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Sample records for mice fed safflower

  1. Decreased production of interleukin-6 and prostaglandin E2 associated with inhibition of delta-5 desaturation of omega6 fatty acids in mice fed safflower oil diets supplemented with sesamol.

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    Chavali, S R; Forse, R A

    1999-12-01

    The differences in the immune responses in mice fed sesame oil diets and those fed sesamin may be attributed to the presence of other lignans in the non-fat portion of the oil. The fatty acid composition (mean +/- SD mol. %) of liver membrane phospholipids and the levels of endotoxin-induced prostaglandin (PG) E2, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were determined in mice fed diets supplemented with 5% safflower oil (SO) in the absence or presence of 1% sesamol. The levels of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (20:3omega6) were markedly higher (P<0.025) in the livers from mice fed sesamol supplemented SO diets (1.6 +/- 0.1) compared to the controls (1.4 +/- 0.1). These data suggest that sesamol or its metabolite could inhibit the in vivo delta-5 desaturation of omega6 fatty acids. Further, in animals fed sesamol supplemented SO diets, the levels of PGE2 (228 +/- 41 pg/ml) were markedly lower (P<0.01) compared to those fed SO diet alone (1355 +/- 188 pg/ml). Concomitantly, the concentrations of IL-6 were also lower (P<0.01) in mice fed sesamol diet (63 +/- 11 ng/ml) compared to the controls (143 +/- 22 ng/ml). A marked reduction in the levels of PGE2 in animals fed sesamol diets suggests that sesamol or its metabolite could inhibit the activity of cyclooxygenase enzyme.

  2. Fish oil prevents sucrose-induced fatty liver but exacerbates high-safflower oil-induced fatty liver in ddy mice.

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    Yamazaki, Tomomi; Nakamori, Akiko; Sasaki, Eriko; Wada, Satoshi; Ezaki, Osamu

    2007-12-01

    Diets high in sucrose/fructose or fat can result in hepatic steatosis (fatty liver). We analyzed the effects of dietary fish oil on fatty liver induced by sucrose, safflower oil, and butter in ddY mice. In experiment I, mice were fed a high-starch diet [70 energy% (en%) starch] plus 20% (wt/wt) sucrose in the drinking water or fed a high-safflower oil diet (60 en%) for 11 weeks. As a control, mice were fed a high-starch diet with drinking water. Fish oil (10 en%) was either supplemented or not. Mice supplemented with sucrose or fed safflower oil showed a 1.7-fold or 2.2-fold increased liver triglyceride content, respectively, compared with that of control mice. Fish oil completely prevented sucrose-induced fatty liver, whereas it exacerbated safflower oil-induced fatty liver. Sucrose increased SREBP-1c and target gene messenger RNAs (mRNAs), and fish oil completely inhibited these increases. In experiment II, mice were fed a high-safflower oil or a high-butter diet, with or without fish oil supplementation. Fish oil exacerbated safflower oil-induced fatty liver but did not affect butter-induced fatty liver. Fish oil increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) and target CD36 mRNA in safflower oil-fed mice. These increases were not observed in sucrose-supplemented or butter-fed mice. The effects of dietary fish oil on fatty liver differ according to the cause of fatty liver; fish oil prevents sucrose-induced fatty liver but exacerbates safflower oil-induced fatty liver. The exacerbation of fatty liver may be due, at least in part, to increased expression of liver PPARgamma.

  3. Safflower bud inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and prevents bone loss in ovariectomized mice.

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    Choi, Joo-Hee; Lim, Seul-Ki; Kim, Dong-Il; Park, Min-Jung; Kim, Young-Kuk; Lee, An-Chul; Kim, Young-Min; Yang, Soo-Jin; Park, Jong-Hwan

    2017-10-15

    The powder and extract of safflower seeds are known to be effective in the prevention of bone loss in ovariectomized animals. However, the inhibitory effect and molecular mechanisms of safflower bud (SB), the germinated safflower, on bone destruction is unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effect and molecular mechanism of SB on osteoclastic differentiation and on bone loss in ovarietomized (OVX) mice. Osteoclastogenesis was determined by TRAP staining, F-actin ring formation, and bone resorption assay. NF-κB and MAPKs activation was analyzed by transfection assay and Western blot, respectively. Real-time PCR was performed to examine the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related genes. Histological changes, increases in TRAP-positive cells, and cathepsin K expression were examined in the metaphysis of OVX mice. Density of bone marrow was evaluated by µCT. SB inhibited the RANKL-induced differentiation of BMDMs into osteoclasts in a dose-dependent manner. F-actin ring formation and bone resorption were also reduced by SB in RANKL-treated BMDMs. In addition, SB decreased the activation of NF-κB and MAPKs and the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related genes in BMDMs treated with RANKL. Feeding of SB-included diet prevented bone loss in OVX mice. The number of TRAP-positive cells and level of protein expression of cathepsin K was reduced and bone mineral density was increased in the metaphysis of mice fed SB compared with OVX mice. These findings suggest that SB can be a preventive and therapeutic candidate for destructive bone diseases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  4. Gene expression of insulin signal-transduction pathway intermediates is lower in rats fed a beef tallow diet than in rats fed a safflower oil diet.

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    Kim, Y B; Nakajima, R; Matsuo, T; Inoue, T; Sekine, T; Komuro, M; Tamura, T; Tokuyama, K; Suzuki, M

    1996-09-01

    To elucidate the effects of dietary fatty acid composition on the insulin signaling pathway, we measured the gene expression of the earliest steps in the insulin action pathway in skeletal muscle of rats fed a safflower oil diet or a beef tallow diet. Rats were meal-fed an isoenergetic diet based on either safflower oil or beef tallow for 8 weeks. Both diets provided 45%, 35%, and 20% of energy as fat, carbohydrate, and protein, respectively. Insulin resistance, assessed from the diurnal rhythm of plasma glucose and insulin and the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), developed in rats fed a beef tallow diet. Body fat content was greater in rats fed a beef tallow diet versus a safflower oil diet. The level of insulin receptor mRNA, relative expression of the insulin receptor mRNA isoforms, and receptor protein were not affected by the composition of dietary fatty acids. The abundance of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase mRNA and protein was significantly lower in rats fed a beef tallow diet versus a safflower oil diet. We conclude that long-term feeding of a high-fat diet with saturated fatty acids induces decrease in IRS-1 and PI 3-kinase mRNA and protein levels, causing insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.

  5. Diet-induced thermogenesis is lower in rats fed a lard diet than in those fed a high oleic acid safflower oil diet, a safflower oil diet or a linseed oil diet.

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    Takeuchi, H; Matsuo, T; Tokuyama, K; Shimomura, Y; Suzuki, M

    1995-04-01

    The objectives of the present study were to examine the effects of dietary fats differing in fatty acid composition on diet-induced thermogenesis, sympathetic activity in brown adipose tissue and body fat accumulation in rats. Rats were meal-fed for 12 wk an isoenergetic diet based on lard, high oleic acid safflower oil, safflower oil or linseed oil, and norepinephrine turnover rates in brown adipose tissue were then estimated. Whole-body oxygen consumption after the meal indicated that diet-induced thermogenesis was significantly lower in rats fed the lard diet than in those fed the other diets. The norepinephrine turnover rate in the interscapular brown adipose tissue was also significantly lower in the lard diet group than in the other diet groups. The carcass fat content was significantly higher in the lard diet group than in the other diet groups, whereas the abdominal adipose tissue weights were the same in all diet groups. These results suggest that the intake of animal fats rich in saturated fatty acids, compared with the intake of vegetable oils rich in monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids, decreases diet-induced thermogenesis by a decline of sympathetic activity in brown adipose tissue, resulting in the promotion of body fat accumulation.

  6. Antihemolytic Activities of Green Tea, Safflower, and Mulberry Extracts during Plasmodium berghei Infection in Mice

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    Suthin Audomkasok

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria-associated hemolysis is associated with mortality in adult patients. It has been speculated that oxidative stress and inflammation induced by malaria parasite are involved in its pathophysiology. Hence, we aimed to investigate the antihemolytic effect of green tea, safflower, and mulberry extracts against Plasmodium berghei infection. Aqueous crude extracts of these plants were prepared using hot water method and used for oral treatment in mice. Groups of ICR mice were infected with 6 × 106 infected red blood cells of P. berghei ANKA by intraperitoneal injection and given the extracts (500, 1500, and 3000 mg/kg twice a day for 4 consecutive days. To assess hemolysis, hematocrit levels were then evaluated. Malaria infection resulted in hemolysis. However, antihemolytic effects were observed in infected mice treated with these extracts at dose-dependent manners. In conclusion, aqueous crude extracts of green tea, safflower, and mulberry exerted antihemolysis induced by malaria infection. These plants may work as potential source in the development of variety of herbal formulations for malarial treatment.

  7. Differential effect of walnut oil and safflower oil on the serum cholesterol level and lesion area in the aortic root of apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

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    Iwamoto, Masako; Kono, Misaki; Kawamoto, Daisuke; Tomoyori, Hiroko; Sato, Masao; Imaizumi, Katsumi

    2002-01-01

    Walnut oil (WO) is a good source of alpha-linolenic acid. We compared the effects of WO and high-linoleic safflower oil (HLSO) on the serum lipid level and atherosclerosis development in male and female apolipoprotein (apo) E-deficient mice. The WO diet resulted in a higher level of serum cholesterol than with HLSO. Female mice fed on the WO diet had a greater lesion area in the aortic root than did those on the HLSO diet. There was no diet-dependent difference in the level of cholesterol and its oxidation products in the abdominal and thoracic aorta. These results suggest that the unpleasant effects of the WO diet on apo E-deficient mice may be attributable to alpha-linolenic acid.

  8. Effects on reproduction in female offspring from Sprague-Dawley rats fed 10% snakeweed (Gutierrezia microcephala) throughout pregnancy and concurrent treatment with safflower oil.

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    Staley, E C; Smith, G S; Greenberg, J A

    1995-10-01

    Previous studies determined that safflower oil administration provided protection against the embryotoxicity seen following ingestion of 10% snakeweed (Gutierrezia microcephala) throughout pregnancy. Sixty-two young primiparous female rats born in those studies were paired with adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. After 4 d they were removed and carried their litters to term. Observations were made of the presence and extent of reproductive effects attributable to the 10% snakeweed exposure and differences in fecundity that were attributable to dosing with safflower oil or normal saline during the snakeweed exposure. Of the 62 rats, 50 carried litters to term and approximated the reproductive efficiency of normal primiparous Sprague-Dawley rats. There was no significant difference between the fecundity of females born to rats fed the 10% snakeweed and dosed with safflower oil, those born of rats fed snakeweed dosed with normal saline, or those fed a snakeweed-free diet and dosed with normal saline. Regardless of the diet or treatment administered, dams carrying their litters to parturition gave birth to healthy, normo-reproductive offspring. While the toxic principles in Gutierrezia species plants may act as estrogenic or anti-estrogenic compounds, they did not impair fertility in the female offspring of dosed rats.

  9. A safflower oil-based high fat/high-sucrose diet modulates the gut microbiota and liver phospholipid profiles associated with early glucose intolerance in the absence of tissue inflammation

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    Danneskiold-Samsøe, Niels Banhos; Andersen, Daniel; Radulescu, Ilinca Daria

    2017-01-01

    n-6 PUFA-rich diets are generally considered obesogenic in rodents. Here we examined how long-term intake of a high fat/high sucrose (HF/HS) diet based on safflower oil affected metabolism, inflammation and gut microbiota composition. We fed male C57BL/6J mice a HF/HS diet based on safflower oil...

  10. Prevention of diet-induced obesity by safflower oil: insights at the levels of PPARalpha, orexin, and ghrelin gene expression of adipocytes in mice.

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    Zhang, Zhong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Fengchen; Sun, Yuqian; Zhang, Jinchao

    2010-03-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevention of diet-induced obesity by a high safflower oil diet and adipocytic gene expression in mice. Forty 3-week-old C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into three groups: control group (CON, 5% lard + 5% safflower oil), high lard group (LAR, 45% lard + 5% safflower oil), and high safflower oil group (SAF, 45% safflower oil + 5% lard). After 10 weeks, 10 mice of the LAR group were switched to high safflower oil diet (LAR-SAF). Ten weeks later, glucose tolerance tests were performed by intraperitoneal injection of glucose. Circulating levels of lipid and insulin were measured and white adipose tissues were taken for gene chip and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. The LAR group showed higher body weight, adiposity index, insulin, and lipids than the CON group (P<0.05). The body weight in the LAR-SAF group decreased after dietary reversal. The plasma biochemical profiles decreased in the LAR-SAF and SAF groups (P<0.05) compared with those of the LAR group. The blood glucose level of the LAR-SAF group was reduced during intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test compared with that of the LAR group. The LAR-SAF group had lower levels of Orexin and Ghrelin gene expression, whereas the level of PPARalpha gene expression was significantly enhanced compared with that of the LAR group. So, the SAF diet can alter adipocytic adiposity-related gene expression and result in effective amelioration of diet-induced obesity.

  11. Lack of promotion of colon carcinogenesis by high-oleic safflower oil.

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    Takeshita, M; Ueda, H; Shirabe, K; Higuchi, Y; Yoshida, S

    1997-04-15

    The nonpromoting effect of olive oil on colon carcinogenesis has been attributed to its high oleic acid content, whereas a positive association of monounsaturated fat in beef tallow with colon tumors has been reported. The effect of constituents other than fatty acids could not be neglected in these experiments. In order to minimize the effects of minor constituents in the oils, the authors compared conventional safflower oil with oil from a mutant strain of safflower that is rich in oleic acid. ICR mice were treated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH, 20 mg/kg body weight every week for 12 weeks) and then were fed either a high-fat diet (23.5% by weight), containing safflower oil (HF-LA) or high-oleic safflower oil (HF-OA), or a low-fat diet (5% by weight), containing safflower oil (LF-LA) or high-oleic safflower oil (LF-OA). The test diets were continued until termination of the experiment at 30 weeks after the first administration of DMH. Fatty acid composition of colon phospholipids was determined by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Tumor multiplicity in animals fed the HF-OA diet was indistinguishable from that in animals fed LF-LA or LF-OA. In contrast, animals fed the HF-LA diet had a significantly higher incidence of colon tumors (mostly adenocarcinomas) than the other groups. Fatty acid profiles of colon phospholipids reflected those of the diet. Animals fed a HF-LA diet showed a marked decrease of nervonic acid (C24:1, n-9) in the colon sphingomyelin. These data indicate that oleic acid does not enhance DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis in mice, even when they are fed a high-fat diet.

  12. A Moderate Zinc Deficiency Does Not Alter Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition in the Liver of Weanling Rats Fed Diets Rich in Cocoa Butter or Safflower Oil.

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    Weigand, Edgar; Egenolf, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine whether a moderate zinc deficiency alters hepatic lipid composition. Male weanling rats, assigned to five groups (8 animals each), were fed low-carbohydrate high-fat diets supplemented with 7 or 50 mg Zn/kg (LZ or HZ) and 22% cocoa butter (CB) or 22% safflower oil (SF) for four weeks. One group each had free access to the LZ-CB and LZ-SF diets, one group each was restrictedly fed the HZ-CB and HZ-SF diets in matching amounts, and one group had free access to the HZ-SF diet (ad libitum control). The rats fed the LZ diets had significantly lower energy intakes and final body weights than the ad libitum control group, and lower plasma and femur Zn concentrations than the animals consuming the HZ diets. Hepatic cholesterol, triacylglycerol and phospholipid concentrations, and fatty acid composition of hepatic triacylglycerols and phospholipids did not significantly differ between the LZ and their respective HZ groups, but were greatly affected by dietary fat source. In conclusion, the moderate Zn deficiency did not significantly alter liver lipid concentrations and fatty acid composition.

  13. A Moderate Zinc Deficiency Does Not Alter Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition in the Liver of Weanling Rats Fed Diets Rich in Cocoa Butter or Safflower Oil

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    Edgar Weigand

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine whether a moderate zinc deficiency alters hepatic lipid composition. Male weanling rats, assigned to five groups (8 animals each, were fed low-carbohydrate high-fat diets supplemented with 7 or 50 mg Zn/kg (LZ or HZ and 22% cocoa butter (CB or 22% safflower oil (SF for four weeks. One group each had free access to the LZ-CB and LZ-SF diets, one group each was restrictedly fed the HZ-CB and HZ-SF diets in matching amounts, and one group had free access to the HZ-SF diet (ad libitum control. The rats fed the LZ diets had significantly lower energy intakes and final body weights than the ad libitum control group, and lower plasma and femur Zn concentrations than the animals consuming the HZ diets. Hepatic cholesterol, triacylglycerol and phospholipid concentrations, and fatty acid composition of hepatic triacylglycerols and phospholipids did not significantly differ between the LZ and their respective HZ groups, but were greatly affected by dietary fat source. In conclusion, the moderate Zn deficiency did not significantly alter liver lipid concentrations and fatty acid composition.

  14. Relationship between the effect of dietary fat on swimming endurance and energy metabolism in aged mice.

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    Zhang, Guihua; Shirai, Nobuya; Suzuki, Hiramitsu

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different dietary fats on alterations in endurance, energy metabolism, and plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and minerals in mice. Male mice (aged 58 weeks) were fed diets containing 6% safflower oil, fish oil, or lard for 12 weeks. Swimming time to exhaustion, energy metabolism, and plasma IL-6 levels were subsequently determined. Mice fed safflower oil exhibited a marked increase in swimming time compared to the baseline level. Mice fed lard exhibited a significant decrease in swimming time, while mice on a fish oil diet exhibited a small decrease in swimming time. The final swimming time of mice fed safflower oil was significantly longer than that of animals fed lard. This improvement in endurance with dietary safflower oil was accompanied by decreased accumulation of lactate and less glycogen depletion during swimming. In the safflower oil group, muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity increased significantly after swimming, while the plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentration decreased significantly. A trend to increased plasma IL-6 levels was observed in sedentary animals on a safflower oil diet compared to those on a lard diet. These results suggest that dietary safflower oil improves the swimming endurance of aged mice to a greater extent than lard, and that this effect appears to involve glycogen sparing through increased fatty acid utilization. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. The Mechanism by Which Safflower Yellow Decreases Body Fat Mass and Improves Insulin Sensitivity in HFD-induced Obese Mice

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    Huijuan eZhu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesSafflower yellow (SY is the main effective ingredient of Carthamus tinctorius L. It has been reported that SY plays an important role in anti-inflammation, anti-platelet aggregation and inhibiting thrombus formation. In present study, we try to investigate the effects of SY on body weight, body fat mass, insulin sensitivity in high fat diet (HFD-induced obese mice. MethodsHFD-induced obese male ICR mice were intraperitoneally injected with SY (120 mg kg-1 daily. Eight weeks later, intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test (IPITT and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT were performed, and body weight, body fat mass, serum insulin levels were measured. The expression of glucose and lipid metabolic related genes in white adipose tissue (WAT were determined by RT-qPCR and western blot technologies.ResultsThe administration obese mice with SY significantly reduced the body fat mass of HFD-induced obese mice (P<0.05. IPITT test showed that the insulin sensitivity of SY treated obese mice were evidently improved. The mRNA levels of insulin signaling pathway related genes including insulin receptor substrate 1(IRS1, PKB protein kinase (AKT, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β and forkhead box protein O1(FOXO1 in mesenteric WAT of SY treated mice were significantly increased to 1.9, 2.8, 3.3 and 5.9 folds of that in HFD-induced control obese mice, respectively (P<0.05. The protein levels of AKT and GSK3β were also significantly increased to 3.0 and 5.2 folds of that in HFD-induced control obese mice, respectively (P<0.05. Meanwhile, both the mRNA and protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorgamma coactivator 1α (PGC1α in inguinal subcutaneous WAT of SY group were notably increased to 2.5 and 3.0 folds of that in HFD-induced control obese mice (P<0.05.ConclusionsSY significantly reduce the body fat mass, fasting blood glucose and increase insulin sensitivity of HFD-induced obese mice. The possible mechanism is to

  16. Effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid connecting phospholipids on the lipid peroxidation of the brain in mice.

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    Hiratsuka, Seiichi; Ishihara, Kenji; Kitagawa, Tomoko; Wada, Shun; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko

    2008-12-01

    The effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) with two lipid types on lipid peroxidation of the brain was investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Each group of female Balb/c mice was fed a diet containing DHA-connecting phospholipids (DHA-PL) or DHA-connecting triacylglycerols (DHA-TG) for 5 wk. Safflower oil was fed as the control. The lipid peroxide level of the brain was significantly lower in the mice fed the DHA-PL diet when compared to those fed the DHA-TG and safflower oil diets, while the alpha-tocopherol level was significantly higher in the mice fed the DHA-PL diet than in those fed the DHA-TG and safflower oil diets. The DHA level of phosphatidylethanolamine in the brain was significantly higher in the mice fed the DHA-PL diet than in those fed the safflower oil diet. The dimethylacetal levels were significantly higher in the mice fed the DHA-PL diet than in those fed the safflower oil and DHA-TG diets. These results suggest that the dietary DHA-connecting phospholipids have an antioxidant activity on the brain lipids in mice, and the effect may be related to the brain plasmalogen.

  17. Iron utilization and liver mineral concentrations in rats fed safflower oil, flaxseed oil, olive oil, or beef tallow in combination with different concentrations of dietary iron.

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    Shotton, Andrea D; Droke, Elizabeth A

    2004-03-01

    Diets with a higher proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (i.e., linoleic acid) have decreased iron absorption and utilization compared with diets containing a higher proportion of the saturated fatty acid stearic acid (e.g., beef tallow). However, less is known regarding the influence of other polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fatty acids, along with higher dietary iron, on iron absorption and utilization. The present study was conducted to compare the effects of dietary fat sources known to vary in (n-3), (n-6), and (n-9) fatty acids on iron utilization and liver mineral concentrations. Male weanling rats were fed a diet containing 10, 35, or 100 microg/g iron in combination with safflower oil, flaxseed oil, olive oil, or beef tallow for 8 wk. Indicators of iron status, iron utilization, and liver iron concentrations were unaffected by an interaction between the fat source and iron concentration. Plasma copper was the only variable affected by an interaction between the fat source and dietary iron. Findings of this study demonstrate that flaxseed oil and olive oil may alter tissue minerals and affect iron utilization. Further studies should be conducted to establish the effect of varying (n-3), (n-6), and (n-9) fatty acids on trace mineral status and iron utilization.

  18. Growing Safflower in Utah

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    Pace, M. G.; Israelsen, C. E.; Creech, E.; Allen, N.

    2015-01-01

    This fact sheet provides information on growing safflower in Utah. It has become popular on dryland farms in rotation with winter wheat. Safflower seed provides three products, oil, meal, and birdseed.

  19. Site and extent of digestion, duodenal flow, and intestinal disappearance of total and esterified fatty acids in sheep fed a high-concentrate diet supplemented with high-linoleate safflower oil.

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    Atkinson, R L; Scholljegerdes, E J; Lake, S L; Nayigihugu, V; Hess, B W; Rule, D C

    2006-02-01

    Our objective was to determine duodenal and ileal flows of total and esterified fatty acids and to determine ruminal fermentation characteristics and site and extent of nutrient digestion in sheep fed an 80% concentrate diet supplemented with high-linoleate (77%) safflower oil at 0, 3, 6, and 9% of DM. Oil was infused intraruminally along with an isonitrogenous basal diet (fed at 2% of BW) that contained bromegrass hay, cracked corn, corn gluten meal, urea, and limestone. Four crossbred wethers (BW = 44.3 +/- 15.7 kg) fitted with ruminal, duodenal, and ileal cannulas were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment, in which 14 d of dietary adaptation were followed by 4 d of duodenal, ileal, and ruminal sampling. Fatty acid intake increased (linear, P = 0.004 to 0.001) with increased dietary safflower oil. Digestibilities of OM, NDF, and N were not affected (P = 0.09 to 0.65) by increased dietary safflower oil. For total fatty acids (free plus esterified) and esterified fatty acids, duodenal flow of most fatty acids, including 18:2c-9,c-12, increased (P = 0.006 to 0.05) with increased dietary oil. Within each treatment, duodenal flow of total and esterified 18:2c-9,c-12 was similar (P = 0.32), indicating that duodenal flow of this fatty acid occurred because most of it remained esterified. Duodenal flow of esterified 18:1t-11 increased (P = 0.08) with increased dietary safflower oil, indicating that reesterification of ruminal fatty acids occurred. Apparent small intestinal disappearance of most fatty acids was not affected (P = 0.19 to 0.98) by increased dietary safflower oil, but increased (P = 0.05) for 18:2c-9,c-12, which ranged from 87.0 to 97.4%, and for 18:2c-9,t-11 (P = 0.03), which ranged from 37.9% with no added oil to 99.2% with supplemental oil. For esterified fatty acids, apparent small intestinal disappearance was from 80% for 18:3c-9,c-12,c-15 at the greatest level of dietary oil up to 100% for 18:1t-11 and 18:1c-12 with 0% oil. We concluded that

  20. Studies of UCP2 transgenic and knockout mice reveal that liver UCP2 is not essential for the antiobesity effects of fish oil.

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    Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Sano, Kayo; Shozawa, Chikako; Osaka, Toshimasa; Ezaki, Osamu

    2008-03-01

    Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) is a possible target molecule for energy dissipation. Many dietary fats, including safflower oil and lard, induce obesity in C57BL/6 mice, whereas fish oil does not. Fish oil increases UCP2 expression in hepatocytes and may enhance UCP2 activity by activating the UCP2 molecule or altering the lipid bilayer environment. To examine the role of liver UCP2 in obesity, we created transgenic mice that overexpressed human UCP2 in hepatocytes and examined whether UCP2 transgenic mice showed less obesity when fed a high-fat diet (safflower oil or lard). In addition, we examined whether fish oil had antiobesity effects in UCP2 knockout mice. UCP2 transgenic and wild-type mice fed a high-fat diet (safflower oil or lard) developed obesity to a similar degree. UCP2 knockout and wild-type mice fed fish oil had lower rates of obesity than mice fed safflower oil. Remarkably, safflower oil did not induce obesity in female UCP2 knockout mice, an unexpected phenotype for which we presently have no explanation. However, this unexpected effect was not observed in male UCP2 knockout mice or in UCP2 knockout mice fed a high-lard diet. These data indicate that liver UCP2 is not essential for fish oil-induced decreases in body fat.

  1. Comparison of growth, serum biochemistries and n–6 fatty acid metabolism in rats fed diets supplemented with high-gamma-linolenic acid safflower oil or borage oil for 90 days

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    Tso, Patrick; Caldwell, Jody; Lee, Dana; Boivin, Gregory P.; DeMichele, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, steps have been taken to further developments toward increasing gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) concentration and lowering costs in plant seed oils using transgenic technology. Through identification and expression of a fungal delta-6 desaturase gene in the high linoleic acid safflower plant, the seeds from this genetic transformation produce oil with >40% GLA (high GLA safflower oil (HGSO)). The aim of the study was to compare the effects of feeding HGSO to a generally recognized as safe source of GLA, borage oil, in a 90 day safety study in rats. Weanling male and female Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a semi-synthetic, fat free, pelleted diet (AIN93G) supplemented with a 10% (wt/wt) oil blend containing HGSO or borage oil, with equivalent GLA levels. Results demonstrated that feeding diets containing HGSO or borage oil for 90 days had similar biologic effects with regard to growth characteristics, body composition, behavior, organ weight and histology, and parameters of hematology and serum biochemistries in both sexes. Metabolism of the primary n–6 fatty acids in plasma and organ phospholipids was similar, despite minor changes in females. We conclude that HGSO is biologically equivalent to borage oil and provides a safe alternative source of GLA in the diet. PMID:22265940

  2. Comparison of growth, serum biochemistries and n-6 fatty acid metabolism in rats fed diets supplemented with high-gamma-linolenic acid safflower oil or borage oil for 90 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Patrick; Caldwell, Jody; Lee, Dana; Boivin, Gregory P; DeMichele, Stephen J

    2012-06-01

    Recently, steps have been taken to further developments toward increasing gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) concentration and lowering costs in plant seed oils using transgenic technology. Through identification and expression of a fungal delta-6 desaturase gene in the high linoleic acid safflower plant, the seeds from this genetic transformation produce oil with >40% GLA (high GLA safflower oil (HGSO)). The aim of the study was to compare the effects of feeding HGSO to a generally recognized as safe source of GLA, borage oil, in a 90 day safety study in rats. Weanling male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a semi-synthetic, fat free, pelleted diet (AIN93G) supplemented with a 10% (wt/wt) oil blend containing HGSO or borage oil, with equivalent GLA levels. Results demonstrated that feeding diets containing HGSO or borage oil for 90 days had similar biologic effects with regard to growth characteristics, body composition, behavior, organ weight and histology, and parameters of hematology and serum biochemistries in both sexes. Metabolism of the primary n-6 fatty acids in plasma and organ phospholipids was similar, despite minor changes in females. We conclude that HGSO is biologically equivalent to borage oil and provides a safe alternative source of GLA in the diet. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Antigenic specificity of serum antibodies in mice fed soy protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Risager; Bruun, S.W.; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    Background: Soybean protein is used in a number of food products but unfortunately is also a common cause of food allergy. Upon ingestion of soy protein, healthy mice like other animals and humans generate a soy-specific antibody response in the absence of signs of illness. Not much is known about...... the relationship between the immunogenic proteins involved in this nondeleterious antibody response and the pathological response associated with food allergy. The objective of the present study was to characterize the antigenic specificity of the soy protein-specific antibody response generated in healthy mice...... ingesting soy protein. Methods: Blood from mice fed a soy-containing diet was analyzed using ELISA and immunoblot for antibody reactivity towards various soy protein fractions and pure soy proteins/subunits. Mice bred on a soy-free diet were used as controls. Results: The detectable antigenic specificity...

  4. Hypocholesterolemic impact of newly isolated sophorolipids produced by microbial conversion of safflower oil cake in rats fed high-fat and cholesterol diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nooman, M.U.; Mahmoud, M.H.; Al-kashef, A.S.; Rashad, M. M.

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to produce low cost sophorolipids, and to evaluate their potential hypocholesterolemic impact. Sophorolipids were produced by Candida bombicola grown on safflower oil cake, extracted by methanol followed by ethyl acetate with a yield of 24.4 and 48.3 g·100 g−1 mixed substrate, respectively. Their structure was confirmed by FTIR and 1H NMR and proven to be safe when subjected to an acute toxicity test. A biological experiment was done on 42 male albino rats classified into six groups for 4 weeks following an induction period for hypercholesterolemia of 8 weeks. The two extracts and their mixture were examined for their hypocholesterolemic effect compared to rosuvastatin. The results revealed a reduction in total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, liver transaminases’ activity and malondialdehyde. They also revealed an elevation in high density lipoprotein cholesterol and antioxidant enzymes which was more efficient than rosuvastatin. Histopathological examination confirmed these results. In conclusion, the newly isolated sophorolipids are powerful hypocholesterolemic compounds which are even more efficient and safer than rosuvastatin. [es

  5. Hypocholesterolemic impact of newly isolated sophorolipids produced by microbial conversion of safflower oil cake in rats fed high-fat and cholesterol diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. U. Nooman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to produce low cost sophorolipids, and to evaluate their potential hypocholesterolemic impact. Sophorolipids were produced by Candida bombicola grown on safflower oil cake, extracted by methanol followed by ethyl acetate with a yield of 24.4 and 48.3 g·100 g-1 mixed substrate, respectively. Their structure was confirmed by FTIR and 1H NMR and proven to be safe when subjected to an acute toxicity test. A biological experiment was done on 42 male albino rats classified into six groups for 4 weeks following an induction period for hypercholesterolemia of 8 weeks. The two extracts and their mixture were examined for their hypocholesterolemic effect compared to rosuvastatin. The results revealed a reduction in total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, liver transaminases’ activity and malondialdehyde. They also revealed an elevation in high density lipoprotein cholesterol and antioxidant enzymes which was more efficient than rosuvastatin. Histopathological examination confirmed these results. In conclusion, the newly isolated sophorolipids are powerful hypocholesterolemic compounds which are even more efficient and safer than rosuvastatin.

  6. Effect of inulin supplementation in male mice fed with high fat diet on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the preventive and therapeutic effects of inulin supplementation in Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) male mice fed with high fat diet. Methods: NMRI male mice (n = 36) were divided into three groups. Control (C1), obese (O1) and experimental mice (E1) were fed during 8 weeks as follows: C1 ...

  7. Reduced fat mass in rats fed a high oleic acid-rich safflower oil diet is associated with changes in expression of hepatic PPARalpha and adipose SREBP-1c-regulated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shan-Ching; Huang, Ching-Jang

    2006-07-01

    PPARs and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREPB-1c) are fatty acid-regulated transcription factors that control lipid metabolism at the level of gene expression. This study compared a high oleic acid-rich safflower oil (ORSO) diet and a high-butter diet for their effect on adipose mass and expressions of genes regulated by PPAR and SREPB-1c in rats. Four groups of Wistar rats were fed 30S (30% ORSO), 5S (5% ORSO), 30B (29% butter + 1% ORSO), or 5B (4% butter plus 1% ORSO) diets for 15 wk. Compared with the 30B group, the 30S group had less retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (RWAT) mass and lower mRNA expressions of lipoprotein lipase, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, fatty acid synthase, acetyl CoA carboxylase, and SREBP-1c in the RWAT, higher mRNA expressions of acyl CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1A, fatty acid binding protein, and mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase in the liver (P 2 fold those of the 30B group (P < 0.05). These results suggested that the smaller RWAT mass in rats fed the high-ORSO diet might be related to the higher tissue 18:2(n-6) and 20:4(n-6). This in turn could upregulate the expressions of fatty acid catabolic genes through the activation of PPARalpha in the liver and downregulate the expressions of lipid storage and lipogenic gene through the suppression of SREBP-1c in the RWAT.

  8. Gastrointestinal absorption and retention of neptunium by fasted and fed mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.P.; Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Oldham, R.D.; Moretti, E.S.

    1982-01-01

    The retention of neptunium in liver and bone subsequent to its gastrointestinal absorption has been determined in both fasted and fed mice. The values obtained for fractional retention were 3 x 10 - 3 and 1 x 10 - 4 , respectively, and are within a factor of two the same as those for plutonium in fasted and fed mice

  9. Micronucleus test in mice fed on irradiated whole diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, P.P.; Reddi, O.S.; Pentiah, P.R.; Rani, M.V.U.; Devi, K.R.; Goud, S.N.

    1981-01-01

    Eight week old Swiss albino male mice were fed on freshly irradiated or unirradiated whole diet for one week. (Exposure was to 75 or 200 kR γ rays from a 1000 Ci 60 Co γ source at a dose rate of 584 R/min.) On the seventh day, six hours after feeding, the mice were killed and bone marrow preparations were made by the Schmid technique. From each group three animals were taken and from each animal 2000 polychromatic and normochromatic erythrocytes were scored. It was evident from the data obtained that the irradiated whole diet failed to induce any significant increase in the incidence of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes. Similarly, there was no significant increase in the frequency of micronuclei in normochromatic erythrocytes when compared with control data. The polychromatic to normochromatic ratio was also unaffected. The diet consisted of wheat flour (60%). groundnut cake (20%), fish meal (8%), Bengal gram flour (8%), dried yeast (3%), salt/mineral mixture (1%) and traces of vitamins. (U.K.)

  10. Study of safflower on blood lactate concentration and exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2011-08-17

    Aug 17, 2011 ... Effects of safflower extracts on anti-fatigue and exercise function of mice were studied in this paper. ... in the low-dose group was significantly longer (p < 0.05) when ... and humidity (50 ± 2%), and with a 12-h light–dark cycle.

  11. Mutagenicity assayed by dominant lethality testing in mice fed a combined gamma-irradiated diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupova, I.; Katsarova, Ts.; Bajrakova, A.; Baev, I.; Tencheva, S.

    1980-01-01

    Mice fed a combined gamma-irradiated diet were examined for a mutagenic effect using the dominant lethality test. Their feed contained the following irradiated ingredients: 20% maize, 10% dried plums, and 5% walnut kernels. Taking into account cycle duration in spermatogenesis and oogenesis, males were fed this special diet throughout 56 days, and females throughout 21 days. The experiments involved three animal groups: (1) fed the special diet containing irradiated ingredients; (2) fed the special diet but with the ingredients nonirradiated; and (3) fed standard vivarium diet. Matings to provide the first generation were between one parent fed the special diet and a partner fed standard diet. With an adequate number of implants examined on day 16 of gestation, embryonic death rate was not found to be increased; hence, induction of dominant lethality from consumption of irradiated diet failed to be demonstrated

  12. A safflower oil based high-fat/high-sucrose diet modulates the gut microbiota and liver phospholipid profiles associated with early glucose intolerance in the absence of tissue inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danneskiold-Samsøe, Niels Banhos; Andersen, Daniel; Radulescu, Ilinca Daria; Normann-Hansen, Ann; Brejnrod, Asker; Kragh, Marie; Madsen, Tobias; Nielsen, Christian; Josefsen, Knud; Fretté, Xavier; Fjaere, Even; Madsen, Lise; Hellgren, Lars I; Brix, Susanne; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2017-05-01

    Omega-6 (n-6) PUFA-rich diets are generally considered obesogenic in rodents. Here, we examined how long-term intake of a high-fat/high-sucrose (HF/HS) diet based on safflower oil affected metabolism, inflammation, and gut microbiota composition. We fed male C57BL/6J mice a HF/HS diet based on safflower oil-rich in n-6 PUFAs-or a low-fat/low-sucrose diet for 40 wk. Compared to the low-fat/low-sucrose diet, intake of the safflower-based HF/HS diet only led to moderate weight gain, while glucose intolerance developed at week 5 prior to signs of inflammation, but concurrent with increased levels of linoleic acid and arachidonic acid in hepatic phospholipids. Intake of the HF/HS diet resulted in early changes in the gut microbiota, including an increased abundance of Blautia, while late changes coincided with altered inflammatory profiles and increased fasting plasma insulin. Analysis of immune cells in visceral fat and liver revealed no differences between diets before week 40, where the number of immune cells decreased in the liver of HF/HS-fed mice. We suggest that a diet-dependent increase in the n-6 to omega-3 (n-3) PUFA ratio in hepatic phospholipids together with gut microbiota changes contributed to early development of glucose intolerance without signs of inflammation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Dietary fish oil, and to a lesser extent the fat-1 transgene, increases astrocyte activation in response to intracerebroventricular amyloid-β 1-40 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopperton, Kathryn E; James, Nicholas C E; Mohammad, Dana; Irfan, Maha; Bazinet, Richard P

    2017-11-07

    Increases in astrocytes and one of their markers, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) have been reported in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) modulate neuroinflammation in animal models; however, their effect on astrocytes is unclear. Fat-1 mice and their wildtype littermates were fed either a fish oil diet or a safflower oil diet deprived of n-3 PUFA. At 12 weeks, mice underwent intracerebroventricular infusion of amyloid-β 1-40. Astrocyte phenotype in the hippocampus was assessed at baseline and 10 days post-surgery using immunohistochemistry with various microscopy and image analysis techniques. GFAP increased in all groups in response to amyloid-β, with a greater increase in fish oil-fed mice than either fat-1 or wildtype safflower oil-fed mice. Astrocytes in this group were also more hypertrophic, suggesting increased activation. Both fat-1- and fish oil-fed mice had greater increases in branch number and length in response to amyloid-β infusion than wildtype safflower animals. Fish oil feeding, and to a lesser extent the fat-1 transgene, enhances the astrocyte activation phenotype in response to amyloid-β 1-40. Astrocytes in mice fed fish oil were more activated in response to amyloid-β than in fat-1 mice despite similar levels of hippocampal n-3 PUFA, which suggests that other fatty acids or dietary factors contribute to this effect.

  14. Migration Of Ancylostoma caninum Larvae Into Lungs Of Mice Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two randomly selected groups of Swiss Albino Wistar mice were therefore infected with 1000 infective larvae of Ancylostoma caninum/mouse. Test mice received 250mg Allium sativum/kg body weight daily ... KEY WORDS: Allium sativum, lungs, Ancylostoma caninum. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences Vol.11(2) ...

  15. Reversibility of hepatocyte nuclear modifications in mice fed on genetically modified soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Malatesta

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the literature, the reports on the effects of a genetically modified (GM diet are scanty and heterogeneous; in particular, no direct evidence has so far been reported that GM food may affect human or animal health. Hepatocytes represent a suitable model for monitoring the effects of a GM diet, the liver potentially being a primary target. In a previous study, we demonstrated that some modifications occur in hepatocyte nuclei of mice fed on GM soybean. In order to elucidate whether such modifications can be reversed, in the present study, 3 months old mice fed on GM soybean since their weaning were submitted to a diet containing wild type soybean only, for one month. In parallel, to investigate the influence of GM soybean on adult individuals, mice fed on wild type soybean were changed to a GM diet, for the same time. Using immunoelectron microscopy, we demonstrated that a one-month diet reversion can influence some nuclear features in adult mice, restoring typical characteristics of controls in GM-fed animals, and inducing in control mice modifications similar to those observed in animals fed on GM soybean from weaning. This suggests that the modifications related to GM soybean are potentially reversible, but also that some modifications are inducible in adult organisms in a short time.

  16. Dominant lethal mutations in male mice fed γ-irradiated diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, P.S.; Aravindakshan, M.; Aiyer, A.S.; Sundaram, K.

    1975-01-01

    Three groups of Swiss male mice were fed a stock ration of an unirradiated or irradiated (2.5 Mrad) test diet for 8 wk. After the feeding period, the males were mated with groups of untreated female mice for 4 consecutive weeks. The females were autopsied at mid-term pregnancy for evaluation of dominant lethal mutations. Numbers of dead implantations, including deciduomas and dead embryos, showed no significant differences among the different groups, thus producing no evidence of any induced post-implantation lethality in mice fed on irradiated diet. Similarly, there was no indication of preimplantation lethality, since implantation rates remained comparable among different groups. Consumption of irradiated diet did not affect the fertility of mice. Total pre- and post-implantation loss, as indicated by the numbers of live implantations remained comparable among all the groups of mice. (author)

  17. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would...... be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota...

  18. Effects of Diets Differing in Composition of 18-C Fatty Acids on Adipose Tissue Thermogenic Gene Expression in Mice Fed High-Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunhye Shin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fatty acids play important roles in the regulation of fat accumulation or metabolic phenotype of adipocytes, either as brown or beige fat. However, a systematic comparison of effects of diets with different composition of 18-C fatty acids on browning/beiging phenotype has not been done. In this study, we compared the effects of different dietary fats, rich in specific 18-carbon fatty acids, on thermogenesis and lipid metabolism. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet containing 5.6% kcal fat from lard and 4.4% kcal fat from soybean oil (CON or high-fat diets (HFD containing 25% kcal from lard and 20% kcal fat from shea butter (stearic acid-rich fat; SHB, olive oil (oleic acid-rich oil; OO, safflower oil (linoleic acid-rich oil; SFO, or soybean oil (mixed oleic, linoleic, and α-linolenic acids; SBO ad libitum for 12 weeks, with or without a terminal 4-h norepinephrine (NE treatment. When compared to SHB, feeding OO, SFO, and SBO resulted in lower body weight gain. The OO fed group had the highest thermogenesis level, which resulted in lower body fat accumulation and improved glucose and lipid metabolism. Feeding SFO downregulated expression of lipid oxidation-related genes and upregulated expression of lipogenic genes, perhaps due to its high n-6:n-3 ratio. In general, HFD-feeding downregulated Ucp1 expression in both subcutaneous and epididymal white adipose tissue, and suppressed NE-induced Pgc1a expression in brown adipose tissue. These results suggest that the position of double bonds in dietary fatty acids, as well as the quantity of dietary fat, may have a significant effect on the regulation of oxidative and thermogenic conditions in vivo.

  19. FEDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venable, John; Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of design artefacts and design theories is a key activity in Design Science Research (DSR), as it provides feedback for further development and (if done correctly) assures the rigour of the research. However, the extant DSR literature provides insufficient guidance on evaluation...... to enable Design Science Researchers to effectively design and incorporate evaluation activities into a DSR project that can achieve DSR goals and objectives. To address this research gap, this research paper develops, explicates, and provides evidence for the utility of a Framework for Evaluation in Design...... Science (FEDS) together with a process to guide design science researchers in developing a strategy for evaluating the artefacts they develop within a DSR project. A FEDS strategy considers why, when, how, and what to evaluate. FEDS includes a two-dimensional characterisation of DSR evaluation episodes...

  20. Diet-induced obesity alters protein synthesis: Tissue-specific effects in fasted vs. fed mice

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Stephanie R.; Gilge, Danielle A.; Steiber, Alison L.; Previs, Stephen F.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of obesity on protein dynamics is not clearly understood. We have designed experiments to test the hypothesis that obesity impairs the stimulation of tissue-specific protein synthesis following nutrient ingestion. C57BL/6J mice were randomized into two groups: group 1 (control, n = 16) were fed a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet and group 2 (experimental, n = 16) were fed a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet ad libitum for 9 weeks. On the experiment day, all mice were fasted for 6 h...

  1. Amiloride Improves Endothelial Function and Reduces Vascular Stiffness in Female Mice Fed a Western Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Martinez-Lemus

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Obese premenopausal women lose their sex related cardiovascular disease protection and develop greater arterial stiffening than age matched men. In female mice, we have shown that consumption of a Western diet (WD, high in fat and refined sugars, is associated with endothelial dysfunction and vascular stiffening, which occur via activation of mineralocorticoid receptors and associated increases in epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC activity on endothelial cells (EnNaC. Herein our aim was to determine the effect that reducing EnNaC activity with a very-low-dose of amiloride would have on decreasing endothelial and arterial stiffness in young female mice consuming a WD. To this end, we fed female mice either a WD or control diet and treated them with or without a very-low-dose of the ENaC-inhibitor amiloride (1 mg/kg/day in the drinking water for 20 weeks beginning at 4 weeks of age. Mice consuming a WD were heavier and had greater percent body fat, proteinuria, and aortic stiffness as assessed by pulse-wave velocity than those fed control diet. Treatment with amiloride did not affect body weight, body composition, blood pressure, urinary sodium excretion, or insulin sensitivity, but significantly reduced the development of endothelial and aortic stiffness, aortic fibrosis, aortic oxidative stress, and mesenteric resistance artery EnNaC abundance and proteinuria in WD-fed mice. Amiloride also improved endothelial-dependent vasodilatory responses in the resistance arteries of WD-fed mice. These results indicate that a very-low-dose of amiloride, not affecting blood pressure, is sufficient to improve endothelial function and reduce aortic stiffness in female mice fed a WD, and suggest that EnNaC-inhibition may be sufficient to ameliorate the pathological vascular stiffening effects of WD-induced obesity in females.

  2. Niacin increases adiponectin and decreases adipose tissue inflammation in high fat diet-fed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiree Wanders

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of niacin on adiponectin and markers of adipose tissue inflammation in a mouse model of obesity.Male C57BL/6 mice were placed on a control or high-fat diet (HFD and were maintained on such diets for the duration of the study. After 6 weeks on the control or high fat diets, vehicle or niacin treatments were initiated and maintained for 5 weeks. Identical studies were conducted concurrently in HCA2 (-/- (niacin receptor(-/- mice.Niacin increased serum concentrations of the anti-inflammatory adipokine, adiponectin by 21% in HFD-fed wild-type mice, but had no effect on lean wild-type or lean or HFD-fed HCA2 (-/- mice. Niacin increased adiponectin gene and protein expression in the HFD-fed wild-type mice only. The increases in adiponectin serum concentrations, gene and protein expression occurred independently of changes in expression of PPARγ C/EBPα or SREBP-1c (key transcription factors known to positively regulate adiponectin gene transcription in the adipose tissue. Further, niacin had no effect on adipose tissue expression of ERp44, Ero1-Lα, or DsbA-L (key ER chaperones involved in adiponectin production and secretion. However, niacin treatment attenuated HFD-induced increases in adipose tissue gene expression of MCP-1 and IL-1β in the wild-type HFD-fed mice. Niacin also reduced the expression of the pro-inflammatory M1 macrophage marker CD11c in HFD-fed wild-type mice.Niacin treatment attenuates obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation through increased adiponectin and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in a niacin receptor-dependent manner.

  3. Relative efficacy of casein or soya protein combined with palm or safflower-seed oil on hyperuricaemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hui-Chen; Wang, Yao-Horng; Chiou, Hue-Ying; Lai, Shan-Hu; Yang, Yu

    2010-07-01

    Diets that ameliorate the adverse effects of uric acid (UA) on renal damage deserve attention. The effects of casein or soya protein combined with palm or safflower-seed oil on various serum parameters and renal histology were investigated on hyperuricaemic rats. Male Wistar rats administered with oxonic acid and UA to induce hyperuricaemia were fed with casein or soya protein plus palm- or safflower-seed oil-supplemented diets. Normal rats and hyperuricaemic rats with or without allopurinol treatment (150 mg/l in drinking water) were fed with casein plus maize oil-supplemented diets. After 8 weeks, allopurinol treatment and soya protein plus safflower-seed oil-supplemented diet significantly decreased serum UA in hyperuricaemic rats (one-way ANOVA; P soya protein and casein attenuated hyperuricaemia-induced decreases in serum albumin and insulin, respectively (two-way ANOVA; P soya protein significantly decreased renal NO and nitrotyrosine and palm oil significantly decreased renal nitrotyrosine, TNF-alpha and interferon-gamma and increased renal transforming growth factor-beta. Casein with safflower-seed oil significantly attenuated renal tubulointerstitial nephritis, crystals and fibrosis. Comparing casein v. soya protein combined with palm or safflower-seed oil, the results support that casein with safflower-seed oil may be effective in attenuating hyperuricaemia-associated renal damage, while soya protein with safflower-seed oil may be beneficial in lowering serum UA and TAG.

  4. Fish oil prevents excessive accumulation of subcutaneous fat caused by an adverse effect of pioglitazone treatment and positively changes adipocytes in KK mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzuru Iizuka

    Full Text Available Pioglitazone, a thiazolidinedione (TZD, is widely used as an insulin sensitizer in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, body weight gain is frequently observed in TZD-treated patients. Fish oil improves lipid metabolism dysfunction and obesity. In this study, we demonstrated suppression of body weight gain in response to pioglitazone administration by combination therapy of pioglitazone and fish oil in type 2 diabetic KK mice. Male KK mice were fed experimental diets for 8 weeks. In safflower oil (SO, safflower oil/low-dose pioglitazone (S/PL, and safflower oil/high-dose pioglitazone (S/PH diets, 20% of calories were provided by safflower oil containing 0%, 0.006%, or 0.012% (wt/wt pioglitazone, respectively. In fish oil (FO, fish oil/low-dose pioglitazone (F/PL, and fish oil/high-dose pioglitazone (F/PH diets, 20% of calories were provided by a mixture of fish oil and safflower oil. Increased body weight and subcutaneous fat mass were observed in the S/PL and S/PH groups; however, diets containing fish oil were found to ameliorate these changes. Hepatic mRNA levels of lipogenic enzymes were significantly decreased in fish oil-fed groups. These findings demonstrate that the combination of pioglitazone and fish oil decreases subcutaneous fat accumulation, ameliorating pioglitazone-induced body weight gain, through fish oil-mediated inhibition of hepatic de novo lipogenesis. Keywords: Fish oil, Pioglitazone, Adverse effect

  5. Enhanced depletion of glutathione and increased liver oxidative damage in aflatoxin-fed mice infected with Plasmodium berghei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankrah, N A; Sittie, A; Addo, P G

    1995-01-01

    levels accompanied by a significant increase in serum cholinesterase and liver malonic dialdehyde levels in the mice fed aflatoxin compared with those in the control group. The results suggested that malaria parasites can enhance depletion of host glutathione and oxidative damage of the liver in mice fed...

  6. Fish oil concentrate delays sensitivity to thermal nociception in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veigas, Jyothi M.; Williams, Paul J.; Halade, Ganesh; Rahman, Mizanur M.; Yoneda, Toshiyuki; Fernandes, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Fish oil has been used to alleviate pain associated with inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. The anti-inflammatory property of fish oil is attributed to the n-3 fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. Contrarily, vegetable oils such as safflower oil are rich in n-6 fatty acids which are considered to be mediators of inflammation. This study investigates the effect of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids rich oils as dietary supplements on the thermally induced pain sensitivity in healthy mice. C57Bl/6J mice were fed diet containing regular fish oil, concentrated fish oil formulation (CFO) and safflower oil (SO) for 6 months. Pain sensitivity was measured by plantar test and was correlated to the expression of acid sensing ion channels (ASICs), transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) and c-fos in dorsal root ganglion cells. Significant delay in sensitivity to thermal nociception was observed in mice fed CFO compared to mice fed SO (p<0.05). A significant diminution in expression of ion channels such as ASIC1a (64%), ASIC13 (37%) and TRPV1 (56%) coupled with reduced expression of c-fos, a marker of neuronal activation, was observed in the dorsal root ganglion cells of mice fed CFO compared to that fed SO. In conclusion, we describe here the potential of fish oil supplement in reducing sensitivity to thermal nociception in normal mice. PMID:21345372

  7. Dominant lethal mutations research in mice fed with irradiated black beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Z.P.

    1982-01-01

    To evaluate the potential mutagenic effects of irradiated black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) with conservation purpose, in germ cells of mice, dominant lethal assay were employed. Three groups of albino swiss male mice (S W-55) were fed with a normal ration, or unirradiated or irradiated (0,2; 0,5; 1; 5; 10; 15 e 20 KGy) test diets for eight weeks. After the feeding period the males were mated with groups of untreated females mice for four consecutive weeks. Numbers of pregnancy rates females were observed. The females were autopsied at mid-term pregnancy for evaluation of dominant lethal mutations. (author)

  8. Safflower oil: an integrated assessment of phytochemistry, antiulcerogenic activity, and rodent and environmental toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walber Toma

    Full Text Available Gastric ulcers are a significant medical problem and the development of complications lead to significant mortality rates worldwide. In Brazil, Carthamus tinctorius L., Asteraceae, seeds essential oil, the safflower oil, is currently used as a thermogenic compound and as treatment for problems related to the cardiovascular system. In this study, by Raman spectroscopy, it was shown that oleic and linoleic acids are the compounds present in higher concentrations in the safflower oil. We demonstrated that safflower oil (750 mg/kg, p.o. decrease the ulcerogenic lesions in mice after the administration of hydrochloric acid-ethanol. The gastric ulcers induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID in mice treated with cholinomimetics were treated with four different doses of safflower oil, of which, the dose of 187.5 mg/kg (p.o. showed significant antiulcerogenic properties (**p < 0.01. Moreover, the safflower oil at doses of 187.5 mg/kg (i.d. increased the pH levels, gastric volume (**p < 0.01 and gastric mucus production (***p < 0.001, and decreased the total gastric acid secretion (***p < 0.001. The acute toxicity tests showed that safflower oil (5.000 mg/kg, p.o. had no effect on mortality or any other physiological parameter. Ecotoxicological tests performed using Daphnia similis showed an EC50 at 223.17 mg/l, and therefore safflower oil can be considered “non-toxic” based on the directive 93/67/EEC on risk assessment for new notified substances by European legislation. These results indicate that the antiulcer activity of Safflower oil may be due to cytoprotective effects, which serve as support for new scientific studies related to this pathology.

  9. A novel mice model of metabolic syndrome: the high-fat-high-fructose diet-fed ICR mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuhua, Zhang; Zhiquan, Wang; Zhen, Yang; Yixin, Niu; Weiwei, Zhang; Xiaoyong, Li; Yueming, Liu; Hongmei, Zhang; Li, Qin; Qing, Su

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the metabolic syndrome (MS) is occurring at growing rates worldwide, raising extensive concerns on the mechanisms and therapeutic interventions for this disorder. Herein, we described a novel method of establishing MS model in rodents. Male Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were fed with high-fat-high-fructose (HFHF) diet or normal chow (NC) respectively for 12 weeks. Metabolic phenotypes were assessed by glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Blood pressure was measured by a tail-cuff system. At the end of the experiment, mice were sacrificed, and blood and tissues were harvested for subsequent analysis. Serum insulin levels were measured by ELISA, and lipid profiles were determined biochemically. The HFHF diet-fed ICR mice exhibited obvious characteristics of the components of MS, including obvious obesity, severe insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, dislipidemia, significant hypertension and hyperuricemia. Our data suggest that HFHF diet-fed ICR mice may be a robust and efficient animal model that could well mimic the basic pathogenesis of human MS. PMID:26134356

  10. A novel mice model of metabolic syndrome: the high-fat-high-fructose diet-fed ICR mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuhua, Zhang; Zhiquan, Wang; Zhen, Yang; Yixin, Niu; Weiwei, Zhang; Xiaoyong, Li; Yueming, Liu; Hongmei, Zhang; Li, Qin; Qing, Su

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the metabolic syndrome (MS) is occurring at growing rates worldwide, raising extensive concerns on the mechanisms and therapeutic interventions for this disorder. Herein, we described a novel method of establishing MS model in rodents. Male Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were fed with high-fat-high-fructose (HFHF) diet or normal chow (NC) respectively for 12 weeks. Metabolic phenotypes were assessed by glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Blood pressure was measured by a tail-cuff system. At the end of the experiment, mice were sacrificed, and blood and tissues were harvested for subsequent analysis. Serum insulin levels were measured by ELISA, and lipid profiles were determined biochemically. The HFHF diet-fed ICR mice exhibited obvious characteristics of the components of MS, including obvious obesity, severe insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, dislipidemia, significant hypertension and hyperuricemia. Our data suggest that HFHF diet-fed ICR mice may be a robust and efficient animal model that could well mimic the basic pathogenesis of human MS.

  11. Sex differences in obesity development in pair-fed neuronal lipoprotein lipase deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Compared to men, postmenopausal women suffer from a disproportionate burden of many co-morbidities associated with obesity, e.g. cardiovascular disease, cancer, and dementia. The underlying mechanism for this sex difference is not well understood but is believed to relate to absence of the protective effect of estrogen through the action of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα in the central nervous system. With the recently developed neuron-specific lipoprotein lipase deficient mice (NEXLPL−/− (Wang et al., Cell Metabolism, 2011 [15], we set to explore the possible role of lipid sensing in sex differences in obesity development. Methods: Both male and female NEXLPL−/− mice and littermate WT controls were subjected to pair feeding (pf where daily food amount given was adjusted according to body weight to match the food intake of ad libitum (ad fed control WT mice. Food intake and body weight were measured daily, and pair feeding was maintained to 42 wk in male mice and to 38 wk in female mice. Various brain regions of the mice were harvested, and ERα gene expression was examined in both male and female NEXLPL−/− and WT control mice under both ad- and pf-fed conditions. Results: Although both male and female NEXLPL−/− mice developed obesity similarly on standard chow, male NEXLPL−/− mice still developed obesity under with pair feeding, but on a much delayed time course, while female NEXLPL−/− mice were protected from extra body weight and fat mass gain compared to pair-fed WT control mice. Pair feeding alone induced extra fat mass gain in both male and female WT mice, and this was mostly driven by the reduction in physical activity. LPL deficiency resulted in an increase in ERα mRNA in the hypothalamus of ad-fed female mice, while pair feeding alone also resulted in an increase of ERα in both female WT control and NEXLPL−/− mice. The effect on increasing ERα by pair feeding and LPL deficiency was additive in

  12. Plaque formation reduction with glutathione monoester in mice fed on atherogenic diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.; Mehboobali, N.; Pervez, S.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the role of glutathione monoester on reducing the development of plaque formation in an animal model. Twenty-four Balb/c mice were divided into 3 equal groups. First group was fed on atherogenic diet alone, while the second group received atherogenic diet plus twice weekly injections of glutathione monoester. The third group was fed on normal diet for mice. After one year, the animals were sacrificed. Blood was analyzed for lipid levels, while liver, kidney, spleen, heart and aorta were removed to study morphological changes. Results: In the groups of mice receiving atherogenic diet (with and without glutathione monoesters), there was significant increase in levels of total cholesterol (p=0.011) and LDL cholesterol (p=0.001) compared to levels of these lipids in mice on normal diet. However, a significant decrease in levels of triglycerides (p=0.01) was observed in the group receiving atherogenic diet along with glutathione monoester. Supplementation with glutathione monoester had the most pronounced effect only on triglyceride levels. Atherosclerotic plaques were seen in heart and/or aorta of mice receiving atherogenic diet. However, such plaques were either totally absent or if seen in an animal, were extremely small and diffuse in the group receiving glutathione monoester along with atherogenic diet. Mice on normal diet had no evidence of any plaque formation. Cholesterol granuloma was seen in liver of mice on atherogenic diet alone. In mice receiving atherogenic diet plus glutathione monoester, no cholesterol granuloma was found in liver. There were no remarkable morphological changes in spleen and kidney in the three groups of mice. Glutathione monoester appears to inhibit or reduce the development of plaque formation in mice. (author)

  13. Dietary supplementation of chinese ginseng prevents obesity and metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxiao; Luo, Jing; Anandh Babu, Pon Velayutham; Zhang, Wei; Gilbert, Elizabeth; Cline, Mark; McMillan, Ryan; Hulver, Matthew; Alkhalidy, Hana; Zhen, Wei; Zhang, Haiyan; Liu, Dongmin

    2014-12-01

    Obesity and diabetes are growing health problems worldwide. In this study, dietary provision of Chinese ginseng (0.5 g/kg diet) prevented body weight gain in high-fat (HF) diet-fed mice. Dietary ginseng supplementation reduced body fat mass gain, improved glucose tolerance and whole body insulin sensitivity, and prevented hypertension in HF diet-induced obese mice. Ginseng consumption led to reduced concentrations of plasma insulin and leptin, but had no effect on plasma adiponectin levels in HF diet-fed mice. Body temperature was higher in mice fed the ginseng-supplemented diet but energy expenditure, respiration rate, and locomotive activity were not significantly altered. Dietary intake of ginseng increased fatty acid oxidation in the liver but not in skeletal muscle. Expression of several transcription factors associated with adipogenesis (C/EBPα and PPARγ) were decreased in the adipose tissue of HF diet-fed mice, effects that were mitigated in mice that consumed the HF diet supplemented with ginseng. Abundance of fatty acid synthase (FASN) mRNA was greater in the adipose tissue of mice that consumed the ginseng-supplemented HF diet as compared with control or un-supplemented HF diet-fed mice. Ginseng treatment had no effect on the expression of genes involved in the regulation of food intake in the hypothalamus. These data suggest that Chinese ginseng can potently prevent the development of obesity and insulin resistance in HF diet-fed mice.

  14. Long-term feeding studies in mice fed a diet containing irradiated fish. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, H.G.; Miller, T.J.; Gottschalk, H.M.; Elias, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    Three groups of mice (Fsub(2b) generation of Part I study) were fed for 90 days, either stock ration or diets containing 45% fish, either non-irradiated or irradiated with 1.75 kGy. Equal amounts of cod and redfish (ocean perch) constituted the fish portion of the diet. Haematological and clinical chemical examinations revealed no treatment-related effects. There were no untoward terminal gross or histopathological changes. An initial lag in weight gain of males fed fish diets was attibuted to reduced food consumption, due to the difference in texture of the fish diets compared with the stock ration. (Auth.)

  15. Effects of puerarin on lipid accumulation and metabolism in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Zheng

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the mechanisms by which puerarin from kudzu root extract regulates lipid metabolism, fifty mice were randomly assigned to five groups: normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD, and HFD containing 0.2%, 0.4% or 0.8% puerarin for 12 weeks. Body weight, intraperitioneal adipose tissue (IPAT weight, serum biochemical parameters, and hepatic and feces lipids were measured. Activity and mRNA and protein expressions of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes were analyzed. Compared with HFD, 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin significantly decreased body and IPAT weight. There was a significant decrease in the serum and hepatic concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides and leptin in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets compared with HFD. Fatty acid synthase activity was suppressed in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets, while the activities of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, carnitine acyltransferase (CAT and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL were increased. mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ 2 (PPARγ 2 was down-regulated in liver of mice fed the 0.8% diet compared with HFD, while mRNA expression of CAT and HSL was considerably up-regulated by 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. The protein expression of PPARγ2 in liver was decreased and those of p-AMPK, HSL and p-HSL were increased in mice fed 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. These results suggest that > 0.4% puerarin influenced the activity, mRNA and protein levels of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes, decreasing serum and liver lipids, body weight gain and fat accumulation. Puerarin might be beneficial to prevent lifestyle-related diseases.

  16. Studies in mice fed a diet containing irradiated fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Three groups of mice were observed in utero and for eighty (80) weeks thereafter to study growth, food consumption, hematology, blood chemistry and survival with particular interest in carcinogenic potential. Group I received only Purina Mouse Chow, Group II received a diet composed of 45% non-irradiated fish and 55% Purina Mouse Chow, and Group III received a diet composed of 45% gamma irradiated fish and 55% Purina Mouse Chow. Differences observed in body weights between control and fish treated diets were due to the incorporation of fish into the diet and not the results of fish being treated with gamma irradiation. Differences observed in food consumption between control and fish treated diets were due to the incorporation of fish into the diet and not the result of fish being treated with gamma irradiation. No daily observations were made which could be attributed to the treatment of fish with gamma irradiation. No observations were made at any time interval for hematology which could be attributed to the treatment of fish with gamma irradiation. No observations were made at any time interval for clinical chemistry which could be attributed to the treatment of fish with gamma irradiation. Palpable mass data did not reveal any trends which could be related to the treatment of fish with gamma irradiation. Gross observations at necropsy were limited to spontaneously occurring lesions or artifacts of necropsy technique commonly associated with animals of this species and age. Organ weight data did not reveal any trends which could be related to the treatment of fish with gamma irradiation. Pathological findings were limited to spontaneously occurring lesions or artifacts of necropsy technique commonly associated with animals of this species and age. (orig.)

  17. Colitic scid mice fed Lactobacillus spp. show an ameliorated gut histopathology and an altered cytokine profile by local T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peter Lange; Paerregaard, Anders; Gad, Monika

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Scid mice transplanted with CD4 T blast cells develop colitis. We investigated if the disease was influenced in colitic mice treated with antibiotic and fed Lactobacillus spp. METHODS: Colitic scid mice were treated for 1 week with antibiotics (vancomycin/meropenem) followed or not fo......-gamma production than mice not fed probiotics. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that probiotics added to the drinking water may ameliorate local histopathological changes and influence local cytokine levels in colitic mice but not alter the colitis-associated weight loss....

  18. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would...... be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... electrophoresis analyses of PCR-derived 16S rRNA gene (V3-region) amplicons. At the end of the study, plasma samples were collected and assayed for glucose, insulin and lipids. Whey significantly reduced body weight gain during the first four weeks of the study compared with casein (P

  19. Antigenotoxic effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the damage produced in mice fed with aflatoxin B(1) contaminated corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal-Santillán, E; Madrigal-Bujaidar, E; Márquez-Márquez, R; Reyes, A

    2006-12-01

    The potential of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc) was evaluated for reducing the micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes (MNNE) rate in mice fed AFB(1) contaminated corn. The study included two groups fed AFB(1) contaminated corn (0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg), a control fed uncontaminated corn, another group fed uncontaminated corn and 0.3% of Sc (1 x 10(8) live cells/g), and two groups fed AFB(1) contaminated corn (0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg) plus 0.3% Sc. Weight and MNNE were determined weekly for six weeks. Subsequently, the same determinations were made for another three-week period, but in mice receiving only a normal diet, without AFB(1) and Sc. Results in the first period revealed the following: control and Sc fed mice had similar constant weight increase, and low MNNE rate; mice fed only AFB(1) showed weight decrease and significant MNNE increase; finally, Sc improved weight gain and reduced MNNE produced by AFB(1). In the second period, results exhibited a tendency similar to that of the previous phase in the control and Sc fed mice; the weight and MNNE values improved in the other groups. We also determined the capacity of Sc for adsorbing and modifying the mycotoxin structure. The mixture was filtered to obtain two phases, and AFB(1) content was measured. Sc revealed a potent adsorbent capacity; however, chromatographic determination suggested no structural modification.

  20. Nrf2 deficiency improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yu-Kun Jennifer; Wu, Kai Connie; Liu, Jie; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2012-01-01

    Nrf2, a master regulator of intracellular redox homeostasis, is indicated to participate in fatty acid metabolism in liver. However, its role in diet-induced obesity remains controversial. In the current study, genetically engineered Nrf2-null, wild-type (WT), and Nrf2-activated, Keap1-knockdown (K1-KD) mice were fed either a control or a high-fat Western diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. The results indicate that the absence or enhancement of Nrf2 activity did not prevent diet-induced obesity, had limited effects on lipid metabolism, but affected blood glucose homeostasis. Whereas the Nrf2-null mice were resistant to HFD-induced glucose intolerance, the Nrf2-activated K1-KD mice exhibited prolonged elevation of circulating glucose during a glucose tolerance test even on the control diet. Feeding a HFD did not activate the Nrf2 signaling pathway in mouse livers. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) is a liver-derived anti-diabetic hormone that exerts glucose- and lipid-lowering effects. Fgf21 mRNA and protein were both elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice, and Fgf21 protein was lower in K1-KD mice than WT mice. The inverse correlation between Nrf2 activity and hepatic expression of Fgf21 might explain the improved glucose tolerance in Nrf2-null mice. Furthermore, a more oxidative cellular environment in Nrf2-null mice could affect insulin signaling in liver. For example, mRNA of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1, a gene repressed by insulin in hepatocytes, was markedly elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, genetic alteration of Nrf2 does not prevent diet-induced obesity in mice, but deficiency of Nrf2 improves glucose homeostasis, possibly through its effects on Fgf21 and/or insulin signaling. -- Highlights: ► Nrf2 deficiency improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet. ► The anti-diabetic hormone, Fgf21, is highly expressed in livers of Nrf2-null mice. ► The absence of Nrf2 increases the insulin-regulated Igfbp-1 mRNA in liver.

  1. Nrf2 deficiency improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu-Kun Jennifer; Wu, Kai Connie; Liu, Jie; Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: cklaasse@kumc.edu

    2012-11-01

    Nrf2, a master regulator of intracellular redox homeostasis, is indicated to participate in fatty acid metabolism in liver. However, its role in diet-induced obesity remains controversial. In the current study, genetically engineered Nrf2-null, wild-type (WT), and Nrf2-activated, Keap1-knockdown (K1-KD) mice were fed either a control or a high-fat Western diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. The results indicate that the absence or enhancement of Nrf2 activity did not prevent diet-induced obesity, had limited effects on lipid metabolism, but affected blood glucose homeostasis. Whereas the Nrf2-null mice were resistant to HFD-induced glucose intolerance, the Nrf2-activated K1-KD mice exhibited prolonged elevation of circulating glucose during a glucose tolerance test even on the control diet. Feeding a HFD did not activate the Nrf2 signaling pathway in mouse livers. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (Fgf21) is a liver-derived anti-diabetic hormone that exerts glucose- and lipid-lowering effects. Fgf21 mRNA and protein were both elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice, and Fgf21 protein was lower in K1-KD mice than WT mice. The inverse correlation between Nrf2 activity and hepatic expression of Fgf21 might explain the improved glucose tolerance in Nrf2-null mice. Furthermore, a more oxidative cellular environment in Nrf2-null mice could affect insulin signaling in liver. For example, mRNA of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1, a gene repressed by insulin in hepatocytes, was markedly elevated in livers of Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, genetic alteration of Nrf2 does not prevent diet-induced obesity in mice, but deficiency of Nrf2 improves glucose homeostasis, possibly through its effects on Fgf21 and/or insulin signaling. -- Highlights: ► Nrf2 deficiency improves glucose tolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet. ► The anti-diabetic hormone, Fgf21, is highly expressed in livers of Nrf2-null mice. ► The absence of Nrf2 increases the insulin-regulated Igfbp-1 mRNA in liver.

