice.

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    Michael A Pazos

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is a leading risk factor for severe complications during an influenza virus infection. Women infected during their second and third trimesters are at increased risk for severe cardiopulmonary complications, premature delivery, and death. Here, we establish a murine model of aerosolized influenza infection during pregnancy. We find significantly altered innate antiviral responses in pregnant mice, including decreased levels of IFN-β, IL-1α, and IFN-γ at early time points of infection. We also find reduced cytotoxic T cell activity and delayed viral clearance. We further demonstrate that pregnancy levels of the estrogen 17-β-estradiol are able to induce key anti-inflammatory phenotypes in immune responses to the virus independently of other hormones or pregnancy-related stressors. We conclude that elevated estrogen levels result in an attenuated anti-viral immune response, and that pregnancy-associated morbidities occur in the context of this anti-inflammatory phenotype.

  15. Estrogen mediates innate and adaptive immune alterations to influenza infection in pregnant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Michael A; Kraus, Thomas A; Muñoz-Fontela, César; Moran, Thomas M

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy is a leading risk factor for severe complications during an influenza virus infection. Women infected during their second and third trimesters are at increased risk for severe cardiopulmonary complications, premature delivery, and death. Here, we establish a murine model of aerosolized influenza infection during pregnancy. We find significantly altered innate antiviral responses in pregnant mice, including decreased levels of IFN-β, IL-1α, and IFN-γ at early time points of infection. We also find reduced cytotoxic T cell activity and delayed viral clearance. We further demonstrate that pregnancy levels of the estrogen 17-β-estradiol are able to induce key anti-inflammatory phenotypes in immune responses to the virus independently of other hormones or pregnancy-related stressors. We conclude that elevated estrogen levels result in an attenuated anti-viral immune response, and that pregnancy-associated morbidities occur in the context of this anti-inflammatory phenotype.

  16. The effects of low dose radiation (LDR) on mice of immune function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Li; Deng Daping

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To find out the Effects of Low Dose Radiation(LDR) on mice of immune function. Methods: Through flow cytometry to observe and analyse the effects of the leukomonocyte. Through immunohistochemistry to study IL-2, TNF-α. Results: At dose of 100mGy the stimulative effect on CD 4 + cells, CD 8 + cells and NK activity was higher than that at other doses. At dose of 500mGy leukomonocyte activity was lower. At dose of 100mGy, the colorations about IL-2, TNF-α deepen. Conclusion: LDR could stimulate immune function, especially at dose of 100mGy. while at dose of 500mGy, radiation could restrain the leukomonocyte activity. (authors)

  17. Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide improves age-related oxidative stress and immune impairment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Juan; Nie, Shao-Ping; Peng, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Zhen; Li, Chang; Chen, Yi; Li, Jing-En; Song, Wan-Rui; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2012-02-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether oxidative stress and immune dysfunction could be attenuated by Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide (PSG-1) in d-galactose (d-gal)-induced aging mice, and provide evidence for its effects. The results showed that PSG-1 significantly decreased lipid peroxidation in liver, brain, and spleen, but concomitantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase compared with the d-gal group. Elevation of glutathione contents and attenuation of glutathione disulfide contents were also found in PSG-1-treated animals. Furthermore, the results showed that PSG-1 treatment increased basal lymphocyte proliferation as well as T cell and B cell proliferation and enhanced interleukin-2 production. Taken together, the results suggested that PSG-1 had potential as a novel agent to promote health and improve aging-associated pathologies, at least in part, via modification of the redox system and improvement of immune function.

  18. Immunization with a DNA vaccine encoding Toxoplasma gondii Superoxide dismutase (TgSOD) induces partial immune protection against acute toxoplasmosis in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Cao, Aiping; Li, Yawen; Li, Xun; Cong, Hua; He, Shenyi; Zhou, Huaiyu

    2017-06-07

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that infects all warm-blooded animals including humans and causes toxoplasmosis. An effective vaccine could be an ideal choice for preventing and controlling toxoplasmosis. T. gondii Superoxide dismutase (TgSOD) might participate in affecting the intracellular growth of both bradyzoite and tachyzoite forms. In the present study, the TgSOD gene was used to construct a DNA vaccine (pEGFP-SOD). TgSOD gene was amplified and inserted into eukaryotic vector pEGFP-C1 and formed the DNA vaccine pEGFP-SOD. Then the BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly with the DNA vaccine and those injected with pEGFP-C1, PBS or nothing were treated as controls. Four weeks after the last immunization, all mouse groups followed by challenging intraperitoneally with tachyzoites of T. gondii ME49 strain. Results showed higher levels of total IgG, IgG2α in the sera and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in the splenocytes from pEGFP-SOD inoculated mice than those unvaccinated, or inoculated with either empty plasmid vector or PBS. The proportions of CD4 + T cells and CD8 + T cells in the spleen from pEGFP-SOD inoculated mice were significantly (p < 0.05) increased compared to control groups. In addition, the survival time of mice immunized with pEGFP-SOD was significantly prolonged as compared to the controls (p < 0.05) although all the mice died. The present study revealed that the DNA vaccine triggered strong humoral and cellular immune responses, and aroused partial protective immunity against acute T. gondii infection in BALB/c mice. The collective data suggests the SOD may be a potential vaccine candidate for further development.

  19. Subcutaneous or oral immunization of mice with Lactococcus lactis expressing F4 fimbrial adhesin FaeG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shujie; Li, Yongming; Xu, Ziwei; Wang, Yicheng

    2013-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is one of the most common causes of diarrhea in neonatal and postweaning piglets. Fimbrial adhesion of ETEC has been considered an important colonization factor with antigenicity. To safely and effectively deliver the F4 (K88) fimbrial adhesin FaeG to the immune system, we have previously constructed the secretory expression vector pNZ8112-faeG, and FaeG was produced in cytoplasmic form in Lactococcus lactis. In this work, BALB/c mice were immunized with recombinant L. lactis to further determine the immunogenicity of recombinant FaeG (rFaeG) via the subcutaneous or oral route. Subcutaneous immunization in mice with recombinant L. lactis induced a significant increase in the F4-specific serum IgG titer and the number of antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) in the spleen. Oral immunization of mice with recombinant L. lactis induced mucosal and systemic F4-specific immune responses and increased the number of ASCs in the spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches. High-dose (2.8 × 10(11) CFU) recombinant strains and adjuvant cholera toxin B subunit enhanced specific mucosal immune responses. The results suggest the feasibility of delivering rFaeG expressed in L. lactis to the immune system in order to induce an F4-specific immune response.

  20. Immune response in mice to ingested soya protein: antibody production, oral tolerance and maternal transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Risager; Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2004-01-01

    antibody response in the offspring, bat in this case in the absence of oral tolerance. This indicates that, under certain conditions, factors involved in spontaneous antibody production can be transmitted from mother to offspring. Understanding the immune response to soya protein ingested under healthy...... by ELISA, and to the presence of oral tolerance detected as a suppressed antibody and cell-proliferation response upon immunisation with soya protein. F0 mice generated soya-specific antibodies, while oral tolerance to the same soya proteins was also clearly induced. When F0 dams were transferred to soya...

  1. Modification of glomerular immune complex deposition in mice by activation of the reticuloendothelial system.

    OpenAIRE

    Barcelli, U; Rademacher, R; Ooi, Y M; Ooi, B S

    1981-01-01

    To determine the effect of activation of the reticuloendothelial system on the localization of immune complexes in the kidney, a model of passive serum sickness nephritis in the mouse was used, with activation of the reticuloendothelial system with Corynebacterium parvum. Groups of mice, control and C. parvum-treated animals, were injected with BSA-125I-anti-BSA complexes containing 3 mg 125I-anti-BSA. Blood was obtained at 5 min, at 3 h, and at 12 h, when the animals were killed. Blood conce...

  2. Scrapie affects the maturation cycle and immune complex trapping by follicular dendritic cells in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian McGovern

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs or prion diseases are infectious neurological disorders of man and animals, characterised by abnormal disease-associated prion protein (PrP(d accumulations in the brain and lymphoreticular system (LRS. Prior to neuroinvasion, TSE agents often accumulate to high levels within the LRS, apparently without affecting immune function. However, our analysis of scrapie-affected sheep shows that PrP(d accumulations within the LRS are associated with morphological changes to follicular dendritic cells (FDCs and tingible body macrophages (TBMs. Here we examined FDCs and TBMs in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs of scrapie-affected mice by light and electron microscopy. In MLNs from uninfected mice, FDCs could be morphologically categorised into immature, mature and regressing forms. However, in scrapie-affected MLNs this maturation cycle was adversely affected. FDCs characteristically trap and retain immune complexes on their surfaces, which they display to B-lymphocytes. In scrapie-affected MLNs, some FDCs were found where areas of normal and abnormal immune complex retention occurred side by side. The latter co-localised with PrP(d plasmalemmal accumulations. Our data suggest this previously unrecognised morphology represents the initial stage of an abnormal FDC maturation cycle. Alterations to the FDCs included PrP(d accumulation, abnormal cell membrane ubiquitin and excess immunoglobulin accumulation. Regressing FDCs, in contrast, appeared to lose their membrane-attached PrP(d. Together, these data suggest that TSE infection adversely affects the maturation and regression cycle of FDCs, and that PrP(d accumulation is causally linked to the abnormal pathology observed. We therefore support the hypothesis that TSEs cause an abnormality in immune function.

  3. Anti-gluten immune response following Toxoplasma gondii infection in mice.

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    Emily G Severance

    Full Text Available Gluten sensitivity may affect disease pathogenesis in a subset of individuals who have schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or autism. Exposure to Toxoplasma gondii is a known risk factor for the development of schizophrenia, presumably through a direct pathological effect of the parasite on brain and behavior. A co-association of antibodies to wheat gluten and to T. gondii in individuals with schizophrenia was recently uncovered, suggesting a coordinated gastrointestinal means by which T. gondii and dietary gluten might generate an immune response. Here, we evaluated the connection between these infectious- and food-based antigens in mouse models. BALB/c mice receiving a standard wheat-based rodent chow were infected with T. gondii via intraperitoneal, peroral and prenatal exposure methods. Significant increases in the levels of anti-gluten IgG were documented in all infected mice and in offspring from chronically infected dams compared to uninfected controls (repetitive measures ANOVAs, two-tailed t-tests, all p≤0.00001. Activation of the complement system accompanied this immune response (p≤0.002-0.00001. Perorally-infected females showed higher levels of anti-gluten IgG than males (p≤0.009 indicating that T. gondii-generated gastrointestinal infection led to a significant anti-gluten immune response in a sex-dependent manner. These findings support a gastrointestinal basis by which two risk factors for schizophrenia, T. gondii infection and sensitivity to dietary gluten, might be connected to produce the immune activation that is becoming an increasingly recognized pathology of psychiatric disorders.

  4. Radioprotective effects of shark cartilage mucopolysaccharide preparation on immune nad reproductive organs in male mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan Jie; Shen Xianrong; Jiang Dingwen; Chen Wei; Lu Min

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the protective effects of shark cartilage mucopolysaccharide preparation (SCMP) on immune and reproductive organs in male mice with irradiation damage induced by γ-rays. Methods: 50 mice were randomly divided into normal control group,model control group, the 0.5g/kg. d SCMP group, the 1.0g/kg. d SCMP group, and the 2.0g/kg. d SCMP group. SCMP was administrated by intragastric infusion with the volume of 0.4ml per 20g. Normal control group and model control group were given the same volume of water. 2 weeks later, all of the mice were irradiated by γ-ray of 60 Co(0.83Gy/h) with the dose of 5 Gy. Peripheral blood WBC, the spleen index(SI), thymus index(TI), the gMNC, testicle index, germ cells were detected. Results: Compared with the modal control group, peripheral blood WBC became significantly higher in the treated groups with 1.0g/kg. d and 2.0g/kg. d SCMP after 3 days by irradiation (P<0.05). TI, BMNC and germ cells were significantly higher in the treated groups with 1.0g/kg. d and 2.0g/kg. d SCMP comparing with the control model group (P<0.05) and SI, and Testicle index was significantly compared with the model group (P<0.05) only in 2.0g/ kg. d SCMP treated group. The germ abnormality rate became lower in SCMP treated groups (P<0.01) in 1.0 and 2.0g/kg. d SCMP group. Conclusion: SCMP has radioprotective effects on immune and reproductive organs in male mice. (authors)

  5. Streptozotocin induced oxidative stress, innate immune system responses and behavioral abnormalities in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Shayan; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Momeny, Majid; Amini-Khoei, Hossein; Rahimi-Balaei, Maryam; Poursaman, Simin; Rastegar, Mojgan; Nikoui, Vahid; Mokhtari, Tahmineh; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal

    2017-01-06

    Recent evidence indicates the involvement of inflammatory factors and mitochondrial dysfunction in the etiology of psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. To investigate the possible role of mitochondrial-induced sterile inflammation in the co-occurrence of anxiety and depression, in this study, we treated adult male mice with the intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of a single low dose of streptozotocin (STZ, 0.2mg/mouse). Using valid and qualified behavioral tests for the assessment of depressive and anxiety-like behaviors, we showed that STZ-treated mice exhibited behaviors relevant to anxiety and depression 24h following STZ treatment. We observed that the co-occurrence of anxiety and depressive-like behaviors in animals were associated with abnormal mitochondrial function, nitric oxide overproduction and, the increased activity of cytosolic phospholipase A 2 (cPLA 2 ) in the hippocampus. Further, STZ-treated mice had a significant upregulation of genes associated with the innate immune system such as toll-like receptors 2 and 4. Pathological evaluations showed no sign of neurodegeneration in the hippocampus of STZ-treated mice. Results of this study revealed that behavioral abnormalities provoked by STZ, as a cytotoxic agent that targets mitochondria and energy metabolism, are associated with abnormal mitochondrial activity and, consequently the initiation of innate-inflammatory responses in the hippocampus. Our findings highlight the role of mitochondria and innate immunity in the formation of sterile inflammation and behaviors relevant to anxiety and depression. Also, we have shown that STZ injection (i.c.v.) might be an animal model for depression and anxiety disorders based on sterile inflammation. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A protective effect of epidermal powder immunization in a mouse model of equine herpesvirus-1 infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Takashi; McGregor, Martha; Chu, Qili; Chen, Dexiang; Horimoto, Taisuke; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the protective effect of epidermal powder immunization (EPI) against equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) infection, we prepared a powder vaccine in which formalin-inactivated virions were embedded in water-soluble, sugar-based particles. A PowderJect device was used to immunize mice with the powder vaccine via their abdominal skin. We found that twice-immunized mice were protected against challenge with the wild-type virus. This protective effect was equivalent to or better than that observed in mice immunized with other types of vaccines, including a gene gun-mediated DNA vaccine containing the glycoprotein D (gD) gene or conventional inactivated virus vaccines introduced via intramuscular or intranasal injections. These findings indicate that the powder vaccine is a promising approach for the immunological control of EHV-1 infection, either alone or as a part of prime-boost vaccination strategies

  7. Anthrax lethal factor as an immune target in humans and transgenic mice and the impact of HLA polymorphism on CD4+ T cell immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascough, Stephanie; Ingram, Rebecca J; Chu, Karen K; Reynolds, Catherine J; Musson, Julie A; Doganay, Mehmet; Metan, Gökhan; Ozkul, Yusuf; Baillie, Les; Sriskandan, Shiranee; Moore, Stephen J; Gallagher, Theresa B; Dyson, Hugh; Williamson, E Diane; Robinson, John H; Maillere, Bernard; Boyton, Rosemary J; Altmann, Daniel M

    2014-05-01

    Bacillus anthracis produces a binary toxin composed of protective antigen (PA) and one of two subunits, lethal factor (LF) or edema factor (EF). Most studies have concentrated on induction of toxin-specific antibodies as the correlate of protective immunity, in contrast to which understanding of cellular immunity to these toxins and its impact on infection is limited. We characterized CD4+ T cell immunity to LF in a panel of humanized HLA-DR and DQ transgenic mice and in naturally exposed patients. As the variation in antigen presentation governed by HLA polymorphism has a major impact on protective immunity to specific epitopes, we examined relative binding affinities of LF peptides to purified HLA class II molecules, identifying those regions likely to be of broad applicability to human immune studies through their ability to bind multiple alleles. Transgenics differing only in their expression of human HLA class II alleles showed a marked hierarchy of immunity to LF. Immunogenicity in HLA transgenics was primarily restricted to epitopes from domains II and IV of LF and promiscuous, dominant epitopes, common to all HLA types, were identified in domain II. The relevance of this model was further demonstrated by the fact that a number of the immunodominant epitopes identified in mice were recognized by T cells from humans previously infected with cutaneous anthrax and from vaccinated individuals. The ability of the identified epitopes to confer protective immunity was demonstrated by lethal anthrax challenge of HLA transgenic mice immunized with a peptide subunit vaccine comprising the immunodominant epitopes that we identified.

  8. Mechanism of stimulation of antibody-forming ability of bone marrow cells of mice immunized with staphylococci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyashchenko, K.P.; Golovanova, T.A.; Bobrovnik, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the formation of the ability of the bone marrow cells of mice immunized with staphylococci to create antibodies to this antigen. The research includes a study of the effect of the irradiation in vitro of the bone marrow cells on their stimulating activity and the role played by the thymus and spleen in the formation of this activity. Experiments were carried out on CBA and BALB/c mice as well as on mice with congenital absence of the thymus. The bone marrow cell donors were immunized intravenously with staphylococcal corpuscular antigen. Receptor mice were irradiated with cobalt 60 gamma radiation and injected intravenously with bone marrow cell extract from the immunized donors and were immunized with the antigen. Spleen cells were labelled with chromium 51 and injected intravenously into intact syngeneic recipients together with as well as without the antigen. Three days later the level of radioactivity in the spleen and femora of the animals was determined by scintillation counting. Total radioactivity of the bone marrow was calculated. Irradiation of the bone marrow cells of immunized animals was shown to abolish their stimulating effect on the humoral immune response of intact syngeneic recipients to the staphylococcal corpuscular antigen. Consequently, the immunostimulating effect of bone marrow cells is realized through the proliferating and radiosensitive lymphoid cells rather than through the macrophages

  9. Immunization with Recombinantly Expressed LRP4 Induces Experimental Autoimmune Myasthenia Gravis in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, Canan; Çavuş, Filiz; Yılmaz, Vuslat; Tüzün, Erdem

    2017-07-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), characterized with muscle weakness. While MG develops due to acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies in most patients, antibodies to muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase (MuSK) or low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) may also be identified. Experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) has been previously induced by both LRP4 immunization and passive transfer of LRP4 antibodies. Our aim was to confirm previous results and to test the pathogenic effects of LRP4 immunization in a commonly used mouse strain C57BL/6 (B6) using a recombinantly expressed human LRP4 protein. B6 mice were immunized with human LRP4 in CFA, Torpedo Californica AChR in CFA or only CFA. Clinical and pathogenic aspects of EAMG were compared among groups. LRP4- and AChR-immunized mice showed comparable EAMG clinical severity. LRP4-immunized mice displayed serum antibodies to LRP4 and NMJ IgG and complement factor C3 deposits. IgG2 was the dominant anti-LRP4 isotype. Cultured lymph node cells of LRP4- and AChR-immunized mice gave identical pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-6, IFN-γ and IL-17) responses to LRP4 and AChR stimulation, respectively. Our results confirm the EAMG-inducing action of LRP4 immunization and identify B6 as a LRP4-EAMG-susceptible mouse strain. Demonstration of complement fixing anti-LRP4 antibodies in sera and complement/IgG deposits at the NMJ of LRP4-immunized mice indicates complement activation as a putative pathogenic mechanism. We have thus developed a practical LRP4-induced EAMG model using a non-conformational protein and a widely available mouse strain for future investigation of LRP4-related MG.

  10. Innate and Adaptive Immune Response to Pneumonia Virus of Mice in a Resistant and a Susceptible Mouse Strain

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    Ellen R. T. Watkiss

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the leading cause of infant bronchiolitis. The closely related pneumonia virus of mice (PVM causes a similar immune-mediated disease in mice, which allows an analysis of host factors that lead to severe illness. This project was designed to compare the immune responses to lethal and sublethal doses of PVM strain 15 in Balb/c and C57Bl/6 mice. Balb/c mice responded to PVM infection with an earlier and stronger innate response that failed to control viral replication. Production of inflammatory cyto- and chemokines, as well as infiltration of neutrophils and IFN-γ secreting natural killer cells into the lungs, was more predominant in Balb/c mice. In contrast, C57Bl/6 mice were capable of suppressing both viral replication and innate inflammatory responses. After a sublethal infection, PVM-induced IFN-γ production by splenocytes was stronger early during infection and weaker at late time points in C57Bl/6 mice when compared to Balb/c mice. Furthermore, although the IgG levels were similar and the mucosal IgA titres lower, the virus neutralizing antibody titres were higher in C57Bl/6 mice than in Balb/c mice. Overall, the difference in susceptibility of these two strains appeared to be related not to an inherent T helper bias, but to the capacity of the C57Bl/6 mice to control both viral replication and the immune response elicited by PVM.

  11. Vaccination with dengue virus-like particles induces humoral and cellular immune responses in mice

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    Zhang Quanfu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of dengue, an infectious disease caused by dengue virus (DENV, has dramatically increased around the world in recent decades and is becoming a severe public health threat. However, there is currently no specific treatment for dengue fever, and licensed vaccine against dengue is not available. Vaccination with virus-like particles (VLPs has shown considerable promise for many viral diseases, but the effect of DENV VLPs to induce specific immune responses has not been adequately investigated. Results By optimizing the expression plasmids, recombinant VLPs of four antigenically different DENV serotypes DENV1-4 were successfully produced in 293T cells. The vaccination effect of dengue VLPs in mice showed that monovalent VLPs of each serotype stimulated specific IgG responses and potent neutralizing antibodies against homotypic virus. Tetravalent VLPs efficiently enhanced specific IgG and neutralizing antibodies against all four serotypes of DENV. Moreover, vaccination with monovalent or tetravalent VLPs resulted in the induction of specific cytotoxic T cell responses. Conclusions Mammalian cell expressed dengue VLPs are capable to induce VLP-specific humoral and cellular immune responses in mice, and being a promising subunit vaccine candidate for prevention of dengue virus infection.

  12. Short-term and long-term antibody response by mice after immunization against Neisseria meningitidis B or diphtheria toxoid

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    G.P. Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB is a major cause of invasive disease in early childhood worldwide. The only MenB vaccine available in Brazil was produced in Cuba and has shown unsatisfactory efficacy when used to immunize millions of children in Brazil. In the present study, we compared the specific functional antibody responses evoked by the Cuban MenB vaccine with a standard vaccine against diphtheria (DTP: diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis after primary immunization and boosting of mice. The peak of bactericidal and opsonic antibody titers to MenB and of neutralizing antibodies to diphtheria toxoid (DT was reached after triple immunization with the MenB vaccine or DTP vaccine, respectively. However, 4 months after immunization, protective DT antibody levels were present in all DTP-vaccinated mice but in only 20% of the mice immunized against MenB. After 6 months of primary immunization, about 70% of animals still had protective neutralizing DT antibodies, but none had significant bactericidal antibodies to MenB. The booster doses of DTP or MenB vaccines produced a significant antibody recall response, suggesting that both vaccines were able to generate and maintain memory B cells during the period studied (6 months post-triple immunization. Therefore, due to the short duration of serological memory induced by the MenB vaccine (VA-MENGOC-BC® vaccine, its use should be restricted to outbreaks of meningococcal disease.

  13. Immunization of Mice with Recombinant Brucella abortus Organic Hydroperoxide Resistance (Ohr) Protein Protects Against a Virulent Brucella abortus 544 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hop, Huynh Tan; Reyes, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo; Simborio, Hannah Leah Tadeja; Arayan, Lauren Togonon; Min, Won Gi; Lee, Hu Jang; Lee, Jin Ju; Chang, Hong Hee; Kim, Suk

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the Brucella abortus ohr gene coding for an organic hydroperoxide resistance protein (Ohr) was cloned into a maltose fusion protein expression system (pMAL), inserted into Escherichia coli, and purified, and its immunogenicity was evaluated by western blot analysis using Brucella-positive mouse sera. The purified recombinant Ohr (rOhr) was treated with adjuvant and injected intraperitoneally into BALB/c mice. A protective immune response analysis revealed that rOhr induced a significant increase in both the IgG1 and IgG2a titers, and IgG2a reached a higher level than IgG1 after the second and third immunizations. Additionally, immunization with rOhr induced high production of IFN-γ as well as proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF, MCP-1, IL-12p70, and IL-6, but a lesser amount of IL-10, suggesting that rOhr predominantly elicited a cell-mediated immune response. In addition, immunization with rOhr caused a significantly higher degree of protection against a virulent B. abortus infection compared with a positive control group consisting of mice immunized with maltose-binding protein. These findings showed that B. abortus rOhr was able to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immunity in mice, which suggested that this recombinant protein could be a potential vaccine candidate for animal brucellosis.

  14. Protective immunity conferred by porcine circovirus 2 ORF2-based DNA vaccine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylla, Seydou; Cong, Yan-Long; Sun, Yi-Xue; Yang, Gui-Lian; Ding, Xue-Mei; Yang, Zhan-Qing; Zhou, Yu-Long; Yang, Minnan; Wang, Chun-Feng; Ding, Zhuang

    2014-07-01

    Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) associated with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) has caused the swine industry significant health challenges and economic damage. Although inactivated and subunit vaccines against PMWS have been used widely, so far no DNA vaccine is available. In this study, with the aim of exploring a new route for developing a vaccine against PCV2, the immunogenicity of a DNA vaccine was evaluated in mice. The pEGFP-N1 vector was used to construct a PCV2 Cap gene recombinant vaccine. To assess the immunogenicity of pEGFP-Cap, 80 BALB/c mice were immunized three times at 2 weekly intervals with pEGFP-Cap, LG-strain vaccine, pEGFP-N1 vector or PBS and then challenged with PCV2. IgG and cytokines were assessed by indirect ELISA and ELISA, respectively. Specimens stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) techniques were examined histopathologically. It was found that vaccination of the mice with the pEGFP-Cap induced solid protection against PCV2 infection through induction of highly specific serum IgG antibodies and cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-10), and a small PCV2 viral load. The mice treated with the pEGFP-Cap and LG-strain developed no histopathologically detectable lesions (HE stain) and IHC techniques revealed only a few positive cells. Thus, this study demonstrated that recombinant pEGFP-Cap substantially alleviates PCV2 infection in mice and provides evidence that a DNA vaccine could be an alternative to PCV2 vaccines against PMWS. © 2014 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Prime immunization with rotavirus VLP 2/6 followed by boosting with an adenovirus expressing VP6 induces protective immunization against rotavirus in mice

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    Qu Jianguo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotavirus (RV is the main cause of severe gastroenteritis in children. An effective vaccination regime against RV can substantially reduce morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of virus-like particles formed by RV VP2 and VP6 (VLP2/6, as well as that of recombinant adenovirus expressing RV VP6 (rAd, in eliciting protective immunities against RV. However, the efficacy of such prime-boost strategy, which incorporates VLP and rAd in inducing protective immunities against RV, has not been addressed. We assessed the immune effects of different regimens in mice, including rAd prime-VLP2/6 boost (rAd+VLP, VLP2/6 prime-rAd boost (VLP+rAd, rAd alone, and VLP alone. Results Mice immunized with the VLP+rAd regimen elicit stronger humoral, mucosal, and cellular immune responses than those immunized with other regimens. RV challenging experiments showed that the highest reduction (92.9% in viral shedding was achieved in the VLP+rAd group when compared with rAd+VLP (25%, VLP alone (75%, or rAd alone (40% treatment groups. The reduction in RV shedding in mice correlated with fecal IgG (r = 0.95773, P = 0.04227 and IgA (r = 0.96137, P = 0.038663. Conclusions A VLP2/6 prime-rAd boost regimen is effective in conferring immunoprotection against RV challenge in mice. This finding may lay the groundwork for an alternative strategy in novel RV vaccine development.

  16. Intranasal delivery of cholera toxin induces th17-dominated T-cell response to bystander antigens.

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    Jee-Boong Lee

    Full Text Available Cholera toxin (CT is a potent vaccine adjuvant, which promotes mucosal immunity to protein antigen given by nasal route. It has been suggested that CT promotes T helper type 2 (Th2 response and suppresses Th1 response. We here report the induction of Th17-dominated responses in mice by intranasal delivery of CT. This dramatic Th17-driving effect of CT, which was dependent on the B subunit, was observed even in Th1 or Th2-favored conditions of respiratory virus infection. These dominating Th17 responses resulted in the significant neutrophil accumulation in the lungs of mice given CT. Both in vitro and in vivo treatment of CT induced strongly augmented IL-6 production, and Th17-driving ability of CT was completely abolished in IL-6 knockout mice, indicating a role of this cytokine in the Th17-dominated T-cell responses by CT. These data demonstrate a novel Th17-driving activity of CT, and help understand the mechanisms of CT adjuvanticity to demarcate T helper responses.

  17. Enhanced effect of BCG vaccine against pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in mice with lung Th17 response to mycobacterial heparin-binding hemagglutinin adhesin antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Masayuki; Shinjo, Kikuko; Umemura, Masayuki; Shigeno, Satoko; Harakuni, Tetsuya; Arakawa, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Goro

    2015-12-01

    Although the BCG vaccine can prevent tuberculosis (TB) in infants, its ability to prevent adult pulmonary TB is reportedly limited. Therefore, development of a novel effective vaccine against pulmonary TB has become an international research priority. We have previously reported that intranasal vaccination of mice with a mycobacterial heparin-binding hemagglutinin adhesin (HBHA) plus mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin (CT) enhances production of IFN-γ and anti-HBHA antibody and suppresses extrapulmonary bacterial dissemination after intranasal infection with BCG. In the present study, the effects of intranasal HBHA + CT vaccine on murine pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection were examined. Intranasal HBHA + CT vaccination alone failed to reduce the bacterial burden in the infected lung. However, a combination vaccine consisting of s.c. BCG priming and an intranasal HBHA + CT booster significantly enhanced protective immunity against pulmonary Mtb infection on day 14 compared with BCG vaccine alone. Further, it was found that intranasal HBHA + CT vaccine enhanced not only IFN-γ but also IL-17A production by HBHA-specific T cells in the lung after pulmonary Mtb infection. Therefore, this combination vaccine may be a good candidate for a new vaccine strategy against pulmonary TB. © 2015 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Recovery of humoral immunity parameters in mice under a long-term action of tritium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillova, E.N.; Man'ko, V.M.; Muksinova, K.N.

    1986-01-01

    Using the mice-males of the CBA line at the age of 10-12 weeks and body mass of 20-23 g the recovery value of quantitative and qualitative factors of humoral immunity under a long-term action of tritium oxide which has been injected during 6 months in the quantity of 370 kBq per 1g of body mass (cumulative dose 8.73 Gy). The long-term internal mice irradiation with tritium oxide resulted in marked devastation of central and peripheral organs of immune system. An earlier and complete recovery of cells quantity in the bone marrow and spleen, recover up to 50% in lymphnodes and minimum repopulation (from 10 to 20%) in thymus as compared with tested animals of the same age is pointed out. In experimental mice CFU 5 pool decrease in bone marrow and spleen is found. CFUs content in the spleen recovered up to the norm, whereas in the bone marrow it constituted not more than 55% of the control. Deep function injury of V-lymphocyte and T - helper precursors the activity of which has not recovered during the whole observation period. The long-term tritium oxide intake lead to antibodies production suppression (by 30-50%), the tendency to the decrease of antibody formation of these animals has been conserved up to the end of life. The functional activity of T - suppressors in humoral response to thymus-dependent antigen during the remote periods upon long-term irradiation decreased more than twice

  19. Restoring Ovarian Endocrine Function with Encapsulated Ovarian Allograft in Immune Competent Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Anu; Day, James Ronald; Cichon, Alexa Leigh; Lefferts, Adam; Cascalho, Marilia; Shikanov, Ariella

    2017-07-01

    Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a major complication of cytotoxic treatments due to extreme ovarian sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiation. In pediatric cancer patients modern therapy has improved the long-term survival to over 80% in the United States. However, these cancer survivors face long-term health problems related to treatment toxicity. In female cancer survivors POI leads to sterility, along with the consequences of estrogen deficiency such as premature osteopenia, muscle wasting, accelerated cardiovascular diseases and a vast array of other health and developmental problems. These long-lasting effects are particularly significant for young girls reaching puberty. As such, restoring ovarian endocrine function is paramount in this population. In the present study, we evaluated the feasibility of restoring ovarian endocrine function in ovariectomized mice by transplanting syngeneic and allogeneic ovarian tissue encapsulated in alginate capsules or TheraCyte ® . Histological analysis of the implants retrieved after 7 and 30 days' post implantation showed follicular development up to the secondary and antral stages in both syngeneic and allogeneic implants. Implantation of syngeneic and allogeneic ovarian grafts encapsulated in TheraCyte devices restored ovarian endocrine function, which was confirmed by decreased serum FSH levels from 60 to 70 ng/mL in ovariectomized mice to 30-40 ng/mL 30 days after implantation. Absence of allo-MHC-specific IgG and IgM antibodies in the sera of implanted mice with allogeneic ovarian tissue encapsulated in TheraCyte indicate that the implants did not evoke an allo-immune response, while the allogeneic controls were rejected 21 days after implantation. Our results show that TheraCyte effectively isolates the graft from immune recognition but also supports follicular growth.

