WorldWideScience

Sample records for mice displayed strikingly

  1. Female preproenkephalin-knockout mice display altered emotional responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragnauth, A.; Schuller, A.; Morgan, M.; Chan, J.; Ogawa, S.; Pintar, J.; Bodnar, R. J.; Pfaff, D. W.

    2001-01-01

    The endogenous opioid system has been implicated in sexual behavior, palatable intake, fear, and anxiety. The present study examined whether ovariectomized female transgenic preproenkephalin-knockout (PPEKO) mice and their wild-type and heterozygous controls displayed alterations in fear and anxiety paradigms, sucrose intake, and lordotic behavior. To examine stability of responding, three squads of the genotypes were tested across seasons over a 20-month period. In a fear-conditioning paradigm, PPEKO mice significantly increased freezing to both fear and fear + shock stimuli relative to controls. In the open field, PPEKO mice spent significantly less time and traversed significantly less distance in the center of an open field than wild-type controls. Further, PPEKO mice spent significantly less time and tended to be less active on the light side of a dark–light chamber than controls, indicating that deletion of the enkephalin gene resulted in exaggerated responses to fear or anxiety-provoking environments. These selective deficits were observed consistently across testing squads spanning 20 months and different seasons. In contrast, PPEKO mice failed to differ from corresponding controls in sucrose, chow, or water intake across a range (0.0001–20%) of sucrose concentrations and failed to differ in either lordotic or female approach to male behaviors when primed with estradiol and progesterone, thereby arguing strongly for the selectivity of a fear and anxiety deficit which was not caused by generalized and nonspecific debilitation. These transgenic data strongly suggest that opioids, and particularly enkephalin gene products, are acting naturally to inhibit fear and anxiety. PMID:11172058

  2. Cyclic GMP-AMP Displays Mucosal Adjuvant Activity in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Škrnjug, Ivana; Guzmán, Carlos Alberto; Ruecker, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The recently discovered mammalian enzyme cyclic GMP-AMP synthase produces cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) after being activated by pathogen-derived cytosolic double stranded DNA. The product can stimulate STING-dependent interferon type I signaling. Here, we explore the efficacy of cGAMP as a mucosal adjuvant in mice. We show that cGAMP can enhance the adaptive immune response to the model antigen ovalbumin. It promotes antigen specific IgG and a balanced Th1/Th2 lymphocyte response in immunized mice....

  3. Transthyretin knockout mice display decreased susceptibility to AMPA-induced neurodegeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunes, Ana Filipa; Montero, Maria; Franquinho, Filipa

    2009-01-01

    Transthyretin (TTR) has been regarded as a neuroprotective protein given that TTR knockout (KO) mice display increased susceptibility for amyloid beta deposition and memory deficits during aging. In parallel, TTR KO mice have increased levels of neuropeptide Y (NPY), which promotes neuroprotectio...

  4. Cyclic GMP-AMP displays mucosal adjuvant activity in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Škrnjug

    Full Text Available The recently discovered mammalian enzyme cyclic GMP-AMP synthase produces cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP after being activated by pathogen-derived cytosolic double stranded DNA. The product can stimulate STING-dependent interferon type I signaling. Here, we explore the efficacy of cGAMP as a mucosal adjuvant in mice. We show that cGAMP can enhance the adaptive immune response to the model antigen ovalbumin. It promotes antigen specific IgG and a balanced Th1/Th2 lymphocyte response in immunized mice. A characteristic of the cGAMP-induced immune response is the slightly reduced induction of interleukin-17 as a hallmark of Th17 activity--a distinct feature that is not observed with other cyclic di-nucleotide adjuvants. We further characterize the innate immune stimulation activity in vitro on murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and human dendritic cells. The observed results suggest the consideration of cGAMP as a candidate mucosal adjuvant for human vaccines.

  5. Cyclic GMP-AMP displays mucosal adjuvant activity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škrnjug, Ivana; Guzmán, Carlos Alberto; Rueckert, Christine; Ruecker, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The recently discovered mammalian enzyme cyclic GMP-AMP synthase produces cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) after being activated by pathogen-derived cytosolic double stranded DNA. The product can stimulate STING-dependent interferon type I signaling. Here, we explore the efficacy of cGAMP as a mucosal adjuvant in mice. We show that cGAMP can enhance the adaptive immune response to the model antigen ovalbumin. It promotes antigen specific IgG and a balanced Th1/Th2 lymphocyte response in immunized mice. A characteristic of the cGAMP-induced immune response is the slightly reduced induction of interleukin-17 as a hallmark of Th17 activity--a distinct feature that is not observed with other cyclic di-nucleotide adjuvants. We further characterize the innate immune stimulation activity in vitro on murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and human dendritic cells. The observed results suggest the consideration of cGAMP as a candidate mucosal adjuvant for human vaccines.

  6. Transgenic mice expressing constitutive active MAPKAPK5 display gender-dependent differences in exploration and activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moens Ugo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mitogen-activated protein kinases, MAPKs for short, constitute cascades of signalling pathways involved in the regulation of several cellular processes that include cell proliferation, differentiation and motility. They also intervene in neurological processes like fear conditioning and memory. Since little remains known about the MAPK-Activated Protein Kinase, MAPKAPK5, we constructed the first MAPKAPK knockin mouse model, using a constitutive active variant of MAPKAPK5 and analyzed the resulting mice for changes in anxiety-related behaviour. Methods We performed primary SHIRPA observations during background breeding into the C57BL/6 background and assessed the behaviour of the background-bred animals on the elevated plus maze and in the light-dark test. Our results were analyzed using Chi-square tests and homo- and heteroscedatic T-tests. Results Female transgenic mice displayed increased amounts of head dips and open arm time on the maze, compared to littermate controls. In addition, they also explored further into the open arm on the elevated plus maze and were less active in the closed arm compared to littermate controls. Male transgenic mice displayed no differences in anxiety, but their locomotor activity increased compared to non-transgenic littermates. Conclusion Our results revealed anxiety-related traits and locomotor differences between transgenic mice expressing constitutive active MAPKAPK5 and control littermates.

  7. Mice deficient in transmembrane prostatic acid phosphatase display increased GABAergic transmission and neurological alterations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi O Nousiainen

    Full Text Available Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP, the first diagnostic marker and present therapeutic target for prostate cancer, modulates nociception at the dorsal root ganglia (DRG, but its function in the central nervous system has remained unknown. We studied expression and function of TMPAP (the transmembrane isoform of PAP in the brain by utilizing mice deficient in TMPAP (PAP-/- mice. Here we report that TMPAP is expressed in a subpopulation of cerebral GABAergic neurons, and mice deficient in TMPAP show multiple behavioral and neurochemical features linked to hyperdopaminergic dysregulation and altered GABAergic transmission. In addition to increased anxiety, disturbed prepulse inhibition, increased synthesis of striatal dopamine, and augmented response to amphetamine, PAP-deficient mice have enlarged lateral ventricles, reduced diazepam-induced loss of righting reflex, and increased GABAergic tone in the hippocampus. TMPAP in the mouse brain is localized presynaptically, and colocalized with SNARE-associated protein snapin, a protein involved in synaptic vesicle docking and fusion, and PAP-deficient mice display altered subcellular distribution of snapin. We have previously shown TMPAP to reside in prostatic exosomes and we propose that TMPAP is involved in the control of GABAergic tone in the brain also through exocytosis, and that PAP deficiency produces a distinct neurological phenotype.

  8. Transgenic mice display hair loss and regrowth overexpressing mutant Hr gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kuicheng; Xu, Cunshuan; Zhang, Jintao; Chen, Yingying; Liu, Mengduan

    2017-10-30

    Mutations in the hairless (Hr) gene in both mice and humans have been implicated in the development of congenital atrichia, but the role of Hr in skin and hair follicle (HF) biology remains unknown. Here, we established transgenic mice (TG) overexpressing mutant Hr to investigate its specific role in the development of HF. Three transgenic lines were successfully constructed, and two of them (TG3 and TG8) displayed a pattern of hair loss and regrowth with alternation in the expression of HR protein. The mutant Hr gene inhibited the expression of the endogenous gene in transgenic individuals, which led to the development of alopecia. Interestingly, the hair regrew with the increase in the endogenous expression levels resulting from decreased mutant Hr expression. The findings of our study indicate that the changes in the expression of Hr result in hair loss or regrowth.

  9. Mice deficient in phosphodiesterase-4A display anxiogenic-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Rolf T; Conti, Marco; Zhang, Han-Ting

    2014-08-01

    Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are a super family of enzymes responsible for the halting of intracellular cyclic nucleotide signaling and may represent novel therapeutic targets for treatment of cognitive disorders. PDE4 is of considerable interest to cognitive research because it is highly expressed in the brain, particularly in the cognition-related brain regions. Recently, the functional role of PDE4B and PDE4D, two of the four PDE4 subtypes (PDE4A, B, C, and D), in behavior has begun to be identified; however, the role of PDE4A in the regulation of behavior is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to characterize the functional role of PDE4A in behavior. The role of PDE4A in behavior was evaluated through a battery of behavioral tests using PDE4A knockout (KO) mice; urine corticosterone levels were also measured. PDE4A KO mice exhibited improved memory in the step-through-passive-avoidance test. They also displayed anxiogenic-like behavior in elevated-plus maze, holeboard, light-dark transition, and novelty suppressed feeding tests. Consistent with the anxiety profile, PDE4A KO mice had elevated corticosterone levels compared with wild-type controls post-stress. Interestingly, PDE4A KO mice displayed no change in object recognition, Morris water maze, forced swim, tail suspension, and duration of anesthesia induced by co-administration of xylazine and ketamine (suggesting that PDE4A KO may not be emetic). These results suggest that PDE4A may be important in the regulation of emotional memory and anxiety-like behavior, but not emesis. PDE4A could possibly represent a novel therapeutic target in the future for anxiety or disorders affecting memory.

  10. Baculovirus virions displaying Plasmodium berghei circumsporozoite protein protect mice against malaria sporozoite infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Shigeto; Kondoh, Daisuke; Arai, Eriko; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki; Seki, Chisato; Tanaka, Takao; Okada, Masaji; Ishii, Akira

    2003-01-01

    The display of foreign proteins on the surface of baculovirus virions has provided a tool for the analysis of protein-protein interactions and for cell-specific targeting in gene transfer applications. To evaluate the baculovirus display system as a vaccine vehicle, we have generated a recombinant baculovirus (AcNPV-CSPsurf) that displays rodent malaria Plasmodium berghei circumsporozoite protein (PbCSP) on the virion surface as a fusion protein with the major baculovirus envelope glycoprotein gp64. The PbCSP-gp64 fusion protein was incorporated and oligomerized on the virion surface and led to a 12-fold increase in the binding activity of AcNPV-CSPsurf virions to HepG2 cells. Immunization with adjuvant-free AcNPV-CSPsurf virions induced high levels of antibodies and gamma interferon-secreting cells against PbCSP and protected 60% of mice against sporozoite challenge. These data demonstrate that AcNPV-CSPsurf displays sporozoite-like PbCSP on the virion surface and possesses dual potentials as a malaria vaccine candidate and a liver-directed gene delivery vehicle

  11. Striking Clepsydras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Moon-Hyon

    The term "Striking Clepsydra" is a shortened translation of the Korean name Jagyeongnu (自擊漏, tzu-chi lou in Chinese, literally "automatic-striking water-clock"). It was given to the two monumental time-keeping installations built by chief court engineer Yeong-sil Jang in AD 1432-38 under King Sejong (r. AD 1418-50) of the Joseon dynasty (1392-1910) in Seoul. These were housed separately in the Gyeongbok palace complex as major installations of the Royal Observatory Ganuidae equipped during 1432-38. One was the Striking Palace Clepsydra Borugangnu that was employed as the standard time-keeper from 1434, and the other was the Striking Heavenly Clepsydra Heumgyeonggangnu that was put into use not only as the symbol of Neo-Confucian ideology from 1438, but also as a demonstrational orrery and time-keeper. These were restored several times through the dynasty after loss by fires and warfare, and clepsydra-making technologies were succeeded by the development of armillary clocks in 1669. The National Palace Museum of Korea recreated the 1434 Striking Palace Clepsydra of King Sejong, and the replica was installed for permanent exhibition from November 2007.

  12. Adenovirus Particles that Display the Plasmodium falciparum Circumsporozoite Protein NANP Repeat Induce Sporozoite-Neutralizing Antibodies in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Palma, Christopher; Overstreet, Michael G.; Guedon, Jean-Marc; Hoiczyk, Egbert; Ward, Cameron; Karen, Kasey A.; Zavala, Fidel; Ketner, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Adenovirus particles can be engineered to display exogenous peptides on their surfaces by modification of viral capsid proteins, and particles that display pathogen-derived peptides can induce protective immunity. We constructed viable recombinant adenoviruses that display B-cell epitopes from the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP) in the major adenovirus capsid protein, hexon. Recombinants induced high-titer antibodies against CSP when injected intraperitoneally into mice...

  13. Mice with Sort1 deficiency display normal cognition but elevated anxiety-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Chun-Sheng; Yang, Chun-Rui; Li, Jia-Yi; Luo, Hai-Yun; Bobrovskaya, Larisa; Zhou, Xin-Fu

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to stressful life events plays a central role in the development of mood disorders in vulnerable individuals. However, the mechanisms that link mood disorders to stress are poorly understood. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has long been implicated in positive regulation of depression and anxiety, while its precursor (proBDNF) recently showed an opposing effect on such mental illnesses. P75(NTR) and sortilin are co-receptors of proBDNF, however, the role of these receptors in mood regulation is not established. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of sortilin in regulating mood-related behaviors and its role in the proBDNF-mediated mood abnormality in mice. We found that sortilin was up-regulated in neocortex (by 78.3%) and hippocampus (by 111%) of chronically stressed mice as assessed by western blot analysis. These changes were associated with decreased mobility in the open field test and increased depression-like behavior in the forced swimming test. We also found that sortilin deficiency in mice resulted in hyperlocomotion in the open field test and increased anxiety-like behavior in both the open field and elevated plus maze tests. No depression-like behavior in the forced swimming test and no deficit in spatial cognition in the Morris water maze test were found in the Sort1-deficient mice. Moreover, the intracellular and extracellular levels of mature BDNF and proBDNF were not changed when sortilin was absent in vivo and in vitro. Finally, we found that both WT and Sort1-deficient mice injected with proBDNF in lateral ventricle displayed increased depression-like behavior in the forced swimming test but not anxiety-like behaviors in the open field and elevated plus maze tests. The present study suggests that sortilin functions as a negative regulator of mood performance and can be a therapeutic target for the treatment of mental illness. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Insulin signaling displayed a differential tissue-specific response to low-dose dihydrotestosterone in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrisse, Stanley; Billings, Katelyn; Xue, Ping; Wu, Sheng

    2018-04-01

    Hyperandrogenemia and hyperinsulinemia are believed to play prominent roles in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). We explored the effects of low-dose dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a model of PCOS, on insulin signaling in metabolic and reproductive tissues in a female mouse model. Insulin resistance in the energy storage tissues is associated with type 2 diabetes. Insulin signaling in the ovaries and pituitary either directly or indirectly stimulates androgen production. Energy storage and reproductive tissues were isolated and molecular assays were performed. Livers and white adipose tissue (WAT) from DHT mice displayed lower mRNA and protein expression of insulin signaling intermediates. However, ovaries and pituitaries of DHT mice exhibited higher expression levels of insulin signaling genes/proteins. Insulin-stimulated p-AKT levels were blunted in the livers and WAT of the DHT mice but increased or remained the same in the ovaries and pituitaries compared with controls. Glucose uptake decreased in liver and WAT but was unchanged in pituitary and ovary of DHT mice. Plasma membrane GLUTs were decreased in liver and WAT but increased in ovary and pituitary of DHT mice. Skeletal muscle insulin-signaling genes were not lowered in DHT mice compared with control. DHT mice did not display skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Insulin-stimulated glucose transport increased in skeletal muscles of DHT mice compared with controls. DHT mice were hyperinsulinemic. However, the differential mRNA and protein expression pattern was independent of hyperinsulinemia in cultured hepatocytes and pituitary cells. These findings demonstrate a differential effect of DHT on the insulin-signaling pathway in energy storage vs. reproductive tissues independent of hyperinsulinemia.

  15. Adenovirus Particles that Display the Plasmodium falciparum Circumsporozoite Protein NANP Repeat Induce Sporozoite-Neutralizing Antibodies in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Christopher; Overstreet, Michael G.; Guedon, Jean-Marc; Hoiczyk, Egbert; Ward, Cameron; Karen, Kasey A.; Zavala, Fidel; Ketner, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Adenovirus particles can be engineered to display exogenous peptides on their surfaces by modification of viral capsid proteins, and particles that display pathogen-derived peptides can induce protective immunity. We constructed viable recombinant adenoviruses that display B-cell epitopes from the Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP) in the major adenovirus capsid protein, hexon. Recombinants induced high-titer antibodies against CSP when injected intraperitoneally into mice. Serum obtained from immunized mice recognized both recombinant PfCSP protein and P. falciparum sporozoites, and neutralized P. falciparum sporozoites in vitro. Replicating adenovirus vaccines have provided economical protection against adenovirus disease for over three decades. The recombinants described here may provide a path to an affordable malaria vaccine in the developing world. PMID:21199707

  16. Norepinephrine-Induced Adrenergic Activation Strikingly Increased the Atrial Fibrillation Duration through β1- and α1-Adrenergic Receptor-Mediated Signaling in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Suita

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common arrhythmias among old people. It causes serious long-term health problems affecting the quality of life. It has been suggested that the autonomic nervous system is involved in the onset and maintenance of AF in human. However, investigation of its pathogenesis and potential treatment has been hampered by the lack of suitable AF models in experimental animals.Our aim was to establish a long-lasting AF model in mice. We also investigated the role of adrenergic receptor (AR subtypes, which may be involved in the onset and duration of AF.Trans-esophageal atrial burst pacing in mice could induce AF, as previously shown, but with only a short duration (29.0 ± 8.1 sec. We found that adrenergic activation by intraperitoneal norepinephrine (NE injection strikingly increased the AF duration. It increased the duration to more than 10 minutes, i.e., by more than 20-fold (656.2 ± 104.8 sec; P<0.001. In this model, a prior injection of a specific β1-AR blocker metoprolol and an α1-AR blocker prazosin both significantly attenuated NE-induced elongation of AF. To further explore the mechanisms underlying these receptors' effects on AF, we assessed the SR Ca(2+ leak, a major trigger of AF, and consequent spontaneous SR Ca(2+ release (SCR in atrial myocytes. Consistent with the results of our in-vivo experiments, both metoprolol and prazosin significantly inhibited the NE-induced SR Ca(2+ leak and SCR. These findings suggest that both β1-AR and α1-AR may play important roles in the development of AF.We have established a long-lasting AF model in mice induced by adrenergic activation, which will be valuable in future AF study using experimental animals, such as transgenic mice. We also revealed the important role of β1- and α1-AR-mediated signaling in the development of AF through in-vivo and in-vitro experiments.

  17. The secreted L-arabinose isomerase displays anti-hyperglycemic effects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhimi, Moez; Bermudez-Humaran, Luis G; Huang, Yuan; Boudebbouze, Samira; Gaci, Nadia; Garnier, Alexandrine; Gratadoux, Jean-Jacques; Mkaouar, Héla; Langella, Philippe; Maguin, Emmanuelle

    2015-12-21

    The L-arabinose isomerase is an intracellular enzyme which converts L-arabinose into L-ribulose in living systems and D-galactose into D-tagatose in industrial processes and at industrial scales. D-tagatose is a natural ketohexose with potential uses in pharmaceutical and food industries. The D-galactose isomerization reaction is thermodynamically equilibrated, and leads to secondary subproducts at high pH. Therefore, an attractive L-arabinose isomerase should be thermoactive and acidotolerant with high catalytic efficiency. While many reports focused on the set out of a low cost process for the industrial production of D-tagatose, these procedures remain costly. When compared to intracellular enzymes, the production of extracellular ones constitutes an interesting strategy to increase the suitability of the biocatalysts. The L-arabinose isomerase (L-AI) from Lactobacillus sakei was expressed in Lactococcus lactis in fusion with the signal peptide of usp45 (SP(Usp45)). The L-AI protein and activity were detected only in the supernatant of the induced cultures of the recombinant L. lactis demonstrating the secretion in the medium of the intracellular L. sakei L-AI in an active form. Moreover, we showed an improvement in the enzyme secretion using either (1) L. lactis strains deficient for their two major proteases, ClpP and HtrA, or (2) an enhancer of protein secretion in L. lactis fused to the recombinant L-AI with the SP(Usp45). Th L-AI enzyme secreted by the recombinant L. lactis strains or produced intracellularly in E. coli, showed the same functional properties than the native enzyme. Furthermore, when mice are fed with the L. lactis strain secreting the L-AI and galactose, tagatose was produced in vivo and reduced the glycemia index. We report for the first time the secretion of the intracellular L-arabinose isomerase in the supernatant of food grade L. lactis cultures with hardly display other secreted proteins. The secreted L-AI originated from the food

  18. Akt2/LDLr double knockout mice display impaired glucose tolerance and develop more complex atherosclerotic plaques than LDLr knockout mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensing, Katrijn L.; de Jager, Saskia C. A.; Stroes, Erik S.; Vos, Mariska; Twickler, Marcel Th B.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; de Vries, Carlie J. M.; Kuiper, Johan; Bot, Ilze; von der Thüsen, Jan H.

    2014-01-01

    To characterize the phenotype of Akt2/low-density-lipoprotein receptor double knockout (dKO) (Akt2/LDLr dKO) mice with respect to insulin resistance and features of atherosclerotic plaque progression. Metabolic profile and atherosclerotic plaque progression were compared between LDLr KO mice and

  19. Adult Gli2+/-;Gli3Δ699/+ Male and Female Mice Display a Spectrum of Genital Malformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei He

    Full Text Available Disorders of sexual development (DSD encompass a broad spectrum of urogenital malformations and are amongst the most common congenital birth defects. Although key genetic factors such as the hedgehog (Hh family have been identified, a unifying postnatally viable model displaying the spectrum of male and female urogenital malformations has not yet been reported. Since human cases are diagnosed and treated at various stages postnatally, equivalent mouse models enabling analysis at similar stages are of significant interest. Additionally, all non-Hh based genetic models investigating DSD display normal females, leaving female urogenital development largely unknown. Here, we generated compound mutant mice, Gli2+/-;Gli3Δ699/+, which exhibit a spectrum of urogenital malformations in both males and females upon birth, and also carried them well into adulthood. Analysis of embryonic day (E18.5 and adult mice revealed shortened anogenital distance (AGD, open ventral urethral groove, incomplete fusion of scrotal sac, abnormal penile size and structure, and incomplete testicular descent with hypoplasia in male mice, whereas female mutant mice displayed reduced AGD, urinary incontinence, and a number of uterine anomalies such as vaginal duplication. Male and female fertility was also investigated via breeding cages, and it was identified that male mice were infertile while females were unable to deliver despite becoming impregnated. We propose that Gli2+/-;Gli3Δ699/+ mice can serve as a genetic mouse model for common DSD such as cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and incomplete fusion of the scrotal sac in males, and a spectrum of uterine and vaginal abnormalities along with urinary incontinence in females, which could prove essential in revealing new insights into their equivalent diseases in humans.

  20. Myg1-deficient mice display alterations in stress-induced responses and reduction of sex-dependent behavioural differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Mari-Anne; Abramov, Urho; Lilleväli, Kersti; Luuk, Hendrik; Kurrikoff, Kaido; Raud, Sirli; Plaas, Mario; Innos, Jürgen; Puussaar, Triinu; Kõks, Sulev; Vasar, Eero

    2010-02-11

    Myg1 (Melanocyte proliferating gene 1) is a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed gene, which encodes a protein with mitochondrial and nuclear localization. In the current study we demonstrate a gradual decline of Myg1 expression during the postnatal development of the mouse brain that suggests relevance for Myg1 in developmental processes. To study the effects of Myg1 loss-of-function, we created Myg1-deficient (-/-) mice by displacing the entire coding sequence of the gene. Initial phenotyping, covering a multitude of behavioural, cognitive, neurological, physiological and stress-related responses, revealed that homozygous Myg1 (-/-) mice are vital, fertile and display no gross abnormalities. Myg1 (-/-) mice showed an inconsistent pattern of altered anxiety-like behaviour in different tests. The plus-maze and social interaction tests revealed that male Myg1 (-/-) mice were significantly less anxious than their wild-type littermates; female (-/-) mice showed increased anxiety in the locomotor activity arena. Restraint-stress significantly reduced the expression of the Myg1 gene in the prefrontal cortex of female wild-type mice and restrained female (-/-) mice showed a blunted corticosterone response, suggesting involvement of Myg1 in stress-induced responses. The main finding of the present study was that Myg1 invalidation decreases several behavioural differences between male and female animals that were obvious in wild-type mice, indicating that Myg1 contributes to the expression of sex-dependent behavioural differences in mice. Taken together, we provide evidence for the involvement of Myg1 in anxiety- and stress-related responses and suggest that Myg1 contributes to the expression of sex-dependent behavioural differences.

  1. Mice lacking the synaptic adhesion molecule Neph2/Kirrel3 display moderate hyperactivity and defective novel object preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yeon eChoi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic adhesion molecules regulate diverse aspects of neuronal synapse development, including synapse specificity, formation, and maturation. Neph2, also known as Kirrel3, is an immunoglobulin superfamily adhesion molecule implicated in intellectual disability, neurocognitive delay associated with Jacobsen syndrome, and autism spectrum disorders. We here report mice lacking Neph2 (Neph2–/– mice display moderate hyperactivity in a familiar but not novel environment and novel object recognition deficit with normal performances in Morris water maze spatial learning and memory, contextual fear conditioning and extinction, and pattern separation tests. These mice show normal levels of anxiety-like behaviors, social interaction, and repetitive behaviors. At the synapse level, Neph2–/– dentate gyrus granule cells exhibit unaltered dendritic spine density and spontaneous excitatory synaptic transmission. These results suggest that Neph2 is important for normal locomotor activity and object recognition memory.

  2. LRRK2 knockout mice have an intact dopaminergic system but display alterations in exploratory and motor co-ordination behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the LRRK2 gene are the most common cause of genetic Parkinson’s disease. Although the mechanisms behind the pathogenic effects of LRRK2 mutations are still not clear, data emerging from in vitro and in vivo models suggests roles in regulating neuronal polarity, neurotransmission, membrane and cytoskeletal dynamics and protein degradation. We created mice lacking exon 41 that encodes the activation hinge of the kinase domain of LRRK2. We have performed a comprehensive analysis of these mice up to 20 months of age, including evaluation of dopamine storage, release, uptake and synthesis, behavioral testing, dendritic spine and proliferation/neurogenesis analysis. Our results show that the dopaminergic system was not functionally comprised in LRRK2 knockout mice. However, LRRK2 knockout mice displayed abnormal exploratory activity in the open-field test. Moreover, LRRK2 knockout mice stayed longer than their wild type littermates on the accelerated rod during rotarod testing. Finally, we confirm that loss of LRRK2 caused degeneration in the kidney, accompanied by a progressive enhancement of autophagic activity and accumulation of autofluorescent material, but without evidence of biphasic changes. PMID:22647713

  3. Wfs1-deficient mice display altered function of serotonergic system and increased behavioural response to antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanel eVisnapuu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that mutations in the WFS1 gene make humans more susceptible to mood disorders. Besides that, mood disorders are associated with alterations in the activity of serotonergic and noradrenergic systems. Therefore, in this study, the effects of imipramine, an inhibitor of serotonin (5-HT and noradrenaline (NA reuptake, and paroxetine, a selective inhibitor of 5-HT reuptake, were studied in tests of behavioural despair. The tail suspension test (TST and forced swimming test (FST were performed in Wfs1-deficient mice. Simultaneously, gene expression and monoamine metabolism studies were conducted to evaluate changes in 5-HT- and NA-ergic systems of Wfs1-deficient mice. The basal immobility time of Wfs1-deficient mice in TST and FST did not differ from that of their wild-type littermates. However, a significant reduction of immobility time in response to lower doses of imipramine and paroxetine was observed in homozygous Wfs1-deficient mice, but not in their wild-type littermates. In gene expression studies, the levels of 5-HT transporter (SERT were significantly reduced in the pons of homozygous animals. Monoamine metabolism was assayed separately in the dorsal and ventral striatum of naive mice and mice exposed for 30 minutes tobrightly lit motility boxes. We found that this aversive challenge caused a significant increase in the levels of 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA, a metabolite of 5-HT, in the ventral and dorsal striatum of wild-type mice, but not in their homozygous littermates. Taken together, the blunted 5-HT metabolism and reduced levels of SERT are a likely reason for the elevated sensitivity of these mice to the action of imipramine and paroxetine. These changes in the pharmacological and neurochemical phenotype of Wfs1-deficient mice may help to explain the increased susceptibility of Wolfram syndrome patients to depressive states.

  4. Slitrk1-deficient mice display elevated anxiety-like behavior and noradrenergic abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, K; Yamada, K; Ornthanalai, V G; Inoue, T; Ota, M; Murphy, N P; Aruga, J

    2010-02-01

    Mutations in SLITRK1 are found in patients with Tourette's syndrome and trichotillomania. SLITRK1 encodes a transmembrane protein containing leucine-rich repeats that is produced predominantly in the nervous system. However, the role of this protein is largely unknown, except that it can modulate neurite outgrowth in vitro. To clarify the role of Slitrk1 in vivo, we developed Slitrk1-knockout mice and analyzed their behavioral and neurochemical phenotypes. Slitrk1-deficient mice exhibited elevated anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze test as well as increased immobility time in forced swimming and tail suspension tests. Neurochemical analysis revealed that Slitrk1-knockout mice had increased levels of norepinephrine and its metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol. Administration of clonidine, an alpha2-adrenergic agonist that is frequently used to treat patients with Tourette's syndrome, attenuated the anxiety-like behavior of Slitrk1-deficient mice in the elevated plus-maze test. These results lead us to conclude that noradrenergic mechanisms are involved in the behavioral abnormalities of Slitrk1-deficient mice. Elevated anxiety due to Slitrk1 dysfunction may contribute to the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric diseases such as Tourette's syndrome and trichotillomania.

  5. Hearts of dystonia musculorum mice display normal morphological and histological features but show signs of cardiac stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin G Boyer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Dystonin is a giant cytoskeletal protein belonging to the plakin protein family and is believed to crosslink the major filament systems in contractile cells. Previous work has demonstrated skeletal muscle defects in dystonin-deficient dystonia musculorum (dt mice. In this study, we show that the dystonin muscle isoform is localized at the Z-disc, the H zone, the sarcolemma and intercalated discs in cardiac tissue. Based on this localization pattern, we tested whether dystonin-deficiency leads to structural defects in cardiac muscle. Desmin intermediate filament, microfilament, and microtubule subcellular organization appeared normal in dt hearts. Nevertheless, increased transcript levels of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF, 66% beta-myosin heavy chain (beta-MHC, 95% and decreased levels of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump isoform 2A (SERCA2a, 26%, all signs of cardiac muscle stress, were noted in dt hearts. Hearts from two-week old dt mice were assessed for the presence of morphological and histological alterations. Heart to body weight ratios as well as left ventricular wall thickness and left chamber volume measurements were similar between dt and wild-type control mice. Hearts from dt mice also displayed no signs of fibrosis or calcification. Taken together, our data provide new insights into the intricate structure of the sarcomere by situating dystonin in cardiac muscle fibers and suggest that dystonin does not significantly influence the structural organization of cardiac muscle fibers during early postnatal development.

  6. Glutaminase-Deficient Mice Display Hippocampal Hypoactivity, Insensitivity to Pro-Psychotic Drugs and Potentiated Latent Inhibition: Relevance to Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaisler-Salomon, Inna; Miller, Gretchen M; Chuhma, Nao; Lee, Sooyeon; Zhang, Hong; Ghoddoussi, Farhad; Lewandowski, Nicole; Fairhurst, Stephen; Wang, Yvonne; Conjard-Duplany, Agnès; Masson, Justine; Balsam, Peter; Hen, René; Arancio, Ottavio; Galloway, Matthew P; Moore, Holly M; Small, Scott A; Rayport, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Dysregulated glutamatergic neurotransmission has been strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SCZ). Recently, presynaptic modulation of glutamate transmission has been shown to have therapeutic promise. We asked whether genetic knockdown of glutaminase (gene GLS1) to reduce glutamatergic transmission presynaptically by slowing the recycling of glutamine to glutamate, would produce a phenotype relevant to SCZ and its treatment. GLS1 heterozygous (GLS1 het) mice showed about a 50% global reduction in glutaminase activity, and a modest reduction in glutamate levels in brain regions relevant to SCZ pathophysiology, but displayed neither general behavioral abnormalities nor SCZ-associated phenotypes. Functional imaging, measuring regional cerebral blood volume, showed hippocampal hypometabolism mainly in the CA1 subregion and subiculum, the inverse of recent clinical imaging findings in prodromal and SCZ patients. GLS1 het mice were less sensitive to the behavioral stimulating effects of amphetamine, showed a reduction in amphetamine-induced striatal dopamine release and in ketamine-induced frontal cortical activation, suggesting that GLS1 het mice are resistant to the effects of these pro-psychotic challenges. Moreover, GLS1 het mice showed clozapine-like potentiation of latent inhibition, suggesting that reduction in glutaminase has antipsychotic-like properties. These observations provide further support for the pivotal role of altered glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the pathophysiology of SCZ, and suggest that presynaptic modulation of the glutamine–glutamate pathway through glutaminase inhibition may provide a new direction for the pharmacotherapy of SCZ. PMID:19516252

  7. Effector and naturally occurring regulatory T cells display no abnormalities in activation induced cell death in NOD mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayelet Kaminitz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Disturbed peripheral negative regulation might contribute to evolution of autoimmune insulitis in type 1 diabetes. This study evaluates the sensitivity of naïve/effector (Teff and regulatory T cells (Treg to activation-induced cell death mediated by Fas cross-linking in NOD and wild-type mice. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Both effector (CD25(-, FoxP3(- and suppressor (CD25(+, FoxP3(+ CD4(+ T cells are negatively regulated by Fas cross-linking in mixed splenocyte populations of NOD, wild type mice and FoxP3-GFP trangeneess. Proliferation rates and sensitivity to Fas cross-linking are dissociated in Treg cells: fast cycling induced by IL-2 and CD3/CD28 stimulation improve Treg resistance to Fas-ligand (FasL in both strains. The effector and suppressor CD4(+ subsets display balanced sensitivity to negative regulation under baseline conditions, IL-2 and CD3/CD28 stimulation, indicating that stimulation does not perturb immune homeostasis in NOD mice. Effective autocrine apoptosis of diabetogenic cells was evident from delayed onset and reduced incidence of adoptive disease transfer into NOD.SCID by CD4(+CD25(- T cells decorated with FasL protein. Treg resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis retain suppressive activity in vitro. The only detectable differential response was reduced Teff proliferation and upregulation of CD25 following CD3-activation in NOD mice. CONCLUSION: These data document negative regulation of effector and suppressor cells by Fas cross-linking and dissociation between sensitivity to apoptosis and proliferation in stimulated Treg. There is no evidence that perturbed AICD in NOD mice initiates or promotes autoimmune insulitis.

  8. Mice genetically depleted of brain serotonin display social impairments, communication deficits and repetitive behaviors: possible relevance to autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Kane

    Full Text Available Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired reciprocal social interaction, communication deficits and repetitive behaviors. A very large number of genes have been linked to autism, many of which encode proteins involved in the development and function of synaptic circuitry. However, the manner in which these mutated genes might participate, either individually or together, to cause autism is not understood. One factor known to exert extremely broad influence on brain development and network formation, and which has been linked to autism, is the neurotransmitter serotonin. Unfortunately, very little is known about how alterations in serotonin neuronal function might contribute to autism. To test the hypothesis that serotonin dysfunction can contribute to the core symptoms of autism, we analyzed mice lacking brain serotonin (via a null mutation in the gene for tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2 for behaviors that are relevant to this disorder. Mice lacking brain serotonin (TPH2-/- showed substantial deficits in numerous validated tests of social interaction and communication. These mice also display highly repetitive and compulsive behaviors. Newborn TPH2-/- mutant mice show delays in the expression of key developmental milestones and their diminished preference for maternal scents over the scent of an unrelated female is a forerunner of more severe socialization deficits that emerge in weanlings and persist into adulthood. Taken together, these results indicate that a hypo-serotonin condition can lead to behavioral traits that are highly characteristic of autism. Our findings should stimulate new studies that focus on determining how brain hyposerotonemia during critical neurodevelopmental periods can alter the maturation of synaptic circuits known to be mis-wired in autism and how prevention of such deficits might prevent this disorder.

  9. Thrombospondin 2-null mice display an altered brain foreign body response to polyvinyl alcohol sponge implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Weiming; Kyriakides, Themis R

    2009-01-01

    Thrombospondin (TSP)-2 is a matricellular protein that participates in the processes of tissue repair and the foreign body response. In addition, TSP2 has been shown to influence synaptogenesis and recovery of the brain following stroke. In the present study we investigated the response following the implantation of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponges in the brain. PVA sponges were implanted into the brain cortex of wild type and TSP2-null mice for a period of 4 and 8 weeks and the response was analyzed by histochemistry and quantitative immunohistochemistry. TSP2 expression was detected in the interstices of the sponge and co-localized with the extracellular matrix and astrocytes. PVA sponge invasion in TSP2-null mice was characterized by dense deposition of extracellular matrix and increased invasion of reactive astrocytes and macrophages/microglia. Furthermore, the angiogenic response was elevated and the detection of mouse serum albumin (MSA) in the brain cortex indicated excessive vessel leakage, suggesting that TSP2 plays a role in the repair/maintenance of the blood brain barrier. Finally, immunostaining demonstrated an increase in the levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9. Taken together, our observations support a role for TSP2 as critical determinant of the brain response to biomaterials.

  10. Pulsed magnetic field from video display terminals enhances teratogenic effects of cytosine arabinoside in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, H.; Wu, R.Y.; Shao, B.J.; Fu, Y.D.; Yao, G.D.; Lu, D.J. [Zhejiang Medical Univ. (China)

    1995-05-01

    Eighty-nine Swiss Webster mice were randomly divided into four groups: a control group, a pulsed magnetic field (PMF) group, a cytosine arabinoside (ara-C, a teratogen) group, and a combined PMF + ara-C group. Mice in the PMF and PMF + ara-C groups were irradiated with a PMF (a sawtooth waveform with 52 {mu}s rise time, 12{mu}s decay time, and 15.6 kHz frequency) at a peak magnetic flux density of 40 {mu}T for 4 hours daily on days 6-17 of gestation. The mice in the ara-C and the PMF + ara-C groups were injected intraperitoneally on day 9 of gestation with 10 mg/kg of ara-C. The incidence of resorption and dead fetuses was not affected by PMF but was increased by ara-C injection. The malformation incidence of cleft palate (CP) and/or cleft lip (CL) was significantly higher in all three of the treated groups than in the control group (P < 0.05). If, however, statistical analyses had been done on litters rather than on individual fetuses, they would show that the incidence of CP and/or CL in the PMF group is not significantly greater than that in the control group. A significantly higher incidence of CP and/or CL was found in the PMF + ara-C group (49%) than the ara-C alone group (26.1%). These data suggest that PMF might enhance the development of ara-C-induced CP and/or CL. The incidence of minor variations in skeletal development, including reduction of skeletal calcification and loss of skeleton, was not statistically significant in the PMF group. However, it was higher in the two ara-C-treated groups, and there was no significant difference between the ara-C alone group and the ara-C + PMF group. From these results it is concluded that the very weak embryotoxic effects of PMF exposure may be revealed and enhanced in combination with a teratogenic agent.

  11. Toxicologic study of electromagnetic radiation emitted by television and video display screens and cellular telephones on chickens and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastide, M.; Youbicier-Simo, B.J.; Lebecq, J.C.; Giaimis, J.; Youbicier-Simo, B.J.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of continuous exposure of chick embryos and young chickens to the electromagnetic fields (EMFs) emitted by video display units (VDUs) and GSM cell phone radiation, either the whole spectrum emitted or attenuated by a copper gauze, were investigated. Permanent exposure to the EMFs radiated by a VDU was associated with significantly increased fetal loss (47-68%) and markedly depressed levels of circulating specific antibodies (lgG), corticosterone and melatonin. We have also shown that under chronic exposure conditions, GSM cell phone radiation was harmful to chick embryos, stressful for healthy mice and, in this species, synergistic with cancer insofar as it depleted stress hormones. The same pathological results were observed after substantial reduction of the microwaves radiated from the cell phone by attenuating them with a copper gauze. (author)

  12. Leiomodin-3-deficient mice display nemaline myopathy with fast-myofiber atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Tian

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nemaline myopathy (NM is one of the most common forms of congenital myopathy, and affects either fast myofibers, slow myofibers, or both. However, an animal model for congenital myopathy with fast-myofiber-specific atrophy is not available. Furthermore, mutations in the leiomodin-3 (LMOD3 gene have recently been identified in a group of individuals with NM. However, it is not clear how loss of LMOD3 leads to NM. Here, we report a mouse mutant in which the piggyBac (PB transposon is inserted into the Lmod3 gene and disrupts its expression. Lmod3PB/PB mice show severe muscle weakness and postnatal growth retardation. Electron microscopy and immunofluorescence studies of the mutant skeletal muscles revealed the presence of nemaline bodies, a hallmark of NM, and disorganized sarcomeric structures. Interestingly, Lmod3 deficiency caused muscle atrophy specific to the fast fibers. Together, our results show that Lmod3 is required in the fast fibers for sarcomere integrity, and this study offers the first NM mouse model with muscle atrophy that is specific to fast fibers. This model could be a valuable resource for interrogating myopathy pathogenesis and developing therapeutics for NM as well as other pathophysiological conditions with preferential atrophy of fast fibers, including cancer cachexia and sarcopenia.

  13. The epidermis of grhl3-null mice displays altered lipid processing and cellular hyperproliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Stephen B; Caddy, Jacinta; Wilanowski, Tomasz; Auden, Alana; Cunningham, John M; Elias, Peter M; Holleran, Walter M; Jane, Stephen M

    2005-04-01

    The presence of an impermeable surface barrier is an essential homeostatic mechanism in almost all living organisms. We have recently described a novel gene that is critical for the developmental instruction and repair of the integument in mammals. This gene, Grainy head-like 3 (Grhl3) is a member of a large family of transcription factors that are homologs of the Drosophila developmental gene grainy head (grh). Mice lacking Grhl3 fail to form an adequate skin barrier, and die at birth due to dehydration. These animals are also unable to repair the epidermis, exhibiting failed wound healing in both fetal and adult stages of development. These defects are due, in part, to diminished expression of a Grhl3 target gene, Transglutaminase 1 (TGase 1), which encodes a key enzyme involved in cross-linking of epidermal structural proteins and lipids into the cornified envelope (CE). Remarkably, the Drosophila grh gene plays an analogous role, regulating enzymes involved in the generation of quinones, which are essential for cross-linking structural components of the fly epidermis. In an extension of our initial analyses, we focus this report on additional defects observed in the Grhl3-null epidermis, namely defective extra-cellular lipid processing, altered lamellar lipid architecture and cellular hyperproliferation. These abnormalities suggest that Grhl3 plays diverse mechanistic roles in maintaining homeostasis in the skin.

  14. Mice with missense and nonsense NF1 mutations display divergent phenotypes compared with human neurofibromatosis type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kairong Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 is a common genetic disorder characterized by the occurrence of nerve sheath tumors and considerable clinical heterogeneity. Some translational studies have been limited by the lack of animal models available for assessing patient-specific mutations. In order to test therapeutic approaches that might restore function to the mutated gene or gene product, we developed mice harboring NF1 patient-specific mutations including a nonsense mutation (c.2041C>T; p.Arg681* and a missense mutation (c.2542G>C; p.Gly848Arg. The latter is associated with the development of multiple plexiform neurofibromas along spinal nerve roots. We demonstrate that the human nonsense NF1Arg681* and missense NF1Gly848Arg mutations have different effects on neurofibromin expression in the mouse and each recapitulates unique aspects of the NF1 phenotype, depending upon the genetic context when assessed in the homozygous state or when paired with a conditional knockout allele. Whereas the missense Nf1Gly848Arg mutation fails to produce an overt phenotype in the mouse, animals homozygous for the nonsense Nf1Arg681* mutation are not viable. Mice with one Nf1Arg681* allele in combination with a conditional floxed Nf1 allele and the DhhCre transgene (Nf14F/Arg681*; DhhCre display disorganized nonmyelinating axons and neurofibromas along the spinal column, which leads to compression of the spinal cord and paralysis. This model will be valuable for preclinical testing of novel nonsense suppression therapies using drugs to target in-frame point mutations that create premature termination codons in individuals with NF1.

  15. Lightning Often Strikes Twice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Contrary to popular misconception, lightning often strikes the same place twice. Certain conditions are just ripe for a bolt of electricity to come zapping down; and a lightning strike is powerful enough to do a lot of damage wherever it hits. NASA created the Accurate Location of Lightning Strikes technology to determine the ground strike point of lightning and prevent electrical damage in the immediate vicinity of the Space Shuttle launch pads at Kennedy Space Center. The area surrounding the launch pads is enmeshed in a network of electrical wires and components, and electronic equipment is highly susceptible to lightning strike damage. The accurate knowledge of the striking point is important so that crews can determine which equipment or system needs to be retested following a strike. Accurate to within a few yards, this technology can locate a lightning strike in the perimeter of the launch pad. As an added bonus, the engineers, then knowing where the lightning struck, can adjust the variables that may be attracting the lightning, to create a zone that will be less susceptible to future strikes.

  16. Options with Extreme Strikes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingjiong Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this short paper, we study the asymptotics for the price of call options for very large strikes and put options for very small strikes. The stock price is assumed to follow the Black–Scholes models. We analyze European, Asian, American, Parisian and perpetual options and conclude that the tail asymptotics for these option types fall into four scenarios.

  17. Obese Mice Fed a Diet Supplemented with Enzyme-Treated Wheat Bran Display Marked Shifts in the Liver Metabolome Concurrent with Altered Gut Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieffer, Dorothy A.; Piccolo, Brian D.; Marco, Maria L.

    2016-01-01

    ) associated with specific microbes may be involved. Objective: The objective of this study was to characterize ETWB-driven shifts in the cecal microbiome and to identify correlates between microbial changes and diet-related differences in liver metabolism in diet-induced obese mice that typically display......Background: Enzyme-treated wheat bran (ETWB) contains a fermentable dietary fiber previously shown to decrease liver triglycerides (TGs) and modify the gut microbiome in mice. It is not clear which mechanisms explain how ETWB feeding affects hepatic metabolism, but factors (i.e., xenometabolites...... steatosis. Methods: Five-week-old male C57BL/6J mice fed a 45%-lard based fat diet supplemented with ETWB (20% wt:wt) or rapidly digestible starch (control) (n = 15/group) for 10 wk were characterized by using a multi-omics approach. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to identify variables that were...

  18. Brain Lateralization in Mice Is Associated with Zinc Signaling and Altered in Prenatal Zinc Deficient Mice That Display Features of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Grabrucker

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have reported changes in the hemispheric dominance in autism spectrum disorder (ASD patients on functional, biochemical, and morphological level. Since asymmetry of the brain is also found in many vertebrates, we analyzed whether prenatal zinc deficient (PZD mice, a mouse model with ASD like behavior, show alterations regarding brain lateralization on molecular and behavioral level. Our results show that hemisphere-specific expression of marker genes is abolished in PZD mice on mRNA and protein level. Using magnetic resonance imaging, we found an increased striatal volume in PZD mice with no change in total brain volume. Moreover, behavioral patterns associated with striatal lateralization are altered and the lateralized expression of dopamine receptor 1 (DR1 in the striatum of PZD mice was changed. We conclude that zinc signaling during brain development has a critical role in the establishment of brain lateralization in mice.