  2. Utility and reliability of non-invasive muscle function tests in high-fat-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Huenchullan, Sergio F; McLennan, Susan V; Ban, Linda A; Morsch, Marco; Twigg, Stephen M; Tam, Charmaine S

    2017-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? Non-invasive muscle function tests have not been validated for use in the study of muscle performance in high-fat-fed mice. What is the main finding and its importance? This study shows that grip strength, hang wire and four-limb hanging tests are able to discriminate the muscle performance between chow-fed and high-fat-fed mice at different time points, with grip strength being reliable after 5, 10 and 20 weeks of dietary intervention. Non-invasive tests are commonly used for assessing muscle function in animal models. The value of these tests in obesity, a condition where muscle strength is reduced, is unclear. We investigated the utility of three non-invasive muscle function tests, namely grip strength (GS), hang wire (HW) and four-limb hanging (FLH), in C57BL/6 mice fed chow (chow group, n = 48) or a high-fat diet (HFD group, n = 48) for 20 weeks. Muscle function tests were performed at 5, 10 and 20 weeks. After 10 and 20 weeks, HFD mice had significantly reduced GS (in newtons; mean ± SD: 10 weeks chow, 1.89 ± 0.1 and HFD, 1.79 ± 0.1; 20 weeks chow, 1.99 ± 0.1 and HFD, 1.75 ± 0.1), FLH [in seconds per gram body weight; median (interquartile range): 10 weeks chow, 2552 (1337-4964) and HFD, 1230 (749-1994); 20 weeks chow, 2048 (765-3864) and HFD, 1036 (717-1855)] and HW reaches [n; median (interquartile range): 10 weeks chow, 4 (2-5) and HFD, 2 (1-3); 20 weeks chow, 3 (1-5) and HFD, 1 (0-2)] and higher falls [n; median (interquartile range): 10 weeks chow, 0 (0-2) and HFD, 3 (1-7); 20 weeks chow, 1 (0-4) and HFD, 8 (5-10)]. Grip strength was reliable in both dietary groups [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.5-0.8; P tests are valuable and reliable tools for assessment of muscle strength and function in high-fat-fed mice. © 2017 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  3. Diet-induced obesity, energy metabolism and gut microbiota in C57BL/6J mice fed Western diets based on lean seafood or lean meat mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Jacob Bak; Rønnevik, Alexander; Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Fjære, Even; Fauske, Kristin Røen; Liisberg, Ulrike; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten; Liaset, Bjørn

    2016-05-01

    High protein diets may protect against diet-induced obesity, but little is known regarding the effects of different protein sources consumed at standard levels. We investigated how a mixture of lean seafood or lean meat in a Western background diet modulated diet-induced obesity, energy metabolism and gut microbiota. Male C57BL/6J mice fed a Western diet (WD) containing a mixture of lean seafood (seafood WD) for 12weeks accumulated less fat mass than mice fed a WD containing a mixture of lean meat (meat WD). Meat WD-fed mice exhibited increased fasting blood glucose, impaired glucose clearance, elevated fasting plasma insulin and increased plasma and liver lipid levels. We observed no first choice preference for either of the WDs, but over time, mice fed the seafood WD consumed less energy than mice fed the meat WD. Mice fed the seafood WD exhibited higher spontaneous locomotor activity and a lower respiratory exchange ratio (RER) than mice fed the meat WD. Thus, higher activity together with the decreased energy intake contributed to the different phenotypes observed in mice fed the seafood WD compared to mice fed the meat WD. Comparison of the gut microbiomes of mice fed the two WDs revealed significant differences in the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to the orders Bacteroidales and Clostridiales, with genes involved in metabolism of aromatic amino acids exhibiting higher relative abundance in the microbiomes of mice fed the seafood WD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Changes in IL12A methylation pattern in livers from mice fed DDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, J; French, S W

    2012-04-01

    Mallory-Denk body (MDB) formation is a component of alcoholic and non alcoholic hepatitis. Proteins of the TLR pathway were shown to be involved in the formation of MDBs, in mice fed DDC. TLR genes are upregulated and SAMe supplementation prevents this up regulation and prevented the formation of MDBs. DNA of livers from control mice, from mice fed DDC 10weeks, refed 1week with DDC and with DDC+SAMe were extracted and used to study the methylation pattern of genes involves in the TLR pathway. A PCR array was used to analyze it. Using PCR arrays for the mouse TLR pathway,24 genes were found whose expression of IL12A was regulated by the methylation of its gene. DDC fed for 10weeks reduced the methylation of the IL12A gene expression. This expression was also reduced when DDC was refed. However, when SAMe was fed, the intermediate level methylation of IL12A was up regulated to the intermediate level and the methylation of the promoter decreased compared to DDC refeeding or DDC 10weeks. IL12A is known to induce the production of IFNg by NK and L(T). We showed in a previous publication that IFNg is one of the major cytokines involved in the induction of MDB formation. The low expression of IL12A associated with the intermediate methylation of its promoter could explain one step in the mechanism which leads to the formation of MDBs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Troxerutin abrogates mitochondrial oxidative stress and myocardial apoptosis in mice fed calorie-rich diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geetha, Rajagopalan; Sathiya Priya, Chandrasekaran; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2017-12-25

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of myocardial apoptosis in metabolic syndrome (MS) patients. In this study, we investigated the effect of troxerutin (TX), an antioxidant on mitochondrial oxidative stress and apoptotic markers in heart of mice fed fat and fructose-rich diet. Adult male Mus musculus mice were fed either control diet or high fat, high fructose diet (HFFD) for 60 days to induce MS. Mice from each dietary group were divided into two on the 16th day and were either treated or untreated with TX (150 mg/kg bw, p.o) for the next 45 days. At the end of the study, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, oxidative stress markers, levels of intracellular calcium, cardiolipin content, cytochrome c release and apoptotic markers were examined in the myocardium. HFFD-feeding resulted in diminution of antioxidants and increased ROS production, lipid peroxidation and oxidatively modified adducts of 8-OHG, 4-HNE and 3-NT. Further increase in Ca 2+ levels, low levels of calcium transporters and decrease in cardiolipin content were noted. Changes in the mitochondrial structure were observed by electron microscopy. Furthermore, cytochrome c release, increase in proapoptotic proteins (APAF-1, BAX, caspases-9 and-3) and decrease in antiapoptotic protein (BCL-2) in HFFD-fed mice suggest myocardial apoptosis. These changes were significantly restored by TX supplementation. TX administration effectively attenuated cardiac apoptosis and exerted a protective role by increasing antioxidant potential and by improving mitochondrial function. Thus, TX could be a promising therapeutic candidate for treating cardiac disease in MS patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Dietary pomegranate extract and inulin affect gut microbiome differentially in mice fed an obesogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song; Yang, Jieping; Henning, Susanne M; Lee, Rupo; Hsu, Mark; Grojean, Emma; Pisegna, Rita; Ly, Austin; Heber, David; Li, Zhaoping

    2017-12-01

    Growing evidence suggests that dysbiosis of gut microbiota is associated with pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases. Using dietary intervention to shape the composition and metabolism of the gut microbiota is increasingly recognized. In the present study, we investigated the effects of polysaccharide inulin and polyphenol-rich pomegranate extract (PomX) alone or in combination on the cecal microbiota composition and function in a diet induced obesity mouse model. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four experimental groups and consumed either high-fat/high-sucrose [HF/HS (32% energy from fat, 25% energy from sucrose, 17% energy from protein)] diet, HF/HS diet supplemented with PomX (0.25%), or inulin (9%) or PomX and inulin in combination for 4 weeks. In mice fed the PomX-diet the proportion of Turicibacteraceae and Ruminococcaceae was significantly increased compared to the control HF/HS diet. Supplementation with inulin alone and inulin + PomX combination significantly increased the proportion of Verrucomicrobiaceae (A. muciniphila) and decreased Clostridiaceae. Only mice fed the inulin diet experienced an increase in serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), which was reversed when feeding the inulin + PomX diet. Feeding the inulin + PomX diet was associated with a significant increase in Bifidobacteriaceae and Rikenellaceae, which may have contributed to the reduction of endotoxemia markers. Inulin supplementation showed lower species richness of gut microbiota compared to mice fed with HF/HS or HF/HS/PomX, and the reduction was reversed by the addition of PomX. Inulin alone and in combination with PomX had distinct microbial clusters determined by both weighted and unweighted UniFrac Beta-Diversity principle coordinate analysis. A total of 19 KEGG biological pathways were significantly regulated in the gut microbiota with PomX and inulin alone or combined treatment. Inulin significantly enhanced KEGG

  7. Modulation of ovomucoid-specific oral tolerance in mice fed plant extracts containing lectins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Tanja; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the effect of feeding extracts of four different legumes (red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), soyabean (Glycine max) and pea (Pisum sativum) on the specific immune response against a food protein. Mice were fed ovomucoid and the specific immune response...... influenced the immune response against ovomucoid; however, this was not as pronounced as for kidney bean and was only significant (Ppea extract was fed and peanut extract had a non-significant effect on induction of oral tolerance...... and on the general immune response. Plasma antibodies against kidney-bean lectin, but not against the three other legume lectins, were detected. Our current findings show that other dietary components can influence the specific immune response against food proteins. Various dietary components may thus contribute...

  8. Curcumin suppresses intestinal polyps in APC Min mice fed a high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Pettan-Brewer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Various risk factors have been associated with CRC including increasing age and diet. Epidemiological and experimental studies have implicated a diet high in fat as an important risk factor for colon cancer. High fat diets can promote obesity resulting in insulin resistance and inflammation and the development of oxidative stress, increased cell proliferation, and suppression of apoptosis. Because of the high consumption of dietary fats, especially saturated fats, by Western countries, it is of interest to see if non-nutrient food factors might be effective in preventing or delaying CRC in the presence of high saturated fat intake. Curcumin (Curcuma longa, the main yellow pigment in turmeric, was selected to test because of its reported anti-tumor activity. APC Min mice, which develop intestinal polyps and have many molecular features of CRC, were fed a diet containing 35% pork fat, 33% sucrose, and a protein and vitamin mineral mixture (HFD with or without 0.5% curcumin. These cohorts were compared to APC Min mice receiving standard rodent chow (RC with 8% fat. APC Min mice fed the HFD for 3 months had a 23% increase in total number of polyps compared to APC Min mice on RC. Curcumin was able to significantly reverse the accelerated polyp development associated with the HFD suggesting it may be effective clinically in helping prevent colon cancer even when ingesting high amounts of fatty foods. The anti-tumor effect of curcumin was shown to be associated with enhanced apoptosis and increased efficiency of DNA repair. Since curcumin prevented the gain in body weight seen in APC Min mice ingesting the HFD, modulation of energy metabolism may also be a factor.

  9. Role of 5-HT3 Receptor on Food Intake in Fed and Fasted Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingjin; Shao, Dongyuan; Luo, Yungang; Wang, Pu; Liu, Changhong; Zhang, Xingyi; Cui, Ranji

    2015-01-01

    Background Many studies have shown that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor subtypes are involved in the regulation of feeding behavior. However, the relative contribution of 5-HT3 receptor remains unclear. The present study was aimed to investigate the role of 5-HT3 receptor in control of feeding behavior in fed and fasted mice. Methodology/Principal Findings Food intake and expression of c-Fos, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and 5-HT in the brain were examined after acute treatment with 5-HT3 receptor agonist SR-57227 alone or in combination with 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron. Food intake was significantly inhibited within 3 h after acute treatment with SR 57227 in fasted mice but not fed mice, and this inhibition was blocked by ondansetron. Immunohistochemical study revealed that fasting-induced c-Fos expression was further enhanced by SR 57227 in the brainstem and the hypothalamus, and this enhancement was also blocked by ondansetron. Furthermore, the fasting-induced downregulation of POMC expression in the hypothalamus and the TH expression in the brain stem was blocked by SR 57227 in the fasted mice, and this effect of SR 57227 was also antagonized by ondansetron. Conclusion/Significance Taken together, our findings suggest that the effect of SR 57227 on the control of feeding behavior in fasted mice may be, at least partially, related to the c-Fos expression in hypothalamus and brain stem, as well as POMC system in the hypothalamus and the TH system in the brain stem. PMID:25789930

  10. Coconut oil enhances tomato carotenoid tissue accumulation compared to safflower oil in the Mongolian gerbil ( Meriones unguiculatus ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Lauren E; King, Ryan D; Moran, Nancy E; Erdman, John W

    2012-08-29

    Evidence suggests that monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats facilitate greater absorption of carotenoids than saturated fats. However, the comparison of consuming a polyunsaturated fat source versus a saturated fat source on tomato carotenoid bioaccumulation has not been examined. The goal of this study was to determine the influence of coconut oil and safflower oil on tomato carotenoid tissue accumulation in Mongolian gerbils ( Meriones unguiculatus ) fed a 20% fat diet. Coconut oil feeding increased carotenoid concentrations among many compartments including total carotenoids in the serum (p = 0.0003), adrenal glandular phytoene (p = 0.04), hepatic phytofluene (p = 0.0001), testicular all-trans-lycopene (p = 0.01), and cis-lycopene (p = 0.006) in the prostate-seminal vesicle complex compared to safflower oil. Safflower oil-fed gerbils had greater splenic lycopene concentrations (p = 0.006) compared to coconut oil-fed gerbils. Coconut oil feeding increased serum cholesterol (p = 0.0001) and decreased hepatic cholesterol (p = 0.0003) compared to safflower oil. In summary, coconut oil enhanced tissue uptake of tomato carotenoids to a greater degree than safflower oil. These results may have been due to the large proportion of medium-chain fatty acids in coconut oil, which might have caused a shift in cholesterol flux to favor extrahepatic carotenoid tissue deposition.

  11. SOCS2 deletion protects against hepatic steatosis but worsens insulin resistance in high-fat-diet-fed mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zadjali, Fahad; Santana-Farre, Ruyman; Vesterlund, Mattias

    2012-01-01

    in the development of diet-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. SOCS2-knockout (SOCS2(-/-)) mice and wild-type littermates were fed for 4 mo with control or high-fat diet, followed by assessment of insulin sensitivity, hepatic lipid content, and expression of inflammatory cytokines. SOCS2(-/-) mice...

  12. Effect of anti-gut inflammatory agent on insulin resistance and lipid profile of mice fed different diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Zheng; Bao, Zhijun

    Purpose: To further explore the effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) treatment on lipid levels in mice fed different diets. Methods: Groups of 9 - 10 mice each were randomly assigned to 6 different diets, low-fat diet (LFD) with or without 5-ASA, high-fat diet (HFD) with or without 5-ASA, and

  13. Whey Protein Reduces Early Life Weight Gain in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars I.; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Sejrsen, Kristen; Jeamet, Aymeric; Rune, Ida; Ellekilde, Merete; Nielsen, Dennis S.; Hansen, Axel Kornerup

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of PCR-derived 16S rRNA gene (V3-region) amplicons. At the end of the study, plasma samples were collected and assayed for glucose, insulin and lipids. Whey significantly reduced body weight gain during the first four weeks of the study compared with casein (Pwhey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, Pwhey group (Pwhey compared to casein (Pwhey and casein. In conclusion, whey initially reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota composition. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms behind the metabolic effects of whey. PMID:23940754

  14. Probucol selectively increases oxidation of atherogenic lipoproteins in cholesterol-fed mice and in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, S.T.; Mortensen, Alicja

    1999-01-01

    The anti-atherogenic and cholesterol-lowering drug probucol (0.5-1%) or quercetin (1%), a natural antioxidant, was given to cholesterol-fed (1.5%) mice for a period of 6 weeks and to Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits for a period of 8 weeks to investigate the oxidative changes.......001) and cholesterol-fed mice (579.7 +/- 47.3 nmol/g vs. 408.1 +/- 85.8 nmol/g, P mice: P ... and thereby leads to a decrease in cholesterol levels....

  15. Long-term feeding studies in mice fed a diet containing irradiated fish. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petten, L.E. van; Calkins, J.E.; McConnell, R.F.; Gottschalk, H.M.; Elias, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    A wholesomeness feeding study was carried out in mice fed equal amounts of cod or redfish, comprising 45% of the diet. Three groups of animals received either irradiated [1.75 kGy (175 krad)] fish, non-irradiated fish or stock ration. A 90-day subchronic study, a multigeneration reproduction, a dominant lethality and a teratology study were carried out together with an 80-week oncogenic study on the F 1 generation. No adverse effects were noted on growth, reproduction and litter behaviour, in relation to dominant lethality, teratogenicity or oncogenicity. (Auth.)

  16. Geraniol improves endothelial function by inhibiting NOX-2 derived oxidative stress in high fat diet fed mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Shiqi; Su, Mengqi; Sun, Li; Zhang, Song; Wang, Dingyu; Liu, Zhaorui; Yuan, Yue; Liu, Yang; Li, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction occurs in obese patients and high-fat diet (HFD) fed experimental animals. While geraniol has been reported to ameliorate inflammation and oxidative stress, inhibit tumor cell proliferation, and improve atherosclerosis, its direct effect on endothelial function remains uncharacterized. The present study therefore investigated the effect of geraniol on endothelial function in HFD mice and its underlying mechanisms. C57 BL/6 mice were fed an HFD (n = 40) or a normal diet (n = 20) for 8 weeks. HFD fed mice then were randomized to intraperitoneal treatment with geraniol (n = 20) or vehicle (n = 20) for another 6 weeks. Acetylcholine (Ach)-induced endothelial dependent vasorelaxation was measured on wire myography; reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed by fluorescence imaging, and NADPH oxidases (NOXs) and adhesive molecules VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 protein expression by western blotting. Geraniol improved endothelial function in HFD fed mice, as evidenced by its: 1. restoring endothelial dependent vasorelaxation induced by Ach, and reversing increased VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression; 2. attenuating HFD induced increased serum TBARS and aortic ROS generation; and 3. downregulating aortic NOX-2 expression in both HFD fed mice and in palmitic acid treated endothelial cells. Geraniol therefore protects against endothelial dysfunction induced by HFD through reducing NOX-2 associated ROS generation. -- Highlights: •Geraniol improved endothelial dependent relaxation in high fat diet fed mice. •Geraniol alleviated vascular injury in high fat diet fed mice. •Geraniol inhibited ROS generation through downregulating NOX-2 expression.

  17. Geraniol improves endothelial function by inhibiting NOX-2 derived oxidative stress in high fat diet fed mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Shiqi; Su, Mengqi; Sun, Li; Zhang, Song; Wang, Dingyu; Liu, Zhaorui; Yuan, Yue; Liu, Yang [Department of Cardiology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001, Heilongjiang Province (China); Li, Yue, E-mail: ly99ly@vip.163.com [Department of Cardiology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150001, Heilongjiang Province (China); Key Laboratory of Cardiac Diseases and Heart Failure, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, 150001, Heilongjiang Province (China)

    2016-05-20

    Endothelial dysfunction occurs in obese patients and high-fat diet (HFD) fed experimental animals. While geraniol has been reported to ameliorate inflammation and oxidative stress, inhibit tumor cell proliferation, and improve atherosclerosis, its direct effect on endothelial function remains uncharacterized. The present study therefore investigated the effect of geraniol on endothelial function in HFD mice and its underlying mechanisms. C57 BL/6 mice were fed an HFD (n = 40) or a normal diet (n = 20) for 8 weeks. HFD fed mice then were randomized to intraperitoneal treatment with geraniol (n = 20) or vehicle (n = 20) for another 6 weeks. Acetylcholine (Ach)-induced endothelial dependent vasorelaxation was measured on wire myography; reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed by fluorescence imaging, and NADPH oxidases (NOXs) and adhesive molecules VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 protein expression by western blotting. Geraniol improved endothelial function in HFD fed mice, as evidenced by its: 1. restoring endothelial dependent vasorelaxation induced by Ach, and reversing increased VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression; 2. attenuating HFD induced increased serum TBARS and aortic ROS generation; and 3. downregulating aortic NOX-2 expression in both HFD fed mice and in palmitic acid treated endothelial cells. Geraniol therefore protects against endothelial dysfunction induced by HFD through reducing NOX-2 associated ROS generation. -- Highlights: •Geraniol improved endothelial dependent relaxation in high fat diet fed mice. •Geraniol alleviated vascular injury in high fat diet fed mice. •Geraniol inhibited ROS generation through downregulating NOX-2 expression.

  18. Soy protein isolate inhibits hepatic tumor promotion in mice fed a high-fat liquid diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Kelly E; Pulliam, Casey F; Pedersen, Kim B; Hennings, Leah; Ronis, Martin Jj

    2017-03-01

    Alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases are risk factors for development of hepatocellular carcinoma, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. On the other hand, ingestion of soy-containing diets may oppose the development of certain cancers. We previously reported that replacing casein with a soy protein isolate reduced tumor promotion in the livers of mice with alcoholic liver disease after feeding a high fat ethanol liquid diet following initiation with diethylnitrosamine. Feeding soy protein isolate inhibited processes that may contribute to tumor promotion including inflammation, sphingolipid signaling, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. We have extended these studies to characterize liver tumor promotion in a model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease produced by chronic feeding of high-fat liquid diets in the absence of ethanol. Mice treated with diethylnitrosamine on postnatal day 14 were fed a high-fat liquid diet made with casein or SPI as the sole protein source for 16 weeks in adulthood. Relative to mice fed normal chow, a high fat/casein diet led to increased tumor promotion, hepatocyte proliferation, steatosis, and inflammation. Replacing casein with soy protein isolate counteracted these effects. The high fat diets also resulted in a general increase in transcripts for Wnt/β-catenin pathway components, which may be an important mechanism, whereby hepatic tumorigenesis is promoted. However, soy protein isolate did not block Wnt signaling in this nonalcoholic fatty liver disease model. We conclude that replacing casein with soy protein isolate blocks development of steatosis, inflammation, and tumor promotion in diethylnitrosamine-treated mice fed high fat diets. Impact statement The impact of dietary components on cancer is a topic of great interest for both the general public and the scientific community. Liver cancer is currently the second leading form of cancer deaths worldwide. Our study has addressed the effect of the protein

  19. Cancer-Predicting Gene Expression Changes in Colonic Mucosa of Western Diet Fed Mlh1 +/- Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermadi Bebek, Denis; Valo, Satu; Reyhani, Nima; Ollila, Saara; Päivärinta, Essi; Peltomäki, Päivi; Mutanen, Marja; Nyström, Minna

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the Western world and interactions between genetic and environmental factors, including diet, are suggested to play a critical role in its etiology. We conducted a long-term feeding experiment in the mouse to address gene expression and methylation changes arising in histologically normal colonic mucosa as putative cancer-predisposing events available for early detection. The expression of 94 growth-regulatory genes previously linked to human CRC was studied at two time points (5 weeks and 12 months of age) in the heterozygote Mlh1 +/- mice, an animal model for human Lynch syndrome (LS), and wild type Mlh1 +/+ littermates, fed by either Western-style (WD) or AIN-93G control diet. In mice fed with WD, proximal colon mucosa, the predominant site of cancer formation in LS, exhibited a significant expression decrease in tumor suppressor genes, Dkk1, Hoxd1, Slc5a8, and Socs1, the latter two only in the Mlh1 +/- mice. Reduced mRNA expression was accompanied by increased promoter methylation of the respective genes. The strongest expression decrease (7.3 fold) together with a significant increase in its promoter methylation was seen in Dkk1, an antagonist of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Furthermore, the inactivation of Dkk1 seems to predispose to neoplasias in the proximal colon. This and the fact that Mlh1 which showed only modest methylation was still expressed in both Mlh1 +/- and Mlh1 +/+ mice indicate that the expression decreases and the inactivation of Dkk1 in particular is a prominent early marker for colon oncogenesis. PMID:24204690

  20. Cancer-predicting gene expression changes in colonic mucosa of Western diet fed Mlh1+/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjaana Pussila

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the Western world and interactions between genetic and environmental factors, including diet, are suggested to play a critical role in its etiology. We conducted a long-term feeding experiment in the mouse to address gene expression and methylation changes arising in histologically normal colonic mucosa as putative cancer-predisposing events available for early detection. The expression of 94 growth-regulatory genes previously linked to human CRC was studied at two time points (5 weeks and 12 months of age in the heterozygote Mlh1(+/- mice, an animal model for human Lynch syndrome (LS, and wild type Mlh1(+/+ littermates, fed by either Western-style (WD or AIN-93G control diet. In mice fed with WD, proximal colon mucosa, the predominant site of cancer formation in LS, exhibited a significant expression decrease in tumor suppressor genes, Dkk1, Hoxd1, Slc5a8, and Socs1, the latter two only in the Mlh1(+/- mice. Reduced mRNA expression was accompanied by increased promoter methylation of the respective genes. The strongest expression decrease (7.3 fold together with a significant increase in its promoter methylation was seen in Dkk1, an antagonist of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Furthermore, the inactivation of Dkk1 seems to predispose to neoplasias in the proximal colon. This and the fact that Mlh1 which showed only modest methylation was still expressed in both Mlh1(+/- and Mlh1(+/+ mice indicate that the expression decreases and the inactivation of Dkk1 in particular is a prominent early marker for colon oncogenesis.

  1. Gastrointestinal absorption of plutonium and uranium in fed and fasted adult baboons and mice: application to humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Larsen, R.P.; Oldham, R.D.; Cohen, N.; Ralston, L.G.; Moretti, E.S.; Ayres, L.

    1989-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) absorption values of plutonium and uranium were determined in fed and fasted adult baboons and mice. For both baboons and mice, the GI absorptions of plutonium and uranium were 10 to 20 times higher in 24 h fasted animals than in fed ones. For plutonium, GI absorption values in baboons were almost identical to those in mice for both fed and fasted conditions, and values for fed animals agreed with estimates for humans. For uranium, GI absorption values in fed and fasted baboons were 6 to 7 times higher than those in mice, and agreed well with those fed and fasted humans. For one baboon that was not given its morning meal, plutonium absorption 2 h after the start of the active phase was the same as that in the 24 h fasted animals. In contrast, for baboons that received a morning meal, plutonium absorption did not rise to the value of 24 h fasted baboons even 8 h after the meal. We conclude that GI absorption values for plutonium and uranium in adult baboons are good estimates of the values in humans and that the values for the fasted condition should be used to set standards for oral exposure of persons in the workplace. (author)

  2. Purified blueberry anthocyanins and blueberry juice alter development of obesity in mice fed an obesogenic high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Ronald L; E Wilkes, Samuel; R Rogers, Theodore; Khanal, Ramesh C; Wu, Xianli; Howard, Luke R

    2010-04-14

    Male C57BL/6J mice (25 days of age) were fed either a low-fat diet (10% kcal from fat) (LF) or a high-fat diet (45% kcal from fat) (HF45) for a period of 72 days. Blueberry juice or purified blueberry anthocyanins (0.2 or 1.0 mg/mL) in the drinking water were included in LF or HF45 treatments. Sucrose was added to the drinking water of one treatment to test if the sugars in blueberry juice would affect development of obesity. Total body weights (g) and body fat (%) were higher and body lean tissue (%) was lower in the HF45 fed mice compared to the LF fed mice after 72 days, but in mice fed HF45 diet plus blueberry juice or blueberry anthocyanins (0.2 mg/mL), body fat (%) was not different from those mice fed the LF diet. Anthocyanins (ACNs) decreased retroperitoneal and epididymal adipose tissue weights. Fasting serum glucose concentrations were higher in mice fed the HF45 diet. However, it was reduced to LF levels in mice fed the HF45 diet plus 0.2 mg of ACNs/mL in the drinking water, but not with blueberry juice. beta cell function (HOMA-BCF) score was lowered with HF45 feeding but returned to normal levels in mice fed the HF45 diet plus purified ACNs (0.2 mg/mL). Serum leptin was elevated in mice fed HF45 diet, and feeding either blueberry juice or purified ACNs (0.2 mg/mL) decreased serum leptin levels relative to HF45 control. Sucrose in drinking water, when consumption was restricted to the volume of juice consumed, produced lower serum leptin and insulin levels, leptin/fat, and retroperitoneal and total fat (% BW). Blueberry juice was not as effective as the low dose of anthocyanins in the drinking water in preventing obesity. Additional studies are needed to determine factors responsible for the differing responses of blueberry juice and whole blueberry in preventing the development of obesity.

  3. Glucocorticoid Antagonism Reduces Insulin Resistance and Associated Lipid Abnormalities in High-Fructose-Fed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshini, Emayavaramban; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2017-02-01

    High intake of dietary fructose causes perturbation in lipid metabolism and provokes lipid-induced insulin resistance. A rise in glucocorticoids (GCs) has recently been suggested to be involved in fructose-induced insulin resistance. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of GC blockade on lipid abnormalities in insulin-resistant mice. Insulin resistance was induced in mice by administering a high-fructose diet (HFrD) for 60 days. Mifepristone (RU486), a GC antagonist, was administered to HFrD-fed mice for the last 18 days, and the intracellular and extracellular GC levels, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation and the expression of GC-regulated genes involved in lipid metabolism were examined. HFrD elevated the intracellular GC content in both liver and adipose tissue and enhanced the GR nuclear translocation. The plasma GC level remained unchanged. The levels of free fatty acids and triglycerides in plasma were elevated, accompanied by increased plasma insulin and glucose levels and decreased hepatic glycogen content. Treatment with RU486 reduced plasma lipid levels, tissue GC levels and the expression of GC-targeted genes involved in lipid accumulation, and it improved insulin sensitivity. This study demonstrated that HFrD-induced lipid accumulation and insulin resistance are mediated by enhanced GC in liver and adipose tissue and that GC antagonism might reduce fructose-induced lipid abnormalities and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt Tranberg

    Full Text Available An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of PCR-derived 16S rRNA gene (V3-region amplicons. At the end of the study, plasma samples were collected and assayed for glucose, insulin and lipids. Whey significantly reduced body weight gain during the first four weeks of the study compared with casein (P<0.001-0.05. Hereafter weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, P<0.001. Food intake was unaffected by protein source throughout the study period. Fasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P<0.01 and glucose clearance was improved after an oral glucose challenge (P<0.05. Plasma cholesterol was lowered by whey compared to casein (P<0.001. The composition of the fecal microbiota differed between high- and low-fat groups at 13 weeks (P<0.05 whereas no difference was seen between whey and casein. In conclusion, whey initially reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota composition. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms behind the metabolic effects of whey.

  5. Hypothalamic Leptin Gene Therapy Reduces Bone Marrow Adiposity in ob/ob Mice Fed Regular and High Fat Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence B Lindenmaier

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Low bone mass is often associated with increased bone marrow adiposity. Since osteoblasts and adipocytes are derived from the same mesenchymal stem cell progenitor, adipocyte formation may increase at the expense of osteoblast formation. Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone known to regulate energy and bone metabolism. Genetic (e.g., leptin deficiency and high fat diet-induced (e.g., leptin resistance obesity are associated with increased marrow adipose tissue (MAT and reduced bone formation. Short-duration studies suggest that leptin treatment reduces MAT and increases bone formation in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice fed a regular diet. Here, we determined the long-duration impact of increased hypothalamic leptin on marrow adipocytes and osteoblasts in ob/ob mice using recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV gene therapy. In a first study, eight- to ten-week-old male ob/ob mice were randomized into 4 groups: (1 untreated, (2 rAAV-Lep, (3 rAAV-green fluorescent protein (rAAV-GFP, or (4 pair-fed to rAAV-Lep. For vector administration, mice were placed in a Kopf stereotaxic apparatus, and injected intracerebroventricularly with either rAAV-Lep or rAAV-GFP (9 × 107 particles in 1.5 µl. The mice were maintained for 30 weeks following vector administration. In a second study, the impact of increased hypothalamic leptin levels on MAT was determined in mice fed high fat diets. Eight- to ten-week-old male ob/ob mice were randomized into 2 groups and treated with either rAAV-Lep or rAAV-GFP. At 7 weeks post-vector administration, half the mice in each group were switched to a high fat diet for 8 weeks. Wild type (WT controls included age-matched mice fed regular or high fat diet. Hypothalamic leptin gene therapy increased osteoblast perimeter and osteoclast perimeter with minor change in cancellous bone architecture. The gene therapy decreased MAT levels in ob/ob mice fed regular or high fat diet to values similar to WT mice fed regular diet. These

  6. Transplantation of Normal Adipose Tissue Improves Blood Flow and Reduces Inflammation in High Fat Fed Mice With Hindlimb Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyuan Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fat deposition is associated with peripheral arterial disease. Adipose tissue has recently been implicated in vascular remodeling and angiogenic activity. We hypothesized that the transplantation of adipose tissues from normal mice improves blood flow perfusion and neovascularization in high-fat diet fed mice.Methods: After 14 weeks of high-fat diet (HFD-fed mice, unilateral hind limb ischemia was performed. Subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT and brown adipose tissue (BAT fat pads were harvested from normal EGFP mice, and subcutaneously transplanted over the region of the adductor muscles of HFD mice. Blood flow was measured using Laser Doppler Scanner. Vascular density, macrophages infiltration, and macrophage polarization were examined by RT-qPCR, and immunohistochemistry.Results: We found that the transplantation of WAT derived from normal mice improved functional blood flow in HFD-fed mice compared to mice transplanted with BAT and sham-treated mice. WAT transplantation increased the recruitment of pericytes associated with nascent blood vessels, but did not affect capillary formation. Furthermore, transplantation of WAT ameliorated HFD-induced insulin resistance, M2 macrophage predominance and the release of arteriogenic factors in ischemic muscles. Mice receiving WAT also displayed a marked reduction in several proinflammatory cytokines. In contrast, mice transplanted with BAT were glucose intolerant and demonstrated increased IL-6 levels in ischemic muscles.Conclusion: These results indicate that transplantation of adipose tissue elicits improvements in blood perfusion and beneficial effects on systemic glucose homeostasis and could be a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of diabetic peripheral arterial disease.

  7. House dust mite allergen causes certain features of steroid resistant asthma in high fat fed obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay Pal; Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Pratap, Kunal; Bahal, Devika; Maheswari, Deepanshu; Gheware, Atish; Bajaj, Aabha; Panda, Lipsa; Jaiswal, Ashish; Ram, Arjun; Agrawal, Anurag

    2018-02-01

    Obesity is a high risk factor for diseases such as cardiovascular, metabolic syndrome and asthma. Obese-asthma is another emerging phenotype in asthma which is typically refractive to steroid treatment due to its non-classical features such as non-eosinophilic cellular inflammation. The overall increased morbidity, mortality and economical burden in asthma is mainly due to steroid resistant asthma. In the present study, we used high fat diet induced obese mice which when sensitized with house dust mite (HDM) showed steroid resistant features. While the steroid, dexamethasone (DEX), treatment to high fat fed naïve mice could not reduce the airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) induced by high fat, DEX treatment to high fat fed allergic mice could not reduce the HDM allergen induced airway remodeling features though it reduced airway inflammation. Further, these HDM induced high fat fed mice with or without DEX treatment had shown the increased activity and expression of arginase as well as the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. However, DEX treatment had reduced the expressions of high iNOS and arginase I in control chow diet fed mice. Thus, we speculate that the steroid resistance seen in human obese asthmatics could be stemming from altered NO metabolism and its induced airway remodeling and with further investigations, it would encourage new treatments specific to obese-asthma phenotype. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Morphometric and functional abnormalities of kidneys in the progeny of mice fed chocolate during pregnancy and lactation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Skopińska-Rózewska

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Even most commonly consumed beverages like tea, coffee, chocolate and cocoa contain methylxanthines, biogenic amines and polyphenols, among them catechins, that exhibit significant biological activity and might profoundly affect the organism homeostasis. We have previously shown that 400 mg of bitter chocolate or 6 mg of theobromine added to the daily diet of pregnant and afterwards lactating mice affected embryonic angiogenesis and caused bone mineralization disturbances as well as limb shortening in 4-weeks old offspring. The aim of the present study was the morphometric and functional evaluation of kidneys in the 4-weeks old progeny mice fed according to the protocol mentioned above. Progeny from the mice fed chocolate presented considerable morphometric abnormalities in the kidney structure, with the lower number of glomeruli per mm2 and their increased diameter. Moreover, higher serum creatinine concentration was observed in that group of offspring. No morphometric or functional irregularities were found in the progeny of mice fed theobromine. Abnormalities demonstrated in the offspring of mice fed chocolate are not related to its theobromine content. Consequently, identification of active compound(s responsible for the observed effects is of vital importance.

  9. Population dynamics of safflower capsule flies (Diptera: Tephritidae in Kohgiluyeh safflower farms of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Saeidi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Oilseeds such as flax, canola, safflower, soybean and sunflower, which are annual plants, provide the world’s major source of vegetable oils, although the highest oil yield comes from oil-bearing tree fruits. One of the most popular oil seeds is safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L., which belongs to the Asteraceae family. Due to the ability of this plant to grow in dry and semi-dry conditions, safflower oil has the potential to be a commercially profitable product in Iran. Seasonal populations of safflower capsule flies were studied in Kohgiluyeh safflower farms, Iran, from March to May in 2008 and 2009. Four yellow sticky traps were used to monitor populations of fruit flies in the safflower farms. Traps were checked once a week during the sampling period. The traps were emptied weekly into insect collection vials containing 70% ethanol. Data were analysed with a two-way ANOVA. The relation between abiotic factors and species abundance was analysed with multiple linear regression. The results emphasized that Acanthiophilus helianthi was the most serious pest of safflower under the ecological conditions found in Gachsaran, being present in the field throughout three months of the year (March to May. Chaetorellia carthami was present in safflower fields from March to May, but in significant numbers only during April and May. Terellia luteola was present in safflower fields from March to May and in significant numbers only in late April, it does not seem to be a serious pest in safflower farms under Gachsaran’s ecological conditions.

  10. Analysis of the intestinal microbiota of oligo-saccharide fed mice exhibiting reduced resistance to Salmonella infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne; Bergström, Anders; Andersen, Jens Bo

    2010-01-01

    recently demonstrated a reduced resistance to Salmonella infection in mice fed diets containing fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) or xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS). In the present study, faecal and caecal samples from the same mice were analysed in order to study microbial changes potentially explaining...... the observed effects on the pathogenesis of Salmonella. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that the microbiota in faecal samples from mice fed FOS or XOS were different from faecal samples collected before the feeding trial as well as from faecal profiles generated from control animals...... of short-chain fatty acids was recorded. In conclusion, diets supplemented with FOS or XOS induced a number of microbial changes in the faecal microbiota of mice. The observed effects of XOS were qualitatively similar to those of FOS, but the most prominent bifidogenic effect was seen for XOS. An increased...

  11. Hepatic toxicity assessment of cationic liposome exposure in healthy and chronic alcohol fed mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kermanizadeh, Ali; Jacobsen, Nicklas R.; Roursgaard, Martin

    2017-01-01

    or chronically alcohol fed mice. Additionally, the in vitro material-induced adverse effects (cytotoxicity, inflammation or albumin secretion) were all also minimal. The data from this study demonstrated that the intravenous injection of cationic liposomes does not cause hepatic toxicity. This investigation......, the question of potential toxicological effects needs to be addressed. In the present investigation, a cationic liposome with prospective for medical applications was constructed and thoroughly assessed for any material-induced hepatic adverse effects in vivo − in healthy and alcoholic hepatic disease models...... is important as it investigates the toxicity of a nano-sized material in a model of alcoholic hepatic disease in vitro and in vivo. This is an area of research in the field of nanotoxicology that is currently almost entirely overlooked....

  12. Atherosclerosis in low density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice fed cholesterol and soybean oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Alicja; Olsen, P.; Frandsen, H.

    1999-01-01

    In order to study aortic atherosclerosis and atherosclerotic response to dietary cholesterol and soybean oil in homozygous LDLR-/- mice, the 16 weeks old animals were randomized in 4 groups either fed standard diet (no cholesterol added, group I, 12 male and 12 female), standard diet added 0.......5% cholesterol (group II, 12 male and 12 female), standard diet added 10% soybean oil (group Iii, 7 male) or standard diet added 0.5% cholesterol and 10% soybean oil (group IV, 7 male) for 14 weeks. At termination, the plasma cholesterol of males was: 9.4 mmol/I +/- 0.3 (SD) (group I), 34.4 +/- 6.2 (group II), 9...

  13. Severe NAFLD with hepatic necroinflammatory changes in mice fed trans fats and a high-fructose corn syrup equivalent

    OpenAIRE

    Tetri, Laura H.; Basaranoglu, Metin; Brunt, Elizabeth M.; Yerian, Lisa M.; Neuschwander-Tetri, Brent A.

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether combining features of a western lifestyle in mice with trans fats in a high-fat diet, high-fructose corn syrup in the water, and interventions designed to promote sedentary behavior would cause the hepatic histopathological and metabolic abnormalities that characterize nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Male C57BL/6 mice fed ad libitum high-fat chow containing trans fats (partially hydrogenated vegetable oil) and relevant amounts of a high-fr...

  14. Silymarin alleviates hepatic oxidative stress and protects against metabolic disorders in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Bin; Meng, Ran; Huang, Bin; Shen, Shanmei; Bi, Yan; Zhu, Dalong

    2016-01-01

    Silymarin is a potent antioxidant medicine and has been widely used for the treatment of liver diseases over 30 years. Recent studies suggest that silymarin may benefit patients with glucose intolerance. However, the mechanism underlying the action of silymarin is not clarified. The aim of this work was to assess the impact of silymarin on glucose intolerance in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice, and explore the potential therapeutic mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were fed with HFD for 12 weeks, randomized, and treated orally with vehicle saline or silymarin (30 mg/kg) daily for 30 days. We found that silymarin significantly improved HFD-induced body weight gain, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance in mice. Silymarin treatment reduced HFD-increased oxidative stress indicators (reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation) and restored HFD-down-regulated activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase) in the plasma and/or liver of the HFD-fed mice. Furthermore, silymarin decreased HFD-up-regulated hepatic NADPH oxidase expression and NF-κB activation in mice. Additionally, silymarin treatment mitigated HFD-increased plasma IL-1β, TNF-α levels, and HFD-enhanced hepatic NO, TLR4, and iNOS expression in mice. These novel data indicate that silymarin has potent anti-diabetic actions through alleviating oxidative stress and inflammatory response, partially by inhibiting hepatic NADPH oxidase expression and the NF-κB signaling.

  15. Andrographis paniculata extract attenuates pathological cardiac hypertrophy and apoptosis in high-fat diet fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, You-Liang; Shibu, Marthandam Asokan; Lii, Chong-Kuei; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Lin, Yi-Lin; Lai, Chao-Hung; Chen, Yu-Feng; Lin, Kuan-Ho; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-11-04

    Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees (Acanthaceae) has a considerable medicinal reputation in most parts of Asia as a potent medicine in the treatment of Endocrine disorders, inflammation and hypertension. Water extract of A. paniculata and its active constituent andrographolide are known to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. Our aim is to identify whether A. paniculata extract could protect myocardial damage in high-fat diet induced obese mice. The test mice were divided into three groups fed either with normal chow or with high fat diet (obese) or with high fat diet treated with A. paniculata extract (2g/kg/day, through gavage, for a week). We found that the myocardial inflammation pathway related proteins were increased in the obese mouse which potentially contributes to cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial apoptosis. But feeding with A. paniculata extract showed significant inhibition on the effects of high fat diet. Our study strongly suggests that supplementation of A. paniculata extract can be used for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease in obese patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Regressive Effect of Myricetin on Hepatic Steatosis in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Fang Xia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Myricetin is an effective antioxidant in the treatment of obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders. The objective of this study was to explore the regressive effect of myricetin on pre-existing hepatic steatosis induced by high-fat diet (HFD. C57BL/6 mice were fed either a standard diet or a HFD for 12 weeks and then half of the mice were treated with myricetin (0.12% in the diet, w/w while on their respective diets for further 12 weeks. Myricetin treatment significantly alleviated HFD-induced steatosis, decreased hepatic lipid accumulation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS levels, and increased antioxidative enzyme activities, including catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities. Microarray analysis of hepatic gene expression profiles showed that myricetin significantly altered the expression profiles of 177 genes which were involved in 12 biological pathways, including the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR signaling pathway and peroxisome. Further research indicated that myricetin elevated hepatic nuclear Nrf2 translocation, increased the protein expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 and NAD(PH quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1, reduced the protein expression of PPARγ, and normalized the expressions of genes that were involved in peroxisome and the PPAR signaling pathway. Our data indicated that myricetin might represent an effective therapeutic agent to treat HFD-induced hepatic steatosis via activating the Nrf2 pathway and the PPAR signaling pathway.

  17. Guarana (Paullinia cupana Stimulates Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Mice Fed High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália da Silva Lima

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of guarana on mitochondrial biogenesis in a high-fat diet (HFD-fed mice. C57BL6J mice were divided in two groups: high-fat diet HFD and high-fat diet + guarana (HFD-GUA. Both groups received HFD and water ad libitum and the HFD-GUA group also received a daily gavage of guarana (1 g/kg weight. Body weight and food intake was measured weekly. Glycemic, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels were determined. VO2 and energy expenditure (EE were determined by indirect calorimetry. Gene expression was evaluated by real-time PCR and protein content by western blotting. The HFD-GUA group presented lower body weight, subcutaneous, retroperitoneal, visceral, and epididyimal adipose tissue depots, and glycemic and triglyceride levels, with no change in food intake and cholesterol levels. Furthermore, the HFD-GUA group presented an increase in VO2 and basal energy expenditure (EE, as well as Pgc1α, Creb1, Ampka1, Nrf1, Nrf2, and Sirt1 expression in the muscle and brown adipose tissue. In addition, the HFD-GUA group presented an increase in mtDNA (mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid content in the muscle when compared to the HFD group. Thus, our data showed that guarana leads to an increase in energetic metabolism and stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis, contributing to control of weight gain, even when associated with high-fat diet.

  18. Effect of praziquantel administration on hepatic stereology of mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni and fed a low-protein diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Barros

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of administering praziquantel (PZQ, focusing on the liver stereological findings of malnourished mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Thirty female Swiss Webster mice (age: 21 days; weight: 8-14 g were fed either a low-protein diet (8% or standard chow (22% protein for 15 days. Five mice in each group were infected with 50 cercariae each of the BH strain (Brazil. PZQ therapy (80 mg/kg body weight, per day was started on the 50th day of infection and consisted of daily administration for 5 days. Volume density (hepatocytes, sinusoids and hepatic fibrosis was determined by stereology using a light microscope. Body weight gain and total serum albumin levels were always lower in undernourished mice. Our stereological study demonstrated that treatment increased both volume density of hepatocytes in mice fed standard chow (47.56%, treated group and 12.06%, control and low-protein chow (30.98%, treated group and 21.44%, control, and hepatic sinusoids [standard chow (12.52%, treated group and 9.06%, control, low-protein chow (14.42%, treated group and 8.46%, control], while hepatic fibrosis was reduced [standard chow (39.92%, treated group and 78.88%, control and low-protein chow (54.60%, treated group and 70.10%, control]. On the other hand, mice fed low-protein chow decreased density volume of hepatocytes and hepatic fibrosis. In conclusion, our findings indicate that treatment with PZQ ameliorates hepatic schistosomiasis pathology even in mice fed a low-protein diet.

  19. [Development of Rhodnius pictipes Stal, 1872 fed on mice and through a silicone membrane (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, D da S; da Fonseca, A H; Costa, F A; Jurberg, J; Galvão, C

    1997-01-01

    Rhodnius pictipes (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) from Serra Norte, State of Pará, Brazil, acclimatized in an insectary at the Laboratório Nacional e Internacional de Referência em Taxonomia de Triatomíneos, Departamento de Entomologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, were fed through a silicone membrane. In order to know the viability and the efficiency of this membrane compared with insects fed on mice, the number of bloodmeals taken, period of development of the five nymphal instars, longevity of adults, average amount of blood intake in each meal and percent of mortality were observed. A total of 310 insects, were used, comprising 50 nymphs of each instar, as well as 30 male and 30 female adults. Insects fed artificially had reduced minimal and maximal periods of development than the group fed on mice. The largest relative increase of body weight was observed in the 2nd instar followed by the 1st, and the amount of blood ingested increased during the development, to the 5th instar for both groups. There were no significant differences between the groups fed artificially and in vivo according to Tukey's test for p > 0.05. The percent of mortality in the 1st instar was 18% for artificially fed and 16% for the group fed on mice; these percentages decreased as insects developed until the 4th instar, without mortality, returning to increase in the 5th instar. R. pictipes was shown to be easily adaptable to artificial feeding, and could be considered as an important and viable experimental model.

  20. Sexually dimorphic brain fatty acid composition in low and high fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Navas, Carlos; Morselli, Eugenia; Clegg, Deborah J

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we analyzed the fatty acid profile of brains and plasma from male and female mice fed chow or a western-style high fat diet (WD) for 16 weeks to determine if males and females process fatty acids differently. Based on the differences in fatty acids observed in vivo, we performed in vitro experiments on N43 hypothalamic neuronal cells to begin to elucidate how the fatty acid milieu may impact brain inflammation. Using a comprehensive mass spectrometry fatty acid analysis, which includes a profile for 52 different fatty acid isomers, we assayed the plasma and brain fatty acid composition of age-matched male and female mice maintained on chow or a WD. Additionally, using the same techniques, we determined the fatty acid composition of N43 hypothalamic cells following exposure to palmitic and linoleic acid, alone or in combination. Our data demonstrate there is a sexual dimorphism in brain fatty acid content both following the consumption of the chow diet, as well as the WD, with males having an increased percentage of saturated fatty acids and reductions in ω6-polyunsaturated fatty acids when compared to females. Interestingly, we did not observe a sexual dimorphism in fatty acid content in the plasma of the same mice. Furthermore, exposure of N43 cells to the ω6-PUFA linoleic acid, which is higher in female brains when compared to males, reduces palmitic acid-induced inflammation. Our data suggest male and female brains, and not plasma, differ in their fatty acid profile. This is the first time, to our knowledge, lipidomic analyses has been used to directly test the hypothesis there is a sexual dimorphism in brain and plasma fatty acid composition following consumption of the chow diet, as well as following exposure to the WD.

  1. Sexually dimorphic brain fatty acid composition in low and high fat diet-fed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodriguez-Navas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we analyzed the fatty acid profile of brains and plasma from male and female mice fed chow or a western-style high fat diet (WD for 16 weeks to determine if males and females process fatty acids differently. Based on the differences in fatty acids observed in vivo, we performed in vitro experiments on N43 hypothalamic neuronal cells to begin to elucidate how the fatty acid milieu may impact brain inflammation. Methods: Using a comprehensive mass spectrometry fatty acid analysis, which includes a profile for 52 different fatty acid isomers, we assayed the plasma and brain fatty acid composition of age-matched male and female mice maintained on chow or a WD. Additionally, using the same techniques, we determined the fatty acid composition of N43 hypothalamic cells following exposure to palmitic and linoleic acid, alone or in combination. Results: Our data demonstrate there is a sexual dimorphism in brain fatty acid content both following the consumption of the chow diet, as well as the WD, with males having an increased percentage of saturated fatty acids and reductions in ω6-polyunsaturated fatty acids when compared to females. Interestingly, we did not observe a sexual dimorphism in fatty acid content in the plasma of the same mice. Furthermore, exposure of N43 cells to the ω6-PUFA linoleic acid, which is higher in female brains when compared to males, reduces palmitic acid-induced inflammation. Conclusions: Our data suggest male and female brains, and not plasma, differ in their fatty acid profile. This is the first time, to our knowledge, lipidomic analyses has been used to directly test the hypothesis there is a sexual dimorphism in brain and plasma fatty acid composition following consumption of the chow diet, as well as following exposure to the WD. Keywords: Obesity, N43, Palmitic acid, Linoleic acid, Central nervous system, Western diet, ω6-fatty acids

  2. Allomyrina dichotoma (Arthropoda: Insecta Larvae Confer Resistance to Obesity in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Il Yoon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the anti-obesity effect of Allomyrina dichotoma larvae (ADL, we previously reported that ADL block adipocyte differentiation on 3T3-L1 cell lines through downregulation of transcription factors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARG and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-α (CEBPA. In this study, we tested whether ADL prevent obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD and further investigated the mechanism underlying the effects of ADL. All mice were maintained on a normal-fat diet (NFD for 1 week and then assigned to one of five treatment groups: (1 NFD; (2 HFD; (3 HFD and 100 mg·kg−1·day−1 ADL; (4 HFD and 3000 mg·kg−1·day−1ADL; or (5 HFD and 3000 mg·kg−1·day−1 yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis, positive control. ADL and yerba mate were administered orally daily. Mice were fed experimental diets and body weight was monitored weekly for 6 weeks. Our results indicated that ADL reduced body weight gain, organ weight and adipose tissue volume in a dose-dependent manner. Body weight gain was approximately 22.4% lower compared to mice fed only HFD, but the difference did not reach the level of statistical significance. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis revealed that gene expression levels of PPARG, CEBPA and lipoprotein lipase (LPL in the epididymal fat tissue of HFD-fed mice receiving 3000 mg·kg−1·day−1 ADL were reduced by 12.4-, 25.7-, and 12.3-fold, respectively, compared to mice fed HFD only. Moreover, mice administered ADL had lower serum levels of triglycerides and leptin than HFD-fed mice that did not receive ADL. Taken together our results suggest that ADL and its constituent bioactive compounds hold potential for the treatment and prevention of obesity.

  3. Population dynamics of safflower capsule flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Kohgiluyeh safflower farms of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    K. Saeidi; S. Mirfakhraei; F. Mehrkhou

    2015-01-01

    Oilseeds such as flax, canola, safflower, soybean and sunflower, which are annual plants, provide the world’s major source of vegetable oils, although the highest oil yield comes from oil-bearing tree fruits. One of the most popular oil seeds is safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), which belongs to the Asteraceae family. Due to the ability of this plant to grow in dry and semi-dry conditions, safflower oil has the potential to be a commercially profitable product in Iran. Seasonal populations...

  4. Improvement of Lipid Profile and Antioxidant Status of Hyperlipidaemic Albino Rats by Gamma-irradiated Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, R.G.; Farag, M.F.

    2011-01-01

    Hyper-Lipidemia is a dominant risk factor that contributes to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Safflower is rich in the essential omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and phenolic compounds which are known to be effective for the treatment of hyper- lipidemia. This study was performed to examine the efficacy of safflower to ameliorate the induced hyper-lipidemia in rats. The results obtained revealed that rats fed on high fat diet (HFD) significantly induced an increase in lipid profile, glucose and some liver enzymes as well as elevation of malondialdehyde (MDA) associated with a significant decrease in high density lipoprotein (HDL-C), glutathione (GSH) content and some antioxidant enzymes activity. However, when rats received HFD containing either raw or irradiated safflower (1% w/w), a significant improvement in the above mentioned parameters was seen. In conclusion, safflower supplementation in diet of rats pointed out to a promising role of safflower, a natural product, on antioxidant enzymes, liver function and lipid profile of hyper-lipidemic rats, regardless if it is irradiated or not

  5. Supplemental safflower oil affects the fatty acid profile, including conjugated linoleic acid, of lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, J A; Kott, R W; Hatfield, P G; Bergman, J W; Flynn, C R

    2005-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether increasing levels of dietary safflower oil would alter unsaturated fat (especially CLA) and tocopherol content of lamb, animal performance, carcass characteristics, or color stability of lamb muscle tissue. Targhee x Rambouillet wethers (n = 60) were assigned to one of three diets (four pens per treatment with five lambs per pen) in a completely random design. Diets were formulated with supplemental safflower oil at 0 (control), 3, or 6% (as-fed basis) of the diet. Diets containing approximately 80% concentrate and 20% roughage were formulated, on a DM basis, to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous and to meet or exceed NRC requirements for Ca, P, and other nutrients. A subsample of 12 wethers per treatment was selected based on average BW (54 kg) and slaughtered. Carcass data (LM area, fat thickness, and internal fat content) and wholesale cut weight (leg, loin, rack, shoulder, breast, and foreshank), along with fatty acid, tocopherol, and color analysis, were determined on each carcass. The LM and infraspinatus were sampled for fatty acid profile. Increasing safflower oil supplementation from 0 to 3 or 6% increased the proportion of linoleic acid in the diet from 49.93 to 55.32 to 62.38%, respectively, whereas the percentage of oleic acid decreased from 27.94 to 23.80 to 20.73%, respectively. The percentage of oil in the diet did not (P > or = 0.11) alter the growth and carcass characteristics of lambs, nor did it alter the tocopherol content or color stability of meat. Increasing levels of safflower oil in lamb diets decreased (P safflower oil, up to 6% of the diet, resulted in increasing levels of unsaturated fatty acids and CLA in the lean tissue, without adversely affecting growth performance, carcass characteristics, or color stability of lamb.

  6. Development of a method and technology for obtaining vegetable oil from safflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Antipov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is designed and engineered compact line for processing grain safflower, which used the equipment of the increased efficiency, implementing progressive processes with application of modern physical methods of treatment. This line includes bucket Elevator (Noria, a receiving hopper , the air-sieve separator , intermediate tank, Trier (osgoodby and qualitronic, stone-dividing machine and separator for separation of Caucalis lappula, screw conveyor, intermediate bunker, peeler, oil press machines, the device for the deposition of oil (the sump, pump, frame filter. The process of collapse in the grinding pilot plant, in which the destruction of the epithelial layer of the shell is due to the fact that the compression stress in the impact zone exceeds the limit of elastic deformation of the shell of the grain. Conducted sieve analysis, which was studied granulometric composition fed to the compression of the particles of safflower seed , in this case to characterize the granulometric composition of the raw material, consisting of particles of irregular shape, used the concept of equivalent diameter. As a result of the experiments was the dependence of the equivalent particle diameter from the diameter of the sieve. Since the degree of extraction of safflower seed are hugely influenced by the moisture source of the product, was therefore carried out experimental studies of compaction with different moisture content of the seeds , and with the addition of Luz-Ki. From the analysis of graphic dependences were established a range of optimum moisture safflower seed 8,5--10%, providing the lowest residual oil content and hence the greatest yield of oil. Also managed to significantly increase the efficiency of extraction of oil by adding safflower seed pre-milled husks, which allowed to obtain cake with a residual oil content of 12% when you multiply pre-pressing and to 6% at the final extraction

  7. The effects of Momordica charantia on obesity and lipid profiles of mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Ryu, Ho Kyung

    2015-10-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dried Momordica charantia aqueous extracts (MCA) and ethanol extracts (MCE) on obesity and lipid profiles in mice fed a high-fat diet. Forty two ICR mice were randomly divided into six groups. The normal group was fed a basal diet, and other groups were fed a 45% high-fat diet (HFD) for 7 weeks. The normal and HFD groups were also orally administered distilled water each day for 7 weeks. The remaining groups received Momordica charantia extract (0.5 or 1.0 g/kg/day MCA, and 0.5 or 1.0 g/kg/day MCE). In order to measure the anti-obesity and lipid profile improvement effects, body and visceral tissue weight, lipid profiles, plasma insulin levels, hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured. Both MCA and MCE significantly decreased body and visceral tissue weight relative to those of the HFD group (P Momordica charantia extracts have anti-obesity effects and the ability to modulate lipid prolife of mice fed a HFD by suppressing body weight gain, visceral tissue weight, plasma and hepatic lipid concentrations, and lipid peroxidation along with increasing lipid metabolism.

  8. Severe NAFLD with hepatic necroinflammatory changes in mice fed trans fats and a high-fructose corn syrup equivalent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetri, Laura H; Basaranoglu, Metin; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Yerian, Lisa M; Neuschwander-Tetri, Brent A

    2008-11-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether combining features of a western lifestyle in mice with trans fats in a high-fat diet, high-fructose corn syrup in the water, and interventions designed to promote sedentary behavior would cause the hepatic histopathological and metabolic abnormalities that characterize nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Male C57BL/6 mice fed ad libitum high-fat chow containing trans fats (partially hydrogenated vegetable oil) and relevant amounts of a high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) equivalent for 1-16 wk were compared with mice fed standard chow or mice with trans fats or HFCS omitted. Cage racks were removed from western diet mice to promote sedentary behavior. By 16 wk, trans fat-fed mice became obese and developed severe hepatic steatosis with associated necroinflammatory changes. Plasma alanine aminotransferase levels increased, as did liver TNF-alpha and procollagen mRNA, indicating an inflammatory and profibrogenic response to injury. Glucose intolerance and impaired fasting glucose developed within 2 and 4 wk, respectively. Plasma insulin, resistin, and leptin levels increased in a profile similar to that seen in patients with NASH. The individual components of this diet contributed to the phenotype independently; isocaloric replacement of trans fats with lard established that trans fats played a major role in promoting hepatic steatosis and injury, whereas inclusion of HFCS promoted food consumption, obesity, and impaired insulin sensitivity. Combining risk factors for the metabolic syndrome by feeding mice trans fats and HFCS induced histological features of NASH in the context of a metabolic profile similar to patients with this disease. Because dietary trans fats promoted liver steatosis and injury, their role in the epidemic of NASH needs further evaluation.

  9. Loss of PDZK1 causes coronary artery occlusion and myocardial infarction in Paigen diet-fed apolipoprotein E deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayce Yesilaltay

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available PDZK1 is a four PDZ-domain containing protein that binds to the carboxy terminus of the HDL receptor, scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI, and regulates its expression, localization and function in a tissue-specific manner. PDZK1 knockout (KO mice are characterized by a marked reduction of SR-BI protein expression ( approximately 95% in the liver (lesser or no reduction in other organs with a concomitant 1.7 fold increase in plasma cholesterol. PDZK1 has been shown to be atheroprotective using the high fat/high cholesterol ('Western' diet-fed murine apolipoprotein E (apoE KO model of atherosclerosis, presumably because of its role in promoting reverse cholesterol transport via SR-BI.Here, we have examined the effects of PDZK1 deficiency in apoE KO mice fed with the atherogenic 'Paigen' diet for three months. Relative to apoE KO, PDZK1/apoE double KO (dKO mice showed increased plasma lipids (33% increase in total cholesterol; 49 % increase in unesterified cholesterol; and 36% increase in phospholipids and a 26% increase in aortic root lesions. Compared to apoE KO, dKO mice exhibited substantial occlusive coronary artery disease: 375% increase in severe occlusions. Myocardial infarctions, not observed in apoE KO mice (although occasional minimal fibrosis was noted, were seen in 7 of 8 dKO mice, resulting in 12 times greater area of fibrosis in dKO cardiac muscle.These results show that Paigen-diet fed PDZK1/apoE dKO mice represent a new animal model useful for studying coronary heart disease and suggest that PDZK1 may represent a valuable target for therapeutic intervention.

  10. Effect of Saffron on Metabolic Profile and Retina in Apolipoprotein E-Knockout Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumouchtsis, Evangelos K; Tzani, Aspasia; Doulamis, Ilias P; Konstantopoulos, Panagiotis; Laskarina-Maria, Korou; Agrogiannis, Georgios; Agapitos, Emmanouil; Moschos, Marilita M; Kostakis, Alkiviadis; Perrea, Despina N

    2017-09-22

    Saffron is a spice that has been traditionally used as a regimen for a variety of diseases due to its potent antioxidant attributes. It is well documented that impaired systemic oxidative status is firmly associated with diverse adverse effects including retinal damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of saffron administration against the retinal damage in apoE -/- mice fed a high-fat diet, since they constitute a designated experimental model susceptible to oxidative stress. Twenty-one mice were allocated into three groups: Group A (control, n = 7 c57bl/6 mice) received standard chow diet; Group B (high-fat, n = 7 apoE -/- mice) received a high-fat diet; and Group C (high-fat and saffron, n = 7 apoE -/- mice) received a high-fat diet and saffron (25 mg/kg/d) through their drinking water. The duration of the study was 20 weeks. Lipidemic profile, glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), and total oxidative capacity (PerOX) were measured in blood serum. Histological analysis of retina was also conducted. Administration of saffron resulted in enhanced glycemic control and preservation of retinal thickness when compared with apoE -/- mice fed a high-fat diet. The outcomes of the study suggest the potential protective role of saffron against retinal damage induced by oxidative stress. Nevertheless, verification of these results in humans is required before any definite conclusions can be drawn.

  11. Cholesterol-lowering effects of dietary pomegranate extract and inulin in mice fed an obesogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jieping; Zhang, Song; Henning, Susanne M; Lee, Rupo; Hsu, Mark; Grojean, Emma; Pisegna, Rita; Ly, Austin; Heber, David; Li, Zhaoping

    2018-02-01

    It has been demonstrated in animal studies that both polyphenol-rich pomegranate extract (PomX) and the polysaccharide inulin, ameliorate metabolic changes induced by a high-fat diet, but little is known about the specific mechanisms. This study evaluated the effect of PomX (0.25%) and inulin (9%) alone or in combination on cholesterol and lipid metabolism in mice. Male C57BL/6 J mice were fed high-fat/high-sucrose [HF/HS (32% energy from fat, 25% energy from sucrose)] diets supplemented with PomX (0.25%) and inulin (9%) alone or in combination for 4 weeks. At the end of intervention, serum and hepatic cholesterol, triglyceride levels, hepatic gene expression of key regulators of cholesterol and lipid metabolism as well as fecal cholesterol and bile acid excretion were determined. Dietary supplementation of the HF/HS diet with PomX and inulin decreased hepatic and serum total cholesterol. Supplementation with PomX and inulin together resulted in lower hepatic and serum total cholesterol compared to individual treatments. Compared to HF/HS control, PomX increased gene expression of Cyp7a1 and Cyp7b1, key regulators of bile acid synthesis pathways. Inulin decreased gene expression of key regulators of cholesterol de novo synthesis Srebf2 and Hmgcr and significantly increased fecal elimination of total bile acids and neutral sterols. Only PomX in combination with inulin reduced liver and lipid weight significantly compared to the HF/HS control group. PomX showed a trend to decrease liver triglyceride (TG) levels, while inulin or PomX-inulin combination had no effect on either serum or liver TG levels. Dietary PomX and inulin supplementation decreased hepatic and serum total cholesterol by different mechanisms and the combination leading to a significant enhancement of the cholesterol-lowering effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Metabolic risk factors in mice divergently selected for BMR fed high fat and high carb diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska, Julita; Gębczyński, Andrzej K; Konarzewski, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Factors affecting contribution of spontaneous physical activity (SPA; activity associated with everyday tasks) to energy balance of humans are not well understood, as it is not clear whether low activity is related to dietary habits, precedes obesity or is a result of thereof. In particular, human studies on SPA and basal metabolic rates (BMR, accounting for >50% of human energy budget) and their associations with diet composition, metabolic thrift and obesity are equivocal. To clarify these ambiguities we used a unique animal model-mice selected for divergent BMR rates (the H-BMR and L-BMR line type) presenting a 50% between-line type difference in the primary selected trait. Males of each line type were divided into three groups and fed either a high fat, high carb or a control diet. They then spent 4 months in individual cages under conditions emulating human "sedentary lifestyle", with SPA followed every month and measurements of metabolic risk indicators (body fat mass %, blood lipid profile, fasting blood glucose levels and oxidative damage in the livers, kidneys and hearts) taken at the end of study. Mice with genetically determined high BMR assimilated more energy and had higher SPA irrespective of type of diet. H-BMR individuals were characterized by lower dry body fat mass %, better lipid profile and lower fasting blood glucose levels, but higher oxidative damage in the livers and hearts. Genetically determined high BMR may be a protective factor against diet-induced obesity and most of the metabolic syndrome indicators. Elevated spontaneous activity is correlated with high BMR, and constitutes an important factor affecting individual capability to sustain energy balance even under energy dense diets.

  13. Changes of Tight Junction Protein Claudins in Small Intestine and Kidney Tissues of Mice Fed a DDC Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiko, Yukie; Kojima, Takashi; Murata, Masaki; Tsujiwaki, Mitsuhiro; Takeuchi, Masaya; Sawada, Norimasa; Mori, Michio

    2013-12-01

    DDC (3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine)-fed mice are widely used as a model for cholestatic liver disease. We examined the expression of tight junction protein claudin subspecies by immunofluorescent histochemistry in small intestine and kidney tissues of mice fed a DDC diet for 12 weeks. In the small intestine, decreases in claudin-3, claudin-7 and claudin-15 were observed in villous epithelial cells corresponding to the severity of histological changes while leaving the abundance of these claudin subspecies unchanged in crypt cells. Nevertheless, the proliferative activity of intestinal crypt cells measured by immunohistochemistry for Ki-67 decreased in the mice fed the DDC diet compared with that of control mice. These results suggest the possibility that DDC feeding affects the barrier function of villous epithelial cells and thus inhibits the proliferative activity of crypt epithelial cells. On the other hand, in the kidney, remarkable changes were found in the subcellular localization of claudin subspecies in a segment-specific manner, although histological changes of renal epithelial cells were quite minimal. These results indicate that immunohistochemistry for claudin subspecies can serve as a useful tool for detecting minute functional alterations of intestinal and renal epithelial cells.

  14. Contrasting effects of fish oil and safflower oil on hepatic peroxisomal and tissue lipid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neschen, Susanne; Moore, Irene; Regittnig, Werner; Yu, Chun Li; Wang, Yanlin; Pypaert, Marc; Petersen, Kitt Falk; Shulman, Gerald I

    2002-02-01

    To examine the mechanism by which fish oil protects against fat-induced insulin resistance, we studied the effects of control, fish oil, and safflower oil diets on peroxisomal content, fatty acyl-CoA, diacylglycerol, and ceramide content in rat liver and muscle. We found that, in contrast to control and safflower oil-fed rats, fish oil feeding induced a 150% increase in the abundance of peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase and 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase in liver but lacked similar effects in muscle. This was paralleled by an almost twofold increase in hepatic peroxisome content (both P < 0.002 vs. control and safflower). These changes in the fish oil-fed rats were associated with a more than twofold lower hepatic triglyceride/diacylglycerol, as well as intramuscular triglyceride/fatty acyl-CoA, content. In conclusion, these data strongly support the hypothesis that n-3 fatty acids protect against fat-induced insulin resistance by serving as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha ligands and thereby induce hepatic, but not intramuscular, peroxisome proliferation. In turn, an increased hepatic beta-oxidative capacity results in lower hepatic triglyceride/diacylglycerol and intramyocellular triglyceride/fatty acyl-CoA content.

  15. Toxicity of palmitoyl glycerol to mice: depression of thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trumbo, P.R.; Meuten, D.J.; King, M.W.; Tove, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    Mice given propylthiouracil, a thyroid inhibitor, and fed a diet containing a nontoxic level of rac-1(3)-palmitoyl glycerol showed the hypothermia and mortality expected for a toxic dose, but did not show these signs when linoleate or oleate was added to the diet. Loss of radioiodine from the whole animal and thyroid gland was slower when mice were fed the toxic palmitoyl glycerol diet than when fed the same diet containing 4% safflower oil. However, mice fed the two diets did not differ in the extent of the incorporation of radioiodine, and essentially all was bound to protein in each case. Follicular thyroid cells from mice fed the potentially toxic diet that contained unsaturated fat were normal in appearance. Conversely, cells from mice fed the toxic diet were smaller and more densely stained, showing evidence of glycoprotein inside the cell. These findings show that the thyroid gland is affected by the palmitoyl glycerol diet. However, the thyroid is not the only organ affected, because giving either thyroxine or triiodothyronine had no effect on the toxicity of palmitoyl glycerol

  16. Fatty acid profiles in tissues of mice fed conjugated linoleic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøttsche, Jesper; Straarup, Ellen Marie

    2006-01-01

    The incorporation of vaccenic acid (VA, 0.5 and 1.2%), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, mixture of primarily c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA, 1.2%), linoleic acid (LA, 1.2%) and oleic acid (OA, 1.2%) into different tissues of mice was examined. The effects on the fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols...... (TAG) and phospholipids (PL) in kidney, spleen, liver and adipose tissue were investigated. VA and CLA (c9,t11- and t10,c12-CLA) were primarily found in TAG, especially in kidney and adipose tissue, respectively. Conversion of VA to c9,t11-CLA was indicated by our results, as both fatty acids were...... incorporated into all the analyzed tissues when a diet containing VA but not c9,t11-CLA was fed. Most of the observed effects on the fatty acid profiles were seen in the CLA group, whereas only minor effects were observed in the VA groups compared with the CA group. Thus, CLA increased n-3 polyunsaturated...

  17. Polyphenol-Rich Fraction of Ecklonia cava Improves Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in High Fat Diet-Fed Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Young Park

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecklonia cava (E. cava; CA is an edible brown alga with beneficial effects in diabetes via regulation of various metabolic processes such as lipogenesis, lipolysis, inflammation, and the antioxidant defense system in liver and adipose tissue. We investigated the effect of the polyphenol-rich fraction of E. cava produced from Gijang (G-CA on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in high-fat diet (HFD-fed mice. C57BL6 mice were fed a HFD for six weeks and then the HFD group was administered 300 mg/kg of G-CA extracts by oral intubation for 10 weeks. Body weight, fat mass, and serum biochemical parameters were reduced by G-CA extract treatment. MRI/MRS analysis showed that liver fat and liver volume in HFD-induced obese mice were reduced by G-CA extract treatment. Further, we analyzed hepatic gene expression related to inflammation and lipid metabolism. The mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and hepatic lipogenesis-related genes were decreased in G-CA-treated HFD mice. The mRNA expression levels of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase 1 (CYP7A1, the key enzyme in bile acid synthesis, were dramatically increased by G-CA treatment in HFD mice. We suggest that G-CA treatment ameliorated hepatic steatosis by inhibiting inflammation and improving lipid metabolism.

  18. Research of qualitative indicators of safflower oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. Z. Mateyev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid composition of vegetable oils is the fundamental quality characteristics. To determine the fatty acid composition, the SP-2560 column and Chromotec 5000.1 gas chromatograph were used. As a result of the studies it was established that fatty acids of 18 and 16 groups prevail in safflower oil, the content of the remaining fatty acids in the total is 1.2%. In the test sample, the prevalence of omega-6 fatty acids (concentration of 80% of linoleic and ?-linolenic fatty acids is observed. Omega-6 fatty acids help the body burn excess fat, instead of postponing it for future use. Natural fatty acids are the bricks of human prostaglandins, mountain-monopodic substances that help normalize blood pressure, control muscle contractions and participate in the immune response of the body. The qualitative characteristics of vegetable oil are also physicochemical indicators. The acid number of safflower oil was 1.07 mgKOH/g, the peroxide number was 8.09 mmol/kgO2, the anisidine number of safflower oil was 3.25. Moisture of rapeseed oil is 0.03%. Safflower oil can be used as a biofuel, the lowest heat of its combustion is 36.978 MJ/kg; density – 913 kg/m3; kinematic viscosity 85.6 mm2/s. In comparison with rapeseed oil, the specific effective fuel consumption is reduced by 2.08%. The obtained fatty acid content of the analyzed sample of safflower oil is well correlated with the literature data, which indicates the high accuracy of the studies, the sample does not belong to the high oleic vegetable oils. The obtained values for qualitative characteristics indicate the prospects of using this type of oil directly in food, as well as for the production of oilseeds, such as mayonnaise, sauces, spreads.