  20. Immunological response and protection of mice immunized with plasmid encoding Toxoplasma gondii glycolytic enzyme malate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, I A; Wang, S; Xu, L; Yan, R; Song, X; XiangRui, L

    2014-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii Malate dehydrogenase (TgMDH) plays an important role as part of the energy production cycle. In this investigation, immunological changes and protection efficiency of this protein delivered as a DNA vaccine have been evaluated. Mice were intramuscularly immunized with pTgMDH, followed by challenge with virulent T. gondii RH strain, 2 weeks after the booster immunization. Compared to the control groups, the results showed that pTgMDH has stimulated specific humoral response as demonstrated by significant high titers of total IgG and subclasses IgG1 and IgG2a , beside IgA and IgM, but not IgE. Analysis of cytokine profiles revealed significant increases of IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-17, while no significant changes were detected in TGF-β1. In cell-mediated response, both T lymphocytes subpopulations CD4(+) and CD8(+) were positively recruited as significant percentages were recorded in response to immunization with TgMDH. Significant long survival rate, 17 days, has been observed in the TgMDH vaccinated group, in contrast with control groups which died within 8-9 days after challenge. These results demonstrated that TgMDH could induce significant immunological responses leading to a considerable level of protection against acute toxoplasmosis infection. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The Efect of Probiotic Lactobacilli and Alginite on the Cellular Immune Response in Salmonella Infected Mice

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    Hlubeňová K.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Alginite is organic matter rich in humic substances and commonly found in nature, but despite that, the knowledge of its biological effects is limited. In our study we focused on monitoring the effects of alginite alone, as well as its effect as a carrier of probiotic lactobacilli on the cellular immune response in SPF mice after infection with Salmonella Typhimurium. Sixty six conventional SPF female mice of the Balb/c line were divided into 4 groups: 1. infection free negative control (NK supplied neither alginite nor probiotic lactobacilli in the feed; 2. infection free alginite control (Alg supplied feed with 10 % alginite; infected control supplied alginite in the feed but no lactobacilli; 3. infectious control (Alg + Sal - animals infected with salmonella and supplied 10 % alginite in the feed but no lactobacilli;and 4. probiotic group (Lab + Alg + Sal - animals infected with salmonella and administered 10 % alginite and Lactobacillus reuteri 2/6 in the feed. On day 21 of the experiments, the mice were bled and their mesenteric lymph nodes were taken after their death. The peripheral blood of the mice was analysed for the activity of phagocytes and the percentage of selected lymphocyte subpopulations was determined in the mesenteric lymph nodes and blood. The significantly highest phagocytic activity (FA was noted in the infected group with alginite (Alg + Sal. The FA was significantly increased in groups Alg and Lab + Alg + Sal in comparison with the NK group. The highest engulfing ability of phagocytes (phagocytic index was observed in the Lab + Alg + Sal group in comparison with other groups, but also in Alg group in comparison with NK. In the Lab + Alg + Sal group, we observed a significantly higher percentage of B-lymphocytes, CD4+CD8+ and natural killer T cells (NKT, but more significant impact on the numbers of subpopulations of lymphocytes was observed in the mesenteric lymph nodes, with the significantly highest proportions of CD4

  2. Interferon production and immune response induction in pathogenic rabies virus-infected mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcovistz, R; Leal, E C; De Souza Matos, D C [Departamento de Immunologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Caixa Postal 926, 21045 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Tsiang, H [Service Rage, Istitut Pasteur, Paris (France)

    1994-08-01

    Pathogenic parental rabies virus strain CVS (challenge virus standard) and its apathogenic variant RV194-2 were shown to differ in their ability to induce interferon (IFN) and immune response of the host. After intracerebral inoculation. IFN and antibody production was higher in the RV194-2 virus-infected mice than in the CVS infection. The enhancement of 2-5A synthetase activity, an IFN-mediated enzyme marker, showed biochemical evidence that IFN is active in both apathogenic and pathogenic infections. On the other hand, spontaneous proliferation in vitro of thymocytes and splenocytes from CVS virus-infected mice was strongly inhibited in contrast to the RV194-2 infection. In the CVS infection, the thymocyte proliferation However, in the RV194-2 infection, the thymocyte proliferation was higher than of the splenocytes. These results suggest a better performance of T-cell response to the RV194-2 infection. This fact can be critical for an enhancement of antibody production in the apathogenic infection and subsequent virus clearance from the brain of RV194-2 virus-infected mice. (author) 1 fig., 3 tabs., 32 refs.

  3. Nasal delivery of an adenovirus-based vaccine bypasses pre-existing immunity to the vaccine carrier and improves the immune response in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A Croyle

    Full Text Available Pre-existing immunity to human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5 is common in the general population. Bypassing pre-existing immunity could maximize Ad5 vaccine efficacy. Vaccination by the intramuscular (I.M., nasal (I.N. or oral (P.O. route with Ad5 expressing Ebola Zaire glycoprotein (Ad5-ZGP fully protected naïve mice against lethal challenge with Ebola. In the presence of pre-existing immunity, only mice vaccinated I.N. survived. The frequency of IFN-gamma+ CD8+ T cells was reduced by 80% and by 15% in animals vaccinated by the I.M. and P.O. routes respectively. Neutralizing antibodies could not be detected in serum from either treatment group. Pre-existing immunity did not compromise the frequency of IFN-gamma+ CD8+ T cells (3.9+/-1% naïve vs. 3.6+/-1% pre-existing immunity, PEI nor anti-Ebola neutralizing antibody (NAB, 40+/-10 reciprocal dilution, both groups. The number of INF-gamma+ CD8+ cells detected in bronchioalveolar lavage fluid (BAL after I.N. immunization was not compromised by pre-existing immunity to Ad5 (146+/-14, naïve vs. 120+/-16 SFC/million MNCs, PEI. However, pre-existing immunity reduced NAB levels in BAL by approximately 25% in this group. To improve the immune response after oral vaccination, the Ad5-based vaccine was PEGylated. Mice given the modified vaccine did not survive challenge and had reduced levels of IFN-gamma+ CD8+ T cells 10 days after administration (0.3+/-0.3% PEG vs. 1.7+/-0.5% unmodified. PEGylation did increase NAB levels 2-fold. These results provide some insight about the degree of T and B cell mediated immunity necessary for protection against Ebola virus and suggest that modification of the virus capsid can influence the type of immune response elicited by an Ad5-based vaccine.

  4. Systemic and Mucosal Antibody Responses to Soluble and Nanoparticle-Conjugated Antigens Administered Intranasally

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    Savannah E. Howe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles (NPs are increasingly being used for drug delivery, as well as antigen carriers and immunostimulants for the purpose of developing vaccines. In this work, we examined how intranasal (i.n. priming followed by i.n. or subcutaneous (s.c. boosting immunization affects the humoral immune response to chicken ovalbumin (Ova and Ova conjugated to 20 nm NPs (NP-Ova. We show that i.n. priming with 20 mg of soluble Ova, a dose known to trigger oral tolerance when administered via gastric gavage, induced substantial systemic IgG1 and IgG2c, as well as mucosal antibodies. These responses were further boosted following a s.c. immunization with Ova and complete Freund’s adjuvant (Ova+CFA. In contrast, 100 µg of Ova delivered via NPs induced an IgG1-dominated systemic response, and primed the intestinal mucosa for secretion of IgA. Following a secondary s.c. or i.n. immunization with Ova+CFA or NP-Ova, systemic IgG1 titers significantly increased, and serum IgG2c and intestinal antibodies were induced in mice primed nasally with NP-Ova. Only Ova- and NP-Ova-primed mice that were s.c.-boosted exhibited substantial systemic and mucosal titers for up to 6 months after priming, whereas the antibodies of i.n.-boosted mice declined over time. Our results indicate that although the amount of Ova delivered by NPs was 1000-fold less than Ova delivered in soluble form, the antigen-specific antibody responses, both systemic and mucosal, are essentially identical by 6 months following the initial priming immunization. Additionally, both i.n.- and s.c.-boosting strategies for NP-Ova-primed mice were capable of inducing a polarized Th1/Th2 immune response, as well as intestinal antibodies; however, it is only by using a heterogeneous prime-boost strategy that long-lasting antibody responses were initiated. These results provide valuable insight for future mucosal vaccine development, as well as furthering our understanding of mucosal antibody responses.

  5. Anti-tumour immune effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum to CT26 tumour-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingtao; Wang, Chunfeng; Ye, Liping; Yang, Wentao; Huang, Haibin; Meng, Fei; Shi, Shaohua; Ding, Zhuang

    2015-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent forms of cancer that shows a high mortality and increasing incidence. There are numerous successful treatment options for CRC, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and immunotherapy; however, their side effects and limitations are considerable. Probiotics may be an effective strategy for preventing and inhibiting tumour growth through stimulation of host innate and adaptive immunity. We investigated and compared potential anti-tumour immune responses induced by two isolated Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus plantarum A and Lactobacillus rhamnosus b, by pre-inoculating mice with lactobacilli for 14 days. Subsequently, subcutaneous and orthotopic intestinal tumours were generated in the pre-inoculated mice using CT26 murine adenocarcinoma cells and were assessed for response against the tumour. Our results indicated that oral administration with L. plantarum inhibited CT26 cell growth in BALB/c mice and prolonged the survival time of tumour-bearing mice compared with mice administered L. rhamnosus. L. plantarum produced protective immunity against the challenge with CT26 cells by increasing the effector functions of CD8+ and natural killer (NK) cell infiltration into tumour tissue, up-regulation of IFN-gamma (but not IL-4 or IL-17) production, and promotion of Th1-type CD4+ T differentiation. Consequently, our results suggest that L. plantarum can enhance the anti-tumour immune response and delay tumour formation.

  6. Improved Insulin Sensitivity despite Increased Visceral Adiposity in Mice Deficient for the Immune Cell Transcription Factor T-bet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarczyk, Emilie; Vong, Chi Teng; Perucha, Esperanza; Jackson, Ian; Cawthorne, Michael A.; Wargent, Edward T.; Powell, Nick; Canavan, James B.; Lord, Graham M.; Howard, Jane K.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Low-grade inflammation in fat is associated with insulin resistance, although the mechanisms are unclear. We report that mice deficient in the immune cell transcription factor T-bet have lower energy expenditure and increased visceral fat compared with wild-type mice, yet paradoxically are more insulin sensitive. This striking phenotype, present in young T-bet−/− mice, persisted with high-fat diet and increasing host age and was associated with altered immune cell numbers and cytokine secretion specifically in visceral adipose tissue. However, the favorable metabolic phenotype observed in T-bet-deficient hosts was lost in T-bet−/− mice also lacking adaptive immunity (T-bet−/−xRag2−/−), demonstrating that T-bet expression in the adaptive rather than the innate immune system impacts host glucose homeostasis. Indeed, adoptive transfer of T-bet-deficient, but not wild-type, CD4+ T cells to Rag2−/− mice improved insulin sensitivity. Our results reveal a role for T-bet in metabolic physiology and obesity-associated insulin resistance. PMID:23562076

  7. Innate Lymphoid Cells Mediate Pulmonary Eosinophilic Inflammation, Airway Mucous Cell Metaplasia, and Type 2 Immunity in Mice Exposed to Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Kazuyoshi; Lewandowski, Ryan P; Jackson-Humbles, Daven N; Buglak, Nicholas; Li, Ning; White, Kaylin; Van Dyken, Steven J; Wagner, James G; Harkema, Jack R

    2017-08-01

    Exposure to elevated levels of ambient ozone in photochemical smog is associated with eosinophilic airway inflammation and nonatopic asthma in children. In the present study, we determined the role of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in the pathogenesis of ozone-induced nonatopic asthma by using lymphoid cell-sufficient C57BL/6 mice, ILC-sufficient Rag2 -/- mice (devoid of T and B cells), and ILC-deficient Rag2 -/- Il2rg -/- mice (depleted of all lymphoid cells including ILCs). Mice were exposed to 0 or 0.8 parts per million ozone for 1 day or 9 consecutive weekdays (4 hr/day). A single exposure to ozone caused neutrophilic inflammation, airway epithelial injury, and reparative DNA synthesis in all strains of mice, irrespective of the presence or absence of ILCs. In contrast, 9-day exposures induced eosinophilic inflammation and mucous cell metaplasia only in the lungs of ILC-sufficient mice. Repeated ozone exposures also elicited increased messenger RNA expression of transcripts associated with type 2 immunity and airway mucus production in ILC-sufficient mice. ILC-deficient mice repeatedly exposed to ozone had no pulmonary pathology or increased gene expression related to type 2 immunity. These results suggest a new paradigm for the biologic mechanisms underlying the development of a phenotype of childhood nonatopic asthma that has been linked to ambient ozone exposures.

  8. Immunization of Mice with Lactobacillus casei Expressing a Beta-Intimin Fragment Reduces Intestinal Colonization by Citrobacter rodentium ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, P. C. D.; da Silva, J. B.; Piazza, R. M. F.; Eckmann, L.; Ho, P. L.; Oliveira, M. L. S.

    2011-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a common cause of diarrhea in children from developing countries. Intimate adhesion of the bacteria to intestinal cells occurs via binding of the adhesin intimin to the TIR receptor exposed on cell surfaces. Here, Lactobacillus casei expressing a fragment of β-intimin (L. casei-Intcv) was tested as mucosal vaccines in mice against intestinal colonization with the murine pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. Oral or sublingual immunization of C57BL/6 mice ...

  9. Intranasal sedatives in pediatric dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSarheed, Maha A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the intranasal (IN) sedatives used to achieve conscious sedation during dental procedures amongst children. Methods: A literature review was conducted by identifying relevant studies through searches on Medline. Search included IN of midazolam, ketamine, sufentanil, dexmedetomidine, clonidine, haloperidol and loranzepam. Studies included were conducted amongst individuals below 18 years, published in English, and were not restricted by year. Exclusion criteria were articles that did not focus on pediatric dentistry. Results: Twenty studies were included. The most commonly used sedatives were midazolam, followed by ketamine and sufentanil. Onset of action for IN midazolam was 5-15 minutes (min), however, IN ketamine was faster (mean 5.74 min), while both IN sufentanil (mean 20 min) and IN dexmedetomidine (mean 25 min) were slow in comparison. Midazolam was effective for modifying behavior in mild to moderately anxious children, however, for more invasive or prolonged procedures, stronger sedatives, such as IN ketamine, IN sufentanil were recommended. In addition, ketamine fared better in overall success rate (89%) when compared with IN midazolam (69%). Intranasal dexmedetomidine was only used as pre-medication amongst children. While its’ onset of action is longer when compared with IN midazolam, it produced deeper sedation at the time of separation from the parent and at the time of anesthesia induction. Conclusion: Intranasal midazolam, ketamine and sufentanil are effective and safe for conscious sedation, while intranasal midazolam, dexmedetomidine and sufentanil have proven to be effective premedications. PMID:27570849

  10. Early Involvement of Immune/Inflammatory Response Genes in Retinal Degeneration in DBA/2J Mice

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    W. Fan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The DBA/2J (D2 mouse carries mutations in two of its genes, Tyrp1 and Gpnmb. These alterations result in the development of an immune response in the iris, leading to iris atrophy and pigment dispersion. The development of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP in this model of glaucoma is considered to be a significant factor leading to the death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs. Changes in gene expression in the retina have already been correlated with the appearance of elevated IOP in the D2 mouse. The purpose of the present study was to determine if any changes in gene expression occur prior to the development of IOP. Methods The IOP was measured monthly using a rebound tonometer in D2 and age-matched C57/BL6 (B6 mice (normal controls. D2 animals with normal IOP at 2 and 4 M were used. In addition, mice at the age of 6–7 M were included to look for any trends in gene expression that might develop during the progression of the disease. Separate RNA samples were prepared from each of three individual retinas for each age, and gene expression profiles were determined with the aid of mouse oligonucleotide arrays (Agilent. A subset of genes was examined with the aid of real-time PCR. Immunocytochemistry was used to visualize changes in the retina for some of the gene-products. Results Four hundred and thirteen oligonucleotide probes were differentially expressed in the retinas of 4 M versus 2 M old D2 mice. The most significantly up-regulated genes (181 were associated with immune responses including interferon signaling, the complement system and the antigen presentation pathway, whereas the down-regulated genes (232 were linked to pathways related to cell death and known neurological diseases/disorders. These particular changes were not revealed in the age-matched B6 mice. By 6 M, when IOP started to increase in many of the D2 mice, more robust changes of these same genes were observed. Changes in the levels of selected genes

  11. Early Involvement of Immune/Inflammatory Response Genes in Retinal Degeneration in DBA/2J Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Fan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The DBA/2J (D2 mouse carries mutations in two of its genes, Tyrp1 and Gpnmb. These alterations result in the development of an immune response in the iris, leading to iris atrophy and pigment dispersion. The development of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP in this model of glaucoma is considered to be a significant factor leading to the death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs. Changes in gene expression in the retina have already been correlated with the appearance of elevated IOP in the D2 mouse. The purpose of the present study was to determine if any changes in gene expression occur prior to the development of IOP. Methods: The IOP was measured monthly using a rebound tonometer in D2 and age-matched C57/BL6 (B6 mice (normal controls. D2 animals with normal IOP at 2 and 4 M were used. In addition, mice at the age of 6–7 M were included to look for any trends in gene expression that might develop during the progression of the disease. Separate RNA samples were prepared from each of three individual retinas for each age, and gene expression profiles were determined with the aid of mouse oligonucleotide arrays (Agilent. A subset of genes was examined with the aid of real-time PCR. Immunocytochemistry was used to visualize changes in the retina for some of the gene-products. Results: Four hundred and thirteen oligonucleotide probes were differentially expressed in the retinas of 4 M versus 2 M old D2 mice. The most significantly up-regulated genes (181 were associated with immune responses including interferon signaling, the complement system and the antigen presentation pathway, whereas the down-regulated genes (232 were linked to pathways related to cell death and known neurological diseases/disorders. These particular changes were not revealed in the age-matched B6 mice. By 6 M, when IOP started to increase in many of the D2 mice, more robust changes of these same genes were observed. Changes in the levels of selected genes

  12. Temporal and spatial interplay of microbiota and intestinal mucosa drive establishment of immune homeostasis in conventionalized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Aidy, Sahar; van Baarlen, Peter; Derrien, Muriel; Lindenbergh-Kortleve, Dicky J; Hooiveld, Guido; Levenez, Florence; Doré, Joël; Dekker, Jan; Samsom, Janneke N; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E S; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2012-09-01

    During colonization of germfree mice with the total fecal microbial community of their conventionally born and raised siblings (conventionalization), the intestinal mucosal immune system initiates and maintains a balanced immune response. However, the genetic regulation of these balanced, appropriate responses to the microbiota is obscure. Here, combined analysis of germfree and conventionalized mice revealed that the major molecular responses could be detected initiating at day 4 post conventionalization, with a strong induction of innate immune functions followed by stimulation of adaptive immune responses and development and expansion of adaptive immune cells at later stages of conventionalization. This study provides a comprehensive overview of mouse developmental and immune-related cellular pathways and processes that were co-mediated by the commensal microbiota and suggests which mechanisms were involved in this reprogramming. The dynamic, region-dependent mucosal responses to the colonizing microbiota revealed potential transcriptional signatures for the control of intestinal homeostasis in healthy mice, which may help to decipher the genetic basis of pathway dysregulation in human intestinal inflammatory diseases.

  13. Immune regulation in Chandipura virus infection: characterization of CD4+ T regulatory cells from infected mice

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    Shahir Prajakta

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Back ground Chandipura virus produces acute infection in mice. During infection drastic reduction of CD4+, CD8+ and CD19 + cell was noticed. Depletion of lymphocytes also noticed in spleen. The reduction may be due to the regulatory mechanism of immune system to prevent the bystander host tissue injury. There are several mechanisms like generation of regulatory cells, activation induced cell death (ACID etc were indicated to control the activation and maintain cellular homeostasis. Role of regulatory cells in homeostasis has been described in several viral diseases. This study was undertaken to characterize CD4+T regulatory cells from the infected mice. Method In this study we purified the CD4+ T cells from Chandipura virus infected susceptible Balb/c mice. CD4+ T regulatory cells were identified by expression of cell surface markers CD25, CD127 and CTLA-4 and intracellular markers Foxp3, IL-10 and TGF-beta. Antigen specificity and ability to suppress the proliferation of other lymphocytes were studied in vitro by purified CD4+CD25+T regulatory cells from infected mice. The proliferation was calculated by proliferation module of Flow Jo software. Expression of death receptors on regulatory cells were studied by flowcytometer. Results The CD4+ T cells isolated from infected mice expressed characteristic markers of regulatory phenotype at all post infective hours tested. The CD4+ T regulatory cells were proliferated when stimulated with Chandipura virus antigen. The regulatory cells did not suppress the proliferation of splenocytes stimulated with anti CD3 antibody when co cultured with them. Interesting observation was, while purification of CD4+ T cells by negative selection, the population of cells negative for CD4 also co purified along with CD4+ T cell. Flow cytometry analysis and light microscopy revealed that CD4 negative cells were of different size and shape (atypical compared to the normal lymphocytes. Greater percentage of

  14. Acute adaptive immune response correlates with late radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paun, Alexandra; Kunwar, Amit; Haston, Christina K

    2015-01-01

    The lung response to radiation exposure can involve an immediate or early reaction to the radiation challenge, including cell death and an initial immune reaction, and can be followed by a tissue injury response, of pneumonitis or fibrosis, to this acute reaction. Herein, we aimed to determine whether markers of the initial immune response, measured within days of radiation exposure, are correlated with the lung tissue injury responses occurring weeks later. Inbred strains of mice known to be susceptible (KK/HIJ, C57BL/6J, 129S1/SvImJ) or resistant (C3H/HeJ, A/J, AKR/J) to radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis and to vary in time to onset of respiratory distress post thoracic irradiation (from 10–23 weeks) were studied. Mice were untreated (controls) or received 18 Gy whole thorax irradiation and were euthanized at 6 h, 1d or 7 d after radiation treatment. Pulmonary CD4+ lymphocytes, bronchoalveolar cell profile & cytokine level, and serum cytokine levels were assayed. Thoracic irradiation and inbred strain background significantly affected the numbers of CD4+ cells in the lungs and the bronchoalveolar lavage cell differential of exposed mice. At the 7 day timepoint greater numbers of pulmonary Th1 and Th17 lymphocytes and reduced lavage interleukin17 and interferonγ levels were significant predictors of late stage fibrosis. Lavage levels of interleukin-10, measured at the 7 day timepoint, were inversely correlated with fibrosis score (R = −0.80, p = 0.05), while serum levels of interleukin-17 in control mice significantly correlated with post irradiation survival time (R = 0.81, p = 0.04). Lavage macrophage, lymphocyte or neutrophil counts were not significantly correlated with either of fibrosis score or time to respiratory distress in the six mouse strains. Specific cytokine and lymphocyte levels, but not strain dependent lavage cell profiles, were predictive of later radiation-induced lung injury in this panel of inbred strains. The online version of this

  15. Regulation of non-classical immune parameters in immune thrombocytopenic purpura mice by a spleen-invigorating, qi-replenishing and blood-containing formula

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    Tiantian Li

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: The SQBF had a similar effect to prednisone with regards to enhancing peripheral blood platelet counts in ITP mice. Furthermore, it decreased β-EP levels and increased VIP and SIgA, and protected the thymus. This shows that, on base of the brain-gut axis functions, some non-classical immune vascular active factors or neurotransmitters are also involved in immune responses, and also have relationship with the onset of ITP and bleeding and/or hemostasis. It needs further study to determine whether a change in these active factors is related to immediate hemostasis.

  16. Hydrodynamic delivery of plasmid DNA encoding human Fc?R-Ig dimers blocks immune-complex mediated inflammation in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Shashidharamurthy, Rangaiah; Machiah, Deepa; Bozeman, Erica N.; Srivatsan, Sanjay; Patel, Jaina; Cho, Alice; Jacob, Joshy; Selvaraj, Periasamy

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic use and function of recombinant molecules can be studied by the expression of foreign genes in mice. In this study, we have expressed human Fcgamma receptor ?Ig fusion molecules (Fc?R-Igs) in mice by administering Fc?R-Ig plasmid DNAs hydrodynamically and compared their effectiveness to purified molecules in blocking immune-complex (IC) mediated inflammation in mice. The concentration of hydrodynamically expressed Fc?R-Igs (CD16AF-Ig, CD32AR-Ig and CD32AH-Ig) reached a maximum of ...

  17. Guanidinylated Neomycin Conjugation Enhances Intranasal Enzyme Replacement in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Wenyong; Dwyer, Chrissa A; Thacker, Bryan E; Glass, Charles A; Brown, Jillian R; Hamill, Kristina; Moremen, Kelley W; Sarrazin, Stéphane; Gordts, Philip L S M; Dozier, Lara E; Patrick, Gentry N; Tor, Yitzhak; Esko, Jeffrey D

    2017-12-06

    Iduronidase (IDUA)-deficient mice accumulate glycosaminoglycans in cells and tissues and exhibit many of the same neuropathological symptoms of patients suffering from Mucopolysaccharidosis I. Intravenous enzyme-replacement therapy for Mucopolysaccharidosis I ameliorates glycosaminoglycan storage and many of the somatic aspects of the disease but fails to treat neurological symptoms due to poor transport across the blood-brain barrier. In this study, we examined the delivery of IDUA conjugated to guanidinoneomycin (GNeo), a molecular transporter. GNeo-IDUA and IDUA injected intravenously resulted in reduced hepatic glycosaminoglycan accumulation but had no effect in the brain due to fast clearance from the circulation. In contrast, intranasally administered GNeo-IDUA entered the brain rapidly. Repetitive intranasal treatment with GNeo-IDUA reduced glycosaminoglycan storage, lysosome size and number, and neurodegenerative astrogliosis in the olfactory bulb and primary somatosensory cortex, whereas IDUA was less effective. The enhanced efficacy of GNeo-IDUA was not the result of increased nose-to-brain delivery or enzyme stability, but rather due to more efficient uptake into neurons and astrocytes. GNeo conjugation also enhanced glycosaminoglycan clearance by intranasally delivered sulfamidase to the brain of sulfamidase-deficient mice, a model of Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA. These findings suggest the general utility of the guanidinoglycoside-based delivery system for restoring missing lysosomal enzymes in the brain. Copyright © 2017 The American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of Th1/Th2-Related Immune Response against Recombinant Proteins of Brucella abortus Infection in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Young Bin; Park, Woo Bin; Jung, Myunghwan; Kim, Suk; Yoo, Han Sang

    2016-06-28

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella, a genus of gram-negative bacteria. Cytokines have key roles in the activation of innate and acquired immunities. Despite several research attempts to reveal the immune responses, the mechanism of Brucella infection remains unclear. Therefore, immune responses were analyzed in mice immunized with nine recombinant proteins. Cytokine production profiles were analyzed in the RAW 264.7 cells and naive splenocytes after stimulation with three recombinant proteins, metal-dependent hydrolase (r0628), bacterioferritin (rBfr), and thiamine transporter substrate-binding protein (rTbpA). Immune responses were analyzed by ELISA and ELISpot assay after immunization with proteins in mice. The production levels of NO, TNF-α, and IL-6 were time-dependently increased after having been stimulated with proteins in the RAW 264.7 cells. In naive splenocytes, the production of IFN-γ and IL-2 was increased after stimulation with the proteins. It was concluded that two recombinant proteins, r0628 and rTbpA, showed strong immunogenicity that was induced with Th1-related cytokines IFN-γ, IL-2, and TNF-α more than Th2-related cytokines IL-6, IL-4, and IL-5 in vitro. Conversely, a humoral immune response was activated by increasing the number of antigen-secreting cells specifically. Furthermore, these could be candidate diagnosis antigens for better understanding of brucellosis.

  19. Co-immunization with DNA and protein mixture: a safe and efficacious immunotherapeutic strategy for Alzheimer's disease in PDAPP mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Si; Shi, DanYang; Wang, Hai-Chao; Yu, Yun-Zhou; Xu, Qing; Sun, Zhi-Wei

    2015-01-14

    Active immunotherapy targeting β-amyloid (Aβ) is the most promising strategy to prevent or treat Alzheimer's disease (AD). Based on pre-clinical studies and clinical trials, a safe and effective AD vaccine requires a delicate balance between providing therapeutically adequate anti-Aβ antibodies and eliminating or suppressing unwanted adverse T cell-mediated inflammatory reactions. We describe here the immunological characterization and protective efficacy of co-immunization with a 6Aβ15-T DNA and protein mixture without adjuvant as an AD immunotherapeutic strategy. Impressively, this co-immunization induced robust Th2-polarized Aβ-specific antibodies while simultaneously suppressed unwanted inflammatory T cell reactions and avoiding Aβ42-specific T cell-mediated autoimmune responses in immunized mice. Co-immunization with the DNA + protein vaccine could overcome Aβ42-associated hypo-responsiveness and elicit long-term Aβ-specific antibody responses, which helped to maintain antibody-mediated clearance of amyloid and accordingly alleviated AD symptoms in co-immunized PDAPP mice. Our DNA and protein combined vaccine, which could induce an anti-inflammatory Th2 immune response with high level Aβ-specific antibodies and low level IFN-γ production, also demonstrated the capacity to inhibit amyloid accumulation and prevent cognitive dysfunction. Hence, co-immunization with antigen-matched DNA and protein may represent a novel and efficacious strategy for AD immunotherapy to eliminate T cell inflammatory reactions while retaining high level antibody responses.

  20. Arctigenin protects against liver injury from acute hepatitis by suppressing immune cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xixi; Wang, Huafeng; Yang, Jinlai; Cheng, Yingnan; Wang, Dan; Yang, Fengrui; Li, Yan; Zhou, Dongmei; Wang, Yanxia; Xue, Zhenyi; Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Qi; Yang, Luhong; Zhang, Rongxin; Da, Yurong

    2018-06-01

    As a phenylpropanoid and dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan present in medical plants, such as those used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine, including Arctium lappa (Niubang), arctigenin exhibits antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. In this study, we investigated the protective role of arctigenin in Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced acute hepatitis in mice. Arctigenin remarkably reduced the congestion and necroinflammation of livers, and improved hepatic function (ALT and AST) in ConA-induced acute hepatitis in vivo. The infiltration of CD4 T, NKT and macrophages into the livers was found to be reduced with arctigenin treatment. Arctigenin suppressed ConA-induced T lymphocyte proliferations that might have resulted from enhanced IL-10 production by macrophages and CD4 T cells. These results suggested that arctigenin could be a powerful drug candidate for acute hepatitis through immune suppression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Immune responses to an encapsulated allogeneic islet β-cell line in diabetic NOD mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, Sasha P.; Constantinidis, Ioannis; Cui, Hong; Tucker-Burden, Carol; Weber, Collin J.; Safley, Susan A.

    2006-01-01

    Our goal is to develop effective islet grafts for treating type 1 diabetes. Since human islets are scarce, we evaluated the efficacy of a microencapsulated insulin-secreting conditionally transformed allogeneic β-cell line (βTC-tet) in non-obese diabetic mice treated with tetracycline to inhibit cell growth. Relatively low serum levels of tetracycline controlled proliferation of βTC-tet cells without inhibiting effective control of hyperglycemia in recipients. There was no significant host cellular reaction to the allografts or host cell adherence to microcapsules, and host cytokine levels were similar to those of sham-operated controls. We conclude that encapsulated allogeneic β-cell lines may be clinically relevant, because they effectively restore euglycemia and do not elicit a strong cellular immune response following transplantation. To our knowledge, this is First extensive characterization of the kinetics of host cellular and cytokine responses to an encapsulated islet cell line in an animal model of type 1 diabetes

  2. Early systemic bacterial dissemination and a rapid innate immune response characterize genetic resistance to plague of SEG mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeure, Christian E; Blanchet, Charlène; Fitting, Catherine; Fayolle, Corinne; Khun, Huot; Szatanik, Marek; Milon, Geneviève; Panthier, Jean-Jacques; Jaubert, Jean; Montagutelli, Xavier; Huerre, Michel; Cavaillon, Jean-Marc; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Although laboratory mice are usually highly susceptible to Yersinia pestis, we recently identified a mouse strain (SEG) that exhibited an exceptional capacity to resist bubonic plague and used it to identify immune mechanisms associated with resistance. The kinetics of infection, circulating blood cells, granulopoiesis, lesions, and cellular populations in the spleen, and cytokine production in various tissues were compared in SEG and susceptible C57BL/6J mice after subcutaneous infection with the virulent Y. pestis CO92. Bacterial invasion occurred early (day 2) but was transient in SEG/Pas mice, whereas in C57BL/6J mice it was delayed but continuous until death. The bacterial load in all organs significantly correlated with the production of 5 cytokines (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), macrophage cationic peptide-1 (MCP-1), interleukin 1α, and interleukin 6) involved in monocyte and neutrophil recruitment. Indeed, higher proportions of these 2 cell types in blood and massive recruitment of F4/80(+)CD11b(-) macrophages in the spleen were observed in SEG/Pas mice at an early time point (day 2). Later times after infection (day 4) were characterized in C57BL/6J mice by destructive lesions of the spleen and impaired granulopoiesis. A fast and efficient Y. pestis dissemination in SEG mice may be critical for the triggering of an early and effective innate immune response necessary for surviving plague.

  3. Anti-proteinase 3 anti-neutrophil cytoplasm autoantibodies recapitulate systemic vasculitis in mice with a humanized immune system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Little

    Full Text Available Evidence is lacking for direct pathogenicity of human anti-proteinase-3 (PR3 antibodies in development of systemic vasculitis and granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA, Wegener's granulomatosis. Progress in study of these antibodies in rodents has been hampered by lack of PR3 expression on murine neutrophils, and by different Fc-receptor affinities for IgG across species. Therefore, we tested whether human anti-PR3 antibodies can induce acute vasculitis in mice with a human immune system. Chimeric mice were generated by injecting human haematopoietic stem cells into irradiated NOD-scid-IL2Rγ⁻/⁻ mice. Matched chimera mice were treated with human IgG from patients with: anti-PR3 positive renal and lung vasculitis; patients with non-vasculitic renal disease; or healthy controls. Six-days later, 39% of anti-PR3 treated mice had haematuria, compared with none of controls. There was punctate bleeding on the surface of lungs of anti-PR3 treated animals, with histological evidence of vasculitis and haemorrhage. Anti-PR3 treated mice had mild pauci-immune proliferative glomerulonephritis, with infiltration of human and mouse leukocytes. In 3 mice (17% more severe glomerular injury was present. There were no glomerular changes in controls. Human IgG from patients with anti-PR3 autoantibodies is therefore pathogenic. This model of anti-PR3 antibody-mediated vasculitis may be useful in dissecting mechanisms of microvascular injury.