  19. Mice deficient for striatal Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter (VAChT) display impaired short-term but normal long-term object recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Daniel; Creighton, Samantha; Prado, Vania F; Prado, Marco A M; Choleris, Elena; Winters, Boyer D

    2016-09-15

    Substantial evidence implicates Acetylcholine (ACh) in the acquisition of object memories. While most research has focused on the role of the cholinergic basal forebrain and its cortical targets, there are additional cholinergic networks that may contribute to object recognition. The striatum contains an independent cholinergic network comprised of interneurons. In the current study, we investigated the role of this cholinergic signalling in object recognition using mice deficient for Vesicular Acetylcholine Transporter (VAChT) within interneurons of the striatum. We tested whether these striatal VAChT(D2-Cre-flox/flox) mice would display normal short-term (5 or 15min retention delay) and long-term (3h retention delay) object recognition memory. In a home cage object recognition task, male and female VAChT(D2-Cre-flox/flox) mice were impaired selectively with a 15min retention delay. When tested on an object location task, VAChT(D2-Cre-flox/flox) mice displayed intact spatial memory. Finally, when object recognition was tested in a Y-shaped apparatus, designed to minimize the influence of spatial and contextual cues, only females displayed impaired recognition with a 5min retention delay, but when males were challenged with a 15min retention delay, they were also impaired; neither males nor females were impaired with the 3h delay. The pattern of results suggests that striatal cholinergic transmission plays a role in the short-term memory for object features, but not spatial location. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cannabinoid 1 receptor knockout mice display cold allodynia, but enhanced recovery from spared-nerve injury-induced mechanical hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideris, Alexandra; Piskoun, Boris; Russo, Lori; Norcini, Monica; Blanck, Thomas; Recio-Pinto, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    The function of the Cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) in the development of neuropathic pain is not clear. Mounting evidence suggest that CB1R expression and activation may contribute to pain. Cannabinoid 1 receptor knockout mice (CB1R-/-) generated on a C57Bl/6 background exhibit hypoalgesia in the hotplate assay and formalin test. These findings suggest that Cannabinoid 1 receptor expression mediates the responses to at least some types of painful stimuli. By using this mouse line, we sought to determine if the lack of Cannabinoid 1 receptor unveils a general hypoalgesic phenotype, including protection against the development of neuropathic pain. The acetone test was used to measure cold sensitivity, the electronic von Frey was used to measure mechanical thresholds before and after spared-nerve injury, and analysis of footprint patterns was conducted to determine if motor function is differentially affected after nerve-injury in mice with varying levels of Cannabinoid 1 receptor. At baseline, CB1R-/- mice were hypersensitive in the acetone test, and this phenotype was maintained after spared-nerve injury. Using calcium imaging of lumbar dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cultures, a higher percentage of neurons isolated from CB1R-/- mice were menthol sensitive relative to DRG isolated from wild-type (CB1R+/+) mice. Baseline mechanical thresholds did not differ among genotypes, and mechanical hypersensitivity developed similarly in the first two weeks following spared-nerve injury (SNI). At two weeks post-SNI, CB1R-/- mice recovered significantly from mechanical hypersensitivity, while the CB1R+/+ mice did not. Heterozygous knockouts (CB1R+/-) transiently developed cold allodynia only after injury, but recovered mechanical thresholds to a similar extent as the CB1R-/- mice. Sciatic functional indices, which reflect overall nerve health, and alternation coefficients, which indicate uniformity of strides, were not significantly different among genotypes. Cold allodynia and

  1. Algab õppus "Saber Strike"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Täna algab Eestis, Lätis ja Leedus Ameerika Ühendriikide Euroopa väekoondise õppus "Saber Strike", mille eesmärk on maaväeüksuste koostöö harjutamine. Õppusest võtab osa üle 2000 kaitseväelase Baltimaadest, USAst, Ühendkuningriigist, Taanist, Norrast, Soomest ja Saksamaalt. Eestist osaleb õppusel ligi 400 kaitseväelast

  2. 16p11.2 Deletion Mice Display Cognitive Deficits in Touchscreen Learning and Novelty Recognition Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mu; Lewis, Freeman C.; Sarvi, Michael S.; Foley, Gillian M.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal 16p11.2 deletion syndrome frequently presents with intellectual disabilities, speech delays, and autism. Here we investigated the Dolmetsch line of 16p11.2 heterozygous (+/-) mice on a range of cognitive tasks with different neuroanatomical substrates. Robust novel object recognition deficits were replicated in two cohorts of 16p11.2…

  3. IGF-II transgenic mice display increased aberrant colon crypt multiplicity and tumor volume after 1,2-dimethylhydrazine treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oesterle Doris

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In colorectal cancer insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II is frequently overexpressed. To evaluate, whether IGF-II affects different stages of tumorigenesis, we induced neoplastic alterations in the colon of wild-type and IGF-II transgenic mice using 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH. Aberrant crypt foci (ACF served as markers of early lesions in the colonic mucosa, whereas adenomas and carcinomas characterized the endpoints of tumor development. DMH-treatment led initially to significantly more ACF in IGF-II transgenic than in wild-type mice. This increase in ACF was especially prominent for those consisting of ≥three aberrant crypts (AC. Nevertheless, adenomas and adenocarcinomas of the colon, present after 34 weeks in both genetic groups, were not found at different frequency. Tumor volumes, however, were significantly higher in IGF-II transgenic mice and correlated with serum IGF-II levels. Immunohistochemical staining for markers of proliferation and apoptosis revealed increased cell proliferation rates in tumors of IGF-II transgenic mice without significant affection of apoptosis. Increased proliferation was accompanied by elevated localization of β-catenin in the cytosol and cell nuclei and reduced appearance at the inner plasma membrane. In conclusion, we provide evidence that IGF-II, via activation of the β-catenin signaling cascade, promotes growth of ACF and tumors without affecting tumor numbers.

  4. Kv4.2 knockout mice display learning and memory deficits in the Lashley maze [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory D. Smith

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Potassium channels have been shown to be involved in neural plasticity and learning. Kv4.2 is a subunit of the A-type potassium channel. Kv4.2 channels modulate excitability in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons in the cortex and hippocampus. Deletion of Kv4.2 results in spatial learning and conditioned fear deficits; however, previous studies have only examined deletion of Kv4.2 in aversive learning tests. Methods: For the current study, we used the Lashley maze as an appetitive learning test. We examined Kv4.2 wildtype (WT and knockout (KO mice in the Lashley maze over 4 days during adulthood. The first day consisted of habituating the mice to the maze. The mice then received five trials per day for the next 3 days. The number of errors and the time to the goal box was recorded for each trial. The goal box contained a weigh boat with an appetitive reward (gelatin with sugar. There was an intertrial interval of 15 minutes. Results: We found that Kv4.2 KO mice committed more errors across the trials compared to the WT mice p<0.001. There was no difference in the latency to find the goal box over the period. Discussion: Our finding that deletion of Kv4.2 resulted in more errors in the Lashley maze across 15 trials contribute to a growing body of evidence that Kv4.2 channels are significantly involved in learning and memory.

  5. Kv4.2 knockout mice display learning and memory deficits in the Lashley maze [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory D. Smith

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Potassium channels have been shown to be involved in neural plasticity and learning. Kv4.2 is a subunit of the A-type potassium channel. Kv4.2 channels modulate excitability in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons in the cortex and hippocampus. Deletion of Kv4.2 results in spatial learning and conditioned fear deficits; however, previous studies have only examined deletion of Kv4.2 in aversive learning tests. Methods: For the current study, we used the Lashley maze as an appetitive learning test. We examined Kv4.2 wildtype (WT and knockout (KO mice in the Lashley maze over 4 days during adulthood. The first day consisted of habituating the mice to the maze. The mice then received five trials per day for the next 3 days. The number of errors and the time to the goal box was recorded for each trial. The goal box contained a weigh boat with an appetitive reward (gelatin with sugar. There was an intertrial interval of 15 minutes. Results: We found that Kv4.2 KO mice committed more errors across the trials compared to the WT mice p<0.001. There was no difference in the latency to find the goal box over the period. Discussion: Our finding that deletion of Kv4.2 resulted in more errors in the Lashley maze across 15 trials contribute to a growing body of evidence that Kv4.2 channels are significantly involved in learning and memory.

  6. P2Y2 receptor knock-out mice display normal NaCl absorption in medullary thick ascending limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Delgado Marques

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Local purinergic signals modulate renal tubular transport. Acute activation of renal epithelial P2 receptors causes inhibition of epithelial transport and thus, should favor increased water and salt excretion by the kidney. So far only a few studies have addressed the effects of extracellular nucleotides on ion transport in the thick ascending limb. In the medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL, basolateral P2X receptors markedly (~25% inhibit NaCl absorption. Although this segment does express both apical and basolateral P2Y2 receptors, acute activation of the basolateral P2Y2 receptors had no apparent effect on transepithelial ion transport. Here we studied, if the absence of the P2Y2 receptor causes chronic alterations in mTAL NaCl absorption by comparing basal and AVP-stimulated transepithelial transport rates. We used perfused mouse mTALs to electrically measure NaCl absorption in juvenile (35 days male mice. Using microelectrodes, we determined the transepithelial voltage (Vte and the transepithelial resistance (Rte and thus, transepithelial NaCl absorption (equivalent short circuit current, I’sc.We find that mTALs from adult wild type (WT mice have significantly lower NaCl absorption rates when compared to mTALs from juvenile WT mice. This could be attributed to significantly higher Rte values in mTALs from adult WT mice. This pattern was not observed in mTALs from P2Y2 receptor knockout (KO mice. In addition, adult P2Y2 receptor KO mTALs have significantly lower Vte values compared to the juvenile. No difference in absolute I´sc was observed when comparing mTALs from WT and KO mice. AVP stimulated the mTALs to similar increases of NaCl absorption irrespective of the absence of the P2Y2 receptor. No difference was observed in the medullary expression level of NKCC2 in between the genotypes.These data indicate that the lack of P2Y2 receptors does not cause substantial differences in resting and AVP-stimulated NaCl absorption in

  7. The Poster Strikes Back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Hjorth

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses fundamental issues in relation to placing graphic design in locations such as museums of decorative arts and living history museums. Based on my Ph.D. project on British commercial posters of the interwar years and approached from a combined perspective of museology, semiotics...... and design history, I argue that the poster during the interwar years inhabits a new active position. By exploiting and challenging the commercial and aesthetic paradox out of which it arose, the poster ‘strikes back' as a museologized, exhibited object. Rather than being absorbed into the city swirl...

  8. Global strike hypersonic weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Mark J.

    2017-11-01

    Beginning in the 1940's, the United States has pursued the development of hypersonic technologies, enabling atmospheric flight in excess of five times the speed of sound. Hypersonic flight has application to a range of military and civilian applications, including commercial transport, space access, and various weapons and sensing platforms. A number of flight tests of hypersonic vehicles have been conducted by countries around the world, including the United States, Russia, and China, that could lead the way to future hypersonic global strike weapon systems. These weapons would be especially effective at penetrating conventional defenses, and could pose a significant risk to national security.

  9. TLR2−/− Mice Display Decreased Severity of Giardiasis via Enhanced Proinflammatory Cytokines Production Dependent on AKT Signal Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Giardia infection is one of the most common causes of waterborne diarrheal disease in a wide array of mammalian hosts, including humans globally. Although numerous studies have indicated that adaptive immune responses are important for Giardia defense, however, whether the host innate immune system such as TLRs recognizes Giardia remains poorly understood. TLR2 plays a crucial role in pathogen recognition, innate immunity activation, and the eventual pathogen elimination. In this study, we investigated the role of TLR2 as a non-protective inflammatory response on controlling the severity of giardiasis. RT-PCR analysis suggested that TLR2 expression was increased in vitro. We demonstrated that Giardia lamblia-induced cytokines expression by the activation of p38 and ERK pathways via TLR2. Interestingly, the expression of IL-12 p40, TNF-α, and IL-6, but not IFN-γ, was enhanced in TLR2-blocked and TLR2−/− mouse macrophages exposed to G. lamblia trophozoites compared with wild-type (WT mouse macrophages. Further analysis demonstrated that G. lamblia trophozoites reduced cytokines secretion by activating AKT pathway in WT mouse macrophages. Immunohistochemical staining in G. lamblia cysts infected TLR2−/− and WT mice showed that TLR2 was highly expressed in duodenum in infected WT mice. Also, infected TLR2−/− and AKT-blocked mice showed an increased production of IL-12 p40 and IFN-γ compared with infected WT mice at the early stage during infection. Interestingly, infected TLR2−/− and AKT-blocked mice displayed a decreased parasite burden, an increased weight gain rate, and short parasite persistence. Histological morphometry showed shortened villus length, hyperplastic crypt and decreased ratio of villus height/crypt depth in infected WT mice compared with in infected TLR2−/− and AKT-blocked mice. Together, our results suggested that TLR2 deficiency leads to alleviation of giardiasis and reduction of parasite burden through

  10. Oral administration of human papillomavirus type 16 E7 displayed on Lactobacillus casei induces E7-specific antitumor effects in C57/BL6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poo, Haryoung; Pyo, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Tae-Young; Yoon, Sun-Woo; Lee, Jong-Soo; Kim, Chul-Joong; Sung, Moon-Hee; Lee, Seung-Hoon

    2006-10-01

    The mounting of a specific immune response against the human papillomavirus type 16 E7 protein (HPV16 E7) is important for eradication of HPV16 E7-expressing cancer cells from the cervical mucosa. To induce a mucosal immune response by oral delivery of the E7 antigen, we expressed the HPV16 E7 antigen on the surface of Lactobacillus casei by employing a novel display system in which the poly-gamma-glutamic acid (gamma-PGA) synthetase complex A (PgsA) from Bacillus subtilis (chungkookjang) was used as an anchoring motif. After surface expression of the HPV16 E7 protein was confirmed by Western blot, flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy, mice were orally inoculated with L. casei-PgsA-E7. E7-specific serum IgG and mucosal IgA productions were enhanced after oral administration and significantly enhanced after boosting. Systemic and local cellular immunities were significantly increased after boosting, as shown by increased counts of lymphocytes (SI = 9.7 +/- 1.8) and IFN-gamma secreting cells [510 +/- 86 spot-forming cells/10(6)cells] among splenocytes and increased IFN-gamma in supernatants of vaginal lymphocytes. Furthermore, in an E7-based mouse tumor model, animals receiving orally administered L. casei-PgsA-E7 showed reduced tumor size and increased survival rate versus mice receiving control (L. casei-PgsA) immunization. These results collectively indicate that the oral administration of E7 displayed on lactobacillus induces cellular immunity and antitumor effects in mice. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Lef1 haploinsufficient mice display a low turnover and low bone mass phenotype in a gender- and age-specific manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommy Noh

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of Lef1, one of the four transcription factors that transmit Wnt signaling to the genome, in the regulation of bone mass. Microcomputed tomographic analysis of 13- and 17-week-old mice revealed significantly reduced trabecular bone mass in Lef1(+/- females compared to littermate wild-type females. This was attributable to decreased osteoblast activity and bone formation as indicated by histomorphometric analysis of bone remodeling. In contrast to females, bone mass was unaffected by Lef1 haploinsufficiency in males. Similarly, females were substantially more responsive than males to haploinsufficiency in Gsk3beta, a negative regulator of the Wnt pathway, displaying in this case a high bone mass phenotype. Lef1 haploinsufficiency also led to low bone mass in males lacking functional androgen receptor (AR (tfm mutants. The protective skeletal effect of AR against Wnt-related low bone mass is not necessarily a result of direct interaction between the AR and Wnt signaling pathways, because Lef1(+/- female mice had normal bone mass at the age of 34 weeks. Thus, our results indicate an age- and gender-dependent role for Lef1 in regulating bone formation and bone mass in vivo. The resistance to Lef1 haploinsufficiency in males with active AR and in old females could be due to the reduced bone turnover in these mice.

  12. Trp53 deficient mice predisposed to preterm birth display region-specific lipid alterations at the embryo implantation site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanekoff, Ingela; Cha, Jeeyeon; Kyle, Jennifer E.; Dey, Sudhansu K.; Laskin, Julia; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.

    2016-09-13

    Here we demonstrate that conditional deletion of mouse uterine Trp53 (p53d/d), molecularly linked to mTORC1 activation and causally linked to premature uterine senescence and preterm birth, results in aberrant lipid signatures within the heterogeneous cell types of embryo implantation sites on day 8 of pregnancy. In situ nanospray desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (nano-DESI MSI) was used to characterize the molecular speciation of free fatty acids, monoacylglycerols, unmodified and oxidized phosphatidylcholine (PC/Ox-PC), and diacylglycerol (DG) species within implantation sites of p53d/d mice and floxed littermates. Implantation sites from p53d/d mice exhibited distinct spatially resolved changes demonstrating accumulation of DG species, depletion of Ox-PC species, and increase in species with more unsaturated acyl chains, including arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid. Understanding abnormal changes in the abundance and localization of individual lipid species early in the progression to premature birth is important for discovering novel targets for treatments and diagnosis.

  13. Gαi2- and Gαi3-Deficient Mice Display Opposite Severity of Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, David; Devanathan, Vasudharani; Bernardo de Oliveira Franz, Claudia; Eldh, Therese; Novakovic, Ana; Roth, Judith M.; Granja, Tiago; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Rosenberger, Peter; Beer-Hammer, Sandra; Nürnberg, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the most abundant receptors in the heart and therefore are common targets for cardiovascular therapeutics. The activated GPCRs transduce their signals via heterotrimeric G-proteins. The four major families of G-proteins identified so far are specified through their α-subunit: Gαi, Gαs, Gαq and G12/13. Gαi-proteins have been reported to protect hearts from ischemia reperfusion injury. However, determining the individual impact of Gαi2 or Gαi3 on myocardial ischemia injury has not been clarified yet. Here, we first investigated expression of Gαi2 and Gαi3 on transcriptional level by quantitative PCR and on protein level by immunoblot analysis as well as by immunofluorescence in cardiac tissues of wild-type, Gαi2-, and Gαi3-deficient mice. Gαi2 was expressed at higher levels than Gαi3 in murine hearts, and irrespective of the isoform being knocked out we observed an up regulation of the remaining Gαi-protein. Myocardial ischemia promptly regulated cardiac mRNA and with a slight delay protein levels of both Gαi2 and Gαi3, indicating important roles for both Gαi isoforms. Furthermore, ischemia reperfusion injury in Gαi2- and Gαi3-deficient mice exhibited opposite outcomes. Whereas the absence of Gαi2 significantly increased the infarct size in the heart, the absence of Gαi3 or the concomitant upregulation of Gαi2 dramatically reduced cardiac infarction. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that the genetic ablation of Gαi proteins has protective or deleterious effects on cardiac ischemia reperfusion injury depending on the isoform being absent. PMID:24858945

  14. Gαi2- and Gαi3-deficient mice display opposite severity of myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Köhler

    Full Text Available G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are the most abundant receptors in the heart and therefore are common targets for cardiovascular therapeutics. The activated GPCRs transduce their signals via heterotrimeric G-proteins. The four major families of G-proteins identified so far are specified through their α-subunit: Gαi, Gαs, Gαq and G12/13. Gαi-proteins have been reported to protect hearts from ischemia reperfusion injury. However, determining the individual impact of Gαi2 or Gαi3 on myocardial ischemia injury has not been clarified yet. Here, we first investigated expression of Gαi2 and Gαi3 on transcriptional level by quantitative PCR and on protein level by immunoblot analysis as well as by immunofluorescence in cardiac tissues of wild-type, Gαi2-, and Gαi3-deficient mice. Gαi2 was expressed at higher levels than Gαi3 in murine hearts, and irrespective of the isoform being knocked out we observed an up regulation of the remaining Gαi-protein. Myocardial ischemia promptly regulated cardiac mRNA and with a slight delay protein levels of both Gαi2 and Gαi3, indicating important roles for both Gαi isoforms. Furthermore, ischemia reperfusion injury in Gαi2- and Gαi3-deficient mice exhibited opposite outcomes. Whereas the absence of Gαi2 significantly increased the infarct size in the heart, the absence of Gαi3 or the concomitant upregulation of Gαi2 dramatically reduced cardiac infarction. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that the genetic ablation of Gαi proteins has protective or deleterious effects on cardiac ischemia reperfusion injury depending on the isoform being absent.

  15. Effect of chronic mild stress on hippocampal transcriptome in mice selected for high and low stress-induced analgesia and displaying different emotional behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisowski, Pawel; Juszczak, Grzegorz R; Goscik, Joanna; Wieczorek, Marek; Zwierzchowski, Lech; Swiergiel, Artur H

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that mood disorders may derive from the impact of environmental pressure on genetically susceptible individuals. Stress-induced hippocampal plasticity has been implicated in depression. We studied hippocampal transcriptomes in strains of mice that display high (HA) and low (LA) swim stress-induced analgesia and that differ in emotional behaviors and responses to different classes of antidepressants. Chronic mild stress (CMS) affected expression of a number of genes common for both strains. CMS also produced strain specific changes in expression suggesting that hippocampal responses to stress depend on genotype. Considerably larger number of genes, biological processes, molecular functions, biochemical pathways, and gene networks were affected by CMS in LA than in HA mice. The results suggest that potential drug targets against detrimental effects of stress include glutamate transporters, and cholinergic, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucocorticoids, and thyroid hormones receptors. Furthermore, some biological processes evoked by stress and different between the strains, such as apoptosis, neurogenesis and chromatin modifications, may be responsible for the long-term, irreversible effects of stress and suggest a role for epigenetic regulation of mood related stress responses. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  16. Novel chimeric virus-like particles vaccine displaying MERS-CoV receptor-binding domain induce specific humoral and cellular immune response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong; Zheng, Xuexing; Gai, Weiwei; Wong, Gary; Wang, Hualei; Jin, Hongli; Feng, Na; Zhao, Yongkun; Zhang, Weijiao; Li, Nan; Zhao, Guoxing; Li, Junfu; Yan, Jinghua; Gao, Yuwei; Hu, Guixue; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2017-04-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has continued spreading since its emergence in 2012 with a mortality rate of 35.6%, and is a potential pandemic threat. Prophylactics and therapies are urgently needed to address this public health problem. We report here the efficacy of a vaccine consisting of chimeric virus-like particles (VLP) expressing the receptor binding domain (RBD) of MERS-CoV. In this study, a fusion of the canine parvovirus (CPV) VP2 structural protein gene with the RBD of MERS-CoV can self-assemble into chimeric, spherical VLP (sVLP). sVLP retained certain parvovirus characteristics, such as the ability to agglutinate pig erythrocytes, and structural morphology similar to CPV virions. Immunization with sVLP induced RBD-specific humoral and cellular immune responses in mice. sVLP-specific antisera from these animals were able to prevent pseudotyped MERS-CoV entry into susceptible cells, with neutralizing antibody titers reaching 1: 320. IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-2 secreting cells induced by the RBD were detected in the splenocytes of vaccinated mice by ELISpot. Furthermore, mice inoculated with sVLP or an adjuvanted sVLP vaccine elicited T-helper 1 (Th1) and T-helper 2 (Th2) cell-mediated immunity. Our study demonstrates that sVLP displaying the RBD of MERS-CoV are promising prophylactic candidates against MERS-CoV in a potential outbreak situation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Shigella IpaB and IpaD displayed on L. lactis bacterium-like particles induce protective immunity in adult and infant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Shannon J; Franco-Mahecha, Olga L; Chen, Xiaotong; Choudhari, Shyamal; Blackwelder, William C; van Roosmalen, Maarten L; Leenhouts, Kees; Picking, Wendy L; Pasetti, Marcela F

    2015-08-01

    Shigella spp. are among the enteric pathogens with the highest attributable incidence of moderate-to-severe diarrhea in children under 5 years of age living in endemic areas. There are no vaccines available to prevent this disease. In this work, we investigated a new Shigella vaccine concept consisting of nonliving, self-adjuvanted, Lactococcus lactis bacterium-like particles (BLP) displaying Shigella invasion plasmid antigen (Ipa) B and IpaD and examined its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in adult and newborn/infant mice immunized via the nasal route. Unique advantages of this approach include the potential for broad protection due to the highly conserved structure of the Ipas and the safety and practicality of a probiotic-based mucosal/adjuvant delivery platform. Immunization of adult mice with BLP-IpaB and BLP-IpaD (BLP-IpaB/D) induced high levels of Ipa-specific serum IgG and stool IgA in a dose-dependent manner. Immune responses and protection were enhanced by BLP delivery. Vaccine-induced serum antibodies exhibited opsonophagocytic and cytotoxic neutralizing activity, and IpaB/D IgG titers correlated with increased survival post-challenge. Ipa-specific antibody secreting cells were detected in nasal tissue and lungs, as well as IgG in bronchoalveolar lavage. Bone marrow cells produced IpaB/D-specific antibodies and contributed to protection after adoptive transfer. The BLP-IpaB/D vaccine conferred 90% and 80% protection against S. flexneri and S. sonnei, respectively. Mice immunized with BLP-IpaB/D as newborns also developed IpaB and IpaD serum antibodies; 90% were protected against S. flexneri and 44% against S. sonnei. The BLP-IpaB/D vaccine is a promising candidate for safe, practical and potentially effective immunization of children against shigellosis.

  18. A tetravalent virus-like particle vaccine designed to display domain III of dengue envelope proteins induces multi-serotype neutralizing antibodies in mice and macaques which confer protection against antibody dependent enhancement in AG129 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswanathan Ramasamy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is one of the fastest spreading vector-borne diseases, caused by four antigenically distinct dengue viruses (DENVs. Antibodies against DENVs are responsible for both protection as well as pathogenesis. A vaccine that is safe for and efficacious in all people irrespective of their age and domicile is still an unmet need. It is becoming increasingly apparent that vaccine design must eliminate epitopes implicated in the induction of infection-enhancing antibodies.We report a Pichia pastoris-expressed dengue immunogen, DSV4, based on DENV envelope protein domain III (EDIII, which contains well-characterized serotype-specific and cross-reactive epitopes. In natural infection, <10% of the total neutralizing antibody response is EDIII-directed. Yet, this is a functionally relevant domain which interacts with the host cell surface receptor. DSV4 was designed by in-frame fusion of EDIII of all four DENV serotypes and hepatitis B surface (S antigen and co-expressed with unfused S antigen to form mosaic virus-like particles (VLPs. These VLPs displayed EDIIIs of all four DENV serotypes based on probing with a battery of serotype-specific anti-EDIII monoclonal antibodies. The DSV4 VLPs were highly immunogenic, inducing potent and durable neutralizing antibodies against all four DENV serotypes encompassing multiple genotypes, in mice and macaques. DSV4-induced murine antibodies suppressed viremia in AG129 mice and conferred protection against lethal DENV-4 virus challenge. Further, neither murine nor macaque anti-DSV4 antibodies promoted mortality or inflammatory cytokine production when passively transferred and tested in an in vivo dengue disease enhancement model of AG129 mice.Directing the immune response to a non-immunodominant but functionally relevant serotype-specific dengue epitope of the four DENV serotypes, displayed on a VLP platform, can help minimize the risk of inducing disease-enhancing antibodies while eliciting effective tetravalent

  19. Graft-versus-host reaction and immune function. III. Functional pre-T cells in the bone marrow of graft-versus-host-reactive mice displaying T cell immunodeficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddik, M.; Seemayer, T.A.; Lapp, W.S.

    1986-01-01

    Studies were performed to determine whether pre-T cells develop normally in the bone marrow of mice displaying thymic dysplasia and T cell immunodeficiency as a consequence of a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction. GVH reactions were induced in CBAxAF1 mice by the injection of A strain lymphoid cells. To test for the presence of pre-T cells in GVH-reactive mice, bone marrow from GVH-reactive mice (GVHBM) was injected into irradiated syngeneic F1 mice and 30-40 days later thymic morphology and function were studied. Morphology studies showed nearly normal thymic architectural restoration; moreover, such glands contained normal numbers of Thy-1-positive cells. Functional pre-T cells were evaluated by transferring thymocytes from the irradiated GVHBM-reconstituted mice into T-cell-deprived mice. These thymocytes reconstituted allograft reactivity, T helper cell function and Con A and PHA mitogen responses of T-cell-deprived mice. These results suggest that the pre-T cell population in the bone marrow is not affected by the GVH reaction. Therefore, the T cell immunodeficiency associated with the GVH reaction is not due to a deficiency of pre-T cells in the bone marrow but is more likely associated with GVH-induced thymic dysplasia

  20. Continental United States Hurricane Strikes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Continental U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster is our most popular poster which is updated annually. The poster includes all hurricanes that affected the U.S. since...

  1. Mice with targeted disruption of the acyl-CoA binding protein display attenuated urine concentrating ability and diminished renal aquaporin-3 abundance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langaa, Stine; Bloksgaard, Maria; Bek, Signe

    2012-01-01

    epithelial cells. Here we show that ACBP is widely expressed in human and mouse kidney epithelium with the highest expression in the proximal convoluted tubules. To elucidate the role of ACBP in the renal epithelium, mice with targeted disruption of the ACBP gene (ACBP(-/-)) were used to study water and Na......Cl balance as well as urine concentrating ability in metabolic cages. Food intake and urinary excretion of Na(+) and K(+) did not differ between ACBP(-/-) and (+/+) mice. Water intake and diuresis were significantly higher at baseline in ACBP(-/-) mice compared to that of (+/+) mice. Subsequent to 20h water...... deprivation, ACBP(-/-) mice exhibited increased diuresis, reduced urine osmolality, elevated hematocrit and higher relative weight loss compared to (+/+) mice. There were no significant differences in plasma concentrations of renin, corticosterone and aldosterone between mice of the two genotypes. At baseline...

  2. [Physicians' strikes--ethical considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Shimon; Schwarzfuchs, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Strikes in general represent a solution based on a form of coercion. Historically, the striker caused direct damage to his employer, who was responsible for the perceived unfair treatment of the employee. In the case of strikes in the public sector, the employer is generally not harmed, but innocent citizens suffer in order to pressure the government agencies, a questionable practice from an ethical viewpoint. Physicians' strikes have more serious ethical problems. They cause suffering and death to innocent citizens. They violate the ethical codes to which physicians have committed themselves as professionals, and they seriously impair the trust of the public in physicians. Better and more ethical ways to provide fair compensation for physicians must be employed, perhaps like those used for judges and members of the IDF.

  3. Miners' strike 1984-85

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, L; Salter, S [comps.

    1985-01-01

    References relating to the 1984-85 UK miners strike are listed under the following subject headings: events and analysis - a chronological record; short term effects - coal stocks and supplies, electricity supplies, financial, industrial and economic; the miners and their leadership; social aspects - civil liberties, media coverage, mining communities, picketing, policing, the future; pit closures. 240 references.

  4. Strikes in Serbia since 2000 to 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Novaković Nada

    2005-01-01

    In this article author deals with main characteristics of strikes in Serbia within the period 2000–2005. Analysis starts with thesis that strike is open class conflict within class divided society. Therefore strike is radical form of trade union struggle for workers rights. Main questions in the analysis were: on social structure as a background of strikes, on organizations and trade unions included in it, on effects of strikes in Serbia in the given period. Main thesis of the article is that...

  5. Respecting the right to strike

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Since two years the representatives of the employers in the ILO, a tripartite multilateral body responsible for guaranteeing the correct application of an international labour code, try to weaken the global work regulations. On the occasion of the Global Day of Action for the right to strike at the invitation of the Geneva community of Union action (Communauté genevoise d’action syndicale) and the Swiss Trade Union Association (Union syndicale suisse) around noon on Wednesday 18th February some fifty staff representatives of international organizations gathered on the place des Nations in Geneva to reaffirm the importance of this fundamental right, too often flouted. A delegation of the CERN Staff Association was also present. In a short speech, the Staff Association said that, while being one of the fundamental human rights, to be efficient the right to strike must be used intelligently. It must be implemented taking into account the sensitivities of the professional environment and r...

  6. Ames dwarf (Prop1(df)/Prop1(df)) mice display increased sensitivity of the major GH-signaling pathways in liver and skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquet, Johanna G; Muñoz, Marina C; Giani, Jorge F; González, Lorena; Dominici, Fernando P; Bartke, Andrzej; Turyn, Daniel; Sotelo, Ana I

    2010-04-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is an anabolic hormone that regulates growth and metabolism. Ames dwarf mice are natural mutants for Prop1, with impaired development of anterior pituitary and undetectable levels of circulating GH, prolactin and TSH. They constitute an endocrine model of life-long GH-deficiency. The main signaling cascades activated by GH binding to its receptor are the JAK2/STATs, PI-3K/Akt and the MAPK Erk1/2 pathways. We have previously reported that GH-induced STAT5 activation was higher in Ames dwarf mice liver compared to non-dwarf controls. The aim of this study was to evaluate the principal components of the main GH-signaling pathways under GH-deficiency in liver and skeletal muscle, another GH-target tissue. Ames dwarf mice and their non-dwarf siblings were assessed. Animals were injected i.p. with GH or saline 15min before tissue removal. Protein content and phosphorylation of signaling mediators were determined by immunoblotting of tissue solubilizates. GH was able to induce STAT5 and STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation in both liver and muscle, but the response was higher for Ames dwarf mice than for non-dwarf controls. When Erk1/2 activation was assessed in liver, only dwarf mice showed GH-induced phosphorylation, while in muscle no response to the hormone was found in either genotype. GH-induced Akt phosphorylation at Ser473 in liver was only detected in dwarf mice. In skeletal muscle, both normal and dwarf mice responded to a GH stimulus, although dwarf mice presented higher GH activation levels. The phosphorylation of GSK-3, a substrate of Akt, increased upon hormone stimulation only in dwarf mice in both tissues. In contrast, no differences in the phosphorylation of mTOR, another substrate of Akt, were observed after GH stimulus, either in normal or dwarf mice in liver, while we were unable to determine mTOR in muscle. Protein content of GH-receptor and of the signaling mediators studied did not vary between normal and dwarf animals in the assessed

  7. Brevican-deficient mice display impaired hippocampal CA1 long-term potentiation but show no obvious deficits in learning and memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brakebusch, Cord; Seidenbecher, Constanze I; Asztely, Fredrik

    2002-01-01

    to be less prominent in mutant than in wild-type mice. Brevican-deficient mice showed significant deficits in the maintenance of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). However, no obvious impairment of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission was found, suggesting a complex cause for the LTP defect....... Detailed behavioral analysis revealed no statistically significant deficits in learning and memory. These data indicate that brevican is not crucial for brain development but has restricted structural and functional roles....

  8. Vapb/Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 8 knock-in mice display slowly progressive motor behavior defects accompanying ER stress and autophagic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larroquette, Frédérique; Seto, Lesley; Gaub, Perrine L; Kamal, Brishna; Wallis, Deeann; Larivière, Roxanne; Vallée, Joanne; Robitaille, Richard; Tsuda, Hiroshi

    2015-11-15

    Missense mutations (P56S) in Vapb are associated with autosomal dominant motor neuron diseases: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and lower motor neuron disease. Although transgenic mice overexpressing the mutant vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein B (VAPB) protein with neuron-specific promoters have provided some insight into the toxic properties of the mutant proteins, their role in pathogenesis remains unclear. To identify pathological defects in animals expressing the P56S mutant VAPB protein at physiological levels in the appropriate tissues, we have generated Vapb knock-in mice replacing wild-type Vapb gene with P56S mutant Vapb gene and analyzed the resulting pathological phenotypes. Heterozygous P56S Vapb knock-in mice show mild age-dependent defects in motor behaviors as characteristic features of the disease. The homozygous P56S Vapb knock-in mice show more severe defects compared with heterozygous mice reflecting the dominant and dose-dependent effects of P56S mutation. Significantly, the knock-in mice demonstrate accumulation of P56S VAPB protein and ubiquitinated proteins in cytoplasmic inclusions, selectively in motor neurons. The mutant mice demonstrate induction of ER stress and autophagic response in motor neurons before obvious onset of behavioral defects, suggesting that these cellular biological defects might contribute to the initiation of the disease. The P56S Vapb knock-in mice could be a valuable tool to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms by which the disease arises. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. When the Ocean Strikes Back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebauer, Mirjam

    2013-01-01

    The disaster scenario is one of the predominant settings we find unfold in the pop-cultural imagination, namely in films and novels. In recent years, as increased awareness of environmental issues affect the agendas of public debate, we also see local and increasingly global environmental disasters...... is evolving caused by an intelligent life form of the deep sea striking back at mankind. This article aims at discussing in what ways The Swarm uses elements and patterns of the pop-cultural disaster imagination, specifically the disaster and science fiction movie of the 1990s. Furthermore, it investigates...

  10. Relations between open-field, elevated plus-maze, and emergence tests as displayed by C57/BL6J and BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, R; Strazielle, C

    2008-06-15

    The relations between open-field, elevated plus-maze, and emergence tests were examined in two strains of mice. In the open-field, C57BL/6J mice had more ambulatory movements and rears but not stereotyped movements relative to BALB/c. In addition, C57BL/6J mice entered more often than BALB/c into enclosed and open arms of the elevated plus-maze. When placed inside a large enclosure, C57BL/6J mice emerged more quickly than BALB/c from a small toy object. In the entire series of mice, ambulation and rears in the open-field were linearly correlated with open and enclosed arm visits in the elevated plus-maze. Ambulatory movements and rears were also correlated with emergence latencies. In contrast, stereotyped movements were correlated with emergence latencies, but not with any elevated plus-maze value. These results specify the extent and limits of association between the three tests.

  11. Women, transition and strikes in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Novaković, Nada G.

    2014-01-01

    The author, in a sociological way, describes and analyzes the concepts of transition, privatization and strikes in Serbia, particularly the place of women in it. It examines the most important economic and social causes and consequences of these phenomena. The main hypothesis is: women's strikes in the Serbian transition are less efficient than strikes and public protests of women in the developed world and the second Yugoslavia. A strike is a class conflict, in which the workers are fighting...

  12. Xenogeneic graft-versus-host-disease in NOD-scid IL-2Rγnull mice display a T-effector memory phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Niwa; Flutter, Barry; Sanchez Rodriguez, Robert; Sharif-Paghaleh, Ehsan; Barber, Linda D; Lombardi, Giovanna; Nestle, Frank O

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of Graft-versus-Host Disease (GvHD) is a prevalent and potentially lethal complication that develops following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Humanized mouse models of xenogeneic-GvHD based upon immunodeficient strains injected with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC; "Hu-PBMC mice") are important tools to study human immune function in vivo. The recent introduction of targeted deletions at the interleukin-2 common gamma chain (IL-2Rγ(null)), notably the NOD-scid IL-2Rγ(null) (NSG) and BALB/c-Rag2(null) IL-2Rγ(null) (BRG) mice, has led to improved human cell engraftment. Despite their widespread use, a comprehensive characterisation of engraftment and GvHD development in the Hu-PBMC NSG and BRG models has never been performed in parallel. We compared engrafted human lymphocyte populations in the peripheral blood, spleens, lymph nodes and bone marrow of these mice. Kinetics of engraftment differed between the two strains, in particular a significantly faster expansion of the human CD45(+) compartment and higher engraftment levels of CD3(+) T-cells were observed in NSG mice, which may explain the faster rate of GvHD development in this model. The pathogenesis of human GvHD involves anti-host effector cell reactivity and cutaneous tissue infiltration. Despite this, the presence of T-cell subsets and tissue homing markers has only recently been characterised in the peripheral blood of patients and has never been properly defined in Hu-PBMC models of GvHD. Engrafted human cells in NSG mice shows a prevalence of tissue homing cells with a T-effector memory (T(EM)) phenotype and high levels of cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA) expression. Characterization of Hu-PBMC mice provides a strong preclinical platform for the application of novel immunotherapies targeting T(EM)-cell driven GvHD.

  13. Xenogeneic graft-versus-host-disease in NOD-scid IL-2Rγnull mice display a T-effector memory phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niwa Ali

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Graft-versus-Host Disease (GvHD is a prevalent and potentially lethal complication that develops following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Humanized mouse models of xenogeneic-GvHD based upon immunodeficient strains injected with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC; "Hu-PBMC mice" are important tools to study human immune function in vivo. The recent introduction of targeted deletions at the interleukin-2 common gamma chain (IL-2Rγ(null, notably the NOD-scid IL-2Rγ(null (NSG and BALB/c-Rag2(null IL-2Rγ(null (BRG mice, has led to improved human cell engraftment. Despite their widespread use, a comprehensive characterisation of engraftment and GvHD development in the Hu-PBMC NSG and BRG models has never been performed in parallel. We compared engrafted human lymphocyte populations in the peripheral blood, spleens, lymph nodes and bone marrow of these mice. Kinetics of engraftment differed between the two strains, in particular a significantly faster expansion of the human CD45(+ compartment and higher engraftment levels of CD3(+ T-cells were observed in NSG mice, which may explain the faster rate of GvHD development in this model. The pathogenesis of human GvHD involves anti-host effector cell reactivity and cutaneous tissue infiltration. Despite this, the presence of T-cell subsets and tissue homing markers has only recently been characterised in the peripheral blood of patients and has never been properly defined in Hu-PBMC models of GvHD. Engrafted human cells in NSG mice shows a prevalence of tissue homing cells with a T-effector memory (T(EM phenotype and high levels of cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA expression. Characterization of Hu-PBMC mice provides a strong preclinical platform for the application of novel immunotherapies targeting T(EM-cell driven GvHD.

  14. 14 CFR 35.38 - Lightning strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lightning strike. 35.38 Section 35.38... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.38 Lightning strike. The applicant must demonstrate, by... lightning strike without causing a major or hazardous propeller effect. The limit to which the propeller has...

  15. Obese mice fed a diet supplemented with enzyme-treated wheat bran display marked shifts in the liver metabolome concurrent with altered gut bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzyme-treated wheat bran (ETWB) is a fermentable dietary fiber previously shown to decrease liver triglycerides and modify the gut microbiome in mice. It is not clear which mechanisms explain how ETWB feeding impacts hepatic metabolism, but factors (i.e., metabolites) associated with specific micro...

  16. Mast cell-deficient Kit(W-sh) "Sash" mutant mice display aberrant myelopoiesis leading to the accumulation of splenocytes that act as myeloid-derived suppressor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Anastasija; Schüler, Andrea; Friedrich, Pamela; Döner, Fatma; Bopp, Tobias; Radsak, Markus; Hoffmann, Markus; Relle, Manfred; Distler, Ute; Kuharev, Jörg; Tenzer, Stefan; Feyerabend, Thorsten B; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Schild, Hansjörg; Schmitt, Edgar; Becker, Marc; Stassen, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Mast cell-deficient Kit(W-sh) "sash" mice are widely used to investigate mast cell functions. However, mutations of c-Kit also affect additional cells of hematopoietic and nonimmune origin. In this study, we demonstrate that Kit(W-sh) causes aberrant extramedullary myelopoiesis characterized by the expansion of immature lineage-negative cells, common myeloid progenitors, and granulocyte/macrophage progenitors in the spleen. A consistent feature shared by these cell types is the reduced expression of c-Kit. Populations expressing intermediate and high levels of Ly6G, a component of the myeloid differentiation Ag Gr-1, are also highly expanded in the spleen of sash mice. These cells are able to suppress T cell responses in vitro and phenotypically and functionally resemble myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). MDSC typically accumulate in tumor-bearing hosts and are able to dampen immune responses. Consequently, transfer of MDSC from naive sash mice into line 1 alveolar cell carcinoma tumor-bearing wild-type littermates leads to enhanced tumor progression. However, although it can also be observed in sash mice, accelerated growth of transplanted line 1 alveolar cell carcinoma tumors is a mast cell-independent phenomenon. Thus, the Kit(W-sh) mutation broadly affects key steps in myelopoiesis that may have an impact on mast cell research.

  17. Thioacetamide-induced cirrhosis in selenium-adequate mice displays rapid and persistent abnormity of hepatic selenoenzymes which are mute to selenium supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jinsong; Wang Huali; Yu Hanqing

    2007-01-01

    Selenium reduction in cirrhosis is frequently reported. The known beneficial effect of selenium supplementation on cirrhosis is probably obtained from nutritionally selenium-deficient subjects. Whether selenium supplementation truly improves cirrhosis in general needs additional experimental investigation. Thioacetamide was used to induce cirrhosis in selenium-adequate and -deficient mice. Selenoenzyme activity and selenium content were measured and the influence of selenium supplementation was evaluated. In Se-adequate mice, thioacetamide-mediated rapid onset of hepatic oxidative stress resulted in an increase in thioredoxin reductase activity and a decrease in both glutathione peroxidase activity and selenium content. The inverse activity of selenoenzymes (i.e. TrxR activity goes up and GPx activity goes down) was persistent and mute to selenium supplementation during the progress of cirrhosis; accordingly, cirrhosis was not improved by selenium supplementation in any period. On the other hand, selenium supplementation to selenium-deficient mice always more efficiently increased hepatic glutathione peroxidase activity and selenium content compared with those treated with thioacetamide, indicating that thioacetamide impairs the liver bioavailability of selenium. Although thioacetamide profoundly affects hepatic selenium status in selenium-adequate mice, selenium supplementation does not modify the changes. Selenium supplementation to cirrhotic subjects with a background of nutritional selenium deficiency can improve selenium status but cannot restore hepatic glutathione peroxidase and selenium to normal levels

  18. Trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid alters hepatic gene expression in a polygenic obese line of mice displaying hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwell, Melissa S; Ceddia, Ryan P; House, Ralph L; Cassady, Joseph P; Eisen, Eugene J; Eling, Thomas E; Collins, Jennifer B; Grissom, Sherry F; Odle, Jack

    2010-09-01

    The trans-10, cis-12 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) causes a rapid reduction of body and adipose mass in mice. In addition to changes in adipose tissue, numerous studies have reported alterations in hepatic lipid metabolism. Livers of CLA-fed mice gain mass, partly due to lipid accumulation; however, the precise molecular mechanisms are unknown. To elucidate these mechanisms, we examined fatty acid composition and gene expression profiles of livers from a polygenic obese line of mice fed 1% trans-10, cis-12-CLA for 14 days. Analysis of gene expression data led to the identification of 1393 genes differentially expressed in the liver of CLA-fed male mice at a nominal P value of .01, and 775 were considered significant using a false discovery rate (FDR) threshold of .05. While surprisingly few genes in lipid metabolism were impacted, pathway analysis found that protein kinase A (PKA) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathways signaling pathways were affected by CLA treatment and 98 of the 775 genes were found to be regulated by hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha, a transcription factor important in controlling liver metabolic status. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mice lacking the conserved transcription factor Grainyhead-like 3 (Grhl3) display increased apposition of the frontal and parietal bones during embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, Stephen J; Arhatari, Benedicta D; Anderson, Peter; Auden, Alana; Partridge, Darren D; Jane, Stephen M; Dworkin, Sebastian

    2016-10-18

    Increased apposition of the frontal and parietal bones of the skull during embryogenesis may be a risk factor for the subsequent development of premature skull fusion, or craniosynostosis. Human craniosynostosis is a prevalent, and often serious embryological and neonatal pathology. Other than known mutations in a small number of contributing genes, the aetiology of craniosynostosis is largely unknown. Therefore, the identification of novel genes which contribute to normal skull patterning, morphology and premature suture apposition is imperative, in order to fully understand the genetic regulation of cranial development. Using advanced imaging techniques and quantitative measurement, we show that genetic deletion of the highly-conserved transcription factor Grainyhead-like 3 (Grhl3) in mice (Grhl3 -/- ) leads to decreased skull size, aberrant skull morphology and premature apposition of the coronal sutures during embryogenesis. Furthermore, Grhl3 -/- mice also present with premature collagen deposition and osteoblast alignment at the sutures, and the physical interaction between the developing skull, and outermost covering of the brain (the dura mater), as well as the overlying dermis and subcutaneous tissue, appears compromised in embryos lacking Grhl3. Although Grhl3 -/- mice die at birth, we investigated skull morphology and size in adult animals lacking one Grhl3 allele (heterozygous; Grhl3 +/- ), which are viable and fertile. We found that these adult mice also present with a smaller cranial cavity, suggestive of post-natal haploinsufficiency in the context of cranial development. Our findings show that our Grhl3 mice present with increased apposition of the frontal and parietal bones, suggesting that Grhl3 may be involved in the developmental pathogenesis of craniosynostosis.

  20. Preemptive strikes: Fear, hope, and defensive aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevy, Nir

    2017-02-01

    Preemptive strikes are costly and harmful. Existing models of defensive aggression focus narrowly on the role fear plays in motivating preemptive strikes. Theoretically integrating the literatures on conflict, decision making, and emotion, the current research investigated how specific emotions associated with certainty or uncertainty, including fear, anger, disgust, hope, and happiness, influence preemptive strikes. Study 1 demonstrated that hope negatively predicts defensive exits from relationships in choice dilemmas. Studies 2 and 3 experimentally manipulated risk of being attacked in an incentivized, interactive decision making task-the Preemptive Strike Game. Risk of being attacked fueled preemptive strikes; reduced feelings of hope partially mediated this effect in Study 3. Studies 4 and 5 investigated preemptive strikes under uncertainty (rather than risk). In Study 4, reasoning about the factors that make one trustful of others curbed preemptive strikes; cogitating about the factors that underlie discrete emotions, however, did not influence defensive aggression. Study 5 demonstrated that the valence and uncertainty appraisals of incidental emotions interact in shaping preemptive strikes. Specifically, recalling an autobiographical emotional experience that produced hope significantly decreased attack rates relative to fear, happiness, and a control condition. Fear, anger, disgust, and happiness were either unrelated to preemptive strikes or showed inconsistent relationships with preemptive strikes across the 5 studies. These findings shed light on how emotions shape defensive aggression, advance knowledge on strategic choice under risk and uncertainty, and demonstrate hope's positive effects on social interactions and relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. C57Bl/6 N mice on a western diet display reduced intestinal and hepatic cholesterol levels despite a plasma hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmarchelier Charles

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small intestine and liver greatly contribute to whole body lipid, cholesterol and phospholipid metabolism but to which extent cholesterol and phospholipid handling in these tissues is affected by high fat Western-style obesogenic diets remains to be determined. Methods We therefore measured cholesterol and phospholipid concentration in intestine and liver and quantified fecal neutral sterol and bile acid excretion in C57Bl/6 N mice fed for 12 weeks either a cholesterol-free high carbohydrate control diet or a high fat Western diet containing 0.03% (w/w cholesterol. To identify the underlying mechanisms of dietary adaptations in intestine and liver, changes in gene expression were assessed by microarray and qPCR profiling, respectively. Results Mice on Western diet showed increased plasma cholesterol levels, associated with the higher dietary cholesterol supply, yet, significantly reduced cholesterol levels were found in intestine and liver. Transcript profiling revealed evidence that expression of numerous genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and uptake via LDL, but also in phospholipid metabolism, underwent compensatory regulations in both tissues. Alterations in glycerophospholipid metabolism were confirmed at the metabolite level by phospolipid profiling via mass spectrometry. Conclusions Our findings suggest that intestine and liver react to a high dietary fat intake by an activation of de novo cholesterol synthesis and other cholesterol-saving mechanisms, as well as with major changes in phospholipid metabolism, to accommodate to the fat load.

  2. Functional displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelis De, F.; Haentjens, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Functional Displays are directly derived from the Man-Machine Design key document: Function-Based Task Analysis. The presentation defines and describes the goals-means structure of the plant function along with applicable control volumes and parameters of interest. The purpose of the subject is to show, through an example of a preliminary design, what the main parts of a function are. (3 figs.)

  3. Display hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    To appreciate the limitations and possibilities of computer graphics it is necessary to have some acquaintance with the available technology. The aim of this chapter is to mention briefly the different display types and their 'ball-park' price ranges. It must be stressed that prices change rapidly, and so those quoted here are only intended to give an idea of the cost at the time of writing.

  4. Estimating the Impact of Bird Strikes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, I.C.; Muhlhausen, Thorsten; Ellerbroek, J.; Hoekstra, J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Bird strikes have the potential to cause severe damage to aircraft. Therefore, measures to reduce the risk of bird strikes are performed at airports. However, this risk is not limited to the airport but is increased in the arrival and departure corridors as well. Consequently, a significant amount

  5. Option Strike Price and Managerial Investment Decisions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鸿雁; 张维

    2003-01-01

    The manager′s investment decisions is modeled when the manager is risk-averse and has stock options as compensation. It is found that the strike price of options is crucial to the investment incentives of managers, and that the correct value, or interval of values, of managerial stock option strike price can bring stockholder and manager interests in agreement.