  19. Brain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate microglia cell number and morphology in response to intracerebroventricular amyloid-β 1-40 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopperton, Kathryn E; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Giuliano, Vanessa; Bazinet, Richard P

    2016-09-29

    Neuroinflammation is a proposed mechanism by which Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology potentiates neuronal death and cognitive decline. Consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of AD in human observational studies and exerts protective effects on cognition and pathology in animal models. These fatty acids and molecules derived from them are known to have anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving properties, presenting a potential mechanism for these protective effects. Here, we explore this mechanism using fat-1 transgenic mice and their wild type littermates weaned onto either a fish oil diet (high in n-3 PUFA) or a safflower oil diet (negligible n-3 PUFA). The fat-1 mouse carries a transgene that enables it to convert omega-6 to omega-3 PUFA. At 12 weeks of age, mice underwent intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of amyloid-β 1-40. Brains were collected between 1 and 28 days post-icv, and hippocampal microglia, astrocytes, and degenerating neurons were quantified by immunohistochemistry with epifluorescence microscopy, while microglia morphology was assessed with confocal microscopy and skeleton analysis. Fat-1 mice fed with the safflower oil diet and wild type mice fed with the fish oil diet had higher brain DHA in comparison with the wild type mice fed with the safflower oil diet. Relative to the wild type mice fed with the safflower oil diet, fat-1 mice exhibited a lower peak in the number of labelled microglia, wild type mice fed with fish oil had fewer degenerating neurons, and both exhibited alterations in microglia morphology at 10 days post-surgery. There were no differences in astrocyte number at any time point and no differences in the time course of microglia or astrocyte activation following infusion of amyloid-β 1-40. Increasing brain DHA, through either dietary or transgenic means, decreases some elements of the inflammatory response to amyloid-β in a mouse model of AD. This supports the

  20. Uric acid promotes vascular stiffness, maladaptive inflammatory responses and proteinuria in western diet fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroor, Annayya R; Jia, Guanghong; Habibi, Javad; Sun, Zhe; Ramirez-Perez, Francisco I; Brady, Barron; Chen, Dongqing; Martinez-Lemus, Luis A; Manrique, Camila; Nistala, Ravi; Whaley-Connell, Adam T; Demarco, Vincent G; Meininger, Gerald A; Sowers, James R

    2017-09-01

    Aortic vascular stiffness has been implicated in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in obese individuals. However, the mechanism promoting these adverse effects are unclear. In this context, promotion of obesity through consumption of a western diet (WD) high in fat and fructose leads to excess circulating uric acid. There is accumulating data implicating elevated uric acid in the promotion of CVD and CKD. Accordingly, we hypothesized that xanthine oxidase(XO) inhibition with allopurinol would prevent a rise in vascular stiffness and proteinuria in a translationally relevant model of WD-induced obesity. Four-week-old C57BL6/J male mice were fed a WD with excess fat (46%) and fructose (17.5%) with or without allopurinol (125mg/L in drinking water) for 16weeks. Aortic endothelial and extracellular matrix/vascular smooth muscle stiffness was evaluated by atomic force microscopy. Aortic XO activity, 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) and aortic endothelial sodium channel (EnNaC) expression were evaluated along with aortic expression of inflammatory markers. In the kidney, expression of toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) and fibronectin were assessed along with evaluation of proteinuria. XO inhibition significantly attenuated WD-induced increases in plasma uric acid, vascular XO activity and oxidative stress, in concert with reductions in proteinuria. Further, XO inhibition prevented WD-induced increases in aortic EnNaC expression and associated endothelial and subendothelial stiffness. XO inhibition also reduced vascular pro-inflammatory and maladaptive immune responses induced by consumption of a WD. XO inhibition also decreased WD-induced increases in renal TLR4 and fibronectin that associated proteinuria. Consumption of a WD leads to elevations in plasma uric acid, increased vascular XO activity, oxidative stress, vascular stiffness, and proteinuria all of which are attenuated with allopurinol administration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc

  1. Balanced Diet-Fed Fat-1 Transgenic Mice Exhibit Lower Hindlimb Suspension-Induced Soleus Muscle Atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nasri Marzuca-Nassr

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of two-week hindlimb suspension (HS on skeletal muscle atrophy were investigated in balanced diet-fed Fat-1 transgenic and C57BL/6 wild-type mice. Body composition and gastrocnemius fatty acid composition were measured. Skeletal muscle force, cross-sectional area (CSA, and signaling pathways associated with protein synthesis (protein kinase B, Akt; ribosomal protein S6, S6, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1, 4EBP1; glycogen synthase kinase3-beta, GSK3-beta; and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2, ERK 1/2 and protein degradation (atrophy gene-1/muscle atrophy F-box, atrogin-1/MAFbx and muscle RING finger 1, MuRF1 were evaluated in the soleus muscle. HS decreased soleus muscle wet and dry weights (by 43% and 26%, respectively, muscle isotonic and tetanic force (by 29% and 18%, respectively, CSA of the soleus muscle (by 36%, and soleus muscle fibers (by 45%. Fat-1 transgenic mice had a decrease in the ω-6/ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs ratio as compared with C57BL/6 wild-type mice (56%, p < 0.001. Fat-1 mice had lower soleus muscle dry mass loss (by 10% and preserved absolute isotonic force (by 17% and CSA of the soleus muscle (by 28% after HS as compared with C57BL/6 wild-type mice. p-GSK3B/GSK3B ratio was increased (by 70% and MuRF-1 content decreased (by 50% in the soleus muscle of Fat-1 mice after HS. Balanced diet-fed Fat-1 mice are able to preserve in part the soleus muscle mass, absolute isotonic force and CSA of the soleus muscle in a disuse condition.

  2. Antihyperlipidemic effect of Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim) Harms leaves in high-fat-diet fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Miyako; Kondo, Momoko; Shimizu, Taro; Saito, Tetsuo; Sato, Shinji; Hirayama, Masao; Konishi, Tetsuya; Nishida, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a major risk factor for a variety of obesity-related diseases. Recently, the effects of functional foods have been investigated on lipid metabolism as a means to reduce lipid content in the blood, liver and adipose tissues associated with carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase (CPT) activity. Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim) Harms (AS) is a medicinal herb possessing a wide spectra of functions including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-fatigue actions. Despite much research being focused on the cortical roots of AS, little information is available regarding its leaves, which are also expected to promote human health, for example by improving abnormal lipid metabolism. Here, we explored whether AS leaves affect lipid metabolism in mice fed a high-fat diet. The administration of AS to BALB/c mice fed a high-fat diet significantly decreased plasma triglycerides (TG). CPT activity in the liver of these mice was significantly enhanced by AS treatment. These findings indicate that AS leaves have the potential to alleviate increase in plasma TG levels due to high-fat diet intake in mice, possibly by increasing mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation, especially via CPT activation. Consequently, daily intake of AS leaves could promote beneficial health effects including the prevention of metabolic syndrome. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Balanced Diet-Fed Fat-1 Transgenic Mice Exhibit Lower Hindlimb Suspension-Induced Soleus Muscle Atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuca-Nassr, Gabriel Nasri; Murata, Gilson Masahiro; Martins, Amanda Roque; Vitzel, Kaio Fernando; Crisma, Amanda Rabello; Torres, Rosângela Pavan; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Kang, Jing Xuan; Curi, Rui

    2017-10-06

    The consequences of two-week hindlimb suspension (HS) on skeletal muscle atrophy were investigated in balanced diet-fed Fat-1 transgenic and C57BL/6 wild-type mice. Body composition and gastrocnemius fatty acid composition were measured. Skeletal muscle force, cross-sectional area (CSA), and signaling pathways associated with protein synthesis (protein kinase B, Akt; ribosomal protein S6, S6, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1, 4EBP1; glycogen synthase kinase3-beta, GSK3-beta; and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2, ERK 1/2) and protein degradation (atrophy gene-1/muscle atrophy F-box, atrogin-1/MAFbx and muscle RING finger 1, MuRF1) were evaluated in the soleus muscle. HS decreased soleus muscle wet and dry weights (by 43% and 26%, respectively), muscle isotonic and tetanic force (by 29% and 18%, respectively), CSA of the soleus muscle (by 36%), and soleus muscle fibers (by 45%). Fat-1 transgenic mice had a decrease in the ω-6/ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) ratio as compared with C57BL/6 wild-type mice (56%, p Balanced diet-fed Fat-1 mice are able to preserve in part the soleus muscle mass, absolute isotonic force and CSA of the soleus muscle in a disuse condition.

  4. Dose response of fish oil versus safflower oil on graft arteriosclerosis in rabbit heterotopic cardiac allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, K L; Fann, J I; Sokoloff, M H; Fong, L G; Sarris, G E; Billingham, M E; Miller, D C

    1991-01-01

    With the advent of cyclosporin A, accelerated coronary arteriosclerosis has become the major impediment to the long-term survival of heart transplant recipients. Due to epidemiologic reports suggesting a salutary effect of fish oil, the dose response of fish oil on graft coronary arteriosclerosis in a rabbit heterotopic cardiac allograft model was assessed using safflower oil as a caloric control. Seven groups of New Zealand White rabbits (n = 10/group) received heterotropic heart transplants from Dutch-Belted donors and were immunosuppressed with low-dose cyclosporin A (7.5 mg/kg/day). Group 1 animals were fed a normal diet and served as control. Group 2, 3, and 4 animals received a daily supplement of low- (0.25 mL/kg/day), medium- (0.75 mL/kg/day), and high- (1.5 mL/kg/day) dose fish oil (116 mg n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid/mL), respectively. Group 5, 6, and 7 animals were supplemented with equivalent dose of safflower oil (i.e., 0.25, 0.75, and 1.5 mL/kg/day). Oil-supplemented rabbits were pretreated for 3 weeks before transplantation and maintained on the same diet for 6 weeks after operation. The extent of graft coronary arteriosclerosis was quantified using computer-assisted, morphometric planimetry. When the animals were killed, cyclosporin A was associated with elevated plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the control group. While safflower oil prevented the increase in plasma lipids at all dosages, fish oil ameliorated the cyclosporin-induced increase in total cholesterol only with high doses. Compared to control animals, there was a trend for more graft vessel disease with increasing fish oil dose, as assessed by mean luminal occlusion and intimal thickness. A steeper trend was observed for increasing doses of safflower oil; compared to the high-dose safflower oil group, animals supplemented with low-dose safflower oil had less mean luminal occlusion (16.3% +/- 5.9% versus 41.4% +/- 7.6%, p less than 0.017) and intimal thickness (7

  5. Transcriptome analysis of the effects of chitosan on the hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in high-fat diet fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Zhang, Sicong; Wang, Xiaoya; Yang, Shuo; Jiang, Qixing; Xu, Yanshun; Xia, Wenshui

    2017-09-01

    Transcriptome analysis was performed to investigate the alterations in gene expression after chitosan (CS) treatment on the liver of mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD). The results showed that the body weight, the liver weight and the epididymal fat mass of HFD mice, which were 62.98%, 46.51% and 239.37%, respectively, higher than those of control mice, could be significantly decreased by chitosan supplementation. Also, high-fat diet increased both plasma lipid and liver lipid as compared with the control mice. Chitosan supplementation decreased the plasma lipid and liver lipid, increased the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL) activity, increased T-AOC and decreased MDA in the liver and the epididymis adipose as compared with the HFD mice. Transcriptome analysis indicated that increased Mups, Lcn2, Gstm3 and CYP2E1 expressions clearly indicated HFD induced lipid metabolism disorder and oxidative damage. Especially, chitosan treatment decreased the Mup17 and Lcn2 expressions by 64.32% and 82.43% respectively as compared with those of HFD mice. These results indicated that chitosan possess the ability to improve the impairment of lipid metabolism as strongly associated with increased Mups expressions and gene expressions related to oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of bixin in high-fat diet-fed-induced fatty liver in C57BL/6J mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rosa Martha Perez Gutierrez; Rita Valadez Romero

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the anti-obesity activity of bixin (BIX) on C57BL/6J mice which were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and to determine the mechanism of this effect. Methods: C57BL/6J mice were separately fed a high-calorie diet or a normal diet for 8 weeks, then they were treated with BIX for another 13 weeks. After administration for 13 weeks, the animals were sacrificed. Body adiposity, serum lipid level, and insulin resistance were evaluated. In addition, a histological assay of pancreas and liver, an evaluation of the inhibitory properties on pancreatic lipase, and a-amylase were conducted. Results: Administration of BIX significantly decreased the body weight gain, adipocyte size, fat pad weights, hepatic lipid levels in HFD-induced obese mice. In addition, reduced liver weight exhibited decreased serum leptin levels, malic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, hepatic fatty acid synthase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and hepatic phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activity. However, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione levels were increased in hepatic tissue. BIX also decreased lipid and carbohydrates absorption due to inhibition of pancreatic lipase and a-amylase. Long term supplementation of BIX significantly decreased hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance and glucose level. Decreased levels of hepatic steatosis and the islets of Langerhans appeared less shrunken in HFD-fed mice. Conclusions: The antiobesity effect of BIX appears to be associated at least in part, to its inhibitory effect on lipids and carbohydrate digestion enzymes such as pancreatic lipase, a-glucosidase, and a-amylase. The results suggested that BIX also act as an antioxidant and may treat visceral obesity normalizing glucose levels, improving insulin resistance and increasing energy expenditure. Therefore, achiote which has a main component, the carotenoid BIX, could be a viable food for the treatment of obesity and diabetes.

  7. IL-8 signaling is up-regulated in alcoholic hepatitis and DDC fed mice with Mallory Denk Bodies (MDBs) present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; French, Barbara A; Nelson, Tyler J; Li, Jun; Tillman, Brittany; French, Samuel W

    2015-10-01

    Chemokines and their receptors are involved in oncogenesis and in tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis. Various chemokines also promote cell proliferation and resistance to apoptosis of stressed cells. The chemokine CXCL8, also known as interleukin-8 (IL-8), is a proinflammatory molecule that has functions within the tumor microenvironment. Deregulation of IL-8 signaling is shown to play pivotal roles in tumorigenesis and progression. Mallory-Denk Bodies (MDBs) are prevalent in various liver diseases including alcoholic hepatitis (AH) and are formed in mice livers by feeding DDC. By comparing AH livers where MDBs had formed with normal livers, there were significant changes of IL-8 signaling by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) analyses. Real-time PCR analysis of CXCR2 further shows a 6-fold up-regulation in AH livers and a 26-fold up-regulation in the livers of DDC re-fed mice. IL-8 mRNA was also significantly up-regulated in AH livers and DDC re-fed mice livers. This indicates that CXCR2 and IL-8 may be crucial for liver MDB formation. MDB containing balloon hepatocytes in AH livers had increased intensity of staining of the cytoplasm for both CXCR2 and IL-8. Overexpression of IL-8 leads to an increase of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade and exacerbates the inflammatory cycle. These observations constitute a demonstration of the altered regulation of IL-8 signaling in the livers of AH and mice fed DDC where MDBs formed, providing further insight into the mechanism of MDB formation mediated by IL-8 signaling in AH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Menhaden oil, but not safflower or soybean oil, aids in restoring the polyunsaturated fatty acid profile in the novel delta-6-desaturase null mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have diverse biological effects, from promoting inflammation to preventing cancer and heart disease. Growing evidence suggests that individual PUFA may have independent effects in health and disease. The individual roles of the two essential PUFA, linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA), have been difficult to discern from the actions of their highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) downstream metabolites. This issue has recently been addressed through the development of the Δ-6 desaturase knock out (D6KO) mouse, which lacks the rate limiting Δ-6 desaturase enzyme and therefore cannot metabolize LA or ALA. However, a potential confounder in this model is the production of novel Δ-5 desaturase (D5D) derived fatty acids when D6KO mice are fed diets containing LA and ALA, but void of arachidonic acid. Objective The aim of the present study was to characterize how the D6KO model differentially responds to diets containing the essential n-6 and n-3 PUFA, and whether the direct provision of downstream HUFA can rescue the phenotype and prevent the production of D5D fatty acids. Methodology Liver and serum phospholipid (PL) fatty acid composition was examined in D6KO and wild type mice fed i) 10% safflower oil diet (SF, LA rich) ii) 10% soy diet (SO, LA+ALA) or iii) 3% menhaden oil +7% SF diet (MD, HUFA rich) for 28 days (n = 3-7/group). Results Novel D5D fatty acids were found in liver PL of D6KO fed SF or SO-fed mice, but differed in the type of D5D fatty acid depending on diet. Conversely, MD-fed D6KO mice had a liver PL fatty acid profile similar to wild-type mice. Conclusions Through careful consideration of the dietary fatty acid composition, and especially the HUFA content in order to prevent the synthesis of D5D fatty acids, the D6KO model has the potential to elucidate the independent biological and health effects of the parent n-6 and n-3 fatty acids, LA and ALA. PMID:22642787

  9. Menhaden oil, but not safflower or soybean oil, aids in restoring the polyunsaturated fatty acid profile in the novel delta-6-desaturase null mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro Jessica

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA have diverse biological effects, from promoting inflammation to preventing cancer and heart disease. Growing evidence suggests that individual PUFA may have independent effects in health and disease. The individual roles of the two essential PUFA, linoleic acid (LA and α-linolenic acid (ALA, have been difficult to discern from the actions of their highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA downstream metabolites. This issue has recently been addressed through the development of the Δ-6 desaturase knock out (D6KO mouse, which lacks the rate limiting Δ-6 desaturase enzyme and therefore cannot metabolize LA or ALA. However, a potential confounder in this model is the production of novel Δ-5 desaturase (D5D derived fatty acids when D6KO mice are fed diets containing LA and ALA, but void of arachidonic acid. Objective The aim of the present study was to characterize how the D6KO model differentially responds to diets containing the essential n-6 and n-3 PUFA, and whether the direct provision of downstream HUFA can rescue the phenotype and prevent the production of D5D fatty acids. Methodology Liver and serum phospholipid (PL fatty acid composition was examined in D6KO and wild type mice fed i 10% safflower oil diet (SF, LA rich ii 10% soy diet (SO, LA+ALA or iii 3% menhaden oil +7% SF diet (MD, HUFA rich for 28 days (n = 3-7/group. Results Novel D5D fatty acids were found in liver PL of D6KO fed SF or SO-fed mice, but differed in the type of D5D fatty acid depending on diet. Conversely, MD-fed D6KO mice had a liver PL fatty acid profile similar to wild-type mice. Conclusions Through careful consideration of the dietary fatty acid composition, and especially the HUFA content in order to prevent the synthesis of D5D fatty acids, the D6KO model has the potential to elucidate the independent biological and health effects of the parent n-6 and n-3 fatty acids, LA and ALA.

  10. Effect of safflower oil, flaxseed oil, monensin, and vitamin E on concentration of conjugated linoleic acid in bovine milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J A; Griinari, J M; Kennelly, J J

    2006-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a mixture of conjugated octadecadienoic acids of predominantly ruminant origin. The main isomer in bovine milk fat is the cis-9, trans-11 CLA. Interest in CLA increased after the discovery of its health-promoting properties, including potent anticarcinogenic activity. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate dietary strategies aimed at increasing the concentration of CLA in bovine milk fat. Both experiments were organized as a randomized complete block design with a repeated measures treatment structure. In Experiment 1, 28 Holstein cows received either a control diet or one of 3 treatments for a period of 2 wk. The control diet consisted of 60% forage (barley silage, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay) and 40% concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis, fed as a total mixed ration (TMR). The concentrate was partially replaced in the treatment groups with 24 ppm of monensin (MON), 6% of DM safflower oil (SAFF), or 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin (SAFF/M). Average cis-9, trans-11 CLA levels in milk fat after 2 wk of feeding were 0.45, 0.52, 3.36, and 5.15% of total fatty acids for control, MON, SAFF, and SAFF/M, respectively. In Experiment 2, 62 Holstein cows received either a control diet or one of 5 treatment diets for a period of 9 wk. The control diet consisted of 60% forage (barley silage, alfalfa silage, and alfalfa hay) and 40% concentrate on a DM basis, fed as a TMR. The concentrate was partially replaced in the treatment groups with 6% of DM safflower oil (SAFF), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (SAFF/E), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin (SAFF/M), 6% of DM safflower oil plus 24 ppm of monensin plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (SAFF/ME), or 6% of DM flaxseed oil plus 150 IU of vitamin E/kg of DM (FLAX/E). Average cis-9, trans-11 CLA levels during the treatment period were 0.68, 4.12, 3.48, 4.55, 4.75, and 2.80% of total fatty acids for control, SAFF, SAFF/E, SAFF

  11. Effects of Enzymatically Synthesized Glycogen and Exercise on Abdominal Fat Accumulation in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Shohei; Honda, Kazuhisa; Morinaga, Ryoji; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The combination of diet and exercise is the first choice for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. We previously reported that enzymatically synthesized glycogen (ESG) suppresses abdominal fat accumulation in obese rats. However, the effect of the combination of ESG and exercise on abdominal fat accumulation has not yet been investigated. Our goal in this study was therefore to evaluate the effects of dietary ESG and its combination with exercise on abdominal fat accumulation in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Male ICR mice were assigned to four groups: HFD, HFD containing 20% ESG, HFD with exercise, HFD containing 20% ESG with exercise. Treadmill exercise was performed for 3 wk (25 m/min, 30 min/d, 3 d/wk) after 5-d adaption to running at that speed. Both ESG and exercise significantly reduced the weights of abdominal adipose tissues. In addition, the combination of ESG and exercise significantly suppressed abdominal fat accumulation, suggesting that ESG and exercise showed an additive effect. Exercise significantly increased the mRNA levels of lipid metabolism-related genes such as lipoprotein lipase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta; factor-delta (PPARδ), carnitin palmitoyltransferase b, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and uncoupling protein-3 in the gastrocnemius muscle. On the other hand, dietary ESG significantly decreased the mRNA levels of PPARδ and ATGL in the gastrocnemius muscle. These results suggest that the combined treatment of ESG and exercise effectively suppresses abdominal fat accumulation in HFD-fed mice by different mechanisms.

  12. Acid sphingomyelinase deficiency in Western diet-fed mice protects against adipocyte hypertrophy and diet-induced liver steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydor, Svenja; Sowa, Jan-Peter; Megger, Dominik A; Schlattjan, Martin; Jafoui, Sami; Wingerter, Lena; Carpinteiro, Alexander; Baba, Hideo A; Bechmann, Lars P; Sitek, Barbara; Gerken, Guido; Gulbins, Erich; Canbay, Ali

    2017-05-01

    Alterations in sphingolipid and ceramide metabolism have been associated with various diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) converts the membrane lipid sphingomyelin to ceramide, thereby affecting membrane composition and domain formation. We investigated the ways in which the Asm knockout (Smpd1 -/- ) genotype affects diet-induced NAFLD. Smpd1 -/- mice and wild type controls were fed either a standard or Western diet (WD) for 6 weeks. Liver and adipose tissue morphology and mRNA expression were assessed. Quantitative proteome analysis of liver tissue was performed. Expression of selected genes was quantified in adipose and liver tissue of obese NAFLD patients. Although Smpd1 -/- mice exhibited basal steatosis with normal chow, no aggravation of NAFLD-type injury was observed with a Western diet. This protective effect was associated with the absence of adipocyte hypertrophy and the increased expression of genes associated with brown adipocyte differentiation. In white adipose tissue from obese patients with NAFLD, no expression of these genes was detectable. To further elucidate which pathways in liver tissue may be affected by Smpd1 -/- , we performed an unbiased proteome analysis. Protein expression in WD-fed Smpd1 -/- mice indicated a reduction in Rictor (mTORC2) activity; this reduction was confirmed by diminished Akt phosphorylation and altered mRNA expression of Rictor target genes. These findings indicate that the protective effect of Asm deficiency on diet-induced steatosis is conferred by alterations in adipocyte morphology and lipid metabolism and by reductions in Rictor activation.

  13. Exposure to excess insulin (glargine) induces type 2 diabetes mellitus in mice fed on a chow diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuefeng; Mei, Shuang; Gu, Haihua; Guo, Huailan; Zha, Longying; Cai, Junwei; Li, Xuefeng; Liu, Zhenqi; Cao, Wenhong

    2014-06-01

    We have previously shown that insulin plays an important role in the nutrient-induced insulin resistance. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that chronic exposure to excess long-acting insulin (glargine) can cause typical type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in normal mice fed on a chow diet. C57BL/6 mice were treated with glargine once a day for 8 weeks, followed by evaluations of food intake, body weight, blood levels of glucose, insulin, lipids, and cytokines, insulin signaling, histology of pancreas, ectopic fat accumulation, oxidative stress level, and cholesterol content in mitochondria in tissues. Cholesterol content in mitochondria and its association with oxidative stress in cultured hepatocytes and β-cells were also examined. Results show that chronic exposure to glargine caused insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and relative insulin deficiency (T2DM). Treatment with excess glargine led to loss of pancreatic islets, ectopic fat accumulation in liver, oxidative stress in liver and pancreas, and increased cholesterol content in mitochondria of liver and pancreas. Prolonged exposure of cultured primary hepatocytes and HIT-TI5 β-cells to insulin induced oxidative stress in a cholesterol synthesis-dependent manner. Together, our results show that chronic exposure to excess insulin can induce typical T2DM in normal mice fed on a chow diet. © 2014 The authors.

  14. Proteins Differentially Expressed in the Pancreas of Hepatic Alcohol Dehydrogenase-Deficient Deer Mice Fed Ethanol For 3 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhopale, Kamlesh K; Amer, Samir M; Kaphalia, Lata; Soman, Kizhake V; Wiktorowicz, John E; Shakeel Ansari, Ghulam A; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify differentially expressed proteins in the pancreatic tissue of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase-deficient deer mice fed ethanol to understand metabolic basis and mechanism of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Mice were fed liquid diet containing 3.5 g% ethanol daily for 3 months, and differentially expressed pancreatic proteins were identified by protein separation using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identification by mass spectrometry. Nineteen differentially expressed proteins were identified by applying criteria established for protein identification in proteomics. An increased abundance was found for ribosome-binding protein 1, 60S ribosomal protein L31-like isoform 1, histone 4, calcium, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding proteins and the proteins involved in antiapoptotic processes and endoplasmic reticulum function, stress, and/or homeostasis. Low abundance was found for endoA cytokeratin, 40S ribosomal protein SA, amylase 2b isoform precursor, serum albumin, and ATP synthase subunit β and the proteins involved in cell motility, structure, and conformation. Chronic ethanol feeding in alcohol dehydrogenase-deficient deer mice differentially expresses pancreatic functional and structural proteins, which can be used to develop biomarker(s) of alcoholic chronic pancreatitis, particularly amylase 2b precursor, and 60 kDa heat shock protein and those involved in ATP synthesis and blood osmotic pressure.

  15. BSN723T Prevents Atherosclerosis and Weight Gain in ApoE Knockout Mice Fed a Western Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Jarrod; Ensor, Charles; Gardner, Scott; Smith, Rebecca; Lodder, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study tests the hypothesis that BSN723T can prevent the development of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- knockout mice fed a Western (high fat, high cholesterol, and high sucrose) diet. BSN723T is a combination drug therapy consisting of D-tagatose and dihydromyricetin (BSN723). Background D-tagatose has an antihyperglycemic effect in animal and human studies and shows promise as a treatment for type 2 diabetes and obesity. Many claims regarding BSN723's pharmacolog...

  16. Inheritance of carthamin and carthamidin in safflower ( Carthamus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is an oil seed crop from which the flowers is used as medicine and food colorants. The present investigation was undertaken to explore gene effects for safflower's pigments in flower including carthaminand carthamidin. Six generation including P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 that ...

  17. Effects of Gliadin consumption on the Intestinal Microbiota and Metabolic Homeostasis in Mice Fed a High-fat Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Li; Andersen, Daniel; Roager, Henrik Munch

    2017-01-01

    of an obesogenic diet. Mice were fed either a defined high-fat diet (HFD) containing 4% gliadin (n = 20), or a gliadin-free, isocaloric HFD (n = 20) for 23 weeks. Combined analysis of several parameters including insulin resistance, histology of liver and adipose tissue, intestinal microbiota in three gut...... that gliadin disturbs the intestinal environment and affects metabolic homeostasis in obese mice, suggesting a detrimental effect of gluten intake in gluten-tolerant subjects consuming a high-fat diet.......Dietary gluten causes severe disorders like celiac disease in gluten-intolerant humans. However, currently understanding of its impact in tolerant individuals is limited. Our objective was to test whether gliadin, one of the detrimental parts of gluten, would impact the metabolic effects...

  18. Daily supplementation with fresh pomegranate juice increases paraoxonase 1 expression and activity in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Luna, D; Martínez-Hinojosa, E; Cancino-Diaz, J C; Belefant-Miller, H; López-Rodríguez, G; Betanzos-Cabrera, G

    2018-02-01

    Studies have found that pomegranate juice (PJ) consumption increases the binding of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) to paraoxonase 1 (PON1), thus increasing the catalytic activity of this enzyme. PON1 is an antioxidant arylesterase synthesized in the liver and transported in plasma in association with HDL. Decreased levels of PON1 are associated with higher levels of cholesterol. We determined the effects of PJ on body weight, cholesterol, and triacylglycerols through 5 months of supplementation. In addition, the effect of PJ on pon1 gene expression in the liver was also measured by RT-qPCR as well as the activity in serum by a semiautomated method using paraoxon as a substrate. CD-1 mice were either fed a control diet or were fed a high-fat diet 1.25% (wt/wt) cholesterol, 0.5% (wt/wt) sodium cholate, and 15% (wt/wt) saturated fat. 300 μL of PJ containing 0.35 mmol total polyphenols was administered by oral gavage to half of the high fat mice daily. The rest of the high fat mice and the control mice were administered with 300 μL of water. PJ-supplemented animals had significantly higher levels of expression of pon1 compared to the unsupplemented group. PJ-supplemented animals had twice the PON1 activity of the unsupplemented group. In addition, PJ-supplemented animals had the lowest body weight and significantly reduced cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels, although the tricylglycerol levels were not consistently decreased. These results suggest that PJ protects against the effects of a high-fat diet in body weight, and cholesterol levels.

  19. IgA response in serum and gut secretion in sensitized mice fed with the dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciel M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Induced oral tolerance to mucosal-exposed antigens in immunized animals is of particular interest for the development of immunotherapeutic approaches to human allergic diseases. This is a unique feature of mucosal surfaces which represent the main contact interface with the external environment. However, the influence of oral tolerance on specific and natural polyreactive IgA antibodies, the major defense mechanism of the mucosa, is unknown. We have shown that oral administration of an extract of the dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp to primed mice caused down-regulation of IgE responses and an increase in tumor growth factor-ß secretion. In the present study, we observed that primed inbred female A/Sn mice (8 to 10 weeks old fed by gavage a total weight of 1.0-mg Dp extract on the 6th, 7th and 8th days post-immunization presented normal secretion of IL-4 and IL-10 in gut-associated lymphoid tissue and a decreased production of interferon gamma induced by Dp in the draining lymph nodes (13,340 ± 3,519 vs 29,280 ± 2,971 pg/ml. Mice fed the Dp extract also showed higher levels of serum anti-Dp IgA antibodies and an increase of IgA-secreting cells in mesenteric lymph nodes (N = 10, reflecting an increase in total fecal IgA antibodies (N = 10. The levels of secretory anti-Dp IgA antibodies increased after re-immunization regardless of Dp extract feeding. Oral tolerance did not interfere with serum or secretory IgA antibody reactivity related to self and non-self antigens. These results suggest that induction of oral tolerance to a Dp extract in sensitized mice triggered different regulatory mechanisms which inhibited the IgE response and stimulated systemic and secretory IgA responses, preserving the natural polyreactive IgA antibody production.

  20. Irradiated mice lose the capacity to 'process' fed antigen for systemic tolerance of delayed-type hypersensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, M G; Strobel, S; Hanson, D G; Ferguson, A

    1987-12-01

    'Intestinal antigen processing' is a function of the gastro-intestinal tract whereby shortly after an animal has been fed an immunogenic protein antigen, such as ovabumin (OVA), a tolerogenic form of the protein is generated and can be detected in the circulation. The effect of damage to the intestinal epithelium on the processing of OVA has been examined in lethally irradiated mice. Irradiated animals were fed 25 mg OVA and their serum collected 1 h later. When this serum was transferred intraperitoneally into naive recipient mice, this did not induce the typical suppression of systemic delayed-type hypersensitivity. Results were similar when the serum donors were at 2 days after irradiation, with crypt hypoplasia, and at 5 days after irradiation when there was reactive crypt hyperplasia. However reconstitution of donors with normal spleen cells immediately after irradiation restored their capacity to generate a tolerogenic form of the antigen. Immunoreactive OVA was detected by ELISA in both tolerizing and non-tolerizing sera, and the immunological properties of these sera were not related to serum levels of OVA after feeding. The results suggest that lymphoid cells may be involved in the phenomenon of antigen processing.

  1. Impact of diesel exhaust exposure on the liver of mice fed on omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids-deficient diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezawa, Masakazu; Nakamura, Masayuki; El-Ghoneimy, Ashraf A; Onoda, Atsuto; Shaheen, Hazem M; Hori, Hiroshi; Shinkai, Yusuke; El-Sayed, Yasser S; El-Far, Ali H; Takeda, Ken

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) exacerbates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and may systemically affect lipid metabolism. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) have anti-inflammatory activity and suppresses hepatic triacylglycerol accumulation, but many daily diets are deficient in this nutrient. Therefore, the effect of DE exposure in mice fed n-3 PUFA-deficient diet was investigated. Mice were fed control chow or n-3 PUFA-deficient diet for 4 weeks, then exposed to clean air or DE by inhalation for further 4 weeks. Liver histology, plasma parameters, and expression of fatty acid synthesis-related genes were evaluated. N-3 PUFA-deficient diet increased hepatic lipid droplets accumulation and expression of genes promoting fatty acid synthesis: Acaca, Acacb, and Scd1. DE further increased the plasma leptin and the expression of fatty acid synthesis-related genes: Acacb, Fasn, and Scd1. N-3 PUFA-deficient diet and DE exposure potentially enhanced hepatic fatty acid synthesis and subsequently accumulation of lipid droplets. The combination of low-dose DE exposure and intake of n-3 PUFA-deficient diet may be an additional risk factor for the incidence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The present study suggests an important mechanism for preventing toxicity of DE on the liver through the incorporation of n-3 PUFAs in the diet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dietary treatments enriched in olive and safflower oils regulate seric and placental matrix metalloproteinases in maternal diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, N; Sosa, M; Higa, R; Fornes, D; Capobianco, E; Jawerbaum, A

    2012-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteolytic enzymes involved in placental development and function, although related to the pro-inflammatory environment when produced in excess. Previous studies have identified MMP-2 and MMP-9 overactivities in the placenta from diabetic rats. In this study, we aimed to determine whether diets supplemented with olive and safflower oil, enriched in natural PPAR ligands, are able to regulate MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in the placenta and serum from diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in rat neonates by streptozotocin administration (90mg/kg s.c.). Control and diabetic rats were fed with 6% olive oil- or 6% safflower oil-supplemented diets from days 0.5-13.5 of gestation. On day 13.5 of gestation, placentas and sera were isolated for further determination of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2 and 9 activities by zymography. Placental MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein concentration and immunolocalization were also determined. Sera from diabetic pregnant animals showed MMP-2 and MMP-9 overactivities when compared to controls. Serum MMP-9 activity was significantly decreased when the diabetic animals received the olive and safflower oil dietary treatments. Placentas from diabetic rats showed increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities and protein concentrations, and both were decreased when diabetic rats received the olive and safflower dietary treatments. This study demonstrates that both olive and safflower oil-supplemented diets were able to prevent MMPs overactivities in the placenta from diabetic rats, and that these beneficial effects are reflected in rat sera. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) Juice Intake on Brain Energy Metabolism of Mice Fed a Cafeteria Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffa, Daniela Dimer; Rezin, Gislaine Tezza; Daumann, Francine; Longaretti, Luiza M; Dajori, Ana Luiza F; Gomes, Lara Mezari; Silva, Milena Carvalho; Streck, Emílio L; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

    2017-03-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial disease that comes from an imbalance between food intake and energy expenditure. Moreover, studies have shown a relationship between mitochondrial dysfunction and obesity. In the present study, we investigated the effect of acerola juices (unripe, ripe, and industrial) and its main pharmacologically active components (vitamin C and rutin) on the activity of enzymes of energy metabolism in the brain of mice fed a palatable cafeteria diet. Two groups of male Swiss mice were fed on a standard diet (STA) or a cafeteria diet (CAF) for 13 weeks. Afterwards, the CAF-fed animals were divided into six subgroups, each of which received a different supplement for one further month (water, unripe, ripe or industrial acerola juices, vitamin C, or rutin) by gavage. Our results demonstrated that CAF diet inhibited the activity of citrate synthase in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus. Moreover, CAF diet decreased the complex I activity in the hypothalamus, complex II in the prefrontal cortex, complex II-III in the hypothalamus, and complex IV in the posterior cortex and striatum. The activity of succinate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase was not altered by the CAF diet. However, unripe acerola juice reversed the inhibition of the citrate synthase activity in the prefrontal cortex and hypothalamus. Ripe acerola juice reversed the inhibition of citrate synthase in the hypothalamus. The industrial acerola juice reversed the inhibition of complex I activity in the hypothalamus. The other changes were not reversed by any of the tested substances. In conclusion, we suggest that alterations in energy metabolism caused by obesity can be partially reversed by ripe, unripe, and industrial acerola juice.

  4. Effect of GPR84 deletion on obesity and diabetes development in mice fed long chain or medium chain fatty acid rich diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Toit, Eugene; Browne, Liam; Irving-Rodgers, Helen; Massa, Helen M; Fozzard, Nicolette; Jennings, Michael P; Peak, Ian R

    2017-04-20

    Although there is good evidence showing that diets rich in medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) have less marked obesogenic and diabetogenic effects than diets rich in long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), the role of the pro-inflammatory, medium chain fatty acid receptor (GPR84) in the aetiology of obesity and glucose intolerance is not well characterised. We set out to determine whether GPR84 expression influences obesity and glucose intolerance susceptibility in MCFA and LCFA rich diet fed mice. Wild type (WT) and GPR84 knockout (KO) mice were fed a control, MCFA or LCFA diet, and body mass, heart, liver and epididymal fat mass was assessed, as well as glucose tolerance and adipocyte size. LCFA diets increased body mass and decreased glucose tolerance in both WT and GPR84 KO animals while MCFA diets had no effect on these parameters. There were no differences in body weight when comparing WT and GPR84 KO mice on the respective diets. Glucose tolerance was also similar in WT and GPR84 KO mice irrespective of diet. Liver mass was increased following LCFA feeding in WT but not GPR84 KO mice. Hepatic triglyceride content was increased in GPR84 KO animals fed MCFA, and myocardial triglyceride content was increased in GPR84 KO animals fed LCFA. GPR84 deletion had no effects on body weight or glucose tolerance in mice fed either a high MCFA or LCFA diet. GPR84 may influence lipid metabolism, as GPR84 KO mice had smaller livers and increased myocardial triglyceride accumulation when fed LCFA diets, and increased liver triglyceride accumulation in responses to increased dietary MCFAs.

  5. Effects of bixin in high-fat diet-fed-induced fatty liver in C57BL/6J mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rosa; Martha; Perez; Gutierrez; Rita; Valadez; Romero

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the anti-obesity activity of bixin(BIX) on C57BL/6J mice which were fed a high-fat diet(HFD) and to determine the mechanism of this effect.Methods:C57BL/6J mice were separately fed a high-calorie diet or a normal diet for 8weeks,then they were treated with BIX for another 13 weeks.After administration for 13 weeks,the animals were sacrificed.Body adiposity,serum lipid level,and insulin resistance were evaluated.In addition,a histological assay of pancreas and liver,an evaluation of the inhibitory properties on pancreatic lipase,and a-amylase were conducted.Results:Administration of BIX significantly decreased the body weight gain,adipocyte size,fat pad weights,hepatic lipid levels in HFD-induced obese mice.In addition,reduced liver weight exhibited decreased serum leptin levels,malic enzyme,glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase,hepatic fatty acid synthase,aspartate aminotransferase,alanine aminotransferase and hepatic phosphatidate phosphohydrolase activity.However,superoxide dismutase,catalase,glutathione peroxidase,and glutathione levels were increased in hepatic tissue.BIX also decreased lipid and carbohydrates absorption due to inhibition of pancreatic lipase and a-amylase.Long term supplementation of BIX significantly decreased hyperlipidemia,insulin resistance and glucose level.Decreased levels of hepatic steatosis and the islets of Langerhans appeared less shrunken in HFD-fed mice.Conclusions:The antiobesity effect of BIX appears to be associated at least in part,to its inhibitory effect on lipids and carbohydrate digestion enzymes such as pancreatic lipase,a-glucosidase,and a-amylase.The results suggested that BIX also act as an antioxidant and may treat visceral obesity normalizing glucose levels,improving insulin resistance and increasing energy expenditure.Therefore,achiote which has a main component,the carotenoid BIX,could be a viable food for the treatment of obesity and diabetes.

  6. Blueberry supplementation improves memory in middle-aged mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Amanda N; Gomes, Stacey M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2014-05-07

    Consuming a high-fat diet may result in behavioral deficits similar to those observed in aging animals. It has been demonstrated that blueberry supplementation can allay age-related behavioral deficits. To determine if supplementation of a high-fat diet with blueberries offers protection against putative high-fat diet-related declines, 9-month-old C57Bl/6 mice were maintained on low-fat (10% fat calories) or high-fat (60% fat calories) diets with and without 4% freeze-dried blueberry powder. Novel object recognition memory was impaired by the high-fat diet; after 4 months on the high-fat diet, mice spent 50% of their time on the novel object in the testing trial, performing no greater than chance performance. Blueberry supplementation prevented recognition memory deficits after 4 months on the diets, as mice on this diet spent 67% of their time on the novel object. After 5 months on the diets, mice consuming the high-fat diet passed through the platform location less often than mice on low-fat diets during probe trials on days 2 and 3 of Morris water maze testing, whereas mice consuming the high-fat blueberry diet passed through the platform location as often as mice on the low-fat diets. This study is a first step in determining if incorporating more nutrient-dense foods into a high-fat diet can allay cognitive dysfunction.

  7. Acid sphingomyelinase deficiency in Western diet-fed mice protects against adipocyte hypertrophy and diet-induced liver steatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenja Sydor

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Alterations in sphingolipid and ceramide metabolism have been associated with various diseases, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM converts the membrane lipid sphingomyelin to ceramide, thereby affecting membrane composition and domain formation. We investigated the ways in which the Asm knockout (Smpd1−/− genotype affects diet-induced NAFLD. Methods: Smpd1−/− mice and wild type controls were fed either a standard or Western diet (WD for 6 weeks. Liver and adipose tissue morphology and mRNA expression were assessed. Quantitative proteome analysis of liver tissue was performed. Expression of selected genes was quantified in adipose and liver tissue of obese NAFLD patients. Results: Although Smpd1−/− mice exhibited basal steatosis with normal chow, no aggravation of NAFLD-type injury was observed with a Western diet. This protective effect was associated with the absence of adipocyte hypertrophy and the increased expression of genes associated with brown adipocyte differentiation. In white adipose tissue from obese patients with NAFLD, no expression of these genes was detectable. To further elucidate which pathways in liver tissue may be affected by Smpd1−/−, we performed an unbiased proteome analysis. Protein expression in WD-fed Smpd1−/− mice indicated a reduction in Rictor (mTORC2 activity; this reduction was confirmed by diminished Akt phosphorylation and altered mRNA expression of Rictor target genes. Conclusion: These findings indicate that the protective effect of Asm deficiency on diet-induced steatosis is conferred by alterations in adipocyte morphology and lipid metabolism and by reductions in Rictor activation. Keywords: Ceramide, NAFLD, Rictor, Western diet

  8. Pasture v. standard dairy cream in high-fat diet-fed mice: improved metabolic outcomes and stronger intestinal barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Bérengère; Plaisancié, Pascale; Géloën, Alain; Estienne, Monique; Debard, Cyrille; Meugnier, Emmanuelle; Loizon, Emmanuelle; Daira, Patricia; Bodennec, Jacques; Cousin, Olivier; Vidal, Hubert; Laugerette, Fabienne; Michalski, Marie-Caroline

    2014-08-28

    Dairy products derived from the milk of cows fed in pastures are characterised by higher amounts of conjugated linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid (ALA), and several studies have shown their ability to reduce cardiovascular risk. However, their specific metabolic effects compared with standard dairy in a high-fat diet (HFD) context remain largely unknown; this is what we determined in the present study with a focus on the metabolic and intestinal parameters. The experimental animals were fed for 12 weeks a HFD containing 20 % fat in the form of a pasture dairy cream (PDC) or a standard dairy cream (SDC). Samples of plasma, liver, white adipose tissue, duodenum, jejunum and colon were analysed. The PDC mice, despite a higher food intake, exhibited lower fat mass, plasma and hepatic TAG concentrations, and inflammation in the adipose tissue than the SDC mice. Furthermore, they exhibited a higher expression of hepatic PPARα mRNA and adipose tissue uncoupling protein 2 mRNA, suggesting an enhanced oxidative activity of the tissues. These results might be explained, in part, by the higher amounts of ALA in the PDC diet and in the liver and adipose tissue of the PDC mice. Moreover, the PDC diet was found to increase the proportions of two strategic cell populations involved in the protective function of the intestinal epithelium, namely Paneth and goblet cells in the small intestine and colon, compared with the SDC diet. In conclusion, a PDC HFD leads to improved metabolic outcomes and to a stronger gut barrier compared with a SDC HFD. This may be due, at least in part, to the protective mechanisms induced by specific lipids.

  9. Modulation of gut microbiota during probiotic-mediated attenuation of metabolic syndrome in high fat diet-fed mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjing; Tang, Huang; Zhang, Chenhong; Zhao, Yufeng; Derrien, Muriel; Rocher, Emilie; van-Hylckama Vlieg, Johan ET; Strissel, Katherine; Zhao, Liping; Obin, Martin; Shen, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Structural disruption of gut microbiota and associated inflammation are considered important etiological factors in high fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic syndrome (MS). Three candidate probiotic strains, Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4270 (LC), L. rhamnosus I-3690 (LR) and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis I-2494 (BA), were individually administered to HFD-fed mice (108 cells day−1) for 12 weeks. Each strain attenuated weight gain and macrophage infiltration into epididymal adipose tissue and markedly improved glucose–insulin homeostasis and hepatic steatosis. Weighted UniFrac principal coordinate analysis based on 454 pyrosequencing of fecal bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed that the probiotic strains shifted the overall structure of the HFD-disrupted gut microbiota toward that of lean mice fed a normal (chow) diet. Redundancy analysis revealed that abundances of 83 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were altered by probiotics. Forty-nine altered OTUs were significantly correlated with one or more host MS parameters and were designated ‘functionally relevant phylotypes'. Thirteen of the 15 functionally relevant OTUs that were negatively correlated with MS phenotypes were promoted, and 26 of the 34 functionally relevant OTUs that were positively correlated with MS were reduced by at least one of the probiotics, but each strain changed a distinct set of functionally relevant OTUs. LC and LR increased cecal acetate but did not affect circulating lipopolysaccharide-binding protein; in contrast, BA did not increase acetate but significantly decreased adipose and hepatic tumor necrosis factor-α gene expression. These results suggest that Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium differentially attenuate obesity comorbidities in part through strain-specific impacts on MS-associated phylotypes of gut microbiota in mice. PMID:24936764

  10. Voluntary running of defined distances reduces body adiposity and its associated inflammation in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Sundaram, Sneha; Nielsen, Forrest H

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of voluntary running of defined distances on body adiposity in male C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet. Mice were assigned to 6 groups and fed a standard AIN93G diet (sedentary) or a modified high-fat AIN93G diet (sedentary; unrestricted running; or 75%, 50%, or 25% of unrestricted running) for 12 weeks. The average running distance was 8.3, 6.3, 4.2, and 2.1 km/day for the unrestricted, 75%, 50%, and 25% of unrestricted runners, respectively. Body adiposity was 46% higher in sedentary mice when fed the high-fat diet instead of the standard diet. Running decreased adiposity in mice fed the high-fat diet in a dose-dependent manner but with no significant difference between sedentary mice and those running 2.1 km/day. In sedentary mice, the high-fat instead of the standard diet increased insulin resistance, hepatic triacylglycerides, and adipose and plasma concentrations of leptin and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). Running reduced these variables in a dose-dependent manner. Adipose adiponectin was lowest in sedentary mice fed the high-fat diet; running raised adiponectin in both adipose tissue and plasma. Running 8.3 and 6.3 km/day had the greatest, but similar, effects on the aforementioned variables. Running 2.1 km/day did not affect these variables except, when compared with sedentariness, it significantly decreased MCP-1. The findings showed that running 6.3 kg/day was optimal for reducing adiposity and associated inflammation that was increased in mice by feeding a high-fat diet. The findings suggest that voluntary running of defined distances may counteract the obesogenic effects of a high-fat diet.

  11. 17β-estradiol increases liver and serum docosahexaenoic acid in mice fed varying levels of α-linolenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Julie K; Kharotia, Shikhil; Wiggins, Ashleigh K A; Kitson, Alex P; Chen, Jianmin; Bazinet, Richard P; Thompson, Lilian U

    2014-08-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is considered to be important for cardiac and brain function, and 17β-estradiol (E2) appears to increase the conversion of α-linolenic acid (ALA) into DHA. However, the effect of varying ALA intake on the positive effect of E2 on DHA synthesis is not known. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of E2 supplementation on tissue and serum fatty acids in mice fed a low-ALA corn oil-based diet (CO, providing 0.6 % fatty acids as ALA) or a high ALA flaxseed meal-based diet (FS, providing 11.2 % ALA). Ovariectomized mice were implanted with a slow-release E2 pellet at 3 weeks of age and half the mice had the pellet removed at 7 weeks of age. Mice were then randomized onto either the CO or FS diet. After 4 weeks, the DHA concentration was measured in serum, liver and brain. A significant main effect of E2 was found for liver and serum DHA, corresponding to 25 and 15 % higher DHA in livers of CO and FS rats, respectively, and 19 and 13 % in serum of CO and FS rats, respectively, compared to unsupplemented mice. There was no effect of E2 on brain DHA. E2 results in higher DHA in serum and liver, at both levels of dietary ALA investigated presently, suggesting that higher ALA intake may result in higher DHA in individuals with higher E2 status.

  12. Eplerenone ameliorates the phenotypes of metabolic syndrome with NASH in liver-specific SREBP-1c Tg mice fed high-fat and high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Tsutomu; Miyashita, Yusuke; Sasaki, Motohiro; Aruga, Yusuke; Nakamura, Yuto; Ishii, Yoko; Sasahara, Masakiyo; Kanasaki, Keizo; Kitada, Munehiro; Koya, Daisuke; Shimano, Hitoshi; Tsuneki, Hiroshi; Sasaoka, Toshiyasu

    2013-12-01

    Because the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance and promotion of fibrosis in some tissues, such as the vasculature, we examined the effect of eplerenone, a selective mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist, on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and metabolic phenotypes in a mouse model reflecting metabolic syndrome in humans. We adopted liver-specific transgenic (Tg) mice overexpressing the active form of sterol response element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) fed a high-fat and fructose diet (HFFD) as the animal model in the present study. When wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 and liver-specific SREBP-1c Tg mice grew while being fed HFFD for 12 wk, body weight and epididymal fat weight increased in both groups with an elevation in blood pressure and dyslipidemia. Glucose intolerance and insulin resistance were also observed. Adipose tissue hypertrophy and macrophage infiltration with crown-like structure formation were also noted in mice fed HFFD. Interestingly, the changes noted in both genotypes fed HFFD were significantly ameliorated with eplerenone. HFFD-fed Tg mice exhibited the histological features of NASH in the liver, including macrovesicular steatosis and fibrosis, whereas HFFD-fed WT mice had hepatic steatosis without apparent fibrotic changes. Eplerenone effectively ameliorated these histological abnormalities. Moreover, the direct suppressive effects of eplerenone on lipopolysaccharide-induced TNFα production in the presence and absence of aldosterone were observed in primary-cultured Kupffer cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages. These results indicated that eplerenone prevented the development of NASH and metabolic abnormalities in mice by inhibiting inflammatory responses in both Kupffer cells and macrophages.

  13. Ufmylation and FATylation pathways are downregulated in human alcoholic and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and mice fed DDC, where Mallory-Denk bodies (MDBs) form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H; Li, J; Tillman, B; French, B A; French, S W

    2014-08-01

    We previously reported the mechanisms involved in the formation of Mallory-Denk bodies (MDBs) in mice fed DDC. To further provide clinical evidence as to how ubiquitin-like protein (Ubls) modification, gene transcript expression in Ufmylation and FATylation were investigated in human archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) liver biopsies and frozen liver sections from DDC re-fed mice were used. Real-time PCR analysis showed that all Ufmylation molecules (Ufm1, Uba5, Ufc1, Ufl1 and UfSPs) were significantly downregulated, both in DDC re-fed mice livers and patients' livers where MDBs had formed, indicating that gene transcript changes were limited to MDB-forming livers where the protein quality control system was downregulated. FAT10 and subunits of the immunoproteasome (LMP2 and LMP7) were both upregulated as previously shown. An approximate 176- and 5-fold upregulation (respectively) of FAT10 was observed in the DDC re-fed mice liver and in the livers of human alcoholic hepatitis with MDBs present, implying that there was an important role played by this gene. The FAT10-specific E1 and E2 enzymes Uba6 and USE1, however, were found to be downregulated both in patients' livers and in the liver of DDC re-fed mice. Interestedly, the downregulation of mRNA levels was proportionate to MDB abundance in the liver tissues. Our results show the first systematic demonstration of transcript regulation of Ufmylation and FATylation in the liver of patients who form MDBs, where protein quality control is downregulated. This was also shown in the livers of DDC re-fed mice where MDBs had formed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Oxidative costs of reproduction: Oxidative stress in mice fed standard and low antioxidant diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaanholt, L M; Milne, A; Zheng, Y; Hambly, C; Mitchell, S E; Valencak, T G; Allison, D B; Speakman, J R

    2016-02-01

    Lactation is one of the most energetically expensive behaviours, and trade-offs may exist between the energy devoted to it and somatic maintenance, including protection against oxidative damage. However, conflicting data exist for the effects of reproduction on oxidative stress. In the wild, a positive relationship is often observed, but in laboratory studies oxidative damage is often lower in lactating than in non-breeding animals. We hypothesised that this discrepancy may exist because during lactation food intake increases many-fold resulting in a large increase in the intake of dietary antioxidants which are typically high in laboratory rodent chow where they are added as a preservative. We supplied lactating and non-breeding control mice with either a standard or low antioxidant diet and studied how this affected the activity of endogenous antioxidants (catalase, superoxide dismutase; SOD, and glutathione peroxidise; GPx) and oxidative damage to proteins (protein carbonyls, PC) in liver and brain tissue. The low antioxidant diet did not significantly affect activities of antioxidant enzymes in brain or liver, and generally did not result in increased protein damage, except in livers of control mice on low antioxidant diet. Catalase activity, but not GPx or SOD, was decreased in both control and lactating mice on the low antioxidant diet. Lactating mice had significantly reduced oxidative damage to both liver and brain compared to control mice, independent of the diet they were given. In conclusion, antioxidant content of the diet did not affect oxidative stress in control or reproductive mice, and cannot explain the previously observed reduction in oxidative stress in lactating mammals studied in the laboratory. The reduced oxidative stress in the livers of lactating mice even under low antioxidant diet treatment was consistent with the 'shielding' hypothesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Antilithiasic and Hypolipidaemic Effects of Raphanus sativus L. var. niger on Mice Fed with a Lithogenic Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Torres, Ibrahim Guillermo; Naranjo-Rodríguez, Elia Brosla; Domínguez-Ortíz, Miguel Ángel; Gallegos-Estudillo, Janeth; Saavedra-Vélez, Margarita Virginia

    2012-01-01

    In Mexico, Raphanus sativus L. var. niger (black radish) has uses for the treatment of gallstones and for decreasing lipids serum levels. We evaluate the effect of juice squeezed from black radish root in cholesterol gallstones and serum lipids of mice. The toxicity of juice was analyzed according to the OECD guidelines. We used female C57BL/6 mice fed with a lithogenic diet. We performed histopathological studies of gallbladder and liver, and measured concentrations of cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and triglycerides. The juice can be considered bioactive and non-toxic; the lithogenic diet significantly induced cholesterol gallstones; increased cholesterol and triglycerides levels, and decreased HDL levels; gallbladder wall thickness increased markedly, showing epithelial hyperplasia and increased liver weight. After treatment with juice for 6 days, cholesterol gallstones were eradicated significantly in the gallbladder of mice; cholesterol and triglycerides levels decreased too, and there was also an increase in levels of HDL (P < 0.05). Gallbladder tissue continued to show epithelial hyperplasia and granulocyte infiltration; liver tissue showed vacuolar degeneration. The juice of black radish root has properties for treatment of cholesterol gallstones and for decreasing serum lipids levels; therefore, we confirm in a preclinical study the utility that people give it in traditional medicine. PMID:23093836

  16. High density lipoproteins improve insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet-fed mice by suppressing hepatic inflammation[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Kristine C.; Li, Xiao Hong; Whitworth, Phillippa T.; Kasz, Robert; Tan, Joanne T.; McLennan, Susan V.; Celermajer, David S.; Barter, Philip J.; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Heather, Alison K.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity-induced liver inflammation can drive insulin resistance. HDL has anti-inflammatory properties, so we hypothesized that low levels of HDL would perpetuate inflammatory responses in the liver and that HDL treatment would suppress liver inflammation and insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lipid-free apoAI on hepatic inflammation and insulin resistance in mice. We also investigated apoAI as a component of reconstituted HDLs (rHDLs) in hepatocytes to confirm results we observed in vivo. To test our hypothesis, C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks and administered either saline or lipid-free apoAI. Injections of lipid-free apoAI twice a week for 2 or 4 weeks with lipid-free apoAI resulted in: i) improved insulin sensitivity associated with decreased systemic and hepatic inflammation; ii) suppression of hepatic mRNA expression for key transcriptional regulators of lipogenic gene expression; and iii) suppression of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation. Human hepatoma HuH-7 cells exposed to rHDLs showed suppressed TNFα-induced NF-κB activation, correlating with decreased NF-κB target gene expression. We conclude that apoAI suppresses liver inflammation in HFD mice and improves insulin resistance via a mechanism that involves a downregulation of NF-κB activation. PMID:24347528

  17. Excessive Vitamin E Intake Does Not Cause Bone Loss in Male or Ovariectomized Female Mice Fed Normal or High-Fat Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Hiroko; Kawawa, Rie; Ichi, Ikuyo; Ishikawa, Tomoko; Koike, Taisuke; Aoki, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Yoko

    2017-10-01

    Background: Animal studies on the effects of vitamin E on bone health have yielded conflicting and inconclusive results, and to our knowledge, no studies have addressed the effect of vitamin E on bone in animals consuming a high-fat diet (HFD). Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of excessive vitamin E on bone metabolism in normal male mice and ovariectomized female mice fed a normal diet (ND) or HFD. Methods: In the first 2 experiments, 7-wk-old male mice were fed an ND (16% energy from fat) containing 75 (control), 0 (vitamin E-free), or 1000 (high vitamin E) mg vitamin E/kg (experiment 1) or an HFD (46% energy from fat) containing 0, 200, 500, or 1000 mg vitamin E/kg (experiment 2) for 18 wk. In the third experiment, 7-wk-old sham-operated or ovariectomized female mice were fed the ND (75 mg vitamin E/kg) or HFD containing 0 or 1000 mg vitamin E/kg for 8 wk. At the end of the feeding period, blood and femurs were collected to measure bone turnover markers and analyze histology and microcomputed tomography. Results: In experiments 1 and 2, vitamin E intake had no effect on plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, or bone formation, resorption, or volume in femurs in mice fed the ND or HFDs. In experiment 3, bone volume was significantly reduced (85%) in ovariectomized mice compared with that in sham-operated mice ( P vitamin E/kg. Conclusions: The results suggest that excess vitamin E intake does not cause bone loss in normal male mice or in ovariectomized or sham-operated female mice, regardless of dietary fat content. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. An integrative transcriptomic approach to identify depot differences in genes and microRNAs in adipose tissues from high fat fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayatunga, Nadeeja N; Pahlavani, Mandana; Kalupahana, Nishan S; Kottapalli, Kameswara Rao; Gunaratne, Preethi H; Coarfa, Cristian; Ramalingam, Latha; Moustaid-Moussa, Naima

    2018-02-06

    Obesity contributes to metabolic disorders such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Characterization of differences between the main adipose tissue depots, white (WAT) [including subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT)] and brown adipose tissue (BAT) helps to identify their roles in obesity. Thus, we studied depot-specific differences in whole transcriptome and miRNA profiles of SAT, VAT and BAT from high fat diet (HFD/45% of calories from fat) fed mice using RNA sequencing and small RNA-Seq. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we validated depot-specific differences in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress related genes and miRNAs using mice fed a HFD vs. low fat diet (LFD/10% of calories from fat). According to the transcriptomic analysis, lipogenesis, adipogenesis, inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) were higher in VAT compared to BAT, whereas energy expenditure, fatty acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation were higher in BAT than in VAT of the HFD fed mice. In contrast to BAT, ER stress marker genes were significantly upregulated in VAT of HFD fed mice than the LFD fed mice. For the first time, we report depot specific differences in ER stress related miRNAs including; downregulation of miR-125b-5p, upregulation miR-143-3p, and miR-222-3p in VAT following HFD and upregulation of miR-30c-2-3p only in BAT following a HFD in mice than the LFD mice. In conclusion, HFD differentially regulates miRNAs and genes in different adipose depots with significant induction of genes related to lipogenesis, adipogenesis, inflammation, ER stress, and UPR in WAT compared to BAT.

  19. Effects of dietary heme iron and exercise training on abdominal fat accumulation and lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumura, Masanori; Takagi, Shoko; Oya, Hana; Tamura, Shohei; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Honda, Kazuhisa; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2017-08-01

    Animal by-products can be recycled and used as sources of essential nutrients. Water-soluble heme iron (WSHI), a functional food additive for supplementing iron, is produced by processing animal blood. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of 3% WSHI and exercise training for 4 weeks on the accumulation of abdominal fat and lipid metabolism in mice fed high-fat diet. Exercise-trained mice had significantly less perirenal adipose tissue, whereas WSHI-fed mice tended to have less epididymal adipose tissue. In addition, total weight of abdominal adipose tissues was significantly decreased in the Exercise + WSHI group. Dietary WSHI significantly increased the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of lipoprotein lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase. WSHI-fed mice also tended to show increased mRNA levels of adipose triglyceride lipase in their epididymal adipose tissue. Dietary WSHI also significantly decreased the mRNA levels of fatty acid oxidation-related enzymes in the liver, but did not influence levels in the Gastrocnemius muscle. Exercise training did not influence the mRNA levels of lipid metabolism-related enzymes in the epididymal adipose tissue, liver or the Gastrocnemius muscle. These findings suggest that the accumulation of abdominal fat can be efficiently decreased by the combination of dietary WSHI and exercise training in mice fed high-fat diet. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Hepatic lipid profiling of deer mice fed ethanol using 1H and 31P NMR spectroscopy: A dose-dependent subchronic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernando, Harshica; Bhopale, Kamlesh K.; Boor, Paul J.; Ansari, G.A. Shakeel; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse is a 2nd major cause of liver disease resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is characterized by a wide spectrum of pathologies starting from fat accumulation (steatosis) in early reversible stage to inflammation with or without fibrosis and cirrhosis in later irreversible stages. Previously, we reported significant steatosis in the livers of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-deficient (ADH − ) vs. hepatic ADH-normal (ADH + ) deer mice fed 4% ethanol daily for 2 months [Bhopale et al., 2006, Alcohol 39, 179–188]. However, ADH − deer mice fed 4% ethanol also showed a significant mortality. Therefore, a dose-dependent study was conducted to understand the mechanism and identify lipid(s) involved in the development of ethanol-induced fatty liver. ADH − and ADH + deer mice fed 1, 2 or 3.5% ethanol daily for 2 months and fatty infiltration in the livers were evaluated by histology and by measuring dry weights of extracted lipids. Lipid metabolomic changes in extracted lipids were determined by proton ( 1 H) and 31 phosphorus ( 31 P) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The NMR data was analyzed by hierarchical clustering (HC) and principle component analysis (PCA) for pattern recognition. Extensive vacuolization by histology and significantly increased dry weights of total lipids found only in the livers of ADH − deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol vs. pair-fed controls suggest a dose-dependent formation of fatty liver in ADH − deer mouse model. Analysis of NMR data of ADH − deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol vs. pair-fed controls shows increases for total cholesterol, esterified cholesterol, fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), triacylglycerides and unsaturation, and decreases for free cholesterol, phospholipids and allylic and diallylic protons. Certain classes of neutral lipids (cholesterol esters, fatty acyl chain (-COCH 2 -) and FAMEs) were also mildly increased in ADH − deer mice fed 1 or 2

  1. Hepatic lipid profiling of deer mice fed ethanol using {sup 1}H and {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy: A dose-dependent subchronic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando, Harshica; Bhopale, Kamlesh K.; Boor, Paul J.; Ansari, G.A. Shakeel; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S., E-mail: bkaphali@utmb.edu

    2012-11-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse is a 2nd major cause of liver disease resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is characterized by a wide spectrum of pathologies starting from fat accumulation (steatosis) in early reversible stage to inflammation with or without fibrosis and cirrhosis in later irreversible stages. Previously, we reported significant steatosis in the livers of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-deficient (ADH{sup −}) vs. hepatic ADH-normal (ADH{sup +}) deer mice fed 4% ethanol daily for 2 months [Bhopale et al., 2006, Alcohol 39, 179–188]. However, ADH{sup −} deer mice fed 4% ethanol also showed a significant mortality. Therefore, a dose-dependent study was conducted to understand the mechanism and identify lipid(s) involved in the development of ethanol-induced fatty liver. ADH{sup −} and ADH{sup +} deer mice fed 1, 2 or 3.5% ethanol daily for 2 months and fatty infiltration in the livers were evaluated by histology and by measuring dry weights of extracted lipids. Lipid metabolomic changes in extracted lipids were determined by proton ({sup 1}H) and {sup 31}phosphorus ({sup 31}P) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The NMR data was analyzed by hierarchical clustering (HC) and principle component analysis (PCA) for pattern recognition. Extensive vacuolization by histology and significantly increased dry weights of total lipids found only in the livers of ADH{sup −} deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol vs. pair-fed controls suggest a dose-dependent formation of fatty liver in ADH{sup −} deer mouse model. Analysis of NMR data of ADH{sup −} deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol vs. pair-fed controls shows increases for total cholesterol, esterified cholesterol, fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), triacylglycerides and unsaturation, and decreases for free cholesterol, phospholipids and allylic and diallylic protons. Certain classes of neutral lipids (cholesterol esters, fatty acyl chain (-COCH{sub 2}-) and FAMEs) were

  2. Whey-reduced weight gain is associated with a temporary growth reduction in young mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Britt; Madsen, Andreas N.; Hansen, Axel K.

    2015-01-01

    Whey protein consumption reportedly alleviates parameters of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in young mice fed a high-fat diet. We hypothesized that whey as the sole protein source reduced early weight gain associated with retarded growth...... and decreased concentration of insulin-like growth factor-1. Moreover, we hypothesized that these changes were explained by increased nitrogen loss via elevated urea production and/or increased energy expenditure. Male 5-week-old C57BL/6 mice were fed high-fat diets with the protein source being either whey......, casein or a combination of both for 5 weeks. After 1, 3 or 5 weeks, respectively, the mice were subjected to a meal challenge with measurements of blood and urinary urea before and 1 and 3 h after eating a weighed meal of their respective diets. In a subset of mice, energy expenditure was measured...

  3. Gliadin affects glucose homeostasis and intestinal metagenome in C57BL6 mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Li; Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Bahl, Martin Iain

    limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gliadin on glucose homeostasis and intestinal ecology in the mouse. Forty male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet containing either 4% gliadin or no gliadin for 22 weeks. Gliadin consumption significantly increased the HbA1c level over......Dietary gluten and its component gliadin are well-known environmental triggers of celiac disease and important actors in type-1 diabetes, and are reported to induce alterations in the intestinal microbiota. However, research on the impact of gluten on type-2 diabetes in non-celiac subjects is more...... time, with a borderline significance of higher HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) after 22 weeks. Sequencing of the V3 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed that gliadin altered the abundance of 81 bacterial taxa, separating the intestinal microbial profile...

  4. Hepatic Hazard Assessment of Silver Nanoparticle Exposure in Healthy and Chronically Alcohol Fed Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kermanizadeh, Ali; Jacobsen, Nicklas R.; Roursgaard, Martin

    2017-01-01

    effects were aggravated in the alcohol pretreated mice in comparison to controls with regards to an organ specific inflammatory response, changes in blood biochemistry, acute phase response and hepatic pathology. In addition, alcoholic disease influenced the organ’s ability for recovery post-NP challenge...

  5. Chemical derivatives of docosahexaenoic acid prevent glucose intolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rossmeisl, Martin; Jílková, Zuzana; Jeleník, Tomáš; Hensler, Michal; Flachs, Pavel; Mohamed-Ali, V.; Bryhn, M.; Kopecký, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 31, Suppl.1 (2007), S76-S76 ISSN 0307-0565. [European congress on obesity /15./. 22.04.2007-25.04.2007, Budapest] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : obesity * insulin resistance * DHA * C57BL/6N mice Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  6. The Ratio of Macronutrients, Not Caloric Intake, Dictates Cardiometabolic Health, Aging, and Longevity in Ad Libitum-Fed Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solon-Biet, Samantha M.; McMahon, Aisling C.; Ballard, J. William O.; Ruohonen, Kari; Wu, Lindsay E.; Cogger, Victoria C.; Warren, Alessandra; Huang, Xin; Pichaud, Nicolas; Melvin, Richard G.; Gokarn, Rahul; Khalil, Mamdouh; Turner, Nigel; Cooney, Gregory J.; Sinclair, David A.; Raubenheimer, David; Le Couteur, David G.; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The fundamental questions of what represents a macronutritionally balanced diet and how this maintains health and longevity remain unanswered. Here, the Geometric Framework, a state-space nutritional modeling method, was used to measure interactive effects of dietary energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrate on food intake, cardiometabolic phenotype, and longevity in mice fed one of 25 diets ad libitum. Food intake was regulated primarily by protein and carbohydrate content. Longevity and health were optimized when protein was replaced with carbohydrate to limit compensatory feeding for protein and suppress protein intake. These consequences are associated with hepatic mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation and mitochondrial function and, in turn, related to circulating branched-chain amino acids and glucose. Calorie restriction achieved by high-protein diets or dietary dilution had no beneficial effects on lifespan. The results suggest that longevity can be extended in ad libitum-fed animals by manipulating the ratio of macronutrients to inhibit mTOR activation. PMID:24606899

  7. Pectin penta-oligogalacturonide reduces cholesterol accumulation by promoting bile acid biosynthesis and excretion in high-cholesterol-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ru-Gang; Sun, Yan-Di; Hou, Yu-Ting; Fan, Jun-Gang; Chen, Gang; Li, Tuo-Ping

    2017-06-25

    Haw pectin penta-oligogalacturonide (HPPS) has important role in improving cholesterol metabolism and promoting the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids (BA) in mice fed high-cholesterol diet (HCD). However, the mechanism is not clear. This study aims to investigate the effects of HPPS on cholesterol accumulation and the regulation of hepatic BA synthesis and transport in HCD-fed mice. Results showed that HPPS significantly decreased plasma and hepatic TC levels but increased plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) levels, compared to HCD. BA analysis showed that HPPS markedly decreased hepatic and small intestine BA levels but increased the gallbladder BA levels, and finally decreased the total BA pool size, compared to HCD. Studies of molecular mechanism revealed that HPPS promoted hepatic ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1), and scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) expression but did not affect ATB binding cassette transporter G5/G8 (ABCG5/8) expression. HPPS inactivated hepatic farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and target genes expression, which resulted in significant increase of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase 1 (CYP7A1) and sterol 12α-hydroxylase (CYP8B1) expression, with up-regulations of 204.2% and 33.5% for mRNA levels, respectively, compared with HCD. In addition, HPPS markedly enhanced bile salt export pump (BSEP) expression but didn't affect the sodium/taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) expression. In conclusion, the study revealed that HPPS reduced cholesterol accumulation by promoting BA synthesis in the liver and excretion in the feces, and might promote macrophage-to-liver reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) but did not liver-to-fecal RCT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of particle-exposure triggered pulmonary and systemic inflammation in mice fed with three different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, Alexander A; Rozman, Jan; Rödel, Heiko G; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Klingenspor, Martin; Stoeger, Tobias

    2011-09-27

    Obesity can be linked to disease risks such as diabetes and cardiovascular disorders, but recently, the adipose tissue (AT) macrophage also emerges as actively participating in inflammation and immune function, producing pro- and anti-inflammatory factors. Connections between the AT and chronic lung diseases, like emphysema and asthma and a protective role of adipocyte-derived proteins against acute lung injury were suggested.In this study we addressed the question, whether a diet challenge increases the inflammatory response in the alveolar and the blood compartment in response to carbon nanoparticles (CNP), as a surrogate for ambient/urban particulate air pollutants. Mice were fed a high caloric carbohydrate-rich (CA) or a fat-rich (HF) diet for six weeks and were compared to mice kept on a purified low fat (LF) diet, respectively. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and blood samples were taken 24 h after intratracheal CNP instillation and checked for cellular and molecular markers of inflammation. The high caloric diets resulted in distinct effects when compared with LF mice, respectively: CA resulted in increased body and fat mass without affecting blood cellular immunity. Conversely, HF activated the blood system, increasing lymphocyte and neutrophil counts, and resulted in slightly increased body fat content. In contrast to higher pro-inflammatory BAL Leptin in CA and HF mice, on a cellular level, both diets did not lead to an increased pro-inflammatory basal status in the alveolar compartment per se, nor did result in differences in the particle-triggered response. However both diets resulted in a disturbance of the alveolar capillary barrier as indicated by enhanced BAL protein and lactate-dehydrogenase concentrations. Systemically, reduced serum Adiponectin in HF mice might be related to the observed white blood cell increase. The increase in BAL pro-inflammatory factors in high caloric groups and reductions in serum concentrations of anti-inflammatory factors

  9. Comparison of particle-exposure triggered pulmonary and systemic inflammation in mice fed with three different diets

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    Hrabě de Angelis Martin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity can be linked to disease risks such as diabetes and cardiovascular disorders, but recently, the adipose tissue (AT macrophage also emerges as actively participating in inflammation and immune function, producing pro- and anti-inflammatory factors. Connections between the AT and chronic lung diseases, like emphysema and asthma and a protective role of adipocyte-derived proteins against acute lung injury were suggested. In this study we addressed the question, whether a diet challenge increases the inflammatory response in the alveolar and the blood compartment in response to carbon nanoparticles (CNP, as a surrogate for ambient/urban particulate air pollutants. Methods Mice were fed a high caloric carbohydrate-rich (CA or a fat-rich (HF diet for six weeks and were compared to mice kept on a purified low fat (LF diet, respectively. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL and blood samples were taken 24 h after intratracheal CNP instillation and checked for cellular and molecular markers of inflammation. Results and discussion The high caloric diets resulted in distinct effects when compared with LF mice, respectively: CA resulted in increased body and fat mass without affecting blood cellular immunity. Conversely, HF activated the blood system, increasing lymphocyte and neutrophil counts, and resulted in slightly increased body fat content. In contrast to higher pro-inflammatory BAL Leptin in CA and HF mice, on a cellular level, both diets did not lead to an increased pro-inflammatory basal status in the alveolar compartment per se, nor did result in differences in the particle-triggered response. However both diets resulted in a disturbance of the alveolar capillary barrier as indicated by enhanced BAL protein and lactate-dehydrogenase concentrations. Systemically, reduced serum Adiponectin in HF mice might be related to the observed white blood cell increase. Conclusion The increase in BAL pro-inflammatory factors in high caloric

  10. Effect of Seyoeum on Obesity, Insulin Resistance, and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease of High-Fat Diet-Fed C57BL/6 Mice

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    Hyun-Young Na

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of Seyoeum (SYE, a novel herbal meal replacement, on insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in obese mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD. Methods. SYE contained six kinds of herbal powder such as Coix lacryma-jobi, Oryza sativa, Sesamum indicum, Glycine max, Liriope platyphylla, and Dioscorea batatas. Male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: normal chow (NC, HFD, SYE, and HFD plus SYE (HFD + SYE. The mice in groups other than NC were fed HFD for 9 weeks to induce obesity and then were fed each diet for 6 weeks. Clinical markers related to obesity, diabetes, and NAFLD were examined and gene expressions related to inflammation and insulin receptor were determined. Results. Compared with HFD group, body weight, serum glucose, serum insulin, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, triglyceride, epididymal fat pad weight, liver weight, and inflammatory gene expression were significantly reduced in SYE group. Insulin receptor gene expression increased in SYE group. Conclusions. Based on these results, we conclude that SYE improved obesity and insulin resistance in high-fat fed obese mice. Our findings suggest that SYE could be a beneficial meal replacement through these antiobesity and anti-insulin resistance effects.