  4. Anti-proteinase 3 anti-neutrophil cytoplasm autoantibodies recapitulate systemic vasculitis in mice with a humanized immune system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Little, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Evidence is lacking for direct pathogenicity of human anti-proteinase-3 (PR3) antibodies in development of systemic vasculitis and granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA, Wegener\\'s granulomatosis). Progress in study of these antibodies in rodents has been hampered by lack of PR3 expression on murine neutrophils, and by different Fc-receptor affinities for IgG across species. Therefore, we tested whether human anti-PR3 antibodies can induce acute vasculitis in mice with a human immune system. Chimeric mice were generated by injecting human haematopoietic stem cells into irradiated NOD-scid-IL2Rγ⁻\\/⁻ mice. Matched chimera mice were treated with human IgG from patients with: anti-PR3 positive renal and lung vasculitis; patients with non-vasculitic renal disease; or healthy controls. Six-days later, 39% of anti-PR3 treated mice had haematuria, compared with none of controls. There was punctate bleeding on the surface of lungs of anti-PR3 treated animals, with histological evidence of vasculitis and haemorrhage. Anti-PR3 treated mice had mild pauci-immune proliferative glomerulonephritis, with infiltration of human and mouse leukocytes. In 3 mice (17%) more severe glomerular injury was present. There were no glomerular changes in controls. Human IgG from patients with anti-PR3 autoantibodies is therefore pathogenic. This model of anti-PR3 antibody-mediated vasculitis may be useful in dissecting mechanisms of microvascular injury.

  5. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate affects immune cells from atopic prone mice in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Eiko; Inoue, Ken-ichiro; Yanagisawa, Rie; Takano, Hirohisa

    2009-01-01

    Phthalate esters as plasticizers have been widespread in the environment and may be associated with development of allergic diseases such as asthma and atopic dermatitis. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. The present study investigated the effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on immune cells from atopic prone NC/Nga mice in vitro. Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) as a professional antigen-presenting cell and splenocytes as mixture of immune cells were used. BMDC were differentiated by culture with granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in the presence of DEHP (0.1-10 μM) for 6 days. In another experiments, BMDC were differentiated by culture with GM-CSF for 8 days then these BMDC were exposed to DEHP (0.1-100 μM) for 24 h. Splenocytes were exposed to DEHP for 24 h (0.1-100 μM) or 72 h (0.1-1000 nM). After the culture, the phenotypic markers and the function of BMDC and splenocytes were evaluated. BMDC differentiated in the presence of DEHP showed enhancement in the expression of MHC class II, CD86, CD11c and DEC205, and in their antigen-presenting activity. On the other hand, the function of the differentiated BMDC was not activated by DEHP although DEHP partly enhanced their expression of DEC205. DEHP-exposed splenocytes showed increases in their TCR and CD3 expression, interleukin-4 production, and antigen-stimulated proliferation. These results demonstrate that DEHP enhances BMDC differentiation but not activation and also enhances Th2 response in splenocytes from atopic prone mice. The enhancement might contribute to the aggravating effect of DEHP on allergic disorders.

  6. A Parametric Study on the Immunomodulatory Effects of Electroacupuncture in DNP-KLH Immunized Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Kwang Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare the effects of low frequency electroacupuncture (EA and high frequency EA at acupoint ST36 on the production of IgE and Th1/Th2 cytokines in BALB/c mice that had been immunized with 2,4-dinitrophenylated keyhole limpet protein (DNP-KLH, as well as to investigate the difference in the immunomodulatory effects exerted by EA stimulations at acupoint ST36 and at a non-acupoint (tail. Female BALB/c mice were divided into seven groups: normal (no treatments, IM (immunization only, ST36-PA (IM + plain acupuncture at ST36, ST36-LEA (IM + low frequency (1 Hz EA at ST36, ST36-HEA (IM + high frequency (120 Hz EA at ST36, NA-LEA (IM + low frequency (1 Hz EA at non-acupoint and NA-HEA (IM + high frequency (120 Hz EA at non-acupoint. EA stimulation was performed daily for two weeks, and total IgE, DNP-KLH specific IgE, IL-4 and IFN-γ levels were measured at the end of the experiment. The results of this study showed that the IgE and IL-4 levels were significantly suppressed in the ST36-LEA and ST36-HEA groups, but not in the NA-LEA and NA-HEA groups. However, there was little difference in the immunomodulatory effects observed in the ST36-LEA and ST36-HEA groups. Taken together, these results suggest that EA stimulation-induced immunomodulation is not frequency dependent, but that it is acupoint specific.

  7. Eosinophils Promote Antiviral Immunity in Mice Infected with Influenza A Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarasinghe, Amali E; Melo, Rossana C N; Duan, Susu; LeMessurier, Kim S; Liedmann, Swantje; Surman, Sherri L; Lee, James J; Hurwitz, Julia L; Thomas, Paul G; McCullers, Jonathan A

    2017-04-15

    Eosinophils are multifunctional cells of the innate immune system linked to allergic inflammation. Asthmatics were more likely to be hospitalized but less likely to suffer severe morbidity and mortality during the 2009 influenza pandemic. These epidemiologic findings were recapitulated in a mouse model of fungal asthma wherein infection during heightened allergic inflammation was protective against influenza A virus (IAV) infection and disease. Our goal was to delineate a mechanism(s) by which allergic asthma may alleviate influenza disease outcome, focused on the hypothesis that pulmonary eosinophilia linked with allergic respiratory disease is able to promote antiviral host defenses against the influenza virus. The transfer of eosinophils from the lungs of allergen-sensitized and challenged mice into influenza virus-infected mice resulted in reduced morbidity and viral burden, improved lung compliance, and increased CD8 + T cell numbers in the airways. In vitro assays with primary or bone marrow-derived eosinophils were used to determine eosinophil responses to the virus using the laboratory strain (A/PR/08/1934) or the pandemic strain (A/CA/04/2009) of IAV. Eosinophils were susceptible to IAV infection and responded by activation, piecemeal degranulation, and upregulation of Ag presentation markers. Virus- or viral peptide-exposed eosinophils induced CD8 + T cell proliferation, activation, and effector functions. Our data suggest that eosinophils promote host cellular immunity to reduce influenza virus replication in lungs, thereby providing a novel mechanism by which hosts with allergic asthma may be protected from influenza morbidity. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  8. Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a lot worse. Some are even life-threatening. Immunization shots, or vaccinations, are essential. They protect against ... B, polio, tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (whooping cough). Immunizations are important for adults as well as children. ...

  9. Nanodiamond enhances immune responses in mice against recombinant HA/H7N9 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Ngoc Bich; Ho, Thuong Thi; Nguyen, Giang Thu; Le, Thuy Thi; Le, Ngoc Thu; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Pham, Minh Dinh; Conrad, Udo; Chu, Ha Hoang

    2017-10-05

    The continuing spread of the newly emerged H7N9 virus among poultry in China, as well as the possibility of human-to-human transmission, has attracted numerous efforts to develop an effective vaccine against H7N9. The use of nanoparticles in vaccinology is inspired by the fact that most pathogens have a dimension within the nano-size range and therefore can be processed efficiently by the immune system, which leads to a potent immune response. Herein, we report a facile approach to increase antigen size to achieve not only fast but also effective responses against the recombinant HA/H7N9 protein via a simple conjugation of the protein onto the surface of nanodiamond particles. In this study, trimeric Haemagglutinin (H7) that is transiently expressed in N. benthamiana was purified using affinity chromatography, and its trimeric state was revealed successfully by the cross-linking reaction. The trimeric H7 solution was subsequently mixed with a nanodiamond suspension in different ratios. The successful conjugation of the trimeric H7 onto the surface of nanodiamond particles was demonstrated by the changes in size and Zeta-potential of the particles before and after protein coating, Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and Western-blot analysis. Next, biofunction of the protein-nanodiamond conjugates was screened using a haemagglutination assay. A mixture containing 5 µg of trimeric H7 and 60 µg of nanodiamond corresponds to a ratio of 1:12 (w/w) of agglutinated chicken red blood cells at HA titer of 1024, which is 512-fold higher than the HA titer of free trimeric H7. After the 2nd and 3rd immunization in mice, ELISA and Western blot analyses demonstrated that the physical mixture of trimeric H7 protein and nanodiamond (1:12, w/w) elicited statistically significant stronger H7-specific-IgG response demonstrated by higher amounts of H7N9-specific IgG (over 15.4-fold with P < 0.05 after the second immunization). These results

  10. Effect of dietary gluten on dendritic cells and innate immune subsets in BALB/c and NOD mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Larsen

    Full Text Available The innate immune system is known to play an important role in oral tolerance to dietary antigens. This is important in development of celiac disease (CD but may also be important in type 1 diabetes (T1D, and could potentially explain the reduced incidence of T1D in mice receiving a gluten-free (GF diet. The direct in vivo effect of gluten on innate cells, and particularly dendritic cells (DC is not sufficiently clarified. Therefore, we wished to investigate the innate cell populations of spontaneous diabetic NOD mice and healthy BALB/c mice kept on a GF or a standard (STD gluten containing diet. We studied, by flow cytometry and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, if dietary gluten induces changes in the activation of DCs and distribution of selected innate cells in lymphoid, pancreatic and intestinal tissues in BALB/c and NOD mice. We found that a GF diet increased the percentage of macrophages in BALB/c spleen and of CD11c+ DCs in BALB/c and NOD spleen. Strictly gluten-free (SGF diet increased the percentage of CD103+ DCs in BALB/c mice and decreased percentages of CD11b+ DCs in mesenteric and pancreatic lymph nodes in BALB/c mice. SGF diet in BALB/c mice also decreased DC expression of CD40, CCR7 and MHC-II in pancreatic lymph nodes. In conclusion, GF diet changes the composition of the innate immune system in BALB/c and NOD mice and increases expression of DC activation markers in NOD mice. These results contribute to the explanation of the low diabetes incidence in GF NOD mice. This mechanism may be important in development of type 1 diabetes, celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity.

  11. Effect of Diet and Exercise on the Peripheral Immune System in Young Balb/c Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Carrillo, B. E.; Jarillo-Luna, R. A.; Campos-Rodríguez, R.; Valdés-Ramos, R.; Rivera-Aguilar, V.

    2015-01-01

    Although diet and exercise clearly have an influence on immune function, studies are scarce on the effect caused by exercise and the consumption of a carbohydrate-rich or fat-rich diet on the peripheral immune system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of exercise and the two aforementioned unbalanced diets on young Balb/c mice, especially in relation to BMI, the level of glucose, and the percentage of lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood. The changes found were then related to the synthesis of leptin and adiponectin as well as the production of oxidative stress. The increase in BMI found with the carbohydrate-rich and fat-rich diets showed correlation with the levels of leptin and adiponectin. An increase in leptin and a decrease in adiponectin directly correlated with an increase in total lymphocytes and CD4+ cells and with a decrease in B cells. The increase in leptin also correlated with an increase in CD8+ cells. Glycemia and oxidative stress increased with the two unbalanced diets, negatively affecting the proliferation of total lymphocytes and the percentage of B cells, apparently by causing alterations in proteins through carbonylation. These alterations caused by an unbalanced diet were not modified by moderate exercise. PMID:26634209

  12. DNA-encapsulated magnesium phosphate nanoparticles elicit both humoral and cellular immune responses in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajadhar Bhakta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of pEGFP (plasmid expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein-encapsulated PEGylated (meaning polyethylene glycol coated magnesium phosphate nanoparticles (referred to as MgPi-pEGFP nanoparticles for the induction of immune responses was investigated in a mouse model. MgPi-pEGFP nanoparticles induced enhanced serum antibody and antigen-specific T-lymphocyte responses, as well as increased IFN-γ and IL-12 levels compared to naked pEGFP when administered via intravenous, intraperitoneal or intramuscular routes. A significant macrophage response, both in size and activity, was also observed when mice were immunized with the nanoparticle formulation. The response was highly specific for the antigen, as the increase in interaction between macrophages and lymphocytes as well as lymphocyte proliferation took place only when they were re-stimulated with recombinant green fluorescence protein (rGFP. Thus the nanoparticle formulation elicited both humoral as well as cellular responses. Cytokine profiling revealed the induction of Th-1 type responses. The results suggest DNA-encapsulated magnesium phosphate (MgPi nanoparticles may constitute a safer, more stable and cost-efficient DNA vaccine formulation.

  13. Immunization of Mice with Anthrax Protective Antigen Limits Cardiotoxicity but Not Hepatotoxicity Following Lethal Toxin Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Scott Devera

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Protective immunity against anthrax is inferred from measurement of vaccine antigen-specific neutralizing antibody titers in serum samples. In animal models, in vivo challenges with toxin and/or spores can also be performed. However, neither of these approaches considers toxin-induced damage to specific organ systems. It is therefore important to determine to what extent anthrax vaccines and existing or candidate adjuvants can provide organ-specific protection against intoxication. We therefore compared the ability of Alum, CpG DNA and the CD1d ligand α-galactosylceramide (αGC to enhance protective antigen-specific antibody titers, to protect mice against challenge with lethal toxin, and to block cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. By measurement of serum cardiac Troponin I (cTnI, and hepatic alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST, it was apparent that neither vaccine modality prevented hepatic intoxication, despite high Ab titers and ultimate survival of the subject. In contrast, cardiotoxicity was greatly diminished by prior immunization. This shows that a vaccine that confers survival following toxin exposure may still have an associated morbidity. We propose that organ-specific intoxication should be monitored routinely during research into new vaccine modalities.

  14. Fibrous nanocellulose, crystalline nanocellulose, carbon nanotubes, and crocidolite asbestos elicit disparate immune responses upon pharyngeal aspiration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Jung; Khaliullin, Timur O; Shurin, Michael R; Kisin, Elena R; Yanamala, Naveena; Fadeel, Bengt; Chang, Jaerak; Shvedova, Anna A

    2018-12-01

    With the rapid development of synthetic alternatives to mineral fibers, their possible effects on the environment and human health have become recognized as important issues worldwide. This study investigated effects of four fibrous materials, i.e. nanofibrillar/nanocrystalline celluloses (NCF and CNC), single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and crocidolite asbestos (ASB), on pulmonary inflammation and immune responses found in the lungs, as well as the effects on spleen and peripheral blood immune cell subsets. BALB/c mice were given NCF, CNC, CNT, and ASB on Day 1 by oropharyngeal aspiration. At 14 days post-exposure, the animals were evaluated. Total cell number, mononuclear phagocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, lymphocytes, and LDH levels were significantly increased in ASB and CNT-exposed mice. Expression of cytokines and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was quite different in mice exposed to four particle types, as well as expression of antigen presentation-related surface proteins on BAL cells. The results revealed that pulmonary exposure to fibrous materials led to discrete local immune cell polarization patterns with a T H 2-like response caused by ASB and T H 1-like immune reaction to NCF, while CNT and CNC caused non-classical or non-uniform responses. These alterations in immune response following pulmonary exposure should be taken into account when testing the applicability of new nanosized materials with fibrous morphology.

  15. Immune response in mice infected with Candida albicans in the mycelial form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibas Bonet de Jorrat, M E; de Valdez, G A; de Petrino, S F; Sirena, A; Perdigón, G

    1989-05-01

    The effect of the infection with the mycelial form of a Candida albicans strain (Mycology Dept.) upon the immune system in mice was studied. BALB/c mice were infected intraperitoneally in a single dose of a 3 x 10(6), 6 x 10(6) and 12 x 10(6) cell suspension of the strain. Macrophages's activity was studied the days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 after inoculation, by the following assays: phagocytosis in vitro, mononucleated phagocytic system by the colloidal carbon clearance technique, the lymphocyte's activity by the direct plaque forming cells technique (PFC) and delayed hypersensitivity (DTH). Infection with the mycelial form did not affect the peritoneal macrophage's phagocytic ability, neither modified the delayed hypersensitivity to sheep red blood cells (SRBC). However, a slight and transient depression of the lymphocyte stimulation was found. Suppression of PFC to SRBC was high when a 12 x 10(6) cell suspension was used in contrast to the infection with blastospores. These results suggest that systemic infection by Candida albicans in its mycelial form do not induce a non specific immunosuppression.

  16. B-lymphocyte differentiation in lethally irradiated and reconstituted mice. II. Recovery of humoral immune responsiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozing, J.; Brons, N.H.C.; Benner, R.

    1977-01-01

    The recovery of humoral immune responsiveness was studied in lethally irradiated, fetal liver-reconstituted mice. By means of both membrane fluorescence and antibody formation to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) as a functional assay, the rate of recovery of the compartments of B and T lymphocytes was determined in various lymphoid organs. The recovery of the immunoglobulin-positive (B) cell compartment after irradiation and reconstitution started in the spleen. This organ was also found to be the first in which the recovery of the B-cell population was completed. The interval between the recovery of the B-cell population in the spleen and that in the other organs tested was found to increase when the irradiated mice were reconstituted with spleen colony cells instead of fetal liver cells. This proved to be caused by the number and nature of the reconstituting hemopoietic stem cells. The immunoglobulin-positive (B) cells were found to appear before SRBC-reactive B cells could be demonstrated in spleen, lymph nodes, and Peyer's patches. The appearance of T lymphocytes in the various lymphoid organs required even more time. By means of cell transfer experiments, a sequential appearance of the precursors of anti-SRBC IgM-, IgG-, and IgA-plaque-forming cells could be demonstrated in spleen, bone marrow, lymph nodes, and Peyer's patches

  17. Visualizing non infectious and infectious Anopheles gambiae blood feedings in naive and saliva-immunized mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Choumet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anopheles gambiae is a major vector of malaria and lymphatic filariasis. The arthropod-host interactions occurring at the skin interface are complex and dynamic. We used a global approach to describe the interaction between the mosquito (infected or uninfected and the skin of mammals during blood feeding. METHODS: Intravital video microscopy was used to characterize several features during blood feeding. The deposition and movement of Plasmodium berghei sporozoites in the dermis were also observed. We also used histological techniques to analyze the impact of infected and uninfected feedings on the skin cell response in naive mice. RESULTS: The mouthparts were highly mobile within the skin during the probing phase. Probing time increased with mosquito age, with possible effects on pathogen transmission. Repletion was achieved by capillary feeding. The presence of sporozoites in the salivary glands modified the behavior of the mosquitoes, with infected females tending to probe more than uninfected females (86% versus 44%. A white area around the tip of the proboscis was observed when the mosquitoes fed on blood from the vessels of mice immunized with saliva. Mosquito feedings elicited an acute inflammatory response in naive mice that peaked three hours after the bite. Polynuclear and mast cells were associated with saliva deposits. We describe the first visualization of saliva in the skin by immunohistochemistry (IHC with antibodies directed against saliva. Both saliva deposits and sporozoites were detected in the skin for up to 18 h after the bite. CONCLUSION: This study, in which we visualized the probing and engorgement phases of Anopheles gambiae blood meals, provides precise information about the behavior of the insect as a function of its infection status and the presence or absence of anti-saliva antibodies. It also provides insight into the possible consequences of the inflammatory reaction for blood feeding and pathogen

  18. Visualizing non infectious and infectious Anopheles gambiae blood feedings in naive and saliva-immunized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choumet, Valerie; Attout, Tarik; Chartier, Loïc; Khun, Huot; Sautereau, Jean; Robbe-Vincent, Annie; Brey, Paul; Huerre, Michel; Bain, Odile

    2012-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae is a major vector of malaria and lymphatic filariasis. The arthropod-host interactions occurring at the skin interface are complex and dynamic. We used a global approach to describe the interaction between the mosquito (infected or uninfected) and the skin of mammals during blood feeding. Intravital video microscopy was used to characterize several features during blood feeding. The deposition and movement of Plasmodium berghei sporozoites in the dermis were also observed. We also used histological techniques to analyze the impact of infected and uninfected feedings on the skin cell response in naive mice. The mouthparts were highly mobile within the skin during the probing phase. Probing time increased with mosquito age, with possible effects on pathogen transmission. Repletion was achieved by capillary feeding. The presence of sporozoites in the salivary glands modified the behavior of the mosquitoes, with infected females tending to probe more than uninfected females (86% versus 44%). A white area around the tip of the proboscis was observed when the mosquitoes fed on blood from the vessels of mice immunized with saliva. Mosquito feedings elicited an acute inflammatory response in naive mice that peaked three hours after the bite. Polynuclear and mast cells were associated with saliva deposits. We describe the first visualization of saliva in the skin by immunohistochemistry (IHC) with antibodies directed against saliva. Both saliva deposits and sporozoites were detected in the skin for up to 18 h after the bite. This study, in which we visualized the probing and engorgement phases of Anopheles gambiae blood meals, provides precise information about the behavior of the insect as a function of its infection status and the presence or absence of anti-saliva antibodies. It also provides insight into the possible consequences of the inflammatory reaction for blood feeding and pathogen transmission.

  19. Effects of pulsed magnetic stimulation on tumor development and immune functions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Sachiko; Ogiue-Ikeda, Mari; Sekino, Masaki; Ueno, Shoogo

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the effects of pulsed magnetic stimulation on tumor development processes and immune functions in mice. A circular coil (inner diameter = 15 mm, outer diameter = 75 mm) was used in the experiments. Stimulus conditions were pulse width = 238 micros, peak magnetic field = 0.25 T (at the center of the coil), frequency = 25 pulses/s, 1,000 pulses/sample/day and magnetically induced eddy currents in mice = 0.79-1.54 A/m(2). In an animal study, B16-BL6 melanoma model mice were exposed to the pulsed magnetic stimulation for 16 days from the day of injection of cancer cells. A tumor growth study revealed a significant tumor weight decrease in the stimulated group (54% of the sham group). In a cellular study, B16-BL6 cells were also exposed to the magnetic field (1,000 pulses/sample, and eddy currents at the bottom of the dish = 2.36-2.90 A/m(2)); however, the magnetically induced eddy currents had no effect on cell viabilities. Cytokine production in mouse spleens was measured to analyze the immunomodulatory effect after the pulsed magnetic stimulation. tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) production in mouse spleens was significantly activated after the exposure of the stimulus condition described above. These results showed the first evidence of the anti-tumor effect and immunomodulatory effects brought about by the application of repetitive magnetic stimulation and also suggested the possible relationship between anti-tumor effects and the increase of TNF-alpha levels caused by pulsed magnetic stimulation.

  20. Protective immune responses with trickle infections of third-stage filarial larvae of Wuchereria bancrofti in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekariah, G R; Monteiro, Y M; Netto, A; Deshpande, L; Subrahmanyam, D

    1989-01-01

    Groups of inbred BALB/c mice were immunized with trickle doses of 20 live third-stage larvae (L3) of Wuchereria bancrofti each subcutaneously or with 150 microg of sonicated microfilarial antigens emulsified in Freund's adjuvant intramuscularly. An antibody response was distinctly seen after seven trickle doses of L3 and following with the sonicated microfilarial immunization. Due to the non-permissive nature of inbred mice to W. bancrofti infections, a novel immunization approach was adopted using appropriate age- and sex-matched controls. The anti-L3 response in terms of antibody-dependent cell-mediated adhesion and killing was assessed in the immunized animals by implanting live L3 in micropore chambers subcutaneously. About 75% L3 W. bancrofti were affected in animals sensitized with seven trickle doses of L3. When sensitizations were continued, as high as 92% of L3 were seen affected with ten trickle doses compared with 27% in age-matched controls. Immunization with sonicated microfilarial antigen affected about 70% of L3 as opposed to only 12% in controls. A positive correlation was observed in the antibody response with protectivity. This method of induction and assessment of the anti-L3 response involving a small set of animals has not only allowed quantification of affected L3 but has also enabled us to visualize larval conditions in immunologically activated animals. The micropore chamber system, would be useful in monitoring the induction of protective immune response against W. bancrofti in inbred mice. Experimentation on large numbers of animals is required to elucidate further the response of mice towards L3 and also to pinpoint the putative protective antigens. PMID:12412764

  1. Specific anti-EL4-lymphoma immunity in mice cured 2 years earlier with doxorubicin and interleukin-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrke, M J; Verstovsek, S; Zaleskis, G; Ho, R L; Ujházy, P; Maccubbin, D L; Mihich, E

    1996-05-01

    This laboratory has reported the conditions for an effective, non-toxic, chemoimmunotherapy utilizing doxorubicin in combination with prolonged administration of interleukin-2 and the identification of the critical role of activated CD8+ T cells in the therapeutic effect. Mice (C57BL/6) cured in those studies have been followed for the remainder of their life spans. These mice, approximately 2 months of age when initially inoculated with syngeneic EL4 lymphoma, survived for more than 2 years, the normal life span of C57BL/6 mice. Mice 4 months old reinoculated with the EL4 cells all survived. At about 1 year of age mice were sacrificed and the ability of their thymocytes and splenocytes to develop specific CD8+ anti-EL4 activity was as high as it had been at the time of tumor rejection. At about 2 years of age EL4 was reimplanted into mice; all of them survived. These surviving mice, at 2 years 2 months of age, as well as a group of 2-year-old mice not rechallenged, were killed and functional antitumor activity and phenotype characteristics of various lymphocyte populations were determined in comparison to those of young and age-matched control mice. The phenotyping of the lymphocytes from the cured mice indicated very notable differences in subset distribution and increased CD44 expression. Functionally they developed high levels of anti-EL4 activity, which was ablated by combined treatment with monoclonal antibodies against CD8 and CD44, indicating the role of memory cells. Consistent with cells from aged mice, these same cell populations had a very reduced allogeneic responsiveness. It appears that cured mice have developed an immune memory specific for EL4.

  2. Depletion of alveolar macrophages in CD11c diphtheria toxin receptor mice produces an inflammatory response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lydia M; Ledvina, Hannah E; Tuladhar, Shraddha; Rana, Deepa; Steele, Shaun P; Sempowski, Gregory D; Frelinger, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages play a critical role in initiating the immune response to inhaled pathogens and have been shown to be the first cell type infected following intranasal inoculation with several pathogens, including Francisella tularensis. In an attempt to further dissect the role of alveolar macrophages in the immune response to Francisella, we selectively depleted alveolar macrophages using CD11c.DOG mice. CD11c.DOG mice express the diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) under control of the full CD11c promoter. Because mice do not express DTR, tissue restricted expression of the primate DTR followed by treatment with diphtheria toxin (DT) has been widely used as a tool in immunology to examine the effect of acute depletion of a specific immune subset following normal development. We successfully depleted alveolar macrophages via intranasal administration of DT. However, alveolar macrophage depletion was accompanied by many other changes to the cellular composition and cytokine/chemokine milieu in the lung that potentially impact innate and adaptive immune responses. Importantly, we observed a transient influx of neutrophils in the lung and spleen. Our experience serves as a cautionary note to other researchers using DTR mice given the complex changes that occur following DT treatment that must be taken into account when analyzing data. PMID:26029367

  3. Sex-Specific Effects of Stress on Oxytocin Neurons Correspond With Responses to Intranasal Oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Michael Q; Duque-Wilckens, Natalia; Greenberg, Gian D; Hao, Rebecca; Campi, Katharine L; Laredo, Sarah A; Laman-Maharg, Abigail; Manning, Claire E; Doig, Ian E; Lopez, Eduardo M; Walch, Keenan; Bales, Karen L; Trainor, Brian C

    2016-09-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is considered to be a stress-buffering hormone, dampening the physiologic effects of stress. However, OT can also be anxiogenic. We examined acute and long-lasting effects of social defeat on OT neurons in male and female California mice. We used immunohistochemistry for OT and c-fos cells to examine OT neuron activity immediately after defeat (n = 6-9) and 2 weeks (n = 6-9) and 10 weeks (n = 4-5) later. We quantified Oxt messenger RNA with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (n = 5-9). Intranasal OT was administered to naïve and stressed mice tested in social interaction and resident-intruder tests (n = 8-14). Acute exposure to a third episode of defeat increased OT/c-fos colocalizations in the paraventricular nucleus of both sexes. In the medioventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, defeat increased Oxt messenger RNA, total OT neurons, and OT/c-fos colocalizations in female mice but not male mice. Intranasal OT failed to reverse stress-induced social withdrawal in female mice and reduced social interaction behavior in female mice naïve to defeat. In contrast, intranasal OT increased social interaction in stressed male mice and reduced freezing in the resident-intruder test. Social defeat induces long-lasting increases in OT production and OT/c-fos cells in the medioventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis of female mice but not male mice. Intranasal OT largely reversed the effects of stress on behavior in male mice, but effects were mixed in female mice. These results suggest that changes in OT-sensitive networks contribute to sex differences in behavioral responses to stress. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 2,3,7,8-TCDD enhances the sensitivity of mice to concanavalin A immune-mediated liver injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullerton, Aaron M., E-mail: fuller22@msu.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, 1129 Farm Lane, Room 215, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Roth, Robert A., E-mail: rothr@msu.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, Food Safety and Toxicology Building, 1129 Farm Lane, Room 221, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Ganey, Patricia E., E-mail: ganey@msu.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, Food Safety and Toxicology Building, 1129 Farm Lane, Room 214, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Inflammation plays a major role in immune-mediated liver injury, and exposure to environmental pollutants such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has been reported to alter the inflammatory response as well as affect immune cell activity. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that TCDD pretreatment exacerbates hepatotoxicity in a murine model of immune-mediated liver injury induced by concanavalin A (Con A) administration. Mice were pretreated with 30 μg/kg TCDD or vehicle control on day zero and then given either Con A or saline intravenously on day four. Mice treated with TCDD did not develop liver injury; however, TCDD pretreatment increased liver injury resulting from moderate doses of Con A (4–10 mg/kg). TCDD-pretreated mice had altered plasma concentrations of inflammatory cytokines, including interferon gamma (IFNγ), and TCDD/Con A-induced hepatotoxicity was attenuated in IFNγ knockout mice. At various times after treatment, intrahepatic immune cells were isolated, and expression of cell activation markers as well as cytolytic proteins was determined. TCDD pretreatment increased the proportion of activated natural killer T (NKT) cells and the percent of cells expressing Fas ligand (FasL) after Con A administration. In addition FasL knockout mice and mice treated with CD18 antiserum were both protected from TCDD/Con A-induced hepatotoxicity, suggesting a requirement for direct cell–cell interaction between effector immune cells and parenchymal cell targets in the development of liver injury from TCDD/Con A treatment. In summary, exposure to TCDD increased NKT cell activation and exacerbated immune-mediated liver injury induced by Con A through a mechanism involving IFNγ and FasL expression. -- Highlights: ► TCDD pretreatment sensitizes mice to Con A-induced hepatotoxicity. ► TCDD pretreatment increased concentration of IFNγ in plasma after Con A. ► Con A-induced activation of NKT cells was increased by TCDD pretreatment. ► Fas

  5. 2,3,7,8-TCDD enhances the sensitivity of mice to concanavalin A immune-mediated liver injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullerton, Aaron M.; Roth, Robert A.; Ganey, Patricia E.

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation plays a major role in immune-mediated liver injury, and exposure to environmental pollutants such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has been reported to alter the inflammatory response as well as affect immune cell activity. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that TCDD pretreatment exacerbates hepatotoxicity in a murine model of immune-mediated liver injury induced by concanavalin A (Con A) administration. Mice were pretreated with 30 μg/kg TCDD or vehicle control on day zero and then given either Con A or saline intravenously on day four. Mice treated with TCDD did not develop liver injury; however, TCDD pretreatment increased liver injury resulting from moderate doses of Con A (4–10 mg/kg). TCDD-pretreated mice had altered plasma concentrations of inflammatory cytokines, including interferon gamma (IFNγ), and TCDD/Con A-induced hepatotoxicity was attenuated in IFNγ knockout mice. At various times after treatment, intrahepatic immune cells were isolated, and expression of cell activation markers as well as cytolytic proteins was determined. TCDD pretreatment increased the proportion of activated natural killer T (NKT) cells and the percent of cells expressing Fas ligand (FasL) after Con A administration. In addition FasL knockout mice and mice treated with CD18 antiserum were both protected from TCDD/Con A-induced hepatotoxicity, suggesting a requirement for direct cell–cell interaction between effector immune cells and parenchymal cell targets in the development of liver injury from TCDD/Con A treatment. In summary, exposure to TCDD increased NKT cell activation and exacerbated immune-mediated liver injury induced by Con A through a mechanism involving IFNγ and FasL expression. -- Highlights: ► TCDD pretreatment sensitizes mice to Con A-induced hepatotoxicity. ► TCDD pretreatment increased concentration of IFNγ in plasma after Con A. ► Con A-induced activation of NKT cells was increased by TCDD pretreatment. ► Fas

  6. [Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit enhances the immune response against canine parvovirus VP2 in mice immunized by VP2 DNA vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Zhong, Fei; Li, Xiujin; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xingxing; Pan, Sumin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effect of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) B subunit (LTB) gene on canine parvovirus (CPV) VP2 gene vaccine. The LTB gene was amplified by PCR from genomic DNA of E. coli 44815 strain. The VP2-70 fragment (210 bp) encoding major epitope of VP2 (70 amino acids) was amplified by PCR from a plasmid encoding VP2 gene. VP2-70 and LTB genes were inserted into the eukaryotic vector to construct VP2-70 gene,LTB gene and VP2-70-LTB fused gene vectors. The mice were immunized with VP2-70 vector, VP2-70-LTB fused vector, or VP2-70 vector plus LTB vector, respectively. The antibody titers at the different time were measured by using ELISA method. The spleen lymphocyte proliferation activity was analyzed by 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The sequence of VP2-70 and LTB genes was identified. The recombinant VP2-70 and LTB proteins could be expressed in HEK293T cells in a secretory manner. The mice immunized with VP2-70 vector, VP2-70-LTB vector or VP2-70 vector plus LTB vector could generate the specific antibody against VP2 protein. The antibody titer immunized with VP2-70-LTB vector reached 1:5120 at 35 d post immunization, significantly higher than that of other two groups (P vaccine in mice.

  7. Effect of dietary gluten on dendritic cells and innate immune subsets in BALB/c and NOD mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper; Weile, Christian; Antvorskov, Julie Christine

    2015-01-01

    containing diet. We studied, by flow cytometry and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), if dietary gluten induces changes in the activation of DCs and distribution of selected innate cells in lymphoid, pancreatic and intestinal tissues in BALB/c and NOD mice. We found......-free (GF) diet. The direct in vivo effect of gluten on innate cells, and particularly dendritic cells (DC) is not sufficiently clarified. Therefore, we wished to investigate the innate cell populations of spontaneous diabetic NOD mice and healthy BALB/c mice kept on a GF or a standard (STD) gluten......The innate immune system is known to play an important role in oral tolerance to dietary antigens. This is important in development of celiac disease (CD) but may also be important in type 1 diabetes (T1D), and could potentially explain the reduced incidence of T1D in mice receiving a gluten...