  6. Lycopene rich extract from red guava (Psidium guajava L.) displays anti-inflammatory and antioxidant profile by reducing suggestive hallmarks of acute inflammatory response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Andreanne G; Amorim, Adriany das G N; Dos Santos, Raimunda C; Souza, Jessica Maria T; de Souza, Luan Kelves M; Araújo, Thiago de S L; Nicolau, Lucas Antonio D; de Lima Carvalho, Lucas; de Aquino, Pedro Everson A; da Silva Martins, Conceição; Ropke, Cristina D; Soares, Pedro Marcos G; Kuckelhaus, Selma Aparecida S; Medeiros, Jand-Venes R; Leite, José Roberto de S A

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of the extract (LEG) and purified (LPG) lycopene from guava (Psidium guajava L.), as well as some mechanisms possibly involved in this effect. The anti-inflammatory activity was initially assessed using paw edema induced by Carrageenan, Dextran, Compound 48/80, Histamine and Prostaglandin E2 in Swiss mice. A peritonitis model was used to evaluate neutrophil migration, the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration; while the effect on the expression of iNOS, COX-2 and NF-κB, was assessed by immunohistochemistry analysis. Results showed that oral and intraperitoneal administration of LEG and LPG inhibited inflammation caused by carrageenan. LPG (12.5mg/kg p.o.) significantly inhibited the edema formation induced by different phlogistic agents and immunostaining for iNOS, COX-2 and NF-κB. Leukocytes migration in paw tissue and peritoneal cavity was reduced, as well as MPO concentration, whereas GSH levels increased. Thus, lycopene-rich extract from red guava has beneficial effect on acute inflammation, offering protection against the consequences of oxidative stress by downregulating inflammatory mediators and inhibiting gene expression involved in inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tropomyosin 2 heterozygous knockout in mice using CRISPR-Cas9 system displays the inhibition of injury-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and lens opacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Teppei; Shibata, Shinsuke; Ishigaki, Yasuhito; Kiyokawa, Etsuko; Ikawa, Masahito; Singh, Dhirendra P.; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Kubo, Eri

    2018-01-01

    The process of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lens epithelial cells (LECs) after cataract surgery contributes to tissue fibrosis, wound healing and lens regeneration via a mechanism not yet fully understood. Here, we show that tropomyosin 2 (Tpm2) plays a critical role in wound healing and lens aging. Posterior capsular opacification (PCO) after lens extraction surgery was accompanied by elevated expression of Tpm2. Tpm2 heterozygous knockout mice, generated via the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat/ Cas9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system showed promoted progression of cataract with age. Further, injury-induced EMT of the mouse lens epithelium, as evaluated histologically and by the expression patterns of Tpm1 and Tpm2, was attenuated in the absence of Tpm2. In conclusion, Tpm2 may be important in maintaining lens physiology and morphology. However, Tpm2 is involved in the progression of EMT during the wound healing process of mouse LECs, suggesting that inhibition of Tpm2 may suppress PCO. PMID:29510160

  8. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells display anti-cancer activity in SCID mice bearing disseminated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma xenografts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Secchiero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although multimodality treatment can induce high rate of remission in many subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL, significant proportions of patients relapse with incurable disease. The effect of human bone marrow (BM mesenchymal stem cells (MSC on tumor cell growth is controversial, and no specific information is available on the effect of BM-MSC on NHL. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The effect of BM-MSC was analyzed in two in vivo models of disseminated non-Hodgkin's lymphomas with an indolent (EBV(- Burkitt-type BJAB, median survival = 46 days and an aggressive (EBV(+ B lymphoblastoid SKW6.4, median survival = 27 days behavior in nude-SCID mice. Intra-peritoneal (i.p. injection of MSC (4 days after i.p. injection of lymphoma cells significantly increased the overall survival at an optimal MSC:lymphoma ratio of 1:10 in both xenograft models (BJAB+MSC, median survival = 58.5 days; SKW6.4+MSC, median survival = 40 days. Upon MSC injection, i.p. tumor masses developed more slowly and, at the histopathological observation, exhibited a massive stromal infiltration coupled to extensive intra-tumor necrosis. In in vitro experiments, we found that: i MSC/lymphoma co-cultures modestly affected lymphoma cell survival and were characterized by increased release of pro-angiogenic cytokines with respect to the MSC, or lymphoma, cultures; ii MSC induce the migration of endothelial cells in transwell assays, but promoted endothelial cell apoptosis in direct MSC/endothelial cell co-cultures. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data demonstrate that BM-MSC exhibit anti-lymphoma activity in two distinct xenograft SCID mouse models of disseminated NHL.

  9. PrPC displays an essential protective role from oxidative stress in an astrocyte cell line derived from PrPC knockout mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertuchi, Fernanda R.; Bourgeon, Dominique M.G.; Landemberger, Michele C.; Martins, Vilma R.; Cerchiaro, Giselle

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► PrP C in solution acts as a radical scavenger. ► PrP C reduces hydrogen peroxide toxicity in astrocytes. ► Increase in ROS disrupted the cell cycle in the PrP C -knockout astrocytes. ► PrP C prevents the cell death independently of an SOD-like activity. -- Abstract: The PrP C protein, which is especially present in the cellular membrane of nervous system cells, has been extensively studied for its controversial antioxidant activity. In this study, we elucidated the free radical scavenger activity of purified murine PrP C in solution and its participation as a cell protector in astrocytes that were subjected to treatment with an oxidant. In vitro and using an EPR spin-trapping technique, we observed that PrP C decreased the oxidation of the DMPO trap in a Fenton reaction system (Cu 2+ /ascorbate/H 2 O 2 ), which was demonstrated by approximately 70% less DMPO/OH · . In cultured PrP C -knockout astrocytes from mice, the absence of PrP C caused an increase in intracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species) generation during the first 3 h of H 2 O 2 treatment. This rapid increase in ROS disrupted the cell cycle in the PrP C -knockout astrocytes, which increased the population of cells in the sub-G1 phase when compared with cultured wild-type astrocytes. We conclude that PrP C in solution acts as a radical scavenger, and in astrocytes, it is essential for protection from oxidative stress caused by an external chemical agent, which is a likely condition in human neurodegenerative CNS disorders and pathological conditions such as ischemia.

  10. Lightning Strike in Pregnancy With Fetal Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galster, Kellen; Hodnick, Ryan; Berkeley, Ross P

    2016-06-01

    Injuries from lightning strikes are an infrequent occurrence, and are only rarely noted to involve pregnant victims. Only 13 cases of lightning strike in pregnancy have been previously described in the medical literature, along with 7 additional cases discovered within news media reports. This case report presents a novel case of lightning-associated injury in a patient in the third trimester of pregnancy, resulting in fetal ischemic brain injury and long-term morbidity, and reviews the mechanics of lightning strikes along with common injury patterns of which emergency providers should be aware. Copyright © 2016 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Expeditionary Strike Group: Command Structure Design Support

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hutchins, Susan G; Kemple, William G; Kleinman, David L; Hocevar, Susan P

    2005-01-01

    An Expeditionary Strike Group (ESG) is a new capability mix that combines the combat power of three surface combatants and one submarine with an Amphibious Readiness Group/ Marine Expeditionary Unit...

  12. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table ... from all walks of life are affected by hepatitis, especially hepatitis C, the most common form of ...

  13. Environmental Assessment: Bird Strike Risk Reduction at Laughlin Air Force Base, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    mglkg in rats, 291 - 609 mglkg in mice, > 1000 mglkg in sheep , > 100 mglkg in dogs and > 1000 mglkg in rabbits (Pesticide Residues in Food-1987... vineyards . Wildl. Soc. Bull. 21:47-51. LAFB Strike Risk Reduction EA - 39 Gaines, T.B. 1969. Acute toxicity of pesticides. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol

  14. Women, transition and strikes in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković Nada G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author, in a sociological way, describes and analyzes the concepts of transition, privatization and strikes in Serbia, particularly the place of women in it. It examines the most important economic and social causes and consequences of these phenomena. The main hypothesis is: women's strikes in the Serbian transition are less efficient than strikes and public protests of women in the developed world and the second Yugoslavia. A strike is a class conflict, in which the workers are fighting for their social and economic rights, threatened by the capitalist class. Elites in government and state authorities protect the interests of big capital at the detriment of the interests of the majority of workers. Exploring women's strikes in transition reveals the nature of the social and political system. Their strikes in enterprises, the blocking of public spaces and public protests are systemic, ie. class determined. As the transition was very fast, the resistance of the strikers was inefficient, and the protests of women became an expression of desperation against the loss of jobs and basic resources for lifehood. In short, this research is about the main causes, the organizational forms and the consequences of strikes in which the majority were women. For this purpose, the author chose to describe an array of strikes in the industries and the companies where women are most employed. The choice of strikes in the economic sector is not accidental, but a consequence of the fact that the women there were the most vulnerable. Women in public institutions and companies had much higher financial and social position. They are less likely to strike and publicly protested. After 2000, these strikes were more successful than worker's strikes in textile, food processing, manufacturing and trade. Relationship between the government and the public towards them was tainted by self-interest and selective. The main criterion for the selection of companies and

  15. When Push Comes to Shove: Strikes in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magney, John

    2002-01-01

    To provide a better sense of how academic unions handle a strike situation, examines six unions who, between 1996 and 2000, went through strikes. Discusses the key issues and outcomes of the strikes. (EV)

  16. fps/fes knockout mice display a lactation defect and the fps/fes tyrosine kinase is a component of E-cadherin-based adherens junctions in breast epithelial cells during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdell, Peter F; Zirngibl, Ralph A; Francis, Sarah; Sangrar, Waheed; Greer, Peter A

    2009-10-15

    The fps/fes proto-oncogene encodes a cytoplasmic protein-tyrosine kinase implicated in vesicular trafficking and cytokine and growth factor signaling in hematopoietic, neuronal, vascular endothelial and epithelial lineages. Genetic evidence has suggested a tumor suppressor role for Fps/Fes in breast and colon. Here we used fps/fes knockout mice to investigate potential roles for this kinase in development and function of the mammary gland. Fps/Fes expression was induced during pregnancy and lactation, and its kinase activity was dramatically enhanced. Milk protein and fat composition from nursing fps/fes-null mothers was normal; however, pups reared by them gained weight more slowly than pups reared by wild-type mothers. Fps/Fes displayed a predominantly dispersed punctate intracellular distribution which was consistent with vesicles within the luminal epithelial cells of lactating breast, while a small fraction co-localized with beta-catenin and E-cadherin on their basolateral surfaces. Fps/Fes was found to be a component of the E-cadherin adherens junction (AJ) complex; however, the phosphotyrosine status of beta-catenin and core AJ components in fps/fes-null breast tissue was unaltered, and epithelial cell AJs and gland morphology were intact. We conclude that Fps/Fes is not essential for the maintenance of epithelial cell AJs in the lactating breast but may instead play important roles in vesicular trafficking and milk secretion.

  17. Intestinal microbiota shifts towards elevated commensal Escherichia coli loads abrogate colonization resistance against Campylobacter jejuni in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea-Maxie Haag

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The zoonotic pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial foodborne enterocolitis in humans worldwide. The understanding of immunopathology underlying human campylobacteriosis is hampered by the fact that mice display strong colonization resistance against the pathogen due to their host specific gut microbiota composition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Since the microbiota composition changes significantly during intestinal inflammation we dissected factors contributing to colonization resistance against C. jejuni in murine ileitis, colitis and in infant mice. In contrast to healthy animals C. jejuni could stably colonize mice suffering from intestinal inflammation. Strikingly, in mice with Toxoplasma gondii-induced acute ileitis, C. jejuni disseminated to mesenteric lymphnodes, spleen, liver, kidney, and blood. In infant mice C. jejuni infection induced enterocolitis. Mice suffering from intestinal inflammation and C. jejuni susceptible infant mice displayed characteristical microbiota shifts dominated by increased numbers of commensal Escherichia coli. To further dissect the pivotal role of those distinct microbiota shifts in abrogating colonization resistance, we investigated C. jejuni infection in healthy adult mice in which the microbiota was artificially modified by feeding live commensal E. coli. Strikingly, in animals harboring supra-physiological intestinal E. coli loads, colonization resistance was significantly diminished and C. jejuni infection induced enterocolitis mimicking key features of human campylobacteriosis. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Murine colonization resistance against C. jejuni is abrogated by changes in the microbiota composition towards elevated E. coli loads during intestinal inflammation as well as in infant mice. Intestinal inflammation and microbiota shifts thus represent potential risk factors for C. jejuni infection. Corresponding interplays between C. jejuni and microbiota might

  18. Impact of lightning strikes on hospital functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortelmans, Luc J M; Van Springel, Gert L J; Van Boxstael, Sam; Herrijgers, Jan; Hoflacks, Stefaan

    2009-01-01

    Two regional hospitals were struck by lightning during a one-month period. The first hospital, which had 236 beds, suffered a direct strike to the building. This resulted in a direct spread of the power peak and temporary failure of the standard power supply. The principle problems, after restoring standard power supply, were with the fire alarm system and peripheral network connections in the digital radiology systems. No direct impact on the hardware could be found. Restarting the servers resolved all problems. The second hospital, which had 436 beds, had a lightning strike on the premises and mainly experienced problems due to induction. All affected installations had a cable connection from outside in one way or another. The power supplies never were endangered. The main problem was the failure of different communication systems (telephone, radio, intercom, fire alarm system). Also, the electronic entrance control went out. During the days after the lightening strike, multiple software problems became apparent, as well as failures of the network connections controlling the technical support systems. There are very few ways to prepare for induction problems. The use of fiber-optic networks can limit damage. To the knowledge of the authors, these are the first cases of lightning striking hospitals in medical literature.

  19. PSpice Model of Lightning Strike to a Steel Reinforced Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koone, Neil; Condren, Brian

    2003-01-01

    Surges and arcs from lightning can pose hazards to personnel and sensitive equipment, and processes. Steel reinforcement in structures can act as a Faraday cage mitigating lightning effects. Knowing a structure's response to a lightning strike allows hazards associated with lightning to be analyzed. A model of lightning's response in a steel reinforced structure has been developed using PSpice (a commercial circuit simulation). Segments of rebar are modeled as inductors and resistors in series. A program has been written to take architectural information of a steel reinforced structure and 'build' a circuit network that is analogous to the network of reinforcement in a facility. A severe current waveform (simulating a 99th percentile lightning strike), modeled as a current source, is introduced in the circuit network, and potential differences within the structure are determined using PSpice. A visual three-dimensional model of the facility displays the voltage distribution across the structure using color to indicate the potential difference relative to the floor. Clear air arcing distances can be calculated from the voltage distribution using a conservative value for the dielectric breakdown strength of air. Potential validation tests for the model will be presented

  20. Lateralisation of aggressive displays in a tephritid fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Donati, Elisa; Romano, Donato; Stefanini, Cesare; Messing, Russell H.; Canale, Angelo

    2015-02-01

    Lateralisation (i.e. different functional and/or structural specialisations of the left and right sides of the brain) of aggression has been examined in several vertebrate species, while evidence for invertebrates is scarce. In this study, we investigated lateralisation of aggressive displays (boxing with forelegs and wing strikes) in the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. We attempted to answer the following questions: (1) do medflies show lateralisation of aggressive displays at the population-level; (2) are there sex differences in lateralisation of aggressive displays; and (3) does lateralisation of aggression enhance fighting success? Results showed left-biased population-level lateralisation of aggressive displays, with no consistent differences among sexes. In both male-male and female-female conflicts, aggressive behaviours performed with left body parts led to greater fighting success than those performed with right body parts. As we found left-biased preferential use of body parts for both wing strikes and boxing, we predicted that the left foreleg/wing is quicker in exploring/striking than the right one. We characterised wing strike and boxing using high-speed videos, calculating mean velocity of aggressive displays. For both sexes, aggressive displays that led to success were faster than unsuccessful ones. However, left wing/legs were not faster than right ones while performing aggressive acts. Further research is needed on proximate causes allowing enhanced fighting success of lateralised aggressive behaviour. This is the first report supporting the adaptive role of lateralisation of aggressive displays in insects.

  1. Central hyperadrenergic state after lightning strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsaik, Ajay K; Ahlskog, J Eric; Singer, Wolfgang; Gelfman, Russell; Sheldon, Seth H; Seime, Richard J; Craft, Jennifer M; Staab, Jeffrey P; Kantor, Birgit; Low, Phillip A

    2013-08-01

    To describe and review autonomic complications of lightning strike. Case report and laboratory data including autonomic function tests in a subject who was struck by lightning. A 24-year-old man was struck by lightning. Following that, he developed dysautonomia, with persistent inappropriate sinus tachycardia and autonomic storms, as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and functional neurologic problems. The combination of persistent sinus tachycardia and episodic exacerbations associated with hypertension, diaphoresis, and agitation was highly suggestive of a central hyperadrenergic state with superimposed autonomic storms. Whether the additional PTSD and functional neurologic deficits were due to a direct effect of the lightning strike on the central nervous system or a secondary response is open to speculation.

  2. ["Bell-striking" Saying of Acupuncture Therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing-Sheng

    2017-04-25

    As an analogy, a prototype of "bell-striking" is proposed in the present paper for exploring the basic properties, major elements, and potential mechanisms of acupuncture stimulation. On the strength of analysis on the physiological basis of acupuncture effect, several fundamental aspects of acupuncture are summarized as a) the body-surface stimulating characters, b) general and local effects, and c) triggering the auto-regulative function of the organism, which mimics the "bell-striking" response. Namely, when stroke, bell will chime, otherwise, chiming will not be heard. During analyzing special contents of acupuncture theory, its formative background should not be separated, and it is improper to take, modern medical theory of the human body as the guiding thinking way for researching the ancient Chinese medical literature.

  3. Proliferation of Precision Strike: Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    industrial base. Finally, should Congress legislate requirements for DOD to develop precision strike countermeasures and then provide funding for that...Defense, Part 187 – Environmental Effects Abroad of Major Department of Defense Actions, Section 187.3: Definitions. 32 Bryan Clark and Dan Whiteneck...so many missiles ... referring to reports of Venezuelan arms flowing to Colombian guerrillas.... The Chavez regime also has close ties with

  4. Stress distribution of metatarsals during forefoot strike versus rearfoot strike: A finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shudong; Zhang, Yan; Gu, Yaodong; Ren, James

    2017-12-01

    Due to the limitations of experimental approaches, comparison of the internal deformation and stresses of the human man foot between forefoot and rearfoot landing is not fully established. The objective of this work is to develop an effective FE modelling approach to comparatively study the stresses and energy in the foot during forefoot strike (FS) and rearfoot strike (RS). The stress level and rate of stress increase in the Metatarsals are established and the injury risk between these two landing styles is evaluated and discussed. A detailed subject specific FE foot model is developed and validated. A hexahedral dominated meshing scheme was applied on the surface of the foot bones and skin. An explicit solver (Abaqus/Explicit) was used to stimulate the transient landing process. The deformation and internal energy of the foot and stresses in the metatarsals are comparatively investigated. The results for forefoot strike tests showed an overall higher average stress level in the metatarsals during the entire landing cycle than that for rearfoot strike. The increase rate of the metatarsal stress from the 0.5 body weight (BW) to 2 BW load point is 30.76% for forefoot strike and 21.39% for rearfoot strike. The maximum rate of stress increase among the five metatarsals is observed on the 1st metatarsal in both landing modes. The results indicate that high stress level during forefoot landing phase may increase potential of metatarsal injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Gait Retraining From Rearfoot Strike to Forefoot Strike does not change Running Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Jenevieve Lynn; Doerfler, Deborah; Kravitz, Len; Dufek, Janet S; Mermier, Christine

    2017-12-01

    Gait retraining is a method for management of patellofemoral pain, which is a common ailment among recreational runners. The present study investigated the effects of gait retraining from rearfoot strike to forefoot strike on running economy, heart rate, and respiratory exchange ratio immediately post-retraining and one-month post-retraining in recreational runners with patellofemoral pain. Knee pain was also measured. Sixteen participants (n=16) were randomly placed in the control (n=8) or experimental (n=8) group. A 10-minute treadmill RE test was performed by all subjects. The experimental group performed eight gait retraining running sessions where foot strike pattern was switched from rearfoot strike to forefoot strike, while the control group received no intervention. There were no significant differences for running economy (p=0.26), respiratory exchange ratio (p=0.258), or heart rate (p=0.248) between the groups. Knee pain reported on a visual analog scale was also significantly reduced (pstrike to forefoot strike did not affect running economy up to one-month post-retraining while reducing running-related patellofemoral pain. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Acute transient hemiparesis induced by lightning strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Seyed Hesam; Faridaalaee, Gholamreza; Jahangard, Samira

    2015-07-01

    According to data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,in the years from 1959 to 1994, lightning was responsible for more than 3000 deaths and nearly 10,000 casualties. The most important characteristic features of lightning injuries are multisystem involvement and widely variable severity. Lightning strikes are primarily a neurologic injury that affects all 3 components of the nervous system: central, autonomic,and peripheral. Neurologic complications of lightning strikes vary from transient benign symptoms to permanent disability. Many patients experience a temporary paralysis called keraunoparalysis. Here we reported a 22-year-old mountaineer man with complaining of left sided hemiparesis after being hit by a lightning strike in the mountain 3 hours ago. There was no loss of consciousness at hitting time. On arrival the patient was alert, awake and hemodynamically stable. In neurologic examination cranial nerves were intact, left sided upper and lower extremity muscle force was I/V with a combination of complete sensory loss, and right-sided muscle force and sensory examination were normal. There is not any evidence of significant vascular impairment in the affected extremities. Brain MRI and CT scan and cervical MRI were normal. During 2 days of admission, with intravenous hydration, heparin 5000 unit SC q12hr and physical therapy of the affected limbs, motor and sensory function improved and was normal except mild paresthesia. He was discharged 1 day later for outpatient follow up while vitamin B1 100mg orally was prescribed.Paresthesia improved after 3 days without further sequels.

  7. Foot-strike pattern and performance in a marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmer, Mark E; Liu, Xue-Cheng; Roberts, Kyle G; Valadao, Jason M

    2013-05-01

    To determine prevalence of heel strike in a midsize city marathon, if there is an association between foot-strike classification and race performance, and if there is an association between foot-strike classification and gender. Foot-strike classification (forefoot, midfoot, heel, or split strike), gender, and rank (position in race) were recorded at the 8.1-km mark for 2112 runners at the 2011 Milwaukee Lakefront Marathon. 1991 runners were classified by foot-strike pattern, revealing a heel-strike prevalence of 93.67% (n = 1865). A significant difference between foot-strike classification and performance was found using a Kruskal-Wallis test (P strike. No significant difference between foot-strike classification and gender was found using a Fisher exact test. In addition, subgroup analysis of the 126 non-heel strikers found no significant difference between shoe wear and performance using a Kruskal-Wallis test. The high prevalence of heel striking observed in this study reflects the foot-strike pattern of most mid-distance to long-distance runners and, more important, may predict their injury profile based on the biomechanics of a heel-strike running pattern. This knowledge can help clinicians appropriately diagnose, manage, and train modifications of injured runners.

  8. Acute neuromuscular responses to short and long roundhouse kick striking paces in professional Muay Thai fighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimadoro, Giuseppe; Mahaffey, Ryan; Babault, Nicolas

    2018-04-04

    Muay Thai fighters strongly rely on the use of the roundhouse kick due to its effectiveness (i.e. power) and implications on the final score. Therefore, different striking tempos at full power are used during training as a method to enhance kicking power. However, the neuromuscular responses are unknown. Thus, the goal of this study was to investigate neuromuscular responses to a single bout of shorter (every second = H1) and longer (every 3s = H3) kick striking time intervals, measured with the countermovement jump (CMJ). Nine professional Muay Thai fighters participated in this randomized, cross-over trial. CMJs were measured on force plates before and after (post 0min, post 5min, post 10min, post 20min and post 30min) two striking (1set x 20reps) conditions (H1; H3). Although no difference was observed between H1 and H3 values, neuromuscular fatigue parameters displayed different patterns over time. CMJ height decreased immediately after H3 striking (PMuay Thai and conditioning coaches should focus on hard striking with both long and slow pacing during specific heavy bag or pad work.

  9. Invisible Display in Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen

    2005-01-01

    Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish for an integ......Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish...... for an integrated display in a metal surface is often ruled by design and functionality of a product. The integration of displays in metal surfaces requires metal removal in order to clear the area of the display to some extent. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum concerns the processing of a metal...

  10. 2002 Bird Strike Committee USA/Canada Conference

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dolbeer, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Over 380 people from 20 countries and 17 exhibitors attended the 4th annual joint meeting of Bird Strike Committee-USA and Bird Strike Committee Canada in Sacramento, California on October 21-24, 2002...

  11. effect of strikes on management and planning of educational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    Strike is an event that consumes and waste a lot of time which implies that ... from this paper. KEYWORDS: Strikes, Management, Planning, Educational, Activities, Universities ..... employers; and Introduction of new technology which affect the ...

  12. BIRD/WILDLIFE STRIKE CONTROL FOR SAFER AIR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-06-05

    Jun 5, 2012 ... Keywords: bird/wildlife, strike, aviation, hazard, control. Introduction ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management EJESM Vol. 5 No. 3 2012 .... Aircraft Bird. Strike Avoidance Rader System (ABARS) and.

  13. Strike-slip tectonics during rift linkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagli, C.; Yun, S. H.; Ebinger, C.; Keir, D.; Wang, H.

    2017-12-01

    The kinematics of triple junction linkage and the initiation of transforms in magmatic rifts remain debated. Strain patterns from the Afar triple junction provide tests of current models of how rifts grow to link in area of incipient oceanic spreading. Here we present a combined analysis of seismicity, InSAR and GPS derived strain rate maps to reveal that the plate boundary deformation in Afar is accommodated primarily by extensional tectonics in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rifts, and does not require large rotations about vertical axes (bookshelf faulting). Additionally, models of stress changes and seismicity induced by recent dykes in one sector of the Afar triple junction provide poor fit to the observed strike-slip earthquakes. Instead we explain these patterns as rift-perpendicular shearing at the tips of spreading rifts where extensional strains terminate against less stretched lithosphere. Our results demonstrate that rift-perpendicular strike-slip faulting between rift segments achieves plate boundary linkage during incipient seafloor spreading.

  14. Properties of Lightning Strike Protection Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Martin

    Composite materials are being increasingly used by many industries. In the case of aerospace companies, those materials are installed on their aircraft to save weight, and thus, fuel costs. These aircraft are lighter, but the loss of electrical conductivity makes aircraft vulnerable to lightning strikes, which hit commercial aircrafts on average once per year. This makes lightning strike protection very important, and while current metallic expanded copper foils offer good protection, they increase the weight of composites. Therefore, under the CRIAQ COMP-502 project, a team of industrial partners and academic researchers are investigating new conductive coatings with the following characteristics: High electromagnetic protection, high mechanical resistance, good environmental protection, manufacturability and moderate cost. The main objectives of this thesis, as part of this project, was to determine the main characteristics, such as electrical and tribomechanical properties, of conductive coatings on composite panels. Their properties were also to be tested after destructive tests such as current injection and environmental testing. Bombardier Aerospace provided the substrate, a composite of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy matrix, and the current commercial product, a surfacing film that includes an expanded copper foil used to compare with the other coatings. The conductive coatings fabricated by the students are: silver nanoparticles inside a binding matrix (PEDOT:PSS or a mix of Epoxy and PEDOT:PSS), silvered carbon nanofibers embedded in the surfacing film, cold sprayed tin, graphene oxide functionalized with silver nanowires, and electroless plated silver. Additionally as part of the project and thesis, magnetron sputtered aluminum coated samples were fabricated. There are three main types of tests to characterize the conductive coatings: electrical, mechanical and environmental. Electrical tests consist of finding the sheet resistance and specific resistivity

  15. Evaluating the Effects of a Bird Strike Advisory System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, I.C.; Mühlhausen, T; Ellerbroek, J.; Hoekstra, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Bird strikes have operational impacts and cause economic loss to the aviation industry. In the worst case, the damages resulting from bird strikes lead to crashes. The highest risk for bird strikes lies in the area below 3000 ft and thus mainly in airport environments. Despite intense efforts from

  16. effects of strike cost on economic development in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    same firm, in other firms even in other industries (Kempner, 1980). For example ... The main purpose of this paper is to examine the strike cost and productivity in. Nigeria. ... Obnoxious Policies: Workers do go on strike when management makes obnoxious ... ASUU had to go on strike; the FGN had rescinded the decision.

  17. Forward to the Past: Strikes and Striking as Dialogue by other ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, from the colonial period to the present, the employment of strikes and protests by nationalists, Nigerian workers and civil society groups has been established as one of the potent means of conveying viewpoints, positions as well as the demand for equality, fairness, social justice and reforms. It has been used as ...

  18. European display scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Christopher T.

    2000-08-01

    The manufacture of Flat Panel Displays (FPDs) is dominated by Far Eastern sources, particularly in Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Displays (AMLCD) and Plasma. The United States has a very powerful capability in micro-displays. It is not well known that Europe has a very active research capability which has lead to many innovations in display technology. In addition there is a capability in display manufacturing of organic technologies as well as the licensed build of Japanese or Korean designs. Finally, Europe has a display systems capability in military products which is world class.

  19. Handbook of display technology

    CERN Document Server

    Castellano, Joseph A

    1992-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive review of technical and commercial aspects of display technology. It provides design engineers with the information needed to select proper technology for new products. The book focuses on flat, thin displays such as light-emitting diodes, plasma display panels, and liquid crystal displays, but it also includes material on cathode ray tubes. Displays include a large number of products from televisions, auto dashboards, radios, and household appliances, to gasoline pumps, heart monitors, microwave ovens, and more.For more information on display tech

  20. A bird strike handbook for base-level managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payson, R. P.; Vance, J. D.

    1984-09-01

    To help develop more awareness about bird strikes and bird strike reduction techniques, this thesis compiled all relevant information through an extensive literature search, review of base-level documents, and personal interviews. The final product--A Bird Strike Handbook for Base-Level Managers--provides information on bird strike statistics, methods to reduce the strike hazards, and means to obtain additional assistance. The handbook is organized for use by six major base agencies: Maintenance, Civil Engineering, Operations, Air Field Management, Safety, and Air Traffic Control. An appendix follows at the end.

  1. Strikes and solidarity: coalfield conflict in Britain, 1889-1966

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy Church; Quentin Outram [University of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom)

    2002-05-01

    This book investigates the history of strike activity in the British coal mining industry, a byword for industrial militancy since the late nineteenth century. Contents: 1. Interpreting coalfield conflict: focus and formulations; 2. Tradition and modernity: the mining industry 1889-1940; 3. Employers and workers: organizations and strategies; 4. Employers and workers: ideologies, attitudes and political orientations; 5. Configurations of strike activity; 6. Strike participation and solidarity before 1912; 7. Strikes, organization and consciousness in 1912 and after; 8. Conflictual context? The 'isolated mass' revisited; 9. Mining and modernity: size, sectionalism and solidarity; 10. The foundations of strike propensity; 11. Miners and management: agency and action; 12. Industrial relations and strikes after nationalization; 13. International perspectives; 14. Myths and realities: strikes, solidarity and 'militant miners'.

  2. A Compressive Superresolution Display

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix; Gregson, James; Wetzstein, Gordon; Raskar, Ramesh; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new compressive display architecture for superresolution image presentation that exploits co-design of the optical device configuration and compressive computation. Our display allows for superresolution, HDR, or glasses-free 3D presentation.

  3. A Compressive Superresolution Display

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix

    2014-06-22

    In this paper, we introduce a new compressive display architecture for superresolution image presentation that exploits co-design of the optical device configuration and compressive computation. Our display allows for superresolution, HDR, or glasses-free 3D presentation.

  4. The cenozoic strike-slip faults and TTHE regional crust stability of Beishan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhaojie; Zhang Zhicheng; Zhang Chen; Liu Chang; Zhang Yu; Wang Ju; Chen Weiming

    2008-01-01

    The remote sensing images and geological features of Beishan area indicate that the Altyn Tagh fault, Sanweishan-Shuangta fault, Daquan fault and Hongliuhe fault are distributed in Beishan area from south to north. The faults are all left-lateral strike-slip faults with trending of NE40-50°, displaying similar distribution pattern. The secondary branch faults are developed at the end of each main strike-slip fault with nearly east to west trending form dendritic oblique crossings at the angle of 30-50°. Because of the left-lateral slip of the branch faults, the granites or the blocks exposed within the branch faults rotate clockwisely, forming 'Domino' structures. So the structural style of Beishan area consists of the Altyn Tagh fault, Sanweishan-Shuangta fault, Daquan fault, Hongliuhe fault and their branch faults and rotational structures between different faults. Sedimentary analysis on the fault valleys in the study area and ESR chronological test of fault clay exhibit that the Sanweishan-Shuangta fault form in the late Pliocene (N2), while the Daquan fault displays formation age of l.5-1.2 Ma, and the activity age of the relevant branch faults is Late Pleistocene (400 ka). The ages become younger from the Altyn Tagh fault to the Daquan fault and strike-slip faults display NW trending extension, further revealing the lateral growth process of the strike-slip boundary at the northern margin during the Cenozoic uplift of Tibetan Plateau. The displacement amounts on several secondary faults caused by the activities of the faults are slight due to the above-mentioned structural distribution characteristics of Beishan area, which means that this area is the most stable active area with few seismic activities. We propose the main granitic bodies in Beishan area could be favorable preselected locations for China's high level radioactive waste repository. (authors)

  5. Liquid crystal display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takami, K.

    1981-01-01

    An improved liquid crystal display device is described which can display letters, numerals and other necessary patterns in the night time using a minimized amount of radioactive material. To achieve this a self-luminous light source is placed in a limited region corresponding to a specific display area. (U.K.)

  6. Liquid Crystal Airborne Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    Cum.nings, J. P., et al., Properties and Limitations oe Liquid Crystals for Aircraft Displays, Honeywell Corporate Researc ."I Center, Final Report HR-72...basic module could be used to build displays for both the commercial and military! 157- marhecs, and so would establi sh a broad and sizable market ... market for the display becomes a reality; therein lies, f TABLE 16 THE COURSE OF FUTURE DISPLAY DEVELOPMENT Today 1976-77 1980 1985 Display Size 2" 1 3.2

  7. Displays in scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd-Pokropek, A.E.; Pizer, S.M.

    1977-01-01

    Displays have several functions: to transmit images, to permit interaction, to quantitate features and to provide records. The main characteristics of displays used for image transmission are their resolution, dynamic range, signal-to-noise ratio and uniformity. Considerations of visual acuity suggest that the display element size should be much less than the data element size, and in current practice at least 256X256 for a gamma camera image. The dynamic range for image transmission should be such that at least 64 levels of grey (or equivalent) are displayed. Scanner displays are also considered, and in particular, the requirements of a whole-body camera are examined. A number of display systems and devices are presented including a 'new' heated object colour display system. Interaction with displays is considered, including background subtraction, contrast enhancement, position indication and region-of-interest generation. Such systems lead to methods of quantitation, which imply knowledge of the expected distributions. Methods for intercomparing displays are considered. Polaroid displays, which have for so long dominated the field, are in the process of being replaced by stored image displays, now that large cheap memories exist which give an equivalent image quality. The impact of this in nuclear medicine is yet to be seen, but a major effect will be to enable true quantitation. (author)

  8. Shell Tectonics: A Mechanical Model for Strike-slip Displacement on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoden, Alyssa Rose; Wurman, Gilead; Huff, Eric M.; Manga, Michael; Hurford, Terry A.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new mechanical model for producing tidally-driven strike-slip displacement along preexisting faults on Europa, which we call shell tectonics. This model differs from previous models of strike-slip on icy satellites by incorporating a Coulomb failure criterion, approximating a viscoelastic rheology, determining the slip direction based on the gradient of the tidal shear stress rather than its sign, and quantitatively determining the net offset over many orbits. This model allows us to predict the direction of net displacement along faults and determine relative accumulation rate of displacement. To test the shell tectonics model, we generate global predictions of slip direction and compare them with the observed global pattern of strike-slip displacement on Europa in which left-lateral faults dominate far north of the equator, right-lateral faults dominate in the far south, and near-equatorial regions display a mixture of both types of faults. The shell tectonics model reproduces this global pattern. Incorporating a small obliquity into calculations of tidal stresses, which are used as inputs to the shell tectonics model, can also explain regional differences in strike-slip fault populations. We also discuss implications for fault azimuths, fault depth, and Europa's tectonic history.

  9. Geological Effects on Lightning Strike Distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Berdahl, J. Scott

    2016-05-16

    Recent advances in lightning detection networks allow for detailed mapping of lightning flash locations. Longstanding rumors of geological influence on cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning distribution and recent commercial claims based on such influence can now be tested empirically. If present, such influence could represent a new, cheap and efficient geophysical tool with applications in mineral, hydrothermal and oil exploration, regional geological mapping, and infrastructure planning. This project applies statistical analysis to lightning data collected by the United States National Lightning Detection Network from 2006 through 2015 in order to assess whether the huge range in electrical conductivities of geological materials plays a role in the spatial distribution of CG lightning. CG flash densities are mapped for twelve areas in the contiguous United States and compared to elevation and geology, as well as to the locations of faults, railroads and tall towers including wind turbines. Overall spatial randomness is assessed, along with spatial correlation of attributes. Negative and positive polarity lightning are considered separately and together. Topography and tower locations show a strong influence on CG distribution patterns. Geology, faults and railroads do not. This suggests that ground conductivity is not an important factor in determining lightning strike location on scales larger than current flash location accuracies, which are generally several hundred meters. Once a lightning channel is established, however, ground properties at the contact point may play a role in determining properties of the subsequent stroke.

  10. Preventive strike vs. false targets and protection in defense strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitin, Gregory; Hausken, Kjell

    2011-01-01

    A defender allocates its resource between defending an object passively and striking preventively against an attacker seeking to destroy the object. With no preventive strike the defender distributes its entire resource between deploying false targets, which the attacker cannot distinguish from the genuine object, and protecting the object. If the defender strikes preventively, the attacker's vulnerability depends on its protection and on the defender's resource allocated to the strike. If the attacker survives, the object's vulnerability depends on the attacker's revenge attack resource allocated to the attacked object. The optimal defense resource distribution between striking preventively, deploying the false targets and protecting the object is analyzed. Two cases of the attacker strategy are considered: when the attacker attacks all of the targets and when it chooses a number of targets to attack. An optimization model is presented for making a decision about the efficiency of the preventive strike based on the estimated attack probability, dependent on a variety of model parameters.

  11. Children on hunger strike: child abuse or legitimate protest?

    OpenAIRE

    Mok, A.; Nelson, E. A.; Murphy, J.; Hampson, A.; Hendriks, J. H.

    1996-01-01

    The issue of children on hunger strike (voluntary total fasting) has not been reported before. The World Medical Association Declaration of Tokyo 1975 and the Declaration of Malta 1991 (revised 1992) provide clinicians with guidelines for the management of adult patients on hunger strike but do not mention children. We report the management of 14 Vietnamese children, aged 1 to 12 years, who took part in a hunger strike at a refugee detention centre in Hong Kong.

  12. The effect of hand dominance on martial arts strikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Silva, Jansen Henrique; Marzullo, Ana Carolina de Miranda; Bolander, Richard P; Bir, Cynthia A

    2012-08-01

    The main goal of this study was to compare dominant and non-dominant martial arts palm strikes under different circumstances that usually happen during martial arts and combative sports applications. Seven highly experienced (10±5 years) right hand dominant Kung Fu practitioners performed strikes with both hands, stances with left or right lead legs, and with the possibility or not of stepping towards the target (moving stance). Peak force was greater for the dominant hand strikes (1593.76±703.45 N vs. 1042.28±374.16 N; p<.001), whereas no difference was found in accuracy between the hands (p=.141). Additionally, peak force was greater for the strikes with moving stance (1448.75±686.01 N vs. 1201.80±547.98 N; p=.002) and left lead leg stance (1378.06±705.48 N vs. 1269.96±547.08 N). Furthermore, the difference in peak force between strikes with moving and stationary stances was statistically significant only for the strikes performed with a left lead leg stance (p=.007). Hand speed was higher for the dominant hand strikes (5.82±1.08 m/s vs. 5.24±0.78 m/s; p=.001) and for the strikes with moving stance (5.79±1.01 m/s vs. 5.29±0.90 m/s; p<.001). The difference in hand speed between right and left hand strikes was only significant for strikes with moving stance. In summary, our results suggest that the stronger palm strike for a right-handed practitioner is a right hand strike on a left lead leg stance moving towards the target. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Foot strike patterns after obstacle clearance during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Shane D; Stergiou, Nicholas; Hreljac, Alan; Houser, Jeremy; Blanke, Daniel; Alberts, L Russell

    2002-01-01

    Running over obstacles of sufficient height requires heel strike (HS) runners to make a transition in landing strategy to a forefoot (FF) strike, resulting in similar ground reaction force patterns to those observed while landing from a jump. Identification of the biomechanical variables that distinguish between the landing strategies may offer some insight into the reasons that the transition occurs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference in foot strike patterns and kinetic parameters of heel strike runners between level running and running over obstacles of various heights. Ten heel strike subjects ran at their self-selected pace under seven different conditions: unperturbed running (no obstacle) and over obstacles of six different heights (10%, 12.5%, 15%, 17.5%, 20%, and 22.5% of their standing height). The obstacle was placed directly before a Kistler force platform. Repeated measures ANOVAs were performed on the subject means of selected kinetic parameters. The statistical analysis revealed significant differences (P strike patterns were affected by the increased obstacle height. Between the 12.5% and 15% obstacle conditions, the group response changed from a heel strike to a forefoot strike pattern. At height > 15%, the pattern was more closely related to the foot strike patterns found in jumping activities. This strategy change may represent a gait transition effected as a mechanism to protect against increased impact forces. Greater involvement of the ankle and the calf muscles could have assisted in attenuating the increased impact forces while maintaining speed after clearing the obstacle.

  14. Debunking the viper's strike: harmless snakes kill a common assumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penning, David A; Sawvel, Baxter; Moon, Brad R

    2016-03-01

    To survive, organisms must avoid predation and acquire nutrients and energy. Sensory systems must correctly differentiate between potential predators and prey, and elicit behaviours that adjust distances accordingly. For snakes, strikes can serve both purposes. Vipers are thought to have the fastest strikes among snakes. However, strike performance has been measured in very few species, especially non-vipers. We measured defensive strike performance in harmless Texas ratsnakes and two species of vipers, western cottonmouths and western diamond-backed rattlesnakes, using high-speed video recordings. We show that ratsnake strike performance matches or exceeds that of vipers. In contrast with the literature over the past century, vipers do not represent the pinnacle of strike performance in snakes. Both harmless and venomous snakes can strike with very high accelerations that have two key consequences: the accelerations exceed values that can cause loss of consciousness in other animals, such as the accelerations experienced by jet pilots during extreme manoeuvres, and they make the strikes faster than the sensory and motor responses of mammalian prey and predators. Both harmless and venomous snakes can strike faster than the blink of an eye and often reach a target before it can move. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. OLED displays and lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Koden, Mitsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have emerged as the leading technology for the new display and lighting market. OLEDs are solid-state devices composed of thin films of organic molecules that create light with the application of electricity. OLEDs can provide brighter, crisper displays on electronic devices and use less power than conventional light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or liquid crystal displays (LCDs) used today. This book covers both the fundamentals and practical applications of flat and flexible OLEDs.

  16. Scalable Resolution Display Walls

    KAUST Repository

    Leigh, Jason; Johnson, Andrew; Renambot, Luc; Peterka, Tom; Jeong, Byungil; Sandin, Daniel J.; Talandis, Jonas; Jagodic, Ratko; Nam, Sungwon; Hur, Hyejung; Sun, Yiwen

    2013-01-01

    This article will describe the progress since 2000 on research and development in 2-D and 3-D scalable resolution display walls that are built from tiling individual lower resolution flat panel displays. The article will describe approaches and trends in display hardware construction, middleware architecture, and user-interaction design. The article will also highlight examples of use cases and the benefits the technology has brought to their respective disciplines. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  17. JAVA Stereo Display Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Karina

    2008-01-01

    This toolkit provides a common interface for displaying graphical user interface (GUI) components in stereo using either specialized stereo display hardware (e.g., liquid crystal shutter or polarized glasses) or anaglyph display (red/blue glasses) on standard workstation displays. An application using this toolkit will work without modification in either environment, allowing stereo software to reach a wider audience without sacrificing high-quality display on dedicated hardware. The toolkit is written in Java for use with the Swing GUI Toolkit and has cross-platform compatibility. It hooks into the graphics system, allowing any standard Swing component to be displayed in stereo. It uses the OpenGL graphics library to control the stereo hardware and to perform the rendering. It also supports anaglyph and special stereo hardware using the same API (application-program interface), and has the ability to simulate color stereo in anaglyph mode by combining the red band of the left image with the green/blue bands of the right image. This is a low-level toolkit that accomplishes simply the display of components (including the JadeDisplay image display component). It does not include higher-level functions such as disparity adjustment, 3D cursor, or overlays all of which can be built using this toolkit.

  18. Displays and simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohon, N.

    A 'simulator' is defined as a machine which imitates the behavior of a real system in a very precise manner. The major components of a simulator and their interaction are outlined in brief form, taking into account the major components of an aircraft flight simulator. Particular attention is given to the visual display portion of the simulator, the basic components of the display, their interactions, and their characteristics. Real image displays are considered along with virtual image displays, and image generators. Attention is given to an advanced simulator for pilot training, a holographic pancake window, a scan laser image generator, the construction of an infrared target simulator, and the Apollo Command Module Simulator.

  19. A decade of U.S. Air Force bat strikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peurach, Suzanne C.; Dove, Carla J.; Stepko, Laura

    2009-01-01

    From 1997 through 2007, 821 bat strikes were reported to the U.S. Air Force (USAF) Safety Center by aircraft personnel or ground crew and sent to the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, for identification. Many samples were identified by macroscopic and or microscopic comparisons with bat specimens housed in the museum and augmented during the last 2 years by DNA analysis. Bat remains from USAF strikes during this period were received at the museum from 40 states in the United States and from 20 countries. We confirmed that 46% of the strikes were caused by bats, but we did not identify them further; we identified 5% only to the family or genus level, and 49% to the species level. Fifty-five of the 101 bat-strike samples submitted for DNA analysis have been identified to the species level. Twenty-five bat species have been recorded striking USAF planes worldwide. The Brazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis; n = 173) is the species most commonly identified in USAF strike impacts, followed by the red bat (Lasiurus borealis; n = 83). Bat strikes peak during the spring and fall, with >57% occurring from August through October; 82% of the reports that included time of strike were recorded between 2100 and 0900 hours. More than 12% of the bat strikes were reported at >300 m above ground level (AGL). Although $825,000 and >50% of this sum was attributable to 5 bat-strike incidents. Only 5 bats from the 10 most damaging bat strikes were identified to the species level, either because we did not receive remains with the reports or the sample was insufficient for identification.

  20. Displays enabling mobile multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Jyrki

    2007-02-01

    With the rapid advances in telecommunications networks, mobile multimedia delivery to handsets is now a reality. While a truly immersive multimedia experience is still far ahead in the mobile world, significant advances have been made in the constituent audio-visual technologies to make this become possible. One of the critical components in multimedia delivery is the mobile handset display. While such alternatives as headset-style near-to-eye displays, autostereoscopic displays, mini-projectors, and roll-out flexible displays can deliver either a larger virtual screen size than the pocketable dimensions of the mobile device can offer, or an added degree of immersion by adding the illusion of the third dimension in the viewing experience, there are still challenges in the full deployment of such displays in real-life mobile communication terminals. Meanwhile, direct-view display technologies have developed steadily, and can provide a development platform for an even better viewing experience for multimedia in the near future. The paper presents an overview of the mobile display technology space with an emphasis on the advances and potential in developing direct-view displays further to meet the goal of enabling multimedia in the mobile domain.

  1. Visual merchandising window display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opris (Cas. Stanila M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Window display plays a major part in the selling strategies; it does not only include the simple display of goods, nowadays it is a form of art, also having the purpose of sustaining the brand image. This article wants to reveal the tools that are essential in creating a fabulous window display. Being a window designer is not an easy job, you have to always think ahead trends, to have a sense of colour, to know how to use light to attract customers in the store after only one glance at the window. The big store window displays are theatre scenes: with expensive backgrounds, special effects and high fashion mannequins. The final role of the displays is to convince customers to enter the store and trigger the purchasing act which is the final goal of the retail activity.

  2. Martial arts striking hand peak acceleration, accuracy and consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Marzullo, Ana Carolina De Miranda; Bolander, Richard P; Bir, Cynthia A

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to investigate the possible trade-off between peak hand acceleration and accuracy and consistency of hand strikes performed by martial artists of different training experiences. Ten male martial artists with training experience ranging from one to nine years volunteered to participate in the experiment. Each participant performed 12 maximum effort goal-directed strikes. Hand acceleration during the strikes was obtained using a tri-axial accelerometer block. A pressure sensor matrix was used to determine the accuracy and consistency of the strikes. Accuracy was estimated by the radial distance between the centroid of each subject's 12 strikes and the target, whereas consistency was estimated by the square root of the 12 strikes mean squared distance from their centroid. We found that training experience was significantly correlated to hand peak acceleration prior to impact (r(2)=0.456, p =0.032) and accuracy (r(2)=0. 621, p=0.012). These correlations suggest that more experienced participants exhibited higher hand peak accelerations and at the same time were more accurate. Training experience, however, was not correlated to consistency (r(2)=0.085, p=0.413). Overall, our results suggest that martial arts training may lead practitioners to achieve higher striking hand accelerations with better accuracy and no change in striking consistency.

  3. Orthotic intervention in forefoot and rearfoot strike running patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, Carrie Laughton; Davis, Irene McClay; Hamill, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    To compare the differential effect of custom orthoses on the lower extremity mechanics of a forefoot and rearfoot strike pattern. Fifteen subjects ran with both a forefoot and a rearfoot strike pattern with and without orthoses. Lower extremity kinematic and kinetic variables were compared between strike pattern and orthotic conditions. Foot orthoses have been shown to be effective in controlling excessive rearfoot motion in rearfoot strikers. The effect of orthotic intervention on rearfoot motion in forefoot strikers has not been previously reported. Five trials were collected for each condition. Peak rearfoot eversion, eversion excursion, eversion velocity, peak inversion moment, and inversion work were compared between conditions. Kinematic variables in the sagittal plane of the rearfoot and in the frontal and sagittal plane of the knee were also determined. Increased rearfoot excursions and velocities and decreased peak eversion were noted in the forefoot strike pattern compared to the rearfoot strike pattern. Orthotic intervention, however,did not significantly change rearfoot motion in either strike pattern. Reductions in internal rotation and abduction of the knee were noted with orthotic intervention. Foot orthoses do not differentially effect rearfoot motion of a rearfoot strike and a forefoot strike running pattern. Orthotic intervention has a larger and more systematic effect on rearfoot kinetics compared to rearfoot kinematics.