  11. In Vivo Hypocholesterolemic Effect of MARDI Fermented Red Yeast Rice Water Extract in High Cholesterol Diet Fed Mice

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    Swee Keong Yeap

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented red yeast rice has been traditionally consumed as medication in Asian cuisine. This study aimed to determine the in vivo hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects of fermented red yeast rice water extract produced using Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI Monascus purpureus strains in mice fed with high cholesterol diet. Absence of monacolin-k, lower level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, higher content of total amino acids, and antioxidant activities were detected in MARDI fermented red yeast rice water extract (MFRYR. In vivo MFRYR treatment on hypercholesterolemic mice recorded similar lipid lowering effect as commercial red yeast rice extract (CRYR as it helps to reduce the elevated serum liver enzyme and increased the antioxidant levels in liver. This effect was also associated with the upregulation of apolipoproteins-E and inhibition of Von Willebrand factor expression. In summary, MFRYR enriched in antioxidant and amino acid without monacolin-k showed similar hypocholesterolemic effect as CRYR that was rich in monacolin-k and GABA.

  12. In Vivo Hypocholesterolemic Effect of MARDI Fermented Red Yeast Rice Water Extract in High Cholesterol Diet Fed Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beh, Boon Kee; Kong, Joan; Ho, Wan Yong; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Hussin, Aminuddin bin; Jaganath, Indu Bala; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Jamaluddin, Anisah

    2014-01-01

    Fermented red yeast rice has been traditionally consumed as medication in Asian cuisine. This study aimed to determine the in vivo hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects of fermented red yeast rice water extract produced using Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) Monascus purpureus strains in mice fed with high cholesterol diet. Absence of monacolin-k, lower level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), higher content of total amino acids, and antioxidant activities were detected in MARDI fermented red yeast rice water extract (MFRYR). In vivo MFRYR treatment on hypercholesterolemic mice recorded similar lipid lowering effect as commercial red yeast rice extract (CRYR) as it helps to reduce the elevated serum liver enzyme and increased the antioxidant levels in liver. This effect was also associated with the upregulation of apolipoproteins-E and inhibition of Von Willebrand factor expression. In summary, MFRYR enriched in antioxidant and amino acid without monacolin-k showed similar hypocholesterolemic effect as CRYR that was rich in monacolin-k and GABA. PMID:25031606

  13. Differential effects of safflower oil versus fish oil feeding on insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis, glycolysis, and pyruvate dehydrogenase flux in skeletal muscle: a 13C nuclear magnetic resonance study.

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    Jucker, B M; Cline, G W; Barucci, N; Shulman, G I

    1999-01-01

    To examine the effects of safflower oil versus fish oil feeding on in vivo intramuscular glucose metabolism and relative pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) versus tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux, rats were pair-fed on diets consisting of 1) 59% safflower oil, 2) 59% menhaden fish oil, or 3) 59% carbohydrate (control) in calories. Rates of glycolysis and glycogen synthesis were assessed by monitoring [1-(13)C]glucose label incorporation into [1-(13)C]glycogen, [3-(13)C]lactate, and [3-(13)C]alanine in the hindlimb of awake rats via 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy during a euglycemic (approximately 6 mmol/l) hyperinsulinemic (approximately 180 microU/ml) clamp. A steady-state isotopic analysis of lactate, alanine, and glutamate was used to determine the relative PDH versus TCA cycle flux present in muscle under these conditions. The safflower oil-fed rats were insulin resistant compared with control and fish oil-fed rats, as reflected by a markedly reduced glucose infusion rate (Ginf) during the clamp (21.4 +/- 2.3 vs. 31.6 +/- 2.8 and 31.7 +/- 1.9 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1) in safflower oil versus control and fish oil groups, respectively, P safflower oil group was associated with a lower rate of glycolysis (21.7 +/- 2.2 nmol x g(-1) x min(-1)) versus control (62.1 +/- 10.3 nmol x g(-1) x min(-1), P safflower oil, fish oil, and control, respectively) was detected. The intramuscular triglyceride (TG) content was increased in the safflower oil group (7.3 +/- 0.8 micromol/g) compared with the control group (5.2 +/- 0.8 micromol/g, P safflower oil (43 +/- 8%) versus the control (73 +/- 8%, P safflower oil feeding was a consequence of reduced glycolytic flux associated with an increase in relative free fatty acid/ketone oxidation versus TCA cycle flux, whereas fish oil feeding did not alter glucose metabolism and may in part be protective of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal by limiting intramuscular TG deposition.

  14. BSN723T Prevents Atherosclerosis and Weight Gain in ApoE Knockout Mice Fed a Western Diet.

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    Williams, Jarrod; Ensor, Charles; Gardner, Scott; Smith, Rebecca; Lodder, Robert

    This study tests the hypothesis that BSN723T can prevent the development of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis in ApoE -/- knockout mice fed a Western (high fat, high cholesterol, and high sucrose) diet. BSN723T is a combination drug therapy consisting of D-tagatose and dihydromyricetin (BSN723). D-tagatose has an antihyperglycemic effect in animal and human studies and shows promise as a treatment for type 2 diabetes and obesity. Many claims regarding BSN723's pharmacological activities have been made including anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherosclerotic effects. To our knowledge this is the first study that combines D-tagatose and BSN723 for the treatment of hyperlipidemia and the prevention of atherosclerosis. ApoE-deficient mice were randomized into five groups with equivalent mean body weights. The mice were given the following diets for 8 weeks: Group 1 - Standard diet; Group 2 - Western diet; Group 3 - Western diet formulated with D-tagatose; Group 4 - Western diet formulated with BSN723; Group 5 - Western diet formulated with BSN723T. Mice were measured for weight gain, tissue and organ weights, total serum cholesterol and triglycerides and formation of atherosclerosis. The addition of D-tagatose, either alone or in combination with BSN723, prevented the increase in adipose tissue and weight gain brought on by the Western diet. Both D-tagatose and BSN723 alone reduced total cholesterol and the formation of atherosclerosis in the aorta compared to mice on the Western diet. Addition of BSN723 to D-tagatose (BSN723T) did not increase efficacy in prevention of increases in cholesterol or atherosclerosis compared to D-tagatose alone. Addition of either D-tagatose or BSN723 alone to a Western diet prevented weight gain, increases in total serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and the formation of atherosclerosis. However, there was no additive or synergistic effect on the measured parameters with the combination BSN

  15. Obesity is mediated by differential aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling in mice fed a Western diet.

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    Kerley-Hamilton, Joanna S; Trask, Heidi W; Ridley, Christian J A; Dufour, Eric; Ringelberg, Carol S; Nurinova, Nilufer; Wong, Diandra; Moodie, Karen L; Shipman, Samantha L; Moore, Jason H; Korc, Murray; Shworak, Nicholas W; Tomlinson, Craig R

    2012-09-01

    Obesity is a growing worldwide problem with genetic and environmental causes, and it is an underlying basis for many diseases. Studies have shown that the toxicant-activated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) may disrupt fat metabolism and contribute to obesity. The AHR is a nuclear receptor/transcription factor that is best known for responding to environmental toxicant exposures to induce a battery of xenobiotic-metabolizing genes. The intent of the work reported here was to test more directly the role of the AHR in obesity and fat metabolism in lieu of exogenous toxicants. We used two congenic mouse models that differ at the Ahr gene and encode AHRs with a 10-fold difference in signaling activity. The two mouse strains were fed either a low-fat (regular) diet or a high-fat (Western) diet. The Western diet differentially affected body size, body fat:body mass ratios, liver size and liver metabolism, and liver mRNA and miRNA profiles. The regular diet had no significant differential effects. The results suggest that the AHR plays a large and broad role in obesity and associated complications, and importantly, may provide a simple and effective therapeutic strategy to combat obesity, heart disease, and other obesity-associated illnesses.

  16. Lipid Emulsion Administered Intravenously or Orally Attenuates Triglyceride Accumulation and Expression of Inflammatory Markers in the Liver of Nonobese Mice Fed Parenteral Nutrition Formula123

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    Ito, Kyoko; Hao, Lei; Wray, Amanda E.; Ross, A. Catharine

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of hepatic TG and development of hepatic steatosis (HS) is a serious complication of the use of parenteral nutrition (PN) formulas containing a high percentage of dextrose. But whether fat emulsions or other nutrients can ameliorate the induction of HS by high-carbohydrate diets is still uncertain. We hypothesized that administration of a lipid emulsion (LE; Intralipid) and/or the vitamin A metabolite retinal (RAL) will reduce hepatic TG accumulation and attenuate indicators of inflammation. C57BL/6 male mice were fed PN formula as their only source of hydration and nutrition for 4–5 wk. In Expt. 1, mice were fed PN only or PN plus treatment with RAL (1 μg/g orally), LE (200 μL i.v.), or both LE and RAL. In Expt. 2, LE was orally administered at 4 and 13.5% of energy to PN-fed mice. All PN mice developed HS compared with mice fed normal chow (NC) and HS was reduced by LE. The liver TG mass was lower in the PN+LE and PN+RAL+LE groups compared with the PN and PN+RAL groups (P < 0.01) and in the 4% and 13.5% PN+LE groups compared with PN alone. Hepatic total retinol was higher in the RAL-fed mice (P < 0.0001), but RAL did not alter TG mass. mRNA transcripts for fatty acid synthase (Fasn) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (Srebpf1) were higher in the PN compared with the NC mice, but FAS protein and Srebpf1 mRNA were lower in the PN+LE groups compared with PN alone. The inflammation marker serum amyloid P component was also reduced. In summary, LE given either i.v. or orally may be sufficient to reduce the steatotic potential of orally fed high-dextrose formulas and may suppress the early development of HS during PN therapy. PMID:23325918

  17. Finger millet bran supplementation alleviates obesity-induced oxidative stress, inflammation and gut microbial derangements in high-fat diet-fed mice.

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    Murtaza, Nida; Baboota, Ritesh K; Jagtap, Sneha; Singh, Dhirendra P; Khare, Pragyanshu; Sarma, Siddhartha M; Podili, Koteswaraiah; Alagesan, Subramanian; Chandra, T S; Bhutani, K K; Boparai, Ravneet K; Bishnoi, Mahendra; Kondepudi, Kanthi Kiran

    2014-11-14

    Several epidemiological studies have shown that the consumption of finger millet (FM) alleviates diabetes-related complications. In the present study, the effect of finger millet whole grain (FM-WG) and bran (FM-BR) supplementation was evaluated in high-fat diet-fed LACA mice for 12 weeks. Mice were divided into four groups: control group fed a normal diet (10 % fat as energy); a group fed a high-fat diet; a group fed the same high-fat diet supplemented with FM-BR; a group fed the same high-fat diet supplemented with FM-WG. The inclusion of FM-BR at 10 % (w/w) in a high-fat diet had more beneficial effects than that of FM-WG. FM-BR supplementation prevented body weight gain, improved lipid profile and anti-inflammatory status, alleviated oxidative stress, regulated the expression levels of several obesity-related genes, increased the abundance of beneficial gut bacteria (Lactobacillus, Bifidobacteria and Roseburia) and suppressed the abundance of Enterobacter in caecal contents (P≤ 0·05). In conclusion, FM-BR supplementation could be an effective strategy for preventing high-fat diet-induced changes and developing FM-BR-enriched functional foods.

  18. The regulation of non-coding RNA expression in the liver of mice fed DDC.

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    Oliva, Joan; Bardag-Gorce, Fawzia; French, Barbara A; Li, Jun; French, Samuel W

    2009-08-01

    Mallory-Denk bodies (MDBs) are found in the liver of patients with alcoholic and chronic nonalcoholic liver disease, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Diethyl 1,4-dihydro-2,4,6,-trimethyl-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylate (DDC) is used as a model to induce the formation of MDBs in mouse liver. Previous studies in this laboratory showed that DDC induced epigenetic modifications in DNA and histones. The combination of these modifications changes the phenotype of the MDB forming hepatocytes, as indicated by the marker FAT10. These epigenetic modifications are partially prevented by adding to the diet S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) or betaine, both methyl donors. The expression of three imprinted ncRNA genes was found to change in MDB forming hepatocytes, which is the subject of this report. NcRNA expression was quantitated by real-time PCR and RNA FISH in liver sections. Microarray analysis showed that the expression of three ncRNAs was regulated by DDC: up regulation of H19, antisense Igf2r (AIR), and down regulation of GTL2 (also called MEG3). S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) feeding prevented these changes. Betaine, another methyl group donor, prevented only H19 and AIR up regulation induced by DDC, on microarrays. The results of the SAMe and betaine groups were confirmed by real-time PCR, except for AIR expression. After 1 month of drug withdrawal, the expression of the three ncRNAs tended toward control levels of expression. Liver tumors that developed also showed up regulation of H19 and AIR. The RNA FISH approach showed that the MDB forming cells' phenotype changed the level of expression of AIR, H19 and GTL2, compared to the surrounding cells. Furthermore, over expression of H19 and AIR was demonstrated in tumors formed in mice withdrawn for 9 months. The dysregulation of ncRNA in MDB forming liver cells has been observed for the first time in drug-primed mice associated with liver preneoplastic foci and tumors.

  19. Anti-obesity activity of chloroform-methanol extract of Premna integrifolia in mice fed with cafeteria diet

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    Prashant Y Mali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: Aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-obesity activity of chloroform:methanol extract of P. integrifolia (CMPI in mice fed with cafeteria diet. Materials and Methods: Female Swiss Albino mice were divided into six groups, which received normal and cafeteria diet, standard drug simvastatin (10 mg/kg and CMPI (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg daily for 40 days. Parameters such as body weight, body mass index (BMI, Lee index of obesity (LIO, food consumption, locomotor behavior, serum glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, atherogenic index, organ weight and organ fat pad weight were studied for evaluating the anti-obesity activity of P. integrifolia. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC fingerprint profile of chloroform-methanol extract was also studied using quercetin as the reference standard. Results: There was a significant increase in body weight, BMI, LIO, food consumption, organ weight (liver and small intestine, organ fat pad weight (mesenteric and peri-renal fat pad and in the levels of serum glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL and VLDL with a significant decrease in locomotor behavior (ambulation, rearing, grooming and HDL level in cafeteria diet group. Animals treated with CMPI showed dose dependent activity. P. integrifolia (200 mg/kg supplementation attenuated all the above alterations, which indicates the anti-obesity activity. HPLC fingerprint profile of CMPI showed two peaks in the solvent system of 50 mm potassium diphosphate (pH-3 with ortho phosphoric acid: Methanol (30:70 v/v at 360 nm. Conclusion: Present findings suggest that, CMPI possessed anti-obesity activity that substantiated its ethno-medicinal use in the treatment of obesity.

  20. Consequences of exchanging carbohydrates for proteins in the cholesterol metabolism of mice fed a high-fat diet.

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    Frédéric Raymond

    Full Text Available Consumption of low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat diets lead to rapid weight loss but the cardioprotective effects of these diets have been questioned. We examined the impact of high-protein and high-fat diets on cholesterol metabolism by comparing the plasma cholesterol and the expression of cholesterol biosynthesis genes in the liver of mice fed a high-fat (HF diet that has a high (H or a low (L protein-to-carbohydrate (P/C ratio. H-P/C-HF feeding, compared with L-P/C-HF feeding, decreased plasma total cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol concentrations at 4-wk. Interestingly, the expression of genes involved in hepatic steroid biosynthesis responded to an increased dietary P/C ratio by first down-regulation (2-d followed by later up-regulation at 4-wk, and the temporal gene expression patterns were connected to the putative activity of SREBF1 and 2. In contrast, Cyp7a1, the gene responsible for the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids, was consistently up-regulated in the H-P/C-HF liver regardless of feeding duration. Over expression of Cyp7a1 after 2-d and 4-wk H-P/C-HF feeding was connected to two unique sets of transcription regulators. At both time points, up-regulation of the Cyp7a1 gene could be explained by enhanced activations and reduced suppressions of multiple transcription regulators. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the hypocholesterolemic effect of H-P/C-HF feeding coincided with orchestrated changes of gene expressions in lipid metabolic pathways in the liver of mice. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the cholesterol lowering effect of high-protein feeding is associated with enhanced bile acid production but clinical validation is warranted. (246 words.

  1. Consequences of exchanging carbohydrates for proteins in the cholesterol metabolism of mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Frédéric; Wang, Long; Moser, Mireille; Metairon, Sylviane; Mansourian, Robert; Zwahlen, Marie-Camille; Kussmann, Martin; Fuerholz, Andreas; Macé, Katherine; Chou, Chieh Jason

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat diets lead to rapid weight loss but the cardioprotective effects of these diets have been questioned. We examined the impact of high-protein and high-fat diets on cholesterol metabolism by comparing the plasma cholesterol and the expression of cholesterol biosynthesis genes in the liver of mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet that has a high (H) or a low (L) protein-to-carbohydrate (P/C) ratio. H-P/C-HF feeding, compared with L-P/C-HF feeding, decreased plasma total cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol concentrations at 4-wk. Interestingly, the expression of genes involved in hepatic steroid biosynthesis responded to an increased dietary P/C ratio by first down-regulation (2-d) followed by later up-regulation at 4-wk, and the temporal gene expression patterns were connected to the putative activity of SREBF1 and 2. In contrast, Cyp7a1, the gene responsible for the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids, was consistently up-regulated in the H-P/C-HF liver regardless of feeding duration. Over expression of Cyp7a1 after 2-d and 4-wk H-P/C-HF feeding was connected to two unique sets of transcription regulators. At both time points, up-regulation of the Cyp7a1 gene could be explained by enhanced activations and reduced suppressions of multiple transcription regulators. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the hypocholesterolemic effect of H-P/C-HF feeding coincided with orchestrated changes of gene expressions in lipid metabolic pathways in the liver of mice. Based on these results, we hypothesize that the cholesterol lowering effect of high-protein feeding is associated with enhanced bile acid production but clinical validation is warranted. (246 words).

  2. DNA methylation alters transcriptional rates of differentially expressed genes and contributes to pathophysiology in mice fed a high fat diet

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    Pili Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Overnutrition can alter gene expression patterns through epigenetic mechanisms that may persist through generations. However, it is less clear if overnutrition, for example a high fat diet, modifies epigenetic control of gene expression in adults, or by what molecular mechanisms, or if such mechanisms contribute to the pathology of the metabolic syndrome. Here we test the hypothesis that a high fat diet alters hepatic DNA methylation, transcription and gene expression patterns, and explore the contribution of such changes to the pathophysiology of obesity. Methods: RNA-seq and targeted high-throughput bisulfite DNA sequencing were used to undertake a systematic analysis of the hepatic response to a high fat diet. RT-PCR, chromatin immunoprecipitation and in vivo knockdown of an identified driver gene, Phlda1, were used to validate the results. Results: A high fat diet resulted in the hypermethylation and decreased transcription and expression of Phlda1 and several other genes. A subnetwork of genes associated with Phlda1 was identified from an existing Bayesian gene network that contained numerous hepatic regulatory genes involved in lipid and body weight homeostasis. Hepatic-specific depletion of Phlda1 in mice decreased expression of the genes in the subnetwork, and led to increased oil droplet size in standard chow-fed mice, an early indicator of steatosis, validating the contribution of this gene to the phenotype. Conclusions: We conclude that a high fat diet alters the epigenetics and transcriptional activity of key hepatic genes controlling lipid homeostasis, contributing to the pathophysiology of obesity. Author Video: Author Video Watch what authors say about their articles Keywords: DNA methylation, RNA-seq, Transcription, High fat diet, Liver, Phlda1

  3. Genetic diversity in Carthamus tinctorius (Asteraceae; safflower), an underutilized oilseed crop.

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    Pearl, Stephanie A; Burke, John M

    2014-10-01

    • Underutilized crops are potentially valuable resources for meeting increasing food demands. Safflower, an oilseed crop, is an example of one such underutilized crop that thrives in moisture-limited areas. Characterization of the genetic diversity maintained within the gene pools of underutilized crops such as safflower is an important step in their further development.• A total of 190 safflower individuals, including 134 USDA accessions, 48 breeding lines from two private North American safflower breeding companies, and eight wild safflower individuals, were genotyped using 133 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. We then used the resulting data to assess the amount and distribution of genetic diversity within and among these collections of safflower.• Although just a modest reduction in gene diversity was observed in the commercial breeding lines (relative to the other safflower groupings), safflower domestication was accompanied by a significant decrease in allelic richness. Further, our results suggest that most safflower breeding lines originated from a single pool of diversity within the Old World safflower germplasm.• Taken together, our results suggest that both the safflower germplasm collection and related, wild species harbor previously undocumented genetic diversity that could help fuel future improvement efforts. Paired with analyses of functional diversity, the molecular resources described herein will be thus be useful in the continued development of safflower as an oilseed crop. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  4. Voluntary exercise and green tea enhance the expression of genes related to energy utilization and attenuate metabolic syndrome in high fat fed mice.

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    Sae-Tan, Sudathip; Rogers, Connie J; Lambert, Joshua D

    2014-05-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome are growing public health problems. We investigated the effects of decaffeinated green tea extract (GTE) and voluntary running exercise (Ex) alone or in combination against obesity and metabolic syndrome in high fat (HF) fed C57BL/6J mice. After 16 wk, GTE + Ex treatment reduced final body mass (27.1% decrease) and total visceral fat mass (36.6% decrease) compared to HF-fed mice. GTE + Ex reduced fasting blood glucose (17% decrease), plasma insulin (65% decrease), and insulin resistance (65% decrease) compared to HF-fed mice. GTE or Ex alone had less significant effects. In the skeletal muscle, the combination of Ex and GTE increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (Ppargc1a), mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase 5 (mt-Nd5), mitochondrial cytochrome b (mt-Cytb), and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase III (mt-Co3). An increase in hepatic expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (Ppara) and liver carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1α (Cpt1a) and a decrease in hepatic expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (Scd1) mRNA was observed in GTE + Ex mice. GTE + Ex was more effective than either treatment alone in reducing diet-induced obesity. These effects are due in part to modulation of genes related to energy metabolism and de novo lipogenesis. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Hypothalamic endoplasmic reticulum stress and insulin resistance in offspring of mice dams fed high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation.

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    Melo, Arine M; Benatti, Rafaela O; Ignacio-Souza, Leticia M; Okino, Caroline; Torsoni, Adriana S; Milanski, Marciane; Velloso, Licio A; Torsoni, Marcio Alberto

    2014-05-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the presence early of markers of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and insulin resistance in the offspring from dams fed HFD (HFD-O) or standard chow diet (SC-O) during pregnancy and lactation. To address this question, we evaluated the hypothalamic and hepatic tissues in recently weaned mice (d28) and the hypothalamus of newborn mice (d0) from dams fed HFD or SC during pregnancy and lactation. Body weight, adipose tissue mass, and food intake were more accentuated in HFD-O mice than in SC-O mice. In addition, intolerance to glucose and insulin was higher in HFD-O mice than in SC-O mice. Compared with SC-O mice, levels of hypothalamic IL1-β mRNA, NFκB protein, and p-JNK were increased in HFD-O mice. Furthermore, compared with SC-O mice, hypothalamic AKT phosphorylation after insulin challenge was reduced, while markers of ERS (p-PERK, p-eIF2α, XBP1s, GRP78, and GRP94) and p-AMPK were increased in the hypothalamic tissue of HFD-O at d28 but not at d0. These damages to hypothalamic signaling were accompanied by increased triglyceride deposits, activation of NFκB, p-JNK, p-PERK and p-eIF2α. These point out lactation period as maternal trigger for metabolic changes in the offspring. These changes may occur early and quietly contribute to obesity and associated pathologies in adulthood. Although in rodents the establishment of ARC neuronal projections occurs during the lactation period, in humans it occurs during the third trimester. Gestational diabetes and obesity in this period may contribute to impairment of energy homeostasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sea cucumber saponin liposomes ameliorate obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in high-fat-diet-fed mice.

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    Chen, Cheng; Han, Xiuqing; Dong, Ping; Li, Zhaojie; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Xue, Changhu; Zhang, Tiantian; Wang, Yuming

    2018-02-21

    Obesity has become a worldwide concern in recent years, which may cause many diseases. Much attention has been paid to food components that are considered to be beneficial in preventing chronic metabolic diseases. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of sea cucumber saponin liposomes on certain metabolic markers associated with obesity. C57/BL6 mice fed with high-fat diet were treated with different forms of sea cucumber saponins for eight weeks. The results showed that liposomes exhibited better effects on anti-obesity and anti-hyperlipidemia activities than the common form of sea cucumber saponins. Sea cucumber saponin liposomes could also effectively alleviate adipose tissue inflammation by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine releases and macrophage infiltration. Moreover, sea cucumber saponin liposomes improved insulin resistance by altering the uptake and utilization of glucose. Taken together, our results indicated that the intake of sea cucumber saponin liposomes might be able to ameliorate obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance.

  7. Phlorizin Supplementation Attenuates Obesity, Inflammation, and Hyperglycemia in Diet-Induced Obese Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Kyung Shin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, along with its related complications, is a serious health problem worldwide. Many studies reported the anti-diabetic effect of phlorizin, while little is known about its anti-obesity effect. We investigated the beneficial effects of phlorizin on obesity and its complications, including diabetes and inflammation in obese animal. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups and fed their respective experimental diets for 16 weeks: a normal diet (ND, 5% fat, w/w, high-fat diet (HFD, 20% fat, w/w, or HFD supplemented with phlorizin (PH, 0.02%, w/w. The findings revealed that the PH group had significantly decreased visceral and total white adipose tissue (WAT weights, and adipocyte size compared to the HFD. Plasma and hepatic lipids profiles also improved in the PH group. The decreased levels of hepatic lipids in PH were associated with decreased activities of enzymes involved in hepatic lipogenesis, cholesterol synthesis and esterification. The PH also suppressed plasma pro-inflammatory adipokines levels such as leptin, adipsin, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interferon-γ, and interleukin-6, and prevented HFD-induced collagen accumulation in the liver and WAT. Furthermore, the PH supplementation also decreased plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance levels. In conclusion, phlorizin is beneficial for preventing diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis, as well as insulin resistance.

  8. Oat beta-glucan ameliorates insulin resistance in mice fed on high-fat and high-fructose diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zheng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Methods: This study sought to evaluate the impact of oat beta-glucan on insulin resistance in mice fed on high-fat and high-fructose diet with fructose (10%, w/v added in drinking water for 10 weeks. Results: The results showed that supplementation with oat beta-glucan could significantly reduce the insulin resistance both in low-dose (200 mg/kg−1 body weight and high-dose (500 mg/kg−1 body weight groups, but the high-dose group showed a more significant improvement in insulin resistance (P<0.01 compared with model control (MC group along with significant improvement in hepatic glycogen level, oral glucose, and insulin tolerance. Moreover, hepatic glucokinase activity was markedly enhanced both in low-dose and high-dose groups compared with that of MC group (P<0.05. Conclusion: These results suggested that supplementation of oat beta-glucan alleviated insulin resistance and the effect was dose dependent.

  9. Beneficial effects of Allium sativum L. stem extract on lipid metabolism and antioxidant status in obese mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Inhye; Kim, Haeng-Ran; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Om, Ae-Son

    2013-08-30

    This study was designed to examine the potential health benefits of Allium sativum L. (garlic) stem extract (ASSE) on obesity and related disorders in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Obese mice were orally administered ASSE at doses of 100, 250 and 500 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for 4 weeks. Consumption of ASSE significantly suppressed body weight gain and white adipose tissue (WAT) weight regardless of daily food intake. Obese mice fed ASSE also exhibited a significant decrease in WAT cell size. The decreased level of adiponectin and increased level of leptin in obese mice reverted to near normal mice levels in ASSE-treated mice. ASSE administration significantly improved lipid parameters of the serum and liver and inhibited fat accumulation in the liver by modulating the activities of hepatic lipid-regulating enzymes in obese mice. Administration of ASSE also led to significant increases in antioxidant enzymes and suppressed glutathione depletion and lipid peroxidation in hepatic tissue. These results suggest that ASSE may ameliorate obesity, insulin resistance and oxidative damage in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Targeted Reduction of Vascular Msx1 and Msx2 Mitigates Arteriosclerotic Calcification and Aortic Stiffness in LDLR-Deficient Mice Fed Diabetogenic Diets

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Su-Li; Behrmann, Abraham; Shao, Jian-Su; Ramachandran, Bindu; Krchma, Karen; Bello Arredondo, Yoanna; Kovacs, Attila; Mead, Megan; Maxson, Robert; Towler, Dwight A.

    2014-01-01

    When fed high-fat diets, male LDLR?/? mice develop obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and arteriosclerotic calcification. An osteogenic Msx-Wnt regulatory program is concomitantly upregulated in the vasculature. To better understand the mechanisms of diabetic arteriosclerosis, we generated SM22-Cre;Msx1(fl/fl);Msx2(fl/fl);LDLR?/? mice, assessing the impact of Msx1+Msx2 gene deletion in vascular myofibroblast and smooth muscle cells. Aortic Msx2 and Msx1 were decreased by 95% and 34% in S...

  11. Evaluation of allelopathic potential of safflower genotypes (Carthamus tinctorius L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motamedi Marzieh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Forty safflower genotypes were grown under normal irrigation and drought stress. In the first experiment, the allelopathic potential of shoot residues was evaluated using the sandwich method. Each genotype residue (0.4 g was placed in a sterile Petri dish and two layers of agar were poured on that. Radish seeds were placed on agar medium. The radish seeds were cultivated without safflower residues as the controls. The length of the radicle, hypocotyl, and fresh biomass weight and seed germination percentages were measured. A pot experiment was also done on two genotypes with the highest and two with the lowest allelopathic activity selected after screening genotypes in the first experiment. Before entering the reproductive phase, irrigation treatments (normal irrigation and drought stress were applied. Shoots were harvested, dried, milled and mixed with the topsoil of new pots and then radish seeds were sown. The pots with safflower genotypes were used to evaluate the effect of root residue allelopathy. The shoot length, fresh biomass weight, and germination percentage were measured. Different safflower genotypes showed varied allelopathic potential. The results of the first experiment showed that Egypt and Iran-Khorasan genotypes caused maximum inhibitory responses and Australia and Iran-Kerman genotypes resulted in minimum inhibitory responses on radish seedling growth. Fresh biomass weight had the most sensitivity to safflower residues. The results of the pot experiment were consistent with the results of in vitro experiments. Residues produced under drought stress had more inhibitory effects on the measured traits. Safflower root residue may have a higher level of allelochemicals or different allelochemicals than shoot residue.

  12. Modulation of the Gut Microbiota by Krill Oil in Mice Fed a High-Sugar High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenyang Lu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the gut microbiota plays vital roles in metabolic diseases such as hyperlipidemia. Previous studies have confirmed that krill oil can alleviate hyperlipidemia, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. To discern whether krill oil changes the structure of the gut microbiota during the hyperlipidemia treatment, 72 mice were acclimatized with a standard chow diet for 2 weeks and then randomly allocated to receive a standard chow diet (control group, n = 12 or a high-sugar-high-fat (HSHF diet supplemented with a low (100 μg/g·d, HSHF+LD group, n = 12, moderate (200 μg/g·d, HSHF+MD group, n = 12 or high dosage of krill oil (600 μg/g·d, HSHF+HD group, n = 12, simvastatin (HSHF+S group, n = 12 or saline (HSHF group, n = 12 continuously for 12 weeks. The resulting weight gains were attenuated, the liver index and the low-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations showed a stepwise reduction in the treated groups compared with those of the control group. A dose-dependent modulation of the gut microbiota was observed after treatment with krill oil. Low- and moderate- doses of krill oil increased the similarity between the composition of the HSHF diet-induced gut microbiota and that of the control, whereas the mice fed the high-dose exhibited a unique gut microbiota structure that was different from that of the control and HSHF groups. Sixty-five key operational taxonomic units (OTUs that responded to the krill oil treatment were identified using redundancy analysis, of which 26 OTUs were increased and 39 OTUs were decreased compared with those of the HSHF group. In conclusion, the results obtained in this study suggest that the structural alterations in the gut microbiota induced by krill oil treatment were dose-dependent and associated with the alleviation of hyperlipidemia. Additionally, the high-dose krill oil treatment showed combined effects on the alleviation of

  13. Krill protein hydrolysate reduces plasma triacylglycerol level with concurrent increase in plasma bile acid level and hepatic fatty acid catabolism in high-fat fed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie S. Ramsvik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Krill powder, consisting of both lipids and proteins, has been reported to modulate hepatic lipid catabolism in animals. Fish protein hydrolysate diets have also been reported to affect lipid metabolism and to elevate bile acid (BA level in plasma. BA interacts with a number of nuclear receptors and thus affects a variety of signaling pathways, including very low density lipoprotein (VLDL secretion. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a krill protein hydrolysate (KPH could affect lipid and BA metabolism in mice. Method: C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat (21%, w/w diet containing 20% crude protein (w/w as casein (control group or KPH for 6 weeks. Lipids and fatty acid composition were measured from plasma, enzyme activity and gene expression were analyzed from liver samples, and BA was measured from plasma. Results: The effect of dietary treatment with KPH resulted in reduced levels of plasma triacylglycerols (TAG and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs. The KPH treated mice had also a marked increased plasma BA concentration. The increased plasma BA level was associated with induction of genes related to membrane canalicular exporter proteins (Abcc2, Abcb4 and to BA exporters to blood (Abcc3 and Abcc4. Of note, we observed a 2-fold increased nuclear farnesoid X receptor (Fxr mRNA levels in the liver of mice fed KPH. We also observed increased activity of the nuclear peroxiosme proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα target gene carnitine plamitoyltransferase 2 (CPT-2. Conclusion: The KPH diet showed to influence lipid and BA metabolism in high-fat fed mice. Moreover, increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and elevation of BA concentration may regulate the plasma level of TAGs and NEFAs.

  14. Liver Fatty Acid Composition and Inflammation in Mice Fed with High-Carbohydrate Diet or High-Fat Diet

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    Lorena Gimenez da Silva-Santi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Both high-carbohydrate diet (HCD and high-fat diet (HFD modulate liver fat accumulation and inflammation, however, there is a lack of data on the potential contribution of carbohydrates and lipids separately. For this reason, the changes in liver fatty acid (FA composition in male Swiss mice fed with HCD or HFD were compared, at the time points 0 (before starting the diets, and after 7, 14, 28 or 56 days. Activities of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1, ∆-6 desaturase (D6D, elongases and de novo lipogenesis (DNL were estimated. Liver mRNA expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1 was evaluated as an additional indicator of the de novo lipogenesis. Myeloperoxidase activity, nitric oxide (NO production, and mRNA expressions of F4/80, type I collagen, interleukin (IL-6, IL-1β, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α were measured as indication of the liver inflammatory state. The HCD group had more intense lipid deposition, particularly of saturated fatty acids (SFAs and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs. This group also showed higher DNL, SCD-1, and D6D activities associated with increased NO concentration, as well as myeloperoxidase activity. Livers from the HFD group showed higher elongase activity, stored more polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and had a lower omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid (n-6/n-3 ratio. In conclusion, liver lipid accumulation, fatty acids (FA composition and inflammation were modulated by the dietary composition of lipids and carbohydrates. The HCD group had more potent lipogenic and inflammatory effects in comparison with HFD.

  15. Liver Fatty Acid Composition and Inflammation in Mice Fed with High-Carbohydrate Diet or High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva-Santi, Lorena Gimenez; Antunes, Marina Masetto; Caparroz-Assef, Silvana Martins; Carbonera, Fabiana; Masi, Laureane Nunes; Curi, Rui; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergílio; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa

    2016-10-29

    Both high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) and high-fat diet (HFD) modulate liver fat accumulation and inflammation, however, there is a lack of data on the potential contribution of carbohydrates and lipids separately. For this reason, the changes in liver fatty acid (FA) composition in male Swiss mice fed with HCD or HFD were compared, at the time points 0 (before starting the diets), and after 7, 14, 28 or 56 days. Activities of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1), ∆-6 desaturase (D6D), elongases and de novo lipogenesis (DNL) were estimated. Liver mRNA expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) was evaluated as an additional indicator of the de novo lipogenesis. Myeloperoxidase activity, nitric oxide (NO) production, and mRNA expressions of F4/80, type I collagen, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured as indication of the liver inflammatory state. The HCD group had more intense lipid deposition, particularly of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). This group also showed higher DNL, SCD-1, and D6D activities associated with increased NO concentration, as well as myeloperoxidase activity. Livers from the HFD group showed higher elongase activity, stored more polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and had a lower omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ( n -6/ n -3) ratio. In conclusion, liver lipid accumulation, fatty acids (FA) composition and inflammation were modulated by the dietary composition of lipids and carbohydrates. The HCD group had more potent lipogenic and inflammatory effects in comparison with HFD.

  16. Lingonberries alter the gut microbiota and prevent low-grade inflammation in high-fat diet fed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovisa Heyman-Lindén

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The gut microbiota plays an important role in the development of obesity and obesity-associated impairments such as low-grade inflammation. Lingonberries have been shown to prevent diet-induced obesity and low-grade inflammation. However, it is not known whether the effect of lingonberry supplementation is related to modifications of the gut microbiota. The aim of the present study was to describe whether consumption of different batches of lingonberries alters the composition of the gut microbiota, which could be relevant for the protective effect against high fat (HF-induced metabolic alterations. Methods: Three groups of C57BL/6J mice were fed HF diet with or without a supplement of 20% lingonberries from two different batches (Lingon1 and Lingon2 during 11 weeks. The composition and functionality of the cecal microbiota were assessed by 16S rRNA sequencing and PICRUSt. In addition, parameters related to obesity, insulin sensitivity, hepatic steatosis, inflammation and gut barrier function were examined. Results: HF-induced obesity was only prevented by the Lingon1 diet, whereas both batches of lingonberries reduced plasma levels of markers of inflammation and endotoxemia (SAA and LBP as well as modified the composition and functionality of the gut microbiota, compared to the HF control group. The relative abundance of Akkermansia and Faecalibacterium, genera associated with healthy gut mucosa and anti-inflammation, was found to increase in response to lingonberry intake. Conclusions: Our results show that supplementation with lingonberries to an HF diet prevents low-grade inflammation and is associated with significant changes of the microbiota composition. Notably, the anti-inflammatory properties of lingonberries seem to be independent of effects on body weight gain.

  17. Effect of dietary krill oil supplementation on the endocannabinoidome of metabolically relevant tissues from high-fat-fed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohn Jeffrey S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3-PUFA are known to ameliorate several metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and an association between elevated peripheral levels of endogenous ligands of cannabinoid receptors (endocannabinoids and the metabolic syndrome has been reported. We investigated the dose-dependent effects of dietary ω-3-PUFA supplementation, given as krill oil (KO, on metabolic parameters in high fat diet (HFD-fed mice and, in parallel, on the levels, in inguinal and epididymal adipose tissue (AT, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, kidneys and heart, of: 1 the endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, 2 two anandamide congeners which activate PPARα but not cannabinoid receptors, N-oleoylethanolamine and N-palmitoylethanolamine, and 3 the direct biosynthetic precursors of these compounds. Methods Lipids were identified and quantified using liquid chromatography coupled to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization single quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS or high resolution ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-IT-ToF-MS. Results Eight-week HFD increased endocannabinoid levels in all tissues except the liver and epididymal AT, and KO reduced anandamide and/or 2-AG levels in all tissues but not in the liver, usually in a dose-dependent manner. Levels of endocannabinoid precursors were also generally down-regulated, indicating that KO affects levels of endocannabinoids in part by reducing the availability of their biosynthetic precursors. Usually smaller effects were found of KO on OEA and PEA levels. Conclusions Our data suggest that KO may promote therapeutic benefit by reducing endocannabinoid precursor availability and hence endocannabinoid biosynthesis.

  18. Isolation of a third species of Sarcocystis in immunodeficient mice fed feces from opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and its differentiation from Sarcocystis falcatula and Sarcocystis neurona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Speer, C A; Lindsay, D S

    1998-12-01

    Opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were found to be hosts for 3 species of Sarcocystis: Sarcocystis falcatula with an avian intermediate host, S. neurona with an undetermined intermediate host, and a third, unnamed, species. Sporocysts from the intestines of 2 opossums (nos. 26 and 47) were fed to budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), nude mice, and gamma-interferon knockout (KO) mice. Sporocysts of S. falcatula were not infective to nude or KO mice. Sporocysts of S. neurona induced encephalitis in KO and nude mice; only schizonts and merozoites were found in tissues of mice, and they reacted with anti-S. neurona serum raised against the SN-2 isolate of S. neurona originally obtained from tissues of a paralyzed horse. All 3 species of Sarcocystis were present in opossum no. 47. Sarcocystis neurona was isolated in cell culture from this opossum. Sporocysts from opossum no. 47 were lethal to budgerigars, indicating S. falcatula infection. Only 1 species of Sarcocystis (the third species) was found in opossum no. 26; the sporocysts were infective to KO and nude mice. Schizonts and merozoites of this species were predominantly in the liver but were also found in other tissues; schizonts did not react with anti-S. neurona serum. Merozoites of the third species were ultrastructurally distinct from S. falcatula and S. neurona merozoites. Sarcocysts were found in leg muscles of 2 mice killed 50 and 54 days after they were fed sporocysts from opossum no. 26. These sarcocysts had steeple-shaped protrusions on the cyst wall and were distinct from sarcocysts of S. falcatula and any other species of Sarcocystis.

  19. Intestinal Barrier Function and the Gut Microbiome Are Differentially Affected in Mice Fed a Western-Style Diet or Drinking Water Supplemented with Fructose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volynets, Valentina; Louis, Sandrine; Pretz, Dominik; Lang, Lisa; Ostaff, Maureen J; Wehkamp, Jan; Bischoff, Stephan C

    2017-05-01

    Background: The consumption of a Western-style diet (WSD) and high fructose intake are risk factors for metabolic diseases. The underlying mechanisms are largely unclear. Objective: To unravel the mechanisms by which a WSD and fructose promote metabolic disease, we investigated their effects on the gut microbiome and barrier function. Methods: Adult female C57BL/6J mice were fed a sugar- and fat-rich WSD or control diet (CD) for 12 wk and given access to tap water or fructose-supplemented water. The microbiota was analyzed with the use of 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Barrier function was studied with the use of permeability tests, and endotoxin, mucus thickness, and gene expressions were measured. Results: The WSD increased body weight gain but not endotoxin translocation compared with the CD. In contrast, high fructose intake increased endotoxin translocation 2.6- and 3.8-fold in the groups fed the CD + fructose and WSD + fructose, respectively, compared with the CD group. The WSD + fructose treatment also induced a loss of mucus thickness in the colon (-46%) and reduced defensin expression in the ileum and colon. The lactulose:mannitol ratio in the WSD + fructose mice was 1.8-fold higher than in the CD mice. Microbiota analysis revealed that fructose, but not the WSD, increased the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio by 88% for CD + fructose and 63% for WSD + fructose compared with the CD group. Bifidobacterium abundance was greater in the WSD mice than in the CD mice (63-fold) and in the WSD + fructose mice than in the CD + fructose mice (330-fold). Conclusions: The consumption of a WSD or high fructose intake differentially affects gut permeability and the microbiome. Whether these differences are related to the distinct clinical outcomes, whereby the WSD primarily promotes weight gain and high fructose intake causes barrier dysfunction, needs to be investigated in future studies. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Endoplasmic reticulum stress does not contribute to steatohepatitis in obese and insulin-resistant high-fat-diet-fed foz/foz mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legry, Vanessa; Van Rooyen, Derrick M; Lambert, Barbara; Sempoux, Christine; Poekes, Laurence; Español-Suñer, Regina; Molendi-Coste, Olivier; Horsmans, Yves; Farrell, Geoffrey C; Leclercq, Isabelle A

    2014-10-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver (steatosis) and steatohepatitis [non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)] are hepatic complications of the metabolic syndrome. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is proposed as a crucial disease mechanism in obese and insulin-resistant animals (such as ob/ob mice) with simple steatosis, but its role in NASH remains controversial. We therefore evaluated the role of ER stress as a disease mechanism in foz/foz mice, which develop both the metabolic and histological features that mimic human NASH. We explored ER stress markers in the liver of foz/foz mice in response to a high-fat diet (HFD) at several time points. We then evaluated the effect of treatment with an ER stress inducer tunicamycin, or conversely with the ER protectant tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), on the metabolic and hepatic features. foz/foz mice are obese, glucose intolerant and develop NASH characterized by steatosis, inflammation, ballooned hepatocytes and apoptosis from 6 weeks of HFD feeding. This was not associated with activation of the upstream unfolded protein response [phospho-eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α) activity and spliced X-box-binding protein 1 (Xbp1)]. Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and up-regulation of activating transcription factor-4 (Atf4) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (Chop) transcripts were however compatible with a 'pathological' response to ER stress. We tested this by using intervention experiments. Induction of chronic ER stress failed to worsen obesity, glucose intolerance and NASH pathology in HFD-fed foz/foz mice. In addition, the ER protectant TUDCA, although reducing steatosis, failed to improve glucose intolerance, hepatic inflammation and apoptosis in HFD-fed foz/foz mice. These results show that signals driving hepatic inflammation, apoptosis and insulin resistance are independent of ER stress in obese diabetic mice with steatohepatitis.

  1. Effects of disturbed liver growth and oxidative stress of high-fat diet-fed dams on cholesterol metabolism in offspring mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juyoung; Kim, Juhae; Kwon, Young Hye

    2016-08-01

    Changes in nutritional status during gestation and lactation have detrimental effects on offspring metabolism. Several animal studies have shown that maternal high-fat diet (HFD) can predispose the offspring to development of obesity and metabolic diseases, however the mechanisms underlying these transgenerational effects are poorly understood. Therefore, we examined the effect of maternal HFD consumption on metabolic phenotype and hepatic expression of involved genes in dams to determine whether any of these parameters were associated with the metabolic outcomes in the offspring. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat diet (LFD: 10% calories from fat) or a high-fat diet (HFD: 45% calories from fat) for three weeks before mating, and during pregnancy and lactation. Dams and their male offspring were studied at weaning. Dams fed an HFD had significantly higher body and adipose tissue weights and higher serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels than dams fed an LFD. Hepatic lipid levels and mRNA levels of genes involved in lipid metabolism, including LXRα, SREBP-2, FXR, LDLR, and ABCG8 were significantly changed by maternal HFD intake. Significantly lower total liver DNA and protein contents were observed in dams fed an HFD, implicating the disturbed liver adaptation in the pregnancy-related metabolic demand. HFD feeding also induced significant oxidative stress in serum and liver of dams. Offspring of dams fed an HFD had significantly higher serum cholesterol levels, which were negatively correlated with liver weights of dams and positively correlated with hepatic lipid peroxide levels in dams. Maternal HFD consumption induced metabolic dysfunction, including altered liver growth and oxidative stress in dams, which may contribute to the disturbed cholesterol homeostasis in the early life of male mice offspring.

  2. Effects of acute exposure to chlorpyrifos on cholinergic and non-cholinergic targets in normal and high-fat fed male C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondakala, Sandeep; Lee, Jung Hwa; Ross, Matthew K; Howell, George E

    2017-12-15

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing at an alarming rate in the United States with 36.5% of adults being classified as obese. Compared to normal individuals, obese individuals have noted pathophysiological alterations which may alter the toxicokinetics of xenobiotics and therefore alter their toxicities. However, the effects of obesity on the toxicity of many widely utilized pesticides has not been established. Therefore, the present study was designed to determine if the obese phenotype altered the toxicity of the most widely used organophosphate (OP) insecticide, chlorpyrifos (CPS). Male C57BL/6J mice were fed normal or high-fat diet for 4weeks and administered a single dose of vehicle or CPS (2.0mg/kg; oral gavage) to assess cholinergic (acetylcholinesterase activities) and non-cholinergic (carboxylesterase and endocannabinoid hydrolysis) endpoints. Exposure to CPS significantly decreased red blood cell acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, but not brain AChE activity, in both diet groups. Further, CPS exposure decreased hepatic carboxylesterase activity and hepatic hydrolysis of a major endocannabinoid, anandamide, in a diet-dependent manner with high-fat diet fed animals being more sensitive to CPS-mediated inhibition. These in vivo studies were corroborated by in vitro studies using rat primary hepatocytes, which demonstrated that fatty acid amide hydrolase and CES activities were more sensitive to CPS-mediated inhibition than 2-arachidonoylglycerol hydrolase activity. These data demonstrate hepatic CES and FAAH activities in high-fat diet fed mice were more potently inhibited than those in normal diet fed mice following CPS exposure, which suggests that the obese phenotype may exacerbate some of the non-cholinergic effects of CPS exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Obese Mice Fed a Diet Supplemented with Enzyme-Treated Wheat Bran Display Marked Shifts in the Liver Metabolome Concurrent with Altered Gut Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieffer, Dorothy A.; Piccolo, Brian D.; Marco, Maria L.

    2016-01-01

    ) associated with specific microbes may be involved. Objective: The objective of this study was to characterize ETWB-driven shifts in the cecal microbiome and to identify correlates between microbial changes and diet-related differences in liver metabolism in diet-induced obese mice that typically display......Background: Enzyme-treated wheat bran (ETWB) contains a fermentable dietary fiber previously shown to decrease liver triglycerides (TGs) and modify the gut microbiome in mice. It is not clear which mechanisms explain how ETWB feeding affects hepatic metabolism, but factors (i.e., xenometabolites...... steatosis. Methods: Five-week-old male C57BL/6J mice fed a 45%-lard based fat diet supplemented with ETWB (20% wt:wt) or rapidly digestible starch (control) (n = 15/group) for 10 wk were characterized by using a multi-omics approach. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to identify variables that were...

  4. Inheritance of carthamin and carthamidin in safflower (Carthamus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    reviewer

    as an important alternative to the synthetic dyes (Jadhav and Joshi 2015). ... Safflower carthamin is widely used as stain coloring in foods such as ice-cream, jelly and soup, and as an additive in beverages and cosmetics (Singh 2007, ...

  5. 7 CFR 457.125 - Safflower crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... substances or conditions that are identified by the Food and Drug Administration or other public health... to uninsured causes; or (3) Drying, handling, processing, or any other costs associated with normal harvesting, handling, and marketing of safflower. We may obtain values per pound from any buyer of our choice...

  6. Effect of nitrogen on Safflower physiology and productivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , but its physiological response to agronomic inputs has yet to be fully evaluated. The effect of fertiliser on the physiology and production of Safflower grown in pots filled with standard grade perlite inside a semi-controlled glass house was ...

  7. Oral treatment with γ-aminobutyric acid improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity by inhibiting inflammation in high fat diet-fed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jide Tian

    Full Text Available Adipocyte and β-cell dysfunction and macrophage-related chronic inflammation are critical for the development of obesity-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, which can be negatively regulated by Tregs. Our previous studies and those of others have shown that activation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA receptors inhibits inflammation in mice. However, whether GABA could modulate high fat diet (HFD-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance has not been explored. Here, we show that although oral treatment with GABA does not affect water and food consumption it inhibits the HFD-induced gain in body weights in C57BL/6 mice. Furthermore, oral treatment with GABA significantly reduced the concentrations of fasting blood glucose, and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in the HFD-fed mice. More importantly, after the onset of obesity and T2DM, oral treatment with GABA inhibited the continual HFD-induced gain in body weights, reduced the concentrations of fasting blood glucose and improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in mice. In addition, oral treatment with GABA reduced the epididymal fat mass, adipocyte size, and the frequency of macrophage infiltrates in the adipose tissues of HFD-fed mice. Notably, oral treatment with GABA significantly increased the frequency of CD4(+Foxp3(+ Tregs in mice. Collectively, our data indicated that activation of peripheral GABA receptors inhibited the HFD-induced glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and obesity by inhibiting obesity-related inflammation and up-regulating Treg responses in vivo. Given that GABA is safe for human consumption, activators of GABA receptors may be valuable for the prevention of obesity and intervention of T2DM in the clinic.

  8. Combined effects of soy isoflavone and fish oil on ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Raina; Chiba, Hiroshige; Ishimi, Yoshiko; Uehara, Mariko; Suzuki, Kazuharu; Kim, Hyounju; Matsumoto, Akiyo

    2011-07-01

    Both soy isoflavone and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are known to reduce the levels of bone-resorbing cytokines; however, the synergistic effects of these food ingredients have not been examined yet. This study was performed to elucidate the effect of concomitant intake of soy isoflavone and fish oil on bone mass in ovariectomized mice. Eight-week-old ddY female mice were subjected to ovariectomy (OVX) or sham surgery, and then fed an AIN-93G with safflower oil (So) as a control lipid source, isoflavone-supplemented safflower oil (So + I), fish oil instead of safflower oil (Fo) or isoflavone-supplemented fish oil (Fo + I) for 4 weeks. Femoral bone mineral density was significantly decreased by OVX; however, this decrease was inhibited by the intake of isoflavone and/or fish oil. Histomorphometric analyses showed that bone volume and trabecular thickness in the distal femoral trabecular bone were significantly lower in the So group than in the sham group, but those were restored in the Fo + I groups. The number of osteoclasts was significantly decreased by isoflavone intake. The increased rate of bone resorption after OVX was inhibited by isoflavone and/or fish oil. The serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor alpha was increased after OVX, but was significantly lower with the combination of isoflavone with fish oil than isoflavone or fish oil alone. The results of this study indicated that the intakes of soy isoflavone and/or fish oil might have ameliorating effects on bone loss due to OVX. Further, the concomitant intake of soy isoflavone and fish oil at a low dose showed better effects on cytokines related with bone resorption.

  9. Momordica charantia ameliorates insulin resistance and dyslipidemia with altered hepatic glucose production and fatty acid synthesis and AMPK phosphorylation in high-fat-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Chun-Ching; Shlau, Min-Tzong; Lin, Cheng-Hsiu; Wu, Jin-Bin

    2014-03-01

    Momordica charantia Linn. (Cucurbitaceae) fruit is commonly known as bitter melon. C57BL/6J mice were firstly divided randomly into two groups: the control (CON) group was fed with a low-fat diet, whereas the experimental group was fed a 45% high-fat (HF) diet for 8 weeks. Afterwards, the CON group was treated with vehicle, whereas the HF group was subdivided into five groups and still on HF diet and was given orally M. charantia extract (MCE) or rosiglitazone (Rosi) or not for 4 weeks. M. charantia decreased the weights of visceral fat and caused glucose lowering. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a major cellular regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism. MCE significantly increases the hepatic protein contents of AMPK phosphorylation by 126.2-297.3% and reduces expression of phosphenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose production. Most importantly, MCE decreased expression of hepatic 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydroxygenase (11beta-HSD1) gene, which contributed in attenuating diabetic state. Furthermore, MCE lowered serum triglycerides (TGs) by inhibition of hepatic fatty acid synthesis by dampening sterol response element binding protein 1c and fatty acid synthase mRNA leading to reduction in TGs synthesis. This study demonstrates M. charantia ameliorates diabetic and hyperlipidemic state in HF-fed mice occurred by regulation of hepatic PEPCK, 11beta-HSD1 and AMPK phosphorylation. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Bovine α-Lactalbumin Hydrolysates (α-LAH Ameliorate Adipose Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in High-Fat Diet-Fed C57BL/6J Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Gao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity-induced adipose inflammation has been demonstrated to be a key cause of insulin resistance. Peptides derived from bovine α-lactalbumin have been shown to inhibit the activities of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, scavenge 2,2′-azinobis [3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate] (ABTS+ radical and stimulate glucagon-like peptide-2 secretion. In the present study, the effects of bovine α-lactalbumin hydrolysates (α-LAH on adipose insulin resistance and inflammation induced by high-fat diet (HFD were investigated. The insulin resistance model was established by feeding C57BL/6J mice with HFD (60% kcal from fat for eight weeks. Then, the mice were fed with HFD and bovine α-LAH of different doses (100 mg/kg b.w., 200 mg/kg b.w. and 400 mg/kg b.w. for another 12 weeks to evaluate its protective effects against HFD-induced insulin resistance. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test (ipITT were conducted after intervention with α-LAH for 10 weeks and 11 weeks, respectively. Results showed that bovine α-LAH significantly reduced body weight, blood glucose, serum insulin, and HOMA-IR (homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance levels, lowered the area-under-the-curve (AUC during OGTT and ipITT, and downregulated inflammation-related gene [tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1] expression in adipose tissues of HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice. Furthermore, bovine α-LAH also suppressed insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1 serine phosphorylation (Ser307, Ser612, enhanced protein kinase B (known as Akt phosphorylation, and inhibited the activation of inhibitor of kappaB kinase (IKK and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways in adipose tissues of HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice. These results suggested that bovine α-LAH could ameliorate adipose insulin resistance and inflammation through IKK and MAPK signaling

  11. Altered regulation of miR-34a and miR-483-3p in alcoholic hepatitis and DDC fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; French, Barbara A; Li, Jun; Tillman, Brittany; French, Samuel W

    2015-12-01

    MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression by binding to the untranslated regions of their target mRNAs. Deregulation of miRNAs is shown to play pivotal roles in tumorigenesis and progression. Mallory-Denk Bodies (MDBs) are prevalent in various liver diseases including alcoholic hepatitis (AH) and are formed in mice livers by feeding DDC. By comparing AH livers where MDBs had formed with normal livers, there were significant changes of miR-34a and miR-483-3p by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) analyses. Real-time PCR further shows a 3- and 6-fold upregulation (respectively) of miR-34a in the AH livers and in the livers of DDC re-fed mice, while miR-483-3p was significantly downregulated in AH and DDC re-fed mice livers. This indicates that miR-34a and miR-483-3p may be crucial for liver MDB formation. P53 mRNA was found to be significantly downregulated both in the AH livers and in the livers of DDC re-fed mice, indicating that the upregulation of miR-34a is permitted by the decrease of p53 in AH since miR-34a is a main target of p53. Overexpression of miR-34a leads to an increase of p53 targets such as p27, which inhibits the cell cycle leading to cell cycle arrest. Importantly, BRCA1 is a target gene of miR-483-3p by RNA-Seq analyses and the downregulation of miR-483-3p may be the mechanism for liver MDB formation since the BRCA1 signal was markedly upregulated in AH livers. These results constitute a demonstration of the altered regulation of miR-34a and miR-483-3p in the livers of AH and mice fed DDC where MDBs formed, providing further insight into the mechanism of MDB formation mediated by miR-34a and miR-483-3p in AH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on [3H]TdR incorporation into DNA in ad lib fed and fasted CD2F1 mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheving, L.A.; Tsai, T.H.; Scheving, L.E.; Hoke, W.S.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of EGF on the incorporation of [ 3 H]TdR into DNA (DNA synthesis) was determined in the esophagus, liver, pancreas, and kidney in mice standardized to 12 hours (hr) of light alternating with 12 hr of darkness. A question asked was whether intraperitoneally administered EGF could alter the circadian patterns of DNA synthesis in these organs. The most marked effects of EGF were: an increase in DNA synthesis but only after a specific duration of time after treatment, ranging from 8 to 23 hr, which differed for each tissue, a similarity in the response of the esophagus in both ad lib fed and fasted mice, but not in the response of the liver, where the stimulatory effect of EGF observed in fed mice was dramatically reduced in fasted ones, and an advance in the phasing of the circadian rhythm in DNA synthesis of the esophagus by about 12 hr. In addition, no sex differences in fasted animals were found under the conditions of this study

  13. Cholera toxin-induced ADP-ribosylation of a 46 kDa protein is decreased in brains of ethanol-fed mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nhamburo, P.T.; Hoffman, P.L.; Tabakoff, B.

    1988-01-01

    The acute in vitro effects of ethanol on cerebral cortical adenylate cyclase activity and beta-adrenergic receptor characteristics suggested a site of action of ethanol at Gs, the stimulatory guanine nucleotide binding protein. After chronic ethanol ingestion, the beta-adrenergic receptor appeared to be uncoupled (i.e., the form of the receptor with high affinity for agonist was undetectable), and stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity by isoproterenol or guanine nucleotides was reduced, suggesting an alteration in the properties of Gs. To further characterize this change, cholera and pertussis toxin-mediated 32 P-ADP-ribosylation of mouse cortical membranes was assessed in mice that had chronically ingested ethanol in a liquid diet. 32 P-labeled proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and quantitated by autoradiography. There was a selective 30-50% decrease in cholera toxin-induced labeling of 46 kDa protein band in membranes of ethanol-fed mice, with no apparent change in pertussis toxin-induced labeling. The 46 kDa protein has a molecular weight similar to that of the alpha subunit of Gs, suggesting a reduced amount of this protein or a change in its characteristics as a substrate for cholera toxin-induced ADP-ribosylation in cortical membranes of ethanol-fed mice

  14. Comparative evaluation of anti-obesity effect of Aloe vera and Gymnema sylvestre supplementation in high-fat diet fed C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothuraju, Ramesh; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Rather, Sarver Ahmed; Singh, Satvinder

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate, anti-obesity effect of Aloe vera (AV), and Gymnema sylvestre (GS) whole extract powders administration to high-fat diet (HFD) fed C57BL/6J mice for 12 weeks. At the end of experiment, different parameters such as body weight, feed intake, organ weights, fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, plasma lipid levels, and expression analysis of adipocytokines were evaluated. At the end of experimental period, oral administration of both herbs showed a significant ( P E. fat) weight in the HFD group was significantly ( P E. fat tissue of HFD fed group. The anti-obesity and other metabolic studies depend on the type of diet, different parts of herbal extractions, and animal models used. Further studies are required in this area to strengthen the anti-obesity effects of herbs with active component, and it can be used a pro-drug instead of whole extract.

  15. Beneficial Effect of Voluntary Exercise on Experimental Colitis in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet: The Role of Irisin, Adiponectin and Proinflammatory Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur-Bialy, Agnieszka Irena; Bilski, Jan; Wojcik, Dagmara; Brzozowski, Bartosz; Surmiak, Marcin; Hubalewska-Mazgaj, Magdalena; Chmura, Anna; Magierowski, Marcin; Magierowska, Katarzyna; Mach, Tomasz; Brzozowski, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders exhibited by two major phenotypic forms: Crohn‘s disease and ulcerative colitis. Although the aetiology of IBD is unknown, several factors coming from the adipose tissue and skeletal muscles, such as cytokines, adipokines and myokines, were suggested in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis; however, it has not been extensively studied whether voluntary exercise can ameliorate that disorder. We explored the effect of moderate exercise (i.e., voluntary wheel running) on the disease activity index (DAI), colonic blood flow (CBF), plasma irisin and adiponectin levels and real-time PCR expression of proinflammatory markers in mesenteric fat in mice with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) colitis fed a high-fat diet (HFD) compared to those on a standard chow diet (SD). Macroscopic and microscopic colitis in sedentary SD mice was accompanied by a significant fall in CBF, some increase in colonic tissue weight and a significant increase in the plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), IL-6, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) and IL-13 (p Exercise significantly decreased macroscopic and microscopic colitis, substantially increased CBF and attenuated the plasma TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1, IL-1β and leptin levels while raising the plasma irisin and the plasma and WAT concentrations of adiponectin in HFD mice (p < 0.05). We conclude that: (1) experimental colitis is exacerbated in HFD mice, possibly due to a fall in colonic microcirculation and an increase in the plasma and mesenteric fat content of proinflammatory biomarkers; and (2) voluntary physical activity can attenuate the severity of colonic damage in mice fed a HFD through the release of protective irisin and restoration of plasma adiponectin. PMID:28425943

  16. Effects of chocolate supplementation on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters in ApoE3L mice fed a high-cholesterol atherogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakala, Gopala K; Wielinga, Peter Y; Suarez, Manuel; Bunschoten, Annelies; van Golde, Jolanda M; Arola, Lluis; Keijer, Jaap; Kleemann, Robert; Kooistra, Teake; Heeringa, Peter

    2013-11-01

    Dietary intake of cocoa and/or chocolate has been suggested to exhibit protective cardiovascular effects although this is still controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chocolate supplementation on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters. Four groups of ApoE*3Leiden mice were exposed to the following diet regimens. Group 1: cholesterol-free control diet (CO). Group 2: high-dose (1.0% w/w) control cholesterol (CC). Group 3: CC supplemented chocolate A (CCA) and Group 4: CC supplemented chocolate B (CCB). Both chocolates differed in polyphenol and fiber content, CCA had a relatively high-polyphenol and low-fiber content compared to CCB. Mice fed a high-cholesterol diet showed increased plasma-cholesterol and developed atherosclerosis. Both chocolate treatments, particularly CCA, further increased plasma-cholesterol and increased atherosclerotic plaque formation. Moreover, compared to mice fed a high-cholesterol diet, both chocolate-treated groups displayed increased liver injury. Mice on high-cholesterol diet had elevated plasma levels of sVCAM-1, sE-selectin and SAA, which was further increased in the CCB group. Similar effects were observed for renal inflammation markers. The two chocolate preparations showed unfavorable, but different effects on cardiometabolic health in E3L mice, which dissimilarities may be related to differences in chocolate composition. We conclude that discrepancies reported on the effects of chocolate on cardiometabolic health may at least partly be due to differences in chocolate composition. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The modulatory role of spinally located histamine receptors in the regulation of the blood glucose level in d-glucose-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Su; Kim, Chea-Ha; Kim, Su-Jin; Lim, Su-Min; Jung, Jun-Sub; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Choi, Moon-Gi; Suh, Hong-Won

    2014-02-01

    The possible roles of spinal histamine receptors in the regulation of the blood glucose level were studied in ICR mice. Mice were intrathecally (i.t.) treated with histamine 1 (H1) receptor agonist (2-pyridylethylamine) or antagonist (cetirizine), histamine 2 (H2) receptor agonist (dimaprit) or antagonist (ranitidine), histamine 3 (H3) receptor agonist (α-methylhistamine) or antagonist (carcinine) and histamine 4 (H4) receptor agonist (VUF 8430) or antagonist (JNJ 7777120), and the blood glucose level was measured at 30, 60 and 120 min after i.t. administration. The i.t. injection with α-methylhistamine, but not carcinine slightly caused an elevation of the blood glucose level. In addition, histamine H1, H2, and H4 receptor agonists and antagonists did not affect the blood glucose level. In D-glucose-fed model, i.t. pretreatment with cetirizine enhanced the blood glucose level, whereas 2-pyridylethylamine did not affect. The i.t. pretreatment with dimaprit, but not ranitidine, enhanced the blood glucose level in D-glucose-fed model. In addition, α-methylhistamine, but not carcinine, slightly but significantly enhanced the blood glucose level D-glucose-fed model. Finally, i.t. pretreatment with JNJ 7777120, but not VUF 8430, slightly but significantly increased the blood glucose level. Although histamine receptors themselves located at the spinal cord do not exert any effect on the regulation of the blood glucose level, our results suggest that the activation of spinal histamine H2 receptors and the blockade of spinal histamine H1 or H3 receptors may play modulatory roles for up-regulation and down-regulation, respectively, of the blood glucose level in D-glucose fed model.

  18. Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Clitocybe nuda on Glucose Transporter 4 and AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphorylation in High-Fat-Fed Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Hsing Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the antihyperlipidemic and antihyperglycemic effects and mechanism of the extract of Clitocybe nuda (CNE, in high-fat- (HF- fed mice. C57BL/6J was randomly divided into two groups: the control (CON group was fed with a low-fat diet, whereas the experimental group was fed with a HF diet for 8 weeks. Then, the HF group was subdivided into five groups and was given orally CNE (including C1: 0.2, C2: 0.5, and C3: 1.0 g/kg/day extracts or rosiglitazone (Rosi or vehicle for 4 weeks. CNE effectively prevented HF-diet-induced increases in the levels of blood glucose, triglyceride, insulin (P<0.001, P<0.01, P<0.05, resp. and attenuated insulin resistance. By treatment with CNE, body weight gain, weights of white adipose tissue (WAT and hepatic triacylglycerol content were reduced; moreover, adipocytes in the visceral depots showed a reduction in size. By treatment with CNE, the protein contents of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 were significantly increased in C3-treated group in the skeletal muscle. Furthermore, CNE reduces the hepatic expression of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase and glucose production. CNE significantly increases protein contents of phospho-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK in the skeletal muscle and adipose and liver tissues. Therefore, it is possible that the activation of AMPK by CNE leads to diminished gluconeogenesis in the liver and enhanced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. It is shown that CNE exhibits hypolipidemic effect in HF-fed mice by increasing ATGL expression, which is known to help triglyceride to hydrolyze. Moreover, antidiabetic properties of CNE occurred as a result of decreased hepatic glucose production via G6Pase downregulation and improved insulin sensitization. Thus, amelioration of diabetic and dyslipidemic states by CNE in HF-fed mice occurred by regulation of GLUT4, G6Pase, ATGL, and AMPK phosphorylation.

  19. Fatty liver accompanies an increase in lactobacillus species in the hind gut of C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Liu, Jun; Jackson, Matthew I; Zhao, Feng-Qi; Yan, Lin; Combs, Gerald F

    2013-05-01

    High-fat (HF) diets can produce obesity and have been linked to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and changes in the gut microbiome. To test the hypothesis that HF feeding increases certain predominant hind gut bacteria and development of steatohepatitis, C57BL/6 mice were fed an HF (45% energy) or low-fat (LF) (10% energy) diet for 10 wk. At the end of the feeding period, body weights in the HF group were 34% greater than those in the LF group (P < 0.05). These changes were associated with dramatic increases in lipid droplet number and size, inflammatory cell infiltration, and inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase protein concentration in the livers of mice fed the HF diet. Consistent with the fatty liver phenotype, plasma leptin and tumor necrosis factor-α concentrations were also elevated in mice fed the HF diet, indicative of chronic inflammation. Eight of 12 pairs of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for bacterial species that typically predominate hind gut microbial ecology generated specific PCR products from the fecal DNA samples. The amount of DNA from Lactobacillus gasseri and/or Lactobacillus taiwanensis in the HF group was 6900-fold greater than that in the LF group. Many of these bacteria are bile acid resistant and are capable of bile acid deconjugation. Because bile acids are regulators of hepatic lipid metabolism, the marked increase of gut L. gasseri and/or L. taiwanensis species bacteria with HF feeding may play a role in development of steatohepatitis in this model.

  20. Fatty Liver Accompanies an Increase in Lactobacillus Species in the Hind Gut of C57BL/6 Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Liu, Jun; Jackson, Matthew I.; Zhao, Feng-Qi; Yan, Lin; Combs, Gerald F.

    2013-01-01

    High-fat (HF) diets can produce obesity and have been linked to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and changes in the gut microbiome. To test the hypothesis that HF feeding increases certain predominant hind gut bacteria and development of steatohepatitis, C57BL/6 mice were fed an HF (45% energy) or low-fat (LF) (10% energy) diet for 10 wk. At the end of the feeding period, body weights in the HF group were 34% greater than those in the LF group (P < 0.05). These changes were associated with dramatic increases in lipid droplet number and size, inflammatory cell infiltration, and inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase protein concentration in the livers of mice fed the HF diet. Consistent with the fatty liver phenotype, plasma leptin and tumor necrosis factor-α concentrations were also elevated in mice fed the HF diet, indicative of chronic inflammation. Eight of 12 pairs of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for bacterial species that typically predominate hind gut microbial ecology generated specific PCR products from the fecal DNA samples. The amount of DNA from Lactobacillus gasseri and/or Lactobacillus taiwanensis in the HF group was 6900-fold greater than that in the LF group. Many of these bacteria are bile acid resistant and are capable of bile acid deconjugation. Because bile acids are regulators of hepatic lipid metabolism, the marked increase of gut L. gasseri and/or L. taiwanensis species bacteria with HF feeding may play a role in development of steatohepatitis in this model. PMID:23486979

  1. Comparison of ultraviolet light-induced skin carcinogenesis and ornithine decarboxylase activity in sencar and hairless SKH-1 mice fed a constant level of dietary lipid varying in corn and coconut oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berton, T.R.; Fischer, S.M.; Conti, C.J.; Locniskar, M.F.