  8. Effect of Zi Gui decoction on immune function in {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiujun, Lu; Shafei, Huang; Xipeng, Zhou; Jiayun, Song; Zhongxiong, Tang [Dept. of Pharmacology, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China)

    1995-02-01

    Zi Gui decoction (ZG), a complex preparation of traditional Chinese herbal medicine, mainly consists of Radix Angelicae and Radix Astragali. The effects of ZG on mitogen induced proliferation IL-1 and -2 production, natural killer (NK) cell activity in {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray irradiated mice is investigated. After 5 Gy whole body irradiation. mice were treated i.g. with ZG (1.2, 1.8 g/kg/day) for 20 days. An enhancement in Con A- and LPS-induced proliferations of splenocytes from the two dosage groups were observed. There were marked increases in IL-1 activity in peritoneal macrophage culturesa and IL-2 activity in splenocyte cultures from irradiated mice treated with ZG. The two dosage groups also showed significant potentiation of NK cell activity against YAC-1 target cells. The above results indicated that ZG could promote the recovery of immune functions in {gamma}-ray irradiated mice.

  9. Toxoplasma gondii vs ionizing radiation: intestinal immunity induced in C57bl/6j mice by irradiated tachyzoites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galisteo Junior, Andres Jimenez.

    2004-01-01

    We study the oral route for the development of a vaccine for toxoplasmosis, using parasites irradiated with 60 Cobalt, as an alternative for vaccine development to this worldwide parasitic infection. We evaluated the development of immunity at serum or mucosal levels, and their efficiency in protect the mice against challenge with oral cysts of the Me-49 strain. C57Bl/6j isogenic mice were immunized by oral route with 107 255 Gy irradiated tachyzoites from RH strain, at several protocols using milk as anti-peptic adjuvant and alum hydroxide as antacid. The preparations of irradiated tachyzoites induced production of serum IgG and IgA in immunized mice, as determined by ELISA, with IgG2a as the dominant subclass, similar to chronic infection. Their use with adjuvant allowed the excretion of significant amounts of IgA in stools also IgG, despite a lesser extent. There are suggestion of tolerance induction at mucosal level, with lower antigen induced proliferation and lower in vitro antibody production by spleen and gut lymphocytes, with the latter doses, specially when milk was used as adjuvant. All oral preparations induced some quantitative protection against challenge, which was similar to the parenteral route only isolated alum hydroxide was used as adjuvant. All these data support the possibility of the development of an oral vaccine against toxoplasmosis, using irradiated tachyzoites, which would be possible tool in near future for use in field baits, for immunizing either domestic or wild felines. (author)

  10. Galectin-9 ameliorates anti-GBM glomerulonephritis by inhibiting Th1 and Th17 immune responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Luan, Hong; Wang, Le; He, Fan; Zhou, Huan; Xu, Xiaoli; Li, Xingai; Xu, Qing; Niki, Toshiro; Hirashima, Mitsuomi; Xu, Gang; Lv, Yongman; Yuan, Jin

    2014-04-15

    Antiglomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis (anti-GBM GN) is a Th1- and Th17-predominant autoimmune disease. Galectin-9 (Gal-9), identified as the ligand of Tim-3, functions in diverse biological processes and leads to the apoptosis of CD4(+)Tim-3(+) T cells. It is still unclear how Gal-9 regulates the functions of Th1 and Th17 cells and prevents renal injury in anti-GBM GN. In this study, Gal-9 was administered to anti-GBM GN mice for 7 days. We found that Gal-9 retarded the increase of Scr, ameliorated renal tubular injury, and reduced the formation of crescents. The infiltration of Th1 and Th17 cells into the spleen and kidneys significantly decreased in Gal-9-treated nephritic mice. The reduced infiltration of Th1 and Th17 cells might be associated with the downregulation of CCL-20, CXCL-9, and CXCL-10 mRNAs in the kidney. In parallel, the blood levels of IFN-γ and IL-17A declined in Gal-9-treated nephritic mice at days 21 and 28. In addition, an enhanced Th2 cell-mediated immune response was observed in the kidneys of nephritic mice after a 7-day injection of Gal-9. In conclusion, the protective role of Gal-9 in anti-GBM GN is associated with the inhibition of Th1 and Th17 cell-mediated immune responses and enhanced Th2 immunity in the kidney.

  11. Protective immunity induced by 67 K outer membrane protein of phase I Coxiella burnetii in mice and guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.X.; Zhi, N.; Yu, S.R.; Li, Q.J.; Yu, G.Q.; Zhang, X.

    1994-01-01

    A 67 K outer membrane protein (OMP) isolated from phase I Coxiella burnetii QiYi strain was purified with monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) coupled to CNBr-Sepharose 4B. Chemical analyses of the 67 K protein showed that it contained seventeen kids of amino acids and no lipopolysaccharides. The immunogenicity and protectivity of the 67 K protein against C. burnetii was evaluated in mice and guinea pigs bi in vitro lymphocyte proliferation assay, delayed-type skin test, antibody conversion rate, and immunization and challenge tests. Intraperitoneal injection of the 67 K protein resulted in antibody production against phase I and II whole cell antigens. The anti-67 K antibody conversion rate was found to be 100% in mice and guinea pigs as well. Lymphocytes were responses in vitro to specific antigen. In addition, delayed-type hypersensitivity appeared two weeks after immunization with the 67 K protein. Moreover, 199% of mice and guinea pigs inoculated with the 67 K protein were protected against a challenge with 10 3 ID 50 virulent C. burnetii. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the 67 K OMP elicits in vivo and in vitro both B cell-mediated and T cell-mediated immunity in mice and guinea pigs. Thus the 67 K protein is a candidate for an effective subunit vaccine against Q fever. (author)

  12. Enhancing immune responses to inactivated porcine parvovirus oil emulsion vaccine by co-inoculating porcine transfer factor in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui-ning; Wang, Ya-bin; Geng, Jing-wei; Guo, Dong-hui; Liu, Fang; Chen, Hong-ying; Zhang, Hong-ying; Cui, Bao-an; Wei, Zhan-yong

    2012-07-27

    Inactivated porcine parvovirus (PPV) vaccines are available commercially and widely used in the breeding herds. However, inactivated PPV vaccines have deficiencies in induction of specific cellular immune response. Transfer factor (TF) is a material that obtained from the leukocytes, and is a novel immune-stimulatory reagent that as a modulator of the immune system. In this study, the immunogenicity of PPV oil emulsion vaccine and the immuno-regulatory activities of TF were investigated. The inactivated PPV oil emulsion vaccines with or without TF were inoculated into BALB/c mice by subcutaneous injection. Then humoral and cellular immune responses were evaluated by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), fluorescence-activated cell sorter analyses (FACS). The results showed that the PPV specific immune responses could be evoked in mice by inoculating with PPV oil emulsion vaccine alone or by co-inoculation with TF. The cellular immune response levels in the co-inoculation groups were higher than those groups receiving the PPV oil emulsion vaccine alone, with the phenomena of higher level of IFN-γ, a little IL-6 and a trace of IL-4 in serum, and a vigorous T-cell response. However, there was no significant difference in antibody titers between TF synergy inactivated vaccine and the inactivated vaccine group (P>0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that TF possess better cellular immune-enhancing capability and would be exploited into an effective immune-adjuvant for inactivated vaccines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Induction of Protective Immune Responses against Schistosomiasis Haematobium in Hamsters and Mice Using Cysteine Peptidase-Based Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem A M Tallima

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the major lessons we learned from the radiation-attenuated cercariae (RA vaccine studies is that protective immunity against schistosomiasis is dependent on the induction of T helper (Th1/Th2-related immune responses. Since most schistosome larval and adult-worm-derived molecules used for vaccination uniformly induce a polarized Th1 response, it was essential to include a type 2 immune responses-inducing molecule, such as cysteine peptidases, in the vaccine formula. Here we demonstrate that a single subcutaneous injection of Syrian hamsters with 200 microg active papain 1 h before percutaneous exposure to 150 cercariae of Schistosoma haematobium led to highly significant (P 50% in worm burden and worm egg counts in intestine. Immunization of hamsters with 20 microg recombinant glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (rSG3PDH and 20 ug 2-cys peroxiredoxin-derived peptide in a multiple antigen peptide construct (PRX MAP together with papain (20 microg/hamster as adjuvant led to considerable (64% protection against challenge S. haematobium infection, similar to the levels reported with irradiated cercariae. Cysteine peptidases-based vaccination was also effective in protecting outbred mice against a percutaneous challenge infection with S. haematobium cercariae. In two experiments, a mixture of Schistosoma mansoni cathepsin B1 (SmCB1 and Fasciola hepatica cathepsin L1 (FhCL1 led to highly significant (P < 0.005 reduction of 70% in challenge S. haematobium worm burden and 60% reduction in liver egg counts. Mice vaccinated with SmCB1/FhCL1/ rSG3PDH mixture and challenged with S. haematobium cercariae three weeks after the second immunization displayed highly significant (P < 0.005 reduction of 72% in challenge worm burden and no eggs in liver of 8-10 mice/group, as compared to unimmunized mice, associated with production of a mixture of type 1 and type 2-related cytokines and antibody responses.

  14. Human innate responses and adjuvant activity of TLR ligands in vivo in mice reconstituted with a human immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Zhang, Zheng; Li, Guangming; Li, Feng; Wang, Li; Zhang, Liguo; Zurawski, Sandra M; Zurawski, Gerard; Levy, Yves; Su, Lishan

    2017-10-27

    TLR ligands (TLR-Ls) represent a class of novel vaccine adjuvants. However, their immunologic effects in humans remain poorly defined in vivo. Using a humanized mouse model with a functional human immune system, we investigated how different TLR-Ls stimulated human innate immune response in vivo and their applications as vaccine adjuvants for enhancing human cellular immune response. We found that splenocytes from humanized mice showed identical responses to various TLR-Ls as human PBMCs in vitro. To our surprise, various TLR-Ls stimulated human cytokines and chemokines differently in vivo compared to that in vitro. For example, CpG-A was most efficient to induce IFN-α production in vitro. In contrast, CpG-B, R848 and Poly I:C stimulated much more IFN-α than CpG-A in vivo. Importantly, the human innate immune response to specific TLR-Ls in humanized mice was different from that reported in C57BL/6 mice, but similar to that reported in nonhuman primates. Furthermore, we found that different TLR-Ls distinctively activated and mobilized human plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), myeloid DCs (mDCs) and monocytes in different organs. Finally, we showed that, as adjuvants, CpG-B, R848 and Poly I:C can all enhance antigen specific CD4 + T cell response, while only R848 and Poly I:C induced CD8 + cytotoxic T cells response to a CD40-targeting HIV vaccine in humanized mice, correlated with their ability to activate human mDCs but not pDCs. We conclude that humanized mice serve as a highly relevant model to evaluate and rank the human immunologic effects of novel adjuvants in vivo prior to testing in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Oral immunization of BALB/c mice with Giardia duodenalis recombinant cyst wall protein inhibits shedding of cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocque, R; Nakagaki, K; Lee, P; Abdul-Wahid, A; Faubert, G M

    2003-10-01

    The process of encystation is a key step in the Giardia duodenalis life cycle that allows this intestinal protozoan to survive between hosts during person-to-person, animal-to-person, waterborne, or food-borne transmission. The release of cysts from infected persons and animals is the main contributing factor to contamination of the environment. Genes coding for cyst wall proteins (CWPs), which could be used for developing a transmission-blocking vaccine, have been cloned. Since the immunogenicity of recombinant Giardia CWP is unknown, we have investigated the immunogenicity of recombinant CWP2 (rCWP2) and its efficacy in interfering with the phenomenon of encystation taking place in the small bowels of BALB/c mice vaccinated with the recombinant protein. Here we report that the immunization of BALB/c mice with rCWP2 stimulated the immune system in a manner comparable to that for a live infection with Giardia muris cysts. Fecal and serum anti-rCWP2 immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies were detected in the immunized mice. In addition, anti-rCWP2 IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies were detected in the serum. mRNAs coding for Th1 and Th2 types of cytokines were detected in spleen and Peyer's patch cells from immunized mice. When the vaccinated mice were challenged with live cysts, the animals shed fewer cysts. We conclude that rCWP2 is a possible candidate antigen for the development of a transmission-blocking vaccine.

  16. Polysaccharide isolated from Aloe vera gel suppresses ovalbumin-induced food allergy through inhibition of Th2 immunity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dajeong; Kim, Hyuk Soon; Shin, Eunju; Do, Seon-Gil; Lee, Chong-Kil; Kim, Young Mi; Lee, Min Bum; Min, Keun Young; Koo, Jimo; Kim, Su Jeong; Nam, Seung Taek; Kim, Hyun Woo; Park, Young Hwan; Choi, Wahn Soo

    2018-05-01

    An allergic reaction occurs when the immune system overreacts to harmless substance called allergen that gains access to the body. Food allergy is a hypersensitive immune reaction to food proteins and the number of patients with food allergy has recently increased. Aloe Vera is used for wellness and medicinal purposes. In particular, Aloe vera has been reported to enhance immunity. However, the effect of Aloe vera on food allergy is not yet known. In this study, we investigated the effects of processed Aloe vera gel (PAG) containing low molecular weight Aloe polysaccharide (AP) on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced food allergy in mice. Allergic symptoms, rectal temperature, and diarrhea were measured in OVA-induced food allergy mice. Other allergic parameters were also analyzed by RT-PCR, ELISA, flow cytometry, and other biochemical methods. As the results, PAG suppressed the decrease of body temperature, diarrhea, and allergic symptoms in OVA-induced food allergy mice. PAG also reduced serum concentrations of type 2 helper T cell (Th2) cytokines (Interleukin-(IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13) as well as histamine, mast cell protease-1 (MCP-1), and immunoglobulin (Ig)E. PAG blocked the degranulation of mast cells and infiltration of eosinophils in intestine. Furthermore, PAG suppressed the population of Th2 cells in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. PAG also increased the production of IL-10 and population of type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells in mice with food allergy. Taken together, our findings suggest that PAG suppressed Th2 immune responses through, at least partially, stimulating the secretion of IL-10 in food allergy mice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. A potent adjuvant effect of a CD1d-binding NKT cell ligand in human immune system mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangming; Huang, Jing; Kaneko, Izumi; Zhang, Min; Iwanaga, Shiroh; Yuda, Masao; Tsuji, Moriya

    2017-01-01

    A CD1d-binding invariant natural killer T (iNKT)-cell stimulatory glycolipid, namely 7DW8-5, is shown to enhance the efficacy of radiation-attenuated sporozoites (RAS)-based malaria vaccine in mice. In the current study, we aim to determine whether 7DW8-5 can display a potent adjuvant effect in human immune system (HIS) mice. HIS-A2/hCD1d mice, which possess both functional human iNKT cells and CD8+ T cells, were generated by the transduction of NSG mice with adeno-associated virus serotype 9 expressing genes that encode human CD1d molecules and HLA-A*0201, followed by the engraftment of human hematopoietic stem cells. The magnitudes of human iNKT-cell response against 7DW8-5 and HLA-A*0201-restricted human CD8+ T-cell response against a human malaria antigen in HIS-A2/hCD1d mice were determined by using human CD1d tetramer and human HLA-A*0201 tetramer, respectively. We found that 7DW8-5 stimulates human iNKT cells in HIS-A2/hCD1d mice, as well as those derived from HIS-A2/hCD1d mice in vitro. We also found that 7DW8-5 significantly increases the level of a human malarial antigen-specific HLA-A*0201-restricted human CD8+ T-cell response in HIS-A2/hCD1d mice. Our study indicates that 7DW8-5 can display a potent adjuvant effect on RAS vaccine-induced anti-malarial immunity by augmenting malaria-specific human CD8+ T-cell response.

  18. Antitumor immunity is defective in T cell-specific microRNA-155-deficient mice and is rescued by immune checkpoint blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffaker, Thomas B; Lee, Soh-Hyun; Tang, William W; Wallace, Jared A; Alexander, Margaret; Runtsch, Marah C; Larsen, Dane K; Thompson, Jacob; Ramstead, Andrew G; Voth, Warren P; Hu, Ruozhen; Round, June L; Williams, Matthew A; O'Connell, Ryan M

    2017-11-10

    MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) regulates antitumor immune responses. However, its specific functions within distinct immune cell types have not been delineated in conditional KO mouse models. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-155 specifically within T cells during the immune response to syngeneic tumors. We found that miR-155 expression within T cells is required to limit syngeneic tumor growth and promote IFNγ production by T cells within the tumor microenvironment. Consequently, we found that miR-155 expression by T cells is necessary for proper tumor-associated macrophage expression of IFNγ-inducible genes. We also found that immune checkpoint-blocking (ICB) antibodies against programmed cell death protein 1/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) restored antitumor immunity in miR-155 T cell-conditional KO mice. We noted that these ICB antibodies rescued the levels of IFNγ-expressing T cells, expression of multiple activation and effector genes expressed by tumor-infiltrating CD8 + and CD4 + T cells, and tumor-associated macrophage activation. Moreover, the ICB approach partially restored expression of several derepressed miR-155 targets in tumor-infiltrating, miR-155-deficient CD8 + T cells, suggesting that miR-155 and ICB regulate overlapping pathways to promote antitumor immunity. Taken together, our findings highlight the multifaceted role of miR-155 in T cells, in which it promotes antitumor immunity. These results suggest that the augmentation of miR-155 expression could be used to improve anticancer immunotherapies. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. A cannabigerol derivative suppresses immune responses and protects mice from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Salinas, Francisco J; Navarrete, Carmen; Mecha, Miriam; Feliú, Ana; Collado, Juan A; Cantarero, Irene; Bellido, María L; Muñoz, Eduardo; Guaza, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Phytocannabinoids that do not produce psychotropic effects are considered of special interest as novel therapeutic agents in CNS diseases. A cannabigerol quinone, the compound VCE-003, has been shown to alleviate symptoms in a viral model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Hence, we studied T cells and macrophages as targets for VCE-003 and its efficacy in an autoimmune model of MS. Proliferation, cell cycle, expression of activation markers was assessed by FACs in human primary T cells, and cytokine and chemokine production was evaluated. Transcription was studied in Jurkat cells and RAW264.7 cells were used to study the effects of VCE-003 on IL-17-induced macrophage polarization to a M1 phenotype. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG₃₅₋₅₅) immunization and spinal cord pathology was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Neurological impairment was evaluated using disease scores. We show here that VCE-003 inhibits CD3/CD28-induced proliferation, cell cycle progression and the expression of the IL-2Rα and ICAM-1 activation markers in human primary T cells. VCE-003 inhibits the secretion of Th1/Th17 cytokines and chemokines in primary murine T cells, and it reduces the transcriptional activity of the IL-2, IL-17 and TNFα promoters induced by CD3/CD28. In addition, VCE-003 and JWH-133, a selective CB2 agonist, dampened the IL-17-induced polarization of macrophages to a pro-inflammatory M1 profile. VCE-003 also prevented LPS-induced iNOS expression in microglia. VCE-003 ameliorates the neurological defects and the severity of MOG-induced EAE in mice through CB2 and PPARγ receptor activation. A reduction in cell infiltrates, mainly CD4+ T cells, was observed, and Th1 and Th17 responses were inhibited in the spinal cord of VCE-003-treated mice, accompanied by weaker microglial activation, structural preservation of myelin sheets and reduced axonal damage. This study highlights the therapeutic potential

  20. A cannabigerol derivative suppresses immune responses and protects mice from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Carrillo-Salinas

    Full Text Available Phytocannabinoids that do not produce psychotropic effects are considered of special interest as novel therapeutic agents in CNS diseases. A cannabigerol quinone, the compound VCE-003, has been shown to alleviate symptoms in a viral model of multiple sclerosis (MS. Hence, we studied T cells and macrophages as targets for VCE-003 and its efficacy in an autoimmune model of MS. Proliferation, cell cycle, expression of activation markers was assessed by FACs in human primary T cells, and cytokine and chemokine production was evaluated. Transcription was studied in Jurkat cells and RAW264.7 cells were used to study the effects of VCE-003 on IL-17-induced macrophage polarization to a M1 phenotype. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE was induced by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG₃₅₋₅₅ immunization and spinal cord pathology was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Neurological impairment was evaluated using disease scores. We show here that VCE-003 inhibits CD3/CD28-induced proliferation, cell cycle progression and the expression of the IL-2Rα and ICAM-1 activation markers in human primary T cells. VCE-003 inhibits the secretion of Th1/Th17 cytokines and chemokines in primary murine T cells, and it reduces the transcriptional activity of the IL-2, IL-17 and TNFα promoters induced by CD3/CD28. In addition, VCE-003 and JWH-133, a selective CB2 agonist, dampened the IL-17-induced polarization of macrophages to a pro-inflammatory M1 profile. VCE-003 also prevented LPS-induced iNOS expression in microglia. VCE-003 ameliorates the neurological defects and the severity of MOG-induced EAE in mice through CB2 and PPARγ receptor activation. A reduction in cell infiltrates, mainly CD4+ T cells, was observed, and Th1 and Th17 responses were inhibited in the spinal cord of VCE-003-treated mice, accompanied by weaker microglial activation, structural preservation of myelin sheets and reduced axonal damage. This study highlights the

  1. Design and Efficacy of Nanogels Formulations for Intranasal Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing A. Aderibigbe

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanogels are drug delivery systems that can bypass the blood-brain barrier and deliver drugs to the desired site when administered intranasally. They have been used as a drug delivery platform for the management of brain diseases such as Alzheimer disease, migraine, schizophrenia and depression. nanogels have also been developed as vaccine carriers for the protection of bacterial infections such as influenza, meningitis, pneumonia and as veterinary vaccine carriers for the protection of animals from encephalomyelitis and mouth to foot disease. It has been developed as vaccine carriers for the prevention of lifestyle disease such as obesity. Intranasal administration of therapeutics using nanogels for the management of brain diseases revealed that the drug transportation was via the olfactory nerve pathway resulting in rapid drug delivery to the brain with excellent neuroprotective effect. The application of nanogels as vaccine carriers also induced significant responses associated with protective immunity against selected bacterial and viral infections. This review provides a detailed information on the enhanced therapeutic effects, mechanisms and biological efficacy of nanogels for intranasal administration.

  2. Dominant effects of the diet on the microbiome and the local and systemic immune response in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jot Hui Ooi

    Full Text Available Outside the nutrition community the effects of diet on immune-mediated diseases and experimental outcomes have not been appreciated. Investigators that study immune-mediated diseases and/or the microbiome have overlooked the potential of diet to impact disease phenotype. We aimed to determine the effects of diet on the bacterial microbiota and immune-mediated diseases. Three different laboratory diets were fed to wild-type mice for 2 weeks and resulted in three distinct susceptibilities to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS-induced colitis. Examination of the fecal microbiota demonstrated a diet-mediated effect on the bacteria found there. Broad-spectrum antibiotics disturbed the gut microbiome and partially eliminated the diet-mediated changes in DSS susceptibility. Dietary changes 2 days after DSS treatment were protective and suggested that the diet-mediated effect occurred quickly. There were no diet-mediated effects on DSS susceptibility in germ-free mice. In addition, the diet-mediated effects were evident in a gastrointestinal infection model (Citrobacter rodentium and in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Taken together, our study demonstrates a dominant effect of diet on immune-mediated diseases that act rapidly by changing the microbiota. These findings highlight the potential of using dietary manipulation to control the microbiome and prevent/treat immune-mediated disease.

  3. Long-term effect of whole-body X-irradiation on cell-mediated immune reaction in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norimura, Toshiyuki; Tsuchiya, Takehiko

    1989-01-01

    Age-related change in immunological activity was examined at 10 to 91 weeks following whole-body irradiation by determining the specific anti-tumor cell-mediated immunity in host mice induced and/or enhanced by local irradiation to transplanted tumor. Median survival time of the non-irradiated C3H/He female mice was 98.6 weeks while the median life-span of the mice exposed to two and four Gy of 250 kVp X-rays at the age of 10-12 weeks was shortened by 14.9 and 23.4 weeks, respectively. The rate of tumor reduction within two weeks after local irradiation to tumor and the growth inhibitory activitiy of spleen cells from tumor irradiated mice were reduced in a dose-dependent manner when assessed 10 weeks after whole-body irradiation, but recovered to the near-complete level of the non-irradiated controls within a few months, then gradually decreased with normal aging. These results suggest that the age-dependent decline of this immunological activity apears earlier in the irradiated mice as a result of whole-body X-irradiation at a young age, suggesting accelerated aging of the immune system. (author)

  4. Ganoderma lucidum extracts inhibited leukemia WEHI-3 cells in BALB/c mice and promoted an immune response in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yung-Hsien; Yang, Jai-Sing; Yang, Jiun-Long; Wu, Chang-Lin; Chang, Shu-Jen; Lu, Kung-Wen; Lin, Jen-Jyh; Hsia, Te-Chun; Lin, Yi-Ting; Ho, Chin-Chih; Wood, W Gibson; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2009-12-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) is a medicinal mushroom having biological effects such as immunomodulation and anti-tumor actions. In China and many other Asian countries, G. lucidum is used as a folk remedy to promote health and longevity. Although many studies have shown that G. lucidum modulates the immune system, including, for example, antigen-presenting cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and the T and B lymphocytes, the effects of G. lucidum on the WEHI-3 leukemic BALB/c mice are unclear. We attempted to determine whether G. lucidum would promote immune responses in BALB/c mice injected with WEHI-3 leukemia cells. The effects of G. lucidum on the survival rate of WEHI-3 leukemia cells injected into BALB/c mice were examined. It increased the percentages of CD3 and CD19, but decreased the percentages of Mac-3 and CD11b markers, suggesting that differentiation of the precursor of T and B cells was promoted but macrophages were inhibited. It decreased the weight of spleens as compared with control mice. It also promoted phagocytosis by macrophage from peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) and it also promoted natural killer cell activity. It decreased the percentage of leukemia cells in the spleens of mice before they were injected with WEHI-3 cells. Apparently, G. lucidum affects murine leukemia WEHI-3 cells in vivo.

  5. Long-term exposure to intranasal oxytocin in a mouse autism model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, K L; Solomon, M; Jacob, S; Crawley, J N; Silverman, J L; Larke, R H; Sahagun, E; Puhger, K R; Pride, M C; Mendoza, S P

    2014-11-11

    Oxytocin (OT) is a neuropeptide involved in mammalian social behavior. It is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous studies in healthy rodents (prairie voles and C57BL/6J mice) have shown that there may be detrimental effects of long-term intranasal administration, raising the questions about safety and efficacy. To investigate the effects of OT on the aspects of ASD phenotype, we conducted the first study of chronic intranasal OT in a well-validated mouse model of autism, the BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J inbred strain (BTBR), which displays low sociability and high repetitive behaviors. BTBR and C57BL/6J (B6) mice (N=94) were administered 0.8  IU/kg of OT intranasally, daily for 30 days, starting on day 21. We ran a well-characterized set of behavioral tasks relevant to diagnostic and associated symptoms of autism, including juvenile reciprocal social interactions, three-chambered social approach, open-field exploratory activity, repetitive self-grooming and fear-conditioned learning and memory, some during and some post treatment. Intranasal OT did not improve autism-relevant behaviors in BTBR, except for female sniffing in the three-chambered social interaction test. Male saline-treated BTBR mice showed increased interest in a novel mouse, both in chamber time and sniffing time, whereas OT-treated male BTBR mice showed a preference for the novel mouse in sniffing time only. No deleterious effects of OT were detected in either B6 or BTBR mice, except possibly for the lack of a preference for the novel mouse's chamber in OT-treated male BTBR mice. These results highlight the complexity inherent in understanding the effects of OT on behavior. Future investigations of chronic intranasal OT should include a wider dose range and early developmental time points in both healthy rodents and ASD models to affirm the efficacy and safety of OT.

  6. Effect of aged garlic extract on immune responses to experimental fibrosarcoma tumor in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabari, M Abouhosseini; Ebrahimpour, S

    2014-01-01

    Aged garlic extract (AGE) has many biological activities including radical scavenging, antioxidative and immunomodulative effects. In this research work, the antitumor and immunomodulatory effects of AGE against fibrosarcoma implanted tumor were studied. WEHI-164 fibrosarcoma cells were implanted subcutaneously on day 0 into the right flank of 40 BALB/c mice at age of 8 weeks. Mice were randomly categorized in two separate groups: First received AGE (100 mg/kg, IP), second group as the control group received phosphate buffered saline. Treatments were carried out 3 times/week. Tumor growth was measured and morbidity was recorded. Subpopulations of CD4+/CD8+ T cells were determined using flow cytometry. WEHI-164 cell specific cytotoxicity of splenocytes and in vitro production of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 cytokines were measured. The mice received AGE had significantly longer survival time compared with the control mice. The inhibitory effect on tumor growth was seen in AGE treated mice. The CD4+/CD8+ ratio and in vitro IFN-γ production of splenocytes were significantly increased in AGE group. WEHI-164 specific cytotoxicity of splenocytes from AGE mice was also significantly increased at 25:1 E: T ratio. Administration of AGE resulted in improved immune responses against experimentally implanted fibrosarcoma tumors in BALB/c mice. AGE showed significant effects on inhibition of tumor growth and longevity of survival times.

  7. Early IFN-gamma production after YF 17D vaccine virus immunization in mice and its association with adaptive immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia C C Neves

    Full Text Available Yellow Fever vaccine is one of the most efficacious human vaccines ever made. The vaccine (YF 17D virus induces polyvalent immune responses, with a mixed TH1/TH2 CD4(+ cell profile, which results in robust T CD8(+ responses and high titers of neutralizing antibody. In recent years, it has been suggested that early events after yellow fever vaccination are crucial to the development of adequate acquired immunity. We have previously shown that primary immunization of humans and monkeys with YF 17D virus vaccine resulted in the early synthesis of IFN-γ. Herein we have demonstrated, for the first time that early IFN-γ production after yellow fever vaccination is a feature also of murine infection and is much more pronounced in the C57BL/6 strain compared to the BALB/c strain. Likewise, in C57BL/6 strain, we have observed the highest CD8(+ T cells responses as well as higher titers of neutralizing antibodies and total anti-YF IgG. Regardless of this intense IFN-γ response in mice, it was not possible to see higher titers of IgG2a in relation to IgG1 in both mice lineages. However, IgG2a titers were positively correlated to neutralizing antibodies levels, pointing to an important role of IFN-γ in eliciting high quality responses against YF 17D, therefore influencing the immunogenicity of this vaccine.

  8. Predictive validity and immune cell involvement in the pathogenesis of piroxicam-accelerated colitis in interleukin-10 knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgersen, Kristine; Kvist, Peter Helding; Hansen, Axel Jacob Kornerup

    2014-01-01

    Piroxicam administration is a method for induction of enterocolitis in interleukin-10 knockout (IL-10 k.o.) mice. The piroxicam-accelerated colitis (PAC) IL-10 k.o. model combines a dysregulated immune response against the gut microbiota with a decreased mucosal integrity. The predictive validity...... and pathogenic mechanisms of the model have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, IL-10 k.o. mice received piroxicam in the chow, and model qualification was performed by examining the efficacy of prophylactic anti-IL-12/23p40 monoclonal antibody (mAb), anti-TNFαmAb, cyclosporine A (CsA) and oral...

  9. Efficacy of genital T cell responses to herpes simplex virus type 2 resulting from immunization of the nasal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milligan, Gregg N.; Dudley-McClain, Kristen L.; Chu Chinfun; Young, Christal G.

    2004-01-01

    Intravaginal (ivag) or intranasal (i.n.) immunization of C57BL/6J (B6) mice with a thymidine kinase-deficient strain (tk-) of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) resulted in comparable protection of the genital epithelium and sensory ganglia against HSV-2 challenge. In contrast, protection of these sites was much reduced in i.n.-immunized compared to ivag-immunized B cell-deficient μMT mice. Fewer HSV-specific T cells were detected in the genital epithelium of i.n.-immunized compared to ivag-immunized μMT mice after HSV-2 challenge. Passive transfer of HSV-specific serum to immune μMT mice restored protection of these sites against HSV-2 challenge. These results suggest that protection of genital and neuronal sites may be conferred by i.n. immunization but may be more dependent on antibody-dependent mechanisms than the protection resulting from genital immunization. These results have implications for immunization strategies to elicit high levels of cell-mediated protection of the genital tract and sensory ganglia

  10. A recombinant canine distemper virus expressing a modified rabies virus glycoprotein induces immune responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhili; Wang, Jigui; Yuan, Daoli; Wang, Shuang; Sun, Jiazeng; Yi, Bao; Hou, Qiang; Mao, Yaping; Liu, Weiquan

    2015-06-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) and rabies virus (RV) are two important pathogens of the dog. CDV, a member of the morbillivirus genus, has shown promise as an expression vector. The glycoprotein from RV is a main contributor to protective immunity and capable of eliciting the production of virus-neutralizing antibodies. In this study, we recovered an attenuated strain of canine distemper virus and constructed a recombinant virus, rCDV-RV-G, expressing a modified (R333Q) rabies virus glycoprotein (RV-G) of RV Flury strain LEP. RV-G expression by the recombinant viruses was confirmed. Furthermore, G was proved to be incorporated into the surface of CDV particles. While replication of the recombinant virus was slightly reduced compared with the parental CDV, it stably expressed the RV-G over ten serial passages. Inoculation of mice induced specific neutralizing antibodies against both RV-G and CDV. Therefore, the rCDV-RV-G has the potential as a vaccine that may be used to control rabies virus infection in dogs and other animals.