  4. Teaching Striking Skills in Elementary Physical Education Using Woodball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Seung Ho; Lee, Jihyun

    2017-01-01

    Object control (OC) skills are a part of fundamental motor skills and basic functional skills, which work as a prerequisite to becoming a skilled performer in many sports. Of various OC skills, striking is one of the most difficult to master due to a variety of interrelated movement components. A form of vertical or underarm striking is a more…

  5. Strike kinematics and performance in juvenile ball pythons (Python regius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryerson, William G; Tan, Weimin

    2017-08-01

    The rapid strike of snakes has interested researchers for decades. Although most work has focused on the strike performance of vipers, recent work has shown that other snakes outside of the Viperidae can strike with the same velocities and accelerations. However, to date all of these examples focus on performance in adult snakes. Here, we use high-speed video to measure the strike kinematics and performance of 10 juvenile (pythons, Python regius. We find that juvenile P. regius strike at levels comparable to larger snakes, but with shorter durations and over shorter distances. We conclude that the juvenile P. regius maintain performance likely through manipulation of the axial musculature and accompanying elastic tissues, and that this is a first step to understanding ontogenetic changes in behavior and a potential avenue for understanding how captivity may also impact behavior. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Strike Point Control on EAST Using an Isoflux Control Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Zhe; Xiao Bingjia; Luo Zhengping; Walker, M. L.; Humphreys, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    For the advanced tokamak, the particle deposition and thermal load on the divertor is a big challenge. By moving the strike points on divertor target plates, the position of particle deposition and thermal load can be shifted. We could adjust the Poloidal Field (PF) coil current to achieve the strike point position feedback control. Using isoflux control method, the strike point position can be controlled by controlling the X point position. On the basis of experimental data, we establish relational expressions between X point position and strike point position. Benchmark experiments are carried out to validate the correctness and robustness of the control methods. The strike point position is successfully controlled following our command in the EAST operation. (paper)

  7. Expertise of using striking techniques for power stroke in badminton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qin

    2013-10-01

    Two striking techniques (fast swing and angled striking) were examined to see if they allowed effective use of string tension for the power stroke in badminton. 12 participants (4 novices, 4 recreational, and 4 expert badminton players) were recorded by a fast-speed camera while striking a shuttlecock with racquets of 8 different string tensions. The peak speed of the shuttlecock, the racquet angle and the shuttlecock angle were analyzed. The results showed that expert players succeeded in using both striking techniques to overcome the constraint of string tension and produce a consistently superior stroke. Failure to use either striking technique resulted in inferior performance that was constrained by string tension. Expertise in badminton allows the necessary motor adjustments based on the affordance perception of the string tension.

  8. Bile acid sequestration reduces plasma glucose levels in db/db mice by increasing its metabolic clearance rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxi Meissner

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Bile acid sequestrants (BAS reduce plasma glucose levels in type II diabetics and in murine models of diabetes but the mechanism herein is unknown. We hypothesized that sequestrant-induced changes in hepatic glucose metabolism would underlie reduced plasma glucose levels. Therefore, in vivo glucose metabolism was assessed in db/db mice on and off BAS using tracer methodology. METHODS: Lean and diabetic db/db mice were treated with 2% (wt/wt in diet Colesevelam HCl (BAS for 2 weeks. Parameters of in vivo glucose metabolism were assessed by infusing [U-(13C]-glucose, [2-(13C]-glycerol, [1-(2H]-galactose and paracetamol for 6 hours, followed by mass isotopologue distribution analysis, and related to metabolic parameters as well as gene expression patterns. RESULTS: Compared to lean mice, db/db mice displayed an almost 3-fold lower metabolic clearance rate of glucose (p = 0.0001, a ∼300% increased glucokinase flux (p = 0.001 and a ∼200% increased total hepatic glucose production rate (p = 0.0002. BAS treatment increased glucose metabolic clearance rate by ∼37% but had no effects on glucokinase flux nor total hepatic or endogenous glucose production. Strikingly, BAS-treated db/db mice displayed reduced long-chain acylcarnitine content in skeletal muscle (p = 0.0317 but not in liver (p = 0.189. Unexpectedly, BAS treatment increased hepatic FGF21 mRNA expression 2-fold in lean mice (p = 0.030 and 3-fold in db/db mice (p = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: BAS induced plasma glucose lowering in db/db mice by increasing metabolic clearance rate of glucose in peripheral tissues, which coincided with decreased skeletal muscle long-chain acylcarnitine content.

  9. Wavelet transform analysis of electromyography kung fu strikes data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Marzullo, Ana Carolina de Miranda

    2009-11-01

    In martial arts and contact sports strikes are performed at near maximum speeds. For that reason, electromyography (EMG) analysis of such movements is non-trivial. This paper has three main goals: firstly, to investigate the differences in the EMG activity of muscles during strikes performed with and without impacts; secondly, to assess the advantages of using Sum of Significant Power (SSP) values instead of root mean square (rms) values when analyzing EMG data; and lastly to introduce a new method of calculating median frequency values using wavelet transforms (WMDF). EMG data of the deltoid anterior (DA), triceps brachii (TB) and brachioradialis (BR) muscles were collected from eight Kung Fu practitioners during strikes performed with and without impacts. SSP results indicated significant higher muscle activity (p = 0.023) for the strikes with impact. WMDF results, on the other hand, indicated significant lower values (p = 0. 007) for the strikes with impact. SSP results presented higher sensitivity than rms to quantify important signal differences and, at the same time, presented lower inter-subject coefficient of variations. The result of increase in SSP values and decrease in WMDF may suggest better synchronization of motor units for the strikes with impact performed by the experienced Kung Fu practitioners. Key PointsThe results show higher muscle activity and lower electromyography median frequencies for strikes with impact compared to strikes without.SSP results presented higher sensitivity and lower inter-subject coefficient of variations than rms results.Kung Fu palm strikes with impact may present better motor units' synchronization than strikes without.

  10. Microlaser-based displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstedt, Robert; Fink, Charles G.; Flint, Graham W.; Hargis, David E.; Peppler, Philipp W.

    1997-07-01

    Laser Power Corporation has developed a new type of projection display, based upon microlaser technology and a novel scan architecture, which provides the foundation for bright, extremely high resolution images. A review of projection technologies is presented along with the limitations of each and the difficulties they experience in trying to generate high resolution imagery. The design of the microlaser based projector is discussed along with the advantage of this technology. High power red, green, and blue microlasers have been designed and developed specifically for use in projection displays. These sources, in combination with high resolution, high contrast modulator, produce a 24 bit color gamut, capable of supporting the full range of real world colors. The new scan architecture, which reduces the modulation rate and scan speeds required, is described. This scan architecture, along with the inherent brightness of the laser provides the fundamentals necessary to produce a 5120 by 4096 resolution display. The brightness and color uniformity of the display is excellent, allowing for tiling of the displays with far fewer artifacts than those in a traditionally tiled display. Applications for the display include simulators, command and control centers, and electronic cinema.

  11. DX5+NKT cells display phenotypical and functional differences between spleen and liver as well as NK1.1-Balb/c and NK1.1+ C57Bl/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Jens M; Busl, Elisabeth; Farkas, Stefan A; Schlitt, Hans J; Geissler, Edward K; Hornung, Matthias

    2011-04-29

    Natural killer T cells represent a linkage between innate and adaptive immunity. They are a heterogeneous population of specialized T lymphocytes composed of different subsets. DX5+NKT cells are characterized by expression of the NK cell marker DX5 in the context of CD3. However, little is known about the phenotype and functional capacity of this unique cell population. Therefore, we investigated the expression of several T cell and NK cell markers, as well as functional parameters in spleen and liver subsets of DX5+NKT cells in NK1.1- Balb/c mice and compared our findings to NK1.1+ C57Bl/6 mice. In the spleen 34% of DX5+NKT cells expressed CD62L and they up-regulated the functional receptors CD154 as well as CD178 upon activation. In contrast, only a few liver DX5+NKT cells expressed CD62L, and they did not up-regulate CD154 upon activation. A further difference between spleen and liver subsets was observed in cytokine production. Spleen DX5+NKT cells produced more Th1 cytokines including IL-2, IFN-γ and TNF-α, while liver DX5+NKT cells secreted more Th2 cytokines (e.g. IL-4) and even the Th17 cytokine, IL-17a. Furthermore, we found inter-strain differences. In NK1.1+ C57Bl/6 mice DX5+NKT cells represented a distinct T cell population expressing less CD4 and more CD8. Accordingly, these cells showed a CD178 and Th2-type functional capacity upon activation. These results show that DX5+NKT cells are a heterogeneous population, depending on the dedicated organ and mouse strain, that has diverse functional capacity.

  12. The Teacher Strike: School District Protection Procedures. A Manual for School District Officials on How to Handle a Teachers' Strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igoe, Joseph A.; DiRocco, Anthony P.

    This booklet is designed to give practical and realistic advice to school district officials faced with the possibility of a teachers' strike. It is intended for use both by school district administrators and school board members. The booklet is organized into four sections that focus in turn on signs of a pending teachers' strike, union…

  13. Neuropathology in mice expressing mouse alpha-synuclein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Rieker

    Full Text Available α-Synuclein (αSN in human is tightly linked both neuropathologically and genetically to Parkinson's disease (PD and related disorders. Disease-causing properties in vivo of the wildtype mouse ortholog (mαSN, which carries a threonine at position 53 like the A53T human mutant version that is genetically linked to PD, were never reported. To this end we generated mouse lines that express mαSN in central neurons at levels reaching up to six-fold compared to endogenous mαSN. Unlike transgenic mice expressing human wildtype or mutant forms of αSN, these mαSN transgenic mice showed pronounced ubiquitin immunopathology in spinal cord and brainstem. Isoelectric separation of mαSN species revealed multiple isoforms including two Ser129-phosphorylated species in the most severely affected brain regions. Neuronal Ser129-phosphorylated αSN occurred in granular and small fibrillar aggregates and pathological staining patterns in neurites occasionally revealed a striking ladder of small alternating segments staining either for Ser129-phosphorylated αSN or ubiquitin but not both. Axonal degeneration in long white matter tracts of the spinal cord, with breakdown of myelin sheaths and degeneration of neuromuscular junctions with loss of integrity of the presynaptic neurofilament network in mαSN transgenic mice, was similar to what we have reported for mice expressing human αSN wildtype or mutant forms. In hippocampal neurons, the mαSN protein accumulated and was phosphorylated but these neurons showed no ubiquitin immunopathology. In contrast to the early-onset motor abnormalities and muscle weakness observed in mice expressing human αSN, mαSN transgenic mice displayed only end-stage phenotypic alterations that manifested alongside with neuropathology. Altogether these findings show that increased levels of wildtype mαSN does not induce early-onset behavior changes, but drives end-stage pathophysiological changes in murine neurons that are

  14. ENERGY STAR Certified Displays

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 7.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Displays that are effective as of July 1, 2016....

  15. Improvements in data display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    An analog signal processor is described in this patent for connecting a source of analog signals to a cathode ray tube display in order to extend the dynamic range of the display. This has important applications in the field of computerised X-ray tomography since significant medical information, such as tumours in soft tissue, is often represented by minimal level changes in image density. Cathode ray tube displays are limited to approximately 15 intensity levels. Thus if both strong and weak absorption of the X-rays occurs, the dynamic range of the transmitted signals will be too large to permit small variations to be examined directly on a cathode ray display. Present tomographic image reconstruction methods are capable of quantising X-ray absorption density measurements into 256 or more distinct levels and a description is given of the electronics which enables the upper and lower range of intensity levels to be independently set and continuously varied. (UK)

  16. Determine the Foot Strike Pattern Using Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzyy-Yuang Shiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From biomechanical point of view, strike pattern plays an important role in preventing potential injury risk in running. Traditionally, strike pattern determination was conducted by using 3D motion analysis system with cameras. However, the procedure is costly and not convenient. With the rapid development of technology, sensors have been applied in sport science field lately. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the algorithm that can identify landing strategies with a wearable sensor. Six healthy male participants were recruited to perform heel and forefoot strike strategies at 7, 10, and 13 km/h speeds. The kinematic data were collected by Vicon 3D motion analysis system and 2 inertial measurement units (IMU attached on the dorsal side of both shoes. The data of each foot strike were gathered for pitch angle and strike index analysis. Comparing the strike index from IMU with the pitch angle from Vicon system, our results showed that both signals exhibited highly correlated changes between different strike patterns in the sagittal plane (r=0.98. Based on the findings, the IMU sensors showed potential capabilities and could be extended beyond the context of sport science to other fields, including clinical applications.

  17. Gamma camera display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    A gamma camera having an array of photomultipliers coupled via pulse shaping circuitry and a resistor weighting circuit to a display for forming an image of a radioactive subject is described. A linearizing circuit is coupled to the weighting circuit, the linearizing circuit including a nonlinear feedback circuit with diode coupling to the weighting circuit for linearizing the correspondence between points of the display and points of the subject. 4 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures

  18. Flexible displays, rigid designs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbæk, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Rapid technological progress has enabled a wide range of flexible displays for computing devices, but the user experience--which we're only beginning to understand--will be the key driver for successful designs.......Rapid technological progress has enabled a wide range of flexible displays for computing devices, but the user experience--which we're only beginning to understand--will be the key driver for successful designs....

  19. "Thunderstruck": penetrating thoracic injury from lightning strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Waes, Oscar J F; van de Woestijne, Pieter C; Halm, Jens A

    2014-04-01

    Lightning strike victims are rarely presented at an emergency department. Burns are often the primary focus. This case report describes the improvised explosive device like-injury to the thorax due to lightning strike and its treatment, which has not been described prior in (kerauno)medicine. Penetrating injury due to blast from lightning strike is extremely rare. These "shrapnel" injuries should however be ruled out in all patients struck by lightning. Copyright © 2013 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Strike action by nurses in South Africa: A value clarification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Muller

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The Labour Relations Act (South Africa, 1991 made provision for protected strike action by employees, subject to certain conditions, procedures and negotiated agreements. This led to the removal of the strike clause in the Nursing Act (South Africa, 1992. The labour rights of all citizens are entrenched in the Constitution of the country (South Africa, 1996. Participation in strike action by the nurse/ midwife, regardless of the legal requirements and specifications, does, however, pose an ethical question. It is therefore necessary to conduct a value clarification on strike action by nurses in South Africa. The purpose of this research is to explore and describe the perceived values of participants from an accessible population on this phenomenon. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive research design was deployed. The perceived values of nurses on strike action were collected by means of an openended questionnaire/sketch. Over a period of three years a purposive and convenient sampling method was used, involving all the enrolled post basic nursing/midwifery students/ learners at a particular Nursing Education Institution. The justification of the sample was further enhanced by also collecting data on the participants’ age and provincial distribution location. Although a 63% sample realisation (of the accessible population was achieved, this represents only 1,5% of the registered nursing/midwifery population in the country. A descriptive analysis of the participants’ age and provincial distribution was undertaken, as well as a content analysis of their perceived values on strike action. The mean age of the participants was 48 years, which could be attributed to the fact that most of them were enrolled for a post-basic Diploma in Community Nursing Science. Most of the responses (52,7% were against strike action and 32,5% supported strike action by nurses as a constitutional and legal right. A fairly substantial number of participants (14

  1. Physicians' strikes and the competing bases of physicians' moral obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, D Robert

    2013-09-01

    Many authors have addressed the morality of physicians' strikes on the assumption that medical practice is morally different from other kinds of occupations. This article analyzes three prominent theoretical accounts that attempt to ground such special moral obligations for physicians--practice-based accounts, utilitarian accounts, and social contract accounts--and assesses their applicability to the problem of the morality of strikes. After critiquing these views, it offers a fourth view grounding special moral obligations in voluntary commitments, and explains why this is a preferable basis for understanding physicians' moral obligations in general and especially as pertaining to strikes.

  2. Information rich display design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, Robin; Braseth, Alf Ove; Veland, Oeystein

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the concept Information Rich Displays. The purpose of Information Rich Displays (IRDs) is to condensate prevailing information in process displays in such a way that each display format (picture) contains more relevant information for the user. Compared to traditional process control displays, this new concept allows the operator to attain key information at a glance and at the same time allows for improved monitoring of larger portions of the process. This again allows for reduced navigation between both process and trend displays and ease the cognitive demand on the operator. This concept has been created while working on designing display prototypes for the offshore petroleum production facilities of tomorrow. Offshore installations basically consist of wells, separation trains (where oil, gas and water are separated from each other), an oil tax measurement system (where oil quality is measured and the pressure increased to allow for export), gas compression (compression of gas for export) and utility systems (water treatment, chemical systems etc.). This means that an offshore control room operator has to deal with a complex process that comprises several functionally different systems. The need for a new approach to offshore display format design is in particular based on shortcomings in today's designs related to the keyhole effect, where the display format only reveals a fraction of the whole process. Furthermore, the upcoming introduction of larger off- and on-shore operation centres will increase the size and complexity of the operators' work domain. In the light of the increased demands on the operator, the proposed IRDs aim to counter the negative effects this may have on the workload. In this work we have attempted to classify the wide range of different roles an operator can have in different situations. The information content and amount being presented to the operator in a display should be viewed in context of the roles the

  3. Dichroic Liquid Crystal Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, Birendra

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * DICHROIC DYES * Chemical Structure * Chemical and Photochemical Stability * THEORETICAL MODELLING * DEFECTS CAUSED BY PROLONGED LIGHT IRRADIATION * CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND PHOTOSTABILITY * OTHER PARAMETERS AFFECTING PHOTOSTABILITY * CELL PREPARATION * DICHROIC PARAMETERS AND THEIR MEASUREMENTS * Order Parameter and Dichroic Ratio Of Dyes * Absorbance, Order Parameter and Dichroic Ratio Measurements * IMPACT OF DYE STRUCTURE AND LIQUID CRYSTAL HOST ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF A DICHROIC MIXTURE * Order Parameter and Dichroic Ratio * EFFECT OF LENGTH OF DICHROIC DYES ON THE ORDER PARAMETER * EFFECT OF THE BREADTH OF DYE ON THE ORDER PARAMETER * EFFECT OF THE HOST ON THE ORDER PARAMETER * TEMPERATURE VARIATION OF THE ORDER PARAMETER OF DYES IN A LIQUID CRYSTAL HOST * IMPACT OF DYE CONCENTRATION ON THE ORDER PARAMETER * Temperature Range * Viscosity * Dielectric Constant and Anisotropy * Refractive Indices and Birefringence * solubility43,153-156 * Absorption Wavelength and Auxochromic Groups * Molecular Engineering of Dichroic Dyes * OPTICAL, ELECTRO-OPTICAL AND LIFE PARAMETERS * Colour And CIE Colour space120,160-166 * CIE 1931 COLOUR SPACE * CIE 1976 CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * CIE UNIFORM COLOUR SPACES & COLOUR DIFFERENCE FORMULAE120,160-166 * Electro-Optical Parameters120 * LUMINANCE * CONTRAST AND CONTRAST RATIO * SWITCHING SPEED * Life Parameters and Failure Modes * DICHROIC MIXTURE FORMULATION * Monochrome Mixture * Black Mixture * ACHROMATIC BLACK MIXTURE FOR HEILMEIER DISPLAYS * Effect of Illuminant on Display Colour * Colour of the Field-On State * Effect of Dye Linewidth * Optimum Centroid Wavelengths * Effect of Dye Concentration * Mixture Formulation Using More Than Three Dyes * ACHROMATIC MIXTURE FOR WHITE-TAYLOR TYPE DISPLAYS * HEILMEIER DISPLAYS * Theoretical Modelling * Threshold Characteristic * Effects of Dye Concentration on Electro-optical Parameters * Effect of Cholesteric Doping * Effect of Alignment

  4. On Integrity of Flexible Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouten, Piet C. P.

    Nowadays two display types are dominant in the display market: the bulky cathode ray tube (CRT) and liquid crystal displays (LCD). Both types use glass as substrate material. The LCD display is the dominant player for mobile applications, in for instance mobile phones and portable computers. In the development of displays and their applications a clear interest exists to replace the rigid rectangular display cells by free-shaped, curved or even roll-up cells. These types of applications require flexible displays.

  5. Ethical and legal consideration of prisoner's hunger strike in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alempijevic, Djordje; Pavlekic, Snezana; Jecmenica, Dragan; Nedeljkov, Aleksandra; Jankovic, Milos

    2011-03-01

    Hunger strike of prisoners and detainees remains a major human rights and ethical issue for medical professionals. We are reporting on a case of a 48-year-old male sentenced prisoner, intravenous heroin user, who went on a hunger strike and died 15 days later. Throughout the fasting period, the prisoner, who was capable of decision making, refused any medical examination. Autopsy findings were not supporting prolonged starvation, while toxicology revealed benzodiazepines and opiates in blood and urine. Cause of death was given as "heroin intoxication" in keeping with detection of 6-MAM. Legal and ethical issues pertinent to medical examination and treatment of prisoners on hunger strike are explored in accordance with legislation and professional ethical standards in Serbia. A recommendation for the best autopsy practice in deaths following hunger strike has been made. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Continental United States Hurricane Strikes 1950-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Continental U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster is our most popular poster which is updated annually. The poster includes all hurricanes that affected the U.S. since...

  7. BIRD/WILDLIFE STRIKE CONTROL FOR SAFER AIR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-06-05

    Jun 5, 2012 ... Several factors including lack of adequate data, shortage of funds, inadequate training of staff and lack of ... Keywords: bird/wildlife, strike, aviation, hazard, control. Introduction ..... implications of some human activities within.

  8. 2005 Significant U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2005 Significant U.S. Hurricane Strikes poster is one of two special edition posters for the Atlantic Hurricanes. This beautiful poster contains two sets of...

  9. Comparison of force, power, and striking efficiency for a Kung Fu strike performed by novice and experienced practitioners: preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Magini, Marcio; Saba, Marcelo M F; Pacheco, Marcos Tadeu Tavares

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents a comparison of force, power, and efficiency values calculated from Kung Fu Yau-Man palm strikes, when performed by 7 experienced and 6 novice men. They performed 5 palm strikes to a freestanding basketball, recorded by high-speed camera at 1000 Hz. Nonparametric comparisons and correlations showed experienced practitioners presented larger values of mean muscle force, mean impact force, mean muscle power, mean impact power, and mean striking efficiency, as is noted in evidence obtained for other martial arts. Also, an interesting result was that for experienced Kung Fu practitioners, muscle power was linearly correlated with impact power (p = .98) but not for the novice practitioners (p = .46).

  10. MICHIGAN/INDIANA: Siberian Snakes strike again

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    . Despite this display of serpentine power, the snake experts still questioned the ability of a Siberian snake to overcome all depolarization problems at TeV energies. At very high energies, the depolarizing resonances may become so strong that they are even wider than their normal 523 MeV separation, and would then overlap. The snake team decided to study overlapping depolarizing resonances by building a 25 kV radiofrequency solenoid magnet to create an depolarizing resonance in the Indiana Cooler Ring. This new resonance was then forced to overlap with the nearby imperfection depolarizing resonance by varying the solenoid's frequency. The experimenters found a sharp destructive interference between the two overlapping resonances; while this still cannot be calculated theoretically, such effects are well known in physics. Fortunately the Siberian snake was powerful enough to overcome completely both overlapping resonances and all their interference effects, keeping the beam fully polarized. The potency of these serpents is being closely followed at accelerator laboratories around the world. Meanwhile, Krisch and his colleagues assembled the SPIN Collaboration to encourage the use of Siberian snakes at TeV accelerators. This Collaboration (Michigan/Indiana/ Fermilab/North Carolina/IHEPProtvino/ J IN R-Dubna/Moscow/I N RTroitsk/ KEK/Kyoto) contains about 40 accelerator experts, 40 spin experimenters and one theorist. The SSC's 20 TeV lattices could include more than 50 empty straight sections, typically 20 metres long, for subsequent installation of many Siberian snakes. For Fermilab, SPIN produced a 146-page report - Accelerating Polarized Protons to 150 GeV in the Fermilab Main Injector- and has just started work for a similar report on the possibilities for accelerating and storing polarized protons in the Tevatron Collider

  11. Characterization of the insulin sensitivity of ghrelin receptor KO mice using glycemic clamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Kristen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We and others have demonstrated previously that ghrelin receptor (GhrR knock out (KO mice fed a high fat diet (HFD have increased insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility relative to WT littermates. A striking feature of the HFD-fed GhrR KO mouse is the dramatic decrease in hepatic steatosis. To characterize further the underlying mechanisms of glucose homeostasis in GhrR KO mice, we conducted both hyperglycemic (HG and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic (HI-E clamps. Additionally, we investigated tissue glucose uptake and specifically examined liver insulin sensitivity. Results Consistent with glucose tolerance-test data, in HG clamp experiments, GhrR KO mice showed a reduction in glucose-stimulated insulin release relative to WT littermates. Nevertheless, a robust 1st phase insulin secretion was still achieved, indicating that a healthy β-cell response is maintained. Additionally, GhrR KO mice demonstrated both a significantly increased glucose infusion rate and significantly reduced insulin requirement for maintenance of the HG clamp, consistent with their relative insulin sensitivity. In HI-E clamps, both LFD-fed and HFD-fed GhrR KO mice showed higher peripheral insulin sensitivity relative to WT littermates as indicated by a significant increase in insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (Rd, and decreased hepatic glucose production (HGP. HFD-fed GhrR KO mice showed a marked increase in peripheral tissue glucose uptake in a variety of tissues, including skeletal muscle, brown adipose tissue and white adipose tissue. GhrR KO mice fed a HFD also showed a modest, but significant decrease in conversion of pyruvate to glucose, as would be anticipated if these mice displayed increased liver insulin sensitivity. Additionally, the levels of UCP2 and UCP1 were reduced in the liver and BAT, respectively, in GhrR KO mice relative to WT mice. Conclusions These results indicate that improved glucose homeostasis of GhrR KO mice is

  12. Effects of footwear and strike type on running economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perl, Daniel P; Daoud, Adam I; Lieberman, Daniel E

    2012-07-01

    This study tests if running economy differs in minimal shoes versus standard running shoes with cushioned elevated heels and arch supports and in forefoot versus rearfoot strike gaits. We measured the cost of transport (mL O(2)·kg(-1)·m(-1)) in subjects who habitually run in minimal shoes or barefoot while they were running at 3.0 m·s(-1) on a treadmill during forefoot and rearfoot striking while wearing minimal and standard shoes, controlling for shoe mass and stride frequency. Force and kinematic data were collected when subjects were shod and barefoot to quantify differences in knee flexion, arch strain, plantar flexor force production, and Achilles tendon-triceps surae strain. After controlling for stride frequency and shoe mass, runners were 2.41% more economical in the minimal-shoe condition when forefoot striking and 3.32% more economical in the minimal-shoe condition when rearfoot striking (P forefoot and rearfoot striking did not differ significantly in cost for either minimal- or standard-shoe running. Arch strain was not measured in the shod condition but was significantly greater during forefoot than rearfoot striking when barefoot. Plantar flexor force output was significantly higher in forefoot than in rearfoot striking and in barefoot than in shod running. Achilles tendon-triceps surae strain and knee flexion were also lower in barefoot than in standard-shoe running. Minimally shod runners are modestly but significantly more economical than traditionally shod runners regardless of strike type, after controlling for shoe mass and stride frequency. The likely cause of this difference is more elastic energy storage and release in the lower extremity during minimal-shoe running.

  13. WAVELET TRANSFORM ANALYSIS OF ELECTROMYOGRAPHY KUNG FU STRIKES DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina de Miranda Marzullo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In martial arts and contact sports strikes are performed at near maximum speeds. For that reason, electromyography (EMG analysis of such movements is non-trivial. This paper has three main goals: firstly, to investigate the differences in the EMG activity of muscles during strikes performed with and without impacts; secondly, to assess the advantages of using Sum of Significant Power (SSP values instead of root mean square (rms values when analyzing EMG data; and lastly to introduce a new method of calculating median frequency values using wavelet transforms (WMDF. EMG data of the deltoid anterior (DA, triceps brachii (TB and brachioradialis (BR muscles were collected from eight Kung Fu practitioners during strikes performed with and without impacts. SSP results indicated significant higher muscle activity (p = 0.023 for the strikes with impact. WMDF results, on the other hand, indicated significant lower values (p = 0. 007 for the strikes with impact. SSP results presented higher sensitivity than rms to quantify important signal differences and, at the same time, presented lower inter-subject coefficient of variations. The result of increase in SSP values and decrease in WMDF may suggest better synchronization of motor units for the strikes with impact performed by the experienced Kung Fu practitioners

  14. VARIATION OF STRIKE INCENTIVES IN DEEP REDUCTIONS; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G.H. CANAVAN

    2001-01-01

    This note studies the sensitivity of strike incentives to deep offensive force reductions using exchange, cost, and game theoretic decision models derived and discussed in companion reports. As forces fall, weapon allocations shift from military to high value targets, with the shift being half complete at about 1,000 weapons. By 500 weapons, the first and second strikes are almost totally on high value. The dominant cost for striking first is that of damage to one's high value, which is near total absent other constraints, and hence proportional to preferences for survival of high value. Changes in military costs are largely offsetting, so total first strike costs change little. The resulting costs at decision nodes are well above the costs of inaction, so the preferred course is inaction for all offensive reductions studied. As the dominant cost for striking first is proportional to the preference for survival of high value. There is a wide gap between the first strike cost and that of inaction for the parameters studied here. These conclusions should be insensitive to significant reductions in the preference for survival of high value, which is the most sensitive parameter

  15. Paediatric dose display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, D.W.; Derges, S.; Hesslewood, S.

    1984-01-01

    A compact, inexpensive unit, based on an 8085 microprocessor, has been designed for calculating doses of intravenous radioactive injections for children. It has been used successfully for over a year. The dose is calculated from the body surface area and the result displayed in MBq. The operator can obtain the required dose on a twelve character alphanumeric display by entering the age of the patient and the adult dose using a hexadecimal keyboard. Circuit description, memory map and input/output, and firmware are dealt with. (U.K.)

  16. Refreshing Refreshable Braille Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russomanno, Alexander; O'Modhrain, Sile; Gillespie, R Brent; Rodger, Matthew W M

    2015-01-01

    The increased access to books afforded to blind people via e-publishing has given them long-sought independence for both recreational and educational reading. In most cases, blind readers access materials using speech output. For some content such as highly technical texts, music, and graphics, speech is not an appropriate access modality as it does not promote deep understanding. Therefore blind braille readers often prefer electronic braille displays. But, these are prohibitively expensive. The search is on, therefore, for a low-cost refreshable display that would go beyond current technologies and deliver graphical content as well as text. And many solutions have been proposed, some of which reduce costs by restricting the number of characters that can be displayed, even down to a single braille cell. In this paper, we demonstrate that restricting tactile cues during braille reading leads to poorer performance in a letter recognition task. In particular, we show that lack of sliding contact between the fingertip and the braille reading surface results in more errors and that the number of errors increases as a function of presentation speed. These findings suggest that single cell displays which do not incorporate sliding contact are likely to be less effective for braille reading.

  17. Small - Display Cartography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Flemming; Hvas, Anders; Münster-Swendsen, Jørgen

    Service Communication and finally, Part IV: Concluding remarks and topics for further research on small-display cartography. Part II includes a separate Appendix D consisting of a cartographic design specification. Part III includes a separate Appendix C consisting of a schema specification, a separate...

  18. Nuclear image display controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    In a nuclear imaging system the digitized x and y coordinates of gamma ray photon emission events address memory locations corresponding to the coordinates. The respective locations are incremented each time they are addressed so at the end of a selected time or event count period the locations contain digital values or raw data corresponding to the intensity of pixels comprising an image frame. The raw data for a frame is coupled to one input of an arithmetic logic unit (ALU) whose output is coupled to a display controller memory. The output of the controller memory is coupled to another ALU input with a feedback bus and is also coupled to a further signal processing circuit which includes means for converting processed data to analog video signals for television display. The ALU is selectively controlled to let raw image data pass through to the display controllor memory or alternately to add (or subtract) raw data for the last image frame developed to the raw data for preceding frames held in the display controller to thereby produce the visual effect on the television screen of an isotope flowing through anatomy

  19. Plant state display device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadota, Kazuo; Ito, Toshiichiro.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention conducts information processing suitable for a man to solve a problem in a plant such as a nuclear power plant incorporating a great amount of information, where safety is required and provides information to an operator. Namely, theories and rules with respect to the flow and balanced state of materials and energy upon plant start-up, and a vapor cycle of operation fluids are symbolized and displayed on the display screen of the device. Then, the display of the plant information suitable to the information processing for a man to dissolve problems is provided. Accordingly, a mechanism for analyzing a purpose of the plant is made more definite, thereby enabling to prevent an erroneous judgement of an operator and occurrence of plant troubles. In addition, a simular effect can also be expected when the theories and rules with respect to the flow and the balanced state of materials and energy and thermohydrodynamic behavior of the operation fluids in a state of after-heat removing operation during shutdown of the plant are symbolized and displayed. (I.S.)

  20. Uncovering the mystery of opposite circadian rhythms between mouse and human leukocytes in humanized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Liu, Min; Chan, Xue Ying; Tan, Sue Yee; Subramaniam, Sharrada; Fan, Yong; Loh, Eva; Chang, Kenneth Tou En; Tan, Thiam Chye; Chen, Qingfeng

    2017-11-02

    Many immune parameters show circadian rhythms during the 24-hour day in mammals. The most striking circadian oscillation is the number of circulating immune cells that display an opposite rhythm between humans and mice. The physiological roles and mechanisms of circadian variations in mouse leukocytes are well studied, whereas for humans they remain unclear because of the lack of a proper model. In this study, we found that consistent with their natural host species, mouse and human circulating leukocytes exhibited opposite circadian oscillations in humanized mice. This cyclic pattern of trafficking correlated well with the diurnal expression levels of C-X-C chemokine receptor 4, which were controlled by the intracellular hypoxia-inducible factor 1α/aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like heterodimer. Furthermore, we also discovered that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases/mitogen-activated 2 had opposite effects between mice and humans in generating intracellular reactive oxygen species, which subsequently regulated HIF-1α expression. In conclusion, we propose humanized mice as a robust model for human circadian studies and reveal insights on a novel molecular clock network in the human circadian rhythm. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  1. Hypolocomotion, anxiety and serotonin syndrome-like behavior contribute to the complex phenotype of serotonin transporter knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalueff, A V; Fox, M A; Gallagher, P S; Murphy, D L

    2007-06-01

    Although mice with a targeted disruption of the serotonin transporter (SERT) have been studied extensively using various tests, their complex behavioral phenotype is not yet fully understood. Here we assess in detail the behavior of adult female SERT wild type (+/+), heterozygous (+/-) and knockout (-/-) mice on an isogenic C57BL/6J background subjected to a battery of behavioral paradigms. Overall, there were no differences in the ability to find food or a novel object, nest-building, self-grooming and its sequencing, and horizontal rod balancing, indicating unimpaired sensory functions, motor co-ordination and behavioral sequencing. In contrast, there were striking reductions in exploration and activity in novelty-based tests (novel object, sticky label and open field tests), accompanied by pronounced thigmotaxis, suggesting that combined hypolocomotion and anxiety (rather than purely anxiety) influence the SERT -/- behavioral phenotype. Social interaction behaviors were also markedly reduced. In addition, SERT -/- mice tended to move close to the ground, frequently displayed spontaneous Straub tail, tics, tremor and backward gait - a phenotype generally consistent with 'serotonin syndrome'-like behavior. In line with replicated evidence of much enhanced serotonin availability in SERT -/- mice, this serotonin syndrome-like state may represent a third factor contributing to their behavioral profile. An understanding of the emerging complexity of SERT -/- mouse behavior is crucial for a detailed dissection of their phenotype and for developing further neurobehavioral models using these mice.

  2. Position display device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Yukio.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To provide a device capable of easily and quickly reading mutual mounting relations of control bodies such as control rods mounted on a nuclear reactor and positions to which the control bodies are driven. Structure: A scanning circuit is provided to scan positions of controllably mounted control bodies such as control rods. Values detected by scanning the positions are converted into character signals according to the values and converted into preranked color signals. The character signals and color signals are stored in a memory circuit by synchronous signals in synchronism with the scanning in the scanning circuit. Outputs of the memory circuit are displayed by a display unit such as a color Braun tube in accordance with the synchronous signals to provide color representations according to positions to which control bodies are driven in the same positional relation as the mounting of the control bodies. (Kamimura, M.)

  3. Multichannel waveform display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolvankar, V.G.

    1989-01-01

    For any multichannel data acquisition system, a multichannel paper chart recorder undoubtedly forms an essential part of the system. When deployed on-line, it instantaneously provides, for visual inspection, hard copies of the signal waveforms on common time base at any desired sensitivity and time resolution. Within the country, only a small range of these strip chart recorder s is available, and under stringent specifications imported recorders are often procured. The cost of such recorders may range from 1 to 5 lakhs of rupees in foreign exchange. A system to provide on the oscilloscope a steady display of multichannel waveforms, refreshed from the digital data stored in the memory is developed. The merits and demerits of the display system are compared with that built around a conventional paper chart recorder. Various illustrations of multichannel seismic event data acquired at Gauribidanur seismic array station are also presented. (author). 2 figs

  4. Predicting timing of foot strike during running, independent of striking technique, using principal component analysis of joint angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osis, Sean T; Hettinga, Blayne A; Leitch, Jessica; Ferber, Reed

    2014-08-22

    As 3-dimensional (3D) motion-capture for clinical gait analysis continues to evolve, new methods must be developed to improve the detection of gait cycle events based on kinematic data. Recently, the application of principal component analysis (PCA) to gait data has shown promise in detecting important biomechanical features. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to define a new foot strike detection method for a continuum of striking techniques, by applying PCA to joint angle waveforms. In accordance with Newtonian mechanics, it was hypothesized that transient features in the sagittal-plane accelerations of the lower extremity would be linked with the impulsive application of force to the foot at foot strike. Kinematic and kinetic data from treadmill running were selected for 154 subjects, from a database of gait biomechanics. Ankle, knee and hip sagittal plane angular acceleration kinematic curves were chained together to form a row input to a PCA matrix. A linear polynomial was calculated based on PCA scores, and a 10-fold cross-validation was performed to evaluate prediction accuracy against gold-standard foot strike as determined by a 10 N rise in the vertical ground reaction force. Results show 89-94% of all predicted foot strikes were within 4 frames (20 ms) of the gold standard with the largest error being 28 ms. It is concluded that this new foot strike detection is an improvement on existing methods and can be applied regardless of whether the runner exhibits a rearfoot, midfoot, or forefoot strike pattern. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Refrigerated display cabinets; Butikskyla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahlen, Per

    2000-07-01

    This report summarizes experience from SP research and assignments regarding refrigerated transport and storage of food, mainly in the retail sector. It presents the fundamentals of heat and mass transfer in display cabinets with special focus on indirect systems and secondary refrigerants. Moreover, the report includes a brief account of basic food hygiene and the related regulations. The material has been compiled for educational purposes in the Masters program at Chalmers Technical University.

  6. Helicopter Display Improvement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    PRESSURE INDICATOR 43 TURN A N D SLIP INDICATOR 21 ENGINE AND SDG OIL IN TEMPERATURE INDICATOR 44 COURSE INDICATOR 22 RADIO MAGNETIC COMPASS INDICATOR... compass seemed to present a problem to several H-l series pilots In that It was poorly located and should be moved. Possible locations Included...the UH-lNs standby compass . Both H/L and L/L pilots agreed that internal, white light was the best system currently in use. INDIVIDUAL DISPLAYS

  7. Dyes for displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claussen, U.

    1984-01-01

    The improvement of contrast and visibility of LCD by two different means was undertaken. The two methods are: (1) development of fluorescent dyes to increase the visibility of fluorescent activated displays (FLAD); and (2) development of dichroic dyes to increase the contrast of displays. This work was done in close cooperation with the electronic industry, where the newly synthesized dyes were tested. The targets for the chemical synthesis were selected with the help of computer model calculations. A marketable range of dyes was developed. Since the interest of the electronic industries concerning FLAD was low, the investigations were stopped. Dichroic dyes, especially black mixtures with good light fastness, order parameter, and solubility in nematic phases were developed. The application of these dyes is restricted to indoor use because of an increase of viscosity below -10 C. Applications on a technical scale, e.g., for the automotive industry, will be possible if the displays work at temperatures down to -40 C. This problem requires a complex optimization of the dye/nematic phase system.

  8. Electric converters of electromagnetic strike machine with battery power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usanov, K. M.; Volgin, A. V.; Kargin, V. A.; Moiseev, A. P.; Chetverikov, E. A.

    2018-03-01

    At present, the application of pulse linear electromagnetic engines to drive strike machines for immersion of rod elements into the soil, strike drilling of shallow wells, dynamic probing of soils is recognized as quite effective. The pulse linear electromagnetic engine performs discrete consumption and conversion of electrical energy into mechanical work. Pulse dosing of a stream transmitted by the battery source to the pulse linear electromagnetic engine of the energy is provided by the electrical converter. The electric converters with the control of an electromagnetic strike machine as functions of time and armature movement, which form the unipolar supply pulses of voltage and current necessary for the normal operation of a pulse linear electromagnetic engine, are proposed. Electric converters are stable in operation, implement the necessary range of output parameters control determined by the technological process conditions, have noise immunity and automatic disconnection of power supply in emergency modes.

  9. VARIATION OF STRIKE INCENTIVES WITH DAMAGE PREFERENCES; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. CANAVAN

    2001-01-01

    For START III level forces, strike allocations and magnitudes vary little with L, but first strike costs vary directly with L, which means that for K reflecting a preference for the survival of high value targets over their destruction and a preference for high value over military targets, the costs of action are far greater than those of inaction for a wide range of values of damage preference L. Thus, if both sides have much greater preferences for the survival of their high value targets than for military targets or destruction, they do not see a net incentive to strike, and crises are terminated by inaction. Recent decades suggest strong preferences for the survival of high value and that this has contributed to the lack of direct conflict during that period

  10. Joint stiffness and running economy during imposed forefoot strike before and after a long run in rearfoot strike runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Daniel A; Paquette, Max R; Schilling, Brian K; Bloomer, Richard J

    2017-12-01

    Research has focused on the effects of acute strike pattern modifications on lower extremity joint stiffness and running economy (RE). Strike pattern modifications on running biomechanics have mostly been studied while runners complete short running bouts. This study examined the effects of an imposed forefoot strike (FFS) on RE and ankle and knee joint stiffness before and after a long run in habitual rearfoot strike (RFS) runners. Joint kinetics and RE were collected before and after a long run. Sagittal joint kinetics were computed from kinematic and ground reaction force data that were collected during over-ground running trials in 13 male runners. RE was measured during treadmill running. Knee flexion range of motion, knee extensor moment and ankle joint stiffness were lower while plantarflexor moment and knee joint stiffness were greater during imposed FFS compared with RFS. The long run did not influence the difference in ankle and knee joint stiffness between strike patterns. Runners were more economical during RFS than imposed FFS and RE was not influenced by the long run. These findings suggest that using a FFS pattern towards the end of a long run may not be mechanically or metabolically beneficial for well-trained male RFS runners.

  11. [Force-feeding of hunger-striking prisoners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Shimon

    2014-09-01

    In contrast to the position of the World Medical Association and the Ethics Council of the Israel Medical Association, the author argues for forced-feeding of hunger-striking prisoners when their condition reaches a stage of danger of death or permanent injury. This position is based on the priority of human life over autonomy, and of a communitarian ethic. This position is supported by a District Court decision ordering the feeding of a hunger-striking prisoner, by a Supreme Court decision imposing surgery on a non-consenting prisoner, and in line with Israel's Patient's Right Law.

  12. MORE THAN A LABOR DISPUTE: THE PATCO STRIKE OF 1981

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul L. Butterworth

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available On August 3, 1981, 13,000 air traffic controllers walked off the job. Under US law, the strike was illegal. President Ronald Reagan ordered the strikers as a group to return to work; when they did not, he ordered individual strikers to return, and again they refused. Two days later the president fired the strikers. Reagan's action transformed relations between organized labor and American management, and created the worst turbulence to hit the American airways in recent history. “More Than a Labor Dispute” examines the work stoppage and aftermath through the eyes of two controllers and a pilot, all of whom worked during the strike.

  13. Remarkable rates of lightning strike mortality in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Monique Borgerhoff; Msalu, Lameck; Caro, Tim; Salerno, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Livingstone's second mission site on the shore of Lake Malawi suffers very high rates of consequential lightning strikes. Comprehensive interviewing of victims and their relatives in seven Traditional Authorities in Nkhata Bay District, Malawi revealed that the annual rate of consequential strikes was 419/million, more than six times higher than that in other developing countries; the rate of deaths from lightning was 84/million/year, 5.4 times greater than the highest ever recorded. These remarkable figures reveal that lightning constitutes a significant stochastic source of mortality with potential life history consequences, but it should not deflect attention away from the more prominent causes of mortality in this rural area.

  14. Evaluation of Mobile Phones for Large Display Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Jens; Thelen, Sebastian; Ebert, Achim

    2012-01-01

    Large displays have become more and more common in the last few years. While interaction with these displays can be conducted using standard methods such as computer mouse and keyboard, this approach causes issues in multi-user environments, where the various conditions for providing multiple keyboards and mice, together with the facilities to employ them, cannot be met. To solve this problem, interaction using mobile phones was proposed by several authors. Previous solutions were specialized...

  15. Handbook of Visual Display Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Cranton, Wayne; Fihn, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Handbook of Visual Display Technology is a unique work offering a comprehensive description of the science, technology, economic and human interface factors associated with the displays industry. An invaluable compilation of information, the Handbook will serve as a single reference source with expert contributions from over 150 international display professionals and academic researchers. All classes of display device are covered including LCDs, reflective displays, flexible solutions and emissive devices such as OLEDs and plasma displays, with discussion of established principles, emergent technologies, and particular areas of application. The wide-ranging content also encompasses the fundamental science of light and vision, image manipulation, core materials and processing techniques, display driving and metrology.

  16. Book Display as Adult Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Moore

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available 無Book display as an adult service is defined as choosing and positioning adult books from the collection to increase their circulation. The author contrasts bookstore arrangement for sales versus library arrangement for access. The paper considers the library-as-a-whole as a display, examines the right size for an in-library display, and discusses mass displays, end-caps, on-shelf displays, and the Tiffany approach. The author proposes that an effective display depends on an imaginative, unifying theme, and that book displays are part of the joy of libraries.

  17. NCAP projection displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, John R.; Ishioka, J.; Jones, Philip J.; Lau, Aldrich; Tomita, Akira; Asano, A.; Konuma, Nobuhiro; Sato, Kazuhiko; Takemoto, Iwao

    1997-05-01

    Projectors based on polymer-eNCAPsulated liquid crystals can provide bright displays suitable for use in conference rooms with normal lighting. Contrast is generated by light scattering among the droplets, rather than by light absorption with crossed polarizers. We have demonstrated a full-color, compact projector showing 1200 ANSI lumens with 200 watts of lamp power - a light efficiency of 6 lumens/watt. This projector is based on low-voltage NCAP material, highly reflective CMOS die, and matched illumination and projection optics. We will review each of these areas and discuss the integrated system performance.

  18. Torts Liability for Strike Action and Third Party Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raday, Frances

    1979-01-01

    Studies the nature of the torts liability incurred in strikes and the extent of existing immunities bestowed on strikers and their organizers, and explores the principles that should govern liability and immunity. Available from Israel Law Review Association, c/o Faculty of Law, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus, P.O.B. 24100, Jerusalem…

  19. Delayed Post Mortem Predation in Lightning Strike Carcasses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    An adult giraffe was struck dead by lightning on a game farm outside. Phalaborwa, South Africa in March 2014. Interestingly, delayed post-mortem predation occurred on the carcass, which according to the farm owners was an atypical phenomenon for the region. Delayed post-mortem scavenging on lightning strike ...

  20. EDITORIAL Plagiarism - time to strike at the epidemic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Plagiarism - time to strike at the epidemic. Lukman Yusuf1, Abraham Aseffa2. We live in a globalized world where information is instantly shared across continents. The number of biomedical journals available for reference is quite enormous and there is a sudden huge surge of free open access journals in the last few years ...

  1. Analysis of the effects of frequent strikes on academic performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The history of Academic Staff Union of Universities (ASUU)'s strike can be traced back to 1978, the period of the beginning of the decline in the oil boom, when the country faced the consequences of the failure by its rulers to use the oil wealth to generate production and a social welfare system. Military dictatorship had ...

  2. When the Corporate Storm Strikes the Academy: Faculty Response Required

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBoy, James L.

    2015-01-01

    When the corporate storm strikes the academy, faculty must be willing and able to repel administrative assaults upon academic freedom, shared governance, and tenure. This paper will describe the on-going clash between administrators who embrace the corporate mindset and faculty who cherish traditions of shared governance and collegial…

  3. Force, reaction time, and precision of Kung Fu strikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Bolander, Richard; Pacheco, Marcos Tadeu Tavares; Bir, Cynthia

    2009-08-01

    The goal was to compare values of force, precision, and reaction time of several martial arts punches and palm strikes performed by advanced and intermediate Kung Fu practitioners, both men and women. 13 Kung Fu practitioners, 10 men and three women, participated. Only the men, three advanced and seven intermediate, were considered for comparisons between levels. Reaction time values were obtained using two high speed cameras that recorded each strike at 2500 Hz. Force of impact was measured by a load cell. For comparisons of groups, force data were normalized by participant's body mass and height. Precision of the strikes was determined by a high speed pressure sensor. The results show that palm strikes were stronger than punches. Women in the study presented, on average, lower values of reaction time and force but higher values of precision than men. Advanced participants presented higher forces than intermediate participants. Significant negative correlations between the values of force and precision and the values of force and reaction time were also found.