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the effect of various levels of corn oil and coconut oil on ultraviolet (UV) light‐induced skin tumorigenesis and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity, Sencar and SKH‐1 mice were fed one of three 15% (weight) fat semipurified diets containing three ratios of com oil to coconut oil: 1.0%:14.0%, 7.9%:7.1%, and 15.0%:0.0% in Diets A, B, and C, respectively. Groups of 30 Sencar and SKH‐1 mice were fed one of the diets for three weeks before UV irradiation; then both strains were UV irradiated with an initial dose of 90 mJ/cm2. The dose was given three times a week and increased 25% each week. For Sencar mice (irradiated 33 wks for a total dose of 48 J/cm2), tumor incidence reached a maximum of 60%, 60%, and 53% for Diets A, B, and C, respectively, with an overall average of one to two tumors per tumor‐bearing animal. For the SKH‐1 mice (irradiated 29 wks for a total dose of 18 J/cm2), all diet groups reached 100% incidence by 29 weeks, with approximately 12 tumors per tumor‐bearing mouse. No significant effect of dietary corn oil/coconut oil was found for tumor latency, incidence, or yield in either strain. The effect of increasing com oil on epidermal ODC activity in chronically UV‐irradiated Sencar and SKH‐1 mice was assessed Three groups of mice from each strain were fed one of the experimental diets and UV irradiated for six weeks. Sencar mice showed no increase in ODC activity until six weeks of treatment, when the levels of ODC activity in the UV‐irradiated mice fed Diet A were significantly higher than those in mice fed Diet B or Diet C: 1.27, 0.55, and 0.52 nmol/mg protein/hr, respectively. In the SKH‐1 mice, ODC activity was increased by the first week of UV treatment, and by three weeks of treatment a dietary effect was observed: ODC activity was significantly higher in mice fed Diet C (0.70 nmol/mg protein/hr) than in mice fed Diet A (0.18 nmol/mg protein/hr). Although there was no significant effect of dietary corn oil

  2. Association Mapping for Important Agronomic Traits in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Core Collection Using Microsatellite Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Heena Ambreen; Shivendra Kumar; Amar Kumar; Manu Agarwal; Arun Jagannath; Shailendra Goel

    2018-01-01

    Carthamus tinctorius L. (safflower) is an important oilseed crop producing seed oil rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Scarcity of identified marker-trait associations is a major limitation toward development of successful marker-assisted breeding programs in safflower. In the present study, a safflower panel (CartAP) comprising 124 accessions derived from two core collections was assayed for its suitability for association mapping. Genotyping of CartAP using microsatellite markers revealed sig...

  3. Testosterone suppresses the expression of regulatory enzymes of fatty acid synthesis and protects against hepatic steatosis in cholesterol-fed androgen deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Daniel M; Nettleship, Joanne E; Akhtar, Samia; Muraleedharan, Vakkat; Sellers, Donna J; Brooke, Jonathan C; McLaren, David S; Channer, Kevin S; Jones, T Hugh

    2014-07-30

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its precursor hepatic steatosis is common in obesity and type-2 diabetes and is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Men with type-2 diabetes and/or CVD have a high prevalence of testosterone deficiency. Testosterone replacement improves key cardiovascular risk factors. The effects of testosterone on hepatic steatosis are not fully understood. Testicular feminised (Tfm) mice, which have a non-functional androgen receptor (AR) and very low serum testosterone levels, were used to investigate testosterone effects on high-cholesterol diet-induced hepatic steatosis. Hepatic lipid deposition was increased in Tfm mice and orchidectomised wild-type littermates versus intact wild-type littermate controls with normal androgen physiology. Lipid deposition was reduced in Tfm mice receiving testosterone treatment compared to placebo. Oestrogen receptor blockade significantly, but only partially, reduced the beneficial effects of testosterone treatment on hepatic lipid accumulation. Expression of key regulatory enzymes of fatty acid synthesis, acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha (ACACA) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) were elevated in placebo-treated Tfm mice versus placebo-treated littermates and Tfm mice receiving testosterone treatment. Tfm mice on normal diet had increased lipid accumulation compared to littermates but significantly less than cholesterol-fed Tfm mice and demonstrated increased gene expression of hormone sensitive lipase, stearyl-CoA desaturase-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma but FASN and ACACA were not altered. An action of testosterone on hepatic lipid deposition which is independent of the classic AR is implicated. Testosterone may act in part via an effect on the key regulatory lipogenic enzymes to protect against hepatic steatosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. In vivo mutagenicity studies in rats mice and Chinese hamsters fed irradiated foodstuffs - chicken, fish, dates, pulses, mangoes and cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    Three in vivo genetic toxicity tests were performed in rats, mice and Chinese hamsters to detect possible mutagenic effects of irradiated chicken, dried dates, fish, cocoa beans, pulses and mangoes. The tests employed were the micronucleus test and sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) test for irradiated and unirradiated samples of all foodstuffs listed, and the spermatogonia test, (including SCE technique) in mice for irradiated and unirradiated chicken, fish and dates only. In the case of cocoa beans, the mutagenicity tests were performed on an additional test group fed beans fumigated with ethylene oxide. The different mammalian species used for the various experiments are given below. None of the tests provided any evidence of mutagenicity induced by irradiation in any of the foodstuffs studied. Moreover, these tests are currently considered to be the most sensitive in vivo mutagenicity tests in mammals. (orig.)

  5. Fatty acid composition in serum correlates with that in the liver and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity scores in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-He; Li, Chun-Yan; Muhammad, Ishfaq; Zhang, Xiu-Ying

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the correlation between the serum fatty acid composition and hepatic steatosis, inflammation, hepatocellular ballooning scores, and liver fatty acids composition in mice fed a high-fat diet. Livers were collected for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease score analysis. Fatty acid compositions were analysed by gas chromatography. Correlations were determined by Pearson correlation coefficient. Exposed to a high-fat diet, mice developed fatty liver disease with varying severity without fibrosis. The serum fatty acid variation became more severe with prolonged exposure to a high-fat diet. This variation also correlated significantly with the variation in livers, with the types of fatty acids corresponding to liver steatosis, inflammation, and hepatocellular ballooning scores. Results of this study lead to the following hypothesis: the extent of serum fatty acid variation may be a preliminary biomarker of fatty liver disease caused by high-fat intake. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Reduction of Influenza Virus Titer and Protection against Influenza Virus Infection in Infant Mice Fed Lactobacillus casei Shirota

    OpenAIRE

    Yasui, Hisako; Kiyoshima, Junko; Hori, Tetsuji

    2004-01-01

    We investigated whether oral administration of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota to neonatal and infant mice ameliorates influenza virus (IFV) infection in the upper respiratory tract and protects against influenza infection. In a model of upper respiratory IFV infection, the titer of virus in the nasal washings of infant mice administered L. casei Shirota (L. casei Shirota group) was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that in infant mice administered saline (control group) (102.48 ± 100.31...

  7. Medium-chain triglycerides promote macrophage reverse cholesterol transport and improve atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinsheng; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Yinghua; Wang, Jin; Xu, Qing; Yu, Xiaoming; Yang, Xueyan; Liu, Zhao; Xue, Changyong

    2016-09-01

    We previously observed that medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) could reduce body fat mass and improve the metabolism of cholesterol. We hypothesized that MCTs can improve atherosclerosis by promoting the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) process. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the roles of MCTs in macrophage RCT and the progression of atherosclerosis. To test this hypothesis, 30 4-week-old ApoE-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice were randomly divided into 2 groups and fed a diet of 2% MCTs or long-chain triglycerides (LCTs) for 16 weeks. Ten age- and sex-matched C57BL/6J mice were fed a diet of 2% LCTs as the control. Macrophage-to-feces RCT was assessed in vivo by intraperitoneal injection of RAW 264.7 macrophages containing (3)H-labeled cholesterol, and atherosclerotic plaques were measured. The mRNA and protein expressions were determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses, respectively. There was a greater decrease in body fat mass, atherosclerotic plaques, and an improvement in serum lipid profiles. In addition, the MCT mice group showed an increase in (3)H-tracer in the feces and a decrease in the liver. Significantly higher levels of mRNA and protein expression of hepatic ATP-binding cassette transporter A1, ATP-binding cassette transporter G5, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, and intestinal ATP-binding cassette transporter G8, as well as lower levels of expression of intestinal Niemann-Pick C1-like 1, were found in the MCT group. These results suggest that MCTs could obviously promote macrophage RCT and improve atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) mice, indicating that MCTs have the potential to prevent cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dietary aloe vera gel powder and extract inhibit azoxymethane- induced colorectal aberrant crypt foci in mice fed a high- fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihara, Takeshi; Shimpo, Kan; Kaneko, Takaaki; Beppu, Hidehiko; Higashiguchi, Takashi; Sonoda, Shigeru; Tanaka, Miyuki; Yamada, Muneo; Abe, Fumiaki

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera gel exhibits protective effects against insulin resistance as well as lipid-lowering and anti-diabetic effects. The anti-diabetic compounds in this gel were identified as Aloe-sterols. Aloe vera gel extract (AVGE) containing Aloe-sterols has recently been produced using a new procedure. We previously reported that AVGE reduced large-sized intestinal polyps in Apc-deficient Min mice fed a high fat diet (HFD), suggesting that Aloe vera gel may protect against colorectal cancer. In the present study, we examined the effects of Aloe vera gel powder (AVGP) and AVGE on azoxymethane-induced colorectal preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in mice fed a HFD. Male C57BL/6J mice were given a normal diet (ND), HFD, HFD containing 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose solution, which was used as a solvent for AVGE (HFDC), HFD containing 3% or 1% AVGP, and HFDC containing 0.0125% (H-) or 0.00375% (L-) AVGE. The number of ACF was significantly lower in mice given 3% AVGP and H-AVGE than in those given HFD or HFDC alone. Moreover, 3% AVGP, H-AVGE and L-AVGE significantly decreased the mean Ki-67 labeling index, assessed as a measure of cell proliferation in the colonic mucosa. In addition, hepatic phase II enzyme glutathione S-transferase mRNA levels were higher in the H-AVGE group than in the HFDC group. These results suggest that both AVGP and AVGE may have chemopreventive effects on colorectal carcinogenesis under the HFD condition. Furthermore, the concentration of Aloe-sterols was similar between 3% AVGP and H-AVGE, suggesting that Aloe-sterols were the main active ingredients in this experiment.

  9. Influences of a-tocopherol on cholesterol metabolism and fatty streak development in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed an atherogenic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peluzio M.C.G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the role of oxidized lipoproteins is well known in atherogenesis, the role of vitamin E supplementation is still controversial. There is also little information about cholesterol metabolism (hepatic concentration and fecal excretion in the new models of atherosclerosis. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of moderate vitamin E supplementation on cholesterol metabolism and atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E (apo E-deficient mice. Apo E-deficient mice were fed an atherogenic diet containing 40 or 400 mg/kg of alpha-tocopherol acetate for 6 weeks. Total cholesterol in serum and liver and 3-OH-alpha-sterols in feces, and fecal excretion of bile acids were determined and histological analyses of aortic lesion were performed. A vitamin E-rich diet did not affect body weight, food intake or serum cholesterol. Serum and hepatic concentrations of cholesterol as well as sterol concentration in feces were similar in both groups. However, when compared to controls, the alpha-tocopherol-treated mice showed a reduction of about 60% in the atherosclerotic lesions when both the sum of lesion areas and the average of the largest lesion area were considered. These results demonstrate that supplementation of moderate doses of alpha-tocopherol was able to slow atherogenesis in apo E-deficient mice and to reduce atherogenic lipoproteins without modifying the hepatic pool or fecal excretion of cholesterol and bile acids.

  10. Morphological traits based diversity in safflower (carthamus tinctorius L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinwari, Z.K.; Rehman, H.

    2014-01-01

    Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) one of the world minor oil crops originated in the Middle East. The breeding potential of the safflower genotypes held in the gene-bank of Plant Genetic Resources Institute (PGRI) has not been exploited to date. Present work was carried out to evaluate 122 genotypes collected from various eco-geographical regions/countries of the world. Observations were recorded for eleven quantitative and five qualitative characters to estimate substantial variation and relationship among the genotypes and identify promising accession(s) for traits of economic significance. A significant level of morphological diversity was noticed for a number of traits. The largest variation was recorded for capsules plant-1, seeds capsule-1, seed yield plant-1, plant height, days to flowering initiation and days to maturity. Relatively low level of variability was distinguished in 100-seed weight, capsule diameter, primary branches plant-1, days to flower completion, time of flowering, flower color, leaf shape and spininess. The correlation analysis indicated that seed diameter, capsules plant-1 and seeds capsule-1 had highly significant positive contribution to seed yield plant-1. Only one trait, time of flowering showed negative correlation with seed yield plant-1. Principal component (PC) analysis of 122 safflower germplasm displayed significant variation with PC1 having 26.02% of the total variation, 19.97% for PC2, 12.38% for PC3 and PC4 contributed 11.24% of the total variation and revealed that the characters that mainly distinguish the germplasm are: capsule diameter, capsules plant-1, seeds capsule-1, days to maturity, plant height and time of flowering. Cluster analysis recognized five major clusters. Our findings have an important application for safflower germplasm evaluation and preservation. (author)

  11. Dietary abscisic acid ameliorates glucose tolerance and obesity-related inflammation in db/db mice fed high-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri, Amir J; Hontecillas, Raquel; Si, Hongwei; Liu, Dongmin; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2007-02-01

    Despite their efficacy in improving insulin sensitivity, thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are associated with a number of side effects (i.e. weight gain, hepatotoxicity, congestive heart failure) that have limited their use by millions of diabetic patients. We have investigated whether abscisic acid (ABA), a naturally occurring phytochemical with structural similarities to TZDs, could be used as an alternative to TZDs to improve glucose homeostasis. We first examined whether ABA, similar to TZDs, activates PPARgamma in vitro. We next determined the lowest effective dose of dietary ABA (100 mg/kg) and assessed its effect on glucose tolerance, obesity-related inflammation, and mRNA expression of PPARgamma and its responsive genes in white adipose tissue (WAT) of db/db mice fed high-fat diets. We found that ABA induced transactivation of PPARgamma in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes in vitro. Dietary ABA-supplementation for 36 days decreased fasting blood glucose concentrations, ameliorated glucose tolerance, and increased mRNA expression of PPARgamma and its responsive genes (i.e., adiponectin, aP2, and CD36) in WAT. We also found that adipocyte hypertrophy, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression, and macrophage infiltration in WAT were significantly attenuated in ABA-fed mice. These findings suggest that ABA could be used as a nutritional intervention against type II diabetes and obesity-related inflammation.

  12. Effects of Supplemental Acerola Juice on the Mineral Concentrations in Liver and Kidney Tissue Samples of Mice Fed with Cafeteria Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffa, Daniela Dimer; dos Santos, Carla Eliete Iochims; Daumann, Francine; Longaretti, Luiza Martins; Amaral, Livio; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; da Silva, Juliana; Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the impact of a supplemental acerola juice (unripe, ripe, and industrial) and its main pharmaceutically active components on the concentrations of minerals in the liver and kidney of mice fed with cafeteria diet. Swiss male mice were fed with a cafeteria (CAF) diet for 13 weeks. The CAF consisted of a variety of supermarket products with high energy content. Subsequently, animals received one of the following food supplements for 1 month: water, unripe acerola juice, ripe acerola juice, industrial acerola juice, vitamin C, or rutin. Mineral concentrations of the tissues were determined by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Our study suggests that the simultaneous intake of acerola juices, vitamin C, or rutin in association with a hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet provides change in the mineral composition of organisms in the conditions of this study, which plays an important role in the antioxidant defenses of the body. This may help to reduce the metabolism of the fat tissue or even to reduce the oxidative stress.

  13. Quantitative deviating effects of maple syrup extract supplementation on the hepatic gene expression of mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Asuka; Watanabe, Yuki; Shinozaki, Fumika; Yasuoka, Akihito; Shimada, Kousuke; Kondo, Kaori; Ishijima, Tomoko; Toyoda, Tsudoi; Arai, Soichi; Kondo, Takashi; Abe, Keiko

    2017-02-01

    Maple syrup contains various polyphenols and we investigated the effects of a polyphenol-rich maple syrup extract (MSXH) on the physiology of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). The mice fed a low-fat diet (LFD), an HFD, or an HFD supplemented with 0.02% (002MSXH) or 0.05% MSXH (005MSXH) for 4 weeks. Global gene expression analysis of the liver was performed, and the differentially expressed genes were classified into three expression patterns; pattern A (LFD 002MSXH = 005MSXH, LFD > HFD 005MSXH, LFD > HFD = 002MSXH 002MSXH HFD 005MSXH). Pattern A was enriched in glycolysis, fatty acid metabolism, and folate metabolism. Pattern B was enriched in tricarboxylic acid cycle while pattern C was enriched in gluconeogenesis, cholesterol metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and endoplasmic reticulum stress-related event. Our study suggested that the effects of MSXH ingestion showed (i) dose-dependent pattern involved in energy metabolisms and (ii) reversely pattern involved in stress responses. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Beneficial effects of exercise training (treadmill on insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in high-fat fed C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.M. Marques

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available C57BL/6 mice develop signs and symptoms comparable, in part, to the human metabolic syndrome. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of exercise training on carbohydrate metabolism, lipid profile, visceral adiposity, pancreatic islet alterations, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in C57BL/6 mice. Animals were fed one of two diets during an 8-week period: standard (SC, N = 12 or very high-fat (HF, N = 24 chow. An exercise training protocol (treadmill was then established and mice were divided into SC and HF sedentary (SC-Sed, HF-Sed, exercised groups (SC-Ex, HF-Ex, or switched from HF to SC (HF/SC-Sed and HF/SC-Ex. HF/HF-Sed mice had the greatest body mass (65% more than SC/SC-Sed; P < 0.0001, and exercise reduced it by 23% (P < 0.0001. Hepatic enzymes ALP (+80%, ALT (+100% and AST (+70% were higher in HF/HF mice than in matched SC/SC. Plasma insulin was higher in both the HF/HF-Sed and HF/SC-Sed groups than in the matched exercised groups (+85%; P < 0.001. Pancreatic islets, adipocytes and liver structure were greatly affected by HF, ultimately resulting in islet β-cell hypertrophy and severe liver steatosis. The HF group had larger islets than the SC/SC group (+220%; P < 0.0001, and exercise significantly reduced liver steatosis and islet size in HF. Exercise attenuated all the changes due to HF, and the effects were more pronounced in exercised mice switched from an HF to an SC diet. Exercise improved the lipid profile by reducing body weight gain, visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, islet alterations, and fatty liver, contributing to obesity and steatohepatitis control.

  15. Perinatal programming of depressive-like behavior by inflammation in adult offspring mice whose mothers were fed polluted eels: Gender selective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soualeh, Nidhal; Dridi, Imen; Eppe, Gauthier; Némos, Christophe; Soulimani, Rachid; Bouayed, Jaouad

    2017-07-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that early-life inflammation may predispose to mental illness, including depression, in later-life. We investigated the impact of perinatal exposure to polluted eels on neonatal, postnatal, and adult brain inflammation, and on the resignation behavior of male and female adult offspring mice. The effects of maternal standard diet (laboratory food) were compared to the same diet enriched with low, intermediate, or highly polluted eels. Brain inflammatory markers including cytokines were assessed in offspring mice on the day of birth (i.e., on the postnatal day-PND 1), upon weaning (PND 21) and at adulthood (PND 100). Plasma myeloperoxidase and corticosterone levels were evaluated at PND 100. Immobility behavior of offspring was assessed in adulthood (i.e., at PNDs 95-100), using the tail suspension and forced swimming tests. Chronic brain inflammation was found in male and female offspring mice compared to controls, as assessed at PNDs 1, 21, and 100. The level of myeloperoxidase was found to be significantly higher in both adult males and females vs. control offspring. However, high corticosterone levels were only found in male offspring mice that were perinatally exposed to eels, suggesting a gender-selective dysregulation of the adult hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal (HPA) axis. Gender-specific differences were also detected in adulthood in regard to offspring resignation behavior. Thus, compared to controls, males, but not females, whose mothers were fed eels during pregnancy and lactation exhibited a depressive-like behavior in adult age in both behavioral models of depression. Depressive symptoms were more pronounced in male mice perinatally exposed to either intermediate or highly polluted eels than those exposed to only lowly polluted eels. Our results indicate that early-life inflammatory insult is a plausible causative factor that induces the depressive phenotype exhibited by male adult offspring mice, most likely through a

  16. Safflower and olive oil dietary treatments rescue aberrant embryonic arachidonic acid and nitric oxide metabolism and prevent diabetic embryopathy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, R; White, V; Martínez, N; Kurtz, M; Capobianco, E; Jawerbaum, A

    2010-04-01

    Aberrant arachidonic acid and nitric oxide (NO) metabolic pathways are involved in diabetic embryopathy. Previous works have found diminished concentrations of PGE(2) and PGI(2) in embryos from diabetic rats, and that PGI(2) is capable of increasing embryonic PGE(2) concentrations through the activation of the nuclear receptor PPARdelta. PPARdelta activators are lipid molecules such as oleic and linoleic acids, present in high concentrations in olive and safflower oils, respectively. The aim of this study was to analyze the capability of dietary supplementation with either 6% olive or 6% safflower oils to regulate PGE(2), PGI(2) and NO concentrations in embryos and deciduas from control and diabetic rats during early organogenesis. Diabetes was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg) 1 week before mating. Animals were fed with the oil-supplemented diets from Days 0.5 to 10.5 of gestation. PGI(2) and PGE(2) were measured by EIA and NO through the evaluation of its stable metabolites nitrates-nitrites in 10.5 day embryos and deciduas. We found that the olive and safflower oil-supplemented treatments highly reduced resorption and malformation rates in diabetic animals, and that they were able to prevent maternal diabetes-induced alterations in embryonic and decidual PGI(2) and PGE(2) concentrations. Moreover, these dietary treatments prevented NO overproduction in embryos and deciduas from diabetic rats. These data indicate that in maternal diabetes both the embryo and the decidua benefit from the olive and safflower oil supplementation probably through mechanisms that involve the rescue of aberrant prostaglandin and NO generation and that prevent developmental damage during early organogenesis.

  17. Salicornia Extract Ameliorates Salt-Induced Aggravation of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Obese Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hwan; Suk, Sujin; Jang, Woo Jung; Lee, Chang Hyung; Kim, Jong-Eun; Park, Jin-Kyu; Kweon, Mee-Hyang; Kim, Jong Hun; Lee, Ki Won

    2017-07-01

    High-fat and high-salt intakes are among the major risks of chronic diseases including obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Salicornia is a halophytic plant known to exert antioxidant, antidiabetic, and hypolipidemic effects, and Salicornia-extracted salt (SS) has been used as a salt substitute. In this study, the effects of SS and purified salt (PS) on the aggravation of NAFLD/NASH were compared. C57BL/6J male mice (8-wk-old) were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 mo and divided into 3 dietary groups, which were additionally fed HFD, HFD + SS, and HFD + PS for 13 wk. PS induced aggravation of NAFLD/NASH in HFD-fed mice. Although the actual salt intake was same between the PS and SS groups as 1% of the diet (extrapolated from the World Health Organization [WHO] guideline), SS induced less liver injury and hepatic steatosis compared to PS. The hepatic mRNA expressions of inflammatory cytokines and fibrosis marker were significantly lower in the SS group than the PS group. Oxidative stress is one of the major causes of inflammation in NAFLD/NASH. Results of the component analysis showed that the major polyphenols that exhibited antioxidant activity in the Salicornia water extract were ferulic acid, caffeic acid, and isorhamnetin. These results suggest that even the level of salt intake recommended by WHO can accelerate the progression of liver disease in obese individuals consuming HFD. It is proposed that SS can be a salt substitute for obese individuals who consume HFD. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  18. Proinsulin-producing, hyperglycemia-induced adipose tissue macrophages underlie insulin resistance in high fat-fed diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adipose tissue macrophages play an important role in the pathogenesis of obese type 2 diabetes. High-fat diet-induced obesity has been shown to lead to adipose tissue macrophages accumulation in rodents;however, the impact of hyperglycemia on adipose tissue macrophages dynamics in high-fat diet-fed ...

  19. Effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding on hepatic metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance in KK mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takeshi; Kim, Hyoun-ju; Hirako, Satoshi; Nakasatomi, Maki; Chiba, Hiroshige; Matsumoto, Akiyo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary fat energy restriction and fish oil intake on glucose and lipid metabolism in female KK mice with high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity. Mice were fed a lard/safflower oil (LSO50) diet consisting of 50 energy% (en%) lard/safflower oil as the fat source for 12 weeks. Then, the mice were fed various fat energy restriction (25 en% fat) diets - LSO, FO2.5, FO12.5 or FO25 - containing 0, 2.5, 12.5, or 25 en% fish oil, respectively, for 9 weeks. Conversion from a HF diet to each fat energy restriction diet significantly decreased final body weights and visceral and subcutaneous fat mass in all fat energy restriction groups, regardless of fish oil contents. Hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups, but not in the LSO group. Although plasma insulin levels did not differ among groups, the blood glucose areas under the curve in the oral glucose tolerance test were significantly lower in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed fatty acid synthase mRNA levels significantly decreased in the FO25 group, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 mRNA levels markedly decreased in the FO12.5 and FO25 groups. These results demonstrate that body weight gains were suppressed by dietary fat energy restriction even in KK mice with HF diet-induced obesity. We also suggested that the combination of fat energy restriction and fish oil feeding decreased fat droplets and ameliorated hepatic hypertrophy and insulin resistance with suppression of de novo lipogenesis in these mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Corn oil versus lard: Metabolic effects of omega-3 fatty acids in mice fed obesogenic diets with different fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlisova, Jana; Bardova, Kristina; Stankova, Barbora; Tvrzicka, Eva; Kopecky, Jan; Rossmeisl, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Mixed results have been obtained regarding the level of insulin resistance induced by high-fat diets rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA) when compared to those enriched by polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and how metabolic effects of marine PUFA of n-3 series, i.e. docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), depend on dietary lipid background. Here we compared two high-fat diets, in which the major lipid constituent was based either on SFA in the form of pork lard (LHF diet) or PUFA of n-6 series (Omega-6) as corn oil (cHF diet). Both cHF and LHF parental diets were also supplemented with EPA+DHA (∼30 g/kg diet) to produce cHF+F and LHF+F diet, respectively. Male C57BL/6N mice were fed the experimental diets for 8 weeks. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps in mice fed LHF and cHF diets, and then metabolic effects of cHF+F and LHF+F diets were assessed focusing on the liver and epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT). Both LHF and cHF induced comparable weight gain and the level of insulin resistance, however LHF-fed mice showed increased hepatic steatosis associated with elevated activity of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), and lower plasma triacylglycerol levels when compared to cHF. Despite lowering hepatic SCD1 activity, which was concomitant with reduced hepatic steatosis reaching the level observed in cHF+F mice, LHF+F did not decrease adiposity and the weight of eWAT, and rather further impaired insulin sensitivity relative to cHF+F, that tended to improve it. In conclusion, high-fat diets containing as much as ∼35 weight% as lipids induce similar weight gain and impairment of insulin sensitivity irrespective whether they are based on SFA or Omega-6. Although the SFA-rich diet containing EPA+DHA efficiently reduced hepatic steatosis, it did so without a corresponding improvement in insulin sensitivity and in the absence of effect on adiposity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Fran

  1. Supplementation with Vitis vinifera L. skin extract improves insulin resistance and prevents hepatic lipid accumulation and steatosis in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Izabelle Barcellos; de Bem, Graziele Freitas; Cordeiro, Viviane Silva Cristino; da Costa, Cristiane Aguiar; de Carvalho, Lenize Costa Reis Marins; da Rocha, Ana Paula Machado; da Costa, Gisele França; Ognibene, Dayane Teixeira; de Moura, Roberto Soares; Resende, Angela Castro

    2017-07-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the most common complications of obesity. The Vitis vinifera L. grape skin extract (ACH09) is an important source of polyphenols, which are related to its antioxidant and antihyperglycemic activities. We hypothesized that ACH09 could also exert beneficial effects on metabolic disorders associated with obesity and evaluated ACH09's influence on high-fat (HF) diet-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in C57BL/6 mice. The animals were fed a standard diet (10% fat, control) or an HF diet (60% fat, HF) with or without ACH09 (200mg/[kg d]) for 12weeks. Our results showed that ACH09 reduced HF diet-induced body weight gain, prevented hepatic lipid accumulation and steatosis, and improved hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. The underlying mechanisms of these beneficial effects of ACH09 may involve the activation of hepatic insulin-signaling pathway because the expression of phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, phosphorylated Akt serine/threonine kinase 1, and glucose transporter 2 was increased by ACH09 and correlated with improvement of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance. ACH09 reduced the expression of the lipogenic factor sterol regulatory-element binding protein-1c in the liver and upregulated the lipolytic pathway (phosphorylated liver kinase B1/phosphorylated adenosine-monophosphate-activated protein kinase), which was associated with normal hepatic levels of triglyceride and cholesterol and prevention of steatosis. ACH09 prevented the hepatic oxidative damage in HF diet-fed mice probably by restoration of antioxidant activity. In conclusion, ACH09 protected mice from HF diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis. The regulation of hepatic insulin signaling pathway, lipogenesis, and oxidative stress may contribute to ACH09's protective effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Toxicokinetics of chloral hydrate in ad libitum-fed, dietary-controlled, and calorically restricted male B6C3F1 mice following short-term exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seng, John E.; Agrawal, Nalini; Horsley, Elizabeth T.M.; Leakey, Tatiana I.; Scherer, Erin M.; Xia, Shijun; Allaben, William T.; Leakey, Julian E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Chloral hydrate is widely used as a sedative in pediatric medicine and is a by-product of water chlorination and a metabolic intermediate in the biotransformation of trichloroethylene. Chloral hydrate and its major metabolite, trichloroacetic acid, induce liver tumors in B6C3F 1 mice, a strain that can exhibit high rates of background liver tumor incidence, which is associated with increased body weight. This report describes the influence of diet and body weight on the acute toxicity, hepatic enzyme response, and toxickinetics of chloral hydrate as part of a larger study investigating the carcinogenicity of chloral hydrate in ad libitum-fed and dietary controlled mice. Dietary control involves moderate food restriction to maintain the test animals at an idealized body weight. Mice were dosed with chloral hydrate at 0, 50, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg daily, 5 days/week, by aqueous gavage for 2 weekly dosing cycles. Three diet groups were used: ad libitum, dietary control, and 40% caloric restriction. Both dietary control and caloric restriction slightly reduced acute toxicity of high doses of chloral hydrate and potentiated the induction of hepatic enzymes associated with peroxisome proliferation. Chloral hydrate toxicokinetics were investigated using blood samples obtained by sequential tail clipping and a microscale gas chromatography technique. It was rapidly cleared from serum within 3 h of dosing. Trichloroacetate was the major metabolite in serum in all three diet groups. Although the area under the curve values for serum trichloroacetate were slightly greater in the dietary controlled and calorically restricted groups than in the ad libitum-fed groups, this increase did not appear to completely account for the potentiation of hepatic enzyme induction by dietary restriction

  3. Ursodeoxycholic acid improves insulin sensitivity and hepatic steatosis by inducing the excretion of hepatic lipids in high-fat diet-fed KK-Ay mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Takuma; Shiraishi, Muneshige; Ohta, Tetsuya; Sakai, Kaoru; Ishii, Shinichi

    2012-07-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is frequently accompanied by fatty liver/nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Hence, accumulation of lipids in the liver is considered to be one of the risk factors for insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is widely used for the treatment of liver dysfunction. We investigated the therapeutic effects of UDCA on type 2 diabetes mellitus exacerbating hepatic steatosis and the underlying mechanisms of its action using KK-A(y) mice fed a high-fat diet. KK-A(y) mice were prefed a high-fat diet; and 50, 150, and 450 mg/kg of UDCA was orally administered for 2 or 3 weeks. Administration of UDCA decreased fasting hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp analyses showed that UDCA improved hepatic (but not peripheral) insulin resistance. Hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol contents were significantly reduced by treatment with UDCA, although the genes involved in the synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol, including fatty acid synthase and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase, were upregulated. Fecal levels of bile acids, neutral sterols, fatty acids, and phospholipids were significantly increased by UDCA treatment. The gene expression levels and protein phosphorylation levels of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers were not changed by UDCA treatment. These results indicate that UDCA ameliorates hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia by improving hepatic insulin resistance and steatosis in high-fat diet-fed KK-A(y) mice. Reduction of hepatic lipids might be due to their excretion in feces, followed by enhanced utilization of glucose for the synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol. Ursodeoxycholic acid should be effective for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus accompanying hepatic steatosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Colonic inflammation accompanies an increase of β-catenin signaling and Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae bacteria in the hind gut of high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Ishaq, Suzanne L; Zhao, Feng-Qi; Wright, André-Denis G

    2016-09-01

    Consumption of an obesigenic/high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with a high colon cancer risk and may alter the gut microbiota. To test the hypothesis that long-term high-fat (HF) feeding accelerates inflammatory process and changes gut microbiome composition, C57BL/6 mice were fed HFD (45% energy) or a low-fat (LF) diet (10% energy) for 36 weeks. At the end of the study, body weights in the HF group were 35% greater than those in the LF group. These changes were associated with dramatic increases in body fat composition, inflammatory cell infiltration, inducible nitric oxide synthase protein concentration and cell proliferation marker (Ki67) in ileum and colon. Similarly, β-catenin expression was increased in colon (but not ileum). Consistent with gut inflammation phenotype, we also found that plasma leptin, interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor α concentrations were also elevated in mice fed the HFD, indicative of chronic inflammation. Fecal DNA was extracted and the V1-V3 hypervariable region of the microbial 16S rRNA gene was amplified using primers suitable for 454 pyrosequencing. Compared to the LF group, the HF group had high proportions of bacteria from the family Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae, which is known to be involved in the development of metabolic disorders, diabetes and colon cancer. Taken together, our data demonstrate, for the first time, that long-term HF consumption not only increases inflammatory status but also accompanies an increase of colonic β-catenin signaling and Lachnospiraceae/Streptococcaceae bacteria in the hind gut of C57BL/6 mice. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Reduction of influenza virus titer and protection against influenza virus infection in infant mice fed Lactobacillus casei Shirota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Hisako; Kiyoshima, Junko; Hori, Tetsuji

    2004-07-01

    We investigated whether oral administration of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota to neonatal and infant mice ameliorates influenza virus (IFV) infection in the upper respiratory tract and protects against influenza infection. In a model of upper respiratory IFV infection, the titer of virus in the nasal washings of infant mice administered L. casei Shirota (L. casei Shirota group) was significantly (P survival rate of the L. casei Shirota group was significantly (P L. casei Shirota group were significantly greater than those of mice in the control group. These findings suggest that oral administration of L. casei Shirota activates the immature immune system of neonatal and infant mice and protects against IFV infection. Therefore, oral administration of L. casei Shirota may accelerate the innate immune response of the respiratory tract and protect against various respiratory infections in neonates, infants, and children, a high risk group for viral and bacterial infections.

  6. Superiority of dietary safflower oil over olive oil in lowering serum cholesterol and increasing hepatic mRnas for the LDL receptor and cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase in exogenously hypercholesterolemic (exHC) rats.

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    Sato, M; Yoshida, S; Nagao, K; Imaizumi, K

    2000-06-01

    The exogenously hypercholesterolemic (ExHC) rat is a strain segregated from SD rats with a high response to dietary cholesterol. To understand the underlying mechanism(s) for this hypercholesterolemia, the interactive effects of dietary fatty acid and the susceptibility of rats to dietary cholesterol on the serum cholesterol concentration and hepatic mRNA abundance of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (7alpha-hydroxylase) and 3-hydroxyl-3methylglutaryl (HMG) CoA reductase were examined. Both strains were fed on a diet supplemented with 10% each of olive, safflower or coconut oil with or without the addition of 1% cholesterol for one week. The ExHC rats fed on olive, safflower and coconut oil in combination with cholesterol respectively resulted in a 3.5-, 2.0- and 2.1-fold higher serum cholesterol concentration than that in the animals fed on the corresponding dietary fats without any supplementation of cholesterol (p safflower oil-containing diet supplemented with cholesterol resulted in a higher mRNA abundance of the LDL receptor and 7alpha-hydroxylase than in the corresponding fat-fed rats without cholesterol (p<0.05). There was no dietary cholesterol-dependent change of mRNA abundance in either strain fed on olive or coconut oil, except for a decreased abundance of HMG CoA reductase mRNA in the olive oil-fed ExHC rats and coconut oil-fed Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (p<0.05). These results indicate that the hepatic mRNA abundance of the LDL receptor and of 7alpha-hydroxylase depended on the dietary combination of cholesterol and a fatty acid and suggest that a linoleic acid-rich diet may alleviate exogenous hypercholesterolemia by activating the process involved in the hepatic uptake and biliary excretion of serum cholesterol.

  7. Small heterodimer partner (SHP deficiency protects myocardia from lipid accumulation in high fat diet-fed mice.

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    Jung Hun Ohn

    Full Text Available The small heterodimer partner (SHP regulates fatty acid oxidation and lipogenesis in the liver by regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR γ expression. SHP is also abundantly expressed in the myocardium. We investigated the effect of SHP expression on myocardia assessing not only heart structure and function but also lipid metabolism and related gene expression in a SHP deletion animal model. Transcriptional profiling with a microarray revealed that genes participating in cell growth, cytokine signalling, phospholipid metabolism, and extracellular matrix are up-regulated in the myocardia of SHP knockout (KO mice compared to those of wild-type (WT mice (nominal p value < 0.05. Consistent with these gene expression changes, the left ventricular masses of SHP KO mice were significantly higher than WT mice (76.8 ± 20.5 mg vs. 52.8 ± 6.8 mg, P = 0.0093. After 12 weeks of high fat diet (HFD, SHP KO mice gained less weight and exhibited less elevation in serum-free fatty acid and less ectopic lipid accumulation in the myocardium than WT mice. According to microarray analysis, genes regulated by PPARγ1 and PPARα were down-regulated in myocardia of SHP KO mice compared to their expression in WT mice after HFD, suggesting that the reduction in lipid accumulation in the myocardium resulted from a decrease in lipogenesis regulated by PPARγ. We confirmed the reduced expression of PPARγ1 and PPARα target genes such as CD36, medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase by SHP KO after HFD.

  8. Humanized HLA-DR4 mice fed with the protozoan pathogen of oysters Perkinsus marinus (Dermo do not develop noticeable pathology but elicit systemic immunity.

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    Wathsala Wijayalath

    Full Text Available Perkinsus marinus (Phylum Perkinsozoa is a marine protozoan parasite responsible for "Dermo" disease in oysters, which has caused extensive damage to the shellfish industry and estuarine environment. The infection prevalence has been estimated in some areas to be as high as 100%, often causing death of infected oysters within 1-2 years post-infection. Human consumption of the parasites via infected oysters is thus likely to occur, but to our knowledge the effect of oral consumption of P. marinus has not been investigated in humans or other mammals. To address the question we used humanized mice expressing HLA-DR4 molecules and lacking expression of mouse MHC-class II molecules (DR4.EA(0 in such a way that CD4 T cell responses are solely restricted by the human HLA-DR4 molecule. The DR4.EA(0 mice did not develop diarrhea or any detectable pathology in the gastrointestinal tract or lungs following single or repeated feedings with live P. marinus parasites. Furthermore, lymphocyte populations in the gut associated lymphoid tissue and spleen were unaltered in the parasite-fed mice ruling out local or systemic inflammation. Notably, naïve DR4.EA(0 mice had antibodies (IgM and IgG reacting against P. marinus parasites whereas parasite specific T cell responses were undetectable. Feeding with P. marinus boosted the antibody responses and stimulated specific cellular (IFNγ immunity to the oyster parasite. Our data indicate the ability of P. marinus parasites to induce systemic immunity in DR4.EA(0 mice without causing noticeable pathology, and support rationale grounds for using genetically engineered P. marinus as a new oral vaccine platform to induce systemic immunity against infectious agents.

  9. Heterozygous Hfe gene deletion leads to impaired glucose homeostasis, but not liver injury in mice fed a high-calorie diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Laurence; Jaskowski, Lesley; Bridle, Kim; Santrampurwala, Nishreen; Reiling, Janske; Musgrave, Nick; Subramaniam, V Nathan; Crawford, Darrell

    2016-06-01

    Heterozygous mutations of the Hfe gene have been proposed as cofactors in the development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Homozygous Hfe deletion previously has been shown to lead to dysregulated hepatic lipid metabolism and accentuated liver injury in a dietary mouse model of NAFLD We sought to establish whether heterozygous deletion of Hfe is sufficient to promote liver injury when mice are exposed to a high-calorie diet (HCD). Eight-week-old wild-type and Hfe(+/-) mice received 8 weeks of a control diet or HCD Liver histology and pathways of lipid and iron metabolism were analyzed. Liver histology demonstrated that mice fed a HCD had increased NAFLD activity score (NAS), steatosis, and hepatocyte ballooning. However, liver injury was unaffected by Hfe genotype. Hepatic iron concentration (HIC) was increased in Hfe(+/-) mice of both dietary groups. HCD resulted in a hepcidin-independent reduction in HIC Hfe(+/-) mice demonstrated raised fasting serum glucose concentrations and HOMA-IR score, despite unaltered serum adiponectin concentrations. Downstream regulators of hepatic de novo lipogenesis (pAKT, SREBP-1, Fas, Scd1) and fatty acid oxidation (AdipoR2, Pparα, Cpt1) were largely unaffected by genotype. In summary, heterozygous Hfe gene deletion is associated with impaired iron and glucose metabolism. However, unlike homozygous Hfe deletion, heterozygous gene deletion did not affect lipid metabolism pathways or liver injury in this model. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  10. Assay for the developmental toxicity of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. to zebrafish embryos/larvae

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    Qing Xia

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Safflower exhibits developmental toxicity for zebrafish embryos/larvae. The developing heart was speculated as the target organ of toxicity. Oxidative stress and increased apoptosis have roles in the developmental toxicity of safflower. This article provides a novel method to research the teratogenicity and possible mechanisms of toxicity of traditional Chinese medicines that are prohibited or contraindicated in pregnant women.

  11. Choline Supplementation Prevents a Hallmark Disturbance of Kwashiorkor in Weanling Mice Fed a Maize Vegetable Diet: Hepatic Steatosis of Undernutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Thaddaeus May; Kevin C. Klatt; Jacob Smith; Eumenia Castro; Mark Manary; Marie A. Caudill; Farook Jahoor; Marta L. Fiorotto

    2018-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is a hallmark feature of kwashiorkor malnutrition. However, the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis in kwashiorkor is uncertain. Our objective was to develop a mouse model of childhood undernutrition in order to test the hypothesis that feeding a maize vegetable diet (MVD), like that consumed by children at risk for kwashiorkor, will cause hepatic steatosis which is prevented by supplementation with choline. A MVD was developed with locally sourced organic ingredients, and fed...

  12. Green Tea Extract Supplementation Induces the Lipolytic Pathway, Attenuates Obesity, and Reduces Low-Grade Inflammation in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

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    Cláudio A. Cunha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of green tea Camellia sinensis extract on proinflammatory molecules and lipolytic protein levels in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. Animals were randomized into four groups: CW (chow diet and water; CG (chow diet and water + green tea extract; HW (high-fat diet and water; HG (high-fat diet and water + green tea extract. The mice were fed ad libitum with chow or high-fat diet and concomitantly supplemented (oral gavage with 400 mg/kg body weight/day of green tea extract (CG and HG, resp.. The treatments were performed for eight weeks. UPLC showed that in 10 mg/mL green tea extract, there were 15 μg/mg epigallocatechin, 95 μg/mg epigallocatechin gallate, 20.8 μg/mg epicatechin gallate, and 4.9 μg/mg gallocatechin gallate. Green tea administered concomitantly with a high-fat diet increased HSL, ABHD5, and perilipin in mesenteric adipose tissue, and this was associated with reduced body weight and adipose tissue gain. Further, we observed that green tea supplementation reduced inflammatory cytokine TNFα levels, as well as TLR4, MYD88, and TRAF6 proinflammatory signalling. Our results show that green tea increases the lipolytic pathway and reduces adipose tissue, and this may explain the attenuation of low-grade inflammation in obese mice.

  13. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid ameliorates, but rapeseed oil and safflower oil accelerate renal injury in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats as compared with soybean oil, which is associated with expression for renal transforming growth factor-beta, fibronectin and renin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, M; Takemura, N; Watanabe, S; Hata, N; Misawa, Y; Okuyama, H

    2000-01-03

    We have noted that n-3 fatty acid-rich oils, such as fish oil, perilla oil and flaxseed oil as well as ethyl docosahexaenoate (DHA) prolonged the survival time of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) rats by approximately 10% as compared with linoleate (n-6)-rich safflower oil. Rapeseed oil with a relatively low n-6/n-3 ratio unusually shortened the survival time by approximately 40%, suggesting the presence of minor components unfavorable to SHRSP rats. This study examined the effects of dietary oils and DHA on renal injury and gene expression related to renal injury in SHRSP rats. Rats fed rapeseed oil- and safflower oil-supplemented diets developed more severe proteinuria than those fed soybean oil-supplemented diet used as a control, but there were no significant differences in blood pressure. In contrast, the DHA-supplemented diet inhibited the development of proteinuria and suppressed hypertension. The mRNA levels for renal TGF-beta, fibronectin and renin were higher in the rapeseed oil and safflower oil groups after 9 weeks of feeding of the experimental diet than in the soybean oil and DHA groups. The fatty acid composition of kidney phospholipids was markedly affected by these diets. These results indicate that the renal injury observed in the groups fed safflower oil with a high n-6/n-3 ratio and rapeseed oil with presumed minor components is accompanied by increased expression of the TGF-beta, renin and fibronectin genes, and that dietary DHA suppresses renal injury and gene expression as compared with soybean oil.

  14. Dietary incorporation of whey proteins and galactooligosaccharides exhibits improvement in glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance in high fat diet fed mice

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    Praveen Kumar Kavadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was planned to investigate the effectiveness of whey protein isolate (WPI of high purity and a galactooligosaccharides (GOS preparation on glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance under high fat diet (45.47% energy from fat fed conditions in C57BL/6 mice. The mRNA expression of genes related to gluconeogenesis was also examined. Methods: Fasting blood glucose level, serum insulin & GLP-1 (ELISA were measured; HOMA-IR determined in different treatment groups. mRNA expression of gluconeogenesis genes in liver and small intestine tissues analysed by qRT-PCR. Results: Dietary incorporation of WPI/GOS alone or in combination was observed to significantly resist (p [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(3.000: 326-332

  15. Targeted reduction of vascular Msx1 and Msx2 mitigates arteriosclerotic calcification and aortic stiffness in LDLR-deficient mice fed diabetogenic diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Su-Li; Behrmann, Abraham; Shao, Jian-Su; Ramachandran, Bindu; Krchma, Karen; Bello Arredondo, Yoanna; Kovacs, Attila; Mead, Megan; Maxson, Robert; Towler, Dwight A

    2014-12-01

    When fed high-fat diets, male LDLR(-/-) mice develop obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and arteriosclerotic calcification. An osteogenic Msx-Wnt regulatory program is concomitantly upregulated in the vasculature. To better understand the mechanisms of diabetic arteriosclerosis, we generated SM22-Cre;Msx1(fl/fl);Msx2(fl/fl);LDLR(-/-) mice, assessing the impact of Msx1+Msx2 gene deletion in vascular myofibroblast and smooth muscle cells. Aortic Msx2 and Msx1 were decreased by 95% and 34% in SM22-Cre;Msx1(fl/fl);Msx2(fl/fl);LDLR(-/-) animals versus Msx1(fl/fl);Msx2(fl/fl);LDLR(-/-) controls, respectively. Aortic calcium was reduced by 31%, and pulse wave velocity, an index of stiffness, was decreased in SM22-Cre;Msx1(fl/fl);Msx2(fl/fl);LDLR(-/-) mice vs. controls. Fasting blood glucose and lipids did not differ, yet SM22-Cre;Msx1(fl/fl);Msx2(fl/fl);LDLR(-/-) siblings became more obese. Aortic adventitial myofibroblasts from SM22-Cre;Msx1(fl/fl);Msx2(fl/fl);LDLR(-/-) mice exhibited reduced osteogenic gene expression and mineralizing potential with concomitant reduction in multiple Wnt genes. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and Sca1, markers of aortic osteogenic progenitors, were also reduced, paralleling a 78% reduction in alkaline phosphatase (TNAP)-positive adventitial myofibroblasts. RNA interference revealed that although Msx1+Msx2 supports TNAP and Wnt7b expression, Msx1 selectively maintains Shh and Msx2 sustains Wnt2, Wnt5a, and Sca1 expression in aortic adventitial myofibroblast cultures. Thus, Msx1 and Msx2 support vascular mineralization by directing the osteogenic programming of aortic progenitors in diabetic arteriosclerosis. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  16. Metabolic effects of intermittent access to caloric or non-caloric sweetened solutions in mice fed a high-caloric diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Marion; Chaumontet, Catherine; Even, Patrick C; Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Tomé, Daniel; Fromentin, Gilles

    2017-06-01

    Human consumption of obesogenic diets and soft drinks, sweetened with different molecules, is increasing worldwide, and increases the risk of metabolic diseases. We hypothesized that the chronic consumption of caloric (sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), maltodextrin) and non-caloric (sucralose) solutions under 2-hour intermittent access, alongside the consumption of a high-fat high-sucrose diet, would result in differential obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice had ad libitum access to an HFHS diet and to water (water control group). In addition, some mice had access, 2h/day, 5days/week (randomly chosen) for 12weeks, to different solutions: i) a sucrose solution (2.1kJ/ml), ii) an HFCS solution (2.1kJ/ml), iii) a maltodextrin solution (2.1kJ/ml) and a sucralose solution (60mM) (n=15/group). Despite no changes in total caloric intake, 2h-intermittent access to the sucrose, HFCS or maltodextrin solutions led to increased body weight and accumulation of lipids in the liver when compared to the group consuming water only. The HFCS and sucrose solutions induced a higher fat mass in various fat depots, glucose intolerance, increased glucose oxidation at the expense of lipid oxidation, and a lower hypothalamic expression of NPY in the fasted state. HFCS also reduced proopiomelanocortin expression in the hypothalamus. 2h-intermittent access to sucralose did not result in significant changes in body composition, but caused a stronger expression of CART in the hypothalamus. Finally, sucrose intake showed a trend to increase the expression of various receptors in the nucleus accumbens, linked to dopamine, opioid and endocannabinoid signaling. In conclusion, 2h-intermittent access to caloric solutions (especially those sweetened with sucrose and HFCS), but not sucralose, resulted in adverse metabolic consequences in high-fat high-sucrose-fed mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Green tea powder and Lactobacillus plantarum affect gut microbiota, lipid metabolism and inflammation in high-fat fed C57BL/6J mice

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    Axling Ulrika

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes is associated with obesity, ectopic lipid accumulation and low-grade inflammation. A dysfunctional gut microbiota has been suggested to participate in the pathogenesis of the disease. Green tea is rich in polyphenols and has previously been shown to exert beneficial metabolic effects. Lactobacillus plantarum has the ability to metabolize phenolic acids. The health promoting effect of whole green tea powder as a prebiotic compound has not been thoroughly investigated previously. Methods C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet with or without a supplement of 4% green tea powder (GT, and offered drinking water supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 15313 (Lp or the combination of both (Lp + GT for 22 weeks. Parameters related to obesity, glucose tolerance, lipid metabolism, hepatic steatosis and inflammation were examined. Small intestinal tissue and caecal content were collected for bacterial analysis. Results Mice in the Lp + GT group had significantly more Lactobacillus and higher diversity of bacteria in the intestine compared to both mice in the control and the GT group. Green tea strongly reduced the body fat content and hepatic triacylglycerol and cholesterol accumulation. The reduction was negatively correlated to the amount of Akkermansia and/or the total amount of bacteria in the small intestine. Markers of inflammation were reduced in the Lp + GT group compared to control. PLS analysis of correlations between the microbiota and the metabolic variables of the individual mice showed that relatively few components of the microbiota had high impact on the correlation model. Conclusions Green tea powder in combination with a single strain of Lactobacillus plantarum was able to promote growth of Lactobacillus in the intestine and to attenuate high fat diet-induced inflammation. In addition, a component of the microbiota, Akkermansia, correlated negatively with several metabolic parameters

  18. Streptozotocin-Treated High Fat Fed Mice: A New Type 2 Diabetes Model Used to Study Canagliflozin-Induced Alterations in Lipids and Lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tian; Sungelo, Mitchell J; Goldberg, Ira J; Wang, Hong; Eckel, Robert H

    2017-05-01

    The pharmacological effects of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) medications on lipoprotein metabolism are difficult to assess in preclinical models because those created failure to replicate the human condition in which insulin deficiency is superimposed on obesity-related insulin resistance. To create a better model, we fed mice with high fat (HF) diet and treated the animals with low dose streptozotocin (STZ) to mimic T2DM. We used this model to evaluate the effects of canagliflozin (CANA), a drug that reduces plasma glucose by inhibiting the sodium-glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2), which mediates ~90% of renal glucose reabsorption] on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. After 6 weeks of CANA (30 mg/kg/day) treatment, the increase in total plasma cholesterol in HF-STZ diabetic mice was reversed, but plasma triglycerides were not affected. Lipoprotein fractionation and cholesterol distribution analysis showed that CANA kept HDL-Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol, and IDL-Cholesterol levels steady while these lipoprotein species were increased in placebo- and insulin-treated control groups. CANA treatment of HF-STZ mice reduced post-heparin plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity at 2 (-40%) and 5 (-30%) weeks compared to placebo. Tissue-specific LPL activity following CANA treatment showed similar reduction. In summary, CANA prevented the total cholesterol increase in HF-STZ mice without effects on plasma lipids or lipoproteins, but did decrease LPL, implying a potential role of LPL-dependent lipoprotein metabolism in CANA action. These effects did not recapitulate the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on lipids and lipoproteins in human, suggesting that a better murine T2DM model (such as the ApoB100 humanized CETP-overexpressing mouse) is needed next. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Galantamine Alleviates Inflammation and Other Obesity-Associated Complications in High-Fat Diet–Fed Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satapathy, Sanjaya K; Ochani, Mahendar; Dancho, Meghan; Hudson, LaQueta K; Rosas-Ballina, Mauricio; Valdes-Ferrer, Sergio I; Olofsson, Peder S; Harris, Yael Tobi; Roth, Jesse; Chavan, Sangeeta; Tracey, Kevin J; Pavlov, Valentin A

    2011-01-01

    Obesity, a serious and growing health threat, is associated with low-grade inflammation that plays a role in mediating its adverse consequences. Previously, we have discovered a role for neural cholinergic signaling in controlling inflammation, and demonstrated that the cholinergic agent galantamine suppresses excessive proinflammatory cytokine release. The main objective of this study was to examine the efficacy of galantamine, a clinically-approved drug, in alleviating obesity-related inflammation and associated complications. After 8 wks on a high-fat diet, C57BL/6J mice were treated with either galantamine (4 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.]) or saline for 4 wks in parallel with mice on a low-fat diet and treated with saline. Galantamine treatment of obese mice significantly reduced body weight, food intake, abdominal adiposity, plasma cytokine and adipokine levels, and significantly improved blood glucose, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis. In addition, galantamine alleviated impaired insulin sensitivity and glucose intolerance significantly. These results indicate a previously unrecognized potential of galantamine in alleviating obesity, inflammation and other obesity-related complications in mice. These findings are of interest for studying the efficacy of this clinically-approved drug in the context of human obesity and metabolic syndrome. PMID:21738953

  20. Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) juice intake protects against alterations to proteins involved in inflammatory and lipolysis pathways in the adipose tissue of obese mice fed a cafeteria diet.

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    Dias, Fernando Milanez; Leffa, Daniela Dimer; Daumann, Francine; Marques, Schérolin de Oliveira; Luciano, Thais F; Possato, Jonathan Correa; de Santana, Aline Alves; Neves, Rodrigo Xavier; Rosa, José Cesar; Oyama, Lila Missae; Rodrigues, Bruno; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes; de Souza, Cláudio Teodoro; de Lira, Fabio Santos

    2014-02-04

    Obesity has been studied as a metabolic and an inflammatory disease and is characterized by increases in the production of pro-inflammatory adipokines in the adipose tissue.To elucidate the effects of natural dietary components on the inflammatory and metabolic consequences of obesity, we examined the effects of unripe, ripe and industrial acerola juice (Malpighia emarginata DC.) on the relevant inflammatory and lipolysis proteins in the adipose tissue of mice with cafeteria diet-induced obesity. Two groups of male Swiss mice were fed on a standard diet (STA) or a cafeteria diet (CAF) for 13 weeks. Afterwards, the CAF-fed animals were divided into five subgroups, each of which received a different supplement for one further month (water, unripe acerola juice, ripe acerola juice, industrial acerola juice, or vitamin C) by gavage. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, Western blotting, a colorimetric method and histology were utilized to assess the observed data. The CAF water (control obese) group showed a significant increase in their adiposity indices and triacylglycerol levels, in addition to a reduced IL-10/TNF-α ratio in the adipose tissue, compared with the control lean group. In contrast, acerola juice and Vitamin C intake ameliorated the weight gain, reducing the TAG levels and increasing the IL-10/TNF-α ratio in adipose tissue. In addition, acerola juice intake led to reductions both in the level of phosphorylated JNK and to increases in the phosphorylation of IκBα and HSLser660 in adipose tissue. Taken together, these results suggest that acerola juice reduces low-grade inflammation and ameliorates obesity-associated defects in the lipolytic processes.

  1. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) vs. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA): Effects in epididymal white adipose tissue of mice fed a high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargut, Thereza Cristina Lonzetti; Santos, Larissa Pereira; Machado, Daiana Guimarães Lopes; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto

    2017-08-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have been demonstrated to be beneficial for many diseases, including those associated with the metabolic syndrome (e.g. insulin resistance and hypertension). Nevertheless, not only their actions are not entirely understood, but also their only effects were not yet elucidated. Therefore, we aimed to compare the effects of EPA and DHA, alone or in combination, on the epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) metabolism in mice fed a high-fructose diet. 3-mo-old C57Bl/6 mice were fed a control diet (C) or a high-fructose diet (HFru). After three weeks on the diets, the HFru group was subdivided into four new groups for another five weeks: HFru, HFru+EPA, HFru+DHA, and HFru-EPA+DHA (n=10/group). Besides evaluating biometric and metabolic parameters of the animals, we measured the adipocyte area and performed molecular analyses (inflammation and lipolysis) in the epididymal WAT. The HFru group showed adipocyte hypertrophy, inflammation, and uncontrolled lipolysis. The treated animals showed a reversion of adipocyte hypertrophy, inhibition of inflammation with activation of anti-inflammatory mediators, and regularization of lipolysis. Overall, the beneficial effects were more marked with DHA than EPA. Although the whole-body metabolic effects were similar between EPA and DHA, DHA appeared to be the central actor in WAT metabolism, modulating pro and anti-inflammatory pathways and alleviating adipocytes abnormalities. Therefore, when considering fructose-induced adverse effects in WAT, the most prominent actions were observed with DHA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Naringin ameliorates metabolic syndrome by activating AMP-activated protein kinase in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Peng; Gao, Dong-Mei; Mohamed, Salim; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Xiao-Ya; Zhou, Nai-Jing; Xie, Jing; Jiang, Hong

    2012-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a low-grade inflammatory state in which oxidative stress is involved. Naringin, isolated from the Citrussinensis, is a phenolic compound with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of naringin on metabolic syndrome in mice. The animal models, induced by high-fat diet in C57BL/6 mice, developed obesity, dyslipidemia, fatty liver, liver dysfunction and insulin resistance. These changes were attenuated by naringin. Further investigations revealed that the inhibitory effect on inflammation and insulin resistance was mediated by blocking activation of the MAPKs pathways and by activating IRS1; the lipid-lowering effect was attributed to inhibiting the synthesis way and increasing fatty acid oxidation; the hypoglycemic effect was due to the regulation of PEPCK and G6pase. The anti-oxidative stress of naringin also participated in the improvement of insulin resistance and lipogenesis. All of these depended on the AMPK activation. To confirm the results of the animal experiment, we tested primary hepatocytes exposed to high glucose system. Naringin was protective by phosphorylating AMPKα and IRS1. Taken together, these results suggested that naringin protected mice exposed to a high-fat diet from metabolic syndrome through an AMPK-dependent mechanism involving multiple types of intracellular signaling and reduction of oxidative damage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Isocaloric pair-fed high-carbohydrate diet induced more hepatic steatosis and inflammation than high-fat diet mediated by miR- 34a/SIRT1 axis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    To investigate the different effects of isocaloric high-fat diet (HFD) and high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) on hepatic steatosis and the underlying mechanisms, especially the role of microRNA- 34a/silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1) axis, C57BL/6J mice (n = 12/group) were isocaloric pair-fed with Li...

  4. Beneficial effects of (pGlu-Gln)-CCK-8 on energy intake and metabolism in high fat fed mice are associated with alterations of hypothalamic gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, I A; Irwin, N; Flatt, P R

    2013-06-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a gastrointestinal hormone with potential therapeutic promise for obesity-diabetes. The present study examined the effects of twice daily administration of the N-terminally modified stable CCK-8 analogue, (pGlu-Gln)-CCK-8, on metabolic control and hypothalamic gene expression in high fat fed mice. Sub-chronic twice daily injection of (pGlu-Gln)-CCK-8 for 16 days significantly decreased body weight (penergy intake (pcontrols. Furthermore, (pGlu-Gln)-CCK-8 markedly improved glucose tolerance (p<0.05) and insulin sensitivity (p<0.05). Assessment of hypothalamic gene expression on day 16 revealed significantly elevated NPY (p<0.05) and reduced POMC (p<0.05) and MC4R (p<0.05) mRNA expression in (pGlu-Gln)-CCK-8 treated mice. High fat feeding or (pGlu-Gln)-CCK-8 treatment had no significant effects on hypothalamic gene expression of receptors for leptin, CCK₁ and GLP-1. These studies underscore the potential of (pGlu-Gln)-CCK-8 for the treatment of obesity-diabetes and suggest modulation of NPY and melanocortin related pathways may be involved in the observed beneficial effects. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Elemental concentrations in kidney and liver of mice fed with cafeteria or standard diet determined by particle induced X-ray emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimer Leffa, Daniela [Graduate Program in Health Sciences, Health Sciences Unit, University of Southern Santa Catarina, 88806-000 Criciúma, SC (Brazil); Iochims dos Santos, Carla Eliete; Debastiani, Rafaela; Amaral, Livio; Yoneama, Maria Lucia; Ferraz Dias, Johnny [Ion Implantation Laboratory, Physics Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Moraes Andrade, Vanessa, E-mail: vmoraesdeandrade@yahoo.com.br [Graduate Program in Health Sciences, Health Sciences Unit, University of Southern Santa Catarina, 88806-000 Criciúma, SC (Brazil)

    2014-01-01

    The importance of trace elements in human health is well known and their main source is daily diet. Nowadays, one of the biggest issues is the presence of these micronutrients in levels much higher than required, leading to potential toxic effects. The aim of this work was to investigate the elemental content in organs of mice fed with cafeteria or standard diet using PIXE. Twelve male Swiss mice were divided into two groups: control group (standard chow) and cafeteria group (high-caloric diet). After 17 weeks, samples of different organs (kidney and liver) were collected and prepared for PIXE analysis. The Fe concentration in kidney and liver was statistically higher in animals that received the cafeteria diet (p < 0.001). The Al and Si kidney contents were significantly higher for cafeteria diet in relation to standard diet (p < 0.05). Moreover, the standard diet showed significant differences for Cl and K (p < 0.05) in comparison to cafeteria diet in kidney, and for P, S and Zn (p < 0.005) in liver.

  6. Experimental study on the long-term effect of cadmium in mice fed cadmium-polluted rice with special reference to the effect of repeated reproductive cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, M.; Shiroishi, K.; Nishino, H.; Shinmura, T.; Murase, H.; Shoji, T.; Naruse, Y.; Kagamimori, S.

    1986-01-01

    Long-term biological effects of cadmium-polluted rice and effect of repeated reproductive cycles on them were examined. Female SLC-B6D2F mice (female C57BL/6, male DBA/2) were fed a rice diet containing 65% unpolished rice for about 2 years from 7 weeks of age. The unpolished rice preparations used were commercially available rice (non-Cd-polluted) and Cd-polluted rice (over 1.0 ppm). Average Cd contents in each diet class were 0.12, 0.48, 1.78, 1.75, and 47.1 ppm (50 ppm Cd as CdCl 2 added). Some experimental mice were subjected to repeated reproductive cycles (parity group). Hematological, biochemical, and pathological examinations of urine, blood, and tissues, including Cd measurement, were carried out. Results after statistical analysis indicate Cd toxicities such as anemia and disturbances of Ca metabolism. These Cd effects were found to be enhanced by the reproductive cycles. Soft X-ray radiograms showed osteoporosis in the parity groups, especially in the groups with diets of higher Cd content. However, we could not find any sign of disturbance of renal function under our experimental conditions

  7. Additive effects of clofibric acid and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzyme 4 (PDK4) deficiency on hepatic steatosis in mice fed a high-saturated fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Byounghoon; Wu, Pengfei; Harris, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Although improving glucose metabolism by inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) might prove beneficial in the treatment of type 2 diabetes or diet-induced obesity, it might induce detrimental effects by inhibiting fatty acid oxidation. PPARα agonists are often used to treat dyslipidemia in patients, especially in type 2 diabetes. Combinational treatment with a PDK4 inhibitor and PPARα agonists may prove beneficial. However, PPARα agonists may be less effective in the presence of a PDK4 inhibitor because PPARα agonists induce PDK4 expression. In the present study, the effects of clofibric acid, a PPARα agonist, on blood and liver lipids were determined in wild type and PDK4 knockout mice fed a high fat diet. As expected, treatment of wild type mice with clofibric acid resulted in less body weight gain, smaller epididymal fat pads, greater insulin sensitivity, and lower levels of serum and liver triacylglycerol. Surprisingly, rather than decreasing the effectiveness of clofibric acid, PDK4 deficiency enhanced the beneficial effects of clofibric acid on hepatic steatosis, lowered blood glucose levels, and did not prevent the positive effects of clofibric acid on serum triacylglycerols and free fatty acids. The metabolic effects of clofibric acid are therefore independent of the induction of PDK4 expression. The additive beneficial effects on hepatic steatosis may be due to induction of increased capacity for fatty acid oxidation and partial uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation by clofibric acid and a reduction in the capacity for fatty acid synthesis by PDK4 deficiency. PMID:22429297

  8. Elemental concentrations in kidney and liver of mice fed with cafeteria or standard diet determined by particle induced X-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimer Leffa, Daniela; Iochims dos Santos, Carla Eliete; Debastiani, Rafaela; Amaral, Livio; Yoneama, Maria Lucia; Ferraz Dias, Johnny; Moraes Andrade, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    The importance of trace elements in human health is well known and their main source is daily diet. Nowadays, one of the biggest issues is the presence of these micronutrients in levels much higher than required, leading to potential toxic effects. The aim of this work was to investigate the elemental content in organs of mice fed with cafeteria or standard diet using PIXE. Twelve male Swiss mice were divided into two groups: control group (standard chow) and cafeteria group (high-caloric diet). After 17 weeks, samples of different organs (kidney and liver) were collected and prepared for PIXE analysis. The Fe concentration in kidney and liver was statistically higher in animals that received the cafeteria diet (p < 0.001). The Al and Si kidney contents were significantly higher for cafeteria diet in relation to standard diet (p < 0.05). Moreover, the standard diet showed significant differences for Cl and K (p < 0.05) in comparison to cafeteria diet in kidney, and for P, S and Zn (p < 0.005) in liver

  9. Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2’s activation in transgenic mice fed with dosage of saturated or unsaturated fatty acids using in vivo bioluminescent imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mariani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To counteract oxidative stress cells developed several mechanisms, including the transcription factor Nuclear Factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2. The aim of the study was to evaluate the activation of Nrf2 in transgenic mice fed saturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids and the anti-inflammatory effect of estrogens on organism. Forty-eight ARE CRE OMO reporter mice were divided into 3 groups, consisting of 16 animals, based on presence/absence of estrogens (ovariectomized or sham female, OVX - SH; male, MA. Each group was further split in 4 subgroups of 4 animals each and fed different diets (7.5% lard, 7.5% tuna oil, 20.0 % lard and 20.0% tuna oil. Two times a week animals were anaesthetized and injected i.p. with 100µL luciferin 15 min before the imaging session. Using the Living Image Software, photon emission was mapped for selected body areas. On day 70, animals were sacrificed after a challenge with Sodium Arsenite. Specific organs were dissected and immediately subjected to ex vivo imaging session. MIXED and GLM procedures of SAS software were used for statistical analysis. Dietary treatments did not affect body weight and feed intake as well as Nrf2 expression in both pre- and post-challenge phases, with the exception of the abdominal region (P=0.031 pre-challenge; in this area, during the pre-challenge phase, OVX showed lower Nrf2 activation (P<0.001. Ex vivo results outlined a significant effect of the challenge on all the considered organs (P<0.001, while OVX subjects had higher Nrf2 expression on urinary bladder and kidney (P<0.05 and high fat diet increased Nrf2 in urinary bladder (P<0.05. The present trial shows how saturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids supplementation in the diet do not exert significant effects on oxidative stress in mice, but confirms the protective role of estrogens under physiological condition.

  10. Differential metabolic effects of constant moderate versus high intensity interval training in high-fat fed mice: possible role of muscle adiponectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Huenchullan, Sergio F; Maharjan, Babu Raja; Williams, Paul F; Tam, Charmaine S; Mclennan, Susan V; Twigg, Stephen M

    2018-02-01

    Exercise regimens may have differing effects in the presence of obesity. In addition to being fat derived, adiponectin has recently been described as a myokine that regulates insulin sensitivity, which may link to exercise-related metabolic benefits in obesity. Whether skeletal muscle adiponectin varies in different exercise modalities is unclear. This study investigated the comparative effects of 10 weeks of endurance constant-moderate intensity exercise (END) with high intensity interval training (HIIT), on metabolic outcomes, including muscle adiponectin in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Ten-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) (45% FAT) or standard CHOW diet ab libitum and underwent one of three training regimes: (1) no exercise, (2) END, or (3) HIIT (8 bouts of 2.5 min with eight periods of rest of 2.5 min) for 10 weeks (3 × 40 min sessions/week). Chow-fed mice acted as controls. Compared with HFD alone, both training programs similarly protected against body weight gain (HFD = 45 ± 2; END = 37 ± 2; HIIT = 36 ± 2 g), preserved lean/fat tissue mass ratio (HFD = 0.64 ± 0.09; END = 0.34 ± 0.13; HIIT = 0.33 ± 0.13), and improved blood glucose excursion during an insulin tolerance test (HFD = 411 ± 54; END = 350 ± 57; HIIT = 320 ± 66 arbitrary units [AU]). Alterations in fasting glycemia, insulinemia, and AST/ALT ratios were prevented only by END. END, but not HIIT increased skeletal muscle adiponectin mRNA (14-fold; P HIIT induced a milder increase (2.4-fold). Compared with HFD, neither END nor HIIT altered circulating low (LMW) or high (HMW) molecular weight adiponectin forms. Furthermore, only END prevented the HFD downregulation of PGC1α (P < 0.05) mRNA levels downstream of muscle adiponectin. These data show that different training programs affect muscle adiponectin to differing degrees. Together these results suggest that END is a more effective regimen to prevent HFD

  11. Comparative effects of short- and long-term feeding of safflower oil and perilla oil on lipid metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihara, M; Umekawa, H; Takahashi, T; Furuichi, Y

    1998-10-01

    Diets high in linoleic acid (20% safflower oil contained 77.3% linoleic acid, SO-diet) and alpha-linolenic acid (20% perilla oil contained 58.4% alpha-linolenic acid, PO-diet) were fed to rats for 3, 7, 20, and 50 days, and effects of the diets on lipid metabolism were compared. Levels of serum total cholesterol and phospholipids in the rats fed the PO-diet were markedly lower than those fed the SO-diet after the seventh day. In serum and hepatic phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, the proportion of n-3 fatty acids showed a greater increase in the PO group than in the SO group in the respective feeding-term. At the third and seventh days after the commencement of feeding the experimental diets, expressions of hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase mRNA were significantly higher in the SO group than those in the PO group, although the difference was not observed in the longer term. There were no significant differences in the LDL receptor mRNA levels between the two groups through the experimental term, except 3-days feeding. These results indicate that alpha-linolenic acid has a more potent serum cholesterol-lowering ability than linoleic acid both in short and long feeding-terms.