  11. Homologous and heterologous antibody responses of mice immunized with purified feline herpesvirus type 1 and canine herpesvirus glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limcumpao, J A; Horimoto, T; Xuan, X N; Tohya, Y; Azetaka, M; Takahashi, E; Mikami, T

    1991-06-01

    The three glycoproteins each of feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) and canine herpesvirus (CHV) were purified by affinity chromatography using glycoprotein-specific monoclonal antibodies and used individually or in combination in immunizing mice to determine their relative immunogenicity. All the glycoproteins induced detectable virus neutralizing antibodies to the homologous virus but FHV-1 gp143/108 and its cross-reacting counterpart, CHV gp145/112, elicited the highest titers not only to the homologous virus but to the heterologous virus as well. The production of ELISA antibodies after glycoprotein immunization was variable, while hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies were produced by only 1 out of 10 FHV-1 gp60-inoculated mice. In general, the antibody titers induced by CHV glycoproteins were lower than those by FHV-1 glycoproteins. These results indicate that these glycoproteins may be useful as subunit vaccines against FHV-1 and CHV infections.

  12. Migration inhibition of immune mouse spleen cells by serum from x-irradiated tumor-bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroson, H.

    1978-01-01

    Tumor-specific antigens of the chemically induced MC 429 mouse fibrosarcoma were detected in a 3 M KCl extract of tumor by the inhibition of migration of specifically immune spleen cells. Using this assay with serum from tumor-bearing mice no tumor antigen was detected in serum of mice bearing small tumors, unless the tumor was exposed to local x irradiation (3000 R) 1 day prior to collection of serum. It was concluded that local x irradiation of tumor caused increased concentration of tumor antigen in the serum. When the tumor was allowed to grow extremely large, with necrosis, then host serum did cause migration inhibition of both nonimmune and immune spleen cells. This migration-inhibition effect was not associated with tumor antigen, but with a nonspecific serum factor

  13. Intranasal insulin therapy: the clinical realities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Madsbad, Sten; Hvidberg, A

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate metabolic control and safety parameters (hypoglycaemia frequency and nasal mucosa physiology), 31 insulin-dependent diabetic patients were treated with intranasal insulin at mealtimes for 1 month and with subcutaneous fast-acting insulin at meals for another month in an open, crossover...... randomized trial. During both treatment periods the patients were treated with intermediate-acting insulin at bedtime. Six of the patients were withdrawn from the study during intranasal insulin therapy due to metabolic dysregulation. Serum insulin concentrations increased more rapidly and decreased more...... quickly during intranasal as compared with subcutaneous insulin administration. Metabolic control deteriorated, as assessed by haemoglobin A1c concentrations, slightly but significantly after intranasal as compared with subcutaneous insulin therapy. The bioavailability of intranasally applied insulin...

  14. Simultaneous induction of Graves' hyperthyroidism and Graves' ophthalmopathy by TSHR genetic immunization in BALB/c mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Xia

    Full Text Available Graves' disease is the most common form of autoimmune thyroid disorder, characterized by hyperthyroidism due to circulating autoantibodies. To address the pathological features and establish a therapeutic approach of this disease, an animal model carrying the phenotype of Graves' disease (GD in concert with Graves' Ophthalmopathy (GO will be very important. However, there are no ideal animal models that are currently available. The aim of the present study is to establish an animal model of GD and GO disease, and its pathological features were further characterized.A recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1- T289 was constructed by inserting the TSHR A-subunit gene into the expression vector pcDNA3.1, and genetic immunization was successfully performed by intramuscular injection of the plasmid pcDNA3.1-T289 on female 8-week-old BALB/c mice. Each injection was immediately followed by in vivo electroporation using ECM830 square wave electroporator. Morphological changes of the eyes were examined using 7.0T MRI scanner. Levels of serum T4 and TSHR antibodies (TRAb were assessed by ELISA. The pathological changes of the thyroid and orbital tissues were examined by histological staining such as H&E staining and Alcian blue staining.More than 90% of the immunized mice spontaneously developed goiter, and about 80% of the immunized mice manifested increased serum T4 and TRAb levels, combined with hypertrophy and hyperplasia of thyroid follicles. A significantly increased synthesis of hyaluronic acid was detected in in the immunized mice compared with the control groups.We have successfully established an animal model manifesting Graves' hyperthyroidism and ophthalmopathy, which provides a useful tool for future study of the pathological features and the development of novel therapies of the diseases.

  15. Tolerance and immunity in mice infected with herpes simplex virus: simultaneous induction of protective immunity and tolerance to delayed-type hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, A A; Gell, P G; Wildy, P

    1981-05-01

    Unresponsiveness to delayed type hypersensitivity was induced in mice following an intravenous injection of herpes simplex virus. The principal tolerogens used were thymidine kinase-deficient virus mutants which grow poorly in vivo; u.v.-inactivated and to a lesser extent formalin-inactivated virus were also tolerogenic. The tolerance induced was specific for the virus type. Despite the tolerance to delayed hypersensitivity, anti-viral immunity is present as determined by the rapid inactivation of infectious virus. The mechanism of tolerance to herpes virus and the importance of these observations for the pathogenesis of viral disease is discussed.

  16. A Functional Food Mixture “Protector” Reinforces the Protective Immune Parameters against Viral Flu Infection in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenza A. Mansoor

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Viral influenza infection causes serious health issues especially when an outbreak occurs. Although influenza virus vaccines are available and each year manufactures modify the vaccine depending on the expected mutated strain, it is still far from satisfactory, mainly in young children and older adults. Therefore, a product that can support and shape the immune system to protect against viral flu infections is highly essential. Methods: A functional food water-soluble mixture of pomegranate, red grape, dates, olive fruit, figs, and ginger extracts, termed herein “Protector”, was prepared and tested in stimulating/modulating the production of specific cytokines, and hemagglutinin inhibition (HAI antibodies following viral flu vaccination in mice. Results: A single intraperitoneal or multiple oral administration for 1–7 days of “Protector” significantly increased the production of interferon (IFN-γ and interleukin (IL-12 in blood, spleen, and lungs of mice. When “Protector” was orally administered for one week following a single vaccine injection (primary immunization or for two weeks (one week apart following double vaccine injections (secondary immunization, mice significantly produced higher titers of HAI antibodies. This increase in HAI antibodies was associated with Pillow-inducing significant and different changes in vaccine-induced IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-6 and IL-22 following primary and secondary immunizations. Conclusions: “Protector” administration reinforces the protective immune parameters against viral flu infection. Therefore, after performing preclinical toxicology studies and ensuring its safety, “Protector” should be considered a potential product to be tested in clinical trials to conclude its efficacy in reducing the devastating effects of flu infection in humans and its outbreaks.

  17. Vaccination with a DNA vaccine encoding Toxoplasma gondii ROP54 induces protective immunity against toxoplasmosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Bin; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zou, Yang; Chen, Kai; Liu, Qing; Wang, Jin-Lei; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zhao, Guang-Hui

    2017-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligatory intracellular protozoan, which infects most of the warm-blooded animals, causing serious public health problems and enormous economic losses worldwide. The rhoptry effector protein 54 (ROP54) has been indicated as a virulence factor that promotes Toxoplasma infection by modulating GBP2 loading onto parasite-containing vacuoles, which can modulate some aspects of the host immune response. In order to evaluate the immuno-protective value of ROP54, we constructed a eukaryotic recombinant plasmid expressing T. gondii ROP54 and intramuscularly immunized Kunming mice with this recombinant plasmid against acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. All mice immunized with pVAX-ROP54 elicited a high level of specific antibody responses, a significant increase of lymphocyte proliferation, and a significant level of Th1-type cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-12p70), in addition to an increased production of Th2-type cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10). These results demonstrated that pVAX-ROP54 induced significant cellular and humoral (Th1/Th2) immune responses, which extended the survival time (13.0±1.15days for pVAX-ROP54 vs 6.7±0.48days for pVAX I, 6.8±0.42days for PBS and 6.5±0.53 for blank control) and significantly reduced cyst burden (35.9% for pVAX-ROP54, 1% for pVAX I and 2% for PBS, compared with blank control) of immunized mice. These results indicate that the recombinant ROP54 plasmid can provide partial protection and might be a potential vaccine candidate against acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Human Immune System Mice for the Study of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Type 1 Infection of the Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evering, Teresa H.; Tsuji, Moriya

    2018-01-01

    Immunodeficient mice transplanted with human cell populations or tissues, also known as human immune system (HIS) mice, have emerged as an important and versatile tool for the in vivo study of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) pathogenesis, treatment, and persistence in various biological compartments. Recent work in HIS mice has demonstrated their ability to recapitulate critical aspects of human immune responses to HIV-1 infection, and such studies have informed our knowledge of HIV-1 persistence and latency in the context of combination antiretroviral therapy. The central nervous system (CNS) is a unique, immunologically privileged compartment susceptible to HIV-1 infection, replication, and immune-mediated damage. The unique, neural, and glia-rich cellular composition of this compartment, as well as the important role of infiltrating cells of the myeloid lineage in HIV-1 seeding and replication makes its study of paramount importance, particularly in the context of HIV-1 cure research. Current work on the replication and persistence of HIV-1 in the CNS, as well as cells of the myeloid lineage thought to be important in HIV-1 infection of this compartment, has been aided by the expanded use of these HIS mouse models. In this review, we describe the major HIS mouse models currently in use for the study of HIV-1 neuropathogenesis, recent insights from the field, limitations of the available models, and promising advances in HIS mouse model development. PMID:29670623

  19. Immune responses of mice and human breast cancer patients following immunization with synthetic sialyl-Tn conjugated to KLH plus detox adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenecker, B M; Reddish, M; Koganty, R; MacLean, G D

    1993-08-12

    We generated a synthetic epitope, NANA alpha(2-6) GalNAc alpha-O-Crotyl (STn-crotyl), designed to "mimic" the natural O-linked epitope expressed on human carcinoma cells, NANA alpha(2-6)GalNAc alpha-O-Serine (STn-serine). STn-crotyl was conjugated to the carrier protein KLH through the crotyl linker arm, and a "vaccine" containing STn-KLH plus DETOX adjuvant was formulated. The immunogenicity of the vaccine was evaluated preclinically in CAF1 mice and subsequently in patients with metastatic breast cancer. The specificity and titers of IgG antibodies were evaluated by kinetic ELISA on synthetic STn-HSA and on ovine submaxillary mucin (OSM) solid phases. Ovine submaxillary mucin is a convenient source of repeating, natural O-linked STn-serine structures. Mice immunized three times with as little as 0.25 micrograms of STn-KLH produced IgG titers ranging from 1:10(4) to 1:10(5) when tested on solid phase OSM. Anti-OSM IgG, both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, generated from these mice were completely inhibited in their binding to solid phase OSM equally well by STn-serine and STn-crotyl synthetic haptens but not by several other closely related synthetic haptens. These monoclonal antibodies also bound to STn determinants on human tumor cell surfaces. Breast cancer patients immunized with 100 micrograms of the same vaccine produced median peak IgG titers 1:1280 measured on STn-HSA and 1:160 on OSM. Hapten inhibition experiments with the human sera demonstrated the specificities of the IgG antibodies for STn-crotyl and STn-serine, but not against several other related synthetic haptens. We found little evidence that the artificial linker arm (crotyl linker) contributed substantially to either the titer or affinity of the antibodies generated in either mice or human breast cancer patients. This suggests that the antibodies recognized the cancer-associated disaccharide NANA alpha(2-->6)-GalNAc. Small but not large doses of STn-KLH immunogen induced anti-STn DTH

  20. Intranasal delivery of antiviral siRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Sailen

    2011-01-01

    Intranasal administration of synthetic siRNA is an effective modality of RNAi delivery for the prevention and therapy of respiratory diseases, including pulmonary infections. Vehicles used for nasal siRNA delivery include established as well as novel reagents, many of which have been recently optimized. In general, they all promote significant uptake of siRNA into the lower respiratory tract, including the lung. When properly designed and optimized, these siRNAs offer significant protection against respiratory viruses such as influenza virus, parainfluenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Nasally administered siRNA remains within the lung and does not access systemic blood flow, as judged by its absence in other major organs such as liver, heart, kidney, and skeletal muscle. Adverse immune reaction is generally not encountered, especially when immunogenic and/or off-target siRNA sequences and toxic vehicles are avoided. In fact, siRNA against RSV has entered Phase II clinical trials in human with promising results. Here, we provide a standardized procedure for using the nose as a specific route for siRNA delivery into the lung of laboratory animals. It should be clear that this simple and efficient system has enormous potential for therapeutics.

  1. Intramuscular Immunization of Mice with the Live-Attenuated Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Vaccine Strain VC2 Expressing Equine Herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) Glycoprotein D Generates Anti-EHV-1 Immune Responses in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiliang A; Stanfield, Brent A; Chouljenko, Vladimir N; Naidu, Shan; Langohr, Ingeborg; Del Piero, Fabio; Ferracone, Jacqueline; Roy, Alma A; Kousoulas, Konstantin G

    2017-06-15

    Vaccination remains the best option to combat equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) infection, and several different strategies of vaccination have been investigated and developed over the past few decades. Herein, we report that the live-attenuated herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) VC2 vaccine strain, which has been shown to be unable to enter into neurons and establish latency in mice, can be utilized as a vector for the heterologous expression of EHV-1 glycoprotein D (gD) and that the intramuscular immunization of mice results in strong antiviral humoral and cellular immune responses. The VC2-EHV-1-gD recombinant virus was constructed by inserting an EHV-1 gD expression cassette under the control of the cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter into the VC2 vector in place of the HSV-1 thymidine kinase (UL23) gene. The vaccines were introduced into mice through intramuscular injection. Vaccination with both the VC2-EHV-1-gD vaccine and the commercially available vaccine Vetera EHV XP 1/4 (Vetera; Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica) resulted in the production of neutralizing antibodies, the levels of which were significantly higher in comparison to those in VC2- and mock-vaccinated animals ( P < 0.01 or P < 0.001). Analysis of EHV-1-reactive IgG subtypes demonstrated that vaccination with the VC2-EHV-1-gD vaccine stimulated robust IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies after three vaccinations ( P < 0.001). Interestingly, Vetera-vaccinated mice produced significantly higher levels of IgM than mice in the other groups before and after challenge ( P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Vaccination with VC2-EHV-1-gD stimulated strong cellular immune responses, characterized by the upregulation of both interferon- and tumor necrosis factor-positive CD4 + T cells and CD8 + T cells. Overall, the data suggest that the HSV-1 VC2 vaccine strain may be used as a viral vector for the vaccination of horses as well as, potentially, for the vaccination of other economically important animals. IMPORTANCE A novel virus

  2. The probiotic mixture VSL#3 has differential effects on intestinal immune parameters in healthy female BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mariman, R.; Tielen, F.; Koning, F.; Nagelkerken, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Probiotic bacteria may render mice resistant to the development of various inflammatory and infectious diseases. Objective: This study aimed to identify mechanisms by which probiotic bacteria may influence intestinal immune homeostasis in noninflammatory conditions. Methods: The effect

  3. Aging exacerbates depressive-like behavior in mice in response to activation of the peripheral innate immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbout, Jonathan P; Moreau, Maïté; Lestage, Jacques; Chen, Jing; Sparkman, Nathan L; O'Connor, Jason; Castanon, Nathalie; Kelley, Keith W; Dantzer, Robert; Johnson, Rodney W

    2008-09-01

    Exposure to peripheral infections may be permissive to cognitive and behavioral complications in the elderly. We have reported that peripheral stimulation of the innate immune system with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) causes an exaggerated neuroinflammatory response and prolonged sickness behavior in aged BALB/c mice. Because LPS also causes depressive behavior, the purpose of this study was to determine whether aging is associated with an exacerbated depressive-like response. We confirmed that LPS (0.33 mg/kg intraperitoneal) induced a protracted sickness response in aged mice with reductions in locomotor and feeding activities 24 and 48 h postinjection, when young adults had fully recovered. When submitted to the forced swim test 24 h post-LPS, both young adult and aged mice exhibited an increased duration of immobility. However, when submitted to either the forced swim test or the tail suspension test 72 h post-LPS, an increased duration of immobility was evident only in aged mice. This prolonged depressive-like behavior in aged LPS-treated mice was associated with a more pronounced induction of peripheral and brain indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and a markedly higher turnover rate of brain serotonin (as measured by the ratio of 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid over 5-hydroxy-tryptamine) compared to young adult mice at 24 post-LPS injection. These results provide the first evidence that age-associated reactivity of the brain cytokine system could play a pathophysiological role in the increased prevalence of depression observed in the elderly.

  4. Effect of experimental immune atrophic gastritis on the induction of gastric carcinoma by x-irradiation in ICR mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Fumio; Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Takeichi, Nobuo; Naito, Yukiko; Inoue, Shozo

    1976-01-01

    Divided doses of 6,000 or 8,000 rad of x-ray were given to the gastric region of ICR/JCL female mice with immune atrophic gastritis produced by the injection with allogenic stomach antigen. The carcinogenic effect of x-rays for inducing gastric carcinoma was significantly increased by this method. Two points can be presented as its reason. First, the pyloric gland mucosa regenerating from injuries by immunization was exposed to the divided doses of x-rays. Second, the marked requirement of gastrin secretion attributable to severe injuries of parietal cell mass by immunization and local x-irradiation acted as a promoting factor on the induction of gastric carcinoma by x-ray for a long time through the trophic effects on the pyloric gland. (auth.)

  5. Combined local and systemic immunization is essential for durable T-cell mediated heterosubtypic immunity against influenza A virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddbäck, Ida Elin Maria; Pedersen, Line M I; Pedersen, Sara R

    2016-01-01

    nucleoprotein have previously been found to induce short-term protection in mice. In this study we confirm that systemic (subcutaneous (s.c.) immunization rapidly induced heterosubtypic protection predominantly mediated by CD8 T cells, but within three months clinical protection completely disappeared. Local......The threat from unpredictable influenza virus pandemics necessitates the development of a new type of influenza vaccine. Since the internal proteins are highly conserved, induction of T cells targeting these antigens may provide the solution. Indeed, adenoviral (Ad) vectors expressing flu...... (intranasal (i.n.)) immunization elicited delayed, but more lasting protection despite relatively inefficient immunization. However, by far, the most robust protection was induced by simultaneous, combined (i.n. + s.c.) vaccination, and, notably, in this case clinical protection lasted at least 8 months...

  6. The immune complex CTA1-DD/IgG adjuvant specifically targets connective tissue mast cells through FcγRIIIA and augments anti-HPV immunity after nasal immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Y; Zhang, T; Lidell, L; Xu, X; Lycke, N; Xiang, Z

    2013-11-01

    We have previously reported that CTA1-DD/IgG immune complexes augment antibody responses in a mast cell-dependent manner following intranasal (IN) immunizations. However, from a safety perspective, mast cell activation could preclude clinical use. Therefore, we have extended these studies and demonstrate that CTA1-DD/IgG immune complexes administered IN did not trigger an anaphylactic reaction. Importantly, CTA1-DD/IgE immune complexes did not activate mast cells. Interestingly, only connective tissue, but not mucosal, mast cells could be activated by CTA1-DD/IgG immune complexes. This effect was mediated by FcγRIIIA, only expressed on connective tissue mast cells, and found in the nasal submucosa. FcγRIIIA-deficient mice had compromised responses to immunization adjuvanted by CTA1-DD/IgG. Proof-of-concept studies revealed that IN immunized mice with human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 L1 virus-like particles (VLP) and CTA1-DD/IgG immune complexes demonstrated strong and sustained specific antibody titers in serum and vaginal secretions. From a mast cell perspective, CTA1-DD/IgG immune complexes appear to be safe and effective mucosal adjuvants.

  7. Effect of Clostridium butyricum supplementation on the development of intestinal flora and the immune system of neonatal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Rui-Xue; Zhu, Xin-Xin; Wan, Chao-Min; Wang, Zhi-Ling; Wen, Yang; Li, Yi-Yuan

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine whether Clostridium butyricum supplementation has a role in the regulation of the intestinal flora and the development of the immune system of neonatal mice. A total of 30 pregnant BALB/c mice, including their offspring, were randomly divided into three groups: In the maternal intervention group (Ba), maternal mice were treated with Clostridium butyricum from birth until weaning at postnatal day 21 (PD21) followed by administration of saline to the offspring at PD21-28; in the offspring intervention group (Ab), breast-feeding maternal mice were supplemented with saline and offspring were directly supplemented with Clostridium butyricum from PD21-28; in the both maternal and offspring intervention group (Bb), both maternal mice and offspring were supplemented with Clostridium butyricum at PD 0-21 and at PD21-28. While mice in the control group were given the same volume of normal saline. Stool samples from the offspring were collected at PD14, -21 and -28 to observe the intestinal flora by colony counts of Enterococcus spp., Enterobacter spp., Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. Detection of intestinal secreted immunoglobulin A (sIgA) levels and serum cytokine (interferon-γ, and interleukin-12, -4 and -10) levels in offspring was performed to evaluate the effect on their immune system. The results revealed that compared with the control group, offspring in the Ba group displayed significantly decreased stool colony counts of Enterococcus spp. (t=3.123, Pflora balance in their offspring. However, due to insignificant effects on sIgA level and the associated cytokines, Clostridium butyricum had a limited influence on the balance of type 1 vs. type 2 T-helper cells. However, using Clostridium butyricum as an invention may be a safe method for improving the balance of intestinal flora and associated processes in offspring.

  8. Immune response of macrophages from young and aged mice to the oral pathogenic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Frank C

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory gum disease that in severe cases leads to tooth loss. Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg is a bacterium closely associated with generalized forms of periodontal disease. Clinical onset of generalized periodontal disease commonly presents in individuals over the age of 40. Little is known regarding the effect of aging on inflammation associated with periodontal disease. In the present study we examined the immune response of bone marrow derived macrophages (BMM from young (2-months and aged (1-year and 2-years mice to Pg strain 381. Pg induced robust expression of cytokines; tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-6, and IL-10, chemokines; neutrophil chemoattractant protein (KC, macrophage colony stimulating factor (MCP-1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1α and regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES, as well as nitric oxide (NO, measured as nitrite, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 from BMM of young mice. BMM from the 2-year age group produced significantly less TNF-α, IL-6 and NO in response to Pg as compared with BMM from 2-months and 1-year of age. We did not observe any difference in the levels of IL-1β, IL-10 and PGE2 produced by BMM in response to Pg. BMM from 2-months and 1-year of age produced similar levels of all chemokines measured with the exception of MCP-1, which was reduced in BMM from 1-year of age. BMM from the 2-year group produced significantly less MCP-1 and MIP-1α compared with 2-months and 1-year age groups. No difference in RANTES production was observed between age groups. Employing a Pg attenuated mutant, deficient in major fimbriae (Pg DPG3, we observed reduced ability of the mutant to stimulate inflammatory mediator expression from BMMs as compared to Pg 381, irrespective of age. Taken together these results support senescence as an important facet of the reduced immunological response observed by BMM of aged host to the

  9. Immunization with DAT fragments is associated with long-term striatal impairment, hyperactivity and reduced cognitive flexibility in mice

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    Adriani Walter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Possible interactions between nervous and immune systems in neuro-psychiatric disorders remain elusive. Levels of brain dopamine transporter (DAT have been implicated in several impulse-control disorders, like attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD. Here, we assessed the interplay between DAT auto-immunity and behavioural / neurochemical phenotype. Methods Male CD-1 mice were immunized with DAT peptide fragments (DAT-i, or vehicle alone (VEH, to generate elevated circulating levels of DAT auto-antibodies (aAbs. Using an operant delay-of-reward task (20 min daily sessions; timeout 25 sec, mice had a choice between either an immediate small amount of food (SS, or a larger amount of food after a delay (LL, which increased progressively across sessions (from 0 to 150 sec. Results DAT-i mice exhibited spontaneous hyperactivity (2 h-longer wake-up peak; a wake-up attempt during rest. Two sub-populations differing in behavioural flexibility were identified in the VEH control group: they showed either a clear-cut decision to select LL or clear-cut shifting towards SS, as expected. Compared to VEH controls, choice-behaviour profile of DAT-i mice was markedly disturbed, together with long-lasting alterations of the striatal monoamines. Enhanced levels of DA metabolite HVA in DAT-i mice came along with slower acquisition of basal preferences and with impaired shifting; elevation also in DOPAC levels was associated with incapacity to change a rigid selection strategy. This scarce flexibility of performance is indicative of a poor adaptation to task contingencies. Conclusions Hyperactivity and reduced cognitive flexibility are patterns of behaviour consistent with enduring functional impairment of striatal regions. It is yet unclear how anti-DAT antibodies could enter or otherwise affect these brain areas, and which alterations in DAT activity exactly occurred after immunization

  10. Immunization with mutant HPV16 E7 protein inhibits the growth of TC-1 cells in tumor-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Li; Ma, Zhong-Liang; Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Jing

    2015-04-01

    Two human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 oncogenic proteins, E6 and E7, are co-expressed in the majority of HPV16-induced cervical cancer cells. Thus, the E6 and E7 proteins are good targets for developing therapeutic vaccines for cervical cancer. In the present study, immunization with the mutant non-transforming HPV16 E7 (mE7) protein was demonstrated to inhibit the growth of TC-1 cells in the TC-1 mouse model. The HPV16 mE7 gene was amplified by splicing overlap extension polymerase chain reaction using pET-28a(+)-E7 as a template, and the gene was cloned into pET-28a(+) to form pET-28a(+)-mE7. Compared with the E7 protein, mE7 lacks amino acid residues 94-98, and at residue 24, there is a Cys to Gly substitution. pET-28a(+)-mE7 was then introduced into Escherichia coli Rosetta. The expression of mE7 was induced by isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside. The mE7 protein was purified using Ni-NTA agarose and detected by SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis. In the tumor prevention model, no tumor was detected in the mice vaccinated with the mE7 protein. After 40 days, the tumor-free mice and control mice were challenged with 2×10 5 TC-1 cells. All control mice developed tumors six days later, but mE7 immunized mice were tumor free until 90 days. In the tumor therapy model, the TC-1 cells were initially injected subcutaneously, and the mice were subsequently vaccinated. Vaccination against the mE7 protein may significantly inhibit TC-1 cell growth compared to the control. These results demonstrated that immunization with the HPV16 mE7 protein elicited a long-term protective immunity against TC-1 tumor growth and generated a significant inhibition of TC-1 growth in a TC-1 mouse model.

  11. Effects of ACNU and cranial irradiation on the immune system of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, Ryuya (Niigata Univ. (Japan). Brain Research Inst.)

    1992-02-01

    Effects of ACNU and cranial irradiation on the mouse immune system were studied. The mice were divided into three groups according to the treatments, that is, Group A; injection of ACNU (30 mg/kg) intraperitoneally, Group B; single exposure of 10 Gy on the head, Group C; both ACNU (30 mg/kg) injection intraperitoneally and single exposure of 10 Gy on the head. Peripheral white blood cell counts, spleen cell subsets, NK cell activity, lymphocyte blastogenesis and production of IFN-{gamma} were analyzed serially once a week for 6 weeks after treatments. Results were as follows, in the group A, NK cell activity decreased during the 4{approx}5 weeks, con A blastogenesis during the 1{approx}4 weeks, L3T4 Cells, Lyt 2 Cells and production of IFN-{gamma} during the 2{approx}5 weeks respectively. However those returned to normal range at the 6 weeks. In the group B, each parameters, excepts for L3T4 Cells and production of IFN-{gamma}, decreased for up to the 1st week, and returned to normal range thereafter. L3T4 Cells decreased at the 2nd and during the 5{approx}6 weeks. Production of IFN-{gamma} increased at the 1st week, decreased during the 2{approx}3 weeks and returned to normal range thereafter. In the group C, suppressive effects were severe and continued longer period than in groups A and B. Con A blastogenesis, L3T4 Cells and production of IFN-{gamma} were still suppressed at the 6th week. Therfore, intensive treatments of radiochemotherapy to the brain tumor may be considered to suppress patient's immunological function. We should take into account for patient's immunological function including lymphocytic function in the treatment for brain tumor. (author).

  12. The effects of cynodon dactylon on the immune response of NMRI-MICE after challenge with REV1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Ilkhanizadeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cynodon dactylon is used in Iranian traditional medicine as a healing agent for reducing the complications of diabetes mellitus. We proposed that Cynodon dactylon may perform its effects through moderating humoral and cellular immune responses. We aimed to determine the possible effects of hydroalcholic extract of Cynodon dactylonon humoral and cellular immune responses following the Rev1 challenge in the mouse model. 20 NMRI male mice were randomly grouped in two equal groups and immunized with Rev1[0.1 ml Rev1+0.9 PBS[. Mice in the treatment group orally received 400 mg/kg hydroalcoholic extract of Cynodon dactylon every day from the beginning of the study for 2 weeks. Blood samples were obtained from the animals 5 days after the last injection. Moreover, 48 hr before bleeding time, Rev1[0.1 ml Rev1+0.9 PBS[was injected into the left hind foot pad of mice. The levels of anti-Rev1 antibody and the specific cellular immune responses were measured by microhemagglutination test and footpad thickness, respectively. Moreover, susceptibility of macrophages respiratory burst and proliferation of immune cells were measured in order withNitroblue tetrazolium[NBT] and Microculture Tetrazolium Assay [MTT]. The concentrations of IL-1, TNFα, Il-6, and IL-10 in the serum were determined using commercially available ELISA kits. We found a significant increase in anti-Rev1 antibody levels and simultaneously a significant decrease in the level of cellular immunity[DTH] in the treatment group compared to the control group. Lymphocyte proliferation index in splenocytes was significantly increased in the treatment group. However, the level of respiratory burst in phagocytic population of splenocytes dramatically decreased in the treatment group compared to the control. A significant decrease in IL-6, TNF-α , IL-1 and increaseIl-10 serum levels were also seen in the treatment group. Cynodon dactylon extract could have an anti-inflammatory effect through

  13. An adenoviral vector expressing lipoprotein A, a major antigen of Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides, elicits robust immune responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carozza, Marlène; Rodrigues, Valérie; Unterfinger, Yves; Galea, Sandra; Coulpier, Muriel; Klonjkowski, Bernard; Thiaucourt, François; Totté, Philippe; Richardson, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides small colony type (MmmSC), is a devastating respiratory disease of cattle. In sub-Saharan Africa, where CBPP is enzootic, live attenuated vaccines are deployed but afford only short-lived protection. In cattle, recovery from experimental MmmSC infection has been associated with the presence of CD4(+) T lymphocytes that secrete interferon gamma in response to MmmSC, and in particular to the lipoprotein A (LppA) antigen. In an effort to develop a better vaccine against CBPP, a viral vector (Ad5-LppA) that expressed LppA was generated from human adenovirus type 5. The LppA-specific immune responses elicited by the Ad5-LppA vector were evaluated in mice, and compared to those elicited by recombinant LppA formulated with a potent adjuvant. Notably, a single administration of Ad5-LppA, but not recombinant protein, sufficed to elicit a robust LppA-specific humoral response. After a booster administration, both vector and recombinant protein elicited strong LppA-specific humoral and cell-mediated responses. Ex vivo stimulation of splenocytes induced extensive proliferation of CD4(+) T cells for mice immunized with vector or protein, and secretion of T helper 1-associated and proinflammatory cytokines for mice immunized with Ad5-LppA. Our study - by demonstrating the potential of a viral-vectored prototypic vaccine to elicit prompt and robust immune responses against a major antigen of MmmSC - represents a first step in developing a recombinant vaccine against CBPP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Oral immunization of mice with engineered Lactobacillus gasseri NM713 strain expressing Streptococcus pyogenes M6 antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Nahla M; Abdelaziz, Sahar A

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this in vivo study was to evaluate the effects of a recombinant probiotic strain, Lactobacillus gasseri NM713, which expresses the conserved region of streptococcal M6 protein (CRR6), as an oral vaccine against Streptococcus pyogenes. A dose of 10(9) cells of the recombinant strain in 150 μL PBS buffer was administered orally to a group of mice. One control group received an equivalent dose of Lb. gasseri NM613 (containing the empty plasmid without insert) or and another control group received PBS buffer. Each group contained 30 mice. The immunization protocol was followed on three consecutive days, after which two booster doses were administered at two week intervals. Fecal and serum samples were collected from the mice on Days 18, 32, 46, 58 after the first immunization and Day 0 prior to immunization. Anti-CRR6 IgA and IgG concentrations were measured by ELISA in fecal and sera samples, respectively, to assess immune responses. Vaccination with the recombinant Lb. gasseri NM713 strain induced significant protection after nasal challenge with S. pyogenes, only a small percentage of this group developing streptococcal infection (10%) or dying of it (3.3%) compared with the NM613 and PBS control groups, high percentages of which developed streptococcal infection (43.3% and 46.7%, respectively) and died of it (46.7% and 53%, respectively). These results indicate that recombinant Lb. gasseri NM713 has potential as an oral delivery vaccine against streptococcus group A. © 2016 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Serum Anti-Vibrio cholerae Immunoglobulin Isotype in BALB/c Mice Immunized With ompW-Loaded Chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Fasihi-Ramandi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chitosan, a liner polysaccharide, is a biocompatible and safe material for the delivery of therapeutic proteins and antigens, particularly via mucosal systems. Objectives: In this study, the production of antibodies in response to outermembrane protein W (ompW-loaded chitosan in BALB/c mice was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Mice were subjected to intraperitoneal injection of ompW or nasal administration of ompW-loaded chitosan on days 1, 14, and 28, and the antibodies were measured on day 42 with ELISA. Results: The titration of antibodies indicated that the nasal administration of ompW-loaded chitosan was better able to stimulate the immune response compared to intraperitoneal injections. However, the titration of total and IgG isotypes showed a significant difference between intraperitoneal and nasal immunization (P < 0.01. A significant difference was also seen in serum IgA isotypes at over 1/80 titrations, but not at lower dilutions (P < 0.01. Despite the serum antibodies, the results of lavage fluid analysis revealed that the IgG and IgA isotypes in the mice subjected to nasal immunization with ompW-loaded chitosan were significantly higher than in the other group (P < 0.01. Conclusions: Based on the preliminary results presented in this research, it is suggested that ompW-loaded chitosan could be a suitable choice for nasal application to immunize the host against Vibrio cholerae. However, more work is required to determine the efficiency of the antibodies in neutralizing the bacterial toxin or bacterial movement.