  4. Striking Inside Angola with 32 Battalion | Scheepers | Scientia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 42, No 1 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Striking Inside Angola with 32 ...

  5. Assemblage of strike-slip faults and tectonic extension and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    12

    the formation, evolution and distribution of these strike-slip faults have important. 80 ...... function of coal-derived gas study for natural gas industry development in China; .... Bohai-Zhangjiakou seismotectonic zone based on 3D visco-elastic ...

  6. Effects of track and threat information on judgments of hurricane strike probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao-Che; Lindell, Michael K; Prater, Carla S; Samuelson, Charles D

    2014-06-01

    Although evacuation is one of the best strategies for protecting citizens from hurricane threat, the ways that local elected officials use hurricane data in deciding whether to issue hurricane evacuation orders is not well understood. To begin to address this problem, we examined the effects of hurricane track and intensity information in a laboratory setting where participants judged the probability that hypothetical hurricanes with a constant bearing (i.e., straight line forecast track) would make landfall in each of eight 45 degree sectors around the Gulf of Mexico. The results from 162 participants in a student sample showed that the judged strike probability distributions over the eight sectors within each scenario were, unsurprisingly, unimodal and centered on the sector toward which the forecast track pointed. More significantly, although strike probability judgments for the sector in the direction of the forecast track were generally higher than the corresponding judgments for the other sectors, the latter were not zero. Most significantly, there were no appreciable differences in the patterns of strike probability judgments for hurricane tracks represented by a forecast track only, an uncertainty cone only, or forecast track with an uncertainty cone-a result consistent with a recent survey of coastal residents threatened by Hurricane Charley. The study results suggest that people are able to correctly process basic information about hurricane tracks but they do make some errors. More research is needed to understand the sources of these errors and to identify better methods of displaying uncertainty about hurricane parameters. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Painting Reproductions on Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Iranowska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Paintings in museums might occasionally be replaced by a photoprint mimicking the original. This article is an investigation of what constitutes a good reproduction of an artwork (oil painting that is meant to be displayed. The article discusses what the usefulness of reproductions depends on, applying the Valuation Studies approach, which means the primary concern is with the practice of valuing itself. In other words, the study focuses on how museum experts evaluate reproduc-tions of oil paintings. The article analyses three cases of displaying digitally prin-ted copies of Edvard Munch's oil paintings between 2013 and 2015 in the Munch Museum and in the National Gallery in Oslo. The study is based on a series of semi-structured interviews with the experts, working at and for the museums, that were involved in producing and exhibiting of the photoprints: curators, con-servators, museum educators, and external manufacturers. The interviews were grouped into five clusters, which I have chosen to call registers of valuing following Frank Heuts and Annemarie Mol (2013. The described valuation practices have to do with delivering experiences to the public, obtaining mimetic resemblance, solving ethical aspects, exhibitions' budget, and last but not least, with the time perspective.

  8. Unsolicited displays of insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouwer, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    This study is based on videorecorded interactional data from a specific type of institutional setting which consists of a variety of 'language stimulation activities' for bilingual children in Danish preschools. Bilingual children, with a variety of linguistic backgrounds, take part in these acti......This study is based on videorecorded interactional data from a specific type of institutional setting which consists of a variety of 'language stimulation activities' for bilingual children in Danish preschools. Bilingual children, with a variety of linguistic backgrounds, take part...... in these activities in small groups together with a specialized preschool teacher. One pervasive feature of this kind of data is the ongoing orientation to, and guidance from the adult towards the children on what the main business of their interaction is - what they relevantly are doing. In this light, the paper......: Unsolicited displays may lead to side sequences, they may lead to a shift in the main business of the talk, or they may be explicitly or implicitly ignored. The paper discusses whether and how these unsolicited displays of understanding then can be thought of as leading to opportunities for (language...

  9. Latest development of display technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Hong-Yue; Yao Qiu-Xiang; Liu Pan; Zheng Zhi-Qiang; Liu Ji-Cheng; Zheng Hua-Dong; Zeng Chao; Yu Ying-Jie; Sun Tao; Zeng Zhen-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    In this review we will focus on recent progress in the field of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) display technologies. We present the current display materials and their applications, including organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), flexible OLEDs quantum dot light emitting diodes (QLEDs), active-matrix organic light emitting diodes (AMOLEDs), electronic paper (E-paper), curved displays, stereoscopic 3D displays, volumetric 3D displays, light field 3D displays, and holographic 3D displays. Conventional 2D display devices, such as liquid crystal devices (LCDs) often result in ambiguity in high-dimensional data images because of lacking true depth information. This review thus provides a detailed description of 3D display technologies. (topical review)

  10. Management of patients during hunger strike and refeeding phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, M; Joray, M L; Perrig, M; Bodmer, M; Stanga, Z

    2014-01-01

    Hunger strikers resuming nutritional intake may develop a life-threatening refeeding syndrome (RFS). Consequently, hunger strikers represent a core challenge for the medical staff. The objective of the study was to test the effectiveness and safety of evidence-based recommendations for prevention and management of RFS during the refeeding phase. This was a retrospective, observational data analysis of 37 consecutive, unselected cases of prisoners on a hunger strike during a 5-y period. The sample consisted of 37 cases representing 33 individual patients. In seven cases (18.9%), the hunger strike was continued during the hospital stay, in 16 episodes (43.2%) cessation of the hunger strike occurred immediately after admission to the security ward, and in 14 episodes (37.9%) during hospital stay. In the refeed cases (n = 30), nutritional replenishment occurred orally, and in 25 (83.3%) micronutrients substitutions were made based on the recommendations. The gradual refeeding with fluid restriction occurred over 10 d. Uncomplicated dyselectrolytemia was documented in 12 cases (40%) within the refeeding phase. One case (3.3%) presented bilateral ankle edemas as a clinical manifestation of moderate RFS. Intensive medical treatment was not necessary and none of the patients died. Seven episodes of continued hunger strike were observed during the entire hospital stay without medical complications. Our data suggested that seriousness and rate of medical complications during the refeeding phase can be kept at a minimum in a hunger strike population. This study supported use of recommendations to optimize risk management and to improve treatment quality and patient safety in this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 3D display system using monocular multiview displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Saruta, Kazuki; Takeda, Kazutoki

    2002-05-01

    A 3D head mounted display (HMD) system is useful for constructing a virtual space. The authors have researched the virtual-reality systems connected with computer networks for real-time remote control and developed a low-priced real-time 3D display for building these systems. We developed a 3D HMD system using monocular multi-view displays. The 3D displaying technique of this monocular multi-view display is based on the concept of the super multi-view proposed by Kajiki at TAO (Telecommunications Advancement Organization of Japan) in 1996. Our 3D HMD has two monocular multi-view displays (used as a visual display unit) in order to display a picture to the left eye and the right eye. The left and right images are a pair of stereoscopic images for the left and right eyes, then stereoscopic 3D images are observed.

  12. Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doane, J. William

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION AND HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT * PDLC MATERIALS PREPARATION * Polymerization induced phase separation (PIPS) * Thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) * Solvent induced phase separation (SIPS) * Encapsulation (NCAP) * RESPONSE VOLTAGE * Dielectric and resistive effects * Radial configuration * Bipolar configuration * Other director configurations * RESPONSE TIME * DISPLAY CONTRAST * Light scattering and index matching * Incorporation of dyes * Contrast measurements * PDLC DISPLAY DEVICES AND INNOVATIONS * Reflective direct view displays * Large-scale, flexible displays * Switchable windows * Projection displays * High definition spatial light modulator * Haze-free PDLC shutters: wide angle view displays * ENVIRONMENTAL STABILITY * ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS * REFERENCES

  13. Implications of Incessant Strike Actions on the Implementation of Technical Education Programme in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adavbiele, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper was designed to x-ray the implications of incessant strike actions on the implementation of Technical education programme in Nigeria. The paper took an exploratory view on the concept of strike actions in Nigeria with particular references on notable strike actions that have occurred in Nigeria. The types of strike were explained and…

  14. Crosstalk evaluation in stereoscopic displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L.; Teunissen, C.; Tu, Yan; Chen, Li; Zhang, P.; Zhang, T.; Heynderickx, I.E.J.

    2011-01-01

    Substantial progress in liquid-crystal display and polarization film technology has enabled several types of stereoscopic displays. Despite all progress, some image distortions still exist in these 3-D displays, of which interocular crosstalk - light leakage of the image for one eye to the other eye

  15. Light-induced bird strikes on vessels in Southwest Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merkel, Flemming Ravn; Johansen, Kasper Lambert

    2011-01-01

    Light-induced bird strikes are known to occur when vessels navigate during darkness in icy waters using powerful searchlight. In Southwest Greenland, which is important internationally for wintering seabirds, we collected reports of incidents of bird strikes over 2–3 winters (2006–2009) from navy...... vessels, cargo vessels and trawlers (total n = 19). Forty-one incidents were reported: mainly close to land (birds were reported killed in a single incident. All occurred between 5 p.m. and 6 a.m. and significantly more birds were involved when...... visibility was poor (snow) rather than moderate or good. Among five seabird species reported, the common eider (Somateria mollissima) accounted for 95% of the bird casualties. Based on spatial analyses of data on vessel traffic intensity and common eider density we are able to predict areas with high risk...

  16. Triggered lightning strikes to aircraft and natural intracloud discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Vladislav

    1989-01-01

    The physical model of Mazur (1989) for triggering lightning strikes by aircraft was used to interpret the initiation of intracloud flashes observed by the French UHF-VHF interferometric system. It is shown that both the intracloud discharges and airplane-triggered lightning strikes were initiated by simultaneous bidirectional development of the negative stepped leader and the positive leader-continous current process. However, the negative stepped leader phase in triggered flashes is of shorter duration (tens of milliseconds), than that in intracloud flashes (usually hundreds of milliseconds). This is considered to be due to the fact that, on the aircraft there is a single initiation process, versus the numerous initiation processes that occur inside the cloud.

  17. Concept of a Conducting Composite Material for Lightning Strike Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Katunin A.; Krukiewicz K.; Herega A.; Catalanotti G.

    2016-01-01

    The paper focuses on development of a multifunctional material which allows conducting of electrical current and simultaneously holds mechanical properties of a polymeric composite. Such material could be applied for exterior fuselage elements of an aircraft in order to minimize damage occurring during lightning strikes. The concept introduced in this paper is presented from the points of view of various scientific disciplines including materials science, chemistry, structural physics and mec...

  18. 2018 NDIA Precision Strike Annual Review (PSAR-18)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-20

    Planning Agenda as of 9 MAR 18 Ginny Sniegon: 703-575-6653 PRECISION STRIKE ANNUAL REVIEW (PSAR-18) 20 MARCH 2018...Ginny Sniegon PSA Programs Vice-Chair: Captain David “Jumbo” Baird, USN Annual Review Chair: Kurt Chankaya Congressional & William J. Perry...0745 PSA ANNUAL REVIEW WELCOME: Ken Masson—PSA Chairman 0755 PSAR-18 OPENING REMARKS: Kurt Chankaya—PSAR-18 Event Chair 0800 CONGRESSIONAL

  19. Oscillation thresholds for "striking outwards" reeds coupled to a resonator

    OpenAIRE

    Silva , Fabrice; Kergomard , Jean; Vergez , Christophe

    2007-01-01

    International audience; This paper considers a "striking outwards" reed coupled to a resonator. This expression, due to Helmholtz, is not discussed here : it corresponds to the most common model of a lip-type valve, when the valve is assumed to be a one degree of freedom oscillator. The presented work is an extension of the works done by Wilson and Beavers (1974), Tarnopolsky (2000). The range of the playing frequencies is investigated. The first results are analytical : when no losses are pr...

  20. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter: Preliminary Observations on Program Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-23

    current fighter aircraft. The cost of extending the lives of current fighter aircraft and acquiring other major weapon systems, while continuing to... Norway . Ongoing Manufacturing and Reliability Progress Continue Page 12 GAO-16-489T rework, and repair costs have remained steady over...Program Progress Why GAO Did This Study With estimated acquisition costs of nearly $400 billion, the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter—also known as the

  1. Foot strike pattern in children during shod-unshod running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre Román, Pedro Ángel; Balboa, Fernando Redondo; Pinillos, Felipe García

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the foot strike patterns (FSPs) and neutral support (no INV/EVE and no foot rotation) in children, as well as to determine the influence of shod/unshod conditions and sex. A total of 713 children, aged 6 to 16 years, participated in this study (Age=10.28±2.71years, body mass index [BMI]=19.70±3.91kg/m 2 , 302 girls and 411 boys). A sagittal and frontal-plane video (240Hz) was recorded using a high-speed camcorder, to record the following variables: rearfoot strike (RFS), midfoot strike (MFS), forefoot strike (FFS), inversion/eversion (INV/EVE) and foot rotation on initial contact. RFS prevalence was similar between boys and girls in both shod and unshod conditions. In the unshod condition there was a significant reduction (p<0.001) of RFS prevalence both in boys (shod condition=83.95% vs. 62.65% unshod condition) and in girls (shod condition=87.85% vs. 62.70% unshod condition). No significant differences were found in INV/EVE and foot rotation between sex groups. In the unshod condition there was a significant increase (p<0.001) of neutral support (no INV/EVE) both in boys (shod condition=12.55% vs. 22.22% unshod condition) and in girls (shod condition=17.9% vs. 28.15% unshod condition). In addition, in the unshod condition there is a significant reduction (p<0.001) of neutral support (no foot rotation) both in boys (shod condition=21.55% vs. 11.10% unshod condition) and in girls (shod condition=21.05% vs. 11.95% unshod condition). In children, RFS prevalence is lower than adult's population. Additionally, barefoot running reduced the prevalence of RFS and INV/EVE, however increased foot rotation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Simulating Bird Strike on Aircraft Composite Wing Leading Edge.

    OpenAIRE

    Ericsson, Max

    2012-01-01

    In this master thesis project the possibility to model the response of a wing when subjected to bird strike using finite elements is analyzed. Since this transient event lasts only a few milliseconds the used solution method is explicit time integration. The wing is manufactured using carbon fiber laminate. Carbon fiber laminates have orthotropic material properties with different stiffness in different directions. Accordingly, there are damage mechanisms not considered when using metal that ...

  3. Active strike-slip faulting in El Salvador, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Giacomo; Carminati, Eugenio; Mazzarini, Francesco; Oziel Garcia, Marvyn

    2005-12-01

    Several major earthquakes have affected El Salvador, Central America, during the Past 100 yr as a consequence of oblique subduction of the Cocos plate under the Caribbean plate, which is partitioned between trench-orthogonal compression and strike-slip deformation parallel to the volcanic arc. Focal mechanisms and the distribution of the most destructive earthquakes, together with geomorphologic evidence, suggest that this transcurrent component of motion may be accommodated by a major strike-slip fault (El Salvador fault zone). We present field geological, structural, and geomorphological data collected in central El Salvador that allow the constraint of the kinematics and the Quaternary activity of this major seismogenic strike-slip fault system. Data suggest that the El Salvador fault zone consists of at least two main ˜E-W fault segments (San Vicente and Berlin segments), with associated secondary synthetic (WNW-ESE) and antithetic (NNW-SSE) Riedel shears and NW-SE tensional structures. The two main fault segments overlap in a dextral en echelon style with the formation of an intervening pull-apart basin. Our original geological and geomorphologic data suggest a late Pleistocene Holocene slip rate of ˜11 mm/yr along the Berlin segment, in contrast with low historical seismicity. The kinematics and rates of deformation suggested by our new data are consistent with models involving slip partitioning during oblique subduction, and support the notion that a trench-parallel component of motion between the Caribbean and Cocos plates is concentrated along E-W dextral strike-slip faults parallel to the volcanic arc.

  4. LHCb Event display

    CERN Document Server

    Trisovic, Ana

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb Event Display was made for educational purposes at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The project was implemented as a stand-alone application using C++ and ROOT, a framework developed by CERN for data analysis. This paper outlines the development and architecture of the application in detail, as well as the motivation for the development and the goals of the exercise. The application focuses on the visualization of events recorded by the LHCb detector, where an event represents a set of charged particle tracks in one proton-proton collision. Every particle track is coloured by its type and can be selected to see its essential information such as mass and momentum. The application allows students to save this information and calculate the invariant mass for any pair of particles. Furthermore, the students can use additional calculating tools in the application and build up a histogram of these invariant masses. The goal for the students is to find a $D^0$ par...

  5. Colorimetry for CRT displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golz, Jürgen; MacLeod, Donald I A

    2003-05-01

    We analyze the sources of error in specifying color in CRT displays. These include errors inherent in the use of the color matching functions of the CIE 1931 standard observer when only colorimetric, not radiometric, calibrations are available. We provide transformation coefficients that prove to correct the deficiencies of this observer very well. We consider four different candidate sets of cone sensitivities. Some of these differ substantially; variation among candidate cone sensitivities exceeds the variation among phosphors. Finally, the effects of the recognized forms of observer variation on the visual responses (cone excitations or cone contrasts) generated by CRT stimuli are investigated and quantitatively specified. Cone pigment polymorphism gives rise to variation of a few per cent in relative excitation by the different phosphors--a variation larger than the errors ensuing from the adoption of the CIE standard observer, though smaller than the differences between some candidate cone sensitivities. Macular pigmentation has a larger influence, affecting mainly responses to the blue phosphor. The estimated combined effect of all sources of observer variation is comparable in magnitude with the largest differences between competing cone sensitivity estimates but is not enough to disrupt very seriously the relation between the L and M cone weights and the isoluminance settings of individual observers. It is also comparable with typical instrumental colorimetric errors, but we discuss these only briefly.

  6. Web Extensible Display Manager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slominski, Ryan [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Larrieu, Theodore L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Jefferson Lab's Web Extensible Display Manager (WEDM) allows staff to access EDM control system screens from a web browser in remote offices and from mobile devices. Native browser technologies are leveraged to avoid installing and managing software on remote clients such as browser plugins, tunnel applications, or an EDM environment. Since standard network ports are used firewall exceptions are minimized. To avoid security concerns from remote users modifying a control system, WEDM exposes read-only access and basic web authentication can be used to further restrict access. Updates of monitored EPICS channels are delivered via a Web Socket using a web gateway. The software translates EDM description files (denoted with the edl suffix) to HTML with Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) following the EDM's edl file vector drawing rules to create faithful screen renderings. The WEDM server parses edl files and creates the HTML equivalent in real-time allowing existing screens to work without modification. Alternatively, the familiar drag and drop EDM screen creation tool can be used to create optimized screens sized specifically for smart phones and then rendered by WEDM.

  7. Rearfoot striking runners are more economical than midfoot strikers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogueta-Alday, Ana; Rodríguez-Marroyo, José Antonio; García-López, Juan

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to analyze the influence of foot strike pattern on running economy and biomechanical characteristics in subelite runners with a similar performance level. Twenty subelite long-distance runners participated and were divided into two groups according to their foot strike pattern: rearfoot (RF, n = 10) and midfoot (MF, n = 10) strikers. Anthropometric characteristics were measured (height, body mass, body mass index, skinfolds, circumferences, and lengths); physiological (VO2max, anaerobic threshold, and running economy) and biomechanical characteristics (contact and flight times, step rate, and step length) were registered during both incremental and submaximal tests on a treadmill. There were no significant intergroup differences in anthropometrics, VO2max, or anaerobic threshold measures. RF strikers were 5.4%, 9.3%, and 5.0% more economical than MF at submaximal speeds (11, 13, and 15 km·h respectively, although the difference was not significant at 15 km·h, P = 0.07). Step rate and step length were not different between groups, but RF showed longer contact time (P Foot strike pattern affected both contact and flight times, which may explain the differences in running economy.

  8. Striking dynamics and kinetic properties of boxing and MMA gloves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available With the growing popularity of Mixed Martial Arts (MMA as a competitive sport, questions regarding the dynamic response and properties of MMA gloves arise. High-energy impacts from punches are very similar to boxing yet MMA competition requires the use of 4 oz fingerless glove, compared to the larger full enclosure boxing glove. This work assessed the kinetic properties and strike dynamics of MMA gloves and compared findings with traditional boxing gloves. Gloves mounted on a molded fist were impacted repetitively on an instrumental anvil designed for impact, over a 5 hour period resulting in 10,000 continuous and consistent strikes. Kinetic data from impacts were sampled at the beginning of the data collection and subsequently every 30 minutes (every 1,000 strikes. MMA gloves produced 4-5 times greater peak force and 5 times faster load rate compared to the boxing glove. However, MMA gloves also showed signs of material fatigue, with peak force increasing by 35% and rate of loading increasing by 60% over the duration of the test. Boxing glove characteristics did deteriorate but to a lesser extent. In summary, the kinetic properties of MMA glove differed substantially from the boxing glove resulting in impacts characterized by higher peak forces and more rapid development of force. Material properties including stiffness and thickness play a role in the kinetic characteristics upon impact, and can be inferred to alter injury mechanisms of blunt force trauma.

  9. Display systems for NPP control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozov, S.S.

    1988-01-01

    Main trends in development of display systems used as the means for image displaying in NPP control systems are considered. It is shown that colour display devices appear to be the most universal means for concentrated data presentation. Along with digital means the display systems provide for high-speed response, sufficient for operative control of executive mechanisms. A conclusion is drawn that further development of display systems will move towards creation of large colour fields (on reflection base or with multicolour gas-discharge elements)

  10. Growth-hormone-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 signaling causes gigantism, inflammation, and premature death but protects mice from aggressive liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedbichler, Katrin; Themanns, Madeleine; Mueller, Kristina M; Schlederer, Michaela; Kornfeld, Jan-Wilhelm; Terracciano, Luigi M; Kozlov, Andrey V; Haindl, Susanne; Kenner, Lukas; Kolbe, Thomas; Mueller, Mathias; Snibson, Kenneth J; Heim, Markus H; Moriggl, Richard

    2012-03-01

    Persistently high levels of growth hormone (GH) can cause liver cancer. GH activates multiple signal-transduction pathways, among them janus kinase (JAK) 2-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 5 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 5). Both hyperactivation and deletion of STAT5 in hepatocytes have been implicated in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); nevertheless, the role of STAT5 in the development of HCC as a result of high GH levels remains enigmatic. Thus, we crossed a mouse model of gigantism and inflammatory liver cancer caused by hyperactivated GH signaling (GH(tg) ) to mice with hepatic deletion of STAT5 (STAT5(Δhep) ). Unlike GH(tg) mice, GH(tg) STAT5(Δhep) animals did not display gigantism. Moreover, the premature mortality, which was associated with chronic inflammation, as well as the pathologic alterations of hepatocytes observed in GH(tg) mice, were not observed in GH(tg) animals lacking STAT5. Strikingly, loss of hepatic STAT5 proteins led to enhanced HCC development in GH(tg) mice. Despite reduced chronic inflammation, GH(tg) STAT5(Δhep) mice displayed earlier and more advanced HCC than GH(tg) animals. This may be attributed to the combination of increased peripheral lipolysis, hepatic lipid synthesis, loss of hepatoprotective mediators accompanied by aberrant activation of tumor-promoting c-JUN and STAT3 signaling cascades, and accumulation of DNA damage secondary to loss of cell-cycle control. Thus, HCC was never observed in STAT5(Δhep) mice. As a result of their hepatoprotective functions, STAT5 proteins prevent progressive fatty liver disease and the formation of aggressive HCC in the setting of hyperactivated GH signaling. At the same time, they play a key role in controlling systemic inflammation and regulating organ and body size. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  11. Augmenting digital displays with computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing

    As we inevitably step deeper and deeper into a world connected via the Internet, more and more information will be exchanged digitally. Displays are the interface between digital information and each individual. Naturally, one fundamental goal of displays is to reproduce information as realistically as possible since humans still care a lot about what happens in the real world. Human eyes are the receiving end of such information exchange; therefore it is impossible to study displays without studying the human visual system. In fact, the design of displays is rather closely coupled with what human eyes are capable of perceiving. For example, we are less interested in building displays that emit light in the invisible spectrum. This dissertation explores how we can augment displays with computation, which takes both display hardware and the human visual system into consideration. Four novel projects on display technologies are included in this dissertation: First, we propose a software-based approach to driving multiview autostereoscopic displays. Our display algorithm can dynamically assign views to hardware display zones based on multiple observers' current head positions, substantially reducing crosstalk and stereo inversion. Second, we present a dense projector array that creates a seamless 3D viewing experience for multiple viewers. We smoothly interpolate the set of viewer heights and distances on a per-vertex basis across the arrays field of view, reducing image distortion, crosstalk, and artifacts from tracking errors. Third, we propose a method for high dynamic range display calibration that takes into account the variation of the chrominance error over luminance. We propose a data structure for enabling efficient representation and querying of the calibration function, which also allows user-guided balancing between memory consumption and the amount of computation. Fourth, we present user studies that demonstrate that the ˜ 60 Hz critical flicker fusion

  12. Display Parameters and Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, Birendra

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * HUMAN FACTORS * Anthropometry * Sensory * Cognitive * Discussions * THE HUMAN VISUAL SYSTEM - CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS * Cornea * Pupil and Iris * Lens * Vitreous Humor * Retina * RODS - NIGHT VISION * CONES - DAY VISION * RODS AND CONES - TWILIGHT VISION * VISUAL PIGMENTS * MACULA * BLOOD * CHOROID COAT * Visual Signal Processing * Pathways to the Brain * Spatial Vision * Temporal Vision * Colour Vision * Colour Blindness * DICHROMATISM * Protanopia * Deuteranopia * Tritanopia * ANOMALOUS TRICHROMATISM * Protanomaly * Deuteranomaly * Tritanomaly * CONE MONOCHROMATISM * ROD MONOCHROMATISM * Using Colour Effectively * COLOUR MIXTURES AND THE CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * Colour Matching Functions and Chromaticity Co-ordinates * CIE 1931 Colour Space * CIE PRIMARIES * CIE COLOUR MATCHING FUNCTIONS AND CHROMATICITY CO-ORDINATES * METHODS FOR DETERMINING TRISTIMULUS VALUES AND COLOUR CO-ORDINATES * Spectral Power Distribution Method * Filter Method * CIE 1931 CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * ADDITIVE COLOUR MIXTURE * CIE 1976 Chromaticity Diagram * CIE Uniform Colour Spaces and Colour Difference Formulae * CIELUV OR L*u*v* * CIELAB OR L*a*b* * CIE COLOUR DIFFERENCE FORMULAE * Colour Temperature and CIE Standard Illuminants and source * RADIOMETRIC AND PHOTOMETRIC QUANTITIES * Photopic (Vλ and Scotopic (Vλ') Luminous Efficiency Function * Photometric and Radiometric Flux * Luminous and Radiant Intensities * Incidence: Illuminance and Irradiance * Exitance or Emittance (M) * Luminance and Radiance * ERGONOMIC REQUIREMENTS OF DISPLAYS * ELECTRO-OPTICAL PARAMETERS AND REQUIREMENTS * Contrast and Contrast Ratio * Luminance and Brightness * Colour Contrast and Chromaticity * Glare * Other Aspects of Legibility * SHAPE AND SIZE OF CHARACTERS * DEFECTS AND BLEMISHES * FLICKER AND DISTORTION * ANGLE OF VIEW * Switching Speed * Threshold and Threshold Characteristic * Measurement Techniques For Electro-optical Parameters * RADIOMETRIC

  13. Laser illuminated flat panel display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    A 10 inch laser illuminated flat panel Planar Optic Display (POD) screen has been constructed and tested. This POD screen technology is an entirely new concept in display technology. Although the initial display is flat and made of glass, this technology lends itself to applications where a plastic display might be wrapped around the viewer. The display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optical waveguides where each glass waveguide represents a vertical line of resolution. A black cladding layer, having a lower index of refraction, is placed between each waveguide layer. Since the cladding makes the screen surface black, the contrast is high. The prototype display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately I inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  14. Flat panel planar optic display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology

    1994-11-01

    A prototype 10 inch flat panel Planar Optic Display, (POD), screen has been constructed and tested. This display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optic class sheets bonded together with a cladding layer between each sheet where each glass sheet represents a vertical line of resolution. The display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately 1 inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  15. Display technologies for augmented reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoungho; Lee, Seungjae; Jang, Changwon; Hong, Jong-Young; Li, Gang

    2018-02-01

    With the virtue of rapid progress in optics, sensors, and computer science, we are witnessing that commercial products or prototypes for augmented reality (AR) are penetrating into the consumer markets. AR is spotlighted as expected to provide much more immersive and realistic experience than ordinary displays. However, there are several barriers to be overcome for successful commercialization of AR. Here, we explore challenging and important topics for AR such as image combiners, enhancement of display performance, and focus cue reproduction. Image combiners are essential to integrate virtual images with real-world. Display performance (e.g. field of view and resolution) is important for more immersive experience and focus cue reproduction may mitigate visual fatigue caused by vergence-accommodation conflict. We also demonstrate emerging technologies to overcome these issues: index-matched anisotropic crystal lens (IMACL), retinal projection displays, and 3D display with focus cues. For image combiners, a novel optical element called IMACL provides relatively wide field of view. Retinal projection displays may enhance field of view and resolution of AR displays. Focus cues could be reconstructed via multi-layer displays and holographic displays. Experimental results of our prototypes are explained.

  16. The effects of preferred and non-preferred running strike patterns on tissue vibration properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enders, Hendrik; von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Nigg, Benno M

    2014-03-01

    To characterize soft tissue vibrations during running with a preferred and a non-preferred strike pattern in shoes and barefoot. Cross-sectional study. Participants ran at 3.5 m s(-1) on a treadmill in shoes and barefoot using a rearfoot and a forefoot strike for each footwear condition. The preferred strike patterns for the subjects were a rearfoot strike and a forefoot strike for shod and barefoot running, respectively. Vibrations were recorded with an accelerometer overlying the belly of the medial gastrocnemius. Thirteen non-linearly scaled wavelets were used for the analysis. Damping was calculated as the overall decay of power in the acceleration signal post ground contact. A higher damping coefficient indicates higher damping capacities of the soft tissue. The shod rearfoot strike showed a 93% lower damping coefficient than the shod forefoot strike (pforefoot strike showed a trend toward a lower damping coefficient compared to a barefoot rearfoot strike. Running barefoot with a forefoot strike resulted in a significantly lower damping coefficient than a forefoot strike when wearing shoes (pstrike showed lower damping compared to a barefoot rearfoot strike (p<0.001). While rearfoot striking showed lower vibration frequencies in shod and barefoot running, it did not consistently result in lower damping coefficients. This study showed that the use of a preferred movement resulted in lower damping coefficients of running related soft tissue vibrations. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Is the foot striking pattern more important than barefoot or shod conditions in running?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yo; Lin, Kuan-Lun; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang

    2013-07-01

    People have advocated barefoot running, claiming that it is better suited to human nature. Humans usually run barefoot using a forefoot strike and run shod using a heel strike. The striking pattern was thought to be a key factor that contributes to the benefit of barefoot running. The purpose of this study is to use scientific data to prove that the striking pattern is more important than barefoot or shod conditions for runners on running injuries prevention. Twelve habitually male shod runners were recruited to run under four varying conditions: barefoot running with a forefoot strike, barefoot running with a heel strike, shod running with a forefoot strike, and shod running with a heel strike. Kinetic and kinematic data and electromyography signals were recorded during the experiments. The results showed that the lower extremity can gain more compliance when running with a forefoot strike. Habitually shod runners can gain more shock absorption by changing the striking pattern to a forefoot strike when running with shoes and barefoot conditions. Habitually shod runners may be subject to injuries more easily when they run barefoot while maintaining their heel strike pattern. Higher muscle activity in the gastrocnemius was observed when running with a forefoot strike, which may imply a greater training load on the muscle and a tendency for injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Patellofemoral joint stress during running with alterations in foot strike pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannatta, Charles Nathan; Kernozek, Thomas W

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to quantify differences in patellofemoral joint stress that may occur when healthy runners alter their foot strike pattern from their habitual rearfoot strike to a forefoot strike to gain insight on the potential etiology and treatment methods of patellofemoral pain. Sixteen healthy female runners completed 20 running trials in a controlled laboratory setting under rearfoot strike and forefoot strike conditions. Kinetic and kinematic data were used to drive a static optimization technique to estimate individual muscle forces to input into a model of the patellofemoral joint to estimate joint stress during running. Peak patellofemoral joint stress and the stress-time integral over stance phase decreased by 27% and 12%, respectively, in the forefoot strike condition (P forefoot strike condition (P forefoot strike (P forefoot strike condition (P strike pattern to a forefoot strike results in consistent reductions in patellofemoral joint stress independent of changes in step length. Thus, implementation of forefoot strike training programs may be warranted in the treatment of runners with patellofemoral pain. However, it is suggested that the transition to a forefoot strike pattern should be completed in a graduated manner.

  19. Global Strike 2035: Considerations for Enabling Effective Command and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    reach places .1 Broadly grouped under the moniker Global Strike,2 this family-of-systems capability should mature by 2035 leading to the realization of...and] ‘micro-actors with massive impact,’…[combine] with new technology and new or transfigured ways of war, but the old threats also remain and have...as the Joint Time-Sensitive Targets Manager (JTSTM),38 “operators and analysts [could] access the same dynamic common operating picture…to provide

  20. Principles Governing the Mechanics and Control of Snake Strikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-26

    small, potentially evasive target with an impact sufficient for prey capture but without 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 13...strike a small, potentially evasive target with an impact sufficient for prey capture but without damaging their lightly-built skull. Although the...p o rt io n o f To ta l M as s Segment Number Boa/Python Mean Colubrid Mean Viper Mean Figure 3 – Proportion of body mass in each of 10 equal-length

  1. Lionfish predators use flared fin displays to initiate cooperative hunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnstedt, Oona M; Ferrari, Maud C O; Chivers, Douglas P

    2014-06-01

    Despite considerable study, mystery surrounds the use of signals that initiate cooperative hunting in animals. Using a labyrinth test chamber, we examined whether a lionfish, Dendrochirus zebra, would initiate cooperative hunts with piscine partners. We found that D. zebra uses a stereotyped flared fin display to alert conspecific and heterospecific lionfish species Pterois antennata to the presence of prey. Per capita success rate was significantly higher for cooperative hunters when compared with solitary ones, with hunt responders assisting hunt initiators in cornering the prey using their large extended pectoral fins. The initiators would most often take the first strike at the group of prey, but both hunters would then alternate striking at the remaining prey. Results suggest that the cooperative communication signal may be characteristic to the lionfish family, as interspecific hunters were equally coordinated and successful as intraspecific hunters. Our findings emphasize the complexity of collaborative foraging behaviours in lionfish; the turn-taking in strikes suggests that individuals do not solely try to maximize their own hunting success: instead they equally share the resources between themselves. Communicative group hunting has enabled Pteroine fish to function as highly efficient predators. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. The role of trade union organization in solving labor disputes and strikes in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguen T.H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available the article describes the role of the trade union organization in solving labor disputes and strikes and the legal basis of the role of trade union organization in solving labor disputes and strikes in Vietnam.

  3. THE EFFECT OF STEP RATE MANIPULATION ON FOOT STRIKE PATTERN OF LONG DISTANCE RUNNERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Darrell J; Heisler, Hollie; Mooney, Jennifer; Kring, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Running gait retraining to change foot strike pattern in runners from a heel strike pattern to a non heel- strike pattern has been shown to reduce impact forces and may help to reduce running related injuries. Step rate manipulation above preferred is known to help decrease step length, foot inclination angle, and vertical mass excursion, but has not yet been evaluated as a method to change foot strike pattern. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of step rate manipulation on foot strike pattern in shod recreational runners who run with a heel strike pattern. A secondary purpose was to describe the effect of step rate manipulation at specific percentages above preferred on foot inclination angle at initial contact. Forty volunteer runners, who were self-reported heel strikers and had a weekly running mileage of at least 10 miles, were recruited. Runners were confirmed to be heel strikers during the warm up period on the treadmill. The subject's step rate was determined at their preferred running pace. A metronome was used to increase step rate above the preferred step rate by 5%, 10% and 15%. 2D video motion analysis was utilized to determine foot strike pattern and to measure foot inclination angle at initial contact for each step rate condition. There was a statistically significant change in foot strike pattern from a heel strike pattern to a mid-foot or forefoot strike pattern at both 10% and 15% step rates above preferred. Seven of the 40 subjects (17.5%) changed from a heel- strike pattern to a non- heel strike pattern at +10% and 12 of the 40 subjects (30%) changed to a non-heel strike pattern at +15%. Mean foot inclination angle at initial contact showed a statistically significant change (reduction) as step rate increased. Step rate manipulation of 10% or greater may be enough to change foot strike pattern from a heel strike to a mid-foot or forefoot strike pattern in a small percentage of recreational runners who run in traditional

  4. Onset of aseismic creep on major strike-slip faults

    KAUST Repository

    Ç akir, Ziyadin; Ergintav, Semih; Ö zener, Haluk; Doǧan, Uǧur; Akoglu, Ahmet; Meghraoui, Mustapha; Reilinger, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Time series analysis of spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data, GPS measurements, and fi eld observations reveal that the central section of the Izmit (Turkey) fault that slipped with a supershear rupture velocity in the A.D. 1999, Mw7.4, Izmit earthquake began creeping aseismically following the earthquake. Rapid initial postseismic afterslip decayed logarithmically with time and appears to have reached a steady rate comparable to the preearthquake full fault-crossing rate, suggesting that it may continue for decades and possibly until late in the earthquake cycle. If confi rmed by future monitoring, these observations identify postseismic afterslip as a mechanism for initiating creep behavior along strike-slip faults. Long-term afterslip and/or creep has signifi cant implications for earthquake cycle models, recurrence intervals of large earthquakes, and accordingly, seismic hazard estimation along mature strike-slip faults, in particular for Istanbul which is believed to lie adjacent to a seismic gap along the North Anatolian fault in the Sea of Marmara. © 2012 Geological Society of America.

  5. Onset of aseismic creep on major strike-slip faults

    KAUST Repository

    Çakir, Ziyadin

    2012-10-02

    Time series analysis of spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data, GPS measurements, and fi eld observations reveal that the central section of the Izmit (Turkey) fault that slipped with a supershear rupture velocity in the A.D. 1999, Mw7.4, Izmit earthquake began creeping aseismically following the earthquake. Rapid initial postseismic afterslip decayed logarithmically with time and appears to have reached a steady rate comparable to the preearthquake full fault-crossing rate, suggesting that it may continue for decades and possibly until late in the earthquake cycle. If confi rmed by future monitoring, these observations identify postseismic afterslip as a mechanism for initiating creep behavior along strike-slip faults. Long-term afterslip and/or creep has signifi cant implications for earthquake cycle models, recurrence intervals of large earthquakes, and accordingly, seismic hazard estimation along mature strike-slip faults, in particular for Istanbul which is believed to lie adjacent to a seismic gap along the North Anatolian fault in the Sea of Marmara. © 2012 Geological Society of America.

  6. You Be the Judge: Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeninger, Jimmy G.

    The instructional package was developed to provide the distributive education teacher-coordinator with visual materials that can be used to supplement existing textbook offerings in the area of display (visual merchandising). Designed for use with 35mm slides of retail store displays, the package allows the student to view the slides of displays…

  7. Displays: Entering a New Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkman, Neal

    2007-01-01

    As display technologies prepare to welcome 3-D, the 21st-century classroom will soon bear little resemblance to anything students and teachers have ever seen. In this article, the author presents the latest innovations in the world of digital display technology. These include: (1) Touchlight, an interactive touch screen program that takes a normal…

  8. Software for graphic display systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlov, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper some aspects of graphic display systems are discussed. The design of a display subroutine library is described, with an example, and graphic dialogue software is considered primarily from the point of view of the programmer who uses a high-level language. (Auth.)

  9. Flexible Bistable Cholesteric Reflective Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2006-03-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) exhibit two stable states at zero field condition-the reflecting planar state and the nonreflecting focal conic state. ChLCs are an excellent candidate for inexpensive and rugged electronic books and papers. This paper will review the display cell structure,materials and drive schemes for flexible bistable cholesteric (Ch) reflective displays.

  10. INFORMATION DISPLAY: CONSIDERATIONS FOR DESIGNING COMPUTER-BASED DISPLAY SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'HARA, J.M.; PIRUS, D.; BELTRATCCHI, L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discussed the presentation of information in computer-based control rooms. Issues associated with the typical displays currently in use are discussed. It is concluded that these displays should be augmented with new displays designed to better meet the information needs of plant personnel and to minimize the need for interface management tasks (the activities personnel have to do to access and organize the information they need). Several approaches to information design are discussed, specifically addressing: (1) monitoring, detection, and situation assessment; (2) routine task performance; and (3) teamwork, crew coordination, collaborative work

  11. Flat panel display - Impurity doping technology for flat panel displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Toshiharu [Advanced Technology Planning, Sumitomo Eaton Nova Corporation, SBS Tower 9F, 10-1, Yoga 4-chome, Setagaya-ku, 158-0097 Tokyo (Japan)]. E-mail: suzuki_tsh@senova.co.jp

    2005-08-01

    Features of the flat panel displays (FPDs) such as liquid crystal display (LCD) and organic light emitting diode (OLED) display, etc. using low temperature poly-Si (LTPS) thin film transistors (TFTs) are briefly reviewed comparing with other FPDs. The requirements for fabricating TFTs used for high performance FPDs and system on glass (SoG) are addressed. This paper focuses on the impurity doping technology, which is one of the key technologies together with crystallization by laser annealing, formation of high quality gate insulator and gate-insulator/poly-Si interface. The issues to be solved in impurity doping technology for state of the art and future TFTs are clarified.

  12. Flat panel display - Impurity doping technology for flat panel displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Toshiharu

    2005-01-01

    Features of the flat panel displays (FPDs) such as liquid crystal display (LCD) and organic light emitting diode (OLED) display, etc. using low temperature poly-Si (LTPS) thin film transistors (TFTs) are briefly reviewed comparing with other FPDs. The requirements for fabricating TFTs used for high performance FPDs and system on glass (SoG) are addressed. This paper focuses on the impurity doping technology, which is one of the key technologies together with crystallization by laser annealing, formation of high quality gate insulator and gate-insulator/poly-Si interface. The issues to be solved in impurity doping technology for state of the art and future TFTs are clarified

  13. Children's Control/Display Stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Errol R; Chan, Alan H S; Tai, Judy P C

    2018-06-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine control/display stereotypes for children of a range of ages and development of these stereotypes with age. Background Little is known about control/display stereotypes for children of different ages and the way in which these stereotypes develop with age. This study is part of a program to determine the need to design differentially for these age groups. Method We tested four groups of children with various tasks (age groups 5 to 7, 8 to 10, 11 to 13, 14 to 16), with about 30 in each group. Examples of common tasks were opening a bottle, turning on taps, and allocating numbers to keypads. More complex tasks involved rotating a control to move a display in a requested direction. Results Tasks with which different age groups were familiar showed no effect of age group. Different control/display arrangements generally showed an increase in stereotype strength with age, with dependence on the form of the control/display arrangement. Two-dimensional arrangements, with the control on the same plane as the display, had higher stereotype strength than three-dimensional arrangements for all age groups, suggesting an effect of familiarity with controls and displays with increasing age. Conclusion Children's control/display stereotypes do not differ greatly from those of adults, and hence, design for children older than 5 years of age, for control/display stereotypes, can be the same as that for adult populations. Application When designing devices for children, the relationship between controls and displays can be as for adult populations, for which there are considerable experimental data.

  14. Foot strike and injury rates in endurance runners: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Adam I; Geissler, Gary J; Wang, Frank; Saretsky, Jason; Daoud, Yahya A; Lieberman, Daniel E

    2012-07-01

    This retrospective study tests if runners who habitually forefoot strike have different rates of injury than runners who habitually rearfoot strike. We measured the strike characteristics of middle- and long-distance runners from a collegiate cross-country team and quantified their history of injury, including the incidence and rate of specific injuries, the severity of each injury, and the rate of mild, moderate, and severe injuries per mile run. Of the 52 runners studied, 36 (69%) primarily used a rearfoot strike and 16 (31%) primarily used a forefoot strike. Approximately 74% of runners experienced a moderate or severe injury each year, but those who habitually rearfoot strike had approximately twice the rate of repetitive stress injuries than individuals who habitually forefoot strike. Traumatic injury rates were not significantly different between the two groups. A generalized linear model showed that strike type, sex, race distance, and average miles per week each correlate significantly (P strike have significantly higher rates of repetitive stress injury than those who mostly forefoot strike. This study does not test the causal bases for this general difference. One hypothesis, which requires further research, is that the absence of a marked impact peak in the ground reaction force during a forefoot strike compared with a rearfoot strike may contribute to lower rates of injuries in habitual forefoot strikers.

  15. Causes of falls of hangingwall over gullies adjacent to stabilizing strike pillars

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Turner, PA

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available This report discusses the occurrence of falls of ground in strike gullies. Falls of hangingwall over strike gullies on the up-dip side of strike stabilizing pillars in longwall mining systems were investigated. Gullies were examined in both...

  16. Plantar loading changes with alterations in foot strike patterns during a single session in habitual rear foot strike female runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernozek, Thomas W; Vannatta, Charles N; Gheidi, Naghmeh; Kraus, Sydnie; Aminaka, Naoko

    2016-03-01

    Characterize plantar loading parameters when habitually rear foot strike (RFS) runners change their pattern to a non-rear foot strike (NRFS). Experimental. University biomechanics laboratory. Twenty three healthy female runners (Age: 22.17 ± 1.64 yrs; Height: 168.91 ± 5.46 cm; Mass: 64.29 ± 7.11 kg). Plantar loading was measured using an in-sole pressure sensor while running down a 20-m runway restricted to a range of 3.52-3.89 m/s under two conditions, using the runner's typical RFS, and an adapted NRFS pattern. Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance was performed to detect differences in loading between these two conditions. Force and pressure variables were greater in the forefoot and phalanx in NRFS and greater in the heel and mid foot in RFS pattern, but the total force imposed upon the whole foot and contact time remained similar between conditions. Total peak pressure was higher and contact area was lower during NRFS running. The primary finding of this investigation is that there are distinctly different plantar loads when changing from a RFS to NRFS during running. So, during a transition from RFS to a NRFS pattern; a period of acclimation should be considered to allow for adaptations to these novel loads incurred on plantar regions of the foot. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Circular displays: control/display arrangements and stereotype strength with eight different display locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alan H S; Hoffmann, Errol R

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments are reported that were designed to investigate control/display arrangements having high stereotype strengths when using circular displays. Eight display locations relative to the operator and control were tested with rotational and translational controls situated on different planes according to the Frame of Reference Transformation Tool (FORT) model of Wickens et al. (2010). (Left. No, Right! Development of the Frame of Reference Transformation Tool (FORT), Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 54th Annual Meeting, 54: 1022-1026). In many cases, there was little effect of display locations, indicating the importance of the Worringham and Beringer (1998. Directional stimulus-response compatibility: a test of three alternative principles. Ergonomics, 41(6), 864-880) Visual Field principle and an extension of this principle for rotary controls (Hoffmann and Chan (2013). The Worringham and Beringer 'visual field' principle for rotary controls. Ergonomics, 56(10), 1620-1624). The initial indicator position (12, 3, 6 and 9 o'clock) had a major effect on control/display stereotype strength for many of the six controls tested. Best display/control arrangements are listed for each of the different control types (rotational and translational) and for the planes on which they are mounted. Data have application where a circular display is used due to limited display panel space and applies to space-craft, robotics operators, hospital equipment and home appliances. Practitioner Summary: Circular displays are often used when there is limited space available on a control panel. Display/control arrangements having high stereotype strength are listed for four initial indicator positions. These arrangements are best for design purposes.

  18. Magma storage in a strike-slip caldera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxby, J; Gottsmann, J; Cashman, K; Gutiérrez, E

    2016-07-22

    Silicic calderas form during explosive volcanic eruptions when magma withdrawal triggers collapse along bounding faults. The nature of specific interactions between magmatism and tectonism in caldera-forming systems is, however, unclear. Regional stress patterns may control the location and geometry of magma reservoirs, which in turn may control the spatial and temporal development of faults. Here we provide new insight into strike-slip volcano-tectonic relations by analysing Bouguer gravity data from Ilopango caldera, El Salvador, which has a long history of catastrophic explosive eruptions. The observed low gravity beneath the caldera is aligned along the principal horizontal stress orientations of the El Salvador Fault Zone. Data inversion shows that the causative low-density structure extends to ca. 6 km depth, which we interpret as a shallow plumbing system comprising a fractured hydrothermal reservoir overlying a magmatic reservoir with vol% exsolved vapour. Fault-controlled localization of magma constrains potential vent locations for future eruptions.

  19. Striking an interim balance of the ongoing climate debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenwiese, C.D.

    1995-01-01

    After the Berlin UN conference of the signatory states to the Climate Change Convention it seems appropriate to strike an interim balance of the ongoing debate about the global climate change, as it has meanwhile evolved from an issue discussed among experts to an issue of public debate. Such a ''progress report'' seems to be opportune also because doubts are mounting in the face of proclaimed countermeasures. The article therefore reviews and summarizes facts and figures, discussing emissions and concentrations, the physical properties of greenhouse gases, as well as uncertainties of model calculations and of interpretations of measured data. The current situation calls for application of alternative models and concepts, and consideration of natural processes in competition with man-made impacts on the climate within the framework of optimized interpretation, in order to have probabilistic data at hand for decision-making. (orig.) [de

  20. Migraine strikes as neuronal excitability reaches a tipping point.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marten Scheffer

    Full Text Available Self-propagating waves of cerebral neuronal firing, known as spreading depolarisations, are believed to be at the roots of migraine attacks. We propose that the start of spreading depolarisations corresponds to a critical transition that occurs when dynamic brain networks approach a tipping point. We show that this hypothesis is consistent with current pathogenetic insights and observed dynamics. Our view implies that migraine strikes when modulating factors further raise the neuronal excitability in genetically predisposed subjects to a level where even minor perturbations can trigger spreading depolarisations. A corollary is that recently discovered generic early warning indicators for critical transitions may be used to predict the onset of migraine attacks even before patients are clinically aware. This opens up new avenues for dissecting the mechanisms for the onset of migraine attacks and for identifying novel prophylactic treatment targets for the prevention of attacks.