  12. Chronic benzylamine administration in the drinking water improves glucose tolerance, reduces body weight gain and circulating cholesterol in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iffiú-Soltész, Zsuzsa; Wanecq, Estelle; Lomba, Almudena; Portillo, Maria P; Pellati, Federica; Szöko, Eva; Bour, Sandy; Woodley, John; Milagro, Fermin I; Alfredo Martinez, J; Valet, Philippe; Carpéné, Christian

    2010-04-01

    Benzylamine is found in Moringa oleifera, a plant used to treat diabetes in traditional medicine. In mammals, benzylamine is metabolized by semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) to benzaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide. This latter product has insulin-mimicking action, and is involved in the effects of benzylamine on human adipocytes: stimulation of glucose transport and inhibition of lipolysis. This study examined whether chronic, oral administration of benzylamine could improve glucose tolerance and the circulating lipid profile without increasing oxidative stress in overweight and pre-diabetic mice. The benzylamine diffusion across the intestine was verified using everted gut sacs. Then, glucose handling and metabolic markers were measured in mice rendered insulin-resistant when fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and receiving or not benzylamine in their drinking water (3600micromol/(kgday)) for 17 weeks. HFD-benzylamine mice showed lower body weight gain, fasting blood glucose, total plasma cholesterol and hyperglycaemic response to glucose load when compared to HFD control. In adipocytes, insulin-induced activation of glucose transport and inhibition of lipolysis remained unchanged. In aorta, benzylamine treatment partially restored the nitrite levels that were reduced by HFD. In liver, lipid peroxidation markers were reduced. Resistin and uric acid, surrogate plasma markers of metabolic syndrome, were decreased. In spite of the putative deleterious nature of the hydrogen peroxide generated during amine oxidation, and in agreement with its in vitro insulin-like actions found on adipocytes, the SSAO-substrate benzylamine could be considered as a potential oral agent to treat metabolic syndrome. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Corrective effects of acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) juice intake on biochemical and genotoxical parameters in mice fed on a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffa, Daniela Dimer; da Silva, Juliana; Daumann, Francine; Dajori, Ana Luiza Formentin; Longaretti, Luiza Martins; Damiani, Adriani Paganini; de Lira, Fabio; Campos, Fernanda; Ferraz, Alexandre de Barros Falcão; Côrrea, Dione Silva; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

    2014-12-01

    Acerola contains high levels of vitamin C and rutin and shows the corresponding antioxidant properties. Oxidative stress on the other hand is an important factor in the development of obesity. In this study, we investigated the biochemical and antigenotoxic effects of acerola juice in different stages of maturity (unripe, ripe and industrial) and its main pharmacologically active components vitamin C and rutin, when given as food supplements to obese mice. Initial HPLC analyses confirmed that all types of acerola juice contained high levels of vitamin C and rutin. DPPH tests quantified the antioxidant properties of these juices and revealed higher antioxidant potentials compared to pure vitamin C and rutin. In an animal test series, groups of male mice were fed on a standard (STA) or a cafeteria (CAF) diet for 13 weeks. The latter consisted of a variety of supermarket products, rich in sugar and fat. This CAF diet increased the feed efficiency, but also induced glucose intolerance and DNA damage, which was established by comet assays and micronucleus tests. Subsequently, CAF mice were given additional diet supplements (acerola juice, vitamin C or rutin) for one month and the effects on bone marrow, peripheral blood, liver, kidney, and brain were examined. The results indicated that food supplementation with ripe or industrial acerola juice led to a partial reversal of the diet-induced DNA damage in the blood, kidney, liver and bone marrow. For unripe acerola juice food supplementation, beneficial effects were observed in blood, kidney and bone marrow. Food supplementation with vitamin C led to decreased DNA damage in kidney and liver, whereas rutin supplementation led to decreased DNA damage in all tissue samples observed. These results suggest that acerola juice helps to reduce oxidative stress and may decrease genotoxicity under obesogenic conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Agmatine ameliorates type 2 diabetes induced-Alzheimer's disease-like alterations in high-fat diet-fed mice via reactivation of blunted insulin signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Somang; Kim, Chul-Hoon; Jung, Hosung; Kim, Eosu; Song, Ho-Taek; Lee, Jong Eun

    2017-02-01

    The risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is higher in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Previous studies in high-fat diet-induced AD animal models have shown that brain insulin resistance in these animals leads to the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) and the reduction in GSK-3β phosphorylation, which promotes tau phosphorylation to cause AD. No therapeutic treatments that target AD in T2DM patients have yet been discovered. Agmatine, a primary amine derived from l-arginine, has exhibited anti-diabetic effects in diabetic animals. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of agmatine to treat AD induced by brain insulin resistance. ICR mice were fed a 60% high-fat diet for 12 weeks and received one injection of streptozotocin (100 mg/kg/ip) 4 weeks into the diet. After the 12-week diet, the mice were treated with agmatine (100 mg/kg/ip) for 2 weeks. Behaviour tests were conducted prior to sacrifice. Brain expression levels of the insulin signal molecules p-IRS-1, p-Akt, and p-GSK-3β and the accumulation of Aβ and p-tau were evaluated. Agmatine administration rescued the reduction in insulin signalling, which in turn reduced the accumulation of Aβ and p-tau in the brain. Furthermore, agmatine treatment also reduced cognitive decline. Agmatine attenuated the occurrence of AD in T2DM mice via the activation of the blunted insulin signal. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Colonic aberrant crypt formation accompanies an increase of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Ishaq, Suzanne L; Liu, Zhenhua; Bukowski, Michael R

    2018-04-01

    The increasing worldwide incidence of colon cancer has been linked to obesity and consumption of a high-fat Western diet. To test the hypothesis that a high-fat diet (HFD) promotes colonic aberrant crypt (AC) formation in a manner associated with gut bacterial dysbiosis, we examined the susceptibility to azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic AC and microbiome composition in C57/BL6 mice fed a modified AIN93G diet (AIN, 16% fat, energy) or an HFD (45% fat, energy) for 14 weeks. Mice receiving the HFD exhibited increased plasma leptin, body weight, body fat composition and inflammatory cell infiltration in the ileum compared with those in the AIN group. Consistent with the gut inflammatory phenotype, we observed an increase in colonic AC, plasma interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the ileum of the HFD-AOM group compared with the AIN-AOM group. Although the HFD and AIN groups did not differ in bacterial species number, the HFD and AIN diets resulted in different bacterial community structures in the colon. The abundance of certain short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) producing bacteria (e.g., Barnesiella) and fecal SCFA (e.g., acetic acid) content were lower in the HFD-AOM group compared with the AIN and AIN-AOM groups. Furthermore, we identified a high abundance of Anaeroplasma bacteria, an opportunistic pathogen in the HFD-AOM group. Collectively, we demonstrate that an HFD promotes AC formation concurrent with an increase of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in the colon of C57BL/6 mice. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Studies with a safflower oil emulsion in total parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, K. H.; Deitel, M.

    1981-01-01

    The prevention of essential fatty acid deficiency and the provision of adequate amounts of energy are two major concerns in total parenteral nutrition. Since earlier preparations of fat emulsion used to supplement the usual regimen of hypertonic glucose and amino acids have widely varying clinical acceptability, a new product, a safflower oil emulsion available in two concentrations (Liposyn), was evaluated. In four clinical trials the emulsion was used as a supplement to total parenteral nutrition. In five surgical patients 500 ml of the 10% emulsion infused every third day prevented or corrected essential fatty acid deficiency; however, in some cases in infusion every other day may be necessary. In 40 patients in severe catabolic states the emulsion provided 30% to 50% of the energy required daily: 10 patients received the 10% emulsion for 14 to 42 days, 9 patients received each emulsion in turn for 7 days, and 21 patient received the 20% emulsion for 14 to 28 days. All the patients survived and tolerated the lipid well; no adverse clinical effects were attributable to the lipid infusions. Transient mild, apparently clinically insignificant abnormalities in the results of one or more liver function tests and eosinophilia were observed in some patients. Thus, the safflower oil emulsion, at both concentrations, was safe and effective as a source of 30% to 50% of the energy required daily by seriously ill patients. PMID:6799182

  17. Simultaneous determination of the content of serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline in pancreatic islets isolated from fed and starved mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, S E; Hedeskov, C J [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark)

    1977-01-01

    A highly sensitive double isotope method for the simultaneous determination of serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline has been developed. Advantages and limitations of the method are discussed. The mentioned biogenic amines are all present in isolated pancreatic islet tissue from albino mice in concentrations ranging from approximately 5-30 ..mu..mol per kg wet weight (0.8-5 x 10/sup -3/ pmol/ng DNA). A somewhat higher content of these amines, especially dopamine, was found in pancreatic acinar tissue. The hypothesis that the impaired glucose-induced insulin secretion during starvation partly is caused by an increased content of biogenic amines in the pancreatic islets was not supported by our experiments which showed an unchanged islet content of these amines after 48 h starvation.

  18. Simultaneous determination of the content of serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline in pancreatic islets isolated from fed and starved mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, S.E.; Hedeskov, C.J.

    1977-01-01

    A highly sensitive double isotope method for the simultaneous determination of serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline has been developed. Advantages and limitations of the method are discussed. The mentioned biogenic amines are all present in isolated pancreatic islet tissue from albino mice in concentrations ranging from approximately 5-30 μmol per kg wet weight (0.8-5 x 10 -3 pmol/ng DNA). A somewhat higher content of these amines, especially dopamine, was found in pancreatic acinar tissue. The hypothesis that the impaired glucose-induced insulin secretion during starvation partly is caused by an increased content of biogenic amines in the pancreatic islets was not supported by our experiments which showed an unchanged islet content of these amines after 48 h starvation. (author)

  19. Effects of ingredients of Korean brown rice cookies on attenuation of cholesterol level and oxidative stress in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sun Hee; Kim, Mijeong; Woo, Minji; Song, Yeong Ok

    2017-10-01

    Owing to health concerns related to the consumption of traditional snacks high in sugars and fats, much effort has been made to develop functional snacks with low calorie content. In this study, a new recipe for Korean rice cookie, dasik , was developed and its antioxidative, lipid-lowering, and anti-inflammatory effects and related mechanisms were elucidated. The effects were compared with those of traditional rice cake dasik (RCD), the lipid-lowering effect of which is greater than that of traditional western-style cookies. Ginseng-added brown rice dasik (GBRD) was prepared with brown rice flour, fructooligosaccharide, red ginseng extract, and propolis. Mice were grouped (n = 7 per group) into those fed a normal AIN-76 diet, a high-fat diet (HFD), and HFD supplemented with RCD or GBRD. Dasik in the HFD accounted for 7% of the total calories. The lipid, reactive oxygen species, and peroxynitrite levels, and degree of lipid peroxidation in the plasma or liver were determined. The expression levels of proteins involved in lipid metabolism and inflammation, and those of antioxidant enzymes were determined by western blot analysis. The plasma and hepatic total cholesterol concentrations in the GBRD group were significantly decreased via downregulation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase ( P < 0.05). The hepatic peroxynitrite level was significantly lower, whereas glutathione was higher, in the GBRD group than in the RCD group. Among the antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were significantly upregulated in the GBRD group ( P < 0.05). In addition, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) expression in the GBRD group was significantly lower than that in the RCD group. GBRD decreases the plasma and hepatic cholesterol levels by downregulating cholesterol synthesis. This new dasik recipe also improves the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory status in HFD-fed mice via CAT and GPx upregulation and

  20. Cercosporoid leaf pathogens from whorled milkweed and spineless safflower in California

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koike, S.K.; Baameur, A.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2011-01-01

    Two cercosporoid species are respectively described from Mexican whorled milkweed (Asclepias fascicularis), and spineless safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) from California. Passalora californica represents a new pathogen on Asclepias fascicularis, while Ramularia cynarae is confirmed on Carthamus

  1. Antioxidant enzymes as bio-markers for copper tolerance in safflower

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-16

    Aug 16, 2010 ... tolerance in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Ali Ahmed1, Ammarah ... Values are mean of three replicates, bars indicate ± standard errors. .... The support from the Higher Education Commission,. Islamabad, Pakistan ...

  2. Folic acid and safflower oil supplementation interacts and protects embryos from maternal diabetes-induced damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, R; Kurtz, M; Mazzucco, M B; Musikant, D; White, V; Jawerbaum, A

    2012-05-01

    Maternal diabetes increases the risk of embryo malformations. Folic acid and safflower oil supplementations have been shown to reduce embryo malformations in experimental models of diabetes. In this study we here tested whether folic acid and safflower oil supplementations interact to prevent embryo malformations in diabetic rats, and analyzed whether they act through the regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), their endogenous inhibitors (TIMPs), and nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species production. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin administration prior to mating. From Day 0.5 of pregnancy, rats did or did not receive folic acid (15 mg/kg) and/or a 6% safflower oil-supplemented diet. Embryos and decidua were explanted on Day 10.5 of gestation for further analysis of embryo resorptions and malformations, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels, NO production and lipid peroxidation. Maternal diabetes induced resorptions and malformations that were prevented by folic acid and safflower oil supplementation. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were increased in embryos and decidua from diabetic rats and decreased with safflower oil and folic acid supplementations. In diabetic animals, the embryonic and decidual TIMPs were increased mainly with safflower oil supplementation in decidua and with folic acid in embryos. NO overproduction was decreased in decidua from diabetic rats treated with folic acid alone and in combination with safflower oil. These treatments also prevented increases in embryonic and decidual lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, folic acid and safflower oil supplementations interact and protect the embryos from diabetes-induced damage through several pathways related to a decrease in pro-inflammatory mediators.

  3. Antiobesity and Hypoglycaemic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Ibervillea sonorae in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet with Fructose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Ramírez, Fabiola; Escalona-Cardoso, Gerardo N.; Garduño-Siciliano, Leticia; Galaviz-Hernández, Carlos; Paniagua-Castro, Norma

    2011-01-01

    Obesity, type II diabetes, and hyperlipidaemia, which frequently coexist and are strongly associated with oxidative stress, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. An increase in carbohydrate intake, especially of fructose, and a high-fat diet are both factors that contribute to the development of these metabolic disorders. In recent studies carried out in diabetic rats, authors reported that Ibervillea sonorae had hypoglycaemic activity; saponins and monoglycerides present in the plant could be responsible for the effects observed. In the present study, we determined the effects of an aqueous I. sonorae extract on a murine model of obesity and hyperglycaemia, induced by a high-calorie diet, and the relationship of these effects with hepatic oxidation. A high-fat diet over a period of 8 weeks induced weight gain in the mice and increased triglycerides and blood glucose levels. Simultaneous treatment with I. sonorae aqueous extracts, at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, decreased triglycerides and glycaemia levels, prevented an increase in body weight in a dose-dependent manner, and decreased hepatic lipid oxidation at a dose of 200 mg/kg. These data suggest that the aqueous extract from I. sonorae root prevents obesity, dyslipidaemia, and hyperglycaemia induced by a hypercaloric diet; however, high doses may induce toxicity. PMID:22174560

  4. Antiobesity and hypoglycaemic effects of aqueous extract of Ibervillea sonorae in mice fed a high-fat diet with fructose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Ramírez, Fabiola; Escalona-Cardoso, Gerardo N; Garduño-Siciliano, Leticia; Galaviz-Hernández, Carlos; Paniagua-Castro, Norma

    2011-01-01

    Obesity, type II diabetes, and hyperlipidaemia, which frequently coexist and are strongly associated with oxidative stress, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. An increase in carbohydrate intake, especially of fructose, and a high-fat diet are both factors that contribute to the development of these metabolic disorders. In recent studies carried out in diabetic rats, authors reported that Ibervillea sonorae had hypoglycaemic activity; saponins and monoglycerides present in the plant could be responsible for the effects observed. In the present study, we determined the effects of an aqueous I. sonorae extract on a murine model of obesity and hyperglycaemia, induced by a high-calorie diet, and the relationship of these effects with hepatic oxidation. A high-fat diet over a period of 8 weeks induced weight gain in the mice and increased triglycerides and blood glucose levels. Simultaneous treatment with I. sonorae aqueous extracts, at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, decreased triglycerides and glycaemia levels, prevented an increase in body weight in a dose-dependent manner, and decreased hepatic lipid oxidation at a dose of 200 mg/kg. These data suggest that the aqueous extract from I. sonorae root prevents obesity, dyslipidaemia, and hyperglycaemia induced by a hypercaloric diet; however, high doses may induce toxicity.

  5. Evaluation of Beneficial Metabolic Effects of Berries in High-Fat Fed C57BL/6J Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovisa Heyman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was to screen eight species of berries for their ability to prevent obesity and metabolic abnormalities associated with type 2 diabetes. Methods. C57BL/6J mice were assigned the following diets for 13 weeks: low-fat diet, high-fat diet or high-fat diet supplemented (20% with lingonberry, blackcurrant, bilberry, raspberry, açai, crowberry, prune or blackberry. Results. The groups receiving a high-fat diet supplemented with lingonberries, blackcurrants, raspberries or bilberries gained less weight and had lower fasting insulin levels than the control group receiving high-fat diet without berries. Lingonberries, and also blackcurrants and bilberries, significantly decreased body fat content, hepatic lipid accumulation, and plasma levels of the inflammatory marker PAI-1, as well as mediated positive effects on glucose homeostasis. The group receiving açai displayed increased weight gain and developed large, steatotic livers. Quercetin glycosides were detected in the lingonberry and the blackcurrant diets. Conclusion. Lingonberries were shown to fully or partially prevent the detrimental metabolic effects induced by high-fat diet. Blackcurrants and bilberries had similar properties, but to a lower degree. We propose that the beneficial metabolic effects of lingonberries could be useful in preventing obesity and related disorders.

  6. Antiobesity and Hypoglycaemic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Ibervillea sonorae in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet with Fructose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Rivera-Ramírez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, type II diabetes, and hyperlipidaemia, which frequently coexist and are strongly associated with oxidative stress, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. An increase in carbohydrate intake, especially of fructose, and a high-fat diet are both factors that contribute to the development of these metabolic disorders. In recent studies carried out in diabetic rats, authors reported that Ibervillea sonorae had hypoglycaemic activity; saponins and monoglycerides present in the plant could be responsible for the effects observed. In the present study, we determined the effects of an aqueous I. sonorae extract on a murine model of obesity and hyperglycaemia, induced by a high-calorie diet, and the relationship of these effects with hepatic oxidation. A high-fat diet over a period of 8 weeks induced weight gain in the mice and increased triglycerides and blood glucose levels. Simultaneous treatment with I. sonorae aqueous extracts, at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, decreased triglycerides and glycaemia levels, prevented an increase in body weight in a dose-dependent manner, and decreased hepatic lipid oxidation at a dose of 200 mg/kg. These data suggest that the aqueous extract from I. sonorae root prevents obesity, dyslipidaemia, and hyperglycaemia induced by a hypercaloric diet; however, high doses may induce toxicity.

  7. Additive effects of clofibric acid and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzyme 4 (PDK4) deficiency on hepatic steatosis in mice fed a high saturated fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Byounghoon; Wu, Pengfei; Harris, Robert A

    2012-05-01

    Although improving glucose metabolism by inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) may prove beneficial in the treatment of type 2 diabetes or diet-induced obesity, it may have detrimental effects by inhibiting fatty acid oxidation. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) agonists are often used to treat dyslipidemia in patients, especially in type 2 diabetes. Combinational treatment using a PDK4 inhibitor and PPARα agonists may prove beneficial. However, PPARα agonists may be less effective in the presence of a PDK4 inhibitor because PPARα agonists induce PDK4 expression. In the present study, the effects of clofibric acid, a PPARα agonist, on blood and liver lipids were determined in wild-type and PDK4 knockout mice fed a high-fat diet. As expected, treatment of wild-type mice with clofibric acid resulted in less body weight gain, smaller epididymal fat pads, greater insulin sensitivity, and lower levels of serum and liver triacylglycerol. Surprisingly, rather than decreasing the effectiveness of clofibric acid, PDK4 deficiency enhanced the beneficial effects of clofibric acid on hepatic steatosis, reduced blood glucose levels, and did not prevent the positive effects of clofibric acid on serum triacylglycerols and free fatty acids. The metabolic effects of clofibric acid are therefore independent of the induction of PDK4 expression. The additive beneficial effects on hepatic steatosis may be due to induction of increased capacity for fatty acid oxidation and partial uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation by clofibric acid, and a reduction in the capacity for fatty acid synthesis as a result of PDK4 deficiency. Journal compilation © 2012 FEBS. No claim to original US government works.

  8. Prebiotic milk oligosaccharides prevent development of obese phenotype, impairment of gut permeability, and microbial dysbiosis in high fat-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, M Kristina; Ronveaux, Charlotte C; Rust, Bret M; Newman, John W; Hawley, Melissa; Barile, Daniela; Mills, David A; Raybould, Helen E

    2017-05-01

    Microbial dysbiosis and increased intestinal permeability are targets for prevention or reversal of weight gain in high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity (DIO). Prebiotic milk oligosaccharides (MO) have been shown to benefit the host intestine but have not been used in DIO. We hypothesized that supplementation with bovine MO would prevent the deleterious effect of HF diet on the gut microbiota and intestinal permeability and attenuate development of the obese phenotype. C57BL/6 mice were fed a control diet, HF (40% fat/kcal), or HF + prebiotic [6%/kg bovine milk oligosaccharides (BMO) or inulin] for 1, 3, or 6 wk. Gut microbiota and intestinal permeability were assessed in the ileum, cecum, and colon. Addition of BMO to the HF diet significantly attenuated weight gain, decreased adiposity, and decreased caloric intake; inulin supplementation also lowered weight gain and adiposity, but this did not reach significance. BMO and inulin completely abolished the HF diet-induced increase in paracellular and transcellular permeability in the small and large intestine. Both BMO and inulin increased abundance of beneficial microbes Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in the ileum. However, inulin supplementation altered phylogenetic diversity and decreased species richness. We conclude that addition of BMO to the HF diet completely prevented increases in intestinal permeability and microbial dysbiosis and was partially effective to prevent weight gain in DIO. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study provides the first report of the effects of prebiotic bovine milk oligosaccharides on the host phenotype of high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Effect of GABA on oxidative stress in the skeletal muscles and plasma free amino acids in mice fed high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Z X; Xia, S F; Qiao, Y; Shi, Y H; Le, G W

    2015-06-01

    Increased levels of plasma free amino acids (pFAAs) can disturb the blood glucose levels in patients with obesity, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome (MS) and are associated with enhanced protein oxidation. Oxidation of proteins, especially in the muscles, can promote protein degradation and elevate the levels of pFAAs. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a food additive, can reduce high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperglycaemia; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of GABA on protein oxidation and pFAAs changes. One hundred male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into five groups that were fed with control diet, HFD and HFD supplied with 0.2%, 0.12% and 0.06% GABA in drinking water for 20 weeks respectively. HFD feeding led to muscular oxidative stress, protein oxidation, pFAA disorders, hyperglycaemia and augmented plasma GABA levels. Treatment with GABA restored normally fasting blood glucose level and dose-dependently inhibited body weight gains, muscular oxidation and protein degradation. While medium and low doses of GABA mitigated HFD-induced pFAA disorders, the high dose of GABA deteriorated the pFAA disorders. Medium dose of GABA increased the levels of GABA, but high dose of GABA reduced the levels of plasma GABA and increased the activity of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase in the liver. Therefore, treatment with GABA mitigated HFD-induced hyperglycaemia probably by repairing HFD-induced muscular oxidative stress and pFAA disorders in mice. Our data also suggest that an optimal dose of GABA is crucial for the prevention of excess GABA-related decrease in the levels of pFAA and GABA as well as obesity. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Adzuki bean ameliorates hepatic lipogenesis and proinflammatory mediator expression in mice fed a high-cholesterol and high-fat diet to induce nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sera; Hong, Jihye; Jeon, Raok; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a simple steatosis, in which fat accumulates more than 5% in the liver, and regarded as most common liver diseases worldwide. Because NAFLD can be developed to severe liver disease and correlated with metabolic disease, its importance is currently emphasized. Occurrence of NAFLD is strongly related to dietary patterns and lifestyles; therefore, the suggestion of physiologically beneficial food is essential. Based on these, adzuki beans containing anthocyanin, catechin, and adzukisaponin are suggested as a health-beneficial food. Moreover, the effects of adzuki beans on metabolic improvement are not well established through the in vivo studies. Therefore, this study hypothesized that adzuki beans can alleviate lipid accumulation and oxidative stress-mediated inflammation in high-cholesterol and high-fat diet-induced NALFD mice. To demonstrate its effects, 6-week-old C57BL/6 male mice were allocated into 4 groups and fed a normal diet (ND), a high-cholesterol and high-fat diet (HCD), and HCD with 10% and 20% adzuki bean for 10 weeks. The result shows that fasting blood glucose, serum and hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels, and antioxidative enzyme activity ameliorated in the adzuki bean groups (P hepatic lipogenesis, such as adiponectin, AMP-activated protein kinase α, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, fatty acid synthase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, and apolipoprotein B, as well as proinflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor α, nuclear factor κB, and caspase-3, improved in both experimental groups (P hepatic messenger RNA expression of lipogenic and inflammatory mediators in NAFLD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Gelidium elegans Regulates the AMPK-PRDM16-UCP-1 Pathway and Has a Synergistic Effect with Orlistat on Obesity-Associated Features in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jia; Kim, Kui-Jin; Koh, Eun-Jeong; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2017-03-30

    The incidence of obesity is rising at an alarming rate throughout the world and is becoming a major public health concern with incalculable social and economic costs. Gelidium elegans (GENS), also previously known as Gelidium amansii , has been shown to exhibit anti-obesity effects. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which GENS is able to do this remains unclear. In the present study, our results showed that GENS prevents high-fat diet (HFD)-induced weight gain through modulation of the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-PR domain-containing16 (PRDM16)-uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) pathway in a mice model. We also found that GENS decreased hyperglycemia in mice that had been fed a HFD compared to corresponding controls. We also assessed the beneficial effect of the combined treatment with GENS and orlistat (a Food and Drug Administration-approved obesity drug) on obesity characteristics in HFD-fed mice. We found that in HFD-fed mice, the combination of GENS and orlistat is associated with more significant weight loss than orlistat treatment alone. Moreover, our results demonstrated a positive synergistic effect of GENS and orlistat on hyperglycemia and plasma triglyceride level in these animals. Thus, we suggest that a combination therapy of GENS and orlistat may positively influence obesity-related health outcomes in a diet-induced obese population.

  12. Lipid droplet-associated proteins in high-fat fed mice with the effects of voluntary running and diet change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Hulmi, Juha J; Torvinen, Sira; Silvennoinen, Mika; Lehti, Maarit; Kivelä, Riikka; Reunanen, Hilkka; Kujala, Urho M; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2014-08-01

    The relation between lipid accumulation and influence of exercise on insulin sensitivity is not straightforward. A proper balance between lipid droplet synthesis, lipolysis, and oxidative metabolism would ensure low local intramyocellular fatty acid levels, thereby possibly protecting against lipotoxicity-associated insulin resistance. This study investigated whether the accumulation of triglycerides and lipid droplets in response to high availability of fatty acids after high-fat feeding would parallel the abundance of intramyocellular perilipin proteins, especially PLIN5. The effects on these variables after diet change or voluntary running exercise intervention in skeletal muscle were also investigated. During a 19-week experiment, C57BL/6J mice were studied in six different groups: low-fat diet sedentary, low-fat diet active, high-fat diet sedentary, high-fat diet active and two groups which were high-fat sedentary for nine weeks, after which divided into low-fat sedentary or low-fat active groups. Myocellular triglyceride concentration and perilipin protein expression levels were assessed. We show that, concurrently with impaired insulin sensitivity, the expression level of PLIN5 and muscular triglyceride concentration increased dramatically after high-fat diet. These adaptations were reversible after the diet change intervention with no additional effect of exercise. After high-fat diet, lipid droplets become larger providing more surface area for PLIN5. We suggest that PLIN5 is an important regulator of lipid droplet turnover in altered conditions of fatty acid supply and consumption. Imbalances in lipid droplet metabolism and turnover might lead to lipotoxicity-related insulin resistance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Development a method for producing vegetable oil from safflower seeds by pressing in the field of ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    S. T. Antipov; S. V. Shakhov; A. N. Martekha; A. A. Berestovoy

    2015-01-01

    The article shows the prospects of production in agriculture safflower seeds for food and extract biologically active components. The physicochemical composition of safflower, which is rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Safflower oil has a soothing and moisturizing effect, provides a barrier function of the skin, therefore, fatty oil is promising in terms of scientific evidence use in medical practice. In the article the task of developing a set of processes to extract oil from the seeds of saf...

  14. Effects of safflower seed extract on arterial stiffness

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    Katsuya Suzuki

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Katsuya Suzuki1, Shigekazu Tsubaki2, Masami Fujita3, Naoto Koyama1, Michio Takahashi1, Kenji Takazawa41Research Institute for Health Fundamentals, Ajinomoto Co., Inc., Kawasaki; 2Samoncho Clinic, Tokyo; 3Shinanozaka Clinic, Tokyo; 4Tokyo Medical University Hachioji Medical Center, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Safflower seed extract (SSE contains characteristic polyphenols and serotonin derivatives (N-(p-coumaroyl serotonin and N-feruloylserotonin, which are reported to inhibit oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL, formation of atherosclerotic plaques, and improve arterial stiffness as assessed by pulse wave analysis in animal models. The effects of long-term supplementation with SSE on arterial stiffness in human subjects were evaluated. This double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in 77 males (35–65 years and 15 postmenopausal females (55–65 years with high-normal blood pressure or mild hypertension who were not undergoing treatment. Subjects received SSE (70 mg/day as serotonin derivatives or placebo for 12 weeks, and pulse wave measurements, ie, second derivative of photoplethysmogram (SDPTG, augmentation index, and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV were conducted at baseline, and at weeks 4, 8, and 12. Vascular age estimated by SDPTG aging index improved in the SSE-supplemented group when compared with the placebo group at four (P = 0.0368 and 12 weeks (P = 0.0927. The trend of augmentation index reduction (P = 0.072 versus baseline was observed in the SSE-supplemented group, but reduction of baPWV by SSE supplementation was not observed. The SSE-supplemented group also showed a trend towards a lower malondialdehyde-modified-LDL autoantibody titer at 12 weeks from baseline. These results suggest long-term ingestion of SSE in humans could help to improve arterial stiffness.Keywords: safflower, serotonin derivatives, antioxidants, augmentation index, pulse wave velocity

  15. A choline-deficient diet exacerbates fatty liver but attenuates insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, Peter J; Nyirenda, Moffat J; Walker, Brian R

    2006-07-01

    Liver fat accumulation is proposed to link obesity and insulin resistance. To dissect the role of liver fat in the insulin resistance of diet-induced obesity, we altered liver fat using a choline-deficient diet. C57Bl/6 mice were fed a low-fat (10% of calories) or high-fat (45% of calories) diet for 8 weeks; during the final 4 weeks, diets were either choline deficient or choline supplemented. In choline replete animals, high-fat feeding induced weight gain, elevated liver triglycerides (171%), hyperinsulinemia, and glucose intolerance. Choline deficiency did not affect body or adipose depot weights but amplified liver fat accumulation with high-fat diet (281%, P insulin (from 983 +/- 175 to 433 +/- 36 pmol/l, P phosphatidylcholine synthesis and of enzymes involved in free fatty acid esterification, without affecting those of de novo lipogenesis or fatty acid oxidation. We conclude that liver fat accumulation per se does not cause insulin resistance during high-fat feeding and that choline deficiency may shunt potentially toxic free fatty acids toward innocuous storage triglyceride in the liver.

  16. Red Cabbage Microgreens Lower Circulating Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL), Liver Cholesterol, and Inflammatory Cytokines in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiqiu; Jiang, Xiaojing; Xiao, Zhenlei; Yu, Lu; Pham, Quynhchi; Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei; Yokoyama, Wallace; Yu, Liangli Lucy; Luo, Yaguang Sunny; Wang, Thomas T Y

    2016-12-07

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States, and hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor. Population studies, as well as animal and intervention studies, support the consumption of a variety of vegetables as a means to reduce CVD risk through modulation of hypercholesterolemia. Microgreens of a variety of vegetables and herbs have been reported to be more nutrient dense compared to their mature counterparts. However, little is known about the effectiveness of microgreens in affecting lipid and cholesterol levels. The present study used a rodent diet-induced obesity (DIO) model to address this question. C57BL/6NCr mice (n = 60, male, 5 weeks old) were randomly assigned to six feeding groups: (1) low-fat diet; (2) high-fat diet; (3) low-fat diet + 1.09% red cabbage microgreens; (4) low-fat diet + 1.66% mature red cabbage; (5) high-fat diet + 1.09% red cabbage microgreens; (6) high-fat diet + 1.66% mature red cabbage. The animals were on their respective diets for 8 weeks. We found microgreen supplementation attenuated high-fat diet induced weight gain. Moreover, supplementation with microgreens significantly lowered circulating LDL levels in animals fed the high-fat diet and reduced hepatic cholesterol ester, triacylglycerol levels, and expression of inflammatory cytokines in the liver. These data suggest that microgreens can modulate weight gain and cholesterol metabolism and may protect against CVD by preventing hypercholesterolemia.

  17. Chronic administration of mitochondrion-targeted peptide SS-31 prevents atherosclerotic development in ApoE knockout mice fed Western diet.

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    Meng Zhang

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and inflammatory factors are deeply involved in progression of atherosclerosis. Mitochondrion-targeted peptide SS-31, selectively targeting to mitochondrial inner membrane reacting with cardiolipin, has been reported to inhibit ROS generation and mitigate inflammation. The present study was designed to investigate whether SS-31 could suppress the development of atherosclerosis in vivo.Male ApoE-/- mice (8 weeks old fed with Western diet were treated with normal saline or SS-31 (1 mg/kg/d or 3 mg/kg/d through subcutaneous injection for 12 weeks. Oil Red O staining was performed to evaluate area and sizes of the plaques. DHE staining and immunohistochemical staining of 8-OHDG was performed to assess the oxidative stress. The aorta ATP contents were assessed by the ATP bioluminescence assay kit. Immunohistochemical staining of CD68 and α-SMA and Masson's trichrome staining were performed to evaluate the composition of atherosclerotic plaque. Biochemical assays were performed to determine the protein level and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD. The levels of CD36, LOX-1 and ABCA1 were immunohistochemically and biochemically determined to evaluate the cholesterol transport in aorta and peritoneal macrophages. Inflammatory factors, including ICAM-1, MCP-1, IL-6 and CRP in serum, were detected through ELISA.SS-31 administration reduced the area and sizes of western diet-induced atherosclerotic plaques and changed the composition of the plaques in ApoE-/- mice. Oxidative stress was suppressed, as evidenced by the reduced DHE stain, down-regulated 8-OHDG expression, and increased SOD activity after chronic SS-31 administration. Moreover, systemic inflammation was ameliorated as seen by decreasing serum ICAM-1, MCP-1, and IL-6 levels. Most importantly, SS-31 administration inhibited cholesterol influx by down-regulating expression of CD36 and LOX-1 to prevent lipid accumulation to further suppress the foam cell formation and

  18. Ablation of TRPM5 in Mice Results in Reduced Body Weight Gain and Improved Glucose Tolerance and Protects from Excessive Consumption of Sweet Palatable Food when Fed High Caloric Diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie H Larsson

    Full Text Available The calcium activated cation channel transient receptor potential channel type M5 (TRPM5 is part of the downstream machinery of the taste receptors and have been shown to play a central role in taste signalling. In addition it is also found in other types of chemosensory cells in various parts of the body as well as in pancreatic β-cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TRPM5 gene ablation on body weight, insulin sensitivity and other metabolic parameters in long-term high caloric diet induced obesity. Trpm5-/- mice gained significantly less body weight and fat mass on both palatable carbohydrate and fat rich cafeteria diet and 60% high fat diet (HFD and developed less insulin resistance compared to wild type mice. A main finding was the clearly improved glucose tolerance in Trpm5-/- mice compared to wild type mice on cafeteria diet, which was independent of body weight. In addition, it was shown that Trpm5-/- mice consumed the same amount of calories when fed a HFD only or a HFD in combination with a palatable chocolate ball, which is in contrast to wild type mice that increased their caloric intake when fed the combination, mainly due to excessive consumption of the chocolate ball. Thus the palatable sugar containing diet induced overeating was prevented in Trpm5-/- mice. This indicates that sweet taste induced overeating may be a cause for the increased energy intake and glucose intolerance development seen for wild type mice on a sugar and high fat rich cafeteria diet compared to when on a high fat diet. This study point to an important role for the taste signalling system and TRPM5 in diet induced glucose intolerance.

  19. Embryo quality of mice (“Mus musculus” fed royal jelly Qualidade embrionária de camundongos ("Mus musculus" suplementados com geléia real

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    Bruno Edésio dos Santos Melo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to verify the effect of feeding royal jelly associated to follicle growth induction on number and quality of mice (Mus musculus embryos. Sixty Swiss females ageing from eight to ten weeks were distributed into three treatments: the first one, composed by animals fed 0.2 mL of physiological solution intraperitoneal (control group, n=20; the second and third ones, composed by females fed 0.5 and 1.0 mg of royal jelly diluted in 0.2 mL of physiological solution (n=20, respectively. Royal jelly was administered during 15 days, followed by the follicular growth induction process. Embryos were collected 68 hours after mating, by uterine flushing. No treatment effects on the number of females that answered to superovulatory process, the number of total recovery structures, the number of viable and non viable structures and the morphological quality of viable embryos (P>0.05 were observed. Therefore, royal jelly doses used were not efficient to increase the number of embryos and to improve the quality recovery from superovulated mice.Objetivou-se verificar a influência da geléia real, associada ao tratamento de indução de crescimento folicular, no número e na qualidade de embriões de camundongos (Mus musculus. Foram utilizadas 60 fêmeas da linhagem Suíço albino com idade entre oito e dez semanas, distribuídas em três tratamentos: o primeiro, composto por animais que receberam 0,2 mL de solução fisiológica, via intraperitonial (grupo controle, n=20; o segundo e terceiro, compostos de fêmeas que receberam 0,5 e 1 mg de geléia real diluídos em 0,2 mL de solução fisiológica via intraperitonial (n=20, respectivamente. Foi administrada geléia real por um período de 15 dias, segundo o processo de indução do crescimento folicular. As coletas dos embriões ocorreram 68 horas após a cobertura, utilizando-se o método da lavagem uterina. Não houve diferença no número de fêmeas que responderam ao tratamento

  20. Fructose Mediated Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Is Attenuated by HO-1-SIRT1 Module in Murine Hepatocytes and Mice Fed a High Fructose Diet.

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    Komal Sodhi

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress underlies the etiopathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1 is a potent endogenous antioxidant gene that plays a key role in decreasing oxidative stress. Sirtuin1 (SIRT1 belongs to the family of NAD-dependent de-acyetylases and is modulated by cellular redox.We hypothesize that fructose-induced obesity creates an inflammatory and oxidative environment conducive to the development of NAFLD and metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine whether HO-1 acts through SIRT1 to form a functional module within hepatocytes to attenuate steatohepatitis, hepatic fibrosis and cardiovascular dysfunction.We examined the effect of fructose, on hepatocyte lipid accumulation and fibrosis in murine hepatocytes and in mice fed a high fructose diet in the presence and absence of CoPP, an inducer of HO-1, and SnMP, an inhibitor of HO activity. Fructose increased oxidative stress markers and decreased HO-1 and SIRT1 levels in hepatocytes (p<0.05. Further fructose supplementation increased FAS, PPARα, pAMPK and triglycerides levels; CoPP negated this increase. Concurrent treatment with CoPP and SIRT1 siRNA in hepatocytes increased FAS, PPARα, pAMPK and triglycerides levels suggesting that HO-1 is upstream of SIRT1 and suppression of SIRT1 attenuates the beneficial effects of HO-1. A high fructose diet increased insulin resistance, blood pressure, markers of oxidative stress and lipogenesis along with fibrotic markers in mice (p<0.05. Increased levels of HO-1 increased SIRT1 levels and ameliorated fructose-mediated lipid accumulation and fibrosis in liver along with decreasing vascular dysfunction (p<0.05 vs. fructose. These beneficial effects of CoPP were reversed by SnMP.Taken together, our study demonstrates, for the first time, that HO-1 induction attenuates fructose-induced hepatic lipid deposition, prevents the development of hepatic fibrosis and abates

  1. Opuntia ficus-indica seed attenuates hepatic steatosis and promotes M2 macrophage polarization in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung-Woo; Shin, Jun-Kyu; Koh, Eun-Ji; Ryu, Hyojeong; Kim, Hyoung Ja; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2016-04-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) is a popular edible plant that possesses considerable nutritional value and exhibits diverse biological actions including anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities. In this study, we hypothesized that DWJ504, an extract of O ficus-indica seed, would ameliorate hepatic steatosis and inflammation by regulating hepatic de novo lipogenesis and macrophage polarization against experimental nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Mice were fed a normal diet or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks. DWJ504 (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) or vehicle (0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose) were orally administered for the last 4 weeks of the 10-week HFD feeding period. DWJ504 treatment remarkably attenuated HFD-induced increases in hepatic lipid content and hepatocellular damage. DWJ504 attenuated increases in sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein expression and a decrease in carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A. Although DWJ504 augmented peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α protein expression, it attenuated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression. Moreover, DWJ504 promoted hepatic M2 macrophage polarization as indicated by attenuation of the M1 marker genes and enhancement of M2 marker genes. Finally, DWJ504 attenuated expression of toll-like receptor 4, nuclear factor κB, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6, TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon β, and interferon β levels. Our results demonstrate that DWJ504 prevented intrahepatic lipid accumulation, induced M2 macrophage polarization, and suppressed the toll-like receptor 4-mediated inflammatory signaling pathway. Thus, DWJ504 has therapeutic potential in the prevention of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of salinity on growth, biochemical parameters and fatty acid composition in safflower (carthamus tinctorius l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, S.; Bukhari, S.A.; Mahmood, S.; Iftikhar, T.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present project is to investigate the effect of salinity on growth, biochemical parameters and fatty acid composition in six varieties of safflower as well as identification of stress tolerant variety under saline (8 d Sm-1) condition. It was observed that salinity significantly decreased the dry weight and fresh weight of safflower varieties. Nitrate reductase (NRA) and nitrite reductase (NiRA) activities were also reduced in response to salinity in all safflower genotypes but Thori-78 and PI-387820 showed less reduction which could be a useful marker for selecting salt tolerant varieties. Under salinity stress, total free amino acids, reducing, non reducing sugars and total sugars increased in all varieties. Accumulation of sugars and total free amino acids might reflect a salt protective mechanism and could be a useful criterion for selecting salt tolerant variety. Comparison among safflower genotypes indicated that Thori-78 and PI-387820 performed better than the others and successful in maintaining higher NRA, NiRA and other metabolites thus were tolerant to salinity. Differential effect upon fatty acid synthesis was observed by different varieties under salinity stress but PI-170274 and PI-387821 varieties better maintained their fatty acid composition. It can be concluded from present studies that biochemical markers can be used to select salinity tolerant safflower varieties. (author)

  3. Dehydroeburicoic Acid from Antrodia camphorata Prevents the Diabetic and Dyslipidemic State via Modulation of Glucose Transporter 4, Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α Expression and AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphorylation in High-Fat-Fed Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Hsiung Kuo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the potential effects of dehydroeburicoic acid (TT, a triterpenoid compound from Antrodia camphorata, in vitro and examined the effects and mechanisms of TT on glucose and lipid homeostasis in high-fat-diet (HFD-fed mice. The in vitro study examined the effects of a MeOH crude extract (CruE of A. camphorata and Antcin K (AnK; the main constituent of fruiting body of this mushroom on membrane glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 and phospho-Akt in C2C12 myoblasts cells. The in vitro study demonstrated that treatment with CruE, AnK and TT increased the membrane levels of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 and phospho-Akt at different concentrations. The animal experiments were performed for 12 weeks. Diabetic mice were randomly divided into six groups after 8 weeks of HFD-induction and treated with daily oral gavage doses of TT (at three dose levels, fenofibrate (Feno (at 0.25 g/kg body weight, metformin (Metf (at 0.3 g/kg body weight or vehicle for another 4 weeks while on an HFD diet. HFD-fed mice exhibited increased blood glucose levels. TT treatment dramatically lowered blood glucose levels by 34.2%~43.4%, which was comparable to the antidiabetic agent-Metf (36.5%. TT-treated mice reduced the HFD-induced hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, and hypercholesterolemia. Membrane levels of GLUT4 were significantly higher in CruE-treated groups in vitro. Skeletal muscle membrane levels of GLUT4 were significantly higher in TT-treated mice. These groups of mice also displayed lower mRNA levels of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6 Pase, an inhibitor of hepatic glucose production. The combination of these agents produced a net hypoglycemic effect in TT-treated mice. TT treatment enhanced the expressions of hepatic and skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation in mice. TT-treated mice exhibited enhanced expression of hepatic fatty acid oxidation enzymes, including peroxisome proliferator

  4. Dietary stearic acid leads to a reduction of visceral adipose tissue in athymic nude mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Che Shen

    Full Text Available Stearic acid (C18:0 is a long chain dietary saturated fatty acid that has been shown to reduce metastatic tumor burden. Based on preliminary observations and the growing evidence that visceral fat is related to metastasis and decreased survival, we hypothesized that dietary stearic acid may reduce visceral fat. Athymic nude mice, which are used in models of human breast cancer metastasis, were fed a stearic acid, linoleic acid (safflower oil, or oleic acid (corn oil enriched diet or a low fat diet ad libitum. Total body weight did not differ significantly between dietary groups over the course of the experiment. However visceral fat was reduced by ∼70% in the stearic acid fed group compared to other diets. In contrast total body fat was only slightly reduced in the stearic acid diet fed mice when measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and quantitative magnetic resonance. Lean body mass was increased in the stearic acid fed group compared to all other groups by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary stearic acid significantly reduced serum glucose compared to all other diets and increased monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 compared to the low fat control. The low fat control diet had increased serum leptin compared to all other diets. To investigate possible mechanisms whereby stearic acid reduced visceral fat we used 3T3L1 fibroblasts/preadipocytes. Stearic acid had no direct effects on the process of differentiation or on the viability of mature adipocytes. However, unlike oleic acid and linoleic acid, stearic acid caused increased apoptosis (programmed cell death and cytotoxicity in preadipocytes. The apoptosis was, at least in part, due to increased caspase-3 activity and was associated with decreased cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 (cIAP2 and increased Bax gene expression. In conclusion, dietary stearic acid leads to dramatically reduced visceral fat likely by causing the apoptosis of preadipocytes.

  5. Evaluation of green pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) juice on the weight gain and changes in lipid profile in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na-Hyung; Park, Seong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Capsicum pepper (green pepper, Capsicum annuum L.), a natural product available in many countries, is considered to be a food additive, with healthful or medical applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate green pepper juice for its potential to reduce weight gain and to determine its effects on lipid profiles in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet. Mice given a high-fat diet with green pepper juice gained significantly less weight and showed a significant decrease in serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoproteins, and alanine aminotransferase compared to mice given only a high-fat diet (P juice were similar to those in mice in the control group. In addition, abdominal fat volume (subcutaneous and visceral), which was quantified by using 4.7 T magnetic resonance imaging, including multi-slice spin-echo T2-weighted images, in mice administered a high-fat diet with green pepper juice tended to decrease compared to the fat volume of mice administered only a high-fat diet. These results suggest that green pepper juice, as a drink, may possibly be helpful in reducing weight gain by regulating the levels of serum lipids. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Hearts from mice fed a non-obesogenic high-fat diet exhibit changes in their oxidative state, calcium and mitochondria in parallel with increased susceptibility to reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohns, Ben; Pasdois, Philippe; Duggan, Simon; Bond, Andrew R; Heesom, Kate; Jackson, Christopher L; Angelini, Gianni D; Halestrap, Andrew P; Suleiman, M-Saadeh

    2014-01-01

    High-fat diet with obesity-associated co-morbidities triggers cardiac remodeling and renders the heart more vulnerable to ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, the effect of high-fat diet without obesity and associated co-morbidities is presently unknown. To characterize a non-obese mouse model of high-fat diet, assess the vulnerability of hearts to reperfusion injury and to investigate cardiac cellular remodeling in relation to the mechanism(s) underlying reperfusion injury. Feeding C57BL/6J male mice high-fat diet for 20 weeks did not induce obesity, diabetes, cardiac hypertrophy, cardiac dysfunction, atherosclerosis or cardiac apoptosis. However, isolated perfused hearts from mice fed high-fat diet were more vulnerable to reperfusion injury than those from mice fed normal diet. In isolated cardiomyocytes, high-fat diet was associated with higher diastolic intracellular Ca2+ concentration and greater damage to isolated cardiomyocytes following simulated ischemia/reperfusion. High-fat diet was also associated with changes in mitochondrial morphology and expression of some related proteins but not mitochondrial respiration or reactive oxygen species turnover rates. Proteomics, western blot and high-performance liquid chromatography techniques revealed that high-fat diet led to less cardiac oxidative stress, higher catalase expression and significant changes in expression of putative components of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). Inhibition of the mPTP conferred relatively more cardio-protection in the high-fat fed mice compared to normal diet. This study shows for the first time that high-fat diet, independent of obesity-induced co-morbidities, triggers changes in cardiac oxidative state, calcium handling and mitochondria which are likely to be responsible for increased vulnerability to cardiac insults.

  7. (−-Epicatechin-3-O-β-d-allopyranoside from Davallia formosana, Prevents Diabetes and Hyperlipidemia by Regulation of Glucose Transporter 4 and AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphorylation in High-Fat-Fed Mice

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    Chun-Ching Shih

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this experiment was to determine the antidiabetic and lipid-lowering effects of (−-epicatechin-3-O-β-d-allopyranoside (BB from the roots and stems of Davallia formosana in mice. Animal treatment was induced by high-fat diet (HFD or low-fat diet (control diet, CD. After eight weeks of HFD or CD exposure, the HFD mice were treating with BB or rosiglitazone (Rosi or fenofibrate (Feno or water through gavage for another four weeks. However, at 12 weeks, the HFD-fed group had enhanced blood levels of glucose, triglyceride (TG, and insulin. BB treatment significantly decreased blood glucose, TG, and insulin levels. Moreover, visceral fat weights were enhanced in HFD-fed mice, accompanied by increased blood leptin concentrations and decreased adiponectin levels, which were reversed by treatment with BB. Muscular membrane protein levels of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 were reduced in HFD-fed mice and significantly enhanced upon administration of BB, Rosi, and Feno. Moreover, BB treatment markedly increased hepatic and skeletal muscular expression levels of phosphorylation of AMP-activated (adenosine monophosphate protein kinase (phospho-AMPK. BB also decreased hepatic mRNA levels of phosphenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK, which are associated with a decrease in hepatic glucose production. BB-exerted hypotriglyceridemic activity may be partly associated with increased mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα, and with reduced hepatic glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT mRNA levels in the liver, which decreased triacylglycerol synthesis. Nevertheless, we demonstrated BB was a useful approach for the management of type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia in this animal model.

  8. Boron deprivation alters rat behaviour and brain mineral composition differently when fish oil instead of safflower oil is the diet fat source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Forrest H; Penland, James G

    2006-01-01

    To determine whether boron deprivation affects rat behaviour and whether behavioural responses to boron deprivation are modified by differing amounts of dietary long-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Female rats were fed diets containing 0.1 mg (9 micromol)/kg boron in a factorial arrangement with dietary variables of supplemental boron at 0 and 3mg (278 micromol)/kg and fat sources of 75 g/kg safflower oil or 65 g/kg fish (menhaden) oil plus 10 g/kg linoleic acid. After 6 weeks, six females per treatment were bred. Dams and pups continued on their respective diets through gestation, lactation and after weaning. Between ages 6 and 20 weeks, behavioural tests were performed on 13-15 male offspring from three dams in each dietary treatment. The rats were euthanized at age 21 weeks for the collection of tissues and blood. At ages 6 and 19 weeks, auditory startle was evaluated with an acoustic startle system and avoidance behaviour was evaluated by using an elevated plus maze. At ages 7 and 20 weeks, spontaneous behaviour activity was evaluated with a photobeam activity system. A brightness discrimination test was performed on the rats between age 15 and 16 weeks. Brain mineral composition was determined by coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Plasma total glutathione was determined by HPLC and total cholesterol and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha (8-iso-PGF2alpha) were determined by using commercially available kits. Boron-deficient rats were less active than boron-adequate rats when fed safflower oil based on reduced number, distance and time of horizontal movements, front entries, margin distance and vertical breaks and jumps in the spontaneous activity evaluation. Feeding fish oil instead of safflower oil attenuated the activity response to boron deprivation. In the plus maze evaluation, the behavioural reactivity of the boron-deficient rats fed fish oil was noticeably different than the other three treatments. They made more entries into both open and closed

  9. Hypocholesterolemic impact of newly isolated sophorolipids produced by microbial conversion of safflower oil cake in rats fed high-fat and cholesterol diet; Efecto hipocolesterolémico de soforolípidos recién aislados producidos por la conversión microbiana de la torta de aceite de cártamo en ratas alimentadas con una dieta rica en grasas y colesterol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nooman, M.U.; Mahmoud, M.H.; Al-kashef, A.S.; Rashad, M. M.

    2017-07-01

    The present study aims to produce low cost sophorolipids, and to evaluate their potential hypocholesterolemic impact. Sophorolipids were produced by Candida bombicola grown on safflower oil cake, extracted by methanol followed by ethyl acetate with a yield of 24.4 and 48.3 g·100 g−1 mixed substrate, respectively. Their structure was confirmed by FTIR and 1H NMR and proven to be safe when subjected to an acute toxicity test. A biological experiment was done on 42 male albino rats classified into six groups for 4 weeks following an induction period for hypercholesterolemia of 8 weeks. The two extracts and their mixture were examined for their hypocholesterolemic effect compared to rosuvastatin. The results revealed a reduction in total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, liver transaminases’ activity and malondialdehyde. They also revealed an elevation in high density lipoprotein cholesterol and antioxidant enzymes which was more efficient than rosuvastatin. Histopathological examination confirmed these results. In conclusion, the newly isolated sophorolipids are powerful hypocholesterolemic compounds which are even more efficient and safer than rosuvastatin. [Spanish] El presente estudio tiene como objetivo producir soforolípidos de bajo costo, evaluando su potencial impacto hipocolesterolémico. Los soforolípidos fueron producidos por Candida bombicola cultivada en torta de aceite de cártamo, extraída con metanol seguido de acetato de etilo con un rendimiento de 24,4 y 48,3 g·100 g−1 de sustrato mixto, respectivamente. Su estructura fue confirmada por FTIR y 1H RMN y demostró ser segura cuando se sometió a prueba de toxicidad aguda. Un experimento biológico se realizó con 42 ratones albinos machos clasificados en seis grupos, durante 4 semanas, después de un período de inducción al hipercolesterolemia de 8 semanas. Se examinaron los dos extractos y su mezcla para determinar su efecto hipocolesterolémico en

  10. Development a method for producing vegetable oil from safflower seeds by pressing in the field of ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Antipov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the prospects of production in agriculture safflower seeds for food and extract biologically active components. The physicochemical composition of safflower, which is rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Safflower oil has a soothing and moisturizing effect, provides a barrier function of the skin, therefore, fatty oil is promising in terms of scientific evidence use in medical practice. In the article the task of developing a set of processes to extract oil from the seeds of safflower and effective use. The ways of processing safflower seed to obtain oil. It is the most productive and promising method for processing seeds of safflower scheme press extruder. Described compression step in the processing of safflower seeds scheme press extruder. Crucial processing technology safflower seeds have two fundamental rheological characteristics of viscosity and elasticity, which depend on the structure of the raw material, the molecular weight distribution, and processing conditions such as temperature, pressure and flow rate. The dependence of the density of its safflower cake moisture concluded that with humidity increase the particle density increases, due to the swelling of colloids grain. Furthermore, the dependence of shear stress and the effective viscosity versus shear rate, it is concluded that with increasing shear rate influence of temperature on the viscosity gradient weakens. The article shows the study of the prospects of the extrusion process in the presence of the ultrasound field and the creation of equipment that takes into account these properties. The use of ultrasound significantly reduces energy consumption and necessary to prevent the molding ion safflower seeds, improves product quality.

  11. Olive oil increases the magnitude of postprandial chylomicron remnants compared to milk fat and safflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, K; Ishikawa, T; Shige, H; Tomiyasu, K; Yoshida, H; Ito, T; Nakajima, K; Yonemura, A; Sawada, S; Nakamura, H

    1997-10-01

    The acute effects of olive oil, milk fat and safflower oil on postprandial lipemia and remnant lipoprotein metabolism were investigated. Eight Healthy male volunteers randomly underwent three types of oral fat-vitamin A loading tests. The test drink was a mixture of retinyl palmitate (RP)(50,000 IU of aqueous vitamin A/m2 body surface area) and one of the three types of oils (40 g of fat/m2 body surface area): olive oil (70.7% oleic acid of total fatty acids); milk fat (69.3% saturated fatty acid); safflower oil (74.2% linoleic acid). Olive oil significantly increased plasma triacylglycerol and RP concentrations 4 hours after fat loading, as compared to other fats. Increases of remnant like particle concentrations were higher after olive oil than after the other two fats. These results show that olive oil increases the magnitude of postprandial chylomicrons and chylomicron remnants compared to milk fat and safflower oil.

  12. Effects of dietary coconut oil, butter and safflower oil on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and lathosterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, C; Sutherland, W; Mann, J; de Jong, S; Chisholm, A; Skeaff, M

    1998-09-01

    The aim of this present study was to determine plasma levels of lathosterol, lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins during diets rich in butter, coconut fat and safflower oil. The study consisted of sequential six week periods of diets rich in butter, coconut fat then safflower oil and measurements were made at baseline and at week 4 in each diet period. Forty-one healthy Pacific island polynesians living in New Zealand participated in the trial. Subjects were supplied with some foods rich in the test fats and were given detailed dietary advice which was reinforced regularly. Plasma lathosterol concentration (P safflower oil diets compared with butter diets. Plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol and apoA-levels were also significantly (Psafflower oil compared with diets rich in butter and might be associated with lower production rates of apoB-containing lipoproteins.

  13. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. yield as affected by nitrogen fertilization and different water regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Ferreira-Santos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to its origin and hardiness, safflower is usually cultivated in low-fertility soils with few inputs and no irrigation. In Brazil, little is known about its response to nitrogen (N and irrigation. This study was carried out near the city of Engenheiro Coelho, SP, Brazil, in 2014, in order to determine the effect of increasing nitrogen application rates (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500, 550 and 600 kg ha-1 on safflower cultivation under irrigation and rainfed conditions. The use of irrigation during drought periods allowed stress reduction and significantly increased yield components and grain yield. Safflower yield was influenced by the interaction between water regimes and nitrogen rates. Grain yield may vary depending on several factors, however, maximum yield was achieved with rates of 208 and 214 kg N ha-1 under irrigation and rainfed conditions, respectively. For oil yield, 200 kg N ha-1 were sufficient, regardless of the water regime.

  14. Medical uses of Carthamus tinctorius L. (Safflower): a comprehensive review from Traditional Medicine to Modern Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delshad, Elahe; Yousefi, Mahdi; Sasannezhad, Payam; Rakhshandeh, Hasan; Ayati, Zahra

    2018-04-01

    Carthamus tinctorius L. , known as Kafesheh (Persian) and safflower (English) is vastly utilized in Traditional Medicine for various medical conditions, namely dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, postpartum abdominal pain and mass, trauma and pain of joints. It is largely used for flavoring and coloring purposes among the local population. Recent reviews have addressed the uses of the plant in various ethnomedical systems. This review was an update to provide a summary on the botanical features, uses in Iranian folklore and modern medical applications of safflower. A main database containing important early published texts written in Persian, together with electronic papers was established on ethnopharmacology and modern pharmacology of C. tinctorius. Literature review was performed on the years from 1937 to 2016 in Web of Science, PubMed, Scientific Information Database, Google Scholar, and Scopus for the terms "Kafesheh", "safflower", "Carthamus tinctorius", and so forth. Safflower is an indispensable element of Iranian folklore medicine, with a variety of applications due to laxative effects. Also, it was recommended as treatment for rheumatism and paralysis, vitiligo and black spots, psoriasis, mouth ulcers, phlegm humor, poisoning, numb limbs, melancholy humor, and the like. According to the modern pharmacological and clinical examinations, safflower provides promising opportunities for the amelioration of myocardial ischemia, coagulation, thrombosis, inflammation, toxicity, cancer, and so forth. However, there have been some reports on its undesirable effects on male and female fertility. Most of these beneficial therapeutic effects were correlated to hydroxysafflor yellow A. More attention should be drawn to the lack of a thorough phytochemical investigation. The potential implications of safflower based on Persian traditional medicine, such as the treatment of rheumatism and paralysis, vitiligo and black spots, psoriasis, mouth ulcers, phlegm humor, poisoning, numb

  15. Seed-specific RNAi in safflower generates a superhigh oleic oil with extended oxidative stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Craig C; Okada, Shoko; Taylor, Matthew C; Menon, Amratha; Mathew, Anu; Cullerne, Darren; Stephen, Stuart J; Allen, Robert S; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Liu, Qing; Oakeshott, John G; Singh, Surinder P; Green, Allan G

    2018-03-06

    Vegetable oils extracted from oilseeds are an important component of foods, but are also used in a range of high value oleochemical applications. Despite being biodegradable, nontoxic and renewable current plant oils suffer from the presence of residual polyunsaturated fatty acids that are prone to free radical formation that limit their oxidative stability, and consequently shelf life and functionality. Many decades of plant breeding have been successful in raising the oleic content to ~90%, but have come at the expense of overall field performance, including poor yields. Here, we engineer superhigh oleic (SHO) safflower producing a seed oil with 93% oleic generated from seed produced in multisite field trials spanning five generations. SHO safflower oil is the result of seed-specific hairpin-based RNA interference of two safflower lipid biosynthetic genes, FAD2.2 and FATB, producing seed oil containing less than 1.5% polyunsaturates and only 4% saturates but with no impact on lipid profiles of leaves and roots. Transgenic SHO events were compared to non-GM safflower in multisite trial plots with a wide range of growing season conditions, which showed no evidence of impact on seed yield. The oxidative stability of the field-grown SHO oil produced from various sites was 50 h at 110°C compared to 13 h for conventional ~80% oleic safflower oils. SHO safflower produces a uniquely stable vegetable oil across different field conditions that can provide the scale of production that is required for meeting the global demands for high stability oils in food and the oleochemical industry. © 2018 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Baked corn (Zea mays L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) snack consumption lowered serum lipids and differentiated liver gene expression in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet by inhibiting PPARγ and SREBF2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez-Uscanga, Astrid; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe; Gonzalez de Mejia, Elvira

    2017-12-01

    The aim was to determine the effect of consuming a baked white corn/bean snack (70/30% blend) on improving diet-induced dyslipidemia and liver differential gene expression in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). C57BL/6 mice were randomized into six groups and different doses of the snack (0.5-2.0 g/d) supplemented to a basal HFD for 12 weeks. Unsupplemented HFD and a standard diet were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Groups receiving HFD1.0, HFD1.5 and HFD2.0 showed attenuation in body weight gain (20%). Serum cholesterol and triglycerides were reduced (Psnack. Histological analysis showed a reduction in adipocyte diameters (PSnack consumption induced differential expression of 529 genes in the liver; RGS16 was the highest up-regulated molecule (+15-fold change). Increased expression of this gene could have improved glucose metabolism in HFD2.0. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis downstream analysis showed a predicted inhibition of target genes of peroxisome PPARγ and key regulators of lipogenic genes in the liver. The results suggest that consumption of a white corn/bean snack (70%/30% blend) attenuates weight gain, fat mass accumulation, adipocyte size and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in HFD-fed mice by inhibiting PPARγ and SREBF2. The study proposes that this type of product might be beneficial by preventing dyslipidemia, obesity and hepatic steatosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Supplementation with antioxidant-rich extra virgin olive oil prevents hepatic oxidative stress and reduction of desaturation capacity in mice fed a high-fat diet: Effects on fatty acid composition in liver and extrahepatic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón-Cervera, Miguel Angel; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Hernandez-Rodas, María Catalina; Marambio, Macarena; Espinosa, Alejandra; Mayer, Susana; Romero, Nalda; Barrera M Sc, Cynthia; Valenzuela, Alfonso; Videla, Luis A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary supplementation with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) in mice on the reduction of desaturase and antioxidant enzymatic activities in liver, concomitantly with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) profiles in liver and extrahepatic tissues induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). Male mice C57 BL/6 J were fed with a control diet (CD; 10% fat, 20% protein, 70% carbohydrates) or an HFD (60% fat, 20% protein, 20% carbohydrates) for 12 wk. Animals were supplemented with 100 mg/d EVOO with different antioxidant contents (EVOO I, II, and III). After the intervention, blood and several tissues were analyzed. Dietary supplementation with EVOO with the highest antioxidant content and antioxidant capacity (EVOO III) significantly reduced fat accumulation in liver and the plasmatic metabolic alterations caused by HFD and produced a normalization of oxidative stress-related parameters, desaturase activities, and LCPUFA content in tissues. Data suggest that dietary supplementation with EVOO III may prevent oxidative stress and reduction of biosynthesis and accretion of ω-3 LCPUFA in the liver of HFD-fed mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Short communication. Estimation of cross-fertilization rate in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velasco, L.; Fischer, M.; Fernandez-Martinez, J. M.

    2012-11-01

    Safflower is a promising oilseed crop for the production of specialty oils in the Mediterranean area. Oil quality traits such as high oleic acid content, high linoleic acid content, high saturated fatty acid content, or high gamma-tocopherol content have been developed in this crop. The traits are controlled by the genotype of the developing embryo and therefore they are influenced by the presence of foreign pollen. The objective of this research was to study the rate of cross-fertilization in safflower using the high oleic acid trait as a biochemical marker. An experiment in which each high oleic plant was surrounded by 24 low oleic acid plants was conducted over three environments in the same location at Cordoba, Spain. The average rate of cross-fertilization in the three environments was 5.7, 12.1, and 13.2%, though higher frequencies up to 35.9% were detected at the single-plant level and up to 58.3% at the single-head level. The low average out crossing frequencies identified in this research indicate no need for large isolation distances between conventional cultivars and cultivars with special oil characteristics. However, the occurrence of a significant out crossing rate should be taken into consideration if transgenic safflower is to be cultivated close to conventional safflower or in areas of distribution of wild Carthamus species. (Author) 21 refs.

  19. Cercosporoid leaf pathogens from whorled milkweed and spineless safflower in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Steven T; Baameur, Aziz; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Crous, Pedro W

    2011-06-01

    Two cercosporoid species are respectively described from Mexican whorled milkweed (Asclepias fascicularis), and spineless safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) from California. Passalora californica represents a new pathogen on Asclepias fascicularis, while Ramularia cynarae is confirmed on Carthamus tinctorius and Cynara cardunculus (Asteraceae), and an epitype designated. Pathogenicity is also established for both pathogens based on Koch's postulate.

  20. 75 FR 64733 - Arcadia Biosciences, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Safflower Seed Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ...] Arcadia Biosciences, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition (Animal Use); Safflower Seed Meal AGENCY: Food... announcing that Arcadia Biosciences, Inc., has filed a petition proposing that the food additive regulations..., Davis, CA 95618. The petition proposes to amend the food additive regulations in part 573 Food Additives...

  1. Hymenopterous parasitoids attacking Acanthiophilus helianthi Rossi (Diptera: Tephritidae pupae in Kohgiluyeh Safflower farms of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Saeidi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Safflower capsule fly (SCF, Acanthiophilus helianthi Rossi (Diptera: Tephritidae is the most destructive insect pest attacking the Safflower Carthamus tinctorius L. plant which are cultivated as an oil crop. It is mainly controlled through application of broad-spectrum insecticides, which can adversely affect safflower farms ecosystem and consequently human health. Since a first step in setting up an integrated pest management program is to assess the biological control agents within the ecosystem. Therefore, in this research work the pupal parasitoids of Safflower capsule fly a main insect pest attacking Safflower plants were identified. The impact of these parasitoids against this pest was evaluated on the varying pest generations and within different locations in Kohgiluyeh province during 2008-2009 seasons. Pupal parasitoid adults of SCF were recorded from fieldreared pupae, which had been collected from heavily infested small flower heads of the first generation as well from large flower heads of the second and third generations. Rate of parasitism on A. helianthi pupae was estimated as the number of parasitoids over the total count of parasitoids and flies. Ten hymenopterous species belonging to different families parasitizing insect pupae were screened as follows: Bracon hebetor (Spinola, 1808 and Bracon luteator (Spinola, 1808 (Braconidae; Isocolus tinctorious (Melika and Gharaei, 2006 (Cynipidae; Pronotalia carlinarum (Szelenyi and Erdos, 1951 (Eulophidae; Eurytoma acroptilae (Zerova, 1986 (Eurytomidae; Ormyrus orientalis (Walker, 1871 (Ormyridae; Colotrechnus viridis (Masi, 1921 and Pteromalus sp. (Walker, 1976 (Pteromalidae; and Antistrophoplex conthurnatus (Zerova, 2000 and Microdontomenus annulatus (Masi, 1899 (Torymidae. The average parasitization rate was 23±1 as revealed through the present study. The highest parasitization rate occurred during the first generation in all localities tested, as well as in years. Statistical

  2. Normal endothelial function after meals rich in olive or safflower oil previously used for deep frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M J; Sutherland, W H; McCormick, M P; Yeoman, D; de Jong, S A; Walker, R J

    2001-06-01

    Polyunsaturated fats are more susceptible to oxidation during heating than monounsaturated fats but their effects on endothelial function when heated are unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of meals rich in heat-modified safflower and olive oils on postprandial flow-mediated endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD) in healthy men. Flow-mediated EDD and glyceryltrinitrate-induced endothelium-independent dilation of the brachial artery were investigated in 14 subjects before and 4 hours after meals rich in olive oil and safflower oil used hourly for deep-frying for 8 hours in a double-blind crossover study design. There were high levels of lipid oxidation products (peroxides and carbonyls) in both heated oils. Plasma triglycerides were markedly increased at 4 hours after heated olive oil (1.26 +/- 0.43 vs 2.06 +/- 0.97 mmol/L) and heated safflower oil (1.44 +/- 0.63 vs 1.99 +/- 0.88 mmol/L). There was no change in EDD between fasting and postprandial studies and the response during the postprandial period was not significantly (p = 0.51) different between the meals (heated olive oil: 4.9 +/- 2.2% vs 4.9 +/- 2.5%; heated safflower oil: 5.1 +/- 3.1% vs 5.6 +/- 3.4%). Meals rich in olive and safflower oils previously used for deep frying and containing high levels of lipid oxidation products increase postprandial serum triglycerides without affecting endothelial function. These findings suggest that relatively short-term use of these vegetable oils for frying may not adversely affect postprandial endothelial function when foods containing the heat-modified oils are consumed.

  3. Tangeretin and 3',4',3,5,6,7,8-heptamethoxyflavone decrease insulin resistance, fat accumulation and oxidative stress in mice fed high-fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangeretin and heptamethoxyflavone were investigated for their ability to repair metabolic damage caused by high-fat diet in C57BL/6J mice. In the first four weeks, induction of obesity was performed and the mice received standard diet (11% kcal from fat) or high-fat diet (45% kcal from fat). After ...

  4. Deep sequencing shows microRNA involvement in bovine mammary gland adaptation to diets supplemented with linseed oil or safflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Beaudoin, Frédéric; Ammah, Adolf A; Bissonnette, Nathalie; Benchaar, Chaouki; Zhao, Xin; Lei, Chuzhao; Ibeagha-Awemu, Eveline M

    2015-10-30

    Bovine milk fat composition is responsive to dietary manipulation providing an avenue to modify the content of fatty acids and especially some specific unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) isomers of benefit to human health. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression but their specific roles in bovine mammary gland lipogenesis are unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the expression pattern of miRNAs following mammary gland adaptation to dietary supplementation with 5 % linseed or safflower oil using next generation RNA-sequencing. Twenty-four Canadian Holstein dairy cows (twelve per treatment) in mid lactation were fed a control diet (total mixed ration of corn:grass silages) for 28 days followed by a treatment period (control diet supplemented with 5 % linseed or safflower oil) of 28 days. Milk samples were collected weekly for fat and individual fatty acid determination. RNA from mammary gland biopsies harvested on day-14 (control period) and on days +7 and +28 (treatment period) from six randomly selected cows per treatment was subjected to small RNA sequencing. Milk fat percentage decreased significantly (P safflower oil treatments, respectively. Seven miRNAs including six up-regulated (bta-miR-199c, miR-199a-3p, miR-98, miR-378, miR-148b and miR-21-5p) and one down-regulated (bta-miR-200a) were found to be regulated (P < 0.05) by both treatments, and thus considered core differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs. The gene targets of core DE miRNAs have functions related to gene expression and general cellular metabolism (P < 0.05) and are enriched in four pathways of lipid metabolism (3-phosphoinositide biosynthesis, 3-phosphoinositide degradation, D-myo-inisitol-5-phosphate metabolism and the superpathway of inositol phosphate compounds). Our results suggest that DE miRNAs in this study might be important regulators of bovine mammary lipogenesis and metabolism. The novel miRNAs identified in this study will further enrich the bovine miRNome repertoire

  5. Study of safflower on blood lactate concentration and exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The exercise function of mice was evaluated by a calculation of the rolling-stick time, swimming endurance time and hypoxia tolerance time. The results showed that both rolling-stick and swimming endurance time of mice in the experimental groups were significantly prolonged (p < 0.05) with regards to the control groups.

  6. Biochemical responses to dietary α-linolenic acid restriction proceed differently among brain regions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Daisuke; Yasui, Yuko; Yamada, Kazuyo; Ohara, Naoki; Okuyama, Harumi

    2011-08-01

    Previously, we noted that the dietary restriction of α-linolenic acid (ALA, n-3) for 4 weeks after weaning brought about significant decreases in the BDNF content and p38 MAPK activity in the striatum of mice, but not in the other regions of the brain, compared with an ALA- and linoleic acid (LNA, n-6)-adequate diet. In this study, we examined whether a prolonged dietary manipulation induces biochemical changes in other regions of the brain as well. Mice were fed a safflower oil (SAF) diet (ALA-restricted, LNA-adequate) or a perilla oil (PER) diet (containing adequate amounts of ALA and LNA) for 8 weeks from weaning. The docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) contents and p38 MAPK activities in the cerebral cortex, striatum and hippocampus were significantly lower in the SAF group. The BDNF contents and protein kinase C (PKC) activities in the cerebral cortex as well as in the striatum, but not in the hippocampus, were significantly lower in the SAF group. These data indicate that the biochemical changes induced by the dietary restriction of ALA have a time lag in the striatum and cortex, suggesting that the signal is transmitted through decreased p38 MAPK activity and BDNF content and ultimately decreased PKC activity.