  16. Brain delivery of insulin boosted by intranasal coadministration with cell-penetrating peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Noriyasu; Takeda-Morishita, Mariko

    2015-01-10

    Intranasal administration is considered as an alternative route to enable effective drug delivery to the central nervous system (CNS) by bypassing the blood-brain barrier. Several reports have proved that macromolecules can be transferred directly from the nasal cavity to the brain. However, strategies to enhance the delivery of macromolecules from the nasal cavity to CNS are needed because of their low delivery efficiencies via this route in general. We hypothesized that the delivery of biopharmaceuticals to the brain parenchyma can be facilitated by increasing the uptake of drugs by the nasal epithelium including supporting and neuronal cells to maximize the potentiality of the intranasal pathway. To test this hypothesis, the CNS-related model peptide insulin was intranasally coadministered with the cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) penetratin to mice. As a result, insulin coadministered with l- or d-penetratin reached the distal regions of the brain from the nasal cavity, including the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and brain stem. In particular, d-penetratin could intranasally deliver insulin to the brain with a reduced risk of systemic insulin exposure. Thus, the results obtained in this study suggested that CPPs are potential tools for the brain delivery of peptide- and protein-based pharmaceuticals via intranasal administration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The effects of BCG, cyclophosphamide and x-radiation on reticuloendothelial system and immune responsiveness in mice, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Susumu

    1978-01-01

    The effects of BCG and x-radiation of sublethal dose on reticuloendothelial system (RES) were studied in mice. An attempt was also made to evaluate the action of BCG on the recovery of immune responsiveness in irradiated mice. Carbon clearance test and measurement of spread macrophage in peritoneal cells were used to assay the function of RES. The result of carbon clearance was in good accordance with the one of macrophage spreading test. Either intracutaneous or intravenous administration of BCG increased the activity of RES, and 3 to 5 weeks later, the functional levels of RES reached a maximum. When BCG was given intravenously, the highly increased level of phagocytic activity was obtained even one week after BCG injection. Whereas x-radiation of sublethal dose caused a marked reduction of the number of peritoneal cells, the decrease of RES activity was not found. Although x-radiation suppressed markedly the immune response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC), delayed type reactivity recovered quickly to a normal level. The production of plaque forming cells (PEC) in spleen also recovered within 2 weeks after x-radiation and thereafter increased rather, while PFC in the draining lymph node reduced markedly and its recovery was protracted. BCG inoculation in x-radiated mice could not increase the number of peritoneal cells while it increased the activity of RES and the immune responsiveness to SRBC. BCG inoculation made mice extremely susceptible to pseudomonas infection either 2 to 3 weeks after i.v. inoculation or 5 weeks after i.c. inoculation. But a marked resistance than normal controls was found 10 weeks after the i.c. inoculation of BCG. On the other hand, x-radiation caused a serious damage to protective activity against pseudomonas infection and no increase of resistance throughout experimental period. (auth.)

  18. Altered Polarization, Morphology, and Impaired Innate Immunity Germane to Resident Peritoneal Macrophages in Mice with Long-Term Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Fang Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D is associated with perturbed innate immunity. Macrophages, bridging innate immunity and metabolic disturbances, play important roles in controlling immune homeostasis. However, the effect of long-term diabetic milieu (DM on the functions and phenotypes of macrophages is still not clear. In this study, we used resident peritoneal macrophages (RPMs from 5-month-old db/db mice to investigate the changes of macrophages. It was found that RPMs in db/db mice significantly reduced phagocytosis and adhesion capacity. After standardization with body weight, the number of F4/80+ RPMs markedly reduced in db/db mice, and, furthermore, the macrophages skewed to M2-polarizated macrophages. The results of morphology found that the RPMs shape of db/db mice was nearly round, but the RPMs shape of control mice was spindle-shaped and irregular. In this study, we found the cell numbers, morphology, and innate immunity functions of RPMs in 5-month-old type 2 diabetic mice (db/db mice obtained by abdominal cavity lavage were significantly altered. Importantly, we also found the remarkably increased M2-RPMs in diabetic mice for the first time.

  19. Intranasally administered mesenchymal stem cells promote a regenerative niche for repair of neonatal ischemic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donega, Vanessa; Nijboer, Cora H; van Tilborg, Geralda; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Heijnen, Cobi J

    2014-11-01

    Previous work from our group has shown that intranasal MSC-treatment decreases lesion volume and improves motor and cognitive behavior after hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain damage in neonatal mice. Our aim was to determine the kinetics of MSC migration after intranasal administration, and the early effects of MSCs on neurogenic processes and gliosis at the lesion site. HI brain injury was induced in 9-day-old mice and MSCs were administered intranasally at 10days post-HI. The kinetics of MSC migration were investigated by immunofluorescence and MRI analysis. BDNF and NGF gene expression was determined by qPCR analysis following MSC co-culture with HI brain extract. Nestin, Doublecortin, NeuN, GFAP, Iba-1 and M1/M2 phenotypic expression was assessed over time. MRI and immunohistochemistry analyses showed that MSCs reach the lesion site already within 2h after intranasal administration. At 12h after administration the number of MSCs at the lesion site peaks and decreases significantly at 72h. The number of DCX(+) cells increased 1 to 3days after MSC administration in the SVZ. At the lesion, GFAP(+)/nestin(+) and DCX(+) expression increased 3 to 5days after MSC-treatment. The number of NeuN(+) cells increased within 5days, leading to a dramatic regeneration of the somatosensory cortex and hippocampus at 18days after intranasal MSC administration. Interestingly, MSCs expressed significantly more BDNF gene when exposed to HI brain extract in vitro. Furthermore, MSC-treatment resulted in the resolution of the glial scar surrounding the lesion, represented by a decrease in reactive astrocytes and microglia and polarization of microglia towards the M2 phenotype. In view of the current lack of therapeutic strategies, we propose that intranasal MSC administration is a powerful therapeutic option through its functional repair of the lesion represented by regeneration of the cortical and hippocampal structure and decrease of gliosis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Effect of cold water-induced stress on immune response, pathology and fertility in mice during Chlamydia muridarum genital infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belay, Tesfaye; Woart, Anthony; Graffeo, Vincent

    2017-07-31

    Genital infection by Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide. It causes serious reproductive health complications, including pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. Stress is implicated as a risk factor for various infections; however, its effect on chlamydia genital infection is unknown. We previously showed that repeated exposure of mice to cold water results in increased severity of chlamydia genital infection. In this study, cold water-induced stress resulted in (i) elevated levels of norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine in the spleen and genital tract of stressed mice; (ii) elevated IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and nitric oxide production in macrophage-rich peritoneal cells of mice; (iii) supplement of NE in vitro exerts an immunosuppressive effect on splenic T-cell production of cytokines; (iv) decreased C. muridarum shedding in the genital tract of β1Adr/β2Adr receptor KO mice; and (v) a higher rate of infertility in infected mice. These results suggest that cold water stress induces the production of catecholamines, which may play a critical role in the modulation of the immune system leading to increased intensity of C. muridarum genital infection. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Immune expulsion of Trichuris muris from resistant mice: suppression by irradiation and restoration by transfer of lymphoid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakelin, D.; Selby, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    Lethal irradiation (850 rads of x rays) of mice made resistant to Trichuris muris markedly depressed their ability to expel a challenge infection. Expulsion was restored within 7 to 10 days when MLNC from uninfected mice were transferred on the day of infection, but no significant restoration was evident after transfer of immune serum. Transfer of Bm alone had no restorative effect within 10 days and no synergism was seen when both BM and MLNC were transferred. MLNC from uninfected donors did not restore challenge expulsion when transfer was delayed until day 7 and the mice were killed 3 days later, although MLNC from resistant donors were effective within this time. When irradiated mice were given BM and the challenge infection allowed to continue for 15 days expulsion was restored, as it was when challenge was delayed for 7 days after BM transfer in thymectomized mice. The results confirm that expulsion of T. muris involves both antibody-mediated and lymphoid cell-mediated phases and offer no evidence for the involvement of other cell types. (author)

  2. Pulmonary leukocytic responses are linked to the acquired immunity of mice vaccinated with irradiated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, R.; Coulson, P.S.; Wilson, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Pulmonary cellular responses in C57BL/6 mice exposed to Schistosoma mansoni have been investigated by sampling cells from the respiratory airways with bronchoalveolar lavage. Mice exposed to cercariae attenuated with 20 krad gamma-radiation developed stronger and more persistent pulmonary leukocytic responses than animals exposed to equal numbers of normal parasites. Although vaccination with irradiated cercariae also stimulated T cell responses of greater magnitude and duration than normal infection, the lymphocytic infiltrate elicited by each regimen did not differ substantially in its composition, 5 wk after exposure. Studies with cercariae attenuated by different treatments established that a link exists between the recruitment of leukocytes to the lungs of vaccinated mice and resistance to reinfection. There was a strong association between pulmonary leukocytic responses and the elimination of challenge infections by vaccinated mice. Animals exposed to irradiated cercariae of S. mansoni were resistant to homologous challenge infection but were not protected against Schistosoma margrebowiei. Homologous challenge of vaccinated mice stimulated anamnestic leukocytic and T lymphocytic responses in the lungs, 2 wk postinfection, but exposure of immunized animals to the heterologous species failed to trigger an expansion in these populations of cells. Our studies indicate that pulmonary leukocytes and T lymphocytes are intimately involved in the mechanism of vaccine-induced resistance to S. mansoni. It remains unclear whether these populations of cells initiate protective inflammatory reactions against challenge parasites in the lungs, or accumulate in response to the activation of the protective mechanism by other means

  3. The role of MPL and imiquimod adjuvants in enhancement of immune response and protection in BALB/c mice immunized with soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA) encapsulated in nanoliposome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Tara; Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi; Khamesipour, Ali; Madani, Rasool; Habibi, Gholamreza; Hojatizade, Mansure; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza

    2018-04-01

    Adjuvants play an essential role in the induction of immunity against leishmaniasis. In this study, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and imiquimod (IMQ) were used as TLR ligands adjuvants to enhance immunogenicity and rate of protection against leishmaniasis. Nanoliposomes containing soluble Leishmania antigens (SLA) and adjuvants were consisted of DSPC, DSPG and Chol prepared by using lipid film method followed by bath sonication. The size of nanoliposomes was around 95 nm and their zeta potential was negative. BALB/c mice were immunized by liposomal formulations of lip/SLA, lip/MPL/SLA, lip/IMQ/SLA, lip/MPL/IMQ/SLA, lip/SLA + lip/IMQ, lip/SLA + lip/MPL, lip/SLA + lip/MPL/IMQ and five controls of SLA, lip/MPL, lip/IMQ, lip/MPL/IMQ and buffer by subcutaneously (SC) injections, three times in 2 weeks intervals. The synergic effect of two adjuvants when they are used in one formulation showed significantly (p MPL and IMQ adjuvants and antigen in nanoliposome carrier could be an appropriate delivery system to induce cellular immunity pathway against leishmaniasis.

  4. Male bovine GH transgenic mice have decreased adiposity with an adipose depot-specific increase in immune cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benencia, Fabian; Harshman, Stephanie; Duran-Ortiz, Silvana; Lubbers, Ellen R; List, Edward O; Householder, Lara; Al-Naeeli, Mawadda; Liang, Xiaoyu; Welch, Lonnie; Kopchick, John J; Berryman, Darlene E

    2015-05-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) is composed of mature adipocytes and a stromal vascular fraction (SVF), which contains a variety of cells, including immune cells that vary among the different WAT depots. Growth hormone (GH) impacts immune function and adiposity in an adipose depot-specific manner. However, its effects on WAT immune cell populations remain unstudied. Bovine GH transgenic (bGH) mice are commonly used to study the in vivo effects of GH. These giant mice have an excess of GH action, impaired glucose metabolism, decreased adiposity, increased lean mass, and a shortened lifespan. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to characterize the WAT depot-specific differences in immune cell populations in the presence of excess GH in vivo. Three WAT depots were assessed: inguinal (sc), epididymal (EPI), and mesenteric (MES). Subcutaneous and MES bGH WAT depots showed a significantly higher number of total SVF cells, yet only MES bGH WAT had higher leukocyte counts compared with control samples. By means of flow cytometry analysis of the SVF, we detected greater macrophage and regulatory T-cell infiltration in sc and MES bGH WAT depots compared with controls. However, no differences were observed in the EPI WAT depot. RNA-sequencing confirmed significant alterations in pathways related to T-cell infiltration and activation in the sc depot with fewer significant changes in the EPI bGH WAT depot. These findings collectively point to a previously unrecognized role for GH in influencing the distribution of WAT immune cell populations in a depot-specific manner.

  5. Angiogenesis for tumor vascular normalization of Endostar on hepatoma 22 tumor-bearing mice is involved in the immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingyu; Gu, Junfei; Lv, You; Yuan, Jiarui; Yang, Nan; Chen, Juan; Wang, Chunfei; Hou, Xuefeng; Jia, Xiaobin; Feng, Liang; Yin, Guowen

    2018-03-01

    Tumor vascular normalization involved in immune response is beneficial to the chemotherapy of tumors. Recombinant human endostatin (Endostar), an angiogenesis inhibitor, has been demonstrated to be effective in hepatocellular cancer (HCC). However, its vascular normalization in HCC and the role of the immune response in angiogenesis were unclear. In the present study, effects of Endostar on tumor vascular normalization were evaluated in hepatoma 22 (H22) tumor-bearing mice. Endostar was able to inhibit the proliferation and infiltration of tumor cells and improve α-fetoprotein, tumor necrosis factor-α and cyclic adenosine 5'-phosphate levels in the serum of H22-bearing mice, as well as the protein expression levels of the immune factors interferon-γ and cluster of differentiation (CD)86 in liver tissue. Endostar also exhibited more marked downregulation of the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, CD31, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9 and interleukin-17 during day 3-9 treatment, resulting in short-term normalization of tumor blood vessels. The period of vascular normalization was 3-9 days. The results of the present study demonstrated that Endostar was able to induce the period of vascular normalization, contributing to a more efficacious means of HCC treatment combined with other chemotherapy, and this effect was associated with the immune response. It may be concluded that Endostar inhibited immunity-associated angiogenesis behaviors of vascular endothelial cells in response to HCC. The results of the present study provided more reasonable possibility for the combination therapy of Endostar for the treatment of HCC.

  6. The effect of size-segregated ambient particulate matter on Th1/Th2-like immune responses in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Liang Huang

    Full Text Available Particulate matter (PM has been associated with increased pulmonary and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Additionally, PM is known to exacerbate asthma. However, whether ambient PM exposure contributes to the onset of asthma, especially in non-atopic children and adults, is less conclusive. The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of size-fractioned PM on lung immune responses in healthy BALB/c mice.We collected PM10, PM2.5, PM1 and PM0.1 samples from October 2012 to August 2013 in the Taipei Basin. These PM samples were representative of urban traffic pollution. The samples were extracted and sonicated in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS. Female BALB/c mice were exposed to the samples via intratracheal instillation at three different doses: 1.75 mg/kg (35 μg/per mouse, 5 mg/kg (100 μg/per mouse, and 12.5 mg/kg (250 μg/per mouse. The mice were exposed on days 0 and 7, and PBS alone was used as a control. Following the exposures, the expression profiles of inflammatory cells and cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF were assessed. Exposure to PM10 resulted in inflammatory responses, including the recruitment of neutrophils and the induction of T helper 1 (Th1 cell-related cytokine release, such as TNF-α and IFN-γ. Furthermore, an allergic immune response, including the recruitment of eosinophils and the up-regulation of T helper 2 (Th2 cell-related cytokine release, such as IL-5 and IL-13, was also observed in the BALF of mice exposed to PM10.Our study showed that exposure to PM alone caused mixed Th1/Th2 inflammatory responses in healthy mice. These findings support the hypothesis that PM may contribute to the onset of asthma.

  7. Heat dissipation does not suppress an immune response in laboratory mice divergently selected for basal metabolic rate (BMR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Książek, Aneta; Konarzewski, Marek

    2016-05-15

    The capacity for heat dissipation is considered to be one of the most important constraints on rates of energy expenditure in mammals. To date, the significance of this constraint has been tested exclusively under peak metabolic demands, such as during lactation. Here, we used a different set of metabolic stressors, which do not induce maximum energy expenditures and yet are likely to expose the potential constraining effect of heat dissipation. We compared the physiological responses of mice divergently selected for high (H-BMR) and low basal metabolic rate (L-BMR) to simultaneous exposure to the keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) antigen and high ambient temperature (Ta). At 34°C (and at 23°C, used as a control), KLH challenge resulted in a transient increase in core body temperature (Tb) in mice of both line types (by approximately 0.4°C). Warm exposure did not produce line-type-dependent differences in Tb (which was consistently higher by ca. 0.6°C in H-BMR mice across both Ta values), nor did it result in the suppression of antibody synthesis. These findings were also supported by the lack of between-line-type differences in the mass of the thymus, spleen or lymph nodes. Warm exposure induced the downsizing of heat-generating internal organs (small intestine, liver and kidneys) and an increase in intrascapular brown adipose tissue mass. However, these changes were similar in scope in both line types. Mounting a humoral immune response in selected mice was therefore not affected by ambient temperature. Thus, a combined metabolic challenge of high Ta and an immune response did not appreciably compromise the capacity to dissipate heat, even in the H-BMR mice. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Toxoplasma gondii oral infection induces intestinal inflammation and retinochoroiditis in mice genetically selected for immune oral tolerance resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Ramos Furtado Dias

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide disease with most of the infections originating through the oral route and generates various pathological manifestations, ranging from meningoencephalitis to retinochoroiditis and inflammatory bowel disease. Animal models for these pathologies are scarce and have limitations. We evaluated the outcome of Toxoplasma gondii oral infection with 50 or 100 cysts of the ME-49 strain in two lines of mice with extreme phenotypes of susceptibility (TS or resistance (TR to immune oral tolerance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the behaviour of TS and TR mice, orally infected by T. gondii, and determine its value as a model for inflammatory diseases study. Mortality during the acute stage of the infection for TR was 50% for both dosages, while 10 and 40% of the TS died after infection with these respective dosages. In the chronic stage, the remaining TS succumbed while TR survived for 90 days. The TS displayed higher parasite load with lower intestinal inflammation and cellular proliferation, notwithstanding myocarditis, pneumonitis and meningoencephalitis. TR presented massive necrosis of villi and crypt, comparable to inflammatory bowel disease, with infiltration of lymphoid cells in the lamina propria of the intestines. Also, TR mice infected with 100 cysts presented intense cellular infiltrate within the photoreceptor layer of the eyes, changes in disposition and morphology of the retina cell layers and retinochoroiditis. During the infection, high levels of IL-6 were detected in the serum of TS mice and TR mice presented high amounts of IFN-γ and TNF-α. Both mice lineages developed different disease outcomes, but it is emphasized that TR and TS mice presented acute and chronic stages of the infection, demonstrating that the two lineages offer an attractive model for studying toxoplasmosis.

  9. Regulation of immune responses in SJL and F1 hybrid mice by gamma-irradiated syngeneic lymphoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, I.R.; Nagase, F.; Bell, M.K.; Ponzio, N.M.; Thorbecke, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Syngeneic mixed lymphocyte-stimulating la+ lymphomas of SJL mice [reticulum cell sarcoma(s) (RCS)] were found to modulate immune responses in vivo. Simultaneous injection of 2 X 10(7) gamma-irradiated or glutaraldehyde-fixed RCS cells with the antigen sheep red blood cells (SRBC) or 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP)-Ficoll markedly suppressed the subsequent plaque-forming cell response in the spleen. The suppression of the anti-SRBC response was prevented by pretreatment of the mice with cyclophosphamide, whereas the suppression of the anti-TNP-Ficoll response was not affected. RCS injection induced high interferon serum titers within 24 hours after injection, which were not prevented by pretreatment with cyclophosphamide. Injection of gamma-irradiated RCS cells (gamma-RCS) or RCS cell extract 2 days prior to antigen enhanced the anti-SRBC but markedly suppressed the anti- TNP-Ficoll response. Injection of RCS both on day -2 and day 0 enhanced the anti-SRBC response. SJL mice 8-9 months of age showed much less or no suppression when gamma-RCS cells were injected on day 0. Certain F1 hybrids of SJL also showed the gamma-RCS-induced suppression of the anti-SRBC response. Suppression was seen in SJL X BALB.B but not in SJL X BALB/c mice and in SJL X A.TH but not in SJL X A.TL mice, suggesting an I-region effect. F1 hybrids of SJL by B10 background mice showed no significant suppression. Enhancement of the anti-SRBC response by prior injection of gamma-RCS was seen in all F1 hybrid mice examined

  10. Toxoplasma gondii Oral Infection Induces Intestinal Inflammation and Retinochoroiditis in Mice Genetically Selected for Immune Oral Tolerance Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Raul Ramos Furtado; de Carvalho, Eulógio Carlos Queiroz; Leite, Carla Cristina da Silva; Tedesco, Roberto Carlos; Calabrese, Katia da Silva; Silva, Antonio Carlos; DaMatta, Renato Augusto; de Fatima Sarro-Silva, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide disease with most of the infections originating through the oral route and generates various pathological manifestations, ranging from meningoencephalitis to retinochoroiditis and inflammatory bowel disease. Animal models for these pathologies are scarce and have limitations. We evaluated the outcome of Toxoplasma gondii oral infection with 50 or 100 cysts of the ME-49 strain in two lines of mice with extreme phenotypes of susceptibility (TS) or resistance (TR) to immune oral tolerance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the behaviour of TS and TR mice, orally infected by T. gondii, and determine its value as a model for inflammatory diseases study. Mortality during the acute stage of the infection for TR was 50% for both dosages, while 10 and 40% of the TS died after infection with these respective dosages. In the chronic stage, the remaining TS succumbed while TR survived for 90 days. The TS displayed higher parasite load with lower intestinal inflammation and cellular proliferation, notwithstanding myocarditis, pneumonitis and meningoencephalitis. TR presented massive necrosis of villi and crypt, comparable to inflammatory bowel disease, with infiltration of lymphoid cells in the lamina propria of the intestines. Also, TR mice infected with 100 cysts presented intense cellular infiltrate within the photoreceptor layer of the eyes, changes in disposition and morphology of the retina cell layers and retinochoroiditis. During the infection, high levels of IL-6 were detected in the serum of TS mice and TR mice presented high amounts of IFN-γ and TNF-α. Both mice lineages developed different disease outcomes, but it is emphasized that TR and TS mice presented acute and chronic stages of the infection, demonstrating that the two lineages offer an attractive model for studying toxoplasmosis. PMID:25437299

  11. Surface protein Adr2 of Rickettsia rickettsii induced protective immunity against Rocky Mountain spotted fever in C3H/HeN mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wenping; Xiong, Xiaolu; Qi, Yong; Jiao, Jun; Duan, Changsong; Wen, Bohai

    2014-04-11

    Rickettsia rickettsii is the pathogen of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), a life-threatening tick-transmitted infection. Adr2 was a surface-exposed adhesion protein of R. rickettsii and its immunoprotection against RMSF was investigated in mice. Recombinant Adr2 (rAdr2) was used to immunize C3H/HeN mice, and the rickettsial loads in organs of the mice were detected after challenge with R. rickettsii. The levels of specific antibodies of sera from the immunized mice were determined and the sera from immunized mice were applied to neutralize R. rickettsii. Proliferation and cytokine secretion of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells isolated from R. rickettsii-infected mice were also assayed after rAdr2 stimulation. After R. rickettsii challenge, the rickettsial loads in spleens, livers, and lungs were significantly lower and the impairment degrees of these organs in rAdr2-immunized mice were markedly slighter, compared with those in negative control mice. The ratio of specific IgG2a/IgG1 of rAdr2-immunized mice kept increasing during the immunization. After treatment with rAdr2-immunized sera, the total number of R. rickettsii organisms adhering and invading host cells was significantly lower than that treated with PBS-immunized sera. Interferon-γ secretion by CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells and tumor necrosis factor-α secretion by CD4(+) T cells from R. rickettsii-infected mice were respectively significantly greater than those from uninfected mice after rAdr2 stimulation. Adr2 is a protective antigen of R. rickettsii. Protection offered by Adr2 is mainly dependent on antigen-specific cell-mediated immune responses, including efficient activity of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells to produce great amount of TNF-α and/or IFN-γ as well as rapid increase of specific IgG2a, which synergistically activate and opsonize host cells to killing intracellular rickettsiae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The pro-inflammatory effect of uraemia overrules the anti-atherogenic potential of immunization with oxidized LDL in apoE-/- mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tanja X; Binder, Christoph J; Fredrikson, Gunilla N

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Uraemia increases oxidative stress, plasma titres of antibodies recognizing oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and development of atherosclerosis. Immunization with oxLDL prevents classical, non-uraemic atherosclerosis. We have investigated whether immunization with oxLDL might...... also prevent uraemia-induced atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE-/-) mice. METHODS: ApoE-/- mice were immunized with either native LDL (n = 25), Cu(2+)-oxidized LDL (n = 25), PBS (n = 25), the apolipoprotein B-derived peptide P45 (apoB-peptide P45) conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA...

  13. Deficiency of autoimmune regulator impairs the immune tolerance effect of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Feifei; Li, Dongbei; Zhao, Bo; Luo, Yadong; Zhao, Bingjie; Zou, Xueyang; Li, Yi; Yang, Wei

    2018-02-01

    As a transcription factor, autoimmune regulator (Aire) participates in thymic negative selection and maintains immune tolerance mainly by regulating the ectopic expression of tissue-restricted antigens (TRAs) in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs). Aire is also expressed in dendritic cells (DCs). DCs are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that affect the differentiation of T cells toward distinct subpopulations and participate in the immune response and tolerance, thereby playing an important role in maintaining homeostasis. To determine the role of Aire in maintaining immune tolerance by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs), in the present study we utilized Aire-knockout mice to examine the changes of maturation status and TRAs expression on BMDCs, additionally investigate the differentiation of CD4 + T cells. The results showed that expression of costimulatory molecule and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecule was increased and expression of various TRAs was decreased in BMDCs from Aire-knockout mice. Aire deficiency reduced the differentiation of naïve CD4 + T cells into type 2T helper (Th2) cells and regulatory T cells (Tregs) but enhanced the differentiation of naïve CD4 + T cells into Th1 cells, Th17 cells, and follicular helper T (Tfh) cells. The results demonstrate that Aire expressed by BMDCs plays an important role in the maintenance of homeostasis by regulating TRA expression and the differentiation of T cell subsets.

  14. Dietary supplementation with Lactobacilli improves emergency granulopoiesis in protein-malnourished mice and enhances respiratory innate immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Herrera

    Full Text Available This work studied the effect of protein malnutrition on the hemato-immune response to the respiratory challenge with Streptococcus pneumoniae and evaluated whether the dietary recovery with a probiotic strain has a beneficial effect in that response. Three important conclusions can be inferred from the results presented in this work: a protein-malnutrition significantly impairs the emergency myelopoiesis induced by the generation of the innate immune response against pneumococcal infection; b repletion of malnourished mice with treatments including nasally or orally administered Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 are able to significantly accelerate the recovery of granulopoiesis and improve innate immunity and; c the immunological mechanisms involved in the protective effect of immunobiotics vary according to the route of administration. The study demonstrated that dietary recovery of malnourished mice with oral or nasal administration of L. rhamnosus CRL1505 improves emergency granulopoiesis and that CXCR4/CXCR12 signaling would be involved in this effect. Then, the results summarized here are a starting point for future research and open up broad prospects for future applications of probiotics in the recovery of immunocompromised malnourished hosts.

  15. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Anterior Chamber-Associated Immune Deviation (ACAID: What We Have Learned from Knockout Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Vendomèle

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Anterior chamber-associated immune deviation (ACAID is a well-known phenomenon that can occur after an antigen is introduced without any danger signal into the anterior chamber of a murine eye. It is reported to lead to an antigen-specific immune deviation throughout the body. Despite the relatively little evidence of this phenomenon in humans, it has been suggested as a potential prophylactic strategy in allograft rejections and in several autoimmune diseases. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of ACAID have been explored in different murine models mainly as proofs of concept, first by direct analyses of immune components in normal immunocompetent settings and by cell transfer experiments. Later, use of knockout (KO mice has helped considerably to decipher ACAID mechanisms. However, several factors raise questions about the reliability and validity of studies using KO murine models. This mini-review summarizes results obtained with KO mice and discusses their advantages, their potential weaknesses, and their potential methods for further progress.

  16. Short communication: Experimental toxocarosis in Chinese Kun Ming mice: Dose-dependent larval distribution and modulation of immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Guangxu; Tan, Yancai; Hu, Ling; Luo, Yongfang; Zhu, Honghong; Zhou, Rongqiong

    2015-12-01

    Toxocarosis is an important parasitic zoonosis which is mainly caused by the infective larvae of Toxocara canis. To identify whether there are correlations among the infectious dose, the larval migrans and immune modulation in inbred Chinese Kun Ming (KM) mice, experimental infections were carried out with a range of dosages of 100, 500, 1000, 2000, and 3000 embryonated eggs (EE). Pathogenic reactions were observed in terms of physical and central nervous symptoms. Distributions of T. canis larvae in liver, lung, kidney, heart and brain organs were respectively detected by scanning tissue sections. Moreover, quantitative real-time PCR was employed to identify the variations of Th2 immune response. The results showed that high inocula resulted in advanced larval emergences and arrested migrations in liver, lung, kidney and brain. However, no larvae were found in any of the histological sections of heart tissues. Higher levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-10 were detected along with the increasing inoculation doses, but the heaviest inoculum (3000 EE in this study) resulted in the sharp reduction of these ILs. Although no neurological symptoms or mortalities were noticed, these results indicated dose-dependent distribution patterns and immune regulations of T. canis larvae infection in KM mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Immune Response of Recombinant Pseudorabies Virus rPRV-VP2 Expressing VP2 Gene of Porcine Parvovirus in Mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Pengfei; Pan, Xinlong; Han, Qiao; Yang, Xingwu; Zhu, Qianlei; Guo, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Hongying

    2016-03-01

    In order to develop a combined live vaccine that will be used to prevent against porcine parvovirus (PPV) and Pseudorabies virus (PRV) infection, the VP2 gene of PPV was inserted into the transfer vector plasmid pG to produce the recombinant plasmid pGVP2. The plasmid pGVP2 and the genome of PRV HB98 attenuated vaccine were transfected by using lipofectamine into swine testis cells for the homologous recombination. The recombinant virus rPRV-VP2 was purified by selection of green fluorescence plaques for five cycles. 6-week-old female Kunming mice were immunized intramuscularly with attenuated PRV parent HB98 strain, commercial inactivated vaccine against PPV, recombinant virus, DMEM culture solution. The injections were repeated with an equivalent dose after 2 weeks in all of the groups, and then challenged with the virulent PRV NY strain at 7 weeks after the first immunization. The recombinant virus rPRV-VP2 was successfully generated, and the recombinant virus could effectively elicite anti-PPV and PRV antibody and significant cellular immune response as indicated by anti-PPV ELISA and HI, PRV-neutralizing assay and flow cytometry. The challenge assay indicated that recombinant virus could protect the mice against the virulent PRV challenge. These results demonstrated that the recombinant virus can be a candidate recombinant vaccine strain for the prevention of PRV and PPV.

  18. Comparison of cytokine immune responses to Brucella abortus and Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:9 infections in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wenpeng; Wang, Xin; Qiu, Haiyan; Cui, Buyun; Zhao, Shiwen; Zheng, Han; Xiao, Yuchun; Liang, Junrong; Duan, Ran; Jing, Huaiqi

    2013-12-01

    Brucella abortus and Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:9 serologically cross-react in the immune response with the host; therefore, our aim was to compare the immune responses to these two pathogens. We selected typical B. abortus and Y. enterocolitica O:9 strains to study the cytokine immune response and the histopathological changes in livers and spleens of BALB/c mice. The data showed the cytokine responses to the two strains of pathogens were different, where the average levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), gamma interferon (IFN-γ), interleukin-12 (IL-12), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were higher with B. abortus infections than with Y. enterocolitica O:9 infections, especially for IFN-γ, while the IL-10 level was lower and the levels of IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6 were similar. The histopathological effects in the livers and spleens of the BALB/c mice with B. abortus and Y. enterocolitica O:9 infections were similar; however, the pathological changes in the liver were greater with B. abortus infections, while damage in the spleen was greater with Y. enterocolitica O:9 infections. These observations show that different cytokine responses and histopathological changes occur with B. abortus and Y. enterocolitica O:9 infections.

  19. Immune competence in 90Sr-exposed, adult thymectomized and antilymphocyteglobulin-treated CBA mice. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierke, P.

    1989-01-01

    CBA mice subjected to either adult thymectomy, internal exposure to 90 Sr or antilymphocyteglobulin treatment separately, or to combinations of the three were tested for cellular immune competence using their reaction to allogenic skin grafts. Peripheral blood white cell counts did not reveal any obvious correlation between the degree of mononuclear cell depletion and the ability to accept grafts, suggesting that the particular treatments depleted specific fractions of mononuclear cells, differing in their extent of involvement in the rejection process. No single treatment alone induced a significant prolongation in the time elapsed before graft rejection. Adult thymectomy followed by appropriate antilymphocyteglobulin treatment induced severe lymphocytopenia and a profound suppression of the cell-mediate immune system, as evidenced by the acceptance of allogenic skin grafts. When applied to 90 Sr-preexposed mice the same treatment induced lifelong acceptance of grafts, indicating a similar, though weaker immunosuppressive impact of 90 Sr. Hence it was possible to significantly enhance immunosuppression in 90 Sr-exposed mice. This in vivo model should be useful when investigating the role of immunological responsiveness in radiation carcinogenesis. (orig.)

  20. Comparison of radiosensitivity of immune cells in three kinds of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hongying; Wang Yueying; Zhang Heng; Li Denguan; Du Liqing; Wang Xiaochun; Lu Lu; Chang Jianhui; Zhang Junling; Zhai Zhibin; Men Aimin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the radiosensitivity of thymus (Th), spleen (Sp) cells between IRM-2, ICR and 615 mouse and explore the immunological and radiation resistance mechanisms of IRM-2 mice. Methods: The peripheral blood cytotype was determined by flow cytometry. By PA Law (FITC-Annexin V and PI labeling), the apoptosis of Th and Sp cells was detected after irradiation. Results: CD4/CD8 ratio of IRM-2 mice was lower than that of ICR and 615 mice; CD25/CD4 ratio was higher than 615 mice (P<0.05), lower than ICR mice;apoptosis rate of Sp cells exposed to 0, 1, 4 Gy γ-ray was lower than ICR and 615 mice, the difference was of statistical significance (P<0.05); apoptosis rate of Th cell was lower than ICR and 615 mice, especially 615 mice in 4Gy irradiated group (P<0.01). Conclusion: The apoptosis rate of IRM-2 was lower than that of ICR and 615 mice after irradiation. Th and Sp cells of IRM-2 mice were not sensitive to radiation. (authors)

  1. Oral Immunization with Recombinant Norwalk Virus-Like Particles Induces a Systemic and Mucosal Immune Response in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ball, Judith M.; Hardy, Michele E.; Atmar, Robert L.; Conner, Margaret E.; Estes, Mary K.