  1. A Probabilistic, Facility-Centric Approach to Lightning Strike Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Lisa L.; Roeder, William p.; Merceret, Francis J.

    2012-01-01

    A new probabilistic facility-centric approach to lightning strike location has been developed. This process uses the bivariate Gaussian distribution of probability density provided by the current lightning location error ellipse for the most likely location of a lightning stroke and integrates it to determine the probability that the stroke is inside any specified radius of any location, even if that location is not centered on or even with the location error ellipse. This technique is adapted from a method of calculating the probability of debris collisionith spacecraft. Such a technique is important in spaceport processing activities because it allows engineers to quantify the risk of induced current damage to critical electronics due to nearby lightning strokes. This technique was tested extensively and is now in use by space launch organizations at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Future applications could include forensic meteorology.

  2. Foot-strike haemolysis in an ultramarathon runner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Abid A; Whittemore, Mary S; DeGeorge, Katharine C

    2017-12-13

    This case report describes mild anaemia and intravascular haemolysis in an otherwise healthy 41-year-old ultramarathon runner. In long-distance endurance athletes, trace gastrointestinal bleeding and plasma volume expansion are recognised sources of mild anaemia, often found incidentally. However, repetitive forceful foot striking can lead to blood cell lysis in the feet, resulting in a mild macrocytic anaemia and intravascular haemolysis, as was demonstrated in the patient described herein. Mild anaemia in runners, often called 'runner's pseudoanaemia', is typically clinically insignificant and does not require intervention. However, an unexplained anaemia can cause undue worry for otherwise healthy patients and lead to costly further testing, providing an argument against routine testing with complete blood counts in healthy, asymptomatic patients. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. [Physiological changes and related nursing care issues during hunger strike].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yeu-Shan; Chen, Shiu-Lien

    2005-08-01

    The use of hunger strike as a tool to assert grievances has been around for ages and has occasionally happened in the world. Hunger strikers' motives may differ, but their tool is the same--the voluntary refusal of food. Fasting not only results in body weight loss, but also in physiological and neurological function changes, and, of course, it may even threaten life. The health care of hunger strikers is complex. It involves medical staff, medical ethics and guidance for the management of the hunger strikers. Improper medical management may not only undermine the hunger striker's dignity but also risk further damage to his or her health. By understanding hunger strikers' physiological changes and related ethical issues, therefore, we aim to identify appropriate forms of nursing care management and guidance for the care of hunger strikers.

  4. Precision Strike Training in Lean Manufacturing: A Workplace Literacy Guidebook [and] Final Report on Precision Strike Workplace Literacy Training at CertainTeed Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Alliance of Business, Inc., Washington, DC.

    CertainTeed's Precision Strike training program was designed to close the gaps between the current status of its workplace and where that work force needed to be to compete successfully in global markets. Precision Strike included Skills and Knowledge in Lifelong Learning (SKILL) customized, computerized lessons in basic skills, one-on-one…

  5. When strike comes to town... anticipated and actual behavioural reactions to a one-day, pre-announced, complete rail strike in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, P.; Exel, N.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted secondary analysis on data collected among rail users, days before and after a national rail strike in the Netherlands. Our aim was to compare anticipated and actual behavioural reactions to the rail strike, investigate associations with traveller and trip characteristics, and perceived

  6. Lightning Strike Induced Damage Mechanisms of Carbon Fiber Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Hirohide

    Composite materials have a wide application in aerospace, automotive, and other transportation industries, because of the superior structural and weight performances. Since carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites possess a much lower electrical conductivity as compared to traditional metallic materials utilized for aircraft structures, serious concern about damage resistance/tolerance against lightning has been rising. Main task of this study is to clarify the lightning damage mechanism of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy polymer composites to help further development of lightning strike protection. The research on lightning damage to carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites is quite challenging, and there has been little study available until now. In order to tackle this issue, building block approach was employed. The research was started with the development of supporting technologies such as a current impulse generator to simulate a lightning strike in a laboratory. Then, fundamental electrical properties and fracture behavior of CFRPs exposed to high and low level current impulse were investigated using simple coupon specimens, followed by extensive parametric investigations in terms of different prepreg materials frequently used in aerospace industry, various stacking sequences, different lightning intensity, and lightning current waveforms. It revealed that the thermal resistance capability of polymer matrix was one of the most influential parameters on lightning damage resistance of CFRPs. Based on the experimental findings, the semi-empirical analysis model for predicting the extent of lightning damage was established. The model was fitted through experimental data to determine empirical parameters and, then, showed a good capability to provide reliable predictions for other test conditions and materials. Finally, structural element level lightning tests were performed to explore more practical situations. Specifically, filled-hole CFRP plates and patch

  7. THE EFFECTS OF HEIGHT AND DISTANCE ON THE FORCE PRODUCTION AND ACCELERATION IN MARTIAL ARTS STRIKES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia A. Bir

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Almost all cultures have roots in some sort of self defence system and yet there is relatively little research in this area, outside of a sports related environment. This project investigated different applications of strikes from Kung Fu practitioners that have not been addressed before in the literature. Punch and palm strikes were directly compared from different heights and distances, with the use of a load cell, accelerometers, and high speed video. The data indicated that the arm accelerations of both strikes were similar, although the force and resulting acceleration of the target were significantly greater for the palm strikes. Additionally, the relative height at which the strike was delivered was also investigated. The overall conclusion is that the palm strike is a more effective strike for transferring force to an object. It can also be concluded that an attack to the chest would be ideal for maximizing impact force and moving an opponent off balance

  8. Color speckle in laser displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Kazuo

    2015-07-01

    At the beginning of this century, lighting technology has been shifted from discharge lamps, fluorescent lamps and electric bulbs to solid-state lighting. Current solid-state lighting is based on the light emitting diodes (LED) technology, but the laser lighting technology is developing rapidly, such as, laser cinema projectors, laser TVs, laser head-up displays, laser head mounted displays, and laser headlamps for motor vehicles. One of the main issues of laser displays is the reduction of speckle noise1). For the monochromatic laser light, speckle is random interference pattern on the image plane (retina for human observer). For laser displays, RGB (red-green-blue) lasers form speckle patterns independently, which results in random distribution of chromaticity, called color speckle2).

  9. Integrated Display & Environmental Awareness System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project is the development of a head mounted display for use in operations here on Earth and in Space. The technology would provide various means of...

  10. Performance of NCAP projection displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Philip J.; Tomita, Akira; Wartenberg, Mark

    1991-08-01

    Prototypes of projection displays based on dispersions of liquid crystal in polymer matrices are beginning to appear. The principle of operation depends on electrically switchable light scattering. They are potentially much brighter than current cathode ray tube (CRT) or twisted nematic liquid crystal (TN LC) cell based displays. Comparisons of efficacy and efficiency show this. The contrast and brightness of such displays depend on a combination of the f- number of the projection system and the scattering characteristics of the light valve. Simplified equations can be derived to show these effects. The degree of scattering of current NCAP formulations is sufficient to produce good contrast projection displays, at convenient voltages, that are around three times brighter than TN LC projectors because of the lack of polarizers in the former.

  11. Interactive editing program using display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, I.; Ehsenski, J.; Namsraj, Yu.; Fefilov, B.V.

    1976-01-01

    A general description is given as well as principal functions are considered of 'DOSE' interactive editor program with a display involved. The program has been elaborated for TRA/1-1001 computer. This program enables one to edit and correct texts in algorithmical languages on a raster display screen as well as to provide perforated tapes for their further usage. 'DOSE' program is regarded as a basic program system for a set of TRA/1 and MINSK-32 computers

  12. High amplitude phase resetting in rev-erbalpha/per1 double mutant mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Jud

    Full Text Available Over time, organisms developed various strategies to adapt to their environment. Circadian clocks are thought to have evolved to adjust to the predictable rhythms of the light-dark cycle caused by the rotation of the Earth around its own axis. The rhythms these clocks generate persist even in the absence of environmental cues with a period of about 24 hours. To tick in time, they continuously synchronize themselves to the prevailing photoperiod by appropriate phase shifts. In this study, we disrupted two molecular components of the mammalian circadian oscillator, Rev-Erbalpha and Period1 (Per1. We found that mice lacking these genes displayed robust circadian rhythms with significantly shorter periods under constant darkness conditions. Strikingly, they showed high amplitude resetting in response to a brief light pulse at the end of their subjective night phase, which is rare in mammals. Surprisingly, Cry1, a clock component not inducible by light in mammals, became slightly inducible in these mice. Taken together, Rev-Erbalpha and Per1 may be part of a mechanism preventing drastic phase shifts in mammals.

  13. Presence of pups suppresses hunger-induced feeding in virgin adult mice of both sexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ying; Li, Xing-Yu; Wang, Shao-Ran; Wei, Yi-Chao; Xu, Xiao-Hong

    2017-10-24

    Despite recent progress on neural pathways underlying individual behaviors, how an animal balances and prioritizes behavioral outputs remains poorly understood. While studying the relationship between hunger-induced feeding and pup-induced maternal behaviors in virgin female mice, we made the unexpected discovery that presence of pups strongly delayed and decreased food consumption. Strikingly, presence of pups also suppressed feeding induced by optogenetic activation of Agrp neurons. Such a suppressive effect inversely correlated with the extents of maternal behaviors, but did not rely on the display of these behaviors, and was also present in virgin males. Furthermore, chemogenetic activation of Vglut2+ neurons in the medial preoptic area (mPOA), a region critical for maternal behaviors and motivation, was sufficient to suppress hunger-induced feeding. However, muscimol inhibition of the mPOA, while disrupting maternal behaviors, did not prevent pup suppression of feeding, indicating that neural pathways in other brain regions may also mediate such an effect. Together, these results provide novel insights into neural coordination of pup care and feeding in mice and organizations of animal behaviors in general. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. San Andreas-sized Strike-slip Fault on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This mosaic of the south polar region of Jupiter's moon Europa shows the northern 290 kilometers (180 miles) of a strike-slip fault named Astypalaea Linea. The entire fault is about 810 kilometers (500 miles) long, about the size of the California portion of the San Andreas fault, which runs from the California-Mexico border north to the San Francisco Bay. In a strike-slip fault, two crustal blocks move horizontally past one another, similar to two opposing lanes of traffic. Overall motion along the fault seems to have followed a continuous narrow crack along the feature's entire length, with a path resembling steps on a staircase crossing zones that have been pulled apart. The images show that about 50 kilometers (30 miles) of displacement have taken place along the fault. The fault's opposite sides can be reconstructed like a puzzle, matching the shape of the sides and older, individual cracks and ridges broken by its movements. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] The red line marks the once active central crack of the fault. The black line outlines the fault zone, including material accumulated in the regions which have been pulled apart. Bends in the fault have allowed the surface to be pulled apart. This process created openings through which warmer, softer ice from below Europa's brittle ice shell surface, or frozen water from a possible subsurface ocean, could reach the surface. This upwelling of material formed large areas of new ice within the boundaries of the original fault. A similar pulling-apart phenomenon can be observed in the geological trough surrounding California's Salton Sea, in Death Valley and the Dead Sea. In those cases, the pulled-apart regions can include upwelled materials, but may be filled mostly by sedimentary and eroded material from above. One theory is that fault motion on Europa is induced by the pull of variable daily tides generated by Jupiter's gravitational tug on Europa. Tidal tension opens the fault and

  15. Effect of public transport strikes on air pollution levels in Barcelona (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basagaña, Xavier; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Agis, David; Pérez, Noemí; Reche, Cristina; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier

    2018-01-01

    Public transport strikes can lead to an increase of the number of private vehicle trips, which in turn can increase air pollution levels. We aimed to estimate the change in air pollution concentrations during public transport strikes in the city of Barcelona (Spain). Data on strikes of the metro, train or bus systems were collected from government records (2005-2016). We collected daily concentrations of NOx; particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10μm (PM10), 2.5μm (PM2.5), and 1μm (PM1); particle number concentration (N); black carbon (BC) and CO from research and official monitoring stations. We fitted linear regression models for each pollutant with the strike indicator as an independent variable, and models were adjusted for day of the week, month, year, and holiday periods. During the study period, there were 208days affected by a strike of the metro (28), train (106) or bus (91) systems. Half of the strikes were partial, most of them were single-day strikes, there was little overlap between strikes of the different transport systems, and all strikes had to comply with mandatory minimal services. When pooling all types of strikes, NOx and BC showed higher levels during strike days in comparison with non-strike days (increase between 4.1% and 7.7%, with higher increases for NO). The increases in these concentrations were more evident during full day and multiday metro strikes. In conclusion, alterations in public transport have consequences on air quality. This highlights the importance of public transport in reducing air pollution concentrations in cities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. On-line data display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Sherman Y. T.; Brooks, Martin; Gauthier, Marc; Wein, Marceli

    1993-05-01

    A data display system for embedded realtime systems has been developed for use as an operator's user interface and debugging tool. The motivation for development of the On-Line Data Display (ODD) have come from several sources. In particular the design reflects the needs of researchers developing an experimental mobile robot within our laboratory. A proliferation of specialized user interfaces revealed a need for a flexible communications and graphical data display system. At the same time the system had to be readily extensible for arbitrary graphical display formats which would be required for data visualization needs of the researchers. The system defines a communication protocol transmitting 'datagrams' between tasks executing on the realtime system and virtual devices displaying the data in a meaningful way on a graphical workstation. The communication protocol multiplexes logical channels on a single data stream. The current implementation consists of a server for the Harmony realtime operating system and an application written for the Macintosh computer. Flexibility requirements resulted in a highly modular server design, and a layered modular object- oriented design for the Macintosh part of the system. Users assign data types to specific channels at run time. Then devices are instantiated by the user and connected to channels to receive datagrams. The current suite of device types do not provide enough functionality for most users' specialized needs. Instead the system design allows the creation of new device types with modest programming effort. The protocol, design and use of the system are discussed.

  17. To 'display' or not to 'display'- that is the peptide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Crampton, Michael C

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available eukaryotic and prokaryotic systems but has mainly focused around phages (Etz et al, 2001), yeast (Kondo and Ueda, 2004) and bacteria (Lee et al 2003). The central variable domain of the FliC protein is dispensable and can be used for the insertion and display...

  18. IMDISP - INTERACTIVE IMAGE DISPLAY PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M. D.

    1994-01-01

    The Interactive Image Display Program (IMDISP) is an interactive image display utility for the IBM Personal Computer (PC, XT and AT) and compatibles. Until recently, efforts to utilize small computer systems for display and analysis of scientific data have been hampered by the lack of sufficient data storage capacity to accomodate large image arrays. Most planetary images, for example, require nearly a megabyte of storage. The recent development of the "CDROM" (Compact Disk Read-Only Memory) storage technology makes possible the storage of up to 680 megabytes of data on a single 4.72-inch disk. IMDISP was developed for use with the CDROM storage system which is currently being evaluated by the Planetary Data System. The latest disks to be produced by the Planetary Data System are a set of three disks containing all of the images of Uranus acquired by the Voyager spacecraft. The images are in both compressed and uncompressed format. IMDISP can read the uncompressed images directly, but special software is provided to decompress the compressed images, which can not be processed directly. IMDISP can also display images stored on floppy or hard disks. A digital image is a picture converted to numerical form so that it can be stored and used in a computer. The image is divided into a matrix of small regions called picture elements, or pixels. The rows and columns of pixels are called "lines" and "samples", respectively. Each pixel has a numerical value, or DN (data number) value, quantifying the darkness or brightness of the image at that spot. In total, each pixel has an address (line number, sample number) and a DN value, which is all that the computer needs for processing. DISPLAY commands allow the IMDISP user to display all or part of an image at various positions on the display screen. The user may also zoom in and out from a point on the image defined by the cursor, and may pan around the image. To enable more or all of the original image to be displayed on the

  19. MRI findings of Wernicke encephalopathy revisited due to hunger strike

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unlu, Ercument [Department of Radiology, Trakya University School of Medicine, Mimar Sinan m, Muammer Aksoy c, Yorulmaz apt, No 50, D-1 22030 Edirne (Turkey)]. E-mail: drercument@yahoo.com; Cakir, Bilge [Department of Radiology, Trakya University School of Medicine, Mimar Sinan m, Muammer Aksoy c, Yorulmaz apt, No 50, D-1 22030 Edirne (Turkey); Asil, Talip [Department of Neurology, Trakya University School of Medicine, Edirne (Turkey)

    2006-01-15

    Background and Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings among a group of patients who presented with Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) due to the neurological complications of a long-term hunger strike (HS). Methods: MRI studies also including the fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of six male patients with WE aged from 25 to 38 years (mean age 31 years) were evaluated. Results: In all subjects, T2-weighted sequences, FLAIR and DWI revealed a signal hyperintensity within the posteromedial thalami and surrounding the third ventricle. In particular, on coronal images, the hyperintense areas around the third ventricle showed a suggestive 'double wing' configuration. We observed an increased signal on proton-density and T2-weighted images in the mamillary bodies of three patients. Four patients demonstrated additional hyperintensities within the periaqueductal region and/or the tectal plate. At least one lesion area in five of six patients demonstrated contrast enhancement. Conclusion: The consistent imaging findings of our study suggest that MRI is a reliable means of diagnosing WE. Acute WE is sometimes underdiagnosed, yet early diagnosis and treatment of WE is crucial in order to avoid persistent brain damage. MRI, including postcontrast T1-weighted imaging, DWI beneath standardized T2-weighted imaging, and FLAIR sequences may prove to be a valuable adjunct to clinical diagnosis and to provide additional information in acute and/or subacute WE.

  20. Accident scenarios triggered by lightning strike on atmospheric storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Necci, Amos; Argenti, Francesca; Landucci, Gabriele; Cozzani, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    Severe Natech accidents may be triggered by lightning strike affecting storage tanks containing relevant inventories of hazardous materials. The present study focused on the identification of event sequences and accident scenarios following lightning impact on atmospheric tanks. Reference event trees, validated using past accident analysis, are provided to describe the specific accident chains identified, accounting for reference protection and mitigation safety barriers usually adopted in current industrial practice. An overall methodology was outlined to allow the calculation of the expected frequencies of final scenarios following lightning impact on atmospheric storage tanks, taking into account the expected performance of available safety barriers. The methodology was applied to a case study in order to better understand the data that may be obtained and their importance in the framework of quantitative risk assessment (QRA) and of the risk management of industrial facilities with respect to external hazards due to natural events. - Highlights: • Event sequences following lightning impact on atmospheric tanks were identified. • Reference event trees including standard safety barriers were obtained. • Safety barriers applied in industrial practice were assessed to quantify event trees. • Frequencies of final scenarios following lightning impact on tanks were calculated. • Natech scenarios caused by lightning have an important influence on risk profiles

  1. Electric converters of electromagnetic strike machine with capacitor supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usanov, K. M.; Volgin, A. V.; Kargin, V. A.; Moiseev, A. P.; Chetverikov, E. A.

    2018-03-01

    The application of pulse linear electromagnetic engines in small power strike machines (energy impact is 0.01...1.0 kJ), where the characteristic mode of rare beats (pulse seismic vibrator, the arch crash device bins bulk materials), is quite effective. At the same time, the technical and economic performance of such machines is largely determined by the ability of the power source to provide a large instantaneous power of the supply pulses in the winding of the linear electromagnetic motor. The use of intermediate energy storage devices in power systems of rare-shock LEME makes it possible to obtain easily large instantaneous powers, forced energy conversion, and increase the performance of the machine. A capacitor power supply of a pulsed source of seismic waves is proposed for the exploration of shallow depths. The sections of the capacitor storage (CS) are connected to the winding of the linear electromagnetic motor by thyristor dischargers, the sequence of activation of which is determined by the control device. The charge of the capacitors to the required voltage is made directly from the battery source, or through the converter from a battery source with a smaller number of batteries.

  2. MRI findings of Wernicke encephalopathy revisited due to hunger strike

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unlu, Ercument; Cakir, Bilge; Asil, Talip

    2006-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings among a group of patients who presented with Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) due to the neurological complications of a long-term hunger strike (HS). Methods: MRI studies also including the fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of six male patients with WE aged from 25 to 38 years (mean age 31 years) were evaluated. Results: In all subjects, T2-weighted sequences, FLAIR and DWI revealed a signal hyperintensity within the posteromedial thalami and surrounding the third ventricle. In particular, on coronal images, the hyperintense areas around the third ventricle showed a suggestive 'double wing' configuration. We observed an increased signal on proton-density and T2-weighted images in the mamillary bodies of three patients. Four patients demonstrated additional hyperintensities within the periaqueductal region and/or the tectal plate. At least one lesion area in five of six patients demonstrated contrast enhancement. Conclusion: The consistent imaging findings of our study suggest that MRI is a reliable means of diagnosing WE. Acute WE is sometimes underdiagnosed, yet early diagnosis and treatment of WE is crucial in order to avoid persistent brain damage. MRI, including postcontrast T1-weighted imaging, DWI beneath standardized T2-weighted imaging, and FLAIR sequences may prove to be a valuable adjunct to clinical diagnosis and to provide additional information in acute and/or subacute WE

  3. Cellular nonlinear networks for strike-point localization at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arena, P.; Fortuna, L.; Bruno, M.; Vagliasindi, G.; Murari, A.; Andrew, P.; Mazzitelli, G.

    2005-01-01

    At JET, the potential of fast image processing for real-time purposes is thoroughly investigated. Particular attention is devoted to smart sensors based on system on chip technology. The data of the infrared cameras were processed with a chip implementing a cellular nonlinear network (CNN) structure so as to support and complement the magnetic diagnostics in the real-time localization of the strike-point position in the divertor. The circuit consists of two layers of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor components, the first being the sensor and the second implementing the actual CNN. This innovative hardware has made it possible to determine the position of the maximum thermal load with a time resolution of the order of 30 ms. Good congruency has been found with the measurement from the thermocouples in the divertor, proving the potential of the infrared data in locating the region of the maximum thermal load. The results are also confirmed by JET magnetic codes, both those used for the equilibrium reconstructions and those devoted to the identification of the plasma boundary

  4. Visual Attention to Radar Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moray, N.; Richards, M.; Brophy, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model is described which predicts the allocation of attention to the features of a radar display. It uses the growth of uncertainty and the probability of near collision to call the eye to a feature of the display. The main source of uncertainty is forgetting following a fixation, which is modelled as a two dimensional diffusion process. The model was used to predict information overload in intercept controllers, and preliminary validation obtained by recording eye movements of intercept controllers in simulated and live (practice) interception.

  5. Drag and drop display & builder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolshakov, Timofei B.; Petrov, Andrey D.; /Fermilab

    2007-12-01

    The Drag and Drop (DnD) Display & Builder is a component-oriented system that allows users to create visual representations of data received from data acquisition systems. It is an upgrade of a Synoptic Display mechanism used at Fermilab since 2002. Components can be graphically arranged and logically interconnected in the web-startable Project Builder. Projects can be either lightweight AJAX- and SVG-based web pages, or they can be started as Java applications. The new version was initiated as a response to discussions between the LHC Controls Group and Fermilab.

  6. NIST display colorimeter calibration facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven W.; Ohno, Yoshihiro

    2003-07-01

    A facility has been developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to provide calibration services for color-measuring instruments to address the need for improving and certifying the measurement uncertainties of this type of instrument. While NIST has active programs in photometry, flat panel display metrology, and color and appearance measurements, these are the first services offered by NIST tailored to color-measuring instruments for displays. An overview of the facility, the calibration approach, and associated uncertainties are presented. Details of a new tunable colorimetric source and the development of new transfer standard instruments are discussed.

  7. Along strike behavior of the Tizi n' Firest fault during the Lower Jurassic rifting (Central High Atlas Carbonate basin, Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarih, S.; Quiquerez, A.; Allemand, P.; Garcia, J. P.; El Hariri, K.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the along-strike early syn-rift history of the Lower Jurassic Carbonate basin of the Central High Atlas (Morocco) by combining sedimentological observations and high-resolution biostratigraphy. Six sections, each from the Sinemurian to the Upper Pliensbachian, were investigated along a 75 km-long transect at the hanging wall of a major fault of the Lower Jurassic Basin (i.e. the Tizi n' Firest fault). Depositional geometries of the early syn-rift deposits were reconstructed from the correlation between eight main timelines dated by biochronological markers for a time span covering about 6 Ma. Depocentre migration was examined and accommodation rates were calculated at the sub-zone timescale to discuss the along-strike-fault behavior of the Lower Jurassic basin formation. The early stages of extension are marked by contrasted along-strike variations in depositional geometry thickness, depocentre migration and accommodation rates, leading to the growth of three independent sub-basins (i.e. western, central, and eastern), ranging in size from 30 to 50 km, and displaying three contrasted tectono-sedimentary histories. Our results suggest that, during the early rifting phase, tectonic activity was not a continuous and progressive process evolving towards a rift climax stage, but rather a series of acceleration periods that alternated with periods of much reduced activity. The length of active fault segments is estimated at about 15-20 km, with a lifespan of a few ammonite sub-zones (> 2-3 Ma).

  8. The General Strike - An Artist Talk on the Work of Santiago Sierra & Claire Fontaine

    OpenAIRE

    Mansoor, Jaleh

    2012-01-01

    The General Strike, the organized refusal to work among a critical mass of laborers, has been attendant upon and responsive to the capitalist form of accumulation since the latter’s inception. Having variously emerged and receded as a broadly recognized means of resistance since the mid 19th century, the potential of a general strike to precipitate capitalism's inherent tendency to crisis was forcefully expressed by the anti-austerity movement in Greece and in Spain in 2012. A general strike ...

  9. Comparison of foot strike patterns of barefoot and minimally shod runners in a recreational road race

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Larson

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies of foot strike patterns of distance runners in road races have typically found that the overwhelming majority of shod runners initially contact the ground on the rearfoot. However, none of these studies has attempted to quantify foot strike patterns of barefoot or minimally shod runners. This study classifies foot strike patterns of barefoot and minimally shod runners in a recreational road race. Methods: High-speed video footage was obtained of 169 barefoot an...

  10. Review of the Lightning Strike Incident at Launch Complex 37 on July 27, 1967, and Comparison to a Gemini Lightning Strike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, J. A.

    1967-01-01

    The Launch Complex 37 lightning strike of July 27, 1967, was reviewed and compared to a similar incident on the Gemini Program. Available data indicate little likelihood of damaging currents having been present in SA-204 Launch Vehicle or the ground equipment during the July 27th incident. Based on the results of subsystem and system testing after the strike, anticipated results of future testing, the six months elapsed time between the strike-and launch, and the fact that much of the critical airborne electrical/electronic equipment has been removed since the strike for other reasons, no new actions are considered necessary at this time in the Gemini case, significant failures occurred in both airborne and ground circuits. Due to the resultant semi, condlictor uncertainty, and the relatively' short time prior to planned launch, all critical airborne components containing semiconduetors were replaced, and a sophisticated data comparison task was implemented.

  11. Elaborate Mimetic Vocal Displays by Female Superb Lyrebirds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia H Dalziell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most striking vocalizations in birds are made by males that incorporate vocal mimicry in their sexual displays. Mimetic vocalization in females is largely undescribed, but it is unclear whether this is because of a lack of selection for vocal mimicry in females, or whether the phenomenon has simply been overlooked. These issues are thrown into sharp relief in the superb lyrebird, Menura novaehollandiae, a basal oscine passerine with a lek-like mating system and female uniparental care. The spectacular mimetic song display produced by courting male lyrebirds is a textbook example of a sexually selected trait, but the vocalizations of female lyrebirds are largely unknown. Here, we provide the first analysis of the structure and context of the vocalizations of female lyrebirds. Female lyrebirds were completely silent during courtship; however, females regularly produced sophisticated vocal displays incorporating both lyrebird-specific vocalizations and imitations of sounds within their environment. The structure of female vocalizations varied significantly with context. While foraging, females mostly produced a complex lyrebird-specific song, whereas they gave lyrebird-specific alarm calls most often during nest defense. Within their vocal displays females also included a variety of mimetic vocalizations, including imitations of the calls of dangerous predators, and of alarm calls and song of harmless heterospecifics. Females gave more mimetic vocalizations during nest defense than while foraging, and the types of sounds they imitated varied between these contexts, suggesting that mimetic vocalizations have more than one function. These results are inconsistent with previous portrayals of vocalizations by female lyrebirds as rare, functionless by-products of sexual selection on males. Instead, our results support the hypotheses that complex female vocalizations play a role in nest defense and mediate female-female competition for

  12. Display Apple M7649Zm

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    It was Designed for the Power Mac G4. This Apple studio display gives you edge-to-edge distortion-free images. With more than 16.7 million colors and 1,280 x 1,024 dpi resolution, you view brilliant and bright images on this Apple 17-inch monitor.

  13. Information retrieval and display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groover, J. L.; King, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    Versatile command-driven data management system offers users, through simplified command language, a means of storing and searching data files, sorting data files into specified orders, performing simple or complex computations, effecting file updates, and printing or displaying output data. Commands are simple to use and flexible enough to meet most data management requirements.

  14. Crystal ball single event display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosnick, D.; Gibson, A.; Allgower, C.; Alyea, J.; Argonne National Lab., IL

    1997-01-01

    The Single Event Display (SED) is a routine that is designed to provide information graphically about a triggered event within the Crystal Ball. The SED is written entirely in FORTRAN and uses the CERN-based HICZ graphing package. The primary display shows the amount of energy deposited in each of the NaI crystals on a Mercator-like projection of the crystals. Ten different shades and colors correspond to varying amounts of energy deposited within a crystal. Information about energy clusters is displayed on the crystal map by outlining in red the thirteen (or twelve) crystals contained within a cluster and assigning each cluster a number. Additional information about energy clusters is provided in a series of boxes containing useful data about the energy distribution among the crystals within the cluster. Other information shown on the event display include the event trigger type and data about π o 's and η's formed from pairs of clusters as found by the analyzer. A description of the major features is given, along with some information on how to install the SED into the analyzer

  15. GridOrbit public display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Tabard, Aurélien; Bardram, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    We introduce GridOrbit, a public awareness display that visualizes the activity of a community grid used in a biology laboratory. This community grid executes bioin-formatics algorithms and relies on users to donate CPU cycles to the grid. The goal of GridOrbit is to create a shared awareness about...

  16. Interference Phenomenon with Mobile Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trantham, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    A simple experiment is presented in which the spacing and geometric pattern of pixels in mobile displays is measured. The technique is based on optical constructive interference. While the experiment is another opportunity to demonstrate wave interference from a grating-like structure, this can also be used to demonstrate concepts of solid state…

  17. Synthetic vision display evaluation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regal, David M.; Whittington, David H.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research was to help us understand the display requirements for a synthetic vision system for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Four experiments were conducted to examine the effects of different levels of perceptual cue complexity in displays used by pilots in a flare and landing task. Increased levels of texture mapping of terrain and runway produced mixed results, including harder but shorter landings and a lower flare initiation altitude. Under higher workload conditions, increased texture resulted in an improvement in performance. An increase in familiar size cues did not result in improved performance. Only a small difference was found between displays using two patterns of high resolution texture mapping. The effects of increased perceptual cue complexity on performance was not as strong as would be predicted from the pilot's subjective reports or from related literature. A description of the role of a synthetic vision system in the High Speed Civil Transport is provide along with a literature review covering applied research related to perceptual cue usage in aircraft displays.

  18. ‘The Nairobi General Strike [1950]: from protest to insurgency’

    OpenAIRE

    Hyde, David

    2002-01-01

    The Nairobi General Strike [1950] was the culmination of Kenya’s post war strike wave and urban upheaval. An unprecedented upsurge occurred with the general strikes in Mombasa [1947] led by the African Workers Federation [A.W.F.] and in Nairobi by the East African Trades Union Congress [E.A.T.U.C.]. While this has been termed and treated as a city wide strike, there is enough evidence to suggest a movement that went some way beyond Nairobi. The extent of the cohesion and reciprocal impacts am...

  19. Relationship between foot strike pattern, running speed, and footwear condition in recreational distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Roy T H; Wong, Rodney Y L; Chung, Tim K W; Choi, R T; Leung, Wendy W Y; Shek, Diana H Y

    2017-06-01

    Compared to competitive runners, recreational runners appear to be more prone to injuries, which have been associated with foot strike patterns. Surprisingly, only few studies had examined the foot strike patterns outside laboratories. Therefore, this study compared the foot strike patterns in recreational runners at outdoor tracks with previously reported data. We also investigated the relationship between foot strike pattern, speed, and footwear in this cohort. Among 434 recreational runners analysed, 89.6% of them landed with rearfoot strike (RFS). Only 6.9 and 3.5% landed with midfoot and forefoot, respectively. A significant shift towards non-RFS was observed in our cohort, when compared with previously reported data. When speed increased by 1 m/s, the odds of having forefoot strike and midfoot strike relative to RFS increased by 2.3 times and 2.6 times, respectively. Runners were 9.2 times more likely to run with a forefoot strike in minimalists compared to regular running shoes, although 70% of runners in minimalists continued to use a RFS. These findings suggest that foot strike pattern may differ across running conditions and runners should consider these factors in order to mitigate potential injury.

  20. A model of high-rate indentation of a cylindrical striking pin into a deformable body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalazinskaya, E. A.; Zalazinsky, A. G.

    2017-12-01

    Mathematical modeling of an impact and high-rate indentation to a significant depth of a flat-faced hard cylindrical striking pin into a massive deformable target body is carried out. With the application of the kinematic extreme theorem of the plasticity theory and the kinetic energy variation theorem, the phase trajectories of the striking pin are calculated, the initial velocity of the striking pin in the body, the limit values of the inlet duct length, and the depth of striking pin penetration into the target are determined.

  1. Solar active region display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golightly, M.; Raben, V.; Weyland, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Solar Active Region Display System (SARDS) is a client-server application that automatically collects a wide range of solar data and displays it in a format easy for users to assimilate and interpret. Users can rapidly identify active regions of interest or concern from color-coded indicators that visually summarize each region's size, magnetic configuration, recent growth history, and recent flare and CME production. The active region information can be overlaid onto solar maps, multiple solar images, and solar difference images in orthographic, Mercator or cylindrical equidistant projections. Near real-time graphs display the GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, flare events, and daily F10.7 value as a function of time; color-coded indicators show current trends in soft x-ray flux, flare temperature, daily F10.7 flux, and x-ray flare occurrence. Through a separate window up to 4 real-time or static graphs can simultaneously display values of KP, AP, daily F10.7 flux, GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, GOES >10 and >100 MeV proton flux, and Thule neutron monitor count rate. Climatologic displays use color-valued cells to show F10.7 and AP values as a function of Carrington/Bartel's rotation sequences - this format allows users to detect recurrent patterns in solar and geomagnetic activity as well as variations in activity levels over multiple solar cycles. Users can customize many of the display and graph features; all displays can be printed or copied to the system's clipboard for "pasting" into other applications. The system obtains and stores space weather data and images from sources such as the NOAA Space Environment Center, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, the joint ESA/NASA SOHO spacecraft, and the Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory, and can be extended to include other data series and image sources. Data and images retrieved from the system's database are converted to XML and transported from a central server using HTTP and SOAP protocols, allowing

  2. Stable structural color patterns displayed on transparent insect wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevtsova, Ekaterina; Hansson, Christer; Janzen, Daniel H; Kjærandsen, Jostein

    2011-01-11

    Color patterns play central roles in the behavior of insects, and are important traits for taxonomic studies. Here we report striking and stable structural color patterns--wing interference patterns (WIPs)--in the transparent wings of small Hymenoptera and Diptera, patterns that have been largely overlooked by biologists. These extremely thin wings reflect vivid color patterns caused by thin film interference. The visibility of these patterns is affected by the way the insects display their wings against various backgrounds with different light properties. The specific color sequence displayed lacks pure red and matches the color vision of most insects, strongly suggesting that the biological significance of WIPs lies in visual signaling. Taxon-specific color patterns are formed by uneven membrane thickness, pigmentation, venation, and hair placement. The optically refracted pattern is also stabilized by microstructures of the wing such as membrane corrugations and spherical cell structures that reinforce the pattern and make it essentially noniridescent over a large range of light incidences. WIPs can be applied to map the micromorphology of wings through direct observation and are useful in several fields of biology. We demonstrate their usefulness as identification patterns to solve cases of cryptic species complexes in tiny parasitic wasps, and indicate their potentials for research on the genetic control of wing development through direct links between the transregulatory wing landscape and interference patterns we observe in Drosophila model species. Some species display sexually dimorphic WIPs, suggesting sexual selection as one of the driving forces for their evolution.

  3. The Chinese nuclear arsenal and its second-strike capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabestan, Jean-Pierre

    2013-03-01

    It is well known that China possesses a second- strike capability, but a great deal of uncertainty persists on the subject. Over the last few years, without officially adjusting its doctrine, China has nonetheless defined its objectives. In April 2010, the People's Liberation Army Daily indicated that China needed such a capability and contended that ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) would constitute the safest means of delivery. In the same year, the IISS estimated that the People's Liberation Army was in possession of 90 ICBMs (66 ground-based missiles and 24 SLBMs) and 400 IRBM mainly aimed at Taiwan and Japan. The Pentagon's 2012 report proposed 50-75 ICBMs and 80 -120 IRBM and MRBM. While it is established that the People's Liberation Army is developing Jin class submarines (type-094, of which there are currently two in service, which will soon rise to five) and is developing solid-propellant missiles, which could be activated more quickly, not a great deal is known about the progress of these two projects. The JL-2 (7400 km), which is mounted on SSBNs, is still being tested. In parallel, the traditional principle to which China adheres - no first use of nuclear weapons - seems to have been slightly dented. Thus, in January 2011, the Japanese press agency Kyodo (relayed by Stratfor) reported that the People's Liberation Army had lowered the threshold for use of its strategic weapons: it could henceforth envisage a preventive nuclear strike against a nuclear power that had by conventional means destroyed key strategic targets on its territory, such as a nuclear power station, a dam, or a large city, having provided prior warning to the aggressor. But what most worries the U.S. and its Asian allies, particularly the Japanese, is the quasi-total opacity of the Chinese military nuclear programme. While in April 2010, the United States and Russia signed a treaty limiting their number of strategic weapons to 1550 by 2018, China considers that its programme cannot

  4. Positive Emotions Associated with "Counter-Strike" Game Playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Mirim; Heard, Rob; Suo, Chao; Chow, Chin Moi

    2012-10-01

    Digital game playing engages people for long periods of time. The pleasure offered by digital games may explain the players' consumption of this activity. Games may elicit both positive and negative emotions, which can be measured by encephalography (EEG). The EEG alpha asymmetry index (AI) is different in positive and negative emotions and so may be used to distinguish positive from negative emotions that occur during gaming. We hypothesized that the "Counter-Strike" (CS) game (Valve Software, Bellevue, WA) is pleasurable and demonstrable with a positive EEG AI. Twelve male participants ages 18-30 years underwent EEG recordings continuously during and postgame. EEG was also recorded pregame for control conditions of baseline (sitting on a chair staring at a blank wall), movement (moving fingers on the computer keyboard with a blank screen), sound (listening to the sound of the CS game with a blank screen), and screen (watching the CS game without playing). Self-ratings of emotional responses were completed at pre-, during, and postgame. A significant decrease in the EEG AI was observed under the screen condition compared with baseline, whereas an increase was observed postgame compared with the screen condition. The participants demonstrated a positive EEG AI following the "shoot" events (shoot opponents) and negative emotions after the "being shot" events. Subjective ratings of emotional response indicated happiness during and postgame, but anger and arousal were reported only during the game. The overall results are consistent with the hypothesis that predominantly positive emotional reactions are elicited from playing the CS game and concur with positive subjective ratings of happiness. Future studies may explore the relationship of game pleasure and obsessive game play.

  5. The Empire Strikes Back. Russian National Cinema After 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Rawski

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Empire Strikes Back. Russian National Cinema After 2005 The paper provides critical analysis of the latest wave of Russian national cinema (2005-2013, considered one of key instruments of Vladimir Putin’s nation-building cultural policy. The analysis, focused mostly on historical film and war film, reveals the concept of an ‘imperial nation’ as the main concept underlying this policy. The new Russian nation-concept is calculated to binding elements from two former Russian imperial traditions: tradition of the Russian Empire and the Soviet tradition, thus trying to overcome the identity crisis in contemporary Russia.   Imperium kontratakuje. Rosyjskie kino narodowe po 2005 roku Artykuł zajmuje się krytyczną analizą filmów najnowszej fali rosyjskiego kina narodowego (2005-2013, uważanej tu za jedno z kluczowych narzędzi polityki kulturalnej Władimira Putina obliczonej na budowanie narodu. Autorzy artykułu skupiają się przede wszystkim na filmie historycznym i wojennym, odsłaniając pojęcie „imperialnego narodu” jako konceptu stojącego u podstaw oficjalnej polityki. Nowe rosyjskie pojęcie narodu łączy w sobie dwie tradycje rosyjskie: tradycję Imperium Rosyjskiego oraz tradycję Związku Radzieckiego, próbując w ten sposób przezwyciężyć kryzys tożsamościowy współczesnej Rosji.

  6. Assessment of performing an MST strike in Tank 21H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, Michael R.

    2014-09-29

    Previous Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) tank mixing studies performed for the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) project have shown that 3 Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) installed in Tank 41 are sufficient to support actinide removal by MST sorption as well as subsequent resuspension and removal of settled solids. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is pursuing MST addition into Tank 21 as part of the Large Tank Strike (LTS) project. The preliminary scope for LTS involves the use of three standard slurry pumps (installed in N, SE, and SW risers) in a Type IV tank. Due to the differences in tank size, internal interferences, and pump design, a separate mixing evaluation is required to determine if the proposed configuration will allow for MST suspension and strontium and actinide sorption. The author performed the analysis by reviewing drawings for Tank 21 [W231023] and determining the required cleaning radius or zone of influence for the pumps. This requirement was compared with previous pilot-scale MST suspension data collected for SCIX that determined the cleaning radius, or zone of influence, as a function of pump operating parameters. The author also reviewed a previous Tank 50 mixing analysis that examined the ability of standard slurry pumps to suspend sludge particles. Based on a review of the pilot-scale SCIX mixing tests and Tank 50 pump operating experience, three standard slurry pumps should be able to suspend sludge and MST to effectively sorb strontium and actinides onto the MST. Using the SCIX data requires an assumption about the impact of cooling coils on slurry pump mixing. The basis for this assumption is described in this report. Using the Tank 50 operating experience shows three standard slurry pumps should be able to suspend solids if the shear strength of the settled solids is less than 160 Pa. Because Tank 21 does not contain cooling coils, the shear strength could be larger.

  7. Display Sharing: An Alternative Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    The current Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mission Control Center (MCC) Video Transport System (VTS) provides flight controllers and management the ability to meld raw video from various sources with telemetry to improve situational awareness. However, maintaining a separate infrastructure for video delivery and integration of video content with data adds significant complexity and cost to the system. When considering alternative architectures for a VTS, the current system's ability to share specific computer displays in their entirety to other locations, such as large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and centers must be incorporated into any new architecture. Internet Protocol (IP)-based systems also support video delivery and integration. IP-based systems generally have an advantage in terms of cost and maintainability. Although IP-based systems are versatile, the task of sharing a computer display from one workstation to another can be time consuming for an end-user and inconvenient to administer at a system level. The objective of this paper is to present a prototype display sharing enterprise solution. Display sharing is a system which delivers image sharing across the LAN while simultaneously managing bandwidth, supporting encryption, enabling recovery and resynchronization following a loss of signal, and, minimizing latency. Additional critical elements will include image scaling support, multi -sharing, ease of initial integration and configuration, integration with desktop window managers, collaboration tools, host and recipient controls. This goal of this paper is to summarize the various elements of an IP-based display sharing system that can be used in today's control center environment.

  8. JTEC panel on display technologies in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannas, Lawrence E., Jr.; Glenn, William E.; Credelle, Thomas; Doane, J. William; Firester, Arthur H.; Thompson, Malcolm

    1992-01-01

    This report is one in a series of reports that describes research and development efforts in Japan in the area of display technologies. The following are included in this report: flat panel displays (technical findings, liquid crystal display development and production, large flat panel displays (FPD's), electroluminescent displays and plasma panels, infrastructure in Japan's FPD industry, market and projected sales, and new a-Si active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) factory); materials for flat panel displays (liquid crystal materials, and light-emissive display materials); manufacturing and infrastructure of active matrix liquid crystal displays (manufacturing logistics and equipment); passive matrix liquid crystal displays (LCD basics, twisted nematics LCD's, supertwisted nematic LCD's, ferroelectric LCD's, and a comparison of passive matrix LCD technology); active matrix technology (basic active matrix technology, investment environment, amorphous silicon, polysilicon, and commercial products and prototypes); and projection displays (comparison of Japanese and U.S. display research, and technical evaluation of work).

  9. Ruggedized Full-Color Flexible OLED Display

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hack, Michael

    2003-01-01

    .... The team comprised Universal Display Corporation, Princeton University, the University of Southern California, Penn State University, L3 Displays and Vitex Systems, and was led by Universal Display Corporation (PI: Michael Hack...

  10. Lower limb joint angles and ground reaction forces in forefoot strike and rearfoot strike runners during overground downhill and uphill running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Erik; Li, Jing Xian

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the normal and parallel ground reaction forces during downhill and uphill running in habitual forefoot strike and habitual rearfoot strike (RFS) runners. Fifteen habitual forefoot strike and 15 habitual RFS recreational male runners ran at 3 m/s ± 5% during level, uphill and downhill overground running on a ramp mounted at 6° and 9°. Results showed that forefoot strike runners had no visible impact peak in all running conditions, while the impact peaks only decreased during the uphill conditions in RFS runners. Active peaks decreased during the downhill conditions in forefoot strike runners while active loading rates increased during downhill conditions in RFS runners. Compared to the level condition, parallel braking peaks were larger during downhill conditions and parallel propulsive peaks were larger during uphill conditions. Combined with previous biomechanics studies, our findings suggest that forefoot strike running may be an effective strategy to reduce impacts, especially during downhill running. These findings may have further implications towards injury management and prevention.

  11. Identification of immunodominant Leishmania major antigenic markers of the early C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice infection stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Atfa; Kaak, Olfa; Elgaaied, Amel Benammar

    2015-08-24

    The C57BL/6 mouse strain is resistant to Leishmania (L.) major infection and, unlike susceptible BALB/c, develops small self healing cutaneous lesions. The specific antibody responses of C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice were previously characterized by the predominance of IgG2a ("resistant" isotype associated with Th1) and IgG1 ("pathogenic" isotype associated with Th2) antibodies, respectively. In this study, we looked for the presence of antigens able to elicit an exclusive or predominant IgG1 production during the early stages of C57BL/6 lesion development and checked whether they are recognized or not by BALB/c mice. We demonstrate first that IgG2a predominance in C57BL/6 sera occurs only late after infection whereas in BALB/c, IgG1 antibodies dominate mostly in the early stages. Interestingly, soon after inoculation of live amastigotes, C57BL/6 displayed an exclusive IgG1 reactivity against particular L. major antigens but with MWs different from those identified in BALB/c. Furthermore, mice immunized with killed amastigotes displayed striking differences in their immunodetection profiles, particularly for the IgG1 isotype. Taken together, the observed differences in the specific antibody repertoires between infected mice resulted, at least in part, from immunological events independent from those triggered by the replicating parasite, and bring new insights into the selection of future vaccine candidates. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Parkinsonian abnormality of foot strike: a phenomenon of ageing and/or one responsive to levodopa therapy?

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, J R; Bowes, S G; Leeman, A L; O'Neill, C J; Deshmukh, A A; Nicholson, P W; Dobbs, S M; Dobbs, R J

    1990-01-01

    1. Normally during walking, the heel strikes the ground before the forefoot. Abnormalities of foot strike in idiopathic Parkinson's disease may be amenable to therapy: objective measurements may reveal response which is not clinically apparent. Occult changes in foot strike leading to instability may parallel the normal, age-related loss of striatal dopamine. 2. The nature of foot strike was studied using pedobarography in 160 healthy volunteers, aged 15 to 91 years. Although 16% of strikes w...

  13. Reconfigurable Auditory-Visual Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begault, Durand R. (Inventor); Anderson, Mark R. (Inventor); McClain, Bryan (Inventor); Miller, Joel D. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    System and method for visual and audible communication between a central operator and N mobile communicators (N greater than or equal to 2), including an operator transceiver and interface, configured to receive and display, for the operator, visually perceptible and audibly perceptible signals from each of the mobile communicators. The interface (1) presents an audible signal from each communicator as if the audible signal is received from a different location relative to the operator and (2) allows the operator to select, to assign priority to, and to display, the visual signals and the audible signals received from a specified communicator. Each communicator has an associated signal transmitter that is configured to transmit at least one of the visual signals and the audio signal associated with the communicator, where at least one of the signal transmitters includes at least one sensor that senses and transmits a sensor value representing a selected environmental or physiological parameter associated with the communicator.

  14. Game engines and immersive displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Benjamin; Destefano, Marc

    2014-02-01

    While virtual reality and digital games share many core technologies, the programming environments, toolkits, and workflows for developing games and VR environments are often distinct. VR toolkits designed for applications in visualization and simulation often have a different feature set or design philosophy than game engines, while popular game engines often lack support for VR hardware. Extending a game engine to support systems such as the CAVE gives developers a unified development environment and the ability to easily port projects, but involves challenges beyond just adding stereo 3D visuals. In this paper we outline the issues involved in adapting a game engine for use with an immersive display system including stereoscopy, tracking, and clustering, and present example implementation details using Unity3D. We discuss application development and workflow approaches including camera management, rendering synchronization, GUI design, and issues specific to Unity3D, and present examples of projects created for a multi-wall, clustered, stereoscopic display.

  15. Pre/post-strike atmospheric assessment system (PAAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peglow, S. G.; Molitoris, J. D.