  7. Kefir alleviates obesity and hepatic steatosis in high-fat diet-fed mice by modulation of gut microbiota and mycobiota: targeted and untargeted community analysis with correlation of biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Kim, Hyunsook; Jeong, Dana; Kang, Il-Byeong; Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Hong-Seok; Song, Kwang-Young; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2017-06-01

    Kefir is a probiotic beverage containing over 50 species of lactic acid bacteria and yeast. In this study, the anti-obesity and anti-non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) effects of kefir were comprehensively addressed along with targeted and untargeted community analysis of the fecal microbiota in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mouse model. HFD-fed C57BL/6 mice were orally administrated either kefir or milk (control) once a day for 12 weeks, and body and organ weight, fecal microbiota and mycobiota, histopathology, blood cholesterol and cytokines and gene expressions were analyzed. Compared to the control, mice in the kefir group exhibited a significantly lower body weight (34.18 g vs. 40.24 g; p=0.00004) and histopathological liver lesion score (1.13 vs. 3.25; p=0.002). Remarkably, the kefir-fed mice also harbored more Lactobacillus/Lactococcus (7.01 vs. 6.32 log CFU/g), total yeast (6.07 vs. 5.01 log CFU/g) and Candida (5.56 vs. 3.88 log CFU/g). Kefir administration also up-regulated genes related to fatty acid oxidation, PPARα and AOX, in both the liver and adipose tissue (PPARα, 2.95- and 2.15-fold; AOX, 1.89- and 1.9-fold, respectively). The plasma concentration of IL-6, a proinflammatory marker, was significantly reduced following kefir consumption (50.39 pg/ml vs. 111.78 pg/ml; p=0.03). Strikingly, the populations of Lactobacillus/Lactococcus, total yeast and Candida were strongly correlated with PPARα gene expression in adipose and hepatic tissue (r=0.599, 0.580 and 0.562, respectively). These data suggest that kefir consumption modulates gut microbiota and mycobiota in HFD-fed mice, which prevents obesity and NAFLD via promoting fatty acid oxidation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Safflower Oil on Concentration of Conjugated Linoleic Acid of Kefir Prepared by Low-fat Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsad-Naeimi, Alireza; Imani, Saeid; Arefhosseini, Seyed R; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a special fatty acid in dairy products with unique antioxidant and anti-cancerous effects. Kefir, a milk product, comprises normalized homogenized cow's milk, the fructose and lactulose syrup as well as a symbiotic starter which has improved probiotic characteristics. The study was aimed to discuss patents and to examine the effect of different safflower oil concentrations on CLA content of the kefir drink prepared by low-fat milk. Safflower oil was added at 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5% (V/V) to low-fat cow's milk and six formulations of kefir samples were prepared. The CLA content of the kefir products was measured at pH=6.0 and pH=6.8 by gas chromatography. Acid and bile tolerance of bacterial microenvironment in the products were also determined. Substitution of natural fat content of milk with safflower oil resulted in proportional increase in the CLA contents of kefir in a dose dependent manner. The highest concentration of CLA was found under 0.5% (V/V) of safflower oil at pH 6.0 and temperature of 37 °C. Adding the Safflower oil into milk used for kefir production, increased CLA content from 0.123 (g/100 g) in pure safflower free samples to 0.322 (g/100 g) in samples with 0.5% (V/V) of safflower oil. The current study revealed that substitution of safflower oil with natural fat of cow's milk may help the production of kefir samples with remarkable increase in CLA content of final product.

  9. Liquid fructose supplementation in LDL-R−/− mice fed a western-type diet enhances lipid burden and atherosclerosis despite identical calorie consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Hutter

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: SLF, without changing total calorie intake, increases atherosclerosis, visceral adipose tissue and cholesterol burden in a background of overweight LDL receptor knockout mice consuming an unhealthy, Western-type solid rodent chow.

  10. Effect of sucrose and safflower oil preloads on short term appetite and food intake of young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodend, D M; Anderson, G H

    2001-12-01

    The effects of carbohydrate and fat on satiety have been examined primarily through meal composition studies. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of pure sucrose and safflower oil, isovolumetric beverage preloads, on appetite (measured every 15 minutes by visual analogue scales) and food intake 60 minutes later. Young men consumed 0, 418, 836 and 1254 kJ of sucrose in the first two experiments and these same doses of safflower oil in the third. Finally, the largest doses of sucrose and safflower oil were compared. Sucrose, but not safflower oil, suppressed average appetite compared with control. In experiment 2, food intake was reduced (psafflower oil significantly suppressed food intake by 480 kJ in the third experiment. When the 1254 kJ doses were compared directly, sucrose suppressed food intake by 653 kJ compared with control where as safflower oil did not. It is concluded that, in the short-term, sucrose produces a dose dependent reduction in appetite and food intake that is greater than that produced by safflower oil.

  11. Beta-Glucan-Rich Extract from Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr. Singer Prevents Obesity and Oxidative Stress in C57BL/6J Mice Fed on a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kanagasabapathy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms have been used in folk medicine for thousands of years. In this study, the effect of β-glucan-rich extract of P. sajor-caju (GE on lipid lowering and antioxidant potential was assessed in C57BL/6J mice fed on a high-fat diet. Obesity was induced in C57BL/6J mice by feeding a high-fat diet. The control groups in this study were ND (for normal diet and HFD (for high-fat diet. The treated groups were ND240 (for normal diet (240 mg/kg b.w and HFD60, HFD120, and HFD240 (for high-fat diet, where the mice were administrated with three dosages of GE (60, 120, and 240 mg GE/kg b.w. Metformin (2 mg/kg b.w served as positive control. GE-treated groups showed significantly reduced body weight, serum lipid, and liver enzymes levels. GE also attenuated protein carbonyl and lipid hydroperoxide levels by increasing the enzymic antioxidants (SOD, CAT, and GPx activities in the mice. GE-treated groups induced the expression of hormone sensitive lipase (HSL and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL while downregulated the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ, sterol regulatory binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c, and lipoprotein lipase (LPL. Hence, GE prevented weight gain in the mice by inducing lipolysis and may be valuable in the formulation of adjuvant therapy for obesity.

  12. A large and functionally diverse family of Fad2 genes in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.

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    Cao Shijiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application and nutritional value of vegetable oil is highly dependent on its fatty acid composition, especially the relative proportion of its two major fatty acids, i.e oleic acid and linoleic acid. Microsomal oleoyl phosphatidylcholine desaturase encoded by FAD2 gene is known to introduce a double bond at the Δ12 position of an oleic acid on phosphatidylcholine and convert it to linoleic acid. The known plant FAD2 enzymes are encoded by small gene families consisting of 1-4 members. In addition to the classic oleate Δ12-desaturation activity, functional variants of FAD2 that are capable of undertaking additional or alternative acyl modifications have also been reported in a limited number of plant species. In this study, our objective was to identify FAD2 genes from safflower and analyse their differential expression profile and potentially diversified functionality. Results We report here the characterization and functional expression of an exceptionally large FAD2 gene family from safflower, and the temporal and spatial expression profiles of these genes as revealed through Real-Time quantitative PCR. The diversified functionalities of some of the safflower FAD2 gene family members were demonstrated by ectopic expression in yeast and transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. CtFAD2-1 and CtFAD2-10 were demonstrated to be oleate desaturases specifically expressed in developing seeds and flower head, respectively, while CtFAD2-2 appears to have relatively low oleate desaturation activity throughout the plant. CtFAD2-5 and CtFAD2-8 are specifically expressed in root tissues, while CtFAD2-3, 4, 6, 7 are mostly expressed in the cotyledons and hypocotyls in young safflower seedlings. CtFAD2-9 was found to encode a novel desaturase operating on C16:1 substrate. CtFAD2-11 is a tri-functional enzyme able to introduce a carbon double bond in either cis or trans configuration, or a carbon triple (acetylenic bond

  13. Comparative profiling of miRNA expression in developing seeds of high linoleic and high oleic safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijiang eCao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils high in oleic acid are considered to be advantageous because of their better nutritional value and potential industrial applications. The oleic acid content in the classic safflower oil is normally 10-15% while a natural mutant (ol accumulates elevated oleic acid up to 70% in seed oil. As a part of our investigation into the molecular features of the high oleic (HO trait in safflower we have profiled the microRNA (miRNA populations in developing safflower seeds expressing the ol allele in comparison to the wild type high linoleic (HL safflower using deep sequencing technology. The small RNA populations of the mid-maturity developing embryos of homozygous ol HO and wild type HL safflower had a very similar size distribution pattern, however, only ~16.5% of the unique small RNAs were overlapping in these two genotypes. From these two small RNA populations we have found 55 known miRNAs and identified two candidate novel miRNA families to be likely unique to the developing safflower seeds. Target genes with conserved as well as novel functions were predicted for the conserved miRNAs. We have also identified 13 miRNAs differentially expressed between the HO and HL safflower genotypes. The results may lay a foundation for unravelling the miRNA-mediated molecular processes that regulate oleic acid accumulation in the HO safflower mutant and developmental processes in safflower embryos in general.

  14. Citrus flavanones prevent systemic inflammation and ameliorate oxidative stress in C57BL/6J mice fed high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Paula S; Spolidorio, Luis C; Manthey, John A; Cesar, Thais B

    2016-06-15

    The flavanones hesperidin, eriocitrin and eriodictyol were investigated for their prevention of the oxidative stress and systemic inflammation caused by high-fat diet in C57BL/6J mice. The mice received a standard diet (9.5% kcal from fat), high-fat diet (45% kcal from fat) or high-fat diet supplemented with hesperidin, eriocitrin or eriodictyol for a period of four weeks. Hesperidin, eriocitrin and eriodictyol increased the serum total antioxidant capacity, and restrained the elevation of interleukin-6 (IL-6), macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). In addition, the liver TBARS levels and spleen mass (g per kg body weight) were lower for the flavanone-treated mice than in the unsupplemented mice. Eriocitrin and eriodictyol reduced TBARS levels in the blood serum, and hesperidin and eriodictyol also reduced fat accumulation and liver damage. The results showed that hesperidin, eriocitrin and eriodictyol had protective effects against inflammation and oxidative stress caused by high-fat diet in mice, and may therefore prevent metabolic alterations associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases in other animals.

  15. Dietary supplementation of grape skin extract improves glycemia and inflammation in diet-induced obese mice fed a Western high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Shelly; Canning, Corene; Sun, Shi; Sun, Xiuxiu; Kadouh, Hoda; Zhou, Kequan

    2011-04-13

    Dietary antioxidants may provide a cost-effective strategy to promote health in obesity by targeting oxidative stress and inflammation. We recently found that the antioxidant-rich grape skin extract (GSE) also exerts a novel anti-hyperglycemic activity. This study investigated whether 3-month GSE supplementation can improve oxidative stress, inflammation, and hyperglycemia associated with a Western diet-induced obesity. Young diet-induced obese (DIO) mice were randomly divided to three treatment groups (n = 12): a standard diet (S group), a Western high fat diet (W group), and the Western diet plus GSE (2.4 g GSE/kg diet, WGSE group). By week 12, DIO mice in the WGSE group gained significantly more weight (24.6 g) than the W (20.2 g) and S groups (11.2 g); the high fat diet groups gained 80% more weight than the standard diet group. Eight of 12 mice in the W group, compared to only 1 of 12 mice in the WGSE group, had fasting blood glucose levels above 140 mg/dL. Mice in the WGSE group also had 21% lower fasting blood glucose and 17.1% lower C-reactive protein levels than mice in the W group (P < 0.05). However, the GSE supplementation did not affect oxidative stress in diet-induced obesity as determined by plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity, glutathione peroxidase, and liver lipid peroxidation. Collectively, the results indicated a beneficial role of GSE supplementation for improving glycemic control and inflammation in diet-induced obesity.

  16. Impact of irrigation intervals, nitrogen fertilizer levels and heritability on spineless performance in safflower genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragab, A.I.; Kassem, M.

    2003-01-01

    The present study was conducted to study the impact of irrigation intervals, nitrogen fertilizer levels on spineless percentages, meanwhile, heritability and genetic gain were determind for further selection for eight safflower genotype, during 1998/1999-1999/2000 seasons, at nuclear research center-inshas. Concerning irrigation intervals, results showed that spineless percentages of safflower genotypes were markedly increased with the increasing of irrigation intervals, this eans that increase of drought conditions leds to increase the spineless percentages in all the genotypes. Regarding nitrogen fertilizer levels, results exhibited that spineless percentages were increased with the increasing of nitrogen fertilizer levels for all the studied genotypes. Combined analysis of variance chowed highly significant effect for irrigation intervals, fertilizer levels, years and genotypes for spineles trait. The first order interaction, second order interaction and third order interaction were highly significant suggesting that spineless trait was affected the environmental factors

  17. Translocation of Klebsiella sp. in mice fed an enteral diet containing prebiotics Translocação de Klebsiella sp. em camundongos alimentados com dieta enteral contendo prebióticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Ferreira da Silva

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This work aimed to evaluate the effect of fructooligosaccharide and inulin added to an enteral diet on the translocation of Klebsiella sp. in mice. METHODS: Four- to six-week-old Swiss albino mice were divided into nine groups and fed enteral diets containing different combinations of fructooligosaccharide, inulin, antibiotic and corticoid, inoculated or not with Klebsiella pneumoniae. On day 5, the animals of four groups were fed an enteral diet contaminated with approximately 10(10CFU/g of K. pneumoniae. At defined times, two animals of each group were sacrificed and their organs (spleen, heart, liver, lungs, and kidneys were aseptically collected, weighed, and analyzed for the presence of typical Klebsiella sp. colonies. RESULTS: A higher number of CFU/g of Klebsiella was detected in the organs of the animals in the immune-suppressed group fed the diet contaminated with K. pneumoniae and without prebiotics. Animals fed the diet enriched with fructooligosaccharide and inulin, at a concentration of 15.3mg/g of body weight, had a shorter period of Klebsiella sp. translocation, compared with those not fed prebiotics in the diet. CONCLUSION: The addition of fructooligosacharide and inulin in enterais diets at a concentration of 15.3mg/g of body weight resulted in the reduction of translocation of Klebsiella for spleen, heart, liver, lung and kidneys of mice that had received the diet contaminated associated or not with antibiotic and imunodepressor drug.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da administração de frutooligossacarídeo e inulina, adicionados à dieta enteral, na translocação de Klebsiella sp. em camundongos. MÉTODOS: Camundongos albinos suíços, com quatro a seis semanas de vida, foram divididos em nove grupos e tratados com dietas enterais contendo diferentes combinações de frutooligossacarídeos, inulina, antibiótico e corticóide, inoculadas ou não com Klebsiella pneumoniae. No quinto dia de experimento, os animais dos

  18. Effect of safflower oil on the protective properties of the in situ formed salivary pellicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannig, C; Wagenschwanz, C; Pötschke, S; Kümmerer, K; Kensche, A; Hoth-Hannig, W; Hannig, M

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of dental erosion is still increasing. A possible preventive approach might be rinsing with edible oils to improve the protective properties of the pellicle layer. This was tested in the present in situ study using safflower oil. Pellicle formation was carried out in situ on bovine enamel slabs fixed buccally to individual upper jaw splints (6 subjects). After 1 min of pellicle formation subjects rinsed with safflower oil for 10 min, subsequently the samples were exposed in the oral cavity for another 19 min. Enamel slabs without oral exposure and slabs exposed to the oral cavity for 30 min without any rinse served as controls. After pellicle formation in situ, slabs were incubated in HCl (pH 2; 2.3; 3) for 120 s, and kinetics of calcium and phosphate release were measured photometrically (arsenazo III, malachite green). Furthermore, the ultrastructure of the pellicles was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Pellicle alone reduced erosive calcium and phosphate release significantly at all pH values. Pellicle modification by safflower oil resulted in an enhanced calcium loss at all pH values and caused an enhanced phosphate loss at pH 2.3. TEM indicated scattered accumulation of lipid micelles and irregular vesicle-like structures attached to the oil-treated pellicle layer. Acid etching affected the ultrastructure of the pellicle irrespective of oil rinsing. The protective properties of the pellicle layer against extensive erosive attacks are limited and mainly determined by pH. The protective effects are modified and reduced by rinses with safflower oil. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Overexpression of CtCHS1 Increases Accumulation of Quinochalcone in Safflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan Guo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Carthami flos, the dried petal of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, in which quinochalcone glucosides such as hydrosafflower yellow A (HSYA, carthamin are uniquely present and have been identified as active compounds. In the present study, through sequencing of a safflower floret cDNA library and subsequent microarray analysis, we found 23 unigenes (5 PALs, 1 C4Hs, 5 4CLs, 6 CHSs, 2 CHIs, 2 DFRs, 2 FLSs involved in flavonoid pathway, of which 4 were up-regulated differentially during quinochalcone glucosides accumulation with the floret developing stage. The up-regulated genes were verified by PCR methods. Considering chalcone synthase are entry enzyme in flavonoid biosynthesis, CHS1 was focused on target gene to verify its function furtherly. Bioinformation analysis showed that CHS1 shared 86.94% conserved residues with CHS from other plants. Subcellular localization showed that CtCHS1 was localized in cytoplasm in onion epidermal cells. The transgenic safflower plant with overexpression CtCHS1 by Agrobacterium-mediated pollen-tube pathway method was firstly generated. The results present that expression of PAL2, PAL3, CHS1, CHS4, CHS6 increased and expression of CHI1 and CHI2 decreased in the transgenic plant floret. Meanwhile, the accumulation of quinochalcone glucosides increased by ∼20–30% and accumulation of quercetin-3-β-D-glucoside and quercetin decreased by 48 and 63% in the transgenic plant floret. These results suggested that CtCHS1 played an important role in quinochalcone glucosides biosynthesis rather than flavonol biosynthesis. These results also demonstrated that the pollen-tube pathway method was an efficient method for gene transformation in safflower. Our study will provide a deep understanding of potential synthetic genes involved in quinochalcone biosynthetic pathway.

  20. Safflower oil consumption does not increase plasma conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbel, B K; McGuire, M K; McGuire, M A; Shultz, T D

    1998-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid (LA) with conjugated double bonds. CLA has anticarcinogenic properties and has been identified in human tissues, dairy products, meats, and certain vegetable oils. A variety of animal products are good sources of CLA, but plant oils contain much less. However, plant oils are a rich source of LA, which may be isomerized to CLA by intestinal microorganisms in humans. To investigate the effect of triacylglycerol-esterified LA consumption on plasma concentrations of esterified CLA in total lipids, a dietary intervention (6 wk) was conducted with six men and six women. During the intervention period a salad dressing containing 21 g safflower oil providing 16 g LA/d was added to the subjects' daily diets. Three-day diet records and fasting blood were obtained initially and during dietary and postdietary intervention periods. Although LA intake increased significantly during the dietary intervention, plasma CLA concentrations were not affected. Plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower after addition of safflower oil to the diet. In summary, consumption of triacylglycerol-esterified LA in safflower oil did not increase plasma concentrations of esterified CLA in total lipids.

  1. Effect of unconventional oilseeds (safflower, poppy, hemp, camelina) on in vitro ruminal methane production and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaopu; Kreuzer, Michael; Braun, Ueli; Schwarm, Angela

    2017-08-01

    Dietary supplementation with oilseeds can reduce methane emission in ruminants, but only a few common seeds have been tested so far. This study tested safflower (Carthamus tinctorius), poppy (Papaver somniferum), hemp (Cannabis sativa), and camelina (Camelina sativa) seeds in vitro using coconut (Cocos nucifera) oil and linseed (Linum usitatissimum) as positive controls. All the tested oilseeds suppressed methane yield (mL g -1 dry matter, up to 21%) compared to the non-supplemented control when provided at 70 g oil kg -1 dry matter, and they were as effective as coconut oil. Safflower and hemp were more effective than linseed (21% and 18% vs. 10%), whereas the effects of poppy and camelina were similar to linseed. When methane was related to digestible organic matter, only hemp and safflower seeds and coconut oil were effective compared to the non-supplemented control (up to 11%). The level of methanogenesis and the ratios of either the n-6:n-3 fatty acids or C 18 :2 :C 18 :3 in the seed lipids were not related. Unconventional oilseeds widen the spectrum of oilseeds that can be used in dietary methane mitigation. In vivo confirmation of their methane mitigating effect is still needed, and their effects on animal performance still must be determined. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Sds-page based genetic divergence in safflower (carthamus tinctorius l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinwari, Z.K.; Rehman, H.; Rabbani, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) germplasm, comprising of 116 accessions was characterized using Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of seed storage proteins. The germplasm was acquired from different countries of the world. Total seed proteins were separated through electrophoresis polyacrylamide gels using standard protocols. Eighteen (60%) of the protein bands detected were polymorphic, the rest being monomorphic. Eight bands (14, 17, 18, 19, 20, 23, 24 and 25) were more than 80% common in all accessions. Similarity coefficients among the accessions ranged from 0.00 to 1.00. Accessions 16327 and 26752 were the most divergent genotypes having maximum dissimilarity with all the other accessions used. Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic averages (UPGMA) was used which is based on dissimilarity matrix. The dendrogram obtained separated all accessions into four main clusters (I, II, III and IV) and two independent individual genotypes. Four major clusters comprised of 23, 75, 8 and 8 accessions, respectively. This technique did not reveal genetic variability of significant value in safflower genotypes, hence advanced molecular and biochemical markers are recommended for further studies. This study will be helpful for the future breeding program of safflower accessions. (author)

  3. Obese mice fed a diet supplemented with enzyme-treated wheat bran display marked shifts in the liver metabolome concurrent with altered gut bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzyme-treated wheat bran (ETWB) is a fermentable dietary fiber previously shown to decrease liver triglycerides and modify the gut microbiome in mice. It is not clear which mechanisms explain how ETWB feeding impacts hepatic metabolism, but factors (i.e., metabolites) associated with specific micro...

  4. The effect of study type on body weight and tumor incidence in B6C3F1 mice fed the NTP-2000 diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Dale J

    2012-07-01

    The B6C3F1 mouse is the standard mouse strain used in National Toxicology Program (NTP) carcinogenesis studies. Over time, increased liver tumorigenesis that was correlated with elevated body weights was noted in males and females. NTP therefore replaced the NIH-07 diet with the NTP-2000 diet and returned to group housing of females as lower body weights were noted in group housed mice. However, recent studies reported study-type differences in body weights at 3 months using the NTP-2000 diet with higher weights evident in drinking water and inhalation studies compared to feed studies. Therefore, body weight and tumor incidence data were collected for untreated control mice from all 2-year NTP feed (12), drinking water (8), water gavage (6) and inhalation (10) studies that used the NTP-2000 diet in order to assess the impact of study type on body weights and tumor incidences. Results show statistically significant elevated body weights and liver tumor incidences in males and females from drinking water, water gavage and inhalation studies compared to results from feed studies. Thus, the elevated body weights and liver tumorigenesis noted in mice using the NIH-07 diet were also evident using the NTP-2000 diet, which was introduced to address body weight elevations. Given the study-type dependent effects noted, these results emphasize the importance of carefully selecting historical control data for B6C3F1 mice. Moreover, because of the association between body weight and liver tumorigenesis, these results may have implications regarding dose-level selection for carcinogenicity studies involving B6C3F1 mice based on the maximum tolerated dose.

  5. Dietary Broccoli Lessens Development of Fatty Liver and Liver Cancer in Mice Given Diethylnitrosamine and Fed a Western or Control Diet123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Ju; Wallig, Matthew A; Jeffery, Elizabeth H

    2016-01-01

    Background: The high-fat and high-sugar Westernized diet that is popular worldwide is associated with increased body fat accumulation, which has been related to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Without treatment, NAFLD may progress to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a cancer with a high mortality rate. The consumption of broccoli in the United States has greatly increased in the last 2 decades. Epidemiologic studies show that incorporating brassica vegetables into the daily diet lowers the risk of several cancers, although, to our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate HCC prevention through dietary broccoli. Objective: We aimed to determine the impact of dietary broccoli on hepatic lipid metabolism and the progression of NAFLD to HCC. Our hypothesis was that broccoli decreases both hepatic lipidosis and the development of HCC in a mouse model of Western diet–enhanced liver cancer. Methods: Adult 5-wk-old male B6C3F1 mice received a control diet (AIN-93M) or a Western diet (high in lard and sucrose, 19% and 31%, wt:wt, respectively), with or without freeze-dried broccoli (10%, wt:wt). Starting the following week, mice were treated once per week with diethylnitrosamine (DEN; 45 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally at ages 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, and 12 wk). Hepatic gene expression, lipidosis, and tumor outcomes were analyzed 6 mo later, when mice were 9 mo old. Results: Mice receiving broccoli exhibited lower hepatic triglycerides (P broccoli feeding (P = 0.006), whereas microsomal triglyceride transfer protein was upregulated (P = 0.045), supporting the finding that dietary broccoli decreased hepatic triglycerides. Conclusion: Long-term consumption of whole broccoli countered both NAFLD development enhanced by a Western diet and hepatic tumorigenesis induced by DEN in male B6C3F1 mice. PMID:26865652

  6. Dietary Broccoli Lessens Development of Fatty Liver and Liver Cancer in Mice Given Diethylnitrosamine and Fed a Western or Control Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Ju; Wallig, Matthew A; Jeffery, Elizabeth H

    2016-03-01

    The high-fat and high-sugar Westernized diet that is popular worldwide is associated with increased body fat accumulation, which has been related to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Without treatment, NAFLD may progress to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a cancer with a high mortality rate. The consumption of broccoli in the United States has greatly increased in the last 2 decades. Epidemiologic studies show that incorporating brassica vegetables into the daily diet lowers the risk of several cancers, although, to our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate HCC prevention through dietary broccoli. We aimed to determine the impact of dietary broccoli on hepatic lipid metabolism and the progression of NAFLD to HCC. Our hypothesis was that broccoli decreases both hepatic lipidosis and the development of HCC in a mouse model of Western diet-enhanced liver cancer. Adult 5-wk-old male B6C3F1 mice received a control diet (AIN-93M) or a Western diet (high in lard and sucrose, 19% and 31%, wt:wt, respectively), with or without freeze-dried broccoli (10%, wt:wt). Starting the following week, mice were treated once per week with diethylnitrosamine (DEN; 45 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally at ages 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, and 12 wk). Hepatic gene expression, lipidosis, and tumor outcomes were analyzed 6 mo later, when mice were 9 mo old. Mice receiving broccoli exhibited lower hepatic triglycerides (P broccoli feeding (P = 0.006), whereas microsomal triglyceride transfer protein was upregulated (P = 0.045), supporting the finding that dietary broccoli decreased hepatic triglycerides. Long-term consumption of whole broccoli countered both NAFLD development enhanced by a Western diet and hepatic tumorigenesis induced by DEN in male B6C3F1 mice. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Hypercholesterolemia and hepatic steatosis in mice fed on low-cost high-fat diet - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v35i1.10871

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Bracht

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To verify whether high-fat diet prepared from commercial diet plus chocolate, roasted peanuts and corn cookies induces hypercholesterolemia in mice and whether there is any hepatic involvement in this type of animal testing. Swiss mice received a high-fat diet for 15 and 30 days; plasma cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose rates were determined. Hepatic impairment was evaluated by histopathological analysis. Cholesterol levels increased 43% in animals treated with high-fat diet for 30 days. Further, histopathological analysis revealed that treatment of animals for 15 and 30 days produced hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis, respectively. Experimental model is suitable for assessing the action of anti-hypercholesterolemia and the treatment of steatohepatitis.  

  8. CER-001, a HDL-mimetic, stimulates the reverse lipid transport and atherosclerosis regression in high cholesterol diet-fed LDL-receptor deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardy, Claudine; Goffinet, Marine; Boubekeur, Nadia; Ackermann, Rose; Sy, Gavin; Bluteau, Alice; Cholez, Guy; Keyserling, Constance; Lalwani, Narendra; Paolini, John F; Dasseux, Jean-Louis; Barbaras, Ronald; Baron, Rudi

    2014-01-01

    CER-001 is a novel engineered HDL-mimetic comprised of recombinant human apoA-I and phospholipids that was designed to mimic the beneficial properties of nascent pre-β HDL. In this study, we have evaluated the capacity of CER-001 to perform reverse lipid transport in single dose studies as well as to regress atherosclerosis in LDLr(-/-) mice after short-term multiple-dose infusions. CER-001 induced cholesterol efflux from macrophages and exhibited anti-inflammatory response similar to natural HDL. Studies with HUVEC demonstrated CER-001 at a concentration of 500 μg/mL completely suppressed the secretion of cytokines IL-6, IL-8, GM-CSF and MCP-1. Following infusion of CER-001 (10mg/kg) in C57Bl/6J mice, we observed a transient increase in the mobilization of unesterified cholesterol in HDL particles containing recombinant human apoA-I. Finally we show that cholesterol elimination was stimulated in CER-001 treated animals as demonstrated by the increased cholesterol concentration in liver and feces. In a familial hypercholesterolemia mouse model (LDL-receptor deficient mice), the infusion of CER-001 caused 17% and 32% reductions in plaque size, 17% and 23% reductions in lipid content after 5 and 10 doses given every 2 days, respectively. Also, there was an 80% reduction in macrophage content in the plaque following 5 doses, and decreased VCAM-1 expression by 16% and 22% in the plaque following 5 and 10 intravenous doses of CER-001, respectively. These data demonstrate that CER-001 rapidly enhances reverse lipid transport in the mouse, reducing vascular inflammation and promoting regression of diet-induced atherosclerosis in LDLr(-/-) mice upon a short-term multiple dose treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Anti-diabetic effects of DA-11004, a synthetic IDPc inhibitor in high fat high sucrose diet-fed C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Chang Yell; Jung, Mi Young; Lee, In Ki; Son, Miwon; Kim, Dong Sung; Lim, Joong In; Kim, Soon Hoe; Yoo, Moohi; Huh, Tae Lin; Sohn, Young Taek; Kim, Won Bae

    2004-01-01

    DA-11004 is a synthetic, potent NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDPc) inhibitor where IC50 for IDPc is 1.49 microM. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of DA-11004 on the high fat high sucrose (HF)-induced obesity in male C57BL/6J mice. After completing a 8-week period of experimentation, the mice were sacrificed 1 hr after the last DA-11004 treatment and their blood, liver, and adipose tissues (epididymal and retroperitoneal fat) were collected. There was a significant difference in the pattern of increasing body weight between the HF control and the DA-11004 group. In the DA-11004 (100 mg/kg) treated group the increase in body weight significantly declined and a content of epididymal fat and retroperitoneal fat was also significantly decreased as opposed to the HF control. DA-11004 (100 mg/ kg) inhibited the IDPc activity, and thus, NADPH levels in plasma and the levels of free fatty acid (FFA) or glucose in plasma were less than the levels of the HF control group. In conclusion, DA-11004 inhibited the fatty acid synthesis in adipose tissues via IDPc inhibition, and it decreased the plasma glucose levels and FFA in HF diet-induced obesity of C57BL/6J mice.

  10. Role of choline deficiency in the Fatty liver phenotype of mice fed a low protein, very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schugar, Rebecca C; Huang, Xiaojing; Moll, Ashley R; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Crawford, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Though widely employed for clinical intervention in obesity, metabolic syndrome, seizure disorders and other neurodegenerative diseases, the mechanisms through which low carbohydrate ketogenic diets exert their ameliorative effects still remain to be elucidated. Rodent models have been used to identify the metabolic and physiologic alterations provoked by ketogenic diets. A commonly used rodent ketogenic diet (Bio-Serv F3666) that is very high in fat (~94% kcal), very low in carbohydrate (~1% kcal), low in protein (~5% kcal), and choline restricted (~300 mg/kg) provokes robust ketosis and weight loss in mice, but through unknown mechanisms, also causes significant hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and cellular injury. To understand the independent and synergistic roles of protein restriction and choline deficiency on the pleiotropic effects of rodent ketogenic diets, we studied four custom diets that differ only in protein (5% kcal vs. 10% kcal) and choline contents (300 mg/kg vs. 5 g/kg). C57BL/6J mice maintained on the two 5% kcal protein diets induced the most significant ketoses, which was only partially diminished by choline replacement. Choline restriction in the setting of 10% kcal protein also caused moderate ketosis and hepatic fat accumulation, which were again attenuated when choline was replete. Key effects of the 5% kcal protein diet - weight loss, hepatic fat accumulation, and mitochondrial ultrastructural disarray and bioenergetic dysfunction - were mitigated by choline repletion. These studies indicate that synergistic effects of protein restriction and choline deficiency influence integrated metabolism and hepatic pathology in mice when nutritional fat content is very high, and support the consideration of dietary choline content in ketogenic diet studies in rodents to limit hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction and fat accumulation.

  11. Role of choline deficiency in the Fatty liver phenotype of mice fed a low protein, very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca C Schugar

    Full Text Available Though widely employed for clinical intervention in obesity, metabolic syndrome, seizure disorders and other neurodegenerative diseases, the mechanisms through which low carbohydrate ketogenic diets exert their ameliorative effects still remain to be elucidated. Rodent models have been used to identify the metabolic and physiologic alterations provoked by ketogenic diets. A commonly used rodent ketogenic diet (Bio-Serv F3666 that is very high in fat (~94% kcal, very low in carbohydrate (~1% kcal, low in protein (~5% kcal, and choline restricted (~300 mg/kg provokes robust ketosis and weight loss in mice, but through unknown mechanisms, also causes significant hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and cellular injury. To understand the independent and synergistic roles of protein restriction and choline deficiency on the pleiotropic effects of rodent ketogenic diets, we studied four custom diets that differ only in protein (5% kcal vs. 10% kcal and choline contents (300 mg/kg vs. 5 g/kg. C57BL/6J mice maintained on the two 5% kcal protein diets induced the most significant ketoses, which was only partially diminished by choline replacement. Choline restriction in the setting of 10% kcal protein also caused moderate ketosis and hepatic fat accumulation, which were again attenuated when choline was replete. Key effects of the 5% kcal protein diet - weight loss, hepatic fat accumulation, and mitochondrial ultrastructural disarray and bioenergetic dysfunction - were mitigated by choline repletion. These studies indicate that synergistic effects of protein restriction and choline deficiency influence integrated metabolism and hepatic pathology in mice when nutritional fat content is very high, and support the consideration of dietary choline content in ketogenic diet studies in rodents to limit hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction and fat accumulation.

  12. Novel bitter melon extracts highly yielded from supercritical extraction reduce the adiposity through the enhanced lipid metabolism in mice fed a high fat diet

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    Li Xu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bitter melon (Momordica charantia is a species of edible plant known for its medicinal value towards diabetes and obesity. Due to the various compositions of bitter melon extracts (BME, the comprehensive knowledge concerning their anti-obesity effects was insufficient. Here we first introduced supercritical extraction to BME's preparation, (supercritical extraction is a relatively advanced extraction method with a better efficiency and selectivity and expected to be extensively used in future applications and the resultants were subjected to HPLC analysis, validating the presence of 42.60% of conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA, cis9, trans11, trans13-18:3 and 13.17% of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, cis9, trans11-18:2. The BMSO (bitter melon seed oil was then administered to the HFD mice, an obesity model established by feeding C57BL/6J mice a high fat diet. Consequently, due to the BMSO's supplementation, the HFD mice showed a significantly decreased body-weight, Lee's index, fat index and adipose size, whereas the liver weight stayed unchanged. Meanwhile, the serum FFA (free fatty acids levels returned to normal at the dosage of 10 g/kg, and the elevated serum leptin levels were also recovered by BMSO's supplementation with moderate and high dose. These findings suggested that BMSO restored the balance between lipid intake and metabolism, which was probably mediated by leptin's variation. In summary, a detailed anti-obesity effect was described with regard to a potent CFA's (conjugated fatty acid combination offered by BME. A potential mechanism underlying BME's beneficial effects was proposed, paving the way for the better use of BME's pharmaceutical function to serve the obesity's treatment.

  13. Increased glucose tolerance despite low adiponectin levels in obesity-resistent aP2-Ucp1 transgenic mice fed a high-fat diet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rossmeisl, Martin; Jeleník, Tomáš; Ogston, N. C.; Slámová, Kristýna; Mohamed-Ali, V.; Kopecký, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 49, Suppl. 1 (2006), s. 755-755 ISSN 0012-186X. [Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes /42./. 14.09.2006-17.09.2006, Copenhagen-Malmoe] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0520; GA ČR(CZ) GA303/05/2580 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : adiponectin * transgenic mice * obesity * mitochondria * glucose tolerance * hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition

  14. Absence of Microbiota (Germ-Free Conditions) Accelerates the Atherosclerosis in ApoE-Deficient Mice Fed Standard Low Cholesterol Diet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěpánková, Renata; Tonar, Z.; Bártová, J.; Nedorost, L.; Rossmann, Pavel; Poledne, R.; Schwarzer, Martin; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 8 (2010), s. 796-804 ISSN 1340-3478 R&D Projects: GA MZd NS9775; GA ČR GA303/08/0367; GA ČR GA305/08/0535; GA AV ČR 1QS500200572; GA MŠk 2B06155 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Germ-free mice * Commensal bacteria * Atherogenesis Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.293, year: 2010

  15. Relative expression of bacterial and host specific genes associated with probiotic survival and viability in the mice gut fed with Lactobacillus plantarum Lp91.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Archana; Duary, Raj Kumar; Grover, Sunita; Batish, Virender Kumar

    2013-11-07

    The present investigation was aimed at studying the relative expression of atpD (a key part of F1F0-ATPase operon), bsh (bile salt hydrolase), mub (mucus-binding protein) and MUC2 (mucin) genes in mouse model for establishing the in vivo functional efficacy of Lactobacillus plantarum Lp91 (MTCC5690) by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The atpD gene was significantly up-regulated to 2.0, 2.4 and 3.2 folds in Lp91 after 15, 30 and 60 min transit in the stomach of mice. The maximal significant (Pstrain Lp5276 after seven days of mice feeding. Simultaneously, mub gene expression increased to 12.8 and 22.7 fold in both Lp91 and Lp5276, respectively. The expression level of MUC2 was at the level of 1.6 and 2.1 fold in the host colon on administration with Lp91 and Lp5276 feeding, respectively. Hence, the expression of atpD, bsh, mub, MUC2 could be considered as prospective and potential biomarkers for screening of novel probiotic lactobacillus strains for optimal functionality in the gut. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Bitter melon seed oil may reduce the adiposity through the hypothalamus mTOR signaling in mice fed a high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Xu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bitter melon seed oil (BMSO was found to have an advantageous effect on anti-obesity. Up to date, the mechanisms underlying this process have been extensively investigated. However, there are very few reports focusing on the roles of central nervous system (CNS involved. In this study, Golgi-Cox staining and western blotting assays were used to examine the hypothalamic spine density and the expression levels of NMDA-2B receptor and P-S6 protein, respectively. A significant reduction concerning hypothalamic spine density was observed in HFD mice, a phenomenon that could be partially rescued by the BMSO administration. Furthermore, it was found that BMSO could also reverse the changes upon the phosphorylation levels of S6, a typical protein involved in mTOR signaling pathway, indicating that mTOR signaling potentially participated in this metabolism regulation. Besides, NMDA-2B levels were up-regulated in HFD mice, which could not be considerably influenced by BMSO. In summary, this study first proposed aberrant hypothalamic plasticity as CNS's roles in BMSO's fat-reducing effects, favoring the better recognition and treatment of the intractable hypothalamic obesity.

  17. Fisetin-Rich Extracts of Rhus verniciflua Stokes Improve Blood Flow Rates in Mice Fed Both Normal and High-Fat Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Won Kyun; Park, Hyun Jung; Lee, Kwang Soo; Lee, Jung Hoon; Kim, Young Dong; Kim, Kyeong-Hee; Park, Sang-Jae; Hong, Seokmann; Jeon, Sung Ho

    2016-02-01

    Although it has been previously reported that Rhus verniciflua Stokes (RVS) possesses in vitro anti-inflammatory activity, the precise in vivo mechanisms of RVS extracts and a main active component called fisetin have not been well elucidated. In this study, using newly developed protocols, we prepared urushiol-free but fisetin-enriched RVS extracts and investigated their effects on the vascular immune system. We found that the water-soluble fractions of detoxified RVS with the flavonoid fisetin can inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Furthermore, RVS can reduce inducible nitric oxide synthase and COX2 gene expression levels, which are responsible for NO and PGE2 production, respectively, in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Because inflammation is linked to the activation of the coagulation system, we hypothesized that RVS and its active component fisetin possess anticoagulatory activities. As expected, we found that both RVS and fisetin could inhibit the coagulation of human peripheral blood cells. Moreover, in vivo RVS treatment could return the retarded blood flow elicited by a high-fat diet (HFD) back to the normal level in mice. In addition, RVS treatment has significantly reduced body weight gained by HFD in mice. Taken together, the fisetin-rich RVS extracts have potential antiplatelet and antiobesity activities and could be used as a functional food ingredient to improve blood circulation.

  18. Endogenous n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Delay Progression of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma in Fat-1-p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altaf Mohammed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical studies suggest that diets rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs may be beneficial for prevention of pancreatic cancer. Nutritional intervention studies are often complex, and there is no clear evidence, without potential confounding factors, on whether conversion of n-6 PUFAs to n-3 PUFAs in pancreatic tissues would provide protection. Experiments were designed using n-3 fatty acid desaturase (Fat-1 transgenic mice, which can convert n-6 PUFA to n-3 FAs endogenously, to determine the impact of n-3 PUFAs on pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasms (PanINs and their progression to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC. Six-weekold female p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ andcompoundFat-1-p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ mice were fed (AIN-76A diets containing 10% safflower oil for 35 weeks. Pancreata were evaluated histopathologically for PanINs and PDAC. Results showed a dramatic reduction in incidence of PDAC (84%; P 85%; P < .05–0.01 in pancreas of compound transgenic mice than in those of p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ mice. Molecular analysis of the pancreas showed a significant down-regulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, cyclooxygenase-2, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX, 5-LOX-activating protein, Bcl-2, and cyclin D1 expression levels in Fat-1-p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ mice compared to p48Cre/+-LSL-KrasG12D/+ mice. These data highlight the promise of dietary n-3 FAs for chemoprevention of pancreatic cancer in high-risk individuals.

  19. Antidiabetic, antioxidant and anti inflammatory properties of water and n-butanol soluble extracts from Saharian Anvillea radiata in high-fat-diet fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandouli, Chouaib; Cassien, Mathieu; Mercier, Anne; Delehedde, Caroline; Ricquebourg, Emilie; Stocker, Pierre; Mekaouche, Mourad; Leulmi, Zineb; Mechakra, Aicha; Thétiot-Laurent, Sophie; Culcasi, Marcel; Pietri, Sylvia

    2017-07-31

    According to Saharian traditional medicine, Anvillea radiata Coss. & Dur. (Asteraceae) has been valued for treating a variety of ailments such as gastro-intestinal, liver and pulmonary diseases, and has gained awareness for its beneficial effect on postprandial hyperglycemia. However, to best of our knowledge, no detailed study of the antidiabetic curative effects of this plant has been conducted yet. To determine the hypoglycemic and antidiabetic effect of dietary supplementation with Anvillea radiata extracts on high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity and insulin resistance in C57BL/6J mice in relation with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, pancreatic beta-cells and skeletal muscle protection, and digestive enzyme inhibiting properties. Six extracts (water soluble and organic) from aerial parts of the plant were analyzed phytochemically (total phenolic and flavonoid content) and screened for in vitro superoxide (by chemiluminescence) and hydroxyl radical (by electron paramagnetic resonance spin-trapping) scavenging, antioxidant (DPPH, TRAP and ORAC assays), xanthine oxidase, metal chelating, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory property, and protective effects on copper-induced lipoprotein oxidation. Then selected hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts were assessed for toxicity in normal human lung fibroblasts and A549 cancer cells using FMCA and MTT assays. Two water-soluble extracts having the best overall properties were assessed for their (i) protective effect at 1-15µg/mL on metabolic activity of rat insulinoma-derived INS-1 cells exposed to hyperglycemic medium, and (ii) acute hypoglycemic effect on 16-weeks HFD-induced diabetic mice. Then diabetic mice were administered HFD supplemented by extracts (up to 150mg/kg/day) for 12 additional weeks using standard diet as control and the antidiabetic drug, metformin (150mg/kg), as positive control. Then the antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of extracts were determined. Of the highly efficient

  20. Effect of incorporation of nutraceutical capsule waste of safflower oil in the mechanical characteristics of corn starch films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de CAMPO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biodegradable films blends made of safflower oil nutraceutical capsules waste corn starch (20:4, 30:4, 40:4 and 50:4 were prepared. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of addition of different concentrations of safflower oil nutraceutical capsule waste in the mechanical properties (tensile strength, elongation at break, Young’s modulus and thickness of corn starch films. A decrease in tensile strength and Young’s modulus and an increase in elongation at break were observed with the increase in the content of the nutraceutical capsule waste. The results showed that the blends of safflower oil capsules waste-corn starch films demonstrated promising characteristics to form biodegradable films with different mechanical characteristics.

  1. Production of TNF-α, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide by macrophages from mice with paracoccidioidomycosis that were fed a linseed oil-enriched diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheisa Cyléia Sargi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA can modulate the immune system and their primary effect is on macrophage function. Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is an endemic systemic mycosis in Latin America that is caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb. Macrophages are the main defence against this pathogen and have microbicidal activity that is dependent on interferon-Γ and tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α. These cytokines stimulate the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, leading to the death of the fungus. To study the effect of n-3 PUFA on the host immune response during experimental PCM, macrophages that were obtained from animals infected with Pb18 and fed a diet enriched by linseed (LIN oil were cultured and challenged with the fungus in vitro. The macrophage function was analysed based on the concentrations of TNF-α, NO and H2O2. LIN oil seems to influence the production of TNF-α during the development of disease. A diet enriched with LIN oil influences the microbicidal activity of the macrophages by inducing the production of cytokines and metabolites such as NO and H2O2, predominantly in the chronic phase of infection.

  2. Production of TNF-α, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide by macrophages from mice with paracoccidioidomycosis that were fed a linseed oil-enriched diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargi, Sheisa Cyléia; Dalalio, Márcia Machado de Oliveira; Visentainer, Jesuí Vergílio; Bezerra, Rafael Campos; Perini, João Ângelo de Lima; Stevanato, Flávia Braidotti; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila

    2012-05-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) can modulate the immune system and their primary effect is on macrophage function. Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is an endemic systemic mycosis in Latin America that is caused by the dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb). Macrophages are the main defence against this pathogen and have microbicidal activity that is dependent on interferon-Γ and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. These cytokines stimulate the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), leading to the death of the fungus. To study the effect of n-3 PUFA on the host immune response during experimental PCM, macrophages that were obtained from animals infected with Pb18 and fed a diet enriched by linseed (LIN) oil were cultured and challenged with the fungus in vitro. The macrophage function was analysed based on the concentrations of TNF-α, NO and H₂O₂. LIN oil seems to influence the production of TNF-α during the development of disease. A diet enriched with LIN oil influences the microbicidal activity of the macrophages by inducing the production of cytokines and metabolites such as NO and H₂O₂, predominantly in the chronic phase of infection.

  3. Approaches to the determination of antioxidant activity of extracts from bee bread and safflower leaves and flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Hudz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to develop approaches for the determination of total antioxidant activity of natural products (bee bread and safflower extracts using DPPH radical scavenging assay. Considering that analytical procedures and results related to this assay and reported by many authors are significally differed between each other and depend on many factors (the nature of tested extracts, the nature of solvents for extraction, a reaction time of DPPH with a sample, DPPH solvents and concentration, ratio between DPPH and an extract, etc., the methodology of the evaluation of antioxidant capacity of different origin extracts by DPPH radical scavenging assay was developed. Ascorbic acid (AA was used as standard antioxidant and the correlation between the percentage of DPPH scavenging and AA concentration was determined at two different initial absorbances of DPPH solution. Average concentration of AA which inhibited 50% of DPPH radicals (IC50 was equal to 156.0 - 171.26 µg.mL-1. The reaction kinetics of DPPH inhibition by bee bread and safflower extracts was described by the curves of the dependence of the total antioxidant activity on time with squared correlation coefficients (R2 in the range of 0.89 - 0.98. The reaction times for these extracts were from 40 to 70 min at the correct ratio of volumes between the tested extracts and a DPPH solution. These studies demonstrated that the extracts obtained from bee bread of 2016 year of pollen collection had significantly higher the total antioxidant activity compared with the extracts of bee bread of pollen collection of 2015 considering the ratio of bee bread and the solvent in the extracts and volume of the extract for the procedure. This fact is explained not only botanical origin bun also the time of the storage of bee bread before the preparation of extracts. There was not found significant differences in the total antioxidant activity of extracts from flowers of safflower sown

  4. Tracer studies on P use efficiency by mustard (Brassica juncea L.), safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.; Kamath, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    Mustard and chickpea derived a large fraction of their P requirement from applied phosphate compared to safflower crop at flowering. Consequently mean per cent P utilization was maximum in mustard (17.7) followed by chickpea (13.0) and safflower (9.5). However, P uptake at maturity was higher for oilseeds than for the pulse. Grain yield response per kg of applied P was higher at lower rate of P application regardless of the crop. (author). 11 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs

  5. High-intensity interval training has beneficial effects on cardiac remodeling through local renin-angiotensin system modulation in mice fed high-fat or high-fructose diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Sá, Guilherme; Dos Santos Neves, Vívian; de Oliveira Fraga, Shyrlei R; Souza-Mello, Vanessa; Barbosa-da-Silva, Sandra

    2017-11-15

    HIIT (high-intensity interval training) has the potential to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors, but the effects on cardiac remodeling and local RAS (renin-angiotensin system) in mice fed high-fat or high-fructose diets still need to be fully addressed. Sixty male C57BL/6 mice (12weeks old) were randomly divided into three groups, control (C), High-fat (HF), or High-fructose diet (HRU) and were monitored for eight weeks before being submitted to the HIIT. Each group was randomly assigned to 2 subgroups, one subgroup was started on a 12-week HIIT protocol (T=trained group), while the other subgroup remained non-exercised (NT=not-trained group). HIIT reduced BM and systolic blood pressure in high-fat groups, while enhanced insulin sensitivity after high-fat or high-fructose intake. Moreover, HIIT reduced left ventricular hypertrophy in HF-T and HFRU-T. Notably, HIIT modulated key factors in the local left ventricular renin-angiotensin-system (RAS): reduced protein expression of renin, ACE (Angiotensin-converting enzyme), and (Angiotensin type 2 receptor) AT2R in HF-T and HFRU-T groups but reduced (Angiotensin type 1 receptor) AT1R protein expression only in the high-fat trained group. HIIT modulated ACE2/Ang (1-7)/Mas receptor axis. ACE2 mRNA gene expression was enhanced in HF-T and HFRU-T groups, complying with elevated Mas (Mas proto-oncogene, G protein-coupled receptor) receptor mRNA gene expression after HIIT. This study shows the effectiveness of HIIT sessions in producing improvements in insulin sensitivity and mitigating LV hypertrophy, though hypertension was controlled only in the high-fat-fed submitted to HIIT protocol. Local RAS system in the heart mediates these findings and receptor MAS seems to play a pivotal role when it comes to the amelioration of cardiac structural and functional remodeling due to HIIT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hydroxytyrosol prevents reduction in liver activity of Δ-5 and Δ-6 desaturases, oxidative stress, and depletion in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid content in different tissues of high-fat diet fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Echeverria, Francisca; Ortiz, Macarena; Rincón-Cervera, Miguel Ángel; Espinosa, Alejandra; Hernandez-Rodas, María Catalina; Illesca, Paola; Valenzuela, Alfonso; Videla, Luis A

    2017-04-11

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n-6) are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) with relevant roles in the organism. EPA and DHA are synthesized from the precursor alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3n-3), whereas AA is produced from linoleic acid (LA, C18:2n-6) through the action of Δ5 and Δ6-desaturases. High-fat diet (HFD) decreases the activity of both desaturases and LCPUFA accretion in liver and other tissues. Hydroxytyrosol (HT), a natural antioxidant, has an important cytoprotective effects in different cells and tissues. Male mice C57BL/6 J were fed a control diet (CD) (10% fat, 20% protein, 70% carbohydrates) or a HFD (60% fat, 20% protein, 20% carbohydrates) for 12 weeks. Animals were daily supplemented with saline (CD) or 5 mg HT (HFD), and blood and the studied tissues were analyzed after the HT intervention. Parameters studied included liver histology (optical microscopy), activity of hepatic desaturases 5 and 6 (gas-liquid chromatography of methyl esters derivatives) and antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase by spectrophotometry), oxidative stress indicators (glutathione, thiobarbituric acid reactants, and the antioxidant capacity of plasma), gene expression assays for sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) (qPCR and ELISA), and LCPUFA profiles in liver, erythrocyte, brain, heart, and testicle (gas-liquid chromatography). HFD led to insulin resistance and liver steatosis associated with SREBP-1c upregulation, with enhancement in plasma and liver oxidative stress status and diminution in the synthesis and storage of n-6 and n-3 LCPUFAs in the studied tissues, compared to animals given control diet. HT supplementation significantly reduced fat accumulation in liver and plasma as well as tissue metabolic alterations induced by HFD. Furthermore, a normalization of desaturase activities

  7. Comparative effects of dietary corn oil, safflower oil, fish oil and palm oil on metabolism of ethanol and carnitine in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachan, Dileep S; Yatim, Ayub M; Daily, James W

    2002-06-01

    This study was launched to determine comparative effects of corn oil (CO), safflower oil (SO), fish oil (FO) and palm oil (PO) on carnitine status and ethanol metabolism in rats. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats (300 g bw) were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6) and fed a semisynthetic diets containing fat as oils listed above. Blood and 24 hour urine samples were collected before and after dietary treatment and acute ethanol administration. Samples were analyzed for blood-ethanol concentration (BEC) and carnitine species. The diets containing FO and PO retarded ethanol metabolism compared to the diets containing CO and SO. The effect of these dietary fats on carnitine species in plasma and urine was varied before and after dietary treatment and following a single oral ethanol dose. The liver carnitine content was higher in the PO group after dietary and ethanol treatment. It is concluded that attenuation of ethanol clearance was related to unique fatty acid makeup of the oils that in part may be attributed to the composite ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in the oils.

  8. Evaluation of late season drought effects on seed and oil yields in spring safflower genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    ESLAM, Bahman Pasban; MONIRIFAR, Hassan; GHASSEMI, Mastaneh Taher

    2014-01-01

    Seed and oil yields, their components, and the relationships among yield and related traits were measured in 5 spring safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) genotypes, Local Arak, Local Esfahan, Sina, KH23-57, and Goldasht, under nonstressed and water deficit conditions imposed from late flowering (80% flowering) to maturity. The studies were conducted in loam soil at the Research Center for Agriculture and Natural Resources of East Azarbaijan, Iran (46°2'E, 37°58'N) during 3 s...

  9. High maysin corn silk extract reduces body weight and fat deposition in C57BL/6J mice fed high-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Young; Kim, Sun Lim; Kang, Hyeon Jung; Kim, Myung Hwan; Ha, Ae Wha; Kim, Woo Kyoung

    2016-12-01

    The study was performed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of action of high maysin corn silk extract on body weight and fat deposition in experimental animals. A total of 30 male C57BL/6J mice, 4-weeks-old, were purchased and divided into three groups by weight using a randomized block design. The normal-fat (NF) group received 7% fat (diet weight basis), the high-fat (HF) group received 25% fat and 0.5% cholesterol, and the high-fat corn silk (HFCS) group received high-fat diet and high maysin corn silk extract at 100 mg/kg body weight through daily oral administration. Body weight and body fat were measured, and mRNA expression levels of proteins involved in adipocyte differentiation, fat accumulation, fat synthesis, lipolysis, and fat oxidation in adipose tissue and the liver were measured. After experimental diet intake for 8 weeks, body weight was significantly lower in the HFCS group compared to the HF group ( P corn silk extract inhibits expression of genes involved in adipocyte differentiation, fat accumulation, and fat synthesis as well as promotes expression of genes involved in lipolysis and fat oxidation, further inhibiting body fat accumulation and body weight elevation in experimental animals.

  10. Rapid determination of volatile constituents in safflower from Xinjiang and Henan by ultrasonic-assisted solvent extraction and GC–MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Han Jia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The total volatile components were extracted from safflower by ultrasonic-assisted solvent extraction (USE and their chemical constituents were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS to provide scientific basis for the quality control of safflower. Five different solvents (diethyl ether, ethanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and acetone were used and compared in terms of number of volatile components extracted and the peak areas of these components in TIC. The results showed that USE could be used as an efficient and rapid method for extracting the volatile components from safflower. It also could be found that the number of components in the TIC of ethyl acetate extract was more than that in the TIC of other solvent ones. Meanwhile, the volatile components of safflower from Xinjiang Autonomous Region and Henan Province of China were different in chemical components and relative contents. It could be concluded that both the extraction solvents and geographical origin of safflower are responsible for these differences. The experimental results also indicated that USE/GC–MS is a simple, rapid and effective method to analyze the volatile oil components of safflower. Keywords: Safflower, Ultrasonic solvent extraction, Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS

  11. 6-Paradol and 6-Shogaol, the Pungent Compounds of Ginger, Promote Glucose Utilization in Adipocytes and Myotubes, and 6-Paradol Reduces Blood Glucose in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Kei Wei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-diabetic activity of ginger powder (Zingiber officinale has been recently promoted, with the recommendation to be included as one of the dietary supplements for diabetic patients. However, previous studies presented different results, which may be caused by degradation and metabolic changes of ginger components, gingerols, shogaols and paradols. Therefore, we prepared 10 ginger active components, namely 6-, 8-, 10-paradols, 6-, 8-, 10-shogaols, 6-, 8-, 10-gingerols and zingerone, and evaluated their anti-hyperglycemic activity. Among the tested compounds, 6-paradol and 6-shogaol showed potent activity in stimulating glucose utilization by 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes. The effects were attributed to the increase in 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. 6-Paradol, the major metabolite of 6-shogaol, was utilized in an in vivo assay and significantly reduced blood glucose, cholesterol and body weight in high-fat diet-fed mice.

  12. Drought Tolerance of Wild and Cultivated Species of Safflower and Assessment of Morphological Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Shiravand

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Wild species of crop plants carry useful genes which can be used for breeding programs. This study was performed to investigate genetic variation of 46 genotypes from five Carthamus species and to evaluate their drought tolerance under field conditions (normal and deficit moisture environments during 2011at Isfahan university of technology research farm. Results indicated that safflower species had different response to drought stress. Results showed that drought stress significantly reduced seed yield in C. tinctorius and C. palaestinus. The wild species of C. palaestinus had higher seed yield, its component and oil percent compared other species in both moisture conditions. Drought tolerance indice (STI showed that C. palaestinus had the highest drought tolerance. Cluster analysis based on agro-morphological traits indicated that three species C. tinctorius, C palaestinu and C. oxyacanthus had the most similarity among studied species. Finally in respect to high hybridization of two main safflower relatives C. palaestinus (because high STI and C. oxyacanthus (because high stability under drought condition are suitable source for transferring drought tolerance genes to cultivated species.

  13. Optimization of Alkali Catalyzed Transesterification of Safflower Oil for Production of Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Math

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Central Composite Design is used for the optimization of alkaline catalyzed transesterification parameters such as methanol quantity, catalytic concentration, and rotational speed by keeping the temperature and reaction time constant. The Central Composite Design method is employed to get the maximum safflower oil methyl ester yield. The combined effects of catalyst concentration, rotational speed, and molar ratio of alcohol to oil were investigated and optimized using response surface methodology. A statistical model has predicted the maximum yield of safflower oil methyl ester (94.69% volume of oil parameters such as catalyst concentration (0.6 grams, methanol amount (30 mL, rotational speed (600 rpm, and keeping constant reaction temperature (55°C to 65°C and reaction time (60 minutes. Experimental maximum yield of 91.66% was obtained at above parameters. XLSTAT is used to generate a linear model to predict the methyl ester yield as a function of methanol quantity, catalyst concentration, and rotational speed by keeping constant reaction temperature (55°C to 65°C and reaction time (60 minutes. MINITAB is used to draw the 3D response surface plot and 2D contour plot to predict the maximum biodiesel yield.

  14. Synthesis of biodiesel fuel from safflower oil using various reaction parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meka, Pavan Kumar; Tripathi, Vinay; Singh, R P

    2006-01-01

    Biodiesel fuel is gaining more and more importance because of the depletion and uncontrollable prices of fossil fuel resources. The use of vegetable oil and their derivatives as alternatives for diesel fuel is the best answer and as old as Diesel Engine. Chemically biodiesel fuel is the mono alkyl esters of fatty acids derived from renewable feed stocks like vegetable oils and animal fats. Safflower oil contains 75-80% of linoleic acid; the presence of this unsaturated fatty acid is useful in alleviating low temperature properties like pour point, cloud point and cold filter plugging point. In this paper we studied the effect of various parameters such as temperature, molar ratio (oil to alcohol), and concentration of catalyst on synthesis of biodiesel fuel from safflower oil. The better suitable conditions of 1:6 molar ratio (oil to alcohol), 60 degrees C temperature and catalyst concentration of 2% (by wt. of oil) were determined. The finally obtained biodiesel fuel was analyzed for fatty acid composition by GLC and some other properties such as flash point, specific gravity and acid value were also determined. From the results it was clear that the produced biodiesel fuel was with in the recommended standards of biodiesel fuel with 96.8% yield.

  15. Evaluation of Drought Tolerance in 16 Genotypes of Safflower(Carthamus tinctoriusL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    s.M Azimzadeh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to study drought tolerance of 16 genotypes of safflower an experiment was conducted in Research Farm of Shirvan Islamic Azad University during 2005 –2006 growing season. The experiment was performed as randomized complete block design with 4 replications in two separate irrigated and rainfed conditions. The seed rate was 20 seed per square meter, hand planted in each plot. During growing season some agronomic traits including number of grains per heads, grain yield of total head per plant, TKW and grain yield per hectare were recorded. To select drought tolerant genotypes 4 methods including stress tolerance index, stress susceptibility index, cell membrane stability and relative water content were applied. The results showed that two genotypes of LRV-51-51 and CW74 had the highest drought tolerance index and the lowest drought susceptibility index compared with the other genotypes. Grain yield of these two genotypes was 1520 and 1452 kg/ha, respectively which were more than other genotypes. According to these traits the genotypes LRV-51-51 and CW74 are recommended to plant in dry regions with low annual rainfall. Keywords: Safflower, Drought tolerance index, Drought susceptibility index, Yield

  16. Physiological response and productivity of safflower lines under water deficit and rehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolheiro, Fernanda P A P; Silva, Marcelo A

    2017-01-01

    Water deficit is one of the major stresses affecting plant growth and productivity worldwide. Plants induce various morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular changes to adapt to the changing environment. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), a potential oil producer, is highly adaptable to various environmental conditions, such as lack of rainfall and temperatures. The objective of this work was to study the physiological and production characteristics of six safflower lines in response to water deficit followed by rehydration. The experiment was conducted in a protected environment and consisted of 30 days of water deficit followed by 18 days of rehydration. A differential response in terms of photosynthetic pigments, electrolyte leakage, water potential, relative water content, grain yield, oil content, oil yield and water use efficiency was observed in the six lines under water stress. Lines IMA 04, IMA 10, IMA 14 showed physiological characteristics of drought tolerance, with IMA 14 and IMA 16 being the most productive after water deficit. IMA 02 and IMA 21 lines displayed intermediate characteristics of drought tolerance. It was concluded that the lines responded differently to water deficit stress, showing considerable genetic variation and influence to the environment.

  17. Physiological response and productivity of safflower lines under water deficit and rehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDA P.A.P. BORTOLHEIRO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Water deficit is one of the major stresses affecting plant growth and productivity worldwide. Plants induce various morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular changes to adapt to the changing environment. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L., a potential oil producer, is highly adaptable to various environmental conditions, such as lack of rainfall and temperatures. The objective of this work was to study the physiological and production characteristics of six safflower lines in response to water deficit followed by rehydration. The experiment was conducted in a protected environment and consisted of 30 days of water deficit followed by 18 days of rehydration. A differential response in terms of photosynthetic pigments, electrolyte leakage, water potential, relative water content, grain yield, oil content, oil yield and water use efficiency was observed in the six lines under water stress. Lines IMA 04, IMA 10, IMA 14 showed physiological characteristics of drought tolerance, with IMA 14 and IMA 16 being the most productive after water deficit. IMA 02 and IMA 21 lines displayed intermediate characteristics of drought tolerance. It was concluded that the lines responded differently to water deficit stress, showing considerable genetic variation and influence to the environment.

  18. Protein quantity and quality of safflower seed improved by NP fertilizer and rhizobacteria (Azospirillum and Azotobacter spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asia eNosheen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Protein is an essential part of human diet. The aim of present study was to improve the protein quality of safflower seed by the application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR in combination with conventional nitrogen and phosphate (NP fertilizers. The seeds of two safflower cultivar Thori and Saif-32, were inoculated with Azospirillum and Azotobacter and grown under field conditions. Protein content and quality was assessed by crude protein, amino acid analysis and SDS-PAGE. Seed crude protein and amino acids (metheonine, phenylanine and glutamic acid showed significant improvement (55%–1250% by Azotobacter supplemented with quarter dose of fertilizers (BTQ at P≤0.05. Additional protein bands were induced in Thori and Saif-32 by BTQ and BTH (Azotobacter supplemented with half dose of fertilizers respectively. The Azospirillum in combination with half dose of fertilizers (SPH and BTQ enhanced the indole acetic acid (90% and gibberellic acid (23%–27% contents in safflower leaf. Taken together, these data suggest that Azospirillum and Azotobacter along with significantly reduced (up to 75% use of NP fertilizers improved the quality and quantity of safflower seed protein.

  19. Plant growth, development and change in GSH level in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. exposed to copper and lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shufen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of exposure to heavy metals, copper (Cu and lead (Pb in the soil, separately and in combination, were examined in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.. Plant growth and development, GSH level and GSH2 expression at seedling, branching, and flowering stages were studied. Cu at lower concentrations had a stimulating effect on seedling height and root length. A significant positive correlation was observed between heavy metal concentrations and inhibition of plant growth. Plant height, root length and lateral root numbers decreased progressively with increasing concentrations of Cu and Pb. Except at the seedling stage, the metal mixture elicited a synergistic effect on safflower growth and development. The GSH content was significantly reduced in both safflower roots and leaves at increased concentrations of heavy metals, with the exception of the treatment with a low concentration of Cu that resulted in a slightl increase in GSH content at the seedling and branching stages. RT-PCR analysis revealed a negative correlation between GSH2 expression levels and metal concentration. Short exposure to low concentrations of Cu induce an increase in GSH synthesis to preserve normal plant growth, whereas prolonged exposure and large Cu and Pb concentrations affect the GSH metabolic chain, and are severely toxicity. The findings obtained in this study enhance our understanding of the role of the GSH pool in the response of plants to heavy metal-induced stress, and serve as a basis for improved cultivation of safflower.

  20. Neutron activation analysis of trace metallic elements eluted from molecular sieves in the dehydration process of safflower oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takasago, Masahisa; Kobayashi, Koichi; Taru, Yasunori; Takaoka, Kyo (Musashi Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-11-01

    Dissolved water in safflower oil affects the autoxidation of this oil significantly. Molecular sieves were used to remove the dissolved water from the oil. This method is much simpler than that of distillation, and dissolved water can be removed to the same extent as that by distillation. But, due to the elution of many kinds of trace metallic elements in the oil dehydrated with molecular sieves, these elements were analyzed by neutron activation analysis. For a data comparison trace amounts of metallic elements in the oil dehydrated by distillation were also analyzed. Since the intensity of the [gamma] ray-photoelectric peak of nuclide [sup 28]Al was largest among the detected elements, this element was analyzed quantitatively and the other elements qualitatively. In safflower oil dehydrated with molecular sieves, 14 kinds of the elements (I, Br, Al, Mg, Si, V, Cl, Nd, Ta, Cr, Sb, Cs, Co, Na) were detected. Also, I, Br, Cl, Cr, Ta, Sb, and Al elements were detected in the oil dehydrated by distillation. The intensity of the photoelectric peak of nuclide except [sup 28]Al was essentially the same as that in the oil dehydrated by distillation, but the intensity of [sup 28]Al in the oil with molecular sieves was about 28 times stronger than that in distillation oil. In the molecular sieves, 19 impure elements in addition to the original constituents (Na, K, Al, si, O) were detected. It was Al, Na, Si, Nd, Cs, and Co along with impure elements may possibly have been eluted in the oil. Al element in safflower oil dehydrated with molecular sieves was analyzed quantitatively. 0.91 ppm of Al was detected in safflower oil. The eluted amount of Al in safflower oil dehydrated by distillation was 0.032 ppm. A larger amount of Al element was thus eluted into the oil dehydrated with molecular sieves than by distillation. (author).

  1. Hepatic mitochondrial energetics during catch-up fat with high-fat diets rich in lard or safflower oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Falcone, Italia; Tsalouhidou, Sofia; Yepuri, Gayathri; Mougios, Vassilis; Dulloo, Abdul G; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2012-09-01

    We have investigated whether altered hepatic mitochondrial energetics could explain the differential effects of high-fat diets with low or high ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acid content (lard vs. safflower oil) on the efficiency of body fat recovery (catch-up fat) during refeeding after caloric restriction. After 2 weeks of caloric restriction, rats were isocalorically refed with a low-fat diet (LF) or high-fat diets made from either lard or safflower oil for 1 week, and energy balance and body composition changes were assessed. Hepatic mitochondrial energetics were determined from measurements of liver mitochondrial mass, respiratory capacities, and proton leak. Compared to rats refed the LF, the groups refed high-fat diets showed lower energy expenditure and increased efficiency of fat gain; these differences were less marked with high-safflower oil than with high-lard diet. The increase in efficiency of catch-up fat by the high-fat diets could not be attributed to differences in liver mitochondrial activity. By contrast, the lower fat gain with high-safflower oil than with high-lard diet is accompanied by higher mitochondrial proton leak and increased proportion of arachidonic acid in mitochondrial membranes. In conclusion, the higher efficiency for catch-up fat on high-lard diet than on LF cannot be explained by altered hepatic mitochondrial energetics. By contrast, the ability of the high-safflower oil diet to produce a less pronounced increase in the efficiency of catch-up fat may partly reside in increased incorporation of arachidonic acid in hepatic mitochondrial membranes, leading to enhanced proton leak and mitochondrial uncoupling.

  2. Neutron activation analysis of trace metallic elements eluted from molecular sieves in the dehydration process of safflower oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takasago, Masahisa; Kobayashi, Koichi; Taru, Yasunori; Takaoka, Kyo

    1992-01-01

    Dissolved water in safflower oil affects the autoxidation of this oil significantly. Molecular sieves were used to remove the dissolved water from the oil. This method is much simpler than that of distillation, and dissolved water can be removed to the same extent as that by distillation. But, due to the elution of many kinds of trace metallic elements in the oil dehydrated with molecular sieves, these elements were analyzed by neutron activation analysis. For a data comparison trace amounts of metallic elements in the oil dehydrated by distillation were also analyzed. Since the intensity of the γ ray-photoelectric peak of nuclide 28 Al was largest among the detected elements, this element was analyzed quantitatively and the other elements qualitatively. In safflower oil dehydrated with molecular sieves, 14 kinds of the elements (I, Br, Al, Mg, Si, V, Cl, Nd, Ta, Cr, Sb, Cs, Co, Na) were detected. Also, I, Br, Cl, Cr, Ta, Sb, and Al elements were detected in the oil dehydrated by distillation. The intensity of the photoelectric peak of nuclide except 28 Al was essentially the same as that in the oil dehydrated by distillation, but the intensity of 28 Al in the oil with molecular sieves was about 28 times stronger than that in distillation oil. In the molecular sieves, 19 impure elements in addition to the original constituents (Na, K, Al, si, O) were detected. It was Al, Na, Si, Nd, Cs, and Co along with impure elements may possibly have been eluted in the oil. Al element in safflower oil dehydrated with molecular sieves was analyzed quantitatively. 0.91 ppm of Al was detected in safflower oil. The eluted amount of Al in safflower oil dehydrated by distillation was 0.032 ppm. A larger amount of Al element was thus eluted into the oil dehydrated with molecular sieves than by distillation. (author)

  3. Effects of extracts and isolated compounds from safflower on some index of promoting blood circulation and regulating menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Dong; Wang, Zheng; Miao, Li; Wang, Linyan

    2016-09-15

    Carthamus tinctorius is used as one of the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) materials in prescriptions and composite to promote blood circulation to remove blood stasis, regulate menstruation and alleviate pain for over 2500 years. Modern pharmacological experiments have demonstrated that safflower has wide-reaching biological activities, including dilating coronary artery, modulating immune system, improving myocardial ischemia, anticoagulation and thromboprophylaxis, antioxidation, antihypoxic, antiaging, antifatigue, antiinflammation, anti-hepatic fibrosis, antitumor, analgesia, etc. Platelet aggregation of safflower extract and main constituents in safflower were determined by PAF-induced or ADP-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. Anticoagulation activity was measured by clotting assay of thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) according to the methods provided by the biological reagents provider (Sun Biochemical). Antioxidant effects of safflower were assessed using DPPH radical-scavenging activity test, ABTS radical-scavenging activity test and ferric reducing antioxidant power test. In addition, rats ovary granulosa cell proliferation activity was used for the bio-activity index on regulate menstruation of safflower. Safflower extract at the concentration of 0.7g/mL (P<0.001) and 0.5g/mL (P<0.01) had significantly antagonistic effect on PAF-induced platelet aggregation, compared with negative control. And the anti-platelet aggregation of 0.7g/mL safflower extract was significantly stronger than that of positive control (P<0.001). 0.7g/mL of hydroxysafflor yellow A (P<0.01), anhydrosafflor yellow B (P<0.05), 6-hydroxykaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (P<0.05), keampferol-3-O-β-rutinoside (P<0.01) had significant effect on platelet aggregation compared with negative control. Safflower extract at the concentration of 0.5g/mL (P<0.001) and 0.125g/mL (P<0.01) could significantly inhibit ADP-induced platelet

  4. A butter diet induces higher levels of n-3 PUFA and of n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in rat serum and hearts than a safflower oil diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, K; Ozeki, Y; Nakano, T; Takezoe, R; Nakanishi, M; Asano, Y; Higuchi, H

    2001-01-01

    The effects of a 47-week diet of butter or safflower oil as fat in combination with casein or soy protein as protein were observed for the serum concentrations of lipids and fatty acid compositions in rat serum and heart. Serum total cholesterol (Chol) did not differ among the four experimental diet groups. In the butter groups, significantly higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-Chol and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-Chol were observed than in the safflower oil groups (psafflower oil groups (psafflower oil groups, the butter groups showed higher n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) contents and lower n-6 PUFA contents in serum and the hearts (psafflower oil groups of under 0.01 in serum and 0.02 and 0.03 in the hearts (safflower oil-casein diet and safflower oil-soy protein diet, respectively) (psafflower oil diet in rat serum and hearts over a long feeding period.