    1998-01-01

    Recombinant Norwalk virus-like particles (rNV VLPs) produced in insect cells were evaluated as an oral immunogen in CD1 and BALB/c mice by monitoring rNV-specific serum total and subclass immunoglobulin G (IgG) and intestinal IgA responses. Dose and kinetics of response were evaluated in the presence and absence of the mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin (CT). rNV-specific serum IgG and intestinal IgA were detected in the absence of CT, and the number of responders was not significantly different ...

  2. Oral Immunization with Recombinant Norwalk Virus-Like Particles Induces a Systemic and Mucosal Immune Response in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Judith M.; Hardy, Michele E.; Atmar, Robert L.; Conner, Margaret E.; Estes, Mary K.

    1998-01-01

    Recombinant Norwalk virus-like particles (rNV VLPs) produced in insect cells were evaluated as an oral immunogen in CD1 and BALB/c mice by monitoring rNV-specific serum total and subclass immunoglobulin G (IgG) and intestinal IgA responses. Dose and kinetics of response were evaluated in the presence and absence of the mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin (CT). rNV-specific serum IgG and intestinal IgA were detected in the absence of CT, and the number of responders was not significantly different from that of mice administered VLPs with CT at most doses. The use of CT was associated with induction of higher levels of IgG in serum; this effect was greater at higher doses of VLPs. IgG in serum was detected in the majority of animals by 9 days postimmunization (dpi), and intestinal IgA responses were detected by 24 dpi. In the absence of CT, IgG2b was the dominant IgG subclass response in both mouse strains. Thus, nonreplicating rNV VLPs are immunogenic when administered orally in the absence of any delivery system or mucosal adjuvant. These studies demonstrate that rNV VLPs are an excellent model to study the oral delivery of antigen, and they are a potential mucosal vaccine for NV infections. PMID:9445035

  3. Demonstration of analgesic effect of intranasal ketamine and intranasal fentanyl for postoperative pain after pediatric tonsillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenigun, Alper; Yilmaz, Sinan; Dogan, Remzi; Goktas, Seda Sezen; Calim, Muhittin; Ozturan, Orhan

    2018-01-01

    Tonsillectomy is one of the oldest and most commonly performed surgical procedure in otolaryngology. Postoperative pain management is still an unsolved problem. In this study, our aim is to demonstrate the efficacy of intranasal ketamine and intranasal fentanyl for postoperative pain relief after tonsillectomy in children. This randomized-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the effects of intranasal ketamine and intranasal fentanyl in children undergoing tonsillectomy. Tonsillectomy performed in 63 children were randomized into three groups. Group I received: Intravenous paracetamol (10 mg/kg), Group II received intranasal ketamine (1.5 mg/kg ketamine), Group III received intranasal fentanyl (1.5 mcg/kg). The Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale (CHEOPS) and Wilson sedation scale scores were recorded at 15, 30, 60 min, 2 h, 6hr, 12 h and 24 h postoperatively. Patients were interviewed on the day after surgery to assess the postoperative pain, nightmares, hallucinations, nausea, vomiting and bleeding. Intranasal ketamine and intranasal fentanyl provided significantly stronger analgesic affects compared to intravenous paracetamol administration at postoperative 15, 30, 60 min and at 2, 6, 12 and 24 h in CHEOPS (p ketamine administration group. No such sedative effect was seen in the groups that received intranasal fentanyl and intravenous paracetamol in Wilson Sedation Scale (p ketamine and intranasal fentanyl were more effective than paracetamol for postoperative analgesia after pediatric tonsillectomy. Sedative effects were observed in three patients with the group of intranasal ketamine. There was no significant difference in the efficacy of IN Ketamine and IN Fentanyl for post-tonsillectomy pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Stimulatory effect of aminoethylisothiuronium on the immune response and interferogenesis in irradiated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheleznikova, G.F.; Ogurtsov, R.P.; Stepanov, A.N. (Tsentral' nyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Rentgeno-Radiologicheskij Inst., Leningrad (USSR))

    Aminoethylisothiuronium (AET) stimulated the formation of antibodies against sheep erythrocytes, not against E. coli, in X-irradiated (4 Gy) mice. The serum containing AET-induced interferon had the same effect. AET also promoted the rejection of the allogenic skin graft in mice irradiated with the same dose. In addition, AET and cystaphos stimulated the induction of interferon by the Newcastle disease virus in mice exposed to doses of 4, 5 or 6 Gy.

  5. Infection of the upper respiratory tract with seasonal influenza A(H3N2) virus induces protective immunity in ferrets against infection with A(H1N1)pdm09 virus after intranasal, but not intratracheal, inoculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Bodewes (Rogier); J.H.C.M. Kreijtz (Joost); G. van Amerongen (Geert); M.L.B. Hillaire (Marine); S.E. Vogelzang-van Trierum (Stella ); N. Nieuwkoop; P. van Run (Peter); T. Kuiken (Thijs); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe clinical symptoms caused by infection with influenza A virusvary widely and depend on the strain causing the infection, the dose and route of inoculation, and the presence of preexisting immunity. In most cases, seasonal influenza A viruses cause relatively mild upper respiratory

  6. Enhancement of humoral immunity in mice by coupling pUCpGs10 and aluminium to the HCV recombinant immunogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Na

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim To investigate the enhancement of humoral immunity when CpG ODN (cytidine phosphate guanosine oligodeoxynucleotides and aluminium adjuvants are complexed with the HCV (Hepatitis C virus recombinant immunogen in mice. Methods After immunizing Balb/c mice with the recombination HCV antigen adjuvanted with pUCpGs10 and/or aluminium(antigen+CpG+alum, antigen+CpG, antigen+alum, antigen+PBS, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to measure the specific serum antibody titers of IgG, to determine the neutralization response to various peptide genotypes, and to determine the concentration of IL-6 and IL-10 in supernatants of in vitro cultured splenic lymphocytes. Enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT was used to quantify the non-specific and specific splenic antibody-secreting cells (ASCs, and flow cytometry (FCM determined the ratio of different splenic lymphocytes. The serum of rabbits immunized with the recombinant pBVGST/HVR1 antigen immunoprecipitated the HCV isolated from 12 patients' serum. Results The sera antibody titers were 1:51200, 1:9051, 1:18102, 1:6400 respectively after the final immunization and demonstrated good neutralization responses to the six gene peptide containing 1a, 1b, 2a, 3a, 4a and 6a. The aluminum adjuvant increased the population of both specific ASCs (P +CD27+ (P +CD38+ splenic lymphocytes with the aluminum and pUCpGs10 adjuvant present compared to the control group(P Conclusions 1. The aluminum adjuvant induces a potent Th2-biased immune response by increasing both the populations of specific and total ASCs and the ratio of CD19+CD27+ cells. 2. The pUCpGs10 complexed with the aluminum adjuvant boosts the population of plasma cells and increase the efficiency of the immune response. 3. The two adjuvants have synergistic effects on humoral immunity. 4. The recombinant HVR1 protein has the possibility of generating broadly reactive anti-HVR1 antibody.

  7. Contribution of non-immune phagocytes to protection of mice against Vibrio cholerae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuru, Sumiaki; Seno, Masao; Tsuchiya, Choji; Noritake, Masayuki; Wasada, Kazunori

    1980-01-01

    Bacterial kinetics of Vibrio cholerae 569B in the local infection of mice was examined after the γ-ray-irradiation or the treatment with carrageenan. In the control mice, bacterial number decreased exponentially. In the mice treated with carrageenan gave similar tendency. In the irradiated mice, however, decrease in bacterial number was not as significant and the clearance was never observed. From these results, it is concluded that the protection against V. cholerae local infection depends mainly on polymorphonuclear cells in the early phase. (author)

  8. Humoral and cellular immune responses in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice immunized with cytoplasmic (CRA) and flagellar (FRA) recombinant repetitive antigens, in acute experimental Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Valéria R A; Lorena, Virginia M B; Nakazawa, Mineo; Luna, Carlos F; Silva, Edimilson D; Ferreira, Antonio G P; Krieger, Marco Aurélio; Goldenberg, Samuel; Soares, Milena B P; Coutinho, Eridan M; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Gomes, Yara M

    2005-06-01

    In previous studies, cytoplasmic repetitive antigen (CRA) and flagellar repetitive antigen (FRA) proteins induced specific humoral and cellular immune responses in susceptible and resistant mice in the absence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection with a significant induction of the Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production in those animals. In this follow-up paper, the immunostimulatory and protective effects of these proteins were evaluated by immunizing with CRA or FRA antigens, BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice and challenging with a T. cruzi (Y strain). Both proteins induced humoral response with high levels of IgG isotypes as well as cellular immunity with high levels of IFN-gamma when compared to controls. However, the lymphocyte proliferative response was minimal. The survival rate at 30 days post-infection was significant in CRA (60%) or FRA (50%)--immunized BALB/c mice and CRA (83.3%)--immunized C57BL/6 mice. Taken as a whole these findings indicate that CRA and FRA are immunogenic and potentially important for protective immunity.

  9. Mechanisms of stage-transcending protection following immunization of mice with late liver stage-arresting genetically attenuated malaria parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon K Sack

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Malaria, caused by Plasmodium parasite infection, continues to be one of the leading causes of worldwide morbidity and mortality. Development of an effective vaccine has been encumbered by the complex life cycle of the parasite that has distinct pre-erythrocytic and erythrocytic stages of infection in the mammalian host. Historically, malaria vaccine development efforts have targeted each stage in isolation. An ideal vaccine, however, would target multiple life cycle stages with multiple arms of the immune system and be capable of eliminating initial infection in the liver, the subsequent blood stage infection, and would prevent further parasite transmission. We have previously shown that immunization of mice with Plasmodium yoelii genetically attenuated parasites (GAP that arrest late in liver stage development elicits stage-transcending protection against both a sporozoite challenge and a direct blood stage challenge. Here, we show that this immunization strategy engenders both T- and B-cell responses that are essential for stage-transcending protection, but the relative importance of each is determined by the host genetic background. Furthermore, potent anti-blood stage antibodies elicited after GAP immunization rely heavily on FC-mediated functions including complement fixation and FC receptor binding. These protective antibodies recognize the merozoite surface but do not appear to recognize the immunodominant merozoite surface protein-1. The antigen(s targeted by stage-transcending immunity are present in both the late liver stages and blood stage parasites. The data clearly show that GAP-engendered protective immune responses can target shared antigens of pre-erythrocytic and erythrocytic parasite life cycle stages. As such, this model constitutes a powerful tool to identify novel, protective and stage-transcending T and B cell targets for incorporation into a multi-stage subunit vaccine.

  10. A Recombinant HAV Expressing a Neutralization Epitope of HEV Induces Immune Response against HAV and HEV in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Kui; Kusov, Yuri; Ying, Guan; Yan, Wang; Shan, Yi; Jinyuan, Wu; Na, Yin; Yan, Zhou; Hongjun, Li; Maosheng, Sun

    2017-09-15

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) are causative agents of acute viral hepatitis transmitted via the fecal-oral route. Both viruses place a heavy burden on the public health and economy of developing countries. To test the possibility that HAV could be used as an expression vector for the development of a combination vaccine against hepatitis A and E infections, recombinant HAV-HEp148 was created as a vector to express an HEV neutralization epitope (HEp148) located at aa 459-606 of the HEV capsid protein. The recombinant virus expressed the HEp148 protein in a partially dimerized state in HAV-susceptible cells. Immunization with the HAV-HEp148 virus induced a strong HAV- and HEV-specific immune response in mice. Thus, the present study demonstrates a novel approach to the development of a combined hepatitis A and E vaccine.

  11. Mice orally immunized with a transgenic plant expressing the glycoprotein of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiasi, Seyed Mojtaba; Salmanian, A H; Chinikar, S

    2011-01-01

    in their serum and feces, respectively. The mice in the fed/boosted group showed a significant rise in specific IgG antibodies after a single boost. Our results imply that oral immunization of animals with edible materials from transgenic plants is feasible, and further assessments are under way. In addition......While Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) has a high mortality rate in humans, the associated virus (CCHFV) does not induce clinical symptoms in animals, but animals play an important role in disease transmission to humans. Our aim in this study was to examine the immunogenicity of the CCHFV...... glycoprotein when expressed in the root and leaf of transgenic plants via hairy roots and stable transformation of tobacco plants, respectively. After confirmatory analyses of transgenic plant lines and quantification of the expressed glycoprotein, mice were either fed with the transgenic leaves or roots, fed...

  12. Induction of Boosted Immune Response in Mice by Leptospiral Surface Proteins Expressed in Fusion with DnaK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Atzingen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an important global disease of human and veterinary concern. Caused by pathogenic Leptospira, the illness was recently classified as an emerging infectious disease. Currently available veterinarian vaccines do not induce long-term protection against infection and do not provide cross-protective immunity. Several studies have suggested the use of DnaK as an antigen in vaccine formulation, due to an exceptional degree of immunogenicity. We focused on four surface proteins: rLIC10368 (Lsa21, rLIC10494, rLIC12690 (Lp95, and rLIC12730, previously shown to be involved in host-pathogen interactions. Our goal was to evaluate the immunogenicity of the proteins genetically fused with DnaK in animal model. The chosen genes were amplified by PCR methodology and cloned into pAE, an E. coli vector. The recombinant proteins were expressed alone or in fusion with DnaK at the N-terminus. Our results demonstrate that leptospiral proteins fused with DnaK have elicited an enhanced immune response in mice when compared to the effect promoted by the individual proteins. The boosted immune effect was demonstrated by the production of total IgG, lymphocyte proliferation, and significant amounts of IL-10 in supernatant of splenocyte cell cultures. We believe that this approach could be employed in vaccines to enhance presentation of antigens of Leptospira to professional immune cells.

  13. Recombinant proteins of Zaire ebolavirus induce potent humoral and cellular immune responses and protect against live virus infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Axel T; Wong, Teri-Ann S; Lieberman, Michael M; Humphreys, Tom; Clements, David E; Bakken, Russell R; Hart, Mary Kate; Pratt, William D; Dye, John M

    2018-05-24

    Infections with filoviruses in humans are highly virulent, causing hemorrhagic fevers which result in up to 90% mortality. In addition to natural infections, the ability to use these viruses as bioterrorist weapons is of significant concern. Currently, there are no licensed vaccines or therapeutics available to combat these infections. The pathogenesis of disease involves the dysregulation of the host's immune system, which results in impairment of the innate and adaptive immune responses, with subsequent development of lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, hemorrhage, and death. Questions remain with regard to the few survivors of infection, who manage to mount an effective adaptive immune response. These questions concern the humoral and cellular components of this response, and whether such a response can be elicited by an appropriate prophylactic vaccine. The data reported herein describe the production and evaluation of a recombinant subunit Ebola virus vaccine candidate consisting of insect cell expressed Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) surface glycoprotein (GP) and the matrix proteins VP24 and VP40. The recombinant subunit proteins are shown to be highly immunogenic in mice, yielding both humoral and cellular responses, as well as highly efficacious, providing up to 100% protection against a lethal challenge with live virus. These results demonstrate proof of concept for such a recombinant non-replicating vaccine candidate in the mouse model of EBOV which helps to elucidate immune correlates of protection and warrants further development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Recombinant Secreted Antigens from Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Delivered as a Cocktail Vaccine Enhance the Immune Response of Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Vanessa; Simionatto, Simone; Marchioro, Silvana Beutinger; Klabunde, Gustavo Henrique Ferrero; Conceição, Fabricio Rochedo

    2013-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is the etiological agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia (EP), which is a respiratory disease responsible for huge economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. The commercially available vaccines provide only partial protection and are expensive. Thus, the development of alternatives for the prophylaxis of EP is critical for improving pig health. The use of multiple antigens in the same immunization may represent a promising alternative. In the present study, seven secreted proteins of M. hyopneumoniae were cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and evaluated for antigenicity using serum from naturally and experimentally infected pigs. In addition, the immunogenicity of the seven recombinant proteins delivered individually or in protein cocktail vaccines was evaluated in mice. In Western blot assays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, most of the recombinant proteins evaluated were recognized by convalescent-phase serum from the animals, indicating that they are expressed during the infectious process. The recombinant proteins were also immunogenic, and most induced a mixed IgG1/IgG2a humoral immune response. The use of these proteins in a cocktail vaccine formulation enhanced the immune response compared to their use as antigens delivered individually, providing evidence of the efficacy of the multiple-antigen administration strategy for the induction of an immune response against M. hyopneumoniae. PMID:23803903

  15. Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 nasal administration improves recovery of T-cell mediated immunity against pneumococcal infection in malnourished mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, N; Herrera, M; Salva, S; Villena, J; Alvarez, S

    2017-05-30

    Immunobiotic lactic acid bacteria have become an interesting alternative for the prevention of respiratory infections. Previously, we demonstrated that the nasal administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505, during repletion of malnourished mice, resulted in diminished susceptibility to the challenge with the respiratory pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. Considering the known alterations induced by malnutrition on T lymphocytes and the importance of this cell population on the protection against respiratory pathogens, we aimed to study the effect of L. rhamnosus CRL1505 nasal administration on the recovery of T cell-mediated defences against pneumococcal infection in malnourished mice under nutritional recovery. Malnourished mice received a balanced conventional diet (BCD) for seven days or BCD for seven days with nasal L. rhamnosus CRL1505 supplementation during last two days of the treatment. After the treatments mice were infected with S. pneumoniae. Flow cytometry studies were carried out in bone marrow, thymus, spleen and lung to study T cells, and Th 1 /Th 2 cytokine profiles were determined in broncho-alveolar lavages and serum. The administration of CRL1505 strain to malnourished mice under recovery reduced quantitative and qualitative alterations of CD4 + T cells in the bone marrow, thymus, spleen and lung induced by malnutrition. In addition, CRL1505 treatment augmented Th 2 -cytokines (interleukin 10 and 4) in respiratory and systemic compartments after pneumococcal infection. These results show that modulation of CD4 + T lymphocytes induced by L. rhamnosus CRL1505 has an important role in the beneficial effect induced by this strain on the recovery of malnourished mice. These data also indicate that nasally administered L. rhamnosus CRL1505 may represent a non-invasive alternative to modulate and improve the T cell-mediated immunity against respiratory pathogens in immunocompromised malnourished hosts.

  16. CD8 T cells primed in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue induce immune-mediated cholangitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Daniel; Eickmeier, Ira; Kühl, Anja A; Hamann, Alf; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Schott, Eckart

    2014-02-01

    The pathogenesis of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) remains poorly understood. Since PSC predominantly occurs in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, autoimmunity triggered by activated T cells migrating from the gut to the liver is a possible mechanism. We hypothesized that T cells primed in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) by a specific antigen migrate to the liver and cause cholangitis when they recognize the same antigen on cholangiocytes. We induced ovalbumin-dependent colitis in mice that express ovalbumin in biliary epithelia (ASBT-OVA mice) and crossed ASBT-OVA mice with mice that express ovalbumin in enterocytes (iFABP-OVA mice). We analyzed T-cell activation in the GALT and crossreactivity to the same antigen in the liver as well as the effects of colitis per se on antigen-presentation and T-cell activation in the liver. Intrarectal application of ovalbumin followed by transfer of CD8 OT-I T cells led to antigen-dependent colitis. CD8 T cells primed in the GALT acquired effector function and the capability to migrate to the liver, where they caused cholangitis in a strictly antigen-dependent manner. Likewise, cholangitis developed in mice expressing ovalbumin simultaneously in biliary epithelia and enterocytes after transfer of OT-I T cells. Dextran sodium sulfate colitis led to increased levels of inflammatory cytokines in the portal venous blood, induced activation of resident liver dendritic cells, and promoted the induction of T-cell-dependent cholangitis. Our data strengthen the notion that immune-mediated cholangitis is caused by T cells primed in the GALT and provide the first link between colitis and cholangitis in an antigen-dependent mouse model. © 2013 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  17. Fructans from aged garlic extract produce a delayed immunoadjuvant response to ovalbumin antigen in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekar, Puthanapura M; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2012-02-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is known for its innumerable biological activities including immunomodulation. Aged garlic extract (AGE), an odorless garlic preparation, has been shown to have superior immunomodulatory properties over raw garlic extract. Although garlic is a very rich source of fructans (17%, fresh weight basis), AGE contains only 0.22% of raw garlic fructans. Aged garlic fructans (AGF) have recently been shown to possess immunomodulatory activities in vitro. Natural adjuvants capable of eliciting better immune response of a model antigen are important in developing newer vaccines. In the present study, the adjuvant activity of AGF has been investigated in BALB/c mice using ovalbumin (OVA, 30 µg) as an experimental antigen. The body weights of animals did not change significantly indicating that the administration of garlic fructans is well-tolerated. AGF produce a significant humoral (serum IgG) response to OVA in BALB/c mice administered mucosally by either intranasal or oral route--a delayed response appearing on 50th day at a dose of 30 µg AGF by intranasal route. However, the serum IgG response was seen earlier on 35th day at a dose of 100 µg AGF by oral route. Higher concentrations of AGF (>50 µg) were inhibitory for adjuvant activity by intranasal administration. These observations indicate that AGF display immunoadjuvant activity for a test antigen though the humoral immune response is delayed.

  18. In Utero Exposure to Arsenic Alters Lung Development and Genes Related to Immune and Mucociliary Function in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsey, Kathryn A.; Bosco, Anthony; McKenna, Katherine L.; Carter, Kim W.; Elliot, John G.; Berry, Luke J.; Sly, Peter D.; Larcombe, Alexander N.; Zosky, Graeme R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Exposure to arsenic via drinking water is a global environmental health problem. In utero exposure to arsenic via drinking water increases the risk of lower respiratory tract infections during infancy and mortality from bronchiectasis in early adulthood. Objectives: We aimed to investigate how arsenic exposure in early life alters lung development and pathways involved in innate immunity. Methods: Pregnant BALB/c, C57BL/6, and C3H/HeARC mice were exposed to 0 (control) or 100 ?g/L...

  19. Roles of OspA, OspB, and flagellin in protective immunity to Lyme borreliosis in laboratory mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Fikrig, E; Barthold, S W; Marcantonio, N; Deponte, K; Kantor, F S; Flavell, R A

    1992-01-01

    Vaccination with recombinant outer surface protein A (OspA) has been shown to protect mice from infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent. To determine whether antibodies to B. burgdorferi proteins other than OspA are involved in protective immunity, antibodies to OspA were removed from protective anti-B. burgdorferi serum; the residual serum was still protective. Absorption of OspA and OspB antibodies from anti-B. burgdorferi serum eliminated the protective effect. Therefor...

  20. T-cell-mediated immunity to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in beta2-integrin (CD18)- and ICAM-1 (CD54)-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Marker, O; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    1996-01-01

    The T-cell response to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus was studied in mice with deficient expression of beta2-integrins or ICAM-1. In such mice, the generation of virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes was only slightly impaired and bystander activation was as extensive as that observed in wild-type...... mice. T-cell-mediated inflammation, assessed as primary footpad swelling and susceptibility to intracerebral infection, was slightly compromised only in beta2-integrin-deficient mice. However, adoptive immunization of mutant mice soon after local infection did reveal a reduced capacity to support...... the inflammatory reaction, indicating that under conditions of more limited immune activation both molecules do play a role in formation of the inflammatory exudate. Finally, virus control was found to be somewhat impaired in both mutant strains. In conclusion, our results indicate that although LFA-1-ICAM-1...

  1. The effect of local irradiation on the immune response in mice. I. Effect of sham-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauci, C.L.; Gerber, M.; Dubois, J.-B.; Serrou, B.

    1979-01-01

    In C57BL/6 mice exposed to 1600 rads to the left foot pad, an important decrease of non-specific inflammatory responsiveness initiated by the injection of oyster glycogen into the peritoneal cavity was observed on the one hand and a diminution of the delayed hypersensitivity response following tuberculin injection, on the other hand. Nevertheless, the same immunosuppression was noted both in sham irradiated mice and in those receiving hydrocortisone. In irradiated mice this transient immunosuppression was related to a normal adrenal function. Bi-laterally adrenalectomised mice did not exhibit this reaction which reappeared after hydrocortisone administration. The reduction of delayed hypersensitivity is irrespective of the irradiated zone, but the duration of immune depression is longer in irradiated than in unirradiated tissue. During the depression of delayed hypersensitivity response an increase in the number of splenic B-lymphocytes and macrophages and a decrease of the number of splenic T-lymphocytes was observed these observations suggest that immunosuppression following irradiation is related to acute stress

  2. Microneedle arrays for the transcutaneous immunization of diphtheria and influenza in BALB/c mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ding, Z.; Verbaan, F. J.; Bivas-Benita, M.; Bungener, L.; Huckriede, A.; van den Berg, D. J.; Kersten, G.; Bouwstra, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) is limited by poor permeation of macromolecules across the skin. Microneedle arrays form transient conduits and enhance the transport of vaccine molecules across the skin barrier without pain sensation. Here we investigated in mouse the immune responses after TO

  3. Effects of alcohol consumption on the allergen-specific immune response in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan; Roursgaard, Martin; Hersoug, Lars-Georg

    2008-01-01

    There is evidence that chronic alcohol consumption impairs the T-helper 1 (Th1) lymphocyte-regulated cell-mediated immune response possibly favoring a Th2 deviation of the immune response. Moreover, a few epidemiological studies have linked alcohol consumption to allergen-specific IgE sensitization....

  4. Electro-Acupuncture at Acupoint ST36 Reduces Inflammation and Regulates Immune Activity in Collagen-Induced Arthritic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Kyoung Yim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic and immuno-regulatory effects of electro-acupuncture (EA at ST36 on Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA in mice. Male DBA/1J mice were divided into five groups: Normal, Control, NR (needle retention, EAI and EAII. All mice except those in the normal group were immunized with Collagen II for arthritis induction. Acupuncture needles were inserted into mice ST36 and electrical currents at a frequency of 2 Hz in a continuous rectangular wave form were conducted through the needles for 15 min, 3 times a week. EA treatments were administered for 5 weeks in the EAI group and for 9 weeks in the EAII group. The mice in the NR group were acupunctured in the same manner as the EA groups and the needles were retained for 15 min without electrical stimulation. CIA incidence analysis, ELISA, histological analysis and FACS analysis were performed to evaluate the effect of EA on CIA. EA at ST36 significantly reduced CIA incidence, IL-6, TNF-a, INF-γ, collagen II antibody, IgG and IgM levels in CIA mice serum and prevented knee joint destruction. EA at ST36 also reduced CD69+/CD3e+ cells and CD11a+/CD19+ cells in CIA mice lymph nodes, and CD11b+/Gr1+ cells in CIA mice knee joints. The ratios of CD3e+ cells to CD19+ cells, and CD8+ cells to CD4+ cells were maintained closer to the normal range in the EA groups as compared with the control group or the NR group. EAII was more effective than EAI throughout all the measurements. The NR was effective as well, though less effective than EA. EA at ST36 may have an anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic and immuno-regulatory effects on CIA in mice. The effectiveness is stronger when EA starts earlier and is applied longer. Needle retention without electrical stimulation may be effective on CIA as well, however less effective than EA. Electrical stimulation and acupoint ST36 may have synergistic effects on CIA.

  5. Role of IFN-gamma and IL-6 in a protective immune response to Yersinia enterocolitica in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Autenrieth Ingo B

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yersinia outer protein (Yop H is a secreted virulence factor of Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye, which inhibits phagocytosis of Ye and contributes to the virulence of Ye in mice. The aim of this study was to address whether and how YopH affects the innate immune response to Ye in mice. Results For this purpose, mice were infected with wild type Ye (pYV+ or a YopH-deficient Ye mutant strain (ΔyopH. CD11b+ cells were isolated from the infected spleen and subjected to gene expression analysis using microarrays. Despite the attenuation of ΔyopH in vivo, by variation of infection doses we were able to achieve conditions that allow comparison of gene expression in pYV+ and ΔyopH infection, using either comparable infection courses or splenic bacterial burden. Gene expression analysis provided evidence that expression levels of several immune response genes, including IFN-γ and IL-6, are high after pYV+ infection but low after sublethal ΔyopH infection. In line with these findings, infection of IFN-γR-/- and IL-6-/- mice with pYV+ or ΔyopH revealed that these cytokines are not necessarily required for control of ΔyopH, but are essential for defense against infection with the more virulent pYV+. Consistently, IFN-γ pretreatment of bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM strongly enhanced their ability in killing intracellular Ye bacteria. Conclusion In conclusion, this data suggests that IFN-γ-mediated effector mechanisms can partially compensate virulence exerted by YopH. These results shed new light on the protective role of IFN-γ in Ye wild type infections.

  6. Influence of different types of bedding materials on immune response and serum biochemical profile of caged mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayakumar . R

    Full Text Available Contact bedding material is an important environmental factor and welfare creator for laboratory mice. It can alter important physiological process and create potential chance for experimental variation which puts hurdle for comparability. The present experiment was conducted to assess the possible impact of different types of bedding material viz CPS, NWS and PH with fifty one albino mice for a period of fifteen weeks in Laboratory Animal Facility. It was observed that local immunity in mice was enhanced in NWS. During in vitro immune assays, mice from NWS showed higher OD value for reactive oxygen radical, produced more NO2 and higher stimulation index i.e. 0.71 ± 0.01, 30.67 ± 0.88 μM and 7.90 ± 0.17, respectively than PH (0.23 ± 0.01, 17.0 ± 1.15 μM and 6.33 ± 0.21 and CPS (0.33 ± 0.03, 15.67 ± 1.20 μM and 6.46 ± 0.27. There was no influence of bedding type on systemic response. Reduced glutathione value in liver was higher in NWS than PH and CPS i.e. 8.54 ± 0.2, 7.09 ± 0.18 and 6.96 ± 0.14 μmole/ gm of tissue. But heart reduced glutathione showed no variation among different types of bedding materials. Serum analysis showed significantly (p<0.05 higher total protein and albumin value for enriched groups. But globulin value was not significantly differing for enriched and non-enriched groups. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(9.000: 417-420

  7. Right ventricular systolic pressure measurements in combination with harvest of lung and immune tissue samples in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Chi; Park, Sung-Hyun; Hoffman, Carol; Philip, Cecil; Robinson, Linda; West, James; Grunig, Gabriele

    2013-01-16

    The function of the right heart is to pump blood through the lungs, thus linking right heart physiology and pulmonary vascular physiology. Inflammation is a common modifier of heart and lung function, by elaborating cellular infiltration, production of cytokines and growth factors, and by initiating remodeling processes. Compared to the left ventricle, the right ventricle is a low-pressure pump that operates in a relatively narrow zone of pressure changes. Increased pulmonary artery pressures are associated with increased pressure in the lung vascular bed and pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary hypertension is often associated with inflammatory lung diseases, for example chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or autoimmune diseases. Because pulmonary hypertension confers a bad prognosis for quality of life and life expectancy, much research is directed towards understanding the mechanisms that might be targets for pharmaceutical intervention. The main challenge for the development of effective management tools for pulmonary hypertension remains the complexity of the simultaneous understanding of molecular and cellular changes in the right heart, the lungs and the immune system. Here, we present a procedural workflow for the rapid and precise measurement of pressure changes in the right heart of mice and the simultaneous harvest of samples from heart, lungs and immune tissues. The method is based on the direct catheterization of the right ventricle via the jugular vein in close-chested mice, first developed in the late 1990s as surrogate measure of pressures in the pulmonary artery. The organized team-approach facilitates a very rapid right heart catheterization technique. This makes it possible to perform the measurements in mice that spontaneously breathe room air. The organization of the work-flow in distinct work-areas reduces time delay and opens the possibility to simultaneously perform physiology experiments and harvest immune, heart and lung tissues. The

  8. Enhancement of mucosal immune responses by chimeric influenza HA/SHIV virus-like particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Lizheng; Lu Xiaoyan; Kang, S.-M.; Chen Changyi; Compans, Richard W.; Yao Qizhi

    2003-01-01

    To enhance mucosal immune responses using simian/human immunodeficiency virus-like particles (SHIV VLPs), we have produced novel phenotypically mixed chimeric influenza HA/SHIV VLPs and used them to immunize C57BL/6J mice intranasally. Antibody and cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) responses as well as cytokine production in both systemic and mucosal sites were compared after immunization with SHIV VLPs or chimeric HA/SHIV VLPs. By using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the levels of serum IgG and mucosal IgA to the HIV envelope protein (Env) were found to be highest in the group immunized with chimeric HA/SHIV VLPs. Furthermore, the highest titer of serum neutralizing antibody against HIV Env was found with the group immunized with chimeric HA/SHIV VLPs. Analysis of the IgG1/IgG2a ratio indicated that a T H 1-oriented immune response resulted from these VLP immunizations. HA/SHIV VLP-immunized mice also showed significantly higher CTL responses than those observed in SHIV VLP-immunized mice. Moreover, a MHC class I restricted T-cell activation ELISPOT assay showed a mixed type of T H 1/T H 2 cytokines in the HA/SHIV VLP-immunized mice, indicating that the chimeric VLPs can enhance both humoral and cellular immune responses to the HIV Env protein at multiple mucosal and systemic sites. The results indicate that incorporation of influenza HA into heterotypic VLPs may be highly effective for targeting vaccines to mucosal surfaces

  9. Intramammary Immunization of Pregnant Mice with Staphylococcal Protein A Reduces the Post-Challenge Mammary Gland Bacterial Load but Not Pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jully Gogoi-Tiwari

    Full Text Available Protein A, encoded by the spa gene, is one of the major immune evading MSCRAMM of S. aureus, demonstrated to be prevalent in a significant percentage of clinical bovine mastitis isolates in Australia. Given its' reported significance in biofilm formation and the superior performance of S. aureus biofilm versus planktonic vaccine in the mouse mastitis model, it was of interest to determine the immunogenicity and protective potential of Protein A as a potential vaccine candidate against bovine mastitis using the mouse mastitis model. Pregnant Balb/c mice were immunised with Protein A emulsified in an alum-based adjuvant by subcutaneous (s/c or intramammary (i/mam routes. While humoral immune response of mice post-immunization were determined using indirect ELISA, cell-mediated immune response was assessed by estimation of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ produced by protein A-stimulated splenocyte supernatants. Protective potential of Protein A against experimental mastitis was determined by challenge of immunized versus sham-vaccinated mice by i/mam route, based upon manifestation of clinical symptoms, total bacterial load and histopathological damage to mammary glands. Significantly (p<0.05 higher levels of IgG1 isotype were produced in mice immunized by the s/c route. In contrast, significantly higher levels of the antibody isotype IgG2a were produced in mice immunized by the i/mam route (p<0.05. There was significant reduction (p<0.05 in bacterial loads of the mammary glands of mice immunized by Protein A regardless of the route of immunization, with medium level of clinical symptoms observed up to day 3 post-challenge. However, Protein A vaccine failed to protect immunized mice post-challenge with biofilm producing encapsulated S. aureus via i/mam route, regardless of the route of immunization, as measured by the level of mammary tissue damage. It was concluded that, Protein A in its' native state was apparently not a suitable candidate for inclusion

  10. Effect of liposomal formulations and immunostimulating peptidoglycan monomer (PGM) on the immune reaction to ovalbumin in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habjanec, Lidija; Frkanec, Ruza; Halassy, Beata; Tomasić, Jelka

    2006-01-01

    The adjuvant activity of liposomes and immunostimulating peptidoglycan monomer (PGM) in different formulations has been studied in mice model using ovalbumin (OVA) as an antigen. PGM is a natural compound of bacterial origin with well-defined chemical structure: GlcNAc-MurNAc-L-Ala-D-isoGln-mesoDpm(epsilonNH2)-D-Ala-D-Ala. It is a non-toxic, non-pyrogenic, and water-soluble immunostimulator. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of different liposomal formulations of OVA, with or without PGM, on the production of total IgG, as well as of IgG1 and IgG2a subclasses of OVA-specific antibodies (as indicators of Th2 and Th1 type of immune response, respectively). CBA mice were immunized s.c. with OVA mixed with liposomes, OVA with PGM mixed with liposomes, OVA encapsulated into liposomes and OVA with PGM encapsulated into liposomes. Control groups were OVA in saline, OVA with PGM in saline, and OVA in CFA/IFA adjuvant formulation. The entrapment efficacy of OVA was monitored by HPLC method. The adjuvant activity of the mixture of OVA and empty liposomes, the mixture of OVA, PGM, and liposomes and PGM encapsulated with OVA into liposomes on production of total anti-OVA IgG was demonstrated. The mixture of PGM and liposomes exhibited additive immunostimulating effect on the production of antigen-specific IgGs. The analysis of IgG subclasses revealed that encapsulation of OVA into liposomes favors the stimulation of IgG2a antibodies, indicating the switch toward the Th1 type of immune response. When encapsulated into liposomes or mixed with liposomes, PGM induced a switch from Th1 to Th2 type of immune response. It could be concluded that appropriate formulations of antigen, PGM, and liposomes differently affect the humoral immune response and direct the switch in the type of immune response (Th1/Th2).