    1997-01-01

    The Pre/Post-Strike Atmospheric Assessment System was proposed to show the importance of local meteorological conditions in the vicinity of a site suspected of storing or producing toxic agents and demonstrate a technology to measure these conditions, specifically wind fields. The ability to predict the collateral effects resulting from an attack on a facility containing hazardous materials is crucial to conducting effective military operations. Our study approach utilized a combination of field measurements with dispersion modeling to better understand which variables in terrain and weather were most important to collateral damage predictions. To develop the PAAS wind-sensing technology, we utilized a combination of emergent and available technology from micro-Doppler and highly coherent laser systems. The method used for wind sensing is to probe the atmosphere with a highly coherent laser beam. As the beam probes, light is back-scattered from particles entrained in the air to the lidar transceiver and detected by the instrument. Any motion of the aerosols with a component along the beam axis leads to a Doppler shift of the received light. Scanning in a conical fashion about the zenith results in a more accurate and two-dimensional measurement of the wind velocity. The major milestones in the benchtop system development were to verify the design by demonstrating the technique in the laboratory, then scale the design down to a size consistent with a demonstrator unit which could be built to take data in the field. The micro-Doppler heterodyne system we developed determines absolute motion by optically mixing a reference beam with the return signal and has shown motion sensitivity to better than 1 cm/s. This report describes the rationale, technical approach and laboratory testing undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility and utility of a system to provide local meteorological data and predict atmospheric particulate motion. The work described herein was funded by

  16. The virtual environment display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgreevy, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    Virtual environment technology is a display and control technology that can surround a person in an interactive computer generated or computer mediated virtual environment. It has evolved at NASA-Ames since 1984 to serve NASA's missions and goals. The exciting potential of this technology, sometimes called Virtual Reality, Artificial Reality, or Cyberspace, has been recognized recently by the popular media, industry, academia, and government organizations. Much research and development will be necessary to bring it to fruition.

  17. Are physicians' strikes ever morally justifiable? A call for a return to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Though physicians strike provides an opportunity to generate more knowledge about the process in which legitimacy of an organization can be restored, it meets with a great deal of resistance not only by the public but from within the medical profession. This paper critically examines the legitimacy of strike by medical ...

  18. The balancing act between the constitutional right to strike and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the South African Constitution enshrines both children's right to a basic education and teachers' right to strike, conflict between these two often occurs when the way in which teachers' unions conduct strike actions detracts from learners' education. This article identifies the parties affected by industrial action in the ...

  19. Expert Anticipatory Skill in Striking Sports: A Review and a Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Sean; Abernethy, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Expert performers in striking sports can hit objects moving at high speed with incredible precision. Exceptionally well developed anticipation skills are necessary to cope with the severe constraints on interception. In this paper, we provide a review of the empirical evidence regarding expert interception in striking sports and propose a…

  20. Factors affecting defensive strike behavior in Brown Treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) provoked by humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, McKayka M.; Lardner, Bjorn; Mazurek, M.J.; Reed, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    Striking is a typical antipredator defense exhibited by many species of snakes. While trapping Brown Treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) on Guam, we observed that snakes most frequently struck at an approaching person at a site where snakes had been trapped, marked, and handled in the past. Using a combination of between-sites and within-site comparisons, we assessed if the propensity to strike was correlated with capture histories (both recent and long-term), snake size, body condition (a proxy to nutritional stress), sex, or tail condition (broken or intact), while controlling for confounding variables. We confirmed that propensity to strike was higher at the site where we had been conducting capture-mark-recapture for several years. However, we were unable to demonstrate a correlation between striking tendencies and individual recent or long-term capture histories. The only morphological covariate that had an effect on strike propensity was sex, with females striking more often than males. After removing the site effect from our model, we found that snakes missing parts of their tails were more likely to strike than snakes with intact tails. We have yet to identify the factor(s) that cause the pronounced difference across sites in snake propensity to strike, and data from additional sites might help elucidate any geographical patterns.

  1. Effects of Foot Strike and Step Frequency on Achilles Tendon Stress During Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyght, Michael; Nockerts, Matthew; Kernozek, Thomas W; Ragan, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Achilles tendon (AT) injuries are common in runners. The AT withstands high magnitudes of stress during running which may contribute to injury. Our purpose was to examine the effects of foot strike pattern and step frequency on AT stress and strain during running utilizing muscle forces based on a musculoskeletal model and subject-specific ultrasound-derived AT cross-sectional area. Nineteen female runners performed running trials under 6 conditions, including rearfoot strike and forefoot strike patterns at their preferred cadence, +5%, and -5% preferred cadence. Rearfoot strike patterns had less peak AT stress (P forefoot strike pattern. A reduction in peak AT stress and strain were exhibited with a +5% preferred step frequency relative to the preferred condition using a rearfoot (P forefoot (P=.005) strike pattern. Strain rate was not different (P > .05) between step frequencies within each foot strike condition. Our results suggest that a rearfoot pattern may reduce AT stress, strain, and strain rate. Increases in step frequency of 5% above preferred frequency, regardless of foot strike pattern, may also lower peak AT stress and strain.

  2. Strike type variation among Tarahumara Indians in minimal sandals versus conventional running shoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E. Lieberman

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: These data reinforce earlier studies that there is variation among foot strike patterns among minimally shod runners, but also support the hypothesis that foot stiffness and important aspects of running form, including foot strike, differ between runners who grow up using minimal versus modern, conventional footwear.

  3. Variation in Foot Strike Patterns among Habitually Barefoot and Shod Runners in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Daniel E; Castillo, Eric R; Otarola-Castillo, Erik; Sang, Meshack K; Sigei, Timothy K; Ojiambo, Robert; Okutoyi, Paul; Pitsiladis, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    Runners are often categorized as forefoot, midfoot or rearfoot strikers, but how much and why do individuals vary in foot strike patterns when running on level terrain? This study used general linear mixed-effects models to explore both intra- and inter-individual variations in foot strike pattern among 48 Kalenjin-speaking participants from Kenya who varied in age, sex, body mass, height, running history, and habitual use of footwear. High speed video was used to measure lower extremity kinematics at ground contact in the sagittal plane while participants ran down 13 meter-long tracks with three variables independently controlled: speed, track stiffness, and step frequency. 72% of the habitually barefoot and 32% of the habitually shod participants used multiple strike types, with significantly higher levels of foot strike variation among individuals who ran less frequently and who used lower step frequencies. There was no effect of sex, age, height or weight on foot strike angle, but individuals were more likely to midfoot or forefoot strike when they ran on a stiff surface, had a high preferred stride frequency, were habitually barefoot, and had more experience running. It is hypothesized that strike type variation during running, including a more frequent use of forefoot and midfoot strikes, used to be greater before the introduction of cushioned shoes and paved surfaces.

  4. Variation in Foot Strike Patterns among Habitually Barefoot and Shod Runners in Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Lieberman

    Full Text Available Runners are often categorized as forefoot, midfoot or rearfoot strikers, but how much and why do individuals vary in foot strike patterns when running on level terrain? This study used general linear mixed-effects models to explore both intra- and inter-individual variations in foot strike pattern among 48 Kalenjin-speaking participants from Kenya who varied in age, sex, body mass, height, running history, and habitual use of footwear. High speed video was used to measure lower extremity kinematics at ground contact in the sagittal plane while participants ran down 13 meter-long tracks with three variables independently controlled: speed, track stiffness, and step frequency. 72% of the habitually barefoot and 32% of the habitually shod participants used multiple strike types, with significantly higher levels of foot strike variation among individuals who ran less frequently and who used lower step frequencies. There was no effect of sex, age, height or weight on foot strike angle, but individuals were more likely to midfoot or forefoot strike when they ran on a stiff surface, had a high preferred stride frequency, were habitually barefoot, and had more experience running. It is hypothesized that strike type variation during running, including a more frequent use of forefoot and midfoot strikes, used to be greater before the introduction of cushioned shoes and paved surfaces.

  5. Footwear Matters: Influence of Footwear and Foot Strike on Load Rates during Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Hannah M; Jamison, Steve T; Davis, Irene S

    2016-12-01

    Running with a forefoot strike (FFS) pattern has been suggested to reduce the risk of overuse running injuries, due to a reduced vertical load rate compared with rearfoot strike (RFS) running. However, resultant load rate has been reported to be similar between foot strikes when running in traditional shoes, leading to questions regarding the value of running with a FFS. The influence of minimal footwear on the resultant load rate has not been considered. This study aimed to compare component and resultant instantaneous loading rate (ILR) between runners with different foot strike patterns in their habitual footwear conditions. Twenty-nine injury-free participants (22 men, seven women) ran at 3.13 m·s along a 30-m runway, with their habitual foot strike and footwear condition. Ground reaction force data were collected. Peak ILR values were compared between three conditions; those who habitually run with an RFS in standard shoes, with an FFS in standard shoes, and with an FFS in minimal shoes. Peak resultant, vertical, lateral, and medial ILR were lower (P strike. When running with an FFS, peak posterior ILR were lower (P strike. Therefore, it appears that footwear alters the load rates during running, even with similar foot strike patterns.

  6. The initiation and linkage of surface fractures above a buried strike ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a buried strike-slip fault: An experimental approach. N Ghosh and A ... conditions viz., (i) heterogeneous simple shear of the cover rocks above a buried strike slip fault. (wrench .... (iii) study of fracture types in the damage zones from Gozo .... was dominant, the results may vary from a true ... For example, as shown in figure 5 ...

  7. Law and ethics of strikes in the Nigerian health system | Mcfubara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite that health services are essential, health sector strikes have continued. The purpose here was to examine the legal and ethical justification of strikes in the Nigerian health sector. Documentary analysis and literature reviews were carried out. It was found that the Trade Disputes Act and the National Health Act do not ...

  8. Does Skeletal Muscle Mass Influence Breast Cancer? Evaluating Mammary Tumorigenesis and Progression Genetically Hyper-Muscular Mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zimmers, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    .... Mice lacking the skeletal muscle-specific muscle growth inhibitor myostatin and mice expressing a dominant negative form of the myostatin receptor, Activin Receptor Type IIB, display heightened muscle mass...

  9. In vitro analysis of the oligodendrocyte lineage in mice during demyelination and remyelination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, R.; Friedrich, V.L. Jr.; Holmes, K.V.; Dubois-Dalcq, M.

    1990-01-01

    A demyelinating disease induced in C57B1/6N mice by intracranial injection of a coronavirus (murine hepatitis virus strain A59) is followed by functional recovery and efficient CNS myelin repair. To study the biological properties of the cells involved in this repair process, glial cells were isolated and cultured from spinal cords of these young adult mice during demyelination and remyelination. Using three-color immunofluorescence combined with [3H]thymidine autoradiography, we have analyzed the antigenic phenotype and mitotic potential of individual glial cells. We identified oligodendrocytes with an antibody to galactocerebroside, astrocytes with an antibody to glial fibrillary acidic protein, and oligodendrocyte-type 2 astrocyte (O-2A) progenitor cells with the O4 antibody. Cultures from demyelinated tissue differed in several ways from those of age-matched controls: first, the total number of O-2A lineage cells was strikingly increased; second, the O-2A population consisted of a higher proportion of O4-positive astrocytes and cells of mixed oligodendrocyte-astrocyte phenotype; and third, all the cell types within the O-2A lineage showed enhanced proliferation. This proliferation was not further enhanced by adding PDGF, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), or insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) to the defined medium. However, bFGF and IGF-I seemed to influence the fate of O-2A lineage cells in cultures of demyelinated tissue. Basic FGF decreased the percentage of cells expressing galactocerebroside. In contrast, IGF-I increased the relative proportion of oligodendrocytes. Thus, O-2A lineage cells from adult mice display greater phenotypic plasticity and enhanced mitotic potential in response to an episode of demyelination. These properties may be linked to the efficient remyelination achieved in this demyelinating disease

  10. Prenatal exposure to arsenic impairs behavioral flexibility and cortical structure in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyaw Htet eAung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to arsenic from well water in developing countries is suspected to cause developmental neurotoxicity. Although it has been demonstrated that exposure to sodium arsenite (NaAsO2 suppresses neurite outgrowth of cortical neurons in vitro, it is largely unknown how developmental exposure to NaAsO2 impairs higher brain function and affects cortical histology. Here, we investigated the effect of prenatal NaAsO2 exposure on the behavior of mice in adulthood, and evaluated histological changes in the prelimbic cortex (PrL, which is a part of the medial prefrontal cortex that is critically involved in cognition. Drinking water with or without NaAsO2 (85 ppm was provided to pregnant C3H mice from gestational days 8 to 18, and offspring of both sexes were subjected to cognitive behavioral analyses at 60 weeks of age. The brains of female offspring were subsequently harvested and used for morphometrical analyses. We found that both male and female mice prenatally exposed to NaAsO2 displayed an impaired adaptation to repetitive reversal tasks. In morphometrical analyses of Nissl- or Golgi-stained tissue sections, we found that NaAsO2 exposure was associated with a significant increase in the number of pyramidal neurons in layers V and VI of the PrL, but not other layers of the PrL. More strikingly, prenatal NaAsO2 exposure was associated with a significant decrease in neurite length but not dendrite spine density in all layers of the PrL. Taken together, our results indicate that prenatal exposure to NaAsO2 leads to behavioral inflexibility in adulthood and cortical disarrangement in the PrL might contribute to this behavioral impairment.

  11. Cerebral cortex hyperthyroidism of newborn mct8-deficient mice transiently suppressed by lat2 inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Bárbara; Martínez de Mena, Raquel; Obregon, Maria Jesus; Font-Llitjós, Mariona; Nunes, Virginia; Palacín, Manuel; Dumitrescu, Alexandra M; Morte, Beatriz; Bernal, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormone entry into cells is facilitated by transmembrane transporters. Mutations of the specific thyroid hormone transporter, MCT8 (Monocarboxylate Transporter 8, SLC16A2) cause an X-linked syndrome of profound neurological impairment and altered thyroid function known as the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome. MCT8 deficiency presumably results in failure of thyroid hormone to reach the neural target cells in adequate amounts to sustain normal brain development. However during the perinatal period the absence of Mct8 in mice induces a state of cerebral cortex hyperthyroidism, indicating increased brain access and/or retention of thyroid hormone. The contribution of other transporters to thyroid hormone metabolism and action, especially in the context of MCT8 deficiency is not clear. We have analyzed the role of the heterodimeric aminoacid transporter Lat2 (Slc7a8), in the presence or absence of Mct8, on thyroid hormone concentrations and on expression of thyroid hormone-dependent cerebral cortex genes. To this end we generated Lat2-/-, and Mct8-/yLat2-/- mice, to compare with wild type and Mct8-/y mice during postnatal development. As described previously the single Mct8 KO neonates had a transient increase of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine concentration and expression of thyroid hormone target genes in the cerebral cortex. Strikingly the absence of Lat2 in the double Mct8Lat2 KO prevented the effect of Mct8 inactivation in newborns. The Lat2 effect was not observed from postnatal day 5 onwards. On postnatal day 21 the Mct8 KO displayed the typical pattern of thyroid hormone concentrations in plasma, decreased cortex 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine concentration and Hr expression, and concomitant Lat2 inactivation produced little to no modifications. As Lat2 is expressed in neurons and in the choroid plexus, the results support a role for Lat2 in the supply of thyroid hormone to the cerebral cortex during early postnatal development.

  12. Cerebral cortex hyperthyroidism of newborn mct8-deficient mice transiently suppressed by lat2 inactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Núñez

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone entry into cells is facilitated by transmembrane transporters. Mutations of the specific thyroid hormone transporter, MCT8 (Monocarboxylate Transporter 8, SLC16A2 cause an X-linked syndrome of profound neurological impairment and altered thyroid function known as the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome. MCT8 deficiency presumably results in failure of thyroid hormone to reach the neural target cells in adequate amounts to sustain normal brain development. However during the perinatal period the absence of Mct8 in mice induces a state of cerebral cortex hyperthyroidism, indicating increased brain access and/or retention of thyroid hormone. The contribution of other transporters to thyroid hormone metabolism and action, especially in the context of MCT8 deficiency is not clear. We have analyzed the role of the heterodimeric aminoacid transporter Lat2 (Slc7a8, in the presence or absence of Mct8, on thyroid hormone concentrations and on expression of thyroid hormone-dependent cerebral cortex genes. To this end we generated Lat2-/-, and Mct8-/yLat2-/- mice, to compare with wild type and Mct8-/y mice during postnatal development. As described previously the single Mct8 KO neonates had a transient increase of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine concentration and expression of thyroid hormone target genes in the cerebral cortex. Strikingly the absence of Lat2 in the double Mct8Lat2 KO prevented the effect of Mct8 inactivation in newborns. The Lat2 effect was not observed from postnatal day 5 onwards. On postnatal day 21 the Mct8 KO displayed the typical pattern of thyroid hormone concentrations in plasma, decreased cortex 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine concentration and Hr expression, and concomitant Lat2 inactivation produced little to no modifications. As Lat2 is expressed in neurons and in the choroid plexus, the results support a role for Lat2 in the supply of thyroid hormone to the cerebral cortex during early postnatal development.

  13. Australian Children's Understanding of Display Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Grace

    2009-01-01

    Cultural display rules govern the manifestation of emotional expressions. In compliance with display rules, the facial expressions displayed (i.e. apparent emotion) may be incongruent with the emotion experienced (i.e. real emotion). This study investigates Australian Caucasian children's understanding of display rules. A sample of 80 four year…

  14. The case for transparent depth display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, F.L.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The continuing developments in display technology have resulted in the ability to present increasing amounts of data on computer displays. One of the coming break-throughs is generally believed to be the introduction of '3-D displays': displays with a true sense of depth. Though these types

  15. Developing personal values: trainees' attitudes toward strikes by health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Su-Ting T; Srinivasan, Malathi; Der-Martirosian, Claudia; Kravitz, Richard L; Wilkes, Michael S

    2011-05-01

    Worldwide, health care providers use strikes and job actions to influence policy. For health care providers, especially physicians, strikes create an ethical tension between an obligation to care for current patients (e.g., to provide care and avoid abandonment) and an obligation to better care for future patients by seeking system improvements (e.g., improvements in safety, to access, and in the composition and strength of the health care workforce). This tension is further intensified when the potential benefit of a strike involves professional self-interest and the potential risk involves patient harm or death. By definition, trainees are still forming their professional identities and values, including their opinions on fair wages, health policy, employee benefits, professionalism, and strikes. In this article, the authors explore these ethical tensions, beginning with a discussion of reactions to a potential 2005 nursing strike at the University of California, Davis, Medical Center. The authors then propose a conceptual model describing factors that may influence health care providers' decisions to strike (including personal ethics, personal agency, and strike-related context). In particular, the authors explore the relationship between training level and attitudes toward taking a job action, such as going on strike. Because trainees' attitudes toward strikes continue to evolve during training, the authors maintain that open discussion around the ethics of health care professionals' strikes and other methods of conflict resolution should be included in medical education to enhance professionalism and systems-based practice training. The authors include sample case vignettes to help initiate these important discussions. Copyright © by the Association of American medical Colleges.

  16. Oral Immunization Against Candidiasis Using Lactobacillus casei Displaying Enolase 1 from Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Shibasaki, Seiji; Karasaki, Miki; Tafuku, Senji; Aoki, Wataru; Sewaki, Tomomitsu; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Candidiasis is a common fungal infection that is prevalent in immunocompromised individuals. In this study, an oral vaccine against Candida albicans was developed by using the molecular display approach. Enolase 1 protein (Eno1p) of C. albicans was expressed on the Lactobacillus casei cell surface by using poly-gamma-glutamic acid synthetase complex A from Bacillus subtilis as an anchoring protein. The Eno1p-displaying L. casei cells were used to immunize mice, which were later chall...

  17. Apolipoprotein E*3-Leiden transgenic mice mode for hypolipidaemic drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlijmen, B.J.M. van; Pearce, N.J.; Bergö, M.; Staels, B.; Yates, J.W.; Gribble, A.D.; Bond, B.C.; Hofker, M.H.; Havekes, L.M.; Groot, P.H.E.

    1998-01-01

    Apolipoprotein (APO) E*3-Leiden mice with impaired chylomicron and VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) remnant metabolism display hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis. In the present study, these mice were used for testing the hypolipidaemic effect of two marketed agents, lovastatin (CAS 75330-75-5)

  18. Nuclear Medicine Image Display. Chapter 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, H. [Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-12-15

    The final step in a medical imaging procedure is to display the image(s) on a suitable display system where it is presented to the medical specialist for diagnostic interpretation. The display of hard copy images on X ray film or photographic film has largely been replaced today by soft copy image display systems with cathode ray tube (CRT) or liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors as the image rendering device. Soft copy display requires a high quality display monitor and a certain amount of image processing to optimize the image both with respect to the properties of the display device and to some psychophysiological properties of the human visual system. A soft copy display system, therefore, consists of a display workstation providing some basic image processing functions and the display monitor as the intrinsic display device. Display devices of lower quality may be used during intermediate steps of the acquisition and analysis of a patient study. Display monitors with a quality suitable for diagnostic reading by the specialist medical doctor are called primary devices, also known as diagnostic devices. Monitors with lower quality but good enough to be used for positioning, processing of studies, presentation of images in the wards, etc. are referred to as secondary devices or clinical devices. Nuclear medicine images can be adequately displayed even for diagnostic purposes on secondary devices. However, the increasing use of X ray images on which to report jointly with images from nuclear medicine studies, such as those generated by dual modality imaging, notably by positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT, requires display devices capable of visualizing high resolution grey scale images at diagnostic quality, i.e. primary display devices. Both grey scale and colour display devices are used, the latter playing an important role in the display of processed nuclear medicine images and

  19. Nuclear Medicine Image Display. Chapter 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, H.

    2014-01-01

    The final step in a medical imaging procedure is to display the image(s) on a suitable display system where it is presented to the medical specialist for diagnostic interpretation. The display of hard copy images on X ray film or photographic film has largely been replaced today by soft copy image display systems with cathode ray tube (CRT) or liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors as the image rendering device. Soft copy display requires a high quality display monitor and a certain amount of image processing to optimize the image both with respect to the properties of the display device and to some psychophysiological properties of the human visual system. A soft copy display system, therefore, consists of a display workstation providing some basic image processing functions and the display monitor as the intrinsic display device. Display devices of lower quality may be used during intermediate steps of the acquisition and analysis of a patient study. Display monitors with a quality suitable for diagnostic reading by the specialist medical doctor are called primary devices, also known as diagnostic devices. Monitors with lower quality but good enough to be used for positioning, processing of studies, presentation of images in the wards, etc. are referred to as secondary devices or clinical devices. Nuclear medicine images can be adequately displayed even for diagnostic purposes on secondary devices. However, the increasing use of X ray images on which to report jointly with images from nuclear medicine studies, such as those generated by dual modality imaging, notably by positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT, requires display devices capable of visualizing high resolution grey scale images at diagnostic quality, i.e. primary display devices. Both grey scale and colour display devices are used, the latter playing an important role in the display of processed nuclear medicine images and

  20. Display of nuclear medicine imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.; Kataria, S.K.; Samuel, A.M.

    2002-08-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging studies involve evaluation of a large amount of image data. Digital signal processing techniques have introduced processing algorithms that increase the information content of the display. Nuclear medicine imaging studies require interactive selection of suitable form of display and pre-display processing. Static imaging study requires pre-display processing to detect focal defects. Point operations (histogram modification) along with zoom and capability to display more than one image in one screen is essential. This album mode of display is also applicable to dynamic, MUGA and SPECT data. Isometric display or 3-D graph of the image data is helpful in some cases e.g. point spread function, flood field data. Cine display is used on a sequence of images e.g. dynamic, MUGA and SPECT imaging studies -to assess the spatial movement of tracer with time. Following methods are used at the investigator's discretion for inspection of the 3-D object. 1) Display of orthogonal projections, 2) Display of album of user selected coronal/ sagital/ transverse orthogonal slices, 3) Display of three orthogonal slices through user selected point, 4) Display of a set of orthogonal slices generated in the user-selected volume, 5) Generation and display of 3-D shaded surface. 6) Generation of volume data and display along with the 3-D shaded surface, 7) Side by side display orthogonal slices of two 3-D objects. Displaying a set of two-dimensional slices of a 3-D reconstructed object through shows all the defects but lacks the 3-D perspective. Display of shaded surface lacks the ability to show the embedded defects. Volume display -combining the 3-D surface and gray level volume data is perhaps the best form of display. This report describes these forms of display along with the theory. (author)

  1. High-fat feeding in cardiomyocyte-restricted PPARdelta knockout mice leads to cardiac overexpression of lipid metabolic genes but fails to rescue cardiac phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuquan; Cheng, Lihong; Qin, Qianhong; Liu, Jian; Lo, Woo-kuen; Brako, Lowrence A; Yang, Qinglin

    2009-10-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARdelta) is an essential determinant of basal myocardial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and bioenergetics. We wished to determine whether increased lipid loading affects the PPARdelta deficient heart in transcriptional regulation of FAO and in the development of cardiac pathology. Cardiomyocyte-restricted PPARdelta knockout (CR-PPARdelta(-/-)) and control (alpha-MyHC-Cre) mice were subjected to 48 h of fasting and to a long-term maintenance on a (28 weeks) high-fat diet (HFD). The expression of key FAO proteins in heart was examined. Serum lipid profiles, cardiac pathology, and changes of various transduction signaling pathways were also examined. Mice subjected to fasting exhibited upregulated transcript expression of FAO genes in the CR-PPARdelta(-/-) hearts. Moreover, long-term HFD in CR-PPARdelta(-/-) mice induced a strikingly greater transcriptional response. After HFD, genes encoding key FAO enzymes were expressed remarkably more in CR-PPARdelta(-/-) hearts than in those of control mice. Despite the marked rise of FAO gene expression, corresponding protein expression remained low in the CR-PPARdelta(-/-) heart, accompanied by abnormalities in sarcomere structures and mitochondria that were similar to those of CR-PPARdelta(-/-) hearts with regular chow feeding. The CR-PPARdelta(-/-) mice displayed increased expression of PPARgamma co-activator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) and PPARalpha in the heart with deactivated Akt and p42/44 MAPK signaling in response to HFD. We conclude that PPARdelta is an essential determinant of myocardial FAO. Increased lipid intake activates cardiac expression of FAO genes via PPARalpha/PGC-1alpha pathway, albeit it is not sufficient to improve cardiac pathology due to PPARdelta deficiency.

  2. LMDS Lightweight Modular Display System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-16

    based on standard functions. This means that the cost to produce a particular display function can be met in the most economical fashion and at the same...not mean that the NTDS interface would be eliminated. What is anticipated is the use of ETHERNET at a low level of system interface, ie internal to...GENERATOR dSYMBOL GEN eCOMMUNICATION 3-2 The architecture of the unit’s (fig 3-4) input circuitry is based on a video table look-up ROM. The function

  3. Displaying Annotations for Digitised Globes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gede, Mátyás; Farbinger, Anna

    2018-05-01

    Thanks to the efforts of the various globe digitising projects, nowadays there are plenty of old globes that can be examined as 3D models on the computer screen. These globes usually contain a lot of interesting details that an average observer would not entirely discover for the first time. The authors developed a website that can display annotations for such digitised globes. These annotations help observers of the globe to discover all the important, interesting details. Annotations consist of a plain text title, a HTML formatted descriptive text and a corresponding polygon and are stored in KML format. The website is powered by the Cesium virtual globe engine.

  4. DP: Parameter Display Page Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.

    1994-01-01

    The Parameter Display Page program (DP) is a Motif/X11-based program to allow easily configured, dynamic device and process variable monitoring and manipulation in the EPICS environment. DP provides a tabular data format for interactive viewing and manipulation of device and process variable statistics, as well as formatted PostScript output to files and printers. DP understands and operates in two (unfortunately disjoint at this time) namespaces in the EPICS environment ''devices'' and ''process variables''. The higher level namespace of devices includes Composite and Atomic Devices registered via the Device Access server; the lower level (flat) namespace is that of normal Process Variables accessible via Channel Access

  5. Analyses of the differentiation potential of satellite cells from myoD-/-, mdx, and PMP22 C22 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huxley Clare

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sporadic and sometimes contradictory studies have indicated changes in satellite cell behaviour associated with the progressive nature of human Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. Satellite cell proliferation and number are reportedly altered in DMD and the mdx mouse model. We recently found that satellite cells in MSVski transgenic mice, a muscle hypertrophy model showing progressive muscle degeneration, display a severe ageing-related differentiation defect in vitro. We tested the hypothesis that similar changes contribute to the gradual loss of muscle function with age in mdx and PMP22 mice, a model of human motor and sensory neuropathy type 1A (HMSN1A. Methods Single extensor digitorum longus muscle fibres were cultured from mdx and PMP22 mice and age- and genetic background-matched controls. Mice at several ages were compared with regard to the differentiation of satellite cells, assayed as the proportion of desmin-expressing cells that accumulated sarcomeric myosin heavy chain. Results Satellite cells of 2 month, 6 month, and 12 month old mdx mice were capable of differentiating to a similar extent to age-matched wild type control animals in an in vitro proliferation/differentiation model. Strikingly, differentiation efficiency in individual 6 month and 12 month old mdx animals varies to a much higher extent than in age-matched controls, younger mdx animals, or PMP22 mice. In contrast, differentiation of myoblasts from all myoD null mice assayed was severely impaired in this assay system. The defect in satellite cell differentiation that occurs in some mdx animals arises from a delay in differentiation that is not overcome by IGF-1 treatment at any phase of cultivation. Conclusion Overall, a defect in satellite cell differentiation above that arising through normal ageing does not occur in mdx or PMP22 mouse models of human disease. Nonetheless, the impaired differentiation of satellite cells from some mdx animals

  6. Protection of mice against Giardia muris infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Thomson, I C; Mitchell, G F

    1979-01-01

    Strains of mice showing relatively rapid (BALB/c) and defective (C3H/He) spontaneous elimination of Giardia muris displayed marked differences in the degree of resistance to infection induced by prior injection of trophozoites in Freund complete adjuvant. PMID:468385

  7. Are physicians strikes ever morally justifiable? A call for a return to tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munyaradzi Mawere

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Though physicians strike provides an opportunity to generate more knowledge about the process in which legitimacy of an organization can be restored, it meets with a great deal of resistance not only by the public but from within the medical profession. This paper critically examines the legitimacy of strike by medical doctors heretofore referred to as physicians. Though critically reflecting on strikes of physicians in general, the paper makes more emphasis on Africa where physician strikes are rampant. More importantly, the paper argues that strike implies a failure for everyone in the organization (including the strikers themselves, not only the responsible government or authority. This is because when a strike occurs, an organization/fraternity is subjected to questions, scrutiny and slander. It becomes difficult to decouple what is said, decided and done. Traditionally, all medical fraternities the world-over are committed to acting comfortably to external demands- guaranteeing the patients lives and public health. By paying attention to external reactions, the medical fraternity adapts and learns what ought and should be done so that it is never again caught in the same messy. At the same time, the fraternity prepares itself for the future strikes. When the fraternity and those outside consider it is doing up to the external expectations, its lost legitimacy is restored. When legitimacy is restored, external pressure like once disturbed water returns to normal

  8. Independent effects of step length and foot strike pattern on tibiofemoral joint forces during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowersock, Collin D; Willy, Richard W; DeVita, Paul; Willson, John D

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of step length and foot strike pattern along with their interaction on tibiofemoral joint (TFJ) and medial compartment TFJ kinetics during running. Nineteen participants ran with a rear foot strike pattern at their preferred speed using a short (-10%), preferred, and long (+10%) step length. These step length conditions were then repeated using a forefoot strike pattern. Regardless of foot strike pattern, a 10% shorter step length resulted in decreased peak contact force, force impulse per step, force impulse per kilometre, and average loading rate at the TFJ and medial compartment, while a 10% increased step length had the opposite effects (all P forefoot strike pattern significantly lowered TFJ and medial compartment TFJ average loading rates compared with a rear foot strike pattern (both forefoot strike pattern produced the greatest reduction in peak medial compartment contact force (P < 0.05). Knowledge of these running modification effects may be relevant to the management or prevention of TFJ injury or pathology among runners.

  9. Acute changes in foot strike pattern and cadence affect running parameters associated with tibial stress fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Jennifer R; Silder, Amy; Montgomery, Kate L; Fredericson, Michael; Delp, Scott L

    2018-05-18

    Tibial stress fractures are a common and debilitating injury that occur in distance runners. Runners may be able to decrease tibial stress fracture risk by adopting a running pattern that reduces biomechanical parameters associated with a history of tibial stress fracture. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that converting to a forefoot striking pattern or increasing cadence without focusing on changing foot strike type would reduce injury risk parameters in recreational runners. Running kinematics, ground reaction forces and tibial accelerations were recorded from seventeen healthy, habitual rearfoot striking runners while running in their natural running pattern and after two acute retraining conditions: (1) converting to forefoot striking without focusing on cadence and (2) increasing cadence without focusing on foot strike. We found that converting to forefoot striking decreased two risk factors for tibial stress fracture: average and peak loading rates. Increasing cadence decreased one risk factor: peak hip adduction angle. Our results demonstrate that acute adaptation to forefoot striking reduces different injury risk parameters than acute adaptation to increased cadence and suggest that both modifications may reduce the risk of tibial stress fractures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Collective Labor Disputes and Strikes in Russia: The Impact of Judicial Precedents and Enforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gerasimova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The right to strike is recognized in the Constitution and the Labor Code of the Russian Federation as a means to resolve collective labor disputes. However, in Russia labor protests come up for discussion much more frequently than strikes. In recent years the number of labor protests in Russia, including various forms of work stoppage, has increased significantly compared to previous years, but the number of legally constituted collective labor disputes and strikes has remained very low. The legislation on resolution of collective labor disputes and mounting strikes is quite restrictive in Russia, and its enforcement also encourages employees to seek alternative ways to settle collective labor conflicts. There is little empirical research on the judicial implementation of these norms and its influence on the enforcement of legislation. Therefore, this paper analyses the reasoning of courts in cases on the legality of strikes, their interpretations of the law, and the impact these decisions have on the enforcement of the legislation on resolution of collective labor disputes and strikes. Our conclusion is that the courts act as another restrictive influence on the resolution of collective labor disputes and the exercise of the right to strike in Russia.

  11. Nanobody-Displaying Flagellar Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Ágnes; Kovács, Mátyás; Muskotál, Adél; Jankovics, Hajnalka; Tóth, Balázs; Pósfai, Mihály; Vonderviszt, Ferenc

    2018-02-26

    In this work we addressed the problem how to fabricate self-assembling tubular nanostructures displaying target recognition functionalities. Bacterial flagellar filaments, composed of thousands of flagellin subunits, were used as scaffolds to display single-domain antibodies (nanobodies) on their surface. As a representative example, an anti-GFP nanobody was successfully inserted into the middle part of flagellin replacing the hypervariable surface-exposed D3 domain. A novel procedure was developed to select appropriate linkers required for functional internal insertion. Linkers of various lengths and conformational properties were chosen from a linker database and they were randomly attached to both ends of an anti-GFP nanobody to facilitate insertion. Functional fusion constructs capable of forming filaments on the surface of flagellin-deficient host cells were selected by magnetic microparticles covered by target GFP molecules and appropriate linkers were identified. TEM studies revealed that short filaments of 2-900 nm were formed on the cell surface. ITC and fluorescent measurements demonstrated that the fusion protein exhibited high binding affinity towards GFP. Our approach allows the development of functionalized flagellar nanotubes against a variety of important target molecules offering potential applications in biosensorics and bio-nanotechnology.

  12. Reactor power peaking information display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Book, T.L.; Kochendarfer, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a system for monitoring operating conditions within a nuclear reactor. The system consists of a method for measuring the operating parameters within the nuclear reactor, including the position of axial power shaping rods and regulating control rod. It also includes a method for determining from the operating parameters the operating limits before a power peaking condition exists within the nuclear reactor, and a method for displaying the operating limits which consists of a visual display permitting the continuous monitoring of the operating conditions within the nuclear reactor as a graph of the shaping rod position vs the regulating rod position having a permissible area and a restricted area. The permissible area is further divided into a recommended operating area for steady state operation and a cursor located on the graph to indicate the present operating condition of the nuclear reactor to allow an operator to view any need for corrective action based on the movement of the cursor out of the recommended operating area and to take any corrective transient action within the permissible area

  13. Optical display for radar sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold; Hsu, Charles; Willey, Jefferson; Landa, Joseph; Hsieh, Minder; Larsen, Louis V.; Krzywicki, Alan T.; Tran, Binh Q.; Hoekstra, Philip; Dillard, John T.; Krapels, Keith A.; Wardlaw, Michael; Chu, Kai-Dee

    2015-05-01

    Boltzmann headstone S = kB Log W turns out to be the Rosette stone for Greek physics translation optical display of the microwave sensing hieroglyphics. The LHS is the molecular entropy S measuring the degree of uniformity scattering off the sensing cross sections. The RHS is the inverse relationship (equation) predicting the Planck radiation spectral distribution parameterized by the Kelvin temperature T. Use is made of the conservation energy law of the heat capacity of Reservoir (RV) change T Δ S = -ΔE equals to the internal energy change of black box (bb) subsystem. Moreover, an irreversible thermodynamics Δ S > 0 for collision mixing toward totally larger uniformity of heat death, asserted by Boltzmann, that derived the so-called Maxwell-Boltzmann canonical probability. Given the zero boundary condition black box, Planck solved a discrete standing wave eigenstates (equation). Together with the canonical partition function (equation) an average ensemble average of all possible internal energy yielded the celebrated Planck radiation spectral (equation) where the density of states (equation). In summary, given the multispectral sensing data (equation), we applied Lagrange Constraint Neural Network (LCNN) to solve the Blind Sources Separation (BSS) for a set of equivalent bb target temperatures. From the measurements of specific value, slopes and shapes we can fit a set of Kelvin temperatures T's for each bb targets. As a result, we could apply the analytical continuation for each entropy sources along the temperature-unique Planck spectral curves always toward the RGB color temperature display for any sensing probing frequency.

  14. Simulated monitor display for CCTV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    Two computer programs have been developed which generate a two-dimensional graphic perspective of the video output produced by a Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) camera. Both programs were primarily written to produce a graphic display simulating the field-of-view (FOV) of a perimeter assessment system as seen on a CCTV monitor. The original program was developed for use on a Tektronix 4054 desktop computer; however, the usefulness of this graphic display program led to the development of a similar program for a Hewlett-Packard 9845B desktop computer. After entry of various input parameters, such as, camera lens and orientation, the programs automatically calculate and graphically plot the locations of various items, e.g., fences, an assessment zone, running men, and intrusion detection sensors. Numerous special effects can be generated to simulate such things as roads, interior walls, or sides of buildings. Other objects can be digitized and entered into permanent memory similar to the running men. With this type of simulated monitor perspective, proposed camera locations with respect to fences and a particular assessment zone can be rapidly evaluated without the costly time delays and expenditures associated with field evaluation

  15. Variation in foot strike patterns during running among habitually barefoot populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatala, Kevin G; Dingwall, Heather L; Wunderlich, Roshna E; Richmond, Brian G

    2013-01-01

    Endurance running may have a long evolutionary history in the hominin clade but it was not until very recently that humans ran wearing shoes. Research on modern habitually unshod runners has suggested that they utilize a different biomechanical strategy than runners who wear shoes, namely that barefoot runners typically use a forefoot strike in order to avoid generating the high impact forces that would be experienced if they were to strike the ground with their heels first. This finding suggests that our habitually unshod ancestors may have run in a similar way. However, this research was conducted on a single population and we know little about variation in running form among habitually barefoot people, including the effects of running speed, which has been shown to affect strike patterns in shod runners. Here, we present the results of our investigation into the selection of running foot strike patterns among another modern habitually unshod group, the Daasanach of northern Kenya. Data were collected from 38 consenting adults as they ran along a trackway with a plantar pressure pad placed midway along its length. Subjects ran at self-selected endurance running and sprinting speeds. Our data support the hypothesis that a forefoot strike reduces the magnitude of impact loading, but the majority of subjects instead used a rearfoot strike at endurance running speeds. Their percentages of midfoot and forefoot strikes increased significantly with speed. These results indicate that not all habitually barefoot people prefer running with a forefoot strike, and suggest that other factors such as running speed, training level, substrate mechanical properties, running distance, and running frequency, influence the selection of foot strike patterns.

  16. Variation in foot strike patterns during running among habitually barefoot populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin G Hatala

    Full Text Available Endurance running may have a long evolutionary history in the hominin clade but it was not until very recently that humans ran wearing shoes. Research on modern habitually unshod runners has suggested that they utilize a different biomechanical strategy than runners who wear shoes, namely that barefoot runners typically use a forefoot strike in order to avoid generating the high impact forces that would be experienced if they were to strike the ground with their heels first. This finding suggests that our habitually unshod ancestors may have run in a similar way. However, this research was conducted on a single population and we know little about variation in running form among habitually barefoot people, including the effects of running speed, which has been shown to affect strike patterns in shod runners. Here, we present the results of our investigation into the selection of running foot strike patterns among another modern habitually unshod group, the Daasanach of northern Kenya. Data were collected from 38 consenting adults as they ran along a trackway with a plantar pressure pad placed midway along its length. Subjects ran at self-selected endurance running and sprinting speeds. Our data support the hypothesis that a forefoot strike reduces the magnitude of impact loading, but the majority of subjects instead used a rearfoot strike at endurance running speeds. Their percentages of midfoot and forefoot strikes increased significantly with speed. These results indicate that not all habitually barefoot people prefer running with a forefoot strike, and suggest that other factors such as running speed, training level, substrate mechanical properties, running distance, and running frequency, influence the selection of foot strike patterns.

  17. Manipulation of Foot Strike and Footwear Increases Achilles Tendon Loading During Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Hannah; Patel, Mubarak

    2017-08-01

    The Achilles tendon is the most common site of tendon overuse injury in humans. Running with a forefoot strike pattern and in minimal shoes is a topic of recent interest, yet evidence is currently limited regarding the combined influence of foot strike and footwear on Achilles tendon loading. To investigate the influence of both foot strike and footwear on Achilles tendon loading in habitual rearfoot strike runners. Controlled laboratory study. Synchronized kinematic and force data were collected from 22 habitual rearfoot strikers (11 male), who habitually ran in nonminimal running shoes, during overground running at 3.6 m·s -1 . Participants ran in 3 different footwear conditions (standard running shoe, minimal running shoe, and barefoot) with both a rearfoot strike (RFS) and an imposed forefoot strike (FFS) in each footwear condition. Achilles tendon loading was estimated by use of inverse dynamics, where the Achilles tendon moment arm was determined with a regression equation. A 2-way, repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare conditions. Achilles tendon impulse was greater when subjects ran with an FFS rather than an RFS in minimal shoes. Achilles tendon loading rates were higher when subjects ran either in minimal shoes or barefoot than in standard shoes, regardless of foot strike. In runners who habitually rearfoot strike in standard running shoes, running in minimal shoes or barefoot increased the rate of tendon loading, and running with a forefoot strike in minimal shoes increased the magnitude of tendon loading. Transitioning to these running conditions may increase the risk of tendinopathy.

  18. Anxiety- and depression-like phenotype of hph-1 mice deficient in tetrahydrobiopterin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasser, Arafat; Birk Møller, Lisbeth; Olesen, Jess Have

    2014-01-01

    as determine hippocampal monoamine and plasma nitric oxide levels. In the elevated zero maze test, hph mice displayed increased anxiety-like responses compared to wild-type mice, while the marble burying test revealed decreased anxiety-like behaviour. This was particularly observed in male mice. In the tail...

  19. Preserved dopaminergic homeostasis and dopamine-related behaviour in hemizygous TH-Cre mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Annika Højrup Runegaard; Jensen, Kathrine L; Fitzpatrick, Ciarán M

    2017-01-01

    assessment of the dopaminergic system in hemizygous tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-Cre mice in comparison to wild-type (WT) controls. Our data show that TH-Cre mice display preserved dopaminergic homeostasis with unaltered levels of TH and dopamine as well as unaffected dopamine turnover in striatum. TH-Cre mice...

  20. Lipid metabolism and body composition in Gclm(-/-) mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendig, Eric L. [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Chen, Ying [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Krishan, Mansi; Johansson, Elisabet; Schneider, Scott N. [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Genter, Mary Beth; Nebert, Daniel W. [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Shertzer, Howard G., E-mail: shertzhg@ucmail.uc.edu [Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Center for Environmental Genetics, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, P.O. Box 670056, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    In humans and experimental animals, high fat diets (HFD) are associated with risk factors for metabolic diseases, such as excessive weight gain and adiposity, insulin resistance and fatty liver. Mice lacking the glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit gene (Gclm(-/-)) and deficient in glutathione (GSH), are resistant to HFD-mediated weight gain. Herein, we evaluated Gclm-associated regulation of energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and glucose and lipid homeostasis. C57BL/6J Gclm(-/-) mice and littermate wild-type (WT) controls received a normal diet or an HFD for 11 weeks. HFD-fed Gclm(-/-) mice did not display a decreased respiratory quotient, suggesting that they are unable to process lipid for metabolism. Although dietary energy consumption and intestinal lipid absorption were unchanged in Gclm(-/-) mice, feeding these mice an HFD did not produce excess body weight nor fat storage. Gclm(-/-) mice displayed higher basal metabolic rates resulting from higher activities of liver mitochondrial NADH-CoQ oxidoreductase, thus elevating respiration. Although Gclm(-/-) mice exhibited strong systemic and hepatic oxidative stress responses, HFD did not promote glucose intolerance or insulin resistance. Furthermore, HFD-fed Gclm(-/-) mice did not develop fatty liver, likely resulting from very low expression levels of genes encoding lipid metabolizing enzymes. We conclude that Gclm is involved in the regulation of basal metabolic rate and the metabolism of dietary lipid. Although Gclm(-/-) mice display a strong oxidative stress response, they are protected from HFD-induced excessive weight gain and adipose deposition, insulin resistance and steatosis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high fat diet does not produce body weight and fat gain in Gclm(-/-) mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high fat diet does not induce steatosis or insulin resistance in Gclm(-/-) mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gclm(-/-) mice have high basal metabolism and mitochondrial

  1. Perceptions and Expected Immediate Reactions to Severe Storm Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon, Ihnji; Huang, Shih-Kai; Lindell, Michael K

    2017-11-09

    The National Weather Service has adopted warning polygons that more specifically indicate the risk area than its previous county-wide warnings. However, these polygons are not defined in terms of numerical strike probabilities (p s ). To better understand people's interpretations of warning polygons, 167 participants were shown 23 hypothetical scenarios in one of three information conditions-polygon-only (Condition A), polygon + tornadic storm cell (Condition B), and polygon + tornadic storm cell + flanking nontornadic storm cells (Condition C). Participants judged each polygon's p s and reported the likelihood of taking nine different response actions. The polygon-only condition replicated the results of previous studies; p s was highest at the polygon's centroid and declined in all directions from there. The two conditions displaying storm cells differed from the polygon-only condition only in having p s just as high at the polygon's edge nearest the storm cell as at its centroid. Overall, p s values were positively correlated with expectations of continuing normal activities, seeking information from social sources, seeking shelter, and evacuating by car. These results indicate that participants make more appropriate p s judgments when polygons are presented in their natural context of radar displays than when they are presented in isolation. However, the fact that p s judgments had moderately positive correlations with both sheltering (a generally appropriate response) and evacuation (a generally inappropriate response) suggests that experiment participants experience the same ambivalence about these two protective actions as people threatened by actual tornadoes. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Simulator scene display evaluation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, R. F. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus for aligning and calibrating scene displays in an aircraft simulator has a base on which all of the instruments for the aligning and calibrating are mounted. Laser directs beam at double right prism which is attached to pivoting support on base. The pivot point of the prism is located at the design eye point (DEP) of simulator during the aligning and calibrating. The objective lens in the base is movable on a track to follow the laser beam at different angles within the field of vision at the DEP. An eyepiece and a precision diopter are movable into a position behind the prism during the scene evaluation. A photometer or illuminometer is pivotable about the pivot into and out of position behind the eyepiece.

  3. Minimalism context-aware displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yang

    2004-12-01

    Despite the rapid development of cyber technologies, today we still have very limited attention and communication bandwidth to process the increasing information flow. The goal of the study is to develop a context-aware filter to match the information load with particular needs and capacities. The functions include bandwidth-resolution trade-off and user context modeling. From the empirical lab studies, it is found that the resolution of images can be reduced in order of magnitude if the viewer knows that he/she is looking for particular features. The adaptive display queue is optimized with real-time operational conditions and user's inquiry history. Instead of measuring operator's behavior directly, ubiquitous computing models are developed to anticipate user's behavior from the operational environment data. A case study of the video stream monitoring for transit security is discussed in the paper. In addition, the author addresses the future direction of coherent human-machine vision systems.

  4. Electrically conductive carbon fibre-reinforced composite for aircraft lightning strike protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katunin, Andrzej; Krukiewicz, Katarzyna; Turczyn, Roman; Sul, Przemysław; Bilewicz, Marcin

    2017-05-01

    Aircraft elements, especially elements of exterior fuselage, are subjected to damage caused by lightning strikes. Due to the fact that these elements are manufactured from polymeric composites in modern aircraft, and thus, they cannot conduct electrical charges, the lightning strikes cause burnouts in composite structures. Therefore, the effective lightning strike protection for such structures is highly desired. The solution presented in this paper is based on application of organic conductive fillers in the form of intrinsically conducting polymers and carbon fabric in order to ensure electrical conductivity of whole composite and simultaneously retain superior mechanical properties. The presented studies cover synthesis and manufacturing of the electrically conductive composite as well as its characterization with respect to mechanical and electrical properties. The performed studies indicate that the proposed material can be potentially considered as a constructional material for aircraft industry, which characterizes by good operational properties and low cost of manufacturing with respect to current lightning strike protection materials solutions.

  5. Annotated Bibliography of Bird Hazards to Aircraft: Bird Strike Committee Citations 1967-1997

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Short, Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    .... This annotated bibliography of bird hazards to aircraft, termed ABBHA, is a compilation of citations with abstracts on a wide range of related topics such as bird strike tolerance engineering, bird...

  6. Counterproliferation Strategy: The Role of Preventive War, Preventive Strikes, and Interdiction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rak, Claire

    2003-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the potential effectiveness of preventive war, preventive strikes, and interdiction as tools for the United States to counter the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD...

  7. Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Summer 2013 ... removed. That is the most common form of skin cancer and not as dangerous as melanoma. Photo: ...

  8. Combat Pair: The Evolution of Air Force-Navy Integration in Strike Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lambeth, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    This report documents the exceptional cross-service harmony that the U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy have steadily developed in their conduct of integrated strike operations since the first Persian Gulf War in 1991...

  9. Three-dimensional impact kinetics with foot-strike manipulations during running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Nordin

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Loading rate–time assessment identified contrasting impact characteristics in each direction and the 3D resultant following foot-strike manipulations, with potential implications for lower extremity structures in running.