  5. Association Mapping for Important Agronomic Traits in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. Core Collection Using Microsatellite Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heena Ambreen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Carthamus tinctorius L. (safflower is an important oilseed crop producing seed oil rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Scarcity of identified marker-trait associations is a major limitation toward development of successful marker-assisted breeding programs in safflower. In the present study, a safflower panel (CartAP comprising 124 accessions derived from two core collections was assayed for its suitability for association mapping. Genotyping of CartAP using microsatellite markers revealed significant genetic diversity indicated by Shannon information index (H = 0.7537 and Nei's expected heterozygosity (I = 0.4432. In Principal Coordinate Analysis, the CartAP accessions were distributed homogeneously in all quadrants indicating their diverse nature. Distance-based Neighbor Joining analysis did not delineate the CartAP accessions in consonance with their geographical origin. Bayesian analysis of population structure of CartAP demonstrated the unstructured nature of the association panel. Kinship analysis at population (Gij and individual level (Fij revealed absence of or weak relatedness between the CartAP accessions. The above parameters established the suitability of CartAP for association mapping. We performed association mapping using phenotypic data for eight traits of agronomic value (viz., seed oil content, oleic acid, linoleic acid, plant height, number of primary branches, number of capitula per plant, 100-seed weight and days to 50% flowering available for two growing seasons (2011–2012 and 2012–2013 through General Linear Model and Mixed Linear Model. Our study identified ninety-six significant marker-trait associations (MTAs; P < 0.05 of which, several MTAs with correlation coefficient (R2 > 10% were consistently represented in both models and in both seasons for traits viz., oil content, oleic acid content, linoleic acid content and number of primary branches. Several MTAs with high R2-values were detected either in a majority or in

  6. Association Mapping for Important Agronomic Traits in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Core Collection Using Microsatellite Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambreen, Heena; Kumar, Shivendra; Kumar, Amar; Agarwal, Manu; Jagannath, Arun; Goel, Shailendra

    2018-01-01

    Carthamus tinctorius L. (safflower) is an important oilseed crop producing seed oil rich in unsaturated fatty acids. Scarcity of identified marker-trait associations is a major limitation toward development of successful marker-assisted breeding programs in safflower. In the present study, a safflower panel (CartAP) comprising 124 accessions derived from two core collections was assayed for its suitability for association mapping. Genotyping of CartAP using microsatellite markers revealed significant genetic diversity indicated by Shannon information index ( H = 0.7537) and Nei's expected heterozygosity ( I = 0.4432). In Principal Coordinate Analysis, the CartAP accessions were distributed homogeneously in all quadrants indicating their diverse nature. Distance-based Neighbor Joining analysis did not delineate the CartAP accessions in consonance with their geographical origin. Bayesian analysis of population structure of CartAP demonstrated the unstructured nature of the association panel. Kinship analysis at population ( G ij ) and individual level ( F ij ) revealed absence of or weak relatedness between the CartAP accessions. The above parameters established the suitability of CartAP for association mapping. We performed association mapping using phenotypic data for eight traits of agronomic value ( viz ., seed oil content, oleic acid, linoleic acid, plant height, number of primary branches, number of capitula per plant, 100-seed weight and days to 50% flowering) available for two growing seasons (2011-2012 and 2012-2013) through General Linear Model and Mixed Linear Model. Our study identified ninety-six significant marker-trait associations (MTAs; P 10% were consistently represented in both models and in both seasons for traits viz ., oil content, oleic acid content, linoleic acid content and number of primary branches. Several MTAs with high R 2 -values were detected either in a majority or in some environments (models and/or seasons). Many MTAs were also

  7. Gold-quercetin nanoparticles prevent metabolic endotoxemia-induced kidney injury by regulating TLR4/NF-κB signaling and Nrf2 pathway in high fat diet fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min-Xuan; Wang, Ming; Yang, Wei-Wei

    2017-01-01

    High-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome followed by chronic kidney disease caused by intestinal endotoxemia have received extensive attention. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and oxidative stress-related Nrf2/Keap1 were regarded as the key target points involved in metabolic inflammation and kidney injury. However, the molecular mechanism of interaction between TLR4/NF-κB and Nrf2 activation in high-fat diet-induced renal injury is not absolutely understood. Quercetin, a natural product, has been reported to possess antitumor and anti-inflammatory effects. In this regard, this study attempted to prepare poly(d,l-lactide- co -glycolide)-loaded gold nanoparticles precipitated with quercetin (GQ) to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress effects in high-fat diet-induced kidney failure. For this study, C57BL/6 mice fed fat-rich fodder were used as the metabolic syndrome model to evaluate the protective effects of GQ on kidney injury and to determine whether TLR4/NF-κB and Nrf2 pathways were associated with the process. Moreover, histological examinations, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot, and basic blood tests and systemic inflammation-related indicators were used to investigate the inhibitory effects of GQ and underlying molecular mechanism by which it may reduce renal injury. Of note, podocyte injury was found to participate in endotoxin-stimulated inflammatory response. TLR4/NF-κB and Nrf2 pathways were upregulated with high-fat diet intake in mice, resulting in reduction of superoxide dismutase activity and increase in superoxide radical, H 2 O 2 , malondialdehyde, XO, XDH, and XO/XDH ratio. In addition, upregulation of TLR4/NF-κB and oxidative stress by endotoxin were observed in vitro, which were suppressed by GQ administration, ultimately alleviating podocyte injury. These findings indicated that GQ could restore the metabolic disorders caused by high-fat diet, which suppresses insulin

  8. Rapid determination of volatile constituents in safflower from Xinjiang and Henan by ultrasonic-assisted solvent extraction and GC–MS

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Ling-Han; Liu, Yi; Li, Yu-Zhen

    2011-01-01

    The total volatile components were extracted from safflower by ultrasonic-assisted solvent extraction (USE) and their chemical constituents were analyzed by gas chromatographyâmass spectrometry (GCâMS) to provide scientific basis for the quality control of safflower. Five different solvents (diethyl ether, ethanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and acetone) were used and compared in terms of number of volatile components extracted and the peak areas of these components in TIC. The results sh...

  9. Administration of structured lipid composed of MCT and fish oil reduces net protein catabolism in enterally fed burned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, T C; DeMichele, S J; Selleck, K M; Babayan, V K; Blackburn, G L; Bistrian, B R

    1989-01-01

    The effects of enteral feeding with safflower oil or a structured lipid (SL) derived from 60% medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) and 40% fish oil (MCT/fish oil) on protein and energy metabolism were compared in gastrostomy-fed burned rats (30% body surface area) by measuring oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, nitrogen balance, total liver protein, whole-body leucine kinetics, and rectus muscle and liver protein fractional synthetic rates (FSR, %/day). Male Sprague-Dawley rats (195 +/- 5g) received 50 ml/day of an enteral regimen containing 50 kcal, 2 g amino acids, and 40% nonprotein calories as lipid for three days. Protein kinetics were estimated by using a continuous L-[1-14C] leucine infusion technique on day 2. Thermally injured rats enterally fed MCT/fish oil yielded significantly higher daily and cumulative nitrogen balances (p less than or equal to 0.025) and rectus muscle (39%) FSR (p less than or equal to 0.05) when compared with safflower oil. MCT/fish oil showed a 22% decrease (p less than or equal to 0.005) in per cent flux oxidized and a 7% (p less than or equal to 0.05) decrease in total energy expenditure (TEE) versus safflower oil. A 15% increase in liver FSR was accompanied by a significant elevation (p less than or equal to 0.025) in total liver protein with MCT/fish oil. This novel SL shares the properties of other structured lipids in that it reduces the net protein catabolic effects of burn injury, in part, by influencing tissue protein synthetic rates. The reduction in TEE is unique to MCT/fish oil and may relate to the ability of fish oil to diminish the injury response. PMID:2500898

  10. Rumen microbial response in production of CLA and methane to safflower oil in association with fish oil or/and fumarate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang Z; Long, Rui J; Yan, Chang G; Lee, Hong G; Kim, Young J; Song, Man K

    2011-06-01

    Supplementation effect of fish oil and/or fumarate on production of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and methane by rumen microbes was examined when incubated with safflower oil. One hundred and twenty milligrams of safflower oil (SO), safflower oil with 24 mg fish oil (SOFO), safflower oil with 24 mmol/L fumarate (SOFA), or safflower oil with 24 mg fish oil and 24 mmol/L fumarate (SOFOFA) were added to the 90 mL culture solution. The culture solution was also made without any supplements (control). The SOFA and SOFOFA increased pH and propionate (C3) compared to other treatments from 3 h incubation time. An accumulated amount of total methane (CH(4) ) for 12 h incubation was decreased by all the supplements compared to control. The concentrations of c9,t11CLA for all the incubation times were increased in the treatments of SOFO, SOFA and SOFOFA compared to SO. The highest concentration of c9,t11CLA was observed from SOFOFA among all the treatments at all incubation times. Overall data indicate that supplementation of combined fumarate and/or fish oil when incubated with safflower oil could depress CH(4) generation and increase production of C(3) and CLA under the condition of current in vitro study. © 2011 The Authors; Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Assessing the Effect of Planting Date on Safflower Cultivars Growth and Seed Yield in Rafsanjan Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Khatib

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of appropriate cultivar and planting date is the most important principles of agronomy; therefore, the aim of the present study was to consider the growth indices of different safflower cultivars and their relationships with seed yield. For this purpose, an experiment was conducted as factorial in randomized block design with four replicates included three planting dates (4 April, 25 April and 16 May and four safflower cultivars (411, Sina, Local Esfahan and Sofeh. The maximum leaf area index (2.33 obtained in the first planting date that it was not significantly different with the second planting date but it decreased up to 70% in the third planting date. In the first planting date, the maximum LAI obtained for Local Esfahan and 411 cultivars. Maximum total dry matter was 124.2 g m-2 for the first planting date that it decreased up to 31 and 78% in the second and third planting dates, respectively. In this planting date Sina and Local Esfahan cultivars had the higher dry matter. Maximum crop growth rate for the first planting date was 38.84 g m-2d-1 that it decreased up to 41 and 66% in the second and third planting dates, respectively. In this planting date, the highest total dry matter obtained for the Local Esfahan cultivar. The results showed that the maximum value of seed yield dedicated to 411 and Local Esfahan cultivars that it had the high correlation with maximum total dry matter. In respect to the present study, it is suggested to use 411 or Local Esfahan cultivars in the first planting date.

  12. Effect of Different Methods of Chemical Weed Control Irrigation Regimes on Weed Biomass and Safflower Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Matinfar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of different weed control methods and moisture regimes on safflower (Carthamus tinctorius, a field split plot experiment based on randomized complete block design with 4 replications was conducted in Takestan Iran, during growing seasons of 2007-8. Three irrigations regimes (normal irrigation, restricted irrigation at stem elongation and restricted irrigation at  flowering stage were assigned to the main plots and nine chemical weed control method (complete hand weeding, treflan with 2 L/ha as pre plant herbicide, sonalan with 3 L/ha ad pre plant herbicide, estomp with 3 L/ha as pre plant herbicide, gallant super with 0/75 L/ha as post emergence herbicide, treflan with 2 L/ha as pre plant herbicide+ gallant super with 0/75 L/ha as post emergence herbicide, sonalan with 3 L/ha as pre plant herbicide + gallant super with 0/75 L/ha as post emergence herbicide estomp with 3 L/ha as pre plant herbicide + gallant super with 0/75 L/ha as post emergence herbicide and without hand weeding to sub- plots. At the end of growing period traits like number of head   per plant, number of seed per head, 1000 grain weight, percent of seed oil, yield of seed oil and grain yield were measured. Results indicated that treflan + gallant super treatment in restricted irrigation at stem elongation stage had the lowest dry weight of weeds. In this study maximum grain yield (2927 Kg/ha was achieved from hand weeding + usual irrigation treatments. In general treflan + gallant super treatment was the most effective treatment on safflower yield and weed control.

  13. Cocoa butter and safflower oil elicit different effects on hepatic gene expression and lipid metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Carolina; Parini, Paolo; Ostojic, Jovanca; Cheung, Louisa; Hu, Jin; Zadjali, Fahad; Tahir, Faheem; Brismar, Kerstin; Norstedt, Gunnar; Tollet-Egnell, Petra

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of cocoa butter and safflower oil on hepatic transcript profiles, lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in healthy rats. Cocoa butter-based high-fat feeding for 3 days did not affect plasma total triglyceride (TG) levels or TG-rich VLDL particles or hepatic insulin sensitivity, but changes in hepatic gene expression were induced that might lead to increased lipid synthesis, lipotoxicity, inflammation and insulin resistance if maintained. Safflower oil increased hepatic beta-oxidation, was beneficial in terms of circulating TG-rich VLDL particles, but led to reduced hepatic insulin sensitivity. The effects of safflower oil on hepatic gene expression were partly overlapping with those exerted by cocoa butter, but fewer transcripts from anabolic pathways were altered. Increased hepatic cholesterol levels and increased expression of hepatic CYP7A1 and ABCG5 mRNA, important gene products in bile acid production and cholesterol excretion, were specific effects elicited by safflower oil only. Common effects on gene expression included increased levels of p8, DIG-1 IGFBP-1 and FGF21, and reduced levels of SCD-1 and SCD-2. This indicates that a lipid-induced program for hepatic lipid disposal and cell survival was induced by 3 days of high-fat feeding, independent on the lipid source. Based on the results, we speculate that hepatic TG infiltration leads to reduced expression of SCD-1, which might mediate either neutral, beneficial or unfavorable effects on hepatic metabolism upon high-fat feeding, depending on which fatty acids were provided by the diet.

  14. Investigation of the Effects of Irrigation and Nutrient Treatments on Biophysical and Biomechanical Properties of Safflower Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Feyzollahzadeh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Safflower is a strategic plant regarding to its valuable nutrition value (45% extractable oil and industrial uses. Due to massive import of edible oil to the country as well as high potential for safflower cultivation, the research on production of safflower for oil extrusion purpose is of remarkable importance. The design of various processing and oil extraction units and also their optimization which are in relation to seed attributes is essential. In this paper the effects of different irrigation and nutrient treatments on some important physical and mechanical properties of IL111 varieties of safflower seed were investigated. The measured properties included size, mass, volume, surface area, arithmetic and geometric mean diameter, sphericity, bulk and true densities, porosity, static and dynamic coefficient of friction, rupture force, deformation at rupture point, rupture energy, modulus of elasticity and seed hardness. The results indicated a significant effect of treatments on the biophysical and biomechanical properties at p ≤ 0.01. The maximum seed mass, geometric mean diameter and rupture energy were obtained when the (cg treatment applied i.e. “Cut-off irrigation at the growth stage and bio sulfur nutrition”. Seed mass was found to be 0.040 gr to 0.055 gr. Results also showed a significant effect of geometric mean diameter on mass and rupture energy and also mass on seed hardness. Direct correlations observed between seed mass and rupture energy, which indicates that for larger and heavier seeds, much more energy required for oil extraction. The maximum rupture energy was measured as 0.033 J.

  15. Effect of Nitrogen, Potassium, Magnesium and Zinc Sulfates on Yield and Some Characteristics of Biodiesel Produced from Safflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ranjbar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of different amounts of nitrogen fertilizer, potassium sulfate, magnesium sulfate and zinc sulfate on biodiesel produced from safflower, a field experiment was carried out as completely randomized blocks design with three replications, at Research Farm of Shahrekord University in 2010. Treatments included nitrogen fertilizer at three levels (150, 200 and 300 kg/ha, potassium, magnesium and zinc sulfates at 150, 100 and 50 kg/ha, respectively, and control (no fertilizer application. By nourishing the safflower plants, the seed yield and biodiesel traits such as density, iodine value and saponification value were measured. The results showed that the seed yield under treatment of 300 kg/ha nitrogen (913 kg/ha was greater than other treatments. Magnesium sulfate and potassium sulfate produced the highest oil percentage (32.84 and 32.5, respectively. The biodiesel production under utilization of potassium sulfate had greater density, iodine value and saponification value (867.25 kg/m3, 139.7 mg iodine per 100 g oil, and 190.6 mg sodium hydroxide per g oil, respectively compared to other treatments. In general, it was concluded that application of micronutrient fertilizers (especially potassium sulfate improves seed-oil and biodiesel characteristics of safflower.

  16. Assesment of spineless safflower (Carthamus tinctorius, L.) mutant lines for seed oil content and fatty acid profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragab, A.I.; Kassem, M.; Moustafa, H.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the new spineless mutants that previously induced through gamma radiation and hybridization techniques in the advanced generation for seed oil content and fatty acid profiles The obtained results cleared that oil percentages of all seven safflower mutants were increased than local variety Giza (1) and the new mutant hybrid 2 line (white petals) had the highest increase value of oil percentage (10%) but the mutant line M14 (dark red petals) had the lowest increase value of oil percentage (3.1 %) The mutant line M7 (yellow petals) had the highest value of total saturated fatty acid (40.38%), because it had the highest value of palmitic fatty acid (25.16%), comparing to 10.01% value for local variety Giza (1), followed by mutant line hybrid 2 (white petals) which had (39.88%) because it had the highest value of caprylic, capric, lauric, myristic and stearic fatty acids. All safflower mutant lines had higher value of oleic fatty acid than that of the local variety Giza (1) the two new safflower mutant lines M7 (yellow petals) and hybrid 2 (white petal) had the highest value of oleic fatty acid 41.22% and 39.88% respectively in comparison with 13.5% for local variety Giza (1), the obtained results are indicating to seed oil content negative correlation between oleic and linoleic acids

  17. Wheat-bran autolytic peptides containing a branched-chain amino acid attenuate non-alcoholic steatohepatitis via the suppression of oxidative stress and the upregulation of AMPK/ACC in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Takumi; Ueno, Takato; Nogata, Yoichi; Hayakawa, Masako; Koga, Hironori; Torimura, Takuji

    2017-02-01

    Whole-wheat intake is known to reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome. However, the active component remains unclear. Recently, we identified bioactive peptides [leucine-arginine-proline (LRP) and leucine-glutamine‑proline (LQP)] from wheat bran autolytic hydrolysate. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of LRP and LQP on non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in a mouse model. We also evaluated the effects of these peptides on oxidative stress and on the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway, two major pathogenic factors of NASH. Seven‑week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet for 10 weeks and administered water supplemented with 0.05% LRP, 0.20% LRP, 0.05% LQP, or 0.20% LQP (each n=5) or distilled water (control; n=5) ad libitum. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring the serum levels of diacron reactive oxygen metabolite (d-ROM) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP). Hepatic expression of phosphorylated AMPK and phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) were evaluated by immunoblotting. The result showed that non‑alcoholic fatty liver disease activity score was significantly decreased in all types of treatment. Serum d-ROM levels were significantly decreased in the 0.20% LRP group, but not in the 0.05% LRP, 0.05% LQP, and 0.20% LQP groups. Serum BAP levels were significantly increased in the 0.05% LRP and 0.20% LRP groups, but not in the 0.05% LQP and 0.20% LQP groups. Immunoblotting analysis revealed that the expression of phospho-AMPK was increased whereas that of phospho-ACC was decreased in the 0.20% LQP group. In conclusion, we demonstrated that both LRP and LQP alleviated the severity of NASH in a high-fat diet-induced NASH mouse model. In addition, we showed that LRP and LQP modulated oxidative stress and upregulated AMPK/ACC, respectively. Thus, LRP and LQP may constitute clinically applicable therapeutic agents for NASH.

  18. Effect of Organic Fertilizers on Yield and Yield Components of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorious L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M Azimzadeh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Soil organic matters impose direct and indirect effect on crop production through providing of nutrients and also improvement of soil physical condition and stimulation of plant growth. It also seems that plant production based on application of organic fertilizers is more stable than application of chemical fertilizers. So, there has been lots of attention from agronomists, ecologists and consumers toward organic fertilizers. In organic farming, agricultural ecosystem is considered as a living thing and integrated totality, so in this system, soil, crop, microorganisms and micro-climate affect on each other and also are under the effect of each other. For better performance of this system, each component should be in its appropriate condition. Periodical reverse of organic matter to soil and crop rotation will improve biological and physical characteristics of soil. However, balance of nutrients in organic matter which is available for plant is important because causes less dependence to chemical fertilizers. Indeed, nutrients balance is more important than application of chemical fertilizers that can lead to water pollution and decreasing quality of food products. Application of chemical fertilizers caused considerable increasing of farmer's income in last decade. These fertilizers also imposed ecological and environmental problems. In Iran like most of the countries, overusing of chemical inputs like fertilizers has caused destruction of water and soil resources. In addition, leaching of soluble chemical fertilizers specially nitrogen fertilizers has caused pollution of drinking water and overfilling of the water of lakes and ponds in some regions. So researchers have done a lot of effort to replace organic and biological fertilizers with chemical one. The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of organic fertilizers on safflower production. Materials and Methods In order to evaluate the effect of organic fertilizers and

  19. Gold-quercetin nanoparticles prevent metabolic endotoxemia-induced kidney injury by regulating TLR4/NF-kB signaling and Nrf2 pathway in high fat diet fed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu MX

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Min-Xuan Xu,1,2,* Ming Wang,3,* Wei-Wei Yang4 1Chongqing Key Laboratory of Medicinal Resources in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, School of Biological and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University of Education, Chongqing, 2College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 3Department of Urology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 4Department of Nephrology, Huai’an First People’s Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: High-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome followed by chronic kidney disease caused by intestinal endotoxemia have received extensive attention. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB and oxidative stress-related Nrf2/Keap1 were regarded as the key target points involved in metabolic inflammation and kidney injury. However, the molecular mechanism of interaction between TLR4/NF-κB and Nrf2 activation in high-fat diet-induced renal injury is not absolutely understood. Quercetin, a natural product, has been reported to possess antitumor and anti-inflammatory effects. In this regard, this study attempted to prepare poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide-loaded gold nanoparticles precipitated with quercetin (GQ to investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress effects in high-fat diet-induced kidney failure. For this study, C57BL/6 mice fed fat-rich fodder were used as the metabolic syndrome model to evaluate the protective effects of GQ on kidney injury and to determine whether TLR4/NF-κB and Nrf2 pathways were associated with the process. Moreover, histological examinations, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot, and basic blood tests and systemic inflammation-related indicators were used to investigate the inhibitory effects of GQ and underlying molecular mechanism by which it may reduce renal injury. Of note, podocyte

  20. Assessment of Changes in Weed Dry Weight and some Characteristics of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius under Different Sources of Fertilizer and Intercropping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Heydarzadeh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of different organic and chemical fertilizers on weed biomass and some characteristics of safflower, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was done at the Urmia University Reaearch Farm in 2013. Treatments consisted of growing of cover crops (red clover, grass pea, hairy, bitter vetch along with the safflower rows and two weed control treatments (with and without weed as a first factor and application of organic manure (cattle manure+biofertilizer and the different nitrogen and phosphuros fertilizer levels (100 % of recommended chemical fertilizer, 67 and 63 % of recommended N and P, 50 and 40 % of recommended N and P as second factor. Results showed that the biomass yield of broad and narrow leaf weeds affected by the combined treatments of cover crops and use of fertilizers. The biomass yield of broad and narrow leaf weeds were redused by 74.78, 82.22% under vetch cover crop when 50 and 40% of recommended N and P fertilizers were used, in comparison with sole culture of safflower and use of 100% of recommended chemical fertilizers. The maximum of seed yield (3431 kg.ha-1 and biological yield (8239 kg.ha-1 of safflower obtained from using 100% of recommended chemical fertilizers and without growing cover crops. Results, as a whole, showed that at higher levels of chemical fertilizers the competitive effects of weeds on safflower were higher than lower levels of fertilizers.

  1. Combining ability × environment interaction and genetic analysis for agronomic traits in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.: biplot as a tool for diallel data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooran Golkar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Combining ability × environment interaction is considerable to identify the effect of environment on the combining ability and gene action of the traits to select appropriate parents for safflower hybrid production. The 36 genotype (28 F2 progenies of eight-parent half-diallel crosses across 8 parental genotypes of safflower were studied to investigate the mentioned parameters across different geographical regions of Iran. The results indicated significant differences among parents for general and specific combining ability, except for seeds per capitulum across three environments. The overall results indicated that K21 and Mex.22-191 were excellent parents with greater general combining ability for the improvement of seed yield in safflower. The K21 × Mex.22-191 hybrid could be, therefore, employed for the production of high seed yield in safflower breeding. The estimates of genetic variance components recommended the importance of additive- dominance genetic effects that contributed to variation in yield per plant. Such gene action expression for seed yield needs auxiliary methods based on hybridization and selection for seed yield advancement in safflower.

  2. Pressurized liquid extraction and chemical characterization of safflower oil: A comparison between methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Rogério; Gullich, Letícia M D; Bilibio, Denise; Zanella, Odivan; Bender, João P; Carniel, Naira; Priamo, Wagner L

    2016-12-15

    This work investigates the extraction process of safflower oil using pressurized ethanol, and compares the chemical composition obtained (in terms of fatty acids) with other extraction techniques. Soxhlet and Ultrasound showed maximum global yield of 36.53% and 30.41%, respectively (70°C and 240min). PLE presented maximum global yields of 25.62% (3mLmin(-1)), 19.94% (2mLmin(-1)) and 12.37% (1mLmin(-1)) at 40°C, 100bar and 60min. Palmitic acid showed the lower concentration in all experimental conditions (from 5.70% to 7.17%); Stearic and Linoleic acid presented intermediate concentrations (from 2.93% to 25.09% and 14.09% to 19.06%, respectively); Oleic acid showed higher composition (from 55.12% to 83.26%). Differences between percentages of fatty acids, depending on method were observed. Results may be applied to maximize global yields and select fatty acids, reducing the energetic costs and process time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Preference for safflower oil in rats exposed to a cold environment under free-feeding conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Masaji; Ishii, Toshiaki; Takewaki, Tadashi; Nishimura, Masakazu

    2005-07-01

    There are several benefits to a high-fat diet for animals exposed to cold, including improved tolerance to severe cold conditions and increased survival rates in cold environments. It is therefore of interest to examine whether animals exposed to cold will selectively consume lipids. We examined the intake of safflower oil (SO) by rats exposed to cold (4 +/- 2 degrees C) under a feeding condition in which the rats were given free access to SO. Rats exposed to cold consumed more SO than those housed at 25 +/- 2 degrees C. This finding suggests that rats prefer SO in a cold environment. There was no significant difference in the ratio of calories of SO ingested to that of matter (standard laboratory chow plus SO) ingested between rats exposed to cold and those at 25 +/- 2 degrees C. The high SO intake also affected cold tolerance and metabolite kinetics in the rats. Factors that affected the SO intake of rats exposed to cold are also discussed.

  4. The Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Safflower Plant Growth and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Hafizi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a study of the effect of ZnO nanoparticles on safflower growth and physiology was performed. Each of these elements plays a particular role in the plant life, the presence of these elements is necessary for plant’s life cycle and growth. Zinc deficiency causes the biggest problems in safflower’s production. Considering the importance of nanoparticles in today's world, this research investigated the effect of Zinc oxide nanoparticles on the concentration of guaiacol peroxidase, polypeptide oxidase, dehydrogenase and malondialdehyde in four plant sample groups in greenhouse and laboratory conditions. Results of showed that malondialdehyde enzyme increased with different treatments of various concentrations of Zinc oxide. The enzyme guaiacol oxidase increased at concentrations of 100 mg/L and polyphenol oxide at concentrations of 10 and 500 mg/L and dehydrogenase in 1000 mg/L and decreased in other treatments. In addition to showing the effect of nanoparticles in plants, these findings determine the beneficial concentrations of nanoparticles that have a positive effect on the level of enzymes in plants.

  5. CLA does not impair endothelial function and decreases body weight as compared with safflower oil in overweight and obese male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeuffer, Maria; Fielitz, Kerstin; Laue, Christiane; Winkler, Petra; Rubin, Diana; Helwig, Ulf; Giller, Katrin; Kammann, Julia; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Böger, Rainer H; Bub, Achim; Bell, Doris; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2011-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) showed a wide range of beneficial biological effects with relevance for cardiovascular health in animal models and humans. Most human studies used olive oil as a reference. This study assessed the effect of CLA as compared with safflower oil on endothelial function and markers of cardiovascular risk in overweight and obese men. Heated safflower oil and olive oil were given for additional descriptive control. Eighty-five overweight men (aged 45-68 years, body mass index 25-35 kg/m(2)) were randomized to receive 4.5 g/d of the CLA isomeric mixture, safflower oil, heated safflower oil, or olive oil in a 4-week double-blind study. Endothelial function was assessed by peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) index determination in the fasting and postprandial state (i.e., 4 hours after consumption of a fat- and sucrose-rich meal). CLA as compared with safflower oil consumption did not impair fasting or postprandial PAT index but decreased body weight. CLA as compared with safflower oil did not change total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol; triglycerides; insulin sensitivity indices; C-reactive protein; soluble adhesion molecules; oxidized LDL; lipoprotein a (Lp[a]); paraoxonase; or platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) activity, but significantly reduced arylesterase activity and increased concentrations of the F(2)-isoprostane 8-iso-prostaglandin F (PGF)(2α). CLA did not impair endothelial function. Other parameters associated with metabolic syndrome and oxidative stress were not changed or were slightly improved. Results suggest that CLA does not increase cardiovascular risk. Increased F(2)-isoprostane concentrations in this context may not indicate increased oxidative stress.

  6. Effects of Azotobacter and Azospirillum and Levels of Manure on Quantitative and Qualitative Traits of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam shahraki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The demand for food and agricultural products are increasing in a line of population increasing in the world (Alexandratos, 2003. It is possible to increase the quality and quantity of agricultural products via extending the farms and producing more products (Astaaraei and Koocheki, 1995. Environmental problems caused by synthetic fertilizers and the high levels of producing and introducing such chemicals, have been encouraged the researchers to apply bio-fertilizers for increasing the production in a frame of sustainable agriculture (Rajendran and Devarj, 2004. In this study, the economical yield and agronomy index of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. in manure and bio fertilizers treatments was studied. Materials and method This study was conducted in Agricultural Research Institute, University of Zabol during winter season, 2013. Safflower seeds were planted in sandy loam with pH 8.2. The experimental design was factorial in a frame on randomized completely blocks with three replications. The manure as a first factor had three levels, including no treatment (control, 20 and 30 t.ha-1, while second factor was bio-fertilizer treatment with 4 levels, including no treatment (control, Azosprilium (Azo, Azotobacter (Azt and combined treatment of Azo+Azt. The processed manure and bacteria obtained from local farmers were used in this study. Populations of 108 bacteria were prepared and 24 hours before sowing, seeds were soaked in bacteria. After land preparation, experimental plots were (2.5 × 2 m2 created and treated seeds were planted (40 plants.m-2 manually and plantation was watered immediately. In this study plant height, number of heads in bush, number of seeds per head, seed weight per head, seed weight, grain and biological yield, harvest index, leaf chlorophyll, protein and oil percent were studied. Economical yield and agronomy indices of Safflower were calculated at the end of the season and data were analyzed using SAS

  7. Improving tolerance of sunflower and safflower during growth stages to salinity through foliar spray of nutrient solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabeen, N.; Ahmad, R.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of salinity and foliar application of nutrient solutions on sunflower and safflower in vegetative and reproductive phases of the growth were investigated in Bio saline Research Field, University of Karachi, Pakistan. The seeds were sown in pots under non saline condition and saline water irrigation was started at three leaf stage after germination. Different concentration of saline water were made by dissolving 3g and 6g sea salt per litre of tap water, equivalent to an EC of 4.8 and 8.6 dS/m respectively. Nutrient solution (KNO/sub 3 /, H/sub 3/ BO/sub 3/, Fe-EDTA or its mixture) was sprayed thrice, i.e., 45, 75 and 95 days after planting. KNO/sub 3/ was given at the rate 250 ppm and other H/sub 3/ BO/sub 3/ and Fe-EDTA was given at the rate 5 ppm. Salinity caused a significant reduction in nutrient uptake, height, biomass and yield of both sunflower and safflower. Foliar application of macro and micro nutrients (i.e. KNO/sub 3/, H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/, Fe-EDTA and mixture of KNO/sub 3/ + H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ + Fe-EDTA) partially minimized the salt induced deficiency and showed significant increase in height, fresh and dry biomass, number and weight of seeds, and amount of oil per sunflower and safflower plant irrespective to their growth under non saline or saline conditions. Among the nutrient solutions, mixture of KNO/sub 3/+ H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/ + Fe-EDTA seemed to be the most effective followed by H/sub 3/ BO/sub 3/ and Fe-EDTA. These results suggested that foliar application of nutrients could be used to improve plant tolerance to salinity by alleviating the adverse effects of salinity on growth and reproductive yield. (author)

  8. Optimization of the process of pressing safflower seeds in an ultrasonic field

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    S. T. Antipov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a mathematical description of the process of pressing safflower seeds in an ultrasonic field in the form of a regression equation found by static methods on the basis of experiments and described by a polynomial of the second degree. As the main factors influencing the efficiency of the process, the ultrasound frequency, the amplitude of the ultrasound, the pressure and the press created in the green chamber were selected. And as a criterion for assessing the effect of the selected parameters, the residual oil content of the cake is used. To assess the adequacy of the mathematical model, the variance analysis (ANOVA of the experiment in the Design Expert v. 10 and the regression equation is obtained, the analysis of which allowed us to identify the factors that most influenced the process under consideration. Found that when the pressure in the press to a value higher than 14 MPa, a further increase in efficiency was observed together with increased values as the ultrasound frequency and its amplitude. The maximum and most effective value residual oil content in oil cake obtained in the frequency 35-40 Hz and amplitude of more than 40 mm and the pressure in the press from 10 to 11 MPa. which are obviously directly dependent on the behavior of grain and movement of its internal parts during the supply of the ultrasound. Graphical interpretation of the equation is represented by curves of equal values and response surfaces for input parameters. A numerical and graphical optimization procedure is also proposed to predict the optimal level of input factors and to obtain the maximum yield of oil relative to the mass of the original feed. To test the adequacy of the model, the results of a number of parallel experiments are presented that fall within the calculated confidence intervals for all quality criteria.

  9. Effect of Alkaline Stress on Some Morphophysiologic Characteristics of Two Varieties of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.

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    Sh Bemany Golnabadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. is an important oilseed crop grown throughout the semiarid regions in many parts of the world. It has been cultivated for its oil and flowers and as a meal. Alkaline stress is caused by alkaline salts such as Na2CO3 or NaHCO3 in the soil. Alkaline stress, is widespread environmental constraint affecting crop productivity ,which can inhibit absorption of inorganic anions such as Cl–, NO3– and H2PO4–, greatly affect the selective absorption of K+-Na+, and break the ionic balance. However, under alkali stress, accumulation of compatible solutes, such as betaine, proline and soluble sugar into the vacuole are considered as the basic strategies for plant re-established cellular homeostasis. Some reports have clearly demonstrated that alkaline salts (NaHCO3 and Na2CO3 are more destructive to plants than neutral salts (NaCl and Na2SO4. Moreover, the salt-alkali stress can directly damage plant growth, alter the availability of nutrients and disrupt the balance of ions and mineral nutrition. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of alkaline stress on growth and some physiological characteristics of safflower. Materials and Methods This study was conducted in a greenhouse in Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan as factorial arrangement in completely randomized design with three replications. Experimental factors included alkaline stress in 7 levels (0, 10, 20, 30 , 40, 50 and 60 mM and two varieties of safflower (Sofeh and 411. Seeds were planted in pots filled with perlite and cocopite (1:1. The pots were irrigated with a nutrient solution with half strength Hoagland's solution. After the fourth true leaves appeared, alkaline stress in the pot was created by adding NaHCO3, to half strength Hoagland’s solution. Control plants were only irrigated with half strength Hoagland’s solution. Plants were harvested after 40 days of seed sowing. After forty days, shoot and root height

  10. Screening for Terminal Drought Tolerance in Iranian and Exotic Safflower Genotypes Using Drought Tolerance and Susceptibility Indices

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    R. Maleki Nejad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to evaluate drought tolerance of safflower genotypes (Carthamus tinctorius L. at the research farm of Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran during growing season of 2012. One hundred genotypes including 81 foreign genotypes along with 19 Iranian genotypes were evaluated under normal and moisture stress conditions according to a simple lattice design with two replications. Drought tolerance and sensitivity indices including mean productivity (MP, geometric mean productivity (GMP, stress tolerance index (STI, tolerance (TOL and stress susceptibility index (SSI were studied. Results of this study indicated that genotypes were significantly different for grain yield in both moisture conditions. Among all indices, MP, GMP and STI were identified as the best indices that can be used to determine tolerant genotypes. Based on MP, GMP and STI and also principal component analysis PI 369847 (Tajikistan, CART 56 (USA, PI 657820 (Jordan, PI 305527 (Soudan were determined as the most tolerant genotypes and PI 537652 (Mexico, CART 131 (Prague, PI 470942 (Bangladesh, PI 209286 (Romania and CART 32 (German as the most sensitive ones. Results also indicated that the biplot of principal component analysis is a powerful technique to discriminate genotypes based on the measured indices. The superior safflower genotypes can be used in future breeding programs.

  11. Safety Assessment of a New Pigmented Safflower Seed Coat (A82 by a Feeding Study on Rat

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    Soraya Karami

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. is an annual herbaceous plant, cultivated mainly for the seed which is used for edible oil extraction and bird feeding. This study was designed to evaluate the safety of a new pigmented variety of safflower (A82 seeds. The results showed that oral administration of A82 seeds significantly increased the body weight of male rats in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05. Biochemical tests showed that A82 seeds significantly increased the serum levels of AST (Aspartate aminotransferase (p<0.05, slightly reduced the serum levels of ALT (Alanine aminotransferase and significantly reduced ALP (p<0.05 levels in a dose dependent manner. BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen and Cr (Creatinine were not significantly changed in A82 seed treated groups. Also, testosterone levels were not significantly changed by administration of different doses of A82. However, Johnson scoring showed slightly decrease in experimental groups. No organ weight or histological changes were observed in liver, kidney, spleen, heart and brain of A82 seed treated animals. These results indicate that A82 seeds have not any toxic effects in Wistar rats. Future studies are required to clarify the exact mechanism by which A82 seeds alter AST levels and body weight in rat.

  12. Safflower (Catharmus tinctorius L.) oil supplementation in overnourished rats during early neonatal development: effects on heart and liver function in the adult.

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    Costa, Laís Ribeiro; Macêdo, Patrícia Cavalcanti; de Melo, Janatar Stella Vasconcelos; Freitas, Cristiane Moura; Alves, Aiany Simoes; Barbosa, Humberto de Moura; Lira, Eduardo; Fernandes, Mariana Pinheiro; Batista-de-Oliveira-Hornsby, Manuella; Lagranha, Claudia

    2016-12-01

    Carthamus tinctorius L. (common name: safflower) is an herb whose extracted oil (safflower oil) has been employed in both alternative and conventional medicine in the treatment of disease. Overnutrition during early postnatal life can increase the lifetime risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Here we investigate the effect of safflower oil supplementation given during a critical early developmental stage on the eventual occurrence of metabolic disease in overnourished rats. Groups of overnourished or adequately nourished rats were randomly assigned into 2 additional groups for supplementation with either safflower oil (SF) or vehicle for 7 to 30 days. Murinometric data and weights were examined. Serum was collected for measurement of glucose, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. Heart and liver oxidative status were also measured. Overnutrition for 7-30 days induced a significant increase in body weight and in values for abdominal circumference, thoracic circumference, body length, and body mass index. SF supplementation did not attenuate the effect of overnutrition on any of these parameters. In addition, overnutrition increased levels of glucose, triglycerides, and very low-density lipid compared with normal controls, but SF supplementation had no effect on these parameters. Measures of oxidative status in heart or liver were not influenced by overnutrition. However, oxidative measures were altered by SF supplementation in both of these organs. The present study reveals that nutritional manipulation during early development induces detrimental effects on metabolism in the adult that are not ameliorated by supplemental SF.

  13. Effect of Planting Date on Reducing Growth Period of Spring Safflower Cultivars in Tabriz Cold and Semi-arid Climate

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    B Pasban Eslam

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Safflower is a plant adaptable to areas with limited rainfall during winter and spring and dry air at flowering, seed filling and maturity stages, and tolerant to water deficit. The positive correlation coefficient observed between safflower seed yield with precipitation and low air temperature during seed germination to flowering and flowering to seed maturity. Furthermore, precipitation and low temperature during flowering to seed maturity significantly increased seed oil percentage. Therefore, it seems that, by adjusting the planting time can be adapted phenological stages of plant with appropriate weather conditions. The aims of this research were study the possibility reducing the growth period of safflower spring varieties with maintaining performance through delay in planting time, evaluate seed and oil yields at different planting times, and identify the best varieties for cold and semi-arid areas. Materials and Methods The experiment was conducted at the East Azarbaijan Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center (46°2¢E, 37°58¢N, 1347 m a.s.l. during 2014-2015 growing season. According to Koppen climatic classification system, the area climate is semi-arid and cold. This study was carried out as factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments were four planting dates (30 March, 9, 19 and 29 April and three safflower spring cultivars (Sina, Soffeh and Goldasht. Plant spacing between rows was 24 cm and final plant density was 70 plant per m2. Each plot consisted of 6 rows in 5 meters. Plants were harvested on the 11th and 14th of August in the first and second years of experiment, respectively. At the harvest time, in order to control boarder effects, plants from the sides of each plot were removed. Measured traits were plant height, capitulum diameter, seed yield, capitula number per plant, seed number per capitulum and 1000-seed weight. Ten plants in each plot

  14. Neuroprotective Effects of a Standardized Flavonoid Extract from Safflower against a Rotenone-Induced Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease

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    Nuramatjan Ablat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a major age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra par compacta (SNpc. Rotenone is a neurotoxin that is routinely used to model PD to aid in understanding the mechanisms of neuronal death. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius. L. has long been used to treat cerebrovascular diseases in China. This plant contains flavonoids, which have been reported to be effective in models of neurodegenerative disease. We previously reported that kaempferol derivatives from safflower could bind DJ-1, a protein associated with PD, and that a flavonoid extract from safflower exhibited neuroprotective effects in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced mouse model of PD. In this study, a standardized safflower flavonoid extract (SAFE was isolated from safflower and found to primarily contain flavonoids. The aim of the current study was to confirm the neuroprotective effects of SAFE in rotenone-induced Parkinson rats. The results showed that SAFE treatment increased body weight and improved rearing behavior and grip strength. SAFE (35 or 70 mg/kg/day treatment reversed the decreased protein expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine transporter and DJ-1 and increased the levels of dopamine and its metabolite. In contrast, acetylcholine levels were decreased. SAFE treatment also led to partial inhibition of PD-associated changes in extracellular space diffusion parameters. These changes were detected using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI tracer-based method, which provides novel information regarding neuronal loss and astrocyte activation. Thus, our results indicate that SAFE represents a potential therapeutic herbal treatment for PD.

  15. Effect of Biological and Chemical Fertilizers on Oil, Seed Yield and some Agronomic Traits of Safflower under Different Irrigation Regimes

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    Hamidreza Fanaei

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Safflower Carthamus tinctorius L. is a tolerant plant to water deficit due to long roots and capability for high water absorption from soil deeper parts. Safflower can growth successfully in regions with low soil fertility and temperature. Behdani and Mosavifar (2011 reported that drought stress affect on yield by reducing yield components and agronomic traits. Biofertilizer during a biological process chanced the nutrients from unusable to usable form for plants in soils (Aseretal, 2008. Mirzakhani et al. (2008 found that inoculation of seed with free-living bacterium azotobacter and a symbiotic fungus productive mycorrhiza addition to increasing oil and seed cause increasing resistance against two factors of unfavorable environmental and to improve quality of product. In order to study the effect of biological and chemical fertilizers on oil, seed yield and some of agronomic traits of Safflower under irrigation of different regimes an experimental design was conducted. Materials and methods In order to study the effect of biological and chemical fertilizers on oil, seed yield and some of agronomic traits of safflower under irrigation of different regimes an experiment was carried out split plot based on randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications in experimental farm of payame-Noor university of Zabol during 2012-2013 growing season. Irrigation regime in three levels include: I1 (control irrigation in all growth stages, I2 stop irrigation from sowing to flowering (irrigation in growth stages flowering, and seed filling, I3 irrigation in growth stages rosset, stem elongation, heading and stop irrigation in flowering, and seed filling were as main plots and fertilizer resources in five levels included: F1 non application chemical fertilizer (control, F2 pure application chemical fertilizer (NPK 99, 44 and 123 kg.ha-1 respectively, F3 Nitroxin application (2 L.ha-1 F4 Azotobacter application (2 L.ha-1 and F5

  16. Evaluation of Foliar Spraying of Zinc and Calcium Fertilizers on Yield and Physiological Traits of Safflower under Lead Stress

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    P Jamshidi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In order to evaluate the effect of foliar spraying of zinc and calcium on yield and physiological traits of safflower under lead stress, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design was performed in Kerman agricultural and natural resource research and education center in 2014-2015 with three replications. The first factorial included three levels (control, and 0.5 and 1 μM lead spraying, whereas the second and third factorials were spraying zinc sulfate at three concentrations (zero, and 10 and 20 μM and spraying calcium chloride at two levels (zero and 20 μM, respectively. According to the results, grain yield, the 1000-grain weight, leaf dry weight, number of seeds per head, head weight and chlorophyll content decreased. On the other hand, a significant increase was observed in the activities of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase enzymes and amount of malondialdehyde in plants. Moreover, spraying zinc fertilizer in lead treatment resulted in a significant increase in activity of catalase enzyme, reduction of membrane lipid peroxidation, prevention of chlorophyll destruction and maintenance of grain yield. However, the effect of spraying calcium fertilize in lead treatment was only significant on chlorophyll content. According to the results of the research, it seems that spraying zinc fertilizer had more effects on improved growth of safflower under lead stress, compared to spraying calcium fertilizer. Therefore, in air pollution with heavy metals (lead, application of zinc sulfate fertilizer can be an effective approach to maintain the growth and production of plants. Among the various heavy metals, lead (Pb is a major anthropogenic pollutant that has been released to the environment since the industrial revolution and accumulated in different terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems These elements will transfer to leaves in polluted areas and will rapidly uptake and cause irreparable damages to the most

  17. Study of Genetic Diversity of grain yield-associated traits in Iranian and Exotic Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius Germplasm

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    M. M. Majidi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. is cultivated in a wide range of geographical conditions in the world from Africa to Europe, India and China. Previous studies have shown that diversity in indigenous Iranian germplasm is limited for some traits therefore germplasm collections from other origins need to be considered. An experiment was conducted to evaluate agronomic and morphological traits of 100 Iranian and exotic safflower genotypes during 2011- 2012 at the Research Farm of Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran, using a simple lattice design of 10 × 10. The results of analysis of variance showed that the differences among genotypes were highly significant (p < 0.01 for days to flowering, seed yield, plant height, number of heads per plant, number of seeds per head, 1000-seed weight, oil content and harvest index, indicating high variability in the studied germplasm. The highest and lowest heritabilities were observed for 1000-seed weight and seed yield, respectively, indicating that indirect improving for seed yield would be more beneficial. Genetic and phenotypic correlation coefficients showed that number of heads per plant, number of seeds per head and harvest index had significantly positive correlations with seed yield. The results of stepwise regression and path analysis showed that number of heads per plant, number of seeds per head and 1000-seed weight are the most important components of seed yield, among which, number of heads per plant had the greatest direct positive effect on seed yield. These traits could be used as criteria for indirect selection in safflower breeding programs. Factor analysis recognized three factors which explained 72.56 percent of total variations. These factors were defined as phenological, physiological source and efficiency factors. Cluster analysis based on the agronomic and morphological traits grouped the genotypes into three clusters. Iranian accessions were clearly discriminated from

  18. Weight Changes and Metabolic Outcomes in Calorie-Restricted Obese Mice Fed High-Fat Diets Containing Corn or Flaxseed Oil: Physiological Role of Sugar Replacement with Polyphenol-Rich Grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansar, Hastimansooreh; Zamaninour, Negar; Djazayery, Abolghassem; Pishva, Hamideh; Vafa, Mohammadreza; Mazaheri Nezhad Fard, Ramin; Dilmaghanian, Aydin; Mirzaei, Khadijeh; Shidfar, Farzad

    2017-08-01

    Because diet components are important during dieting in obesity treatment, we examined possible beneficial effects of substituting corn oil and sugar with flaxseed oil and grape in calorie-restricted high-fat diets on weight changes as well as improvement in some metabolic markers and related gene expression. Seventy-five C57BL/6J male mice were given free access to a high-fat (36% of energy from fat) diet containing corn oil plus sugar (CO + S). After 11 weeks, 15 mice were sacrificed and another 60 were divided among 4 high-fat diet groups with 30% calorie restriction (CR) for the next 12 weeks. The diets contained corn oil (CO) or flaxseed oil (FO) with sugar (S) or grape (G). Despite CR, a weight loss trend was observed only during the first 4 weeks in all groups. CR did not significantly increase SIRT1 gene expression. Higher liver weight was observed in mice consuming FO (p sugar (FBS) was significantly higher than in CO + G-CR. Grape intake increased Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) expression and decreased insulin resistance in CO + G-CR. Sugar replacement with polyphenol-rich grape along with CR improved glucose homeostasis, and substituting corn oil with flaxseed oil in obese mice reduced fat mass, but even with no change in adiponectin levels it could not decrease insulin resistance. However, none of the food item combinations facilitated weight reduction in the long-term CR. Therefore, regardless of the total calorie intake, different diet components and fat contents may have unexpected effects on metabolic regulation.

  19. The fruit of Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim.) Harms improves insulin resistance and hepatic lipid accumulation by modulation of liver adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activity and lipogenic gene expression in high-fat diet-fed obese mice.

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    Saito, Tetsuo; Nishida, Miyako; Saito, Masafumi; Tanabe, Akari; Eitsuka, Takahiro; Yuan, Shi-Hua; Ikekawa, Nobuo; Nishida, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    Obesity-associated insulin resistance is a major risk factor for most metabolic diseases, including dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes. Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim.) Harms (Goka) root has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of diabetes and other conditions; however, little is known about the effects of Goka fruit (GF). Goka fruit is rich in anthocyanin, which has beneficial effects on obesity and insulin resistance via activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). We hypothesized that GF can improve obesity-associated insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether GF improves insulin resistance in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. High-fat diet mice treated with GF (500 and 1000 mg/kg) for 12 weeks showed an improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, as well as reduced plasma insulin and liver lipid accumulation. Moreover, GF administration to HFD mice resulted in down-regulation of fatty acid synthase expression and up-regulation of cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxylase expression in the liver. Notably, AMPK phosphorylation in the liver increased after GF administration. In summary, GF supplementation improved obesity-associated insulin resistance and hepatic lipid accumulation through modulation of AMPK activity and lipid metabolism-associated gene expression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Optimization of the Hydrolysis of Safflower Oil for the Production of Linoleic Acid, Used as Flavor Precursor

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    Marya Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial lipases, from porcine pancreas (PPL, Candida rugosa (CRL, and Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lipozyme TL IM, were investigated in terms of their efficiency for the hydrolysis of safflower oil (SO for the liberation of free linoleic acid (LA, used as a flavor precursor. Although PPL, under the optimized conditions, showed a high degree of hydrolysis (91.6%, its low tolerance towards higher substrate concentrations could limit its use for SO hydrolysis. In comparison to the other investigated lipases, Lipozyme TL IM required higher amount of enzyme and an additional 3 h of reaction time to achieve its maximum degree of SO hydrolysis (90.2%. On the basis of the experimental findings, CRL was selected as the most appropriate biocatalyst, with 84.1% degree of hydrolysis. The chromatographic analyses showed that the CRL-hydrolyzed SO is composed mainly of free LA.

  1. Comparison of safflower oil extraction kinetics under two characteristic moisture conditions: statistical analysis of non-linear model parameters

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    E. Baümler

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study the kinetics of oil extraction from partially dehulled safflower seeds under two moisture conditions (7 and 9% dry basis was investigated. The extraction assays were performed using a stirred batch system, thermostated at 50 ºC, using n-hexane as solvent. The data obtained were fitted to a modified diffusion model in order to represent the extraction kinetics. The model took into account a washing and a diffusive step. Fitting parameters were compared statistically for both moisture conditions. The oil yield increased with the extraction time in both cases, although the oil was released at different rates. A comparison of the parameters showed that both the portion extracted in the washing phase and the effective diffusion coefficient were moisture-dependent. The effective diffusivities were 2.81 10-12 and 8.06 10-13 m²s-1 for moisture contents of 7% and 9%, respectively.

  2. Optimization of the Hydrolysis of Safflower Oil for the Production of Linoleic Acid, Used as Flavor Precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Marya; Husson, Florence; Kermasha, Selim

    2015-01-01

    Commercial lipases, from porcine pancreas (PPL), Candida rugosa (CRL), and Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lipozyme TL IM), were investigated in terms of their efficiency for the hydrolysis of safflower oil (SO) for the liberation of free linoleic acid (LA), used as a flavor precursor. Although PPL, under the optimized conditions, showed a high degree of hydrolysis (91.6%), its low tolerance towards higher substrate concentrations could limit its use for SO hydrolysis. In comparison to the other investigated lipases, Lipozyme TL IM required higher amount of enzyme and an additional 3 h of reaction time to achieve its maximum degree of SO hydrolysis (90.2%). On the basis of the experimental findings, CRL was selected as the most appropriate biocatalyst, with 84.1% degree of hydrolysis. The chromatographic analyses showed that the CRL-hydrolyzed SO is composed mainly of free LA.

  3. Evaluation of Yield, Yield Components and Growth Indices of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. in Conventional and Organic Farming Systems

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    Mahdieh Hajghani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Application of organic fertilizers in sustainable agriculture systems improves yield sustainability of field crop. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. is native to Middle East and belongs to the Asteraceae family. It is resistant to saline conditions, water stress, and can reach the deep-lying water of soil. The humic acid (HA mentioned as an environmentally friendly, organic matter with low levels of hormonal-like compounds is useful in improving agriculture production (Samavat and Malakuti 2006. The HA influence on plant growth depends on the source, concentration and molecular weight of the substance. Vermicompost is produced by earthworms, mainly Eisenia foetida, it has higher levels of available nutrients compared to the original materials of composts produced by other methods. Recent evidences suggest that using different amounts of vermicompost increased vegetative traits and concentration of minerals in sunflower. However, there has been little discussion about organic farming of safflower. The main objectives of the present study were to determine the effect of organic treatments on yield, yield components, and growth indices of safflower and to compare it with conventional agriculture. Materials and methods This research was conducted in Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Station in Kerman, Iran during 2012–2013. It was carried out in a randomized complete block (RCB design and had three replications. The current research has been performed to investigate the effects of two different sources of organic fertilizer on spring safflower. Four levels of vermicompost (V: 0, 3, 6 and 9 t ha-1 were considered in the main plots. Liquid humic acid at four different concentrations (HA: 0, 1000, 2000 and 3000 ppm were examined and kept in the subplots. Humic acid as a foliar treatment on leaf surface was applied twice at the beginning of stem elongation and at flowering times. In this study, aimed to compare organic farming

  4. Correlation of soil microbes and soil micro-environment under long-term safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) plantation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shuang; Quan, Wang; Wang, Shao-Ming; Liu, Hong-Ling; Tan, Yong; Zeng, Guang-Ping; Zhang, Xia

    2013-04-01

    Microbial community structure and ecological functions are influenced by interactions between above and belowground biota. There is an urgent need for intensive monitoring of microbes feedback of soil micro-ecosystem for setting up a good agricultural practice. Recent researches have revealed that many soils characteristic can effect microbial community structure. In the present study factors affecting microbial community structure and soil in Carthamus tinctorius plantations in arid agricultural ecosystem of northern Xinjiang, China were identified. The result of the study revealed that soil type was the key factor in safflower yield; Unscientific field management resulted high fertility level (bacteria dominant) of soil to turn to low fertility level (fungi dominant), and Detruded Canonical Correspondence Analysis (DCCA) showed that soil water content, organic matter, available N, P and K were the dominant factors affecting distribution of microbial community. Soil water content showed a significant positive correlation with soil microbes quantity (P soil microbe quantity (P < 0.05).

  5. Effects of parenteral infusion with medium-chain triglycerides and safflower oil emulsions on hepatic lipids, plasma amino acids and inflammatory mediators in septic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, S; Chao, C; Lin, M; Chen, W

    2000-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of preinfusion with total parenteral nutrition (TPN) using medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) versus safflower oil (SO) emulsion as fat sources on hepatic lipids, plasma amino acid profiles, and inflammatory-related mediators in septic rats. Normal rats, with internal jugular catheters, were divided into two groups and received TPN. TPN provided 300kcal/kg/day with 40% of the non-protein energy provided as fat. All TPN solutions were isonitrogenous and identical in nutrient composition except for the fat emulsion, which was made of SO or a mixture of MCT and soybean oil (9:1) (MO). After receiving TPN for 6 days, each group of rats was further divided into control and sepsis subgroups. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture, whereas control rats received sham operation. All rats were classified into four groups as follows: MCT control group (MOC, n= 8), MCT sepsis group (MOS, n= 8), safflower oil control group (SOC, n= 8), and safflower oil sepsis group (SOS, n= 11). The results of the study demonstrated that the MOS group had lower hepatic lipids than did the SOS group. Plasma leucine and isoleucine levels were significantly lower in the SOS than in the SOC group, but no differences in these two amino acids were observed between the MOC and MOS groups. Plasma arginine levels were significantly lower in septic groups than in those without sepsis despite whether MCT or safflower oil was infused. Plasma glutamine and alanine levels, however, did not differ between septic and non-septic groups either in the SO or MO groups. No differences in interleukin-1b, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and leukotriene B(4)concentrations in peritoneal lavage fluid were observed between the two septic groups. These results suggest that catabolic reaction is septic rats preinfused MCT is not as obvious as those preinfused safflower oil. Compared with safflower oil, TPN with MCT administration has better effects on

  6. Sida rhomboidea. Roxb leaf extract down-regulates expression of PPARγ2 and leptin genes in high fat diet fed C57BL/6J Mice and retards in vitro 3T3L1 pre-adipocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Ramani, Umed V; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2011-01-01

    Sida rhomboidea. Roxb leaf extract (SRLE) is being used by the populace of North-East India to alleviate symptoms of diabetes and obesity. We have previously reported its hypolipidemic and anti-diabetic properties. In this study, we report the effect of SRLE on (i) in vivo modulation of genes controlling high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity and (ii) in vitro 3T3L1 pre-adipocyte differentiation and leptin release. Supplementation with SRLE significantly prevented HFD induced increment in bodyweight, plasma lipids and leptin, visceral adiposity and adipocyte hypertrophy. Also, SRLE supplementation reduced food intake, down regulated PPARγ2, SREBP1c, FAS and LEP expressions and up-regulated CPT-1 in epididymal adipose tissue compared to obese mice. In vitro adipogenesis of 3T3L1 pre-adipocytes was significantly retarded in the presence of SRLE extract. Also decreased triglyceride accumulation, leptin release and glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate dehydrogenase activity along with higher glycerol release without significant alteration of viability of 3T3L1 pre-adipocytes, was recorded. Our findings suggest that prevention of HFD induced visceral adiposity is primarily by down regulation of PPARγ2 and leptin gene expression coupled with attenuation of food intake in C57BL/6J mice. SRLE induced prevention of pre-adipocytes differentiation, and leptin release further substantiated these findings and scientifically validates the potential application of SRLE as a therapeutic agent against obesity.

  7. Expression profiling analysis: Uncoupling protein 2 deficiency improves hepatic glucose, lipid profiles and insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet-fed mice by modulating expression of genes in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mei-Cen; Yu, Ping; Sun, Qi; Li, Yu-Xiu

    2016-03-01

    Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), which was an important mitochondrial inner membrane protein associated with glucose and lipid metabolism, widely expresses in all kinds of tissues including hepatocytes. The present study aimed to explore the impact of UCP2 deficiency on glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity and its effect on the liver-associated signaling pathway by expression profiling analysis. Four-week-old male UCP2-/- mice and UCP2+/+ mice were randomly assigned to four groups: UCP2-/- on a high-fat diet, UCP2-/- on a normal chow diet, UCP2+/+ on a high-fat diet and UCP2+/+ on a normal chow diet. The differentially expressed genes in the four groups on the 16th week were identified by Affymetrix gene array. The results of intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test and insulin tolerance showed that blood glucose and β-cell function were improved in the UCP2-/- group on high-fat diet. Enhanced insulin sensitivity was observed in the UCP2-/- group. The differentially expressed genes were mapped to 23 pathways (P high-fat diet. The upregulation of genes in the PPAR signaling pathway could explain our finding that UCP2 deficiency ameliorated insulin sensitivity. The manipulation of UCP2 protein expression could represent a new strategy for the prevention and treatment of diabetes.

  8. Yield and Yield Components of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. as Affected by Micronutrient Application and Vermicompost in Two Kerman and Bardsir Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Karimi Gogheri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Despite the importance of oily crops in development of Iran, there are few studies on nutrition with micronutrient in these crops, especially for safflower. Safflower, a deep rooted oilseed crop, is grown in many areas of world because it can be used as oil crop, vegetable, birdfeed and spices. To achieve the acceptable growth and yield of safflower, it needs the sufficient micro- and macronutrient, so that recently, there has been an increased interest in evaluation of nutrient role in quality and quantity of safflower. Application of vermicompost in oil crop production systems of Iran has been increased; which it can improve soil structure by increasing aggregate stability as well as increase in water holding capacity and aeration. On the other hand, micronutrients are nutrients required by plants in small quantities to organize a range of physiological functions. The deficiency micronutrients is widespread in many parts of the country due to cultivation of high yielding varieties, intensive agriculture and increasing use of sulphur free fertilizers in large quantities with concomitant decrease in use of organic manures. There is little information on interaction of vermicompost and micronutrients combination on safflower. thus, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of combinations of three important micronutrient consisted of sulphur, zinc and boron on yield and yield components as well as dry forage production of safflower in different vermicompost treatments. Material and Methods In this research, the effect of micronutrient application and vermicompost was examined on yield and yield components of safflower in Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center of Kerman Province in two Kerman and Bardsir regions. The treatments were included vermicompost factor at two levels (0 and 6 t ha-1 and micronutrients combinations at 12 levels (no use, 100 kg ha-1 S, 200 kg ha-1 S, 3 ml L-1 Zn, 2 ml L-1 B, four twofold and two

  9. Activities of acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) and phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT) in microsomal preparations of developing sunflower and safflower seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaś, Walentyna; Sanchez Garcia, Alicia; Banaś, Antoni; Stymne, Sten

    2013-06-01

    The last step in triacylglycerols (TAG) biosynthesis in oil seeds, the acylation of diacylglycerols (DAG), is catalysed by two types of enzymes: the acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) and phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT). The relative contribution of these enzymes in the synthesis of TAG has not yet been defined in any plant tissue. In the presented work, microsomal preparations were obtained from sunflower and safflower seeds at different stages of development and used in DGAT and PDAT enzyme assays. The ratio between PDAT and DGAT activity differed dramatically between the two different species. DGAT activities were measured with two different acyl acceptors and assay methods using two different acyl-CoAs, and in all cases the ratio of PDAT to DGAT activity was significantly higher in safflower than sunflower. The sunflower DGAT, measured by both methods, showed significant higher activity with 18:2-CoA than with 18:1-CoA, whereas the opposite specificity was seen with the safflower enzyme. The specificities of PDAT on the other hand, were similar in both species with 18:2-phosphatidylcholine being a better acyl donor than 18:1-PC and with acyl groups at the sn-2 position utilised about fourfold the rate of the sn-1 position. No DAG:DAG transacylase activity could be detected in the microsomal preparations.

  10. Bovine serum albumin as the dominant form of dietary protein reduces subcutaneous fat mass, plasma leptin and plasma corticosterone in high fat-fed C57/BL6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Bettina L; Korpela, Riitta; Speakman, John R; Cryan, John F; Cotter, Paul D; Nilaweera, Kanishka N

    2015-08-28

    Increasing evidence suggests that the source of dietary protein can have an impact on weight gain and fat mass during high-fat feeding in both humans and rodents. The present study examined whether dietary bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the dominant source of protein alters energy balance and adiposity associated with high-fat feeding. C57/BL6J mice were given a diet with 10 % of energy from fat and 20 % of energy from casein or a diet with 45 % of energy from fat and either 20 % of energy from casein (HFD) or BSA (HFD+BSA) for 13 weeks. The HFD+BSA diet did not significantly alter daily energy expenditure, locomotor activity and RER, but did increase cumulative energy intake and percentage of lean mass while reducing feed efficiency and percentage of fat mass when compared with the HFD (Plevels of PPARα (PPARA), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1b) and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3), but reduced the mRNA level of leptin when compared with the HFD (Plevels of PPARA, CPT1b and UCP3 were negatively correlated (Plevels compared with the HFD (Plevels were associated with the percentage of fat mass (Plevels via SAT mass reduction where mRNA levels of genes linked to β-oxidation were increased, whereas differences in plasma corticosterone levels were not related to fat mass reduction.

  11. A ketogenic diet reduces metabolic syndrome-induced allodynia and promotes peripheral nerve growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Michael A; Menta, Blaise W; Perez-Sanchez, Consuelo; Jack, Megan M; Khan, Zair W; Ryals, Janelle M; Winter, Michelle; Wright, Douglas E

    2018-08-01

    Current experiments investigated whether a ketogenic diet impacts neuropathy associated with obesity and prediabetes. Mice challenged with a ketogenic diet were compared to mice fed a high-fat diet or a high-fat diet plus exercise. Additionally, an intervention switching to a ketogenic diet following 8 weeks of high-fat diet was performed to compare how a control diet, exercise, or a ketogenic diet affects metabolic syndrome-induced neural complications. When challenged with a ketogenic diet, mice had reduced bodyweight and fat mass compared to high-fat-fed mice, and were similar to exercised, high-fat-fed mice. High-fat-fed, exercised and ketogenic-fed mice had mildly elevated blood glucose; conversely, ketogenic diet-fed mice were unique in having reduced serum insulin levels. Ketogenic diet-fed mice never developed mechanical allodynia contrary to mice fed a high-fat diet. Ketogenic diet fed mice also had increased epidermal axon density compared all other groups. When a ketogenic diet was used as an intervention, a ketogenic diet was unable to reverse high-fat fed-induced metabolic changes but was able to significantly reverse a high-fat diet-induced mechanical allodynia. As an intervention, a ketogenic diet also increased epidermal axon density. In vitro studies revealed increased neurite outgrowth in sensory neurons from mice fed a ketogenic diet and in neurons from normal diet-fed mice given ketone bodies in the culture medium. These results suggest a ketogenic diet can prevent certain complications of prediabetes and provides significant benefits to peripheral axons and sensory dysfunction. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Relation between the amount of dissolved water and metals dissolved from stainless steel or aluminum plate in safflower oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takasago, Masahisa; Takaoka, Kyo

    1986-12-01

    The amount of water dissolved in safflower oil at the frying temperature (180 deg C) was 518 -- 1012 ppM, allowing water to drop continuously (0.035 g/2 min) into the oil for 1 -- 3 h. When the oil was heated with metal plates under the same conditions, the amount of dissolved water in the oil increased more than in the absence of the metal plates. In case of stainless steel, the amount was 1.26 to 1.33 times, and with aluminum plates, 1.06 to 1.13 times the amount without plates. When these metal plates were heated with the oil under the above conditions, the water dissolved the metal of the plates into the oil. In case of stainless steel, iron dissolved from 0.17 to 0.77 ppM, nickel, 0.04 ppM and chromium, from 0.02 to 0.03 ppM. Similarly, the amount of aluminum dissolved from the aluminum plate was from 0.10 to 0.45 ppM.

  13. In vitro synergistic efficacy of conjugated linoleic acid, oleic acid, safflower oil and taxol cytotoxicity on PC3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kızılşahin, Sadi; Nalbantsoy, Ayşe; Yavaşoğlu, N Ülkü Karabay

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine in vitro synergistic efficacy of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), oleic acid (OLA), safflower oil and taxol (Tax) cytotoxicity on human prostate cancer (PC3) cell line. To determine synergistic efficacy of oil combinations, PC3 treated with different doses of compounds alone and combined with 10 μg/mL Tax. The MTT results indicated that OLA-Tax combinations exhibited cytotoxicity against PC3 at doses of 30 nM+10 μg-Tax, 15 nM+5 μg-Tax and 7.5 nM+2.5 μg-Tax. The treatment of OLA or Tax did not show significant inhibition on PC3, while OLA-Tax combinations showed effective cytotoxicity at treated doses. CLA-Tax combinations demonstrated the same effect on PC3 as combined form with 45.72% versus the alone form as 74.51% viability. Cytotoxic synergy between Tax, OLA and CLA shows enhanced cytotoxicity on PC3 which might be used in the therapy of prostate cancer.

  14. Parenteral safflower oil emulsion (Liposyn 10%): safety and effectiveness in treating or preventing essential fatty acid deficiency in surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivins, B A; Rapp, R P; Record, K; Meng, H C; Griffen, W O

    1980-01-01

    The safety and effectiveness of a 10% safflower oil emulsion in treating or preventing essential fatty acid deficiency was tested in a prospective study of 15 surgical patients requiring total parenteral nutrition for two to four weeks. Three dosage regimens were evaluated including: Group I: 4% of calories as linoleate daily (five patients), Group II: 4% of calories as linoleate every other day (two patients), and Group III: 8% of calories every other day (eight patients). Patients were monitored for laboratory changes from baseline specifically in those areas where previous fat emulsions have caused serious deviations. No significant changes were noted in hematologic parameters, coagulation studies, cholesterol and triglyceride serum levels. Although there were sporadic mild deviations in liver function changes in several patients, no clinically significant adverse effects could be directly attributed to infusion of the fat emulsion. Three patients had baseline triene/tetraene ratios of 0.4 or greater, indicative of essential fatty/acid deficiency, and these ratios dropped to less than 0.4 within eight days of beginning therapy with the parenteral fat emulsion. The remaining 12 patients maintained a normal triene/tetraene ratio of less than 0.4 throughout the 28 day study period. All three dosage regimens were considered effective for treatment and prevention of essential fatty acid deficiency. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:6767452

  15. Formulation of Zero-Trans Crystalized Fats Produced from Palm Stearin and High Oleic Safflower Oil Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nydia E. Buitimea-Cantúa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High intake of trans fat is associated with several chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Fat blends, produced by direct blending process of palm stearin (PS with high oleic safflower oil (HOSO in different concentrations, were investigated. The effects of the PS addition (50, 70, or 90% and the rate of agitation (RA (1000, 2000, or 3000 rpm on physical properties, fatty acid profile (FAP, trans fatty acids (TFA, crystal structure, and consistency were researched. The blend containing 50% of each sort of oil (50% PS/50% HOSO showed that melting point and features were similar to the control shortening. The saturated fatty acids (SFA were higher followed by monounsaturated (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. Significant differences in the content of palmitic and oleic acids among blends were observed. The 50% PS/50% HOSO blend contained higher oleic acid (42.9% whereas the 90% PS/10% HOSO was higher in palmitic acid (56.9%. The blending of PS/HOSO promoted the β crystal polymorphic forms. The direct blending process of equal amounts of PS and HOSO was an adequate strategy to formulate a new zero-trans crystallized vegetable fats with characteristics similar to commercial counterparts with well-balanced fats rich in both omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids.

  16. The relation between the amount of dissolved water and metals dissolved from stainless steel or aluminum plate in safflower oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takasago, Masahisa; Takaoka, Kyo

    1986-01-01

    The amount of water dissolved in safflower oil at the frying temperature (180 deg C) was 518 ∼ 1012 ppm, allowing water to drop continuously (0.035 g/2 min) into the oil for 1 ∼ 3 h. When the oil was heated with metal plates under the same conditions, the amount of dissolved water in the oil increased more than in the absence of the metal plates. In case of stainless steel, the amount was 1.26 to 1.33 times, and with aluminum plates, 1.06 to 1.13 times the amount without plates. When these metal plates were heated with the oil under the above conditions, the water dissolved the metal of the plates into the oil. In case of stainless steel, iron dissolved from 0.17 to 0.77 ppm, nickel, 0.04 ppm and chromium, from 0.02 to 0.03 ppm. Similarly, the amount of aluminum dissolved from the aluminum plate was from 0.10 to 0.45 ppm. (author)

  17. Changes of Chlorophyll Index (SPAD, Relative Water Content, Electrolyte Leakage and Seed Yield in Spring Safflower Genotypes under Irrigation Termination

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    B.E. Moosavifar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of irrigation termination and genotype on chlorophyll index (SPAD, relative water content, electrolyte leakage and seed yield in spring safflower, an experiment was conducted, in a spilt plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with four replications at Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, the University of Birjand, during 2008. Irrigation regimes (full irrigation (whole season irrigation, irrigation until grain filling, flowering and heading-bud and genotypes (Mahali Isfahan (a local variety, Isfahan28 and IL111 were arranged in main and subplots, respectively. Results showed chlorophyll content, relative water content, cell membrane stability and seed yield were influenced by irrigation termination. Provided that with terminating irrigation at an earlier stage, an increase in electrolyte leakage and reduction in relative water content and s