  11. Intranasal Administration of 2/6-Rotavirus-Like Particles with Mutant Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Toxin (LT-R192G) Induces Antibody-Secreting Cell Responses but Not Protective Immunity in Gnotobiotic Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lijuan; Geyer, Annelise; Hodgins, Douglas C.; Fan, Zhiqian; Qian, Yuan; Chang, Kyeong-Ok; Crawford, Sue E.; Parreño, Viviana; Ward, Lucy A.; Estes, Mary K.; Conner, Margaret E.; Saif, Linda J.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the immunogenicity of recombinant double-layered rotavirus-like particle (2/6-VLPs) vaccines derived from simian SA11 or human (VP6) Wa and bovine RF (VP2) rotavirus strains. The 2/6-VLPs were administered to gnotobiotic pigs intranasally (i.n.) with a mutant Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin, LT-R192G (mLT), as mucosal adjuvant. Pigs were challenged with virulent Wa (P1A[8],G1) human rotavirus at postinoculation day (PID) 21 (two-dose VLP regimen) or 28 (three-dose VLP regimen). In vivo antigen-activated antibody-secreting cells (ASC) (effector B cells) and in vitro antigen-reactivated ASC (derived from memory B cells) from intestinal and systemic lymphoid tissues (duodenum, ileum, mesenteric lymph nodes [MLN], spleen, peripheral blood lymphocytes [PBL], and bone marrow lymphocytes) collected at selected times were quantitated by enzyme-linked immunospot assays. Rotavirus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgA, and IgG ASC and memory B-cell responses were detected by PID 21 or 28 in intestinal and systemic lymphoid tissues after i.n. inoculation with two or three doses of 2/6-VLPs with or without mLT. Greater mean numbers of virus-specific ASC and memory B cells in all tissues prechallenge were induced in pigs inoculated with two doses of SA11 2/6-VLPs plus mLT compared to SA11 2/6-VLPs without mLT. After challenge, anamnestic IgA and IgG ASC and memory B-cell responses were detected in intestinal lymphoid tissues of all VLP-inoculated groups, but serum virus-neutralizing antibody titers were not significantly enhanced compared to the challenged controls. Pigs inoculated with Wa-RF 2/6-VLPs (with or without mLT) developed higher anamnestic IgA and IgG ASC responses in ileum after challenge compared to pigs inoculated with SA11 2/6-VLPs (with or without mLT). Three doses of SA 11 2/6-VLP plus mLT induced the highest mean numbers of IgG memory B cells in MLN, spleen, and PBL among all groups postchallenge. However, no significant protection against

  12. Active immunization with an octa-valent Staphylococcus aureus antigen mixture in models of S. aureus bacteremia and skin infection in mice.

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    Sanne van den Berg

    Full Text Available Proteomic studies with different Staphylococcus aureus isolates have shown that the cell surface-exposed and secreted proteins IsaA, LytM, Nuc, the propeptide of Atl (pro-Atl and four phenol-soluble modulins α (PSMα are invariantly produced by this pathogen. Therefore the present study was aimed at investigating whether these proteins can be used for active immunization against S. aureus infection in mouse models of bacteremia and skin infection. To this end, recombinant His-tagged fusions of IsaA, LytM, Nuc and pro-Atl were isolated from Lactococcus lactis or Escherichia coli, while the PSMα1-4 peptides were chemically synthesized. Importantly, patients colonized by S. aureus showed significant immunoglobulin G (IgG responses against all eight antigens. BALB/cBYJ mice were immunized subcutaneously with a mixture of the antigens at day one (5 μg each, and boosted twice (25 μg of each antigen with 28 days interval. This resulted in high IgG responses against all antigens although the response against pro-Atl was around one log lower compared to the other antigens. Compared to placebo-immunized mice, immunization with the octa-valent antigen mixture did not reduce the S. aureus isolate P load in blood, lungs, spleen, liver, and kidneys in a bacteremia model in which the animals were challenged for 14 days with a primary load of 3 × 10(5 CFU. Discomfort scores and animal survival rates over 14 days did not differ between immunized mice and placebo-immunized mice upon bacteremia with S. aureus USA300 (6 × 10(5 CFU. In addition, this immunization did not reduce the S. aureus isolate P load in mice with skin infection. These results show that the target antigens are immunogenic in both humans and mice, but in the used animal models do not result in protection against S. aureus infection.

  13. Experimental Chagas disease in Balb/c mice previously vaccinated with T. rangeli. II. The innate immune response shows immunological memory: reality or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, B; Marini, V

    2015-03-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is a real challenge to the host's immune system, because it requires strong humoral and cellular immune response to remove circulating trypomastigote forms, and to prevent the replication of amastigote forms in tissues, involving many regulator and effector components. This protozoan is responsible for Chagas disease, a major public health problem in Latinamerica. We have developed a model of vaccination with Trypanosoma rangeli, a parasite closely related to T. cruzi, but nonpathogenic to humans, which reduces the infectiousness in three different species of animals, mice, dogs and guinea pigs, against challenge with T. cruzi. In a previous work, we demonstrated that mice vaccinated with T. rangeli showed important soluble mediators that stimulate phagocytic activity versus only infected groups. The aim of this work was to study the innate immune response in mice vaccinated or not with T. rangeli. Different population cells and some soluble mediators (cytokines) in peritoneal fluid and plasma in mice vaccinated-infected and only infected with T. cruzi were studied. In the first hours of challenge vaccinated mice showed an increase of macrophages, NK, granulocytes, and regulation of IL6, IFNγ, TNFα and IL10, with an increase of IL12, with respect to only infected mice. Furthermore an increase was observed of Li T, Li B responsible for adaptative response. Finally the findings showed that the innate immune response plays an important role in vaccinated mice for the early elimination of the parasites, complementary with the adaptative immune response, suggesting that vaccination with T. rangeli modulates the innate response, which develops some kind of immunological memory, recognizing shared antigens with T. cruzi. These results could contribute to the knowledge of new mechanisms which would have an important role in the immune response to Chagas disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Minocycline attenuates HIV-1 infection and suppresses chronic immune activation in humanized NOD/LtsZ-scidIL-2Rγnull mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Maneesh; Singh, Pratibha; Vaira, Dolores; Amand, Mathieu; Rahmouni, Souad; Moutschen, Michel

    2014-01-01

    More than a quarter of a century of research has established chronic immune activation and dysfunctional T cells as central features of chronic HIV infection and subsequent immunodeficiency. Consequently, the search for a new immunomodulatory therapy that could reduce immune activation and improve T-cell function has been increased. However, the lack of small animal models for in vivo HIV study has hampered progress. In the current study, we have investigated a model of cord blood haematopoietic progenitor cells (CB-HPCs) -transplanted humanized NOD/LtsZ-scidIL-2Rγnull mice in which progression of HIV infection is associated with widespread chronic immune activation and inflammation. Indeed, HIV infection in humanized NSG mice caused up-regulation of several T-cell immune activation markers such as CD38, HLA-DR, CD69 and co-receptor CCR5. T-cell exhaustion markers PD-1 and CTLA-4 were found to be significantly up-regulated on T cells. Moreover, increased plasmatic levels of lipopolysaccharide, sCD14 and interleukin-10 were also observed in infected mice. Treatment with minocycline resulted in a significant decrease of expression of cellular and plasma immune activation markers, inhibition of HIV replication and improved T-cell counts in HIV-infected humanized NSG mice. The study demonstrates that minocycline could be an effective, low-cost adjunctive treatment to regulate chronic immune activation and replication of HIV. PMID:24409837

  15. Intranasal mesenchymal stem cell treatment for neonatal brain damage: long-term cognitive and sensorimotor improvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Donega

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC administration via the intranasal route could become an effective therapy to treat neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI brain damage. We analyzed long-term effects of intranasal MSC treatment on lesion size, sensorimotor and cognitive behavior, and determined the therapeutic window and dose response relationships. Furthermore, the appearance of MSCs at the lesion site in relation to the therapeutic window was examined. Nine-day-old mice were subjected to unilateral carotid artery occlusion and hypoxia. MSCs were administered intranasally at 3, 10 or 17 days after hypoxia-ischemia (HI. Motor, cognitive and histological outcome was investigated. PKH-26 labeled cells were used to localize MSCs in the brain. We identified 0.5 × 10(6 MSCs as the minimal effective dose with a therapeutic window of at least 10 days but less than 17 days post-HI. A single dose was sufficient for a marked beneficial effect. MSCs reach the lesion site within 24 h when given 3 or 10 days after injury. However, no MSCs were detected in the lesion when administered 17 days following HI. We also show for the first time that intranasal MSC treatment after HI improves cognitive function. Improvement of sensorimotor function and histological outcome was maintained until at least 9 weeks post-HI. The capacity of MSCs to reach the lesion site within 24 h after intranasal administration at 10 days but not at 17 days post-HI indicates a therapeutic window of at least 10 days. Our data strongly indicate that intranasal MSC treatment may become a promising non-invasive therapeutic tool to effectively reduce neonatal encephalopathy.

  16. Studies on immunity to Schistosoma mansoni in vivo: whole-body irradiation has no effect on vaccine-induced resistance in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignali, D.A.A.; Bickle, Q.D.; Taylor, M.G.

    1988-01-01

    Actively immunized mice, whole-body irradiated with 650 or 525 rad., manifested comparable levels of resistance to Schistosoma mansoni compared with unirradiated, immunized mice in spite of a marked reduction in circulating leucocytes and platelets, and despite an abrogation of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) (Type IV) reponse to schistosomular antigens. However, limited histopathological comparison of lung sections from irradiated and unirradiated mice 7 days post-challenge showed that cellular reactions ('foci') around parasites were similar in size and cellular composition except that in irradiated mice, eosinophils were poorly represented both in the foci and in lung tissue in general. Neither presumed immune complex-mediated (Type III, Arthus reaction) hypersensitivity nor serum anti-schistosomulum extract antibody levels were affected. The pattern of 125 I-labelled schistosomular surface antigens immunoprecipitated with serum from irradiated and unirradiated mice was essentially similar. These results are consistent with antibody playing an important role in vaccine-induced immunity in mice but suggest that radiosensitive T cell function and radiosensitive cells, such as platelets and polymorphonuclear cells, including eosinophils, may not be essential. (author)

  17. Liposome-antigen-nucleic acid complexes protect mice from lethal challenge with western and eastern equine encephalitis viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Aaron T; Schountz, Tony; Toth, Ann M; Rico, Amber B; Jarvis, Donald L; Powers, Ann M; Olson, Ken E

    2014-02-01

    Alphaviruses are mosquito-borne viruses that cause significant disease in animals and humans. Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), two New World alphaviruses, can cause fatal encephalitis, and EEEV is a select agent of concern in biodefense. However, we have no antiviral therapies against alphaviral disease, and current vaccine strategies target only a single alphavirus species. In an effort to develop new tools for a broader response to outbreaks, we designed and tested a novel alphavirus vaccine comprised of cationic lipid nucleic acid complexes (CLNCs) and the ectodomain of WEEV E1 protein (E1ecto). Interestingly, we found that the CLNC component, alone, had therapeutic efficacy, as it increased survival of CD-1 mice following lethal WEEV infection. Immunization with the CLNC-WEEV E1ecto mixture (lipid-antigen-nucleic acid complexes [LANACs]) using a prime-boost regimen provided 100% protection in mice challenged with WEEV subcutaneously, intranasally, or via mosquito. Mice immunized with LANACs mounted a strong humoral immune response but did not produce neutralizing antibodies. Passive transfer of serum from LANAC E1ecto-immunized mice to nonimmune CD-1 mice conferred protection against WEEV challenge, indicating that antibody is sufficient for protection. In addition, the LANAC E1ecto immunization protocol significantly increased survival of mice following intranasal or subcutaneous challenge with EEEV. In summary, our LANAC formulation has therapeutic potential and is an effective vaccine strategy that offers protection against two distinct species of alphavirus irrespective of the route of infection. We discuss plausible mechanisms as well the potential utility of our LANAC formulation as a pan-alphavirus vaccine.

  18. A safe vaccine (DV-STM-07 against Salmonella infection prevents abortion and confers protective immunity to the pregnant and new born mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Devi Negi

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is a transient immuno-compromised condition which has evolved to avoid the immune rejection of the fetus by the maternal immune system. The altered immune response of the pregnant female leads to increased susceptibility to invading pathogens, resulting in abortion and congenital defects of the fetus and a subnormal response to vaccination. Active vaccination during pregnancy may lead to abortion induced by heightened cell mediated immune response. In this study, we have administered the highly attenuated vaccine strain DeltapmrG-HM-D (DV-STM-07 in female mice before the onset of pregnancy and followed the immune reaction against challenge with virulent S. Typhimurium in pregnant mice. Here we demonstrate that DV-STM-07 vaccine gives protection against Salmonella in pregnant mice and also prevents Salmonella induced abortion. This protection is conferred by directing the immune response towards Th2 activation and Th1 suppression. The low Th1 response prevents abortion. The use of live attenuated vaccine just before pregnancy carries the risk of transmission to the fetus. We have shown that this vaccine is safe as the vaccine strain is quickly eliminated from the mother and is not transmitted to the fetus. This vaccine also confers immunity to the new born mice of vaccinated mothers. Since there is no evidence of the vaccine candidate reaching the new born mice, we hypothesize that it may be due to trans-colostral transfer of protective anti-Salmonella antibodies. These results suggest that our vaccine DV-STM-07 can be very useful in preventing abortion in the pregnant individuals and confer immunity to the new born. Since there are no such vaccine candidates which can be given to the new born and to the pregnant women, this vaccine holds a very bright future to combat Salmonella induced pregnancy loss.

  19. Immune malfunction in the GPR39 zinc receptor of knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Młyniec, Katarzyna; Trojan, Ewa; Ślusarczyk, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a serious psychiatric disorder affecting not only the monaminergic, glutamatergic, and GABAergic neurosystems, but also the immune system. Patients suffering from depression show disturbance in the immune parameters as well as increased susceptibility to infections. Zinc is well known...... as an anti-inflammatory agent, and its link with depression has been proved, zinc deficiency causing depression- and anxiety-like behavior with immune malfunction. It has been discovered that trace-element zinc acts as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system via zinc receptor GPR39. In this study we...

  20. HIV-1 p24(gag derived conserved element DNA vaccine increases the breadth of immune response in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viraj Kulkarni

    Full Text Available Viral diversity is considered a major impediment to the development of an effective HIV-1 vaccine. Despite this diversity, certain protein segments are nearly invariant across the known HIV-1 Group M sequences. We developed immunogens based on the highly conserved elements from the p24(gag region according to two principles: the immunogen must (i include strictly conserved elements of the virus that cannot mutate readily, and (ii exclude both HIV regions capable of mutating without limiting virus viability, and also immunodominant epitopes located in variable regions. We engineered two HIV-1 p24(gag DNA immunogens that express 7 highly Conserved Elements (CE of 12-24 amino acids in length and differ by only 1 amino acid in each CE ('toggle site', together covering >99% of the HIV-1 Group M sequences. Altering intracellular trafficking of the immunogens changed protein localization, stability, and also the nature of elicited immune responses. Immunization of C57BL/6 mice with p55(gag DNA induced poor, CD4(+ mediated cellular responses, to only 2 of the 7 CE; in contrast, vaccination with p24CE DNA induced cross-clade reactive, robust T cell responses to 4 of the 7 CE. The responses were multifunctional and composed of both CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells with mature cytotoxic phenotype. These findings provide a method to increase immune response to universally conserved Gag epitopes, using the p24CE immunogen. p24CE DNA vaccination induced humoral immune responses similar in magnitude to those induced by p55(gag, which recognize the virus encoded p24(gag protein. The inclusion of DNA immunogens composed of conserved elements is a promising vaccine strategy to induce broader immunity by CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells to additional regions of Gag compared to vaccination with p55(gag DNA, achieving maximal cross-clade reactive cellular and humoral responses.

  1. Dietary Selenium Levels Affect Selenoprotein Expression and Support the Interferon-γ and IL-6 Immune Response Pathways in Mice

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    Petra A. Tsuji

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is an essential element that is required to support a number of cellular functions and biochemical pathways. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of reduced dietary selenium levels on gene expression to assess changes in expression of non-selenoprotein genes that may contribute to the physiological consequences of selenium deficiency. Mice were fed diets that were either deficient in selenium or supplemented with selenium in the form of sodium selenite for six weeks. Differences in liver mRNA expression and translation were measured using a combination of ribosome profiling, RNA-Seq, microarrays, and qPCR. Expression levels and translation of mRNAs encoding stress-related selenoproteins were shown to be up-regulated by increased selenium status, as were genes involved in inflammation and response to interferon-γ. Changes in serum cytokine levels were measured which confirmed that interferon-γ, as well as IL-6, were increased in selenium adequate mice. Finally, microarray and qPCR analysis of lung tissue demonstrated that the selenium effects on immune function are not limited to liver. These data are consistent with previous reports indicating that adequate selenium levels can support beneficial immune responses, and further identify the IL-6 and interferon-γ pathways as being responsive to dietary selenium intake.

  2. Olive leaf down-regulates the oxidative stress and immune dysregulation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Hyun; Jung, Ji-Hye; Yang, Jin-Young; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2013-11-01

    Type 1 diabetes is an endocrinologic disorder characterized by uncontrolled glucose regulation and oxidative stress. Olive leaves have been studied extensively for their antioxidant activity and capacity to improve immune function. We hypothesized that olive leaf powder supplementation will be effective in inhibiting the oxidative stress and immune dysregulation in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Mice were assigned to 1 of 5 groups: control (C), STZ-induced diabetes (D), and STZ-induced diabetes supplemented with very low dose (VLOL), low dose (LOL), or high dose of olive leaf powder (HOL). Blood glucose in the VLOL and LOL groups was lower than that in the D group (P LOL groups. Nitric oxide levels decreased in the VLOL and LOL groups, as compared with the D group. The messenger RNA expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase were significantly decreased in the VLOL and HOL groups, and interferon-γ levels were significantly decreased in the liver of the VLOL, LOL, and HOL groups compared with the levels in the D group. Interleukin-17 levels were significantly decreased in the VLOL and HOL groups. Th1 and Th17 cytokine levels were increased in the D group but decreased in all the experimental groups. Th2 cytokine levels were increased in all olive leaf-supplemented groups compared with those in the D group. These results indicate a reduction in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines, suggesting that olive leaves have the potential to provide therapeutic inhibition of diabetic complications. © 2013.

  3. Mice gut microbiota programming by using the infant food profile. The effect on growth, gut microbiota and the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Samper, Elvira; Gómez-Gallego, Carlos; Andreo-Martínez, Pedro; Salminen, Seppo; Ros, Gaspar

    2017-10-18

    During the complementary feeding (CF) period, nutritional imbalances can have negative consequences not only on a child's health in the short term but also later in adulthood, as a phenomenon known as "nutritional programming" takes place. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible changes in body growth, gut microbiota (GM) and the immune system in mice fed with two different commercial sterilized baby foods in jars (BFJs) for CF. Mice fed with different BFJs (A and B groups) showed an accelerated growth from the fifth week of life when compared with the control (C) group. Group A showed a higher BMI, post-weaning growth rate, and IL-10 levels and a decrease in the Lactobacillus group. Group B showed a significant decrease in the total bacterial count, Lactobacillus group, Enterococcus spp. and Bacteroidetes-Prevotella. The Bifidobacterium genus tended to be lower in groups A and B. Akkermansia muciniphila was more frequently detected in group C. The results obtained from groups A and B can be attributed to the BFJ fatty acid profile, rich in UFAs. This study demonstrates for the first time that the commercial BFJ composition during CF might be a "programming" factor for body growth, GM and the immune system.

  4. Plasmid DNA initiates replication of yellow fever vaccine in vitro and elicits virus-specific immune response in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tretyakova, Irina; Nickols, Brian; Hidajat, Rachmat; Jokinen, Jenny; Lukashevich, Igor S.; Pushko, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) causes an acute hemorrhagic fever disease in tropical Africa and Latin America. To develop a novel experimental YF vaccine, we applied iDNA infectious clone technology. The iDNA represents plasmid that encodes the full-length RNA genome of 17D vaccine downstream from a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. The vaccine was designed to transcribe the full-length viral RNA and to launch 17D vaccine virus in vitro and in vivo. Transfection with 10 ng of iDNA plasmid was sufficient to start replication of vaccine virus in vitro. Safety of the parental 17D and iDNA-derived 17D viruses was confirmed in AG129 mice deficient in receptors for IFN-α/β/γ. Finally, direct vaccination of BALB/c mice with a single 20 μg dose of iDNA plasmid resulted in seroconversion and elicitation of virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in animals. We conclude that iDNA immunization approach combines characteristics of DNA and attenuated vaccines and represents a promising vaccination strategy for YF. - Highlights: • The iDNA ® platform combines advantages of DNA and live attenuated vaccines. • Yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine was launched from iDNA plasmid in vitro and in vivo. • Safety of iDNA-generated 17D virus was confirmed in AG129 mice. • BALB/c mice seroconverted after a single-dose vaccination with iDNA. • YF virus-neutralizing response was elicited in iDNA-vaccinated mice

  5. Plasmid DNA initiates replication of yellow fever vaccine in vitro and elicits virus-specific immune response in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tretyakova, Irina; Nickols, Brian; Hidajat, Rachmat [Medigen, Inc., 8420 Gas House Pike, Suite S, Frederick, MD 21701 (United States); Jokinen, Jenny; Lukashevich, Igor S. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine, Center for Predictive Medicine and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States); Pushko, Peter, E-mail: ppushko@medigen-usa.com [Medigen, Inc., 8420 Gas House Pike, Suite S, Frederick, MD 21701 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Yellow fever (YF) causes an acute hemorrhagic fever disease in tropical Africa and Latin America. To develop a novel experimental YF vaccine, we applied iDNA infectious clone technology. The iDNA represents plasmid that encodes the full-length RNA genome of 17D vaccine downstream from a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter. The vaccine was designed to transcribe the full-length viral RNA and to launch 17D vaccine virus in vitro and in vivo. Transfection with 10 ng of iDNA plasmid was sufficient to start replication of vaccine virus in vitro. Safety of the parental 17D and iDNA-derived 17D viruses was confirmed in AG129 mice deficient in receptors for IFN-α/β/γ. Finally, direct vaccination of BALB/c mice with a single 20 μg dose of iDNA plasmid resulted in seroconversion and elicitation of virus-specific neutralizing antibodies in animals. We conclude that iDNA immunization approach combines characteristics of DNA and attenuated vaccines and represents a promising vaccination strategy for YF. - Highlights: • The iDNA{sup ®} platform combines advantages of DNA and live attenuated vaccines. • Yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine was launched from iDNA plasmid in vitro and in vivo. • Safety of iDNA-generated 17D virus was confirmed in AG129 mice. • BALB/c mice seroconverted after a single-dose vaccination with iDNA. • YF virus-neutralizing response was elicited in iDNA-vaccinated mice.

  6. Humoral and cellular immune response in mice induced by the classical swine fever virus E2 protein fused to the porcine CD154 antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordo, Yusmel; Suárez, Marisela; Caraballo, Rosalina; Sardina, Talía; Brown, Emma; Duarte, Carlos; Lugo, Joanna; Gil, Lázaro; Perez, Danny; Oliva, Ayme; Vargas, Milagros; Santana, Elaine; Valdés, Rodolfo; Rodríguez, María Pilar

    2018-03-01

    The development of subunit vaccines against classical swine fever is a desirable goal, because it allows discrimination between vaccinated and infected animals. In this study, humoral and cellular immune response elicited in inbred BALB/c mice by immunization with a recombinant classical swine fever virus (CSFV) E2 protein fused to porcine CD154 antigen (E2CD154) was assessed. This model was used as a predictor of immune response in swine. Mice were immunized with E2CD154 emulsified in Montanide ISA50V2 or dissolved in saline on days 1 and 21. Another group received E2His antigen, without CD154, in the same adjuvant. Montanide ISA50V2 or saline served as negative controls for each experimental group. Animals immunized with 12.5 and 2.5 μg/dose of E2CD154 developed the highest titers (>1:2000) of CSFV neutralizing antibodies. Moreover, CSFV specific splenocyte gamma-interferon production, measured after seven and twenty-eight days of immunization, was significantly higher in mice immunized with 12.5 μg of E2CD154. As a conclusion, E2CD154 emulsified in Montanide ISA50 V2 was able to induce a potent humoral and an early cellular immune response in inbred BALB/c mice. Therefore, this immunogen might be an appropriate candidate to elicit immune response in swine, control CSF disease and to eliminate CSFV in swine. Copyright © 2018 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Yeast-expressed recombinant As16 protects mice against Ascaris suum infection through induction of a Th2-skewed immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfei Wei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ascariasis remains the most common helminth infection in humans. As an alternative or complementary approach to global deworming, a pan-anthelminthic vaccine is under development targeting Ascaris, hookworm, and Trichuris infections. As16 and As14 have previously been described as two genetically related proteins from Ascaris suum that induced protective immunity in mice when formulated with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB as an adjuvant, but the exact protective mechanism was not well understood.As16 and As14 were highly expressed as soluble recombinant proteins (rAs16 and rAs14 in Pichia pastoris. The yeast-expressed rAs16 was highly recognized by immune sera from mice infected with A. suum eggs and elicited 99.6% protection against A. suum re-infection. Mice immunized with rAs16 formulated with ISA720 displayed significant larva reduction (36.7% and stunted larval development against A. suum eggs challenge. The protective immunity was associated with a predominant Th2-type response characterized by high titers of serological IgG1 (IgG1/IgG2a > 2000 and high levels of IL-4 and IL-5 produced by restimulated splenocytes. A similar level of protection was observed in mice immunized with rAs16 formulated with alum (Alhydrogel, known to induce mainly a Th2-type immune response, whereas mice immunized with rAs16 formulated with MPLA or AddaVax, both known to induce a Th1-type biased response, were not significantly protected against A. suum infection. The rAs14 protein was not recognized by A. suum infected mouse sera and mice immunized with rAs14 formulated with ISA720 did not show significant protection against challenge infection, possibly due to the protein's inaccessibility to the host immune system or a Th1-type response was induced which would counter a protective Th2-type response.Yeast-expressed rAs16 formulated with ISA720 or alum induced significant protection in mice against A. suum egg challenge that associates with a Th2-skewed immune

  8. Influenza (Flu) vaccine (Live, Intranasal): What you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is taken in its entirety from the CDC Influenza Live, Intranasal Flu Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/ ... flulive.html . CDC review information for Live, Intranasal Influenza VIS: Vaccine Information Statement Influenza Page last reviewed: ...

  9. Effect of maternal dietary cow’s milk on the immune response to beta-lactoglobulin in the offspring: A four generation study in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Christensen, Hanne Risager; Barkholt, Vibeke

    2005-01-01

    deviated from the response observed in the F0 and F2/F3 generations. Importantly, trace amounts of BLG detected in the commercial milk-free diet did not induce oral tolerance. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that breeding mice on an antigen-free diet for at least two generations is required to attain animals......Evaluation of immune responses to food proteins in animal models requires that the animals are not already sensitized or orally tolerized against the proteins in question. Since maternal transfer of specific immune responses has been observed, breeding of animals on an antigen-free diet for several...... generations may be necessary to obtain immunologically naive animals. METHODS: To determine the most appropriate breeding conditions of mice to be used in immunological studies on food proteins, we examined immune responses towards beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) in mice bred on a milk-containing diet (F0...

  10. Immunogenicity is unrelated to protective immunity when induced by soluble and particulate antigens from Nocardia brasiliensis in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Carmona, Mario C; Ramos, Alma I; Pérez-Rivera, Isabel

    2006-08-01

    Cell-mediated immunity plays a major role in protection against intracellular microbes. Nocardia brasiliensis is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes chronic actinomycetoma. In this work, we injected BALB/c mice with soluble P24 and particulate antigens from N. brasiliensis. A higher antibody titer and lymphocyte proliferation was induced by the particulate antigen than by the soluble antigen. However, five months after antigen injection, antibody concentration and lymphocyte proliferation were similar. An increase in CD45R and CD4 T cells was unrelated to protective immunity. Active immunization with soluble or particulate antigens induced complete protection during the primary immune response. This protective response was IgM mediated. The higher immunogenicity was not related to protective immunity since the particulate antigen induced protection similar to the soluble antigen. Using particulate antigens for vaccination guarantees a stronger immune response, local and systemic side effects, but not necessarily protection.

  11. Immunogenicity of an Intranasally Administered Modified Live Canine Parvovirus Type 2b Vaccine in Pups with Maternally Derived Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martella, Vito; Cavalli, Alessandra; Decaro, Nicola; Elia, Gabriella; Desario, Costantina; Campolo, Marco; Bozzo, Giancarlo; Tarsitano, Elvira; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2005-01-01

    The ability of a modified live canine parvovirus type 2b vaccine to elicit active immunization in pups with maternally derived antibodies (MDA) by intranasal administration was evaluated. The vaccine induced seroconversion in 100% of pups with MDA titers of ≤80 and in 51.6% of pups with titers between 160 and 320. PMID:16210491

  12. Immunogenicity of an Intranasally Administered Modified Live Canine Parvovirus Type 2b Vaccine in Pups with Maternally Derived Antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Martella, Vito; Cavalli, Alessandra; Decaro, Nicola; Elia, Gabriella; Desario, Costantina; Campolo, Marco; Bozzo, Giancarlo; Tarsitano, Elvira; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2005-01-01

    The ability of a modified live canine parvovirus type 2b vaccine to elicit active immunization in pups with maternally derived antibodies (MDA) by intranasal administration was evaluated. The vaccine induced seroconversion in 100% of pups with MDA titers of ≤80 and in 51.6% of pups with titers between 160 and 320.

  13. Immunogenicity of an intranasally administered modified live canine parvovirus type 2b vaccine in pups with maternally derived antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martella, Vito; Cavalli, Alessandra; Decaro, Nicola; Elia, Gabriella; Desario, Costantina; Campolo, Marco; Bozzo, Giancarlo; Tarsitano, Elvira; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2005-10-01

    The ability of a modified live canine parvovirus type 2b vaccine to elicit active immunization in pups with maternally derived antibodies (MDA) by intranasal administration was evaluated. The vaccine induced seroconversion in 100% of pups with MDA titers of < or = 80 and in 51.6% of pups with titers between 160 and 320.

  14. Alphavirus Replicon DNA Vectors Expressing Ebola GP and VP40 Antigens Induce Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoufeng Ren

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus (EBOV causes severe hemorrhagic fevers in humans, and no approved therapeutics or vaccine is currently available. Glycoprotein (GP is the major protective antigen of EBOV, and can generate virus-like particles (VLPs by co-expression with matrix protein (VP40. In this study, we constructed a recombinant Alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV replicon vector DREP to express EBOV GP and matrix viral protein (VP40. EBOV VLPs were successfully generated and achieved budding from 293 cells after co-transfection