  10. Origin and structure of major orogen-scale exhumed strike-slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuyun; Neubauer, Franz

    2016-04-01

    The formation of major exhumed strike-slip faults represents one of the most important dynamic processes affecting the evolution of the Earth's lithosphere and surface. Detailed models of the potential initiation and properties and architecture of orogen-scale exhumed strike-slip faults and how these relate to exhumation are rare. In this study, we deal with key properties controlling the development of major exhumed strike-slip fault systems, which are equivalent to the deep crustal sections of active across fault zones. We also propose two dominant processes for the initiation of orogen-scale exhumed strike-slip faults: (1) pluton-controlled and (2) metamorphic core complex-controlled strike-slip faults. In these tectonic settings, the initiation of faults occurs by rheological weakening along hot-to-cool contacts and guides the overall displacement and ultimate exhumation. These processes result in a specific thermal and structural architecture of such faults. These types of strike-slip dominated fault zones are often subparallel to mountain ranges and expose a wide variety of mylonitic, cataclastic and non-cohesive fault rocks, which were formed at different structural levels of the crust during various stages of faulting. The high variety of distinctive fault rocks is a potential evidence for recognition of these types of strike-slip faults. Exhumation of mylonitic rocks is, therefore, a common feature of such reverse oblique-slip strike-slip faults, implying major transtensive and/or transpressive processes accompanying pure strike-slip motion during exhumation. Some orogen-scale strike-slip faults nucleate and initiate along rheologically weak zones, e.g. at granite intrusions, zones of low-strength minerals, thermally weakened crust due to ascending fluids, and lateral borders of hot metamorphic core complexes. A further mechanism is the juxtaposition of mechanically strong mantle lithosphere to hot asthenosphere in continental transform faults (e.g., San

  11. X-Windows Widget for Image Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Robert G.

    2011-01-01

    XvicImage is a high-performance XWindows (Motif-compliant) user interface widget for displaying images. It handles all aspects of low-level image display. The fully Motif-compliant image display widget handles the following tasks: (1) Image display, including dithering as needed (2) Zoom (3) Pan (4) Stretch (contrast enhancement, via lookup table) (5) Display of single-band or color data (6) Display of non-byte data (ints, floats) (7) Pseudocolor display (8) Full overlay support (drawing graphics on image) (9) Mouse-based panning (10) Cursor handling, shaping, and planting (disconnecting cursor from mouse) (11) Support for all user interaction events (passed to application) (12) Background loading and display of images (doesn't freeze the GUI) (13) Tiling of images.

  12. Consortium for military LCD display procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, Gregg

    2002-08-01

    International Display Consortium (IDC) is the joining together of display companies to combined their buying power and obtained favorable terms with a major LCD manufacturer. Consolidating the buying power and grouping the demand enables the rugged display industry of avionics, ground vehicles, and ship based display manufacturers to have unencumbered access to high performance AMLCDs while greatly reducing risk and lowering cost. With an unrestricted supply of AMLCD displays, the consortium members have total control of their risk, cost, deliveries and added value partners. Every display manufacturer desires a very close relationship with a display vender. With IDC each consortium member achieves a close relationship. Consortium members enjoy cost effective access to high performance, industry standard sized LCD panels, and modified commercial displays with 100 degree C clearing points and portrait configurations. Consortium members also enjoy proposal support, technical support and long-term support.

  13. Dimensions of Situatedness for Digital Public Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui José

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Public displays are often strongly situated signs deeply embedded in their physical, social, and cultural setting. Understanding how the display is coupled with on-going situations, its level of situatedness, provides a key element for the interpretation of the displays themselves but is also an element for the interpretation of place, its situated practices, and its social context. Most digital displays, however, do not achieve the same sense of situatedness that seems so natural in their nondigital counterparts. This paper investigates people’s perception of situatedness when considering the connection between public displays and their context. We have collected over 300 photos of displays and conducted a set of analysis tasks involving focus groups and structured interviews with 15 participants. The contribution is a consolidated list of situatedness dimensions that should provide a valuable resource for reasoning about situatedness in digital displays and informing the design and development of display systems.

  14. Probing ADAMTS13 Substrate Specificity using Phage Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desch, Karl C.; Kretz, Colin; Yee, Andrew; Gildersleeve, Robert; Metzger, Kristin; Agrawal, Nidhi; Cheng, Jane; Ginsburg, David

    2015-01-01

    Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is a large, multimeric protein that regulates hemostasis by tethering platelets to the subendothelial matrix at sites of vascular damage. The procoagulant activity of plasma VWF correlates with the length of VWF multimers, which is proteolytically controlled by the metalloprotease ADAMTS13. To probe ADAMTS13 substrate specificity, we created phage display libraries containing randomly mutated residues of a minimal ADAMTS13 substrate fragment of VWF, termed VWF73. The libraries were screened for phage particles displaying VWF73 mutant peptides that were resistant to proteolysis by ADAMTS13. These peptides exhibited the greatest mutation frequency near the ADAMTS13 scissile residues. Kinetic assays using mutant and wild-type substrates demonstrated excellent agreement between rates of cleavage for mutant phage particles and the corresponding mutant peptides. Cleavage resistance of selected mutations was tested in vivo using hydrodynamic injection of corresponding full-length expression plasmids into VWF-deficient mice. These studies confirmed the resistance to cleavage resulting from select amino acid substitutions and uncovered evidence of alternate cleavage sites and recognition by other proteases in the circulation of ADAMTS13 deficient mice. Taken together, these studies demonstrate the key role of specific amino acids residues including P3-P2’ and P11’, for substrate specificity and emphasize the importance in flowing blood of other ADAMTS13–VWF exosite interactions outside of VWF73. PMID:25849793

  15. Probing ADAMTS13 substrate specificity using phage display.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl C Desch

    Full Text Available Von Willebrand factor (VWF is a large, multimeric protein that regulates hemostasis by tethering platelets to the subendothelial matrix at sites of vascular damage. The procoagulant activity of plasma VWF correlates with the length of VWF multimers, which is proteolytically controlled by the metalloprotease ADAMTS13. To probe ADAMTS13 substrate specificity, we created phage display libraries containing randomly mutated residues of a minimal ADAMTS13 substrate fragment of VWF, termed VWF73. The libraries were screened for phage particles displaying VWF73 mutant peptides that were resistant to proteolysis by ADAMTS13. These peptides exhibited the greatest mutation frequency near the ADAMTS13 scissile residues. Kinetic assays using mutant and wild-type substrates demonstrated excellent agreement between rates of cleavage for mutant phage particles and the corresponding mutant peptides. Cleavage resistance of selected mutations was tested in vivo using hydrodynamic injection of corresponding full-length expression plasmids into VWF-deficient mice. These studies confirmed the resistance to cleavage resulting from select amino acid substitutions and uncovered evidence of alternate cleavage sites and recognition by other proteases in the circulation of ADAMTS13 deficient mice. Taken together, these studies demonstrate the key role of specific amino acids residues including P3-P2' and P11', for substrate specificity and emphasize the importance in flowing blood of other ADAMTS13-VWF exosite interactions outside of VWF73.

  16. The Left Labourites and the General Strike of 1926 in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya G. Blosfeld

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The author analyses the left labourites’ attitude to the interaction of the Labour Party and trade unions and use of general strike as a means of the social struggle. Besides the article analyses the left labourites’ estimation of 1926 general strike and the causes of the defeat, and the strike of the miners who decided to continue it. The left labourites defended the branch principle of the trade unions’ organization based on the shopstewards’ model which was better adopted for the strike struggle. The left labourites took into account that the general structure of the labour movement would remain the same, but the Labour Party would take over the leadership from trade unions. The left labourites supported the peaceful way of transition to socialism and they considered the general strike to be analogy of social revolution or a means of pressure of the government for nationalization of the main economic branches and the improvement of the workers’ life conditions. Under extreme circumstances, the general strike was considered to be a means to prevent antidemocratic revolution. Evaluating the general strike of 1926, the author marks the absence of unity in the leadership, hesitations and inconsistency of the left labourites themselves. They didn’t give a single proposal about the improvement of the working-class movement organization except of state British Trade Unions Congress. As a result, the criticism of the General Council’s renegade position was bestowed upon the leadership of the Miners Federation who didn’t submit to the General Council order to stop the strike.

  17. Cloning Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Atsuo

    2017-08-01

    Viable and fertile mice can be generated by somatic nuclear transfer into enucleated oocytes, presumably because the transplanted somatic cell genome becomes reprogrammed by factors in the oocyte. The first somatic cloned offspring of mice were obtained by directly injecting donor nuclei into recipient enucleated oocytes. When this method is used (the so-called Honolulu method of somatic cell nuclear transfer [SCNT]), the donor nuclei readily and completely condense within the enucleated metaphase II-arrested oocytes, which contain high levels of M-phase-promoting factor (MPF). It is believed that the condensation of the donor chromosomes promotes complete reprogramming of the donor genome within the mouse oocytes. Another key to the success of mouse cloning is the use of blunt micropipettes attached to a piezo impact-driving micromanipulation device. This system saves a significant amount of time during the micromanipulation of oocytes and thus minimizes the loss of oocyte viability in vitro. For example, a group of 20 oocytes can be enucleated within 10 min by an experienced operator. This protocol is composed of seven parts: (1) preparing micropipettes, (2) setting up the enucleation and injection micropipettes, (3) collecting and enucleating oocytes, (4) preparing nucleus donor cells, (5) injecting donor nuclei, (6) activating embryos and culturing, and (7) transferring cloned embryos. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  18. Physicians and strikes: can a walkout over the malpractice crisis be ethically justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiester, Autumn

    2004-01-01

    Malpractice insurance rates have created a crisis in American medicine. Rates are rising and reimbursements are not keeping pace. In response, physicians in the states hardest hit by this crisis are feeling compelled to take political action, and the current action of choice seems to be physician strikes. While the malpractice insurance crisis is acknowledged to be severe, does it justify the extreme action of a physician walkout? Should physicians engage in this type of collective action, and what are the costs to patients and the profession when such action is taken? I will offer three related arguments against physician strikes that constitute a prima facie prohibition against such action: first, strikes are intended to cause harm to patients; second, strikes are an affront to the physician-patient relationship; and, third, strikes risk decreasing the public's respect for the medical profession. As with any prima facie obligation, there are justifying conditions that may override the moral prohibition, but I will argue that the current malpractice crisis does not rise to the level of such a justifying condition. While the malpractice crisis demands and justifies a political response on the part of the nation's physicians, strikes and slow-downs are not an ethically justified means to the legitimate end of controlling insurance costs.

  19. Changes in foot and shank coupling due to alterations in foot strike pattern during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Michael B; Buckley, John G

    2008-03-01

    Determining if and how the kinematic relationship between adjacent body segments changes when an individual's gait pattern is experimentally manipulated can yield insight into the robustness of the kinematic coupling across the associated joint(s). The aim of this study was to assess the effects on the kinematic coupling between the forefoot, rearfoot and shank during ground contact of running with alteration in foot strike pattern. Twelve subjects ran over-ground using three different foot strike patterns (heel strike, forefoot strike, toe running). Kinematic data were collected of the forefoot, rearfoot and shank, which were modelled as rigid segments. Coupling at the ankle-complex and midfoot joints was assessed using cross-correlation and vector coding techniques. In general good coupling was found between rearfoot frontal plane motion and transverse plane shank rotation regardless of foot strike pattern. Forefoot motion was also strongly coupled with rearfoot frontal plane motion. Subtle differences were noted in the amount of rearfoot eversion transferred into shank internal rotation in the first 10-15% of stance during heel strike running compared to forefoot and toe running, and this was accompanied by small alterations in forefoot kinematics. These findings indicate that during ground contact in running there is strong coupling between the rearfoot and shank via the action of the joints in the ankle-complex. In addition, there was good coupling of both sagittal and transverse plane forefoot with rearfoot frontal plane motion via the action of the midfoot joints.

  20. A simple field method to identify foot strike pattern during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giandolini, Marlène; Poupard, Thibaut; Gimenez, Philippe; Horvais, Nicolas; Millet, Guillaume Y; Morin, Jean-Benoît; Samozino, Pierre

    2014-05-07

    Identifying foot strike patterns in running is an important issue for sport clinicians, coaches and footwear industrials. Current methods allow the monitoring of either many steps in laboratory conditions or only a few steps in the field. Because measuring running biomechanics during actual practice is critical, our purpose is to validate a method aiming at identifying foot strike patterns during continuous field measurements. Based on heel and metatarsal accelerations, this method requires two uniaxial accelerometers. The time between heel and metatarsal acceleration peaks (THM) was compared to the foot strike angle in the sagittal plane (αfoot) obtained by 2D video analysis for various conditions of speed, slope, footwear, foot strike and state of fatigue. Acceleration and kinematic measurements were performed at 1000Hz and 120Hz, respectively, during 2-min treadmill running bouts. Significant correlations were observed between THM and αfoot for 14 out of 15 conditions. The overall correlation coefficient was r=0.916 (Pstrike except for extreme forefoot strike during which the heel rarely or never strikes the ground, and for different footwears and states of fatigue. We proposed a classification based on THM: FFS<-5.49ms

  1. Is the rearfoot pattern the most frequently foot strike pattern among recreational shod distance runners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Matheus Oliveira; Saragiotto, Bruno Tirotti; Yamato, Tiê Parma; Lopes, Alexandre Dias

    2015-02-01

    To determine the distribution of the foot strike patterns among recreational shod runners and to compare the personal and training characteristics between runners with different foot strike patterns. Cross-sectional study. Areas of running practice in São Paulo, Brazil. 514 recreational shod runners older than 18 years and free of injury. Foot strike patterns were evaluated with a high-speed camera (250 Hz) and photocells to assess the running speed of participants. Personal and training characteristics were collected through a questionnaire. The inter-rater reliability of the visual foot strike pattern classification method was 96.7% and intra-rater reliability was 98.9%. 95.1% (n = 489) of the participants were rearfoot strikers, 4.1% (n = 21) were midfoot strikers, and four runners (0.8%) were forefoot strikers. There were no significant differences between strike patterns for personal and training characteristics. This is the first study to demonstrate that almost all recreational shod runners were rearfoot strikers. The visual method of evaluation seems to be a reliable and feasible option to classify foot strike pattern. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Foot strike patterns and collision forces in habitually barefoot versus shod runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Daniel E; Venkadesan, Madhusudhan; Werbel, William A; Daoud, Adam I; D'Andrea, Susan; Davis, Irene S; Mang'eni, Robert Ojiambo; Pitsiladis, Yannis

    2010-01-28

    Humans have engaged in endurance running for millions of years, but the modern running shoe was not invented until the 1970s. For most of human evolutionary history, runners were either barefoot or wore minimal footwear such as sandals or moccasins with smaller heels and little cushioning relative to modern running shoes. We wondered how runners coped with the impact caused by the foot colliding with the ground before the invention of the modern shoe. Here we show that habitually barefoot endurance runners often land on the fore-foot (fore-foot strike) before bringing down the heel, but they sometimes land with a flat foot (mid-foot strike) or, less often, on the heel (rear-foot strike). In contrast, habitually shod runners mostly rear-foot strike, facilitated by the elevated and cushioned heel of the modern running shoe. Kinematic and kinetic analyses show that even on hard surfaces, barefoot runners who fore-foot strike generate smaller collision forces than shod rear-foot strikers. This difference results primarily from a more plantarflexed foot at landing and more ankle compliance during impact, decreasing the effective mass of the body that collides with the ground. Fore-foot- and mid-foot-strike gaits were probably more common when humans ran barefoot or in minimal shoes, and may protect the feet and lower limbs from some of the impact-related injuries now experienced by a high percentage of runners.

  3. Reconfigurable Full-Page Braille Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, H. Douglas

    1994-01-01

    Electrically actuated braille display cells of proposed type arrayed together to form full-page braille displays. Like other braille display cells, these provide changeable patterns of bumps driven by digitally recorded text stored on magnetic tapes or in solid-state electronic memories. Proposed cells contain electrorheological fluid. Viscosity of such fluid increases in strong electrostatic field.

  4. Visual Merchandising through Display: Advertising Services Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Nelson S.

    The increasing use of displays by businessmen is creating a demand for display workers. This demand may be met by preparing high school students to enter the field of display. Additional workers might be recruited by offering adult training programs for individuals working within the stores. For this purpose a curriculum guide has been developed…

  5. Software for Minsk-32 display station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaeva, L.M.; Gangrskaya, O.G.; Manno, I.; Fefilov, B.V.; Ehsenski, J.

    1976-01-01

    The mathematical provision is described of the Minsk-32 display station. Described is the application of editing program DOSE, assembler translator SLANG and program display-focal. Program DOSE permits to edit the texts with the aid of a rester display on Minsk-32 magnetic tape. The program system permits to use a disk monitor system

  6. Skin wound healing in MMP2-deficient and MMP2 / plasminogen double-deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøssing, Signe; Rønø, Birgitte; Hald, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    -sensitive MMPs during wound healing. To address whether MMP2 is accountable for the galardin-induced healing deficiency in wildtype and Plg-deficient mice, incisional skin wounds were generated in MMP2 single-deficient mice and in MMP2/Plg double-deficient mice and followed until healed. Alternatively, tissue...... was isolated 7 days post wounding for histological and biochemical analyses. No difference was found in the time from wounding to overt gross restoration of the epidermal surface between MMP2-deficient and wildtype control littermate mice. MMP2/Plg double-deficient mice were viable and fertile, and displayed...... an unchallenged general phenotype resembling that of Plg-deficient mice, including development of rectal prolapses. MMP2/Plg double-deficient mice displayed a slight increase in the wound length throughout the healing period compared with Plg-deficient mice. However, the overall time to complete healing...

  7. Responses of Male C57BL/6N Mice to Observing the Euthanasia of Other Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Gregory P; Bottomley, Michael A; Grobe, Nadja

    2016-01-01

    The AVMA Panel on Euthanasia recommends that sensitive animals should not be present during the euthanasia of others, especially of their own species, but does not provide guidelines on how to identify a sensitive species. To determine if mice are a sensitive species we reviewed literature on empathy in mice, and measured the cardiovascular and activity response of mice observing euthanasia of conspecifics. We studied male 16-wk-old C57BL/6N mice and found no increase in cardiovascular parameters or activity in the response of the mice to observing CO2 euthanasia. Mice observing decapitation had an increase in all values, but this was paralleled by a similar increase during mock decapitations in which no animals were handled or euthanized. We conclude that CO2 euthanasia of mice does not have an impact on other mice in the room, and that euthanasia by decapitation likely only has an effect due to the noise of the guillotine. We support the conceptual idea that mice are both a sensitive species and display empathy, but under the controlled circumstances of the euthanasia procedures used in this study there was no signaling of stress to witnessing inhabitants in the room. PMID:27423146

  8. Heel–toe running: A new look at the influence of foot strike pattern on impact force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Mercer

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The unique observation of this study was that impact force was different when participants were instructed to run with either an Obvious-HS or a Subtle-HS at contact. Both these foot strike patterns would have been considered rear foot strike patterns, suggesting that something other than which specific part of the foot strikes the ground initially influenced impact force.

  9. Oral Immunization Against Candidiasis Using Lactobacillus casei Displaying Enolase 1 from Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki, Seiji; Karasaki, Miki; Tafuku, Senji; Aoki, Wataru; Sewaki, Tomomitsu; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Candidiasis is a common fungal infection that is prevalent in immunocompromised individuals. In this study, an oral vaccine against Candida albicans was developed by using the molecular display approach. Enolase 1 protein (Eno1p) of C. albicans was expressed on the Lactobacillus casei cell surface by using poly-gamma-glutamic acid synthetase complex A from Bacillus subtilis as an anchoring protein. The Eno1p-displaying L. casei cells were used to immunize mice, which were later challenged with a lethal dose of C. albicans. The data indicated that the vaccine elicited a strong IgG response and increased the survival rate of the vaccinated mice. Furthermore, L. casei acted as a potent adjuvant and induced high antibody titers that were comparable to those induced by strong adjuvants such as the cholera toxin. Overall, the molecular display method can be used to rapidly develop vaccines that can be conveniently administered and require minimal processing.

  10. Designing a better weather display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Colin; Plumlee, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The variables most commonly displayed on weather maps are atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction, and surface temperature. But they are usually shown separately, not together on a single map. As a design exercise, we set the goal of finding out if it is possible to show all three variables (two 2D scalar fields and a 2D vector field) simultaneously such that values can be accurately read using keys for all variables, a reasonable level of detail is shown, and important meteorological features stand out clearly. Our solution involves employing three perceptual "channels", a color channel, a texture channel, and a motion channel in order to perceptually separate the variables and make them independently readable. We conducted an experiment to evaluate our new design both against a conventional solution, and against a glyph-based solution. The evaluation tested the abilities of novice subjects both to read values using a key, and to see meteorological patterns in the data. Our new scheme was superior especially in the representation of wind patterns using the motion channel, and it also performed well enough in the representation of pressure using the texture channel to suggest it as a viable design alternative.

  11. Irradiation from video display terminals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backe, S.; Hannevik, M.

    1987-01-01

    Video display terminals (VDT's) are in common use by computer operators. In the last years this group of workers has expressed growing concern about their work environment and possible hazardious effects in connection with radiation emission from VDT's. Radiation types and levels of emission and possible biological effects have been the subject of research activity in Norway and in other countries. This report summarizes the various radiation types and their levels of emission from VDT's. An overview of recent epidemiological studies and animal experiments, and the conclusions given by the research groups are also presented. The conclusions drawn in this report based on the current knowledge are: Radiation, other than low frequency pulsed magnetic fields, have low and negligible emission levels and will not represent any health hazard to VDT-operator or to the foetus of pregnant operators. The biological effects of low frequency pulsed mangetic fields have been the subject of epidemiological studies and animal experiments. Epidemiological studies carried out in Canada, Finland, Sweden and Norway gave no support for any correlation between pregnancy complications and operation of VDT's. From animal experiments it has so far been impossible to assert an effect on pregnancy outcome from low frequency pulsed magnetic fields

  12. Citizenship displayed by disabled people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Prado Carlino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available By investigating the processes by which successful teachers become activate citizens and by listening to the diversity and richness of their life and formation stories, this work became possible. Its aim is to display some of the utterances of two Down Syndrome individuals and their active-citizenship activities. Their stories were told in the reports of two teachers when describing their personal and professional history, and were considered to be an integral part of it. Thus, some of the utterances and perceptions with which these two individuals elaborate their references, their worldview and their active-citizenship activity are evidenced in this paper. This article is based on the language conceptions of Vygotsky and Bakhtin who defend the idea that the group and the social mentality are ingrain in the individual. Hence, the history of one person reveals that of many others, since there is a deep link between the individual and the social in the formation of a subjective worldview. As a result, it can be easily seen that the utterances expressed by the participants in this research cannot be considered strictly individual because enunciation is social in nature. Despite the fact that the utterances are those of individuals, they manifest a collective reality. This demonstrates the real advantages and possibilities that deficient people get from their participation and intervention in society.

  13. CERN students display their work

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    The first poster session by students working on the LHC experiments, organised by the LPCC, was a great success. Showcasing the talents of over a hundred young physicists from all over the world, it was an opportunity for everyone at CERN to check out the wide range of research work being done by the new generation of physicists at CERN.   At 5.30 p.m. on Wednesday 23 March, the first poster session by CERN students took place in Restaurant No.1, where no fewer than 87 posters went on public display. The students were split into 8 groups according to their research field* and all were on hand to answer the questions of an inquisitive audience. TH Department's Michelangelo Mangano, who is head of the LHC Physics Centre at CERN (LPCC) and is responsible for the initiative, confirms that nothing was left to chance, even the choice of date: "We wanted to make the most of the general enthusiasm around the winter conferences and the meeting of the LHC Experiments Committee to present the stud...

  14. The Genetic Basis of Baculum Size and Shape Variation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas G. Schultz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The rapid divergence of male genitalia is a preeminent evolutionary pattern. This rapid divergence is especially striking in the baculum, a bone that occurs in the penis of many mammalian species. Closely related species often display diverse baculum morphology where no other morphological differences can be discerned. While this fundamental pattern of evolution has been appreciated at the level of gross morphology, nearly nothing is known about the genetic basis of size and shape divergence. Quantifying the genetic basis of baculum size and shape variation has been difficult because these structures generally lack obvious landmarks, so comparing them in three dimensions is not straightforward. Here, we develop a novel morphometric approach to quantify size and shape variation from three-dimensional micro-CT scans taken from 369 bacula, representing 75 distinct strains of the BXD family of mice. We identify two quantitative trait loci (QTL that explain ∼50% of the variance in baculum size, and a third QTL that explains more than 20% of the variance in shape. Together, our study demonstrates that baculum morphology may diverge relatively easily, with mutations at a few loci of large effect that independently modulate size and shape. Based on a combination of bioinformatic investigations and new data on RNA expression, we prioritized these QTL to 16 candidate genes, which have hypothesized roles in bone morphogenesis and may enable future genetic manipulation of baculum morphology.

  15. The effect of display movement angle, indicator type and display location on control/display stereotype strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Errol R; Chan, Alan H S

    2017-08-01

    Much research on stereotype strength relating display and control movements for displays moving in the vertical or horizontal directions has been reported. Here we report effects of display movement angle, where the display moves at angles (relative to the vertical) of between 0° and 180°. The experiment used six different controls, four display locations relative to the operator and three types of indicator. Indicator types were included because of the strong effects of the 'scale-side principle' that are variable with display angle. A directional indicator had higher stereotype strength than a neutral indicator, and showed an apparent reversal in control/display stereotype direction beyond an angle of 90°. However, with a neutral indicator this control reversal was not present. Practitioner Summary: The effects of display moving at angles other than the four cardinal directions, types of control, location of display and types of indicator are investigated. Indicator types (directional and neutral) have an effect on stereotype strength and may cause an apparent control reversal with change of display movement angle.

  16. Conceptual Design of Industrial Process Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C.R.; Lind, Morten

    1999-01-01

    discusses aspects of process display design taking into account both the designer's and the operator's points of view. Three aspects are emphasized: the operator tasks, the display content and the display form. The distinction between these three aspects is the basis for proposing an outline for a display......Today, process displays used in industry are often designed on the basis of piping and instrumentation diagrams without any method of ensuring that the needs of the operators are fulfilled. Therefore, a method for a systematic approach to the design of process displays is needed. This paper...... by a simple example from a plant with batch processes. Later the method is applied to develop a supervisory display for a condenser system in a nuclear power plant. The differences between the continuous plant domain of power production and the batch processes from the example are analysed and broad...

  17. Bone growth and turnover in progesterone receptor knockout mice.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickard, David J.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.; Evans, Glenda; Hefferan, Theresa E.; Hunter, Jaime C.; Waters, Katrina M.; Lydon, John P.; O' Malley, Bert W.; Khosla, Sundeep; Spelsberg, Thomas C.; Turner, Russell T.

    2008-05-01

    The role of progesterone receptor (PR) signaling in skeletal metabolism is controversial. To address whether signaling through the PR is necessary for normal bone growth and turnover, we performed histomorphometric and mCT analyses of bone from homozygous female PR knockout (PRKO) mice at 6, 12, and 26 weeks of age. These mice possess a null mutation of the PR locus, which blocks the gene expression of A and B isoforms of PR. Body weight gain, uterine weight gain and tibia longitudinal bone growth was normal in PRKO mice. In contrast, total and cortical bone mass were increased in long bones of post-pubertal (12 and 26-week-old) PRKO mice, whereas cancellous bone mass was normal in the tibia but increased in the humerus. The striking 57% decrease in cancellous bone from the proximal tibia metaphysis which occurred between 6 and 26 weeks in WT mice was abolished in PRKO mice. The improved bone balance in aging PRKO mice was associated with elevated bone formation and a tendency toward reduced osteoclast perimeter. Taken together, these findings suggest that PR signaling in mice attenuates the accumulation of cortical bone mass during adolescence and is required for early age-related loss of cancellous bone.

  18. Strike-slip faults offshore southern Taiwan: implications for the oblique arc-continent collision processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuh, Shi-Chie; Liu, Char-Shine; Lundberg, Neil; Reed, Donald L.

    1997-06-01

    Taiwan is the site of present-day oblique arc-continent collision between the Luzon arc of the Philippine Sea plate and the Chinese continental margin. The major structural pattern revealed from marine geophysical studies in the area offshore southern Taiwan is that of a doubly-vergent orogenic belt, bounded by significant zones of thrusting on the west and east of the submarine accretionary wedge. Due to the oblique collision process, strike-slip faults could play an important role in this convergent domain. Topographic lineaments revealed from new digital bathymetry data and seismic reflection profiles confirm the existence of three sets of strike-slip faults in the collision-subduction zone offshore southern Taiwan: the N-S-trending left-lateral strike-slip faults within the Luzon volcanic arc, the NE-SW-trending right-lateral strike-slip faults across the accretionary wedge, and the NNE-SSW-trending left-lateral strike-slip faults lie in the frontal portion of the accretionary wedge. These strike-slip faults overprint pre-existing folds and thrusts and may convert into oblique thrusts or thrusts as the forearc blocks accrete to the mountain belt. A bookshelf rotation model is used to explain the observed geometrical relationships of these strike-slip fault systems. Based on this model, the counter-clockwise rotation of the forearc blocks in the area offshore southern Taiwan could have caused extrusion of the accretionary wedge material into the forearc basin. The originally continuous forearc basin is thus deformed into several closed and separate proto-collisional basins such as the Southern Longitudinal Trough and Taitung Trough. A tectonic evolution model which emphasizes on the development of various structures at different stages of the oblique arc-continent collision for the Taiwan mountain belt is proposed.

  19. Heel–toe running: A new look at the influence of foot strike pattern on impact force

    OpenAIRE

    John A. Mercer; Sarah Horsch

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objective: It is important to understand the factors that influence the impact force observed during running, since the impact force is likely to be related to overuse injuries. The purpose of this study was to compare the impact force during running when participants were instructed to use different foot strike patterns: obvious heel strike (Obvious-HS), subtle heel strike (Subtle-HS), midfoot strike (Mid-FS), and fore foot strike (Fore-FS) patterns. Methods: Participants (n = ...

  20. Foot strike patterns of recreational and sub-elite runners in a long-distance road race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Peter; Higgins, Erin; Kaminski, Justin; Decker, Tamara; Preble, Janine; Lyons, Daniela; McIntyre, Kevin; Normile, Adam

    2011-12-01

    Although the biomechanical properties of the various types of running foot strike (rearfoot, midfoot, and forefoot) have been studied extensively in the laboratory, only a few studies have attempted to quantify the frequency of running foot strike variants among runners in competitive road races. We classified the left and right foot strike patterns of 936 distance runners, most of whom would be considered of recreational or sub-elite ability, at the 10 km point of a half-marathon/marathon road race. We classified 88.9% of runners at the 10 km point as rearfoot strikers, 3.4% as midfoot strikers, 1.8% as forefoot strikers, and 5.9% of runners exhibited discrete foot strike asymmetry. Rearfoot striking was more common among our sample of mostly recreational distance runners than has been previously reported for samples of faster runners. We also compared foot strike patterns of 286 individual marathon runners between the 10 km and 32 km race locations and observed increased frequency of rearfoot striking at 32 km. A large percentage of runners switched from midfoot and forefoot foot strikes at 10 km to rearfoot strikes at 32 km. The frequency of discrete foot strike asymmetry declined from the 10 km to the 32 km location. Among marathon runners, we found no significant relationship between foot strike patterns and race times.

  1. Geo-electrical and geological strikes of the Mount Lamongan geothermal area, East Java, Indonesia – preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraheni, L. R.; Niasari, S. W.; Nukman, M.

    2018-04-01

    Geothermal manifestations located in the Tiris, Mount Lamongan, Probolinggo, consist of warm springs. These warm springs have temperature from 35° until 45°C. Tiris fault has NW-SE dominant orientation, similar to some lineaments of maars and cinder cones around Mount Lamongan. The Mount Lamongan geothermal area is situated between Bromo and Argapura volcanoes. This study aims to map the geo-electrical and geological strikes in the study area. Phase tensor analysis has been performed in this study to determine geo-electrical strike of study area. Geological field campaign has been conducted to measure geological strikes. Then, orientation of geo-electrical strike was compared to geological strike. The result presents that the regional geological strike of study area is NW-SE while the orientation of geo-electrical strike is N-S.

  2. Select injury-related variables are affected by stride length and foot strike style during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Elizabeth R; Derrick, Timothy R

    2015-09-01

    Some frontal plane and transverse plane variables have been associated with running injury, but it is not known if they differ with foot strike style or as stride length is shortened. To identify if step width, iliotibial band strain and strain rate, positive and negative free moment, pelvic drop, hip adduction, knee internal rotation, and rearfoot eversion differ between habitual rearfoot and habitual mid-/forefoot strikers when running with both a rearfoot strike (RFS) and a mid-/forefoot strike (FFS) at 3 stride lengths. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 42 healthy runners (21 habitual rearfoot, 21 habitual mid-/forefoot) ran overground at 3.35 m/s with both a RFS and a FFS at their preferred stride lengths and 5% and 10% shorter. Variables did not differ between habitual groups. Step width was 1.5 cm narrower for FFS, widening to 0.8 cm as stride length shortened. Iliotibial band strain and strain rate did not differ between foot strikes but decreased as stride length shortened (0.3% and 1.8%/s, respectively). Pelvic drop was reduced 0.7° for FFS compared with RFS, and both pelvic drop and hip adduction decreased as stride length shortened (0.8° and 1.5°, respectively). Peak knee internal rotation was not affected by foot strike or stride length. Peak rearfoot eversion was not different between foot strikes but decreased 0.6° as stride length shortened. Peak positive free moment (normalized to body weight [BW] and height [h]) was not affected by foot strike or stride length. Peak negative free moment was -0.0038 BW·m/h greater for FFS and decreased -0.0004 BW·m/h as stride length shortened. The small decreases in most variables as stride length shortened were likely associated with the concomitant wider step width. RFS had slightly greater pelvic drop, while FFS had slightly narrower step width and greater negative free moment. Shortening one's stride length may decrease or at least not increase propensity for running injuries based on the variables

  3. Radiation from visual display terminals is harmless - but there are other hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidos, P.

    1980-01-01

    Widespread cases of rashes on, and irritation of the facial skin and eye inflammation among operators using visual display terminals led to anxiety that the cause could be electromagnetic radiation from the screens. Investigations carried out by the US National Institute fOr occupational safety and Health show that this is not the case. Other health hazards of an ergonomic and psychological nature are however indicated. A hypothesis advanced by the Work Environment Inspectorate in Bergen (Norway) is that minute dust particles become highly electrostatically charged by the screens and act as projectiles, striking the face and eyes. (JIW)

  4. The balancing act between the constitutional right to strike and the constitutional right to education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H J (Jaco Deacon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available While the South African Constitution enshrines both children's right to a basic education and teachers' right to strike, conflict between these two often occurs when the way in which teachers' unions conduct strike actions detracts from learners' education. This article identifies the parties affected by industrial action in the school context, and then proceeds to examine educators' right to strike as defined by the provisions of the Labour Relations Act. The unique implications of picketing in the education environment are then discussed, covering relevant questions such as where pickets may be held, the issue of picketing rules as well as unprotected pickets. Even though we are faced with a qualified right to strike as opposed to an unqualified right to education, the South African reality seems to be that striking teachers are handled with kid gloves. It is therefore concluded that the vast range of existing laws regulating protest action should be applied more effectively. One of the most important aspects should be the picketing rules, which should clearly determine whether picketing in fact contributes to resolution of the dispute, and how learners' interests and rights may best be actualised.

  5. Midtarsal locking, the windlass mechanism, and running strike pattern: A kinematic and kinetic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, Dustin A; Pohl, Michael B; Takahashi, Kota Z; Barrios, Joaquin A

    2018-05-17

    Changes in running strike pattern affect ankle and knee mechanics, but little is known about the influence of strike pattern on the joints distal to the ankle. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of forefoot strike (FFS) and rearfoot strike (RFS) running patterns on foot kinematics and kinetics, from the perspectives of the midtarsal locking theory and the windlass mechanism. Per the midtarsal locking theory, we hypothesized that the ankle would be more inverted in early stance when using a FFS, resulting in decreased midtarsal joint excursions and increased dynamic stiffness. Associated with a more engaged windlass mechanism, we hypothesized that a FFS would elicit increased metatarsophalangeal joint excursions and negative work in late stance. Eighteen healthy female runners ran overground with both FFS and RFS patterns. Instrumented motion capture and a validated multi-segment foot model were used to analyze midtarsal and metatarsophalangeal joint kinematics and kinetics. During early stance in FFS the ankle was more inverted, with concurrently decreased midtarsal eversion (p strike pattern during running. However, the windlass mechanism appeared to be engaged to a greater extent during FFS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of Foot-Strike Patterns: Lack of an Association With Injuries or Performance in Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warr, Bradley J; Fellin, Rebecca E; Sauer, Shane G; Goss, Donald L; Frykman, Peter N; Seay, Joseph F

    2015-07-01

    Characterize the distribution of foot-strike (FS) patterns in U.S. Army Soldiers and determine if FS patterns are related to self-reported running injuries and performance. 341 male Soldiers from a U.S. Army Combined Arms Battalion ran at their training pace for 100 meters, and FSs were recorded in the sagittal plane. Participants also completed a survey related to training habits, injury history, and run times. Two researchers classified FS patterns as heel strike (HS) or nonheel strike (NHS, combination of midfoot strike and forefoot strike patterns). Two clinicians classified the musculoskeletal injuries as acute or overuse. The relationship of FS type with two-mile run time and running-related injury was analyzed (p ≤ 0.05). The Soldiers predominately landed with an HS (87%) and only 13% were characterized as NHS. Running-related injury was similar between HS (50.3%) and NHS (55.6%) patterns (p = 0.51). There was no difference (p = 0.14) between overuse injury rates between an HS pattern (31.8%) and an NHS pattern (31.0%). Two-mile run times were also similar, with both groups averaging 14:48 minutes. Soldiers were mostly heel strikers (87%) in this U.S. Army Combined Arms Battalion. Neither FS pattern was advantageous for increased performance or decreased incidence of running-related injury. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  7. Joint contact loading in forefoot and rearfoot strike patterns during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Brandon D; Derrick, Timothy R

    2013-09-03

    Research concerning forefoot strike pattern (FFS) versus rearfoot strike pattern (RFS) running has focused on the ground reaction force even though internal joint contact forces are a more direct measure of the loads responsible for injury. The main purpose of this study was to determine the internal loading of the joints for each strike pattern. A secondary purpose was to determine if converted FFS and RFS runners can adequately represent habitual runners with regards to the internal joint loading. Using inverse dynamics to calculate the net joint moments and reaction forces and optimization techniques to estimate muscle forces, we determined the axial compressive loading at the ankle, knee, and hip. Subjects consisted of 15 habitual FFS and 15 habitual RFS competitive runners. Each subject ran at a preferred running velocity with their habitual strike pattern and then converted to the opposite strike pattern. Plantar flexor muscle forces and net ankle joint moments were greater in the FFS running compared to the RFS running during the first half of the stance phase. The average contact forces during this period increased by 41.7% at the ankle and 14.4% at the knee joint during FFS running. Peak ankle joint contact force was 1.5 body weights greater during FFS running (pstrike pattern. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Acute Alterations in Foot Strike Patterns during Running on Sagittal Plane Lower Limb Kinematics and Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Kevin A; Lynn, Scott K; Mikelson, Lisa R; Noffal, Guillermo J; Judelson, Daniel A

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of foot strike patterns and converted foot strike patterns on lower limb kinematics and kinetics at the hip, knee, and ankle during a shod condition. Subjects were videotaped with a high speed camera while running a 5km at self-selected pace on a treadmill to determine natural foot strike pattern on day one. Preferred forefoot group (PFFG, n = 10) and preferred rear foot group (PRFG, n = 11) subjects were identified through slow motion video playback (n = 21, age = 22.8±2.2 years, mass = 73.1±14.5 kg, height 1.75 ± 0.10 m). On day two, subjects performed five overground run trials in both their natural and unnatural strike patterns while motion and force data were collected. Data were collected over two days so that foot strike videos could be analyzed for group placement purposes. Several 2 (Foot Strike Pattern -forefoot strike [FFS], rearfoot strike [RFS]) x 2 (Group - PFFG, PRFG) mixed model ANOVAs (p strike patterns during shod running can create alterations in certain lower limb kinematic and kinetic measures that are not dependent on the preferred foot strike pattern of the individual. This research also challenges the contention that the impact transient spike in the vertical ground reaction force curve is only present during a rear foot strike type of running gait. Key pointsFootstrike pattern changes should be individually considered and implemented based on individual histories/abilitiesForefoot strike patterns increase external dorsiflexion momentsRearfoot strike patterns increase external knee flexion momentsRecreational shod runners are able to mimic habitual mechanics of different foot strike patterns.

  9. cGMP-dependent protein kinase type II knockout mice exhibit working memory impairments, decreased repetitive behavior, and increased anxiety-like traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wincott, Charlotte M; Abera, Sinedu; Vunck, Sarah A; Tirko, Natasha; Choi, Yoon; Titcombe, Roseann F; Antoine, Shannon O; Tukey, David S; DeVito, Loren M; Hofmann, Franz; Hoeffer, Charles A; Ziff, Edward B

    2014-10-01

    Neuronal activity regulates AMPA receptor trafficking, a process that mediates changes in synaptic strength, a key component of learning and memory. This form of plasticity may be induced by stimulation of the NMDA receptor which, among its activities, increases cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) through the nitric oxide synthase pathway. cGMP-dependent protein kinase type II (cGKII) is ultimately activated via this mechanism and AMPA receptor subunit GluA1 is phosphorylated at serine 845. This phosphorylation contributes to the delivery of GluA1 to the synapse, a step that increases synaptic strength. Previous studies have shown that cGKII-deficient mice display striking spatial learning deficits in the Morris Water Maze compared to wild-type littermates as well as lowered GluA1 phosphorylation in the postsynaptic density of the prefrontal cortex (Serulle et al., 2007; Wincott et al., 2013). In the current study, we show that cGKII knockout mice exhibit impaired working memory as determined using the prefrontal cortex-dependent Radial Arm Maze (RAM). Additionally, we report reduced repetitive behavior in the Marble Burying task (MB), and heightened anxiety-like traits in the Novelty Suppressed Feeding Test (NSFT). These data suggest that cGKII may play a role in the integration of information that conveys both anxiety-provoking stimuli as well as the spatial and environmental cues that facilitate functional memory processes and appropriate behavioral response. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Auditory display as feedback for a novel eye-tracking system for sterile operating room interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, David; Unger, Michael; Fischer, Nele; Kikinis, Ron; Hahn, Horst; Neumuth, Thomas; Glaser, Bernhard

    2018-01-01

    The growing number of technical systems in the operating room has increased attention on developing touchless interaction methods for sterile conditions. However, touchless interaction paradigms lack the tactile feedback found in common input devices such as mice and keyboards. We propose a novel touchless eye-tracking interaction system with auditory display as a feedback method for completing typical operating room tasks. Auditory display provides feedback concerning the selected input into the eye-tracking system as well as a confirmation of the system response. An eye-tracking system with a novel auditory display using both earcons and parameter-mapping sonification was developed to allow touchless interaction for six typical scrub nurse tasks. An evaluation with novice participants compared auditory display with visual display with respect to reaction time and a series of subjective measures. When using auditory display to substitute for the lost tactile feedback during eye-tracking interaction, participants exhibit reduced reaction time compared to using visual-only display. In addition, the auditory feedback led to lower subjective workload and higher usefulness and system acceptance ratings. Due to the absence of tactile feedback for eye-tracking and other touchless interaction methods, auditory display is shown to be a useful and necessary addition to new interaction concepts for the sterile operating room, reducing reaction times while improving subjective measures, including usefulness, user satisfaction, and cognitive workload.

  11. Basics of Antibody Phage Display Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledsgaard, Line; Kilstrup, Mogens; Karatt-Vellatt, Aneesh; McCafferty, John; Laustsen, Andreas H

    2018-06-09

    Antibody discovery has become increasingly important in almost all areas of modern medicine. Different antibody discovery approaches exist, but one that has gained increasing interest in the field of toxinology and antivenom research is phage display technology. In this review, the lifecycle of the M13 phage and the basics of phage display technology are presented together with important factors influencing the success rates of phage display experiments. Moreover, the pros and cons of different antigen display methods and the use of naïve versus immunized phage display antibody libraries is discussed, and selected examples from the field of antivenom research are highlighted. This review thus provides in-depth knowledge on the principles and use of phage display technology with a special focus on discovery of antibodies that target animal toxins.

  12. Three-dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display

    CERN Document Server

    Javidi, Bahram; Son, Jung-Young

    2009-01-01

    Three-Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display describes recent developments, as well as the prospects and challenges facing 3D imaging, visualization, and display systems and devices. With the rapid advances in electronics, hardware, and software, 3D imaging techniques can now be implemented with commercially available components and can be used for many applications. This volume discusses the state-of-the-art in 3D display and visualization technologies, including binocular, multi-view, holographic, and image reproduction and capture techniques. It also covers 3D optical systems, 3D display instruments, 3D imaging applications, and details several attractive methods for producing 3D moving pictures. This book integrates the background material with new advances and applications in the field, and the available online supplement will include full color videos of 3D display systems. Three-Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display is suitable for electrical engineers, computer scientists, optical e...

  13. Data display with the Q system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oothoudt, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    The Q data-acquisition system for PDP-11 mini-computers at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) provides experimenters with basic tools for on-line data display. Tasks are available to plot one- and two-parameter histograms on Tektronix 4000 series storage-tube terminals. The histograms to be displayed and the display format may be selected with simple keyboard commands. A task is also available to create and display live two-parameter scatter plots for any acquired or calculated quantities. Other tasks in the system manage the display data base, list display parameters and histogram contents on hardcopy devices, and save core histograms on disk or tape for off-line analysis. 8 figures

  14. Effect of display size on visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Ping; Liao, Chia-Ning; Yeh, Shih-Hao

    2011-06-01

    Attention plays an important role in the design of human-machine interfaces. However, current knowledge about attention is largely based on data obtained when using devices of moderate display size. With advancement in display technology comes the need for understanding attention behavior over a wider range of viewing sizes. The effect of display size on test participants' visual search performance was studied. The participants (N = 12) performed two types of visual search tasks, that is, parallel and serial search, under three display-size conditions (16 degrees, 32 degrees, and 60 degrees). Serial, but not parallel, search was affected by display size. In the serial task, mean reaction time for detecting a target increased with the display size.

  15. Helmet-Mounted Display Design Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-03

    on openStack create menu "CSHMD" set the menuitems of "CSHMD" to "(Main Menu; References;-; Definitions;Display Criteria;Display Formats;Display Modes...34Macintosh" then put ":" into dirSep else put "V’ into dirSep put stackPathO&"Resource"&dirSep into gResPath put 0 into gXRef end openStack on

  16. Method for control-room display design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montmayeul, R.

    1988-01-01

    This document describes a method for control-room displays design. It can be used either for isolated display to add to an existing system either for the design of a full system of operator aids. The method is a top-down design with steps of possible iteration. The emphasis is put on display design rather than on system design; system aspects are just mentioned. Advantages of using a method are described [fr

  17. Optimizing direct response in Internet display advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Aksakallı, Vural

    2013-01-01

    Internet display advertising has grown into a multi-billion dollar a year global industry and direct response campaigns account for about three-quarters of all Internet display advertising. In such campaigns, advertisers reach out to a target audience via some form of a visual advertisement (hereinafter also called “ad”) to maximize short-term sales revenue. In this study, we formulate an advertiser’s revenue maximization problem in direct response Internet display advertisement campaigns as ...

  18. Manufacturing considerations for AMLCD cockpit displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Fang-Chen

    1995-06-01

    AMLCD cockpit displays need to meet more stringent requirements compared with AMLCD commercial displays in areas such as environmental conditions, optical performance and device reliability. Special considerations are required for the manufacturing of AMLCD cockpit displays in each process step to address these issues. Some examples are: UV stable polarizers, wide-temperature LC material, strong LC glue seal, ESS test system, gray scale voltage EEPROM, etc.

  19. Online Display Advertising Causal Attribution and Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Barajas Zamora, Joel

    2015-01-01

    The allocation of a given budget to online display advertising as a marketing channel has motivated the development of statistical methods to measure its effectiveness. Recent studies show that display advertising often triggers online users to search for more information on products. Eventually, many of these users convert at the advertiser’s website. A key challenge is to measure the effectiveness of display advertising when users are exposed to multiple unknown advertising channels.We deve...

  20. Statistical Arbitrage Mining for Display Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Weinan; Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    We study and formulate arbitrage in display advertising. Real-Time Bidding (RTB) mimics stock spot exchanges and utilises computers to algorithmically buy display ads per impression via a real-time auction. Despite the new automation, the ad markets are still informationally inefficient due to the heavily fragmented marketplaces. Two display impressions with similar or identical effectiveness (e.g., measured by conversion or click-through rates for a targeted audience) may sell for quite diff...

  1. [Hunger striking in prisons: ethics and the ethical and legal aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Guerrero, J

    2013-01-01

    Hunger strike is a common form of protest in prisons and is a potential cause of many types of problems, both for the prison administration and the doctors who care for prisoners who participate in one. Issues of conflict of rights and obligations involved, and how to treat people who are subject to the Administration, which in this case takes the position of guarantor, have created major controversies over doctrine. Conscientious objection and the conflict of dual loyalty of doctors working in prisons are also issues closely linked to a prison hunger strike. In this paper we review the solution given to the problem of treatment of a prison hunger strike from three perspectives: ethics, ethical and legal.

  2. [Lightning strikes and lightning injuries in prehospital emergency medicine. Relevance, results, and practical implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkelbein, J; Spelten, O; Wetsch, W A

    2013-01-01

    Up to 32.2% of patients in a burn center suffer from electrical injuries. Of these patients, 2-4% present with lightning injuries. In Germany, approximately 50 people per year are injured by a lightning strike and 3-7 fatally. Typically, people involved in outdoor activities are endangered and affected. A lightning strike usually produces significantly higher energy doses as compared to those in common electrical injuries. Therefore, injury patterns vary significantly. Especially in high voltage injuries and lightning injuries, internal injuries are of special importance. Mortality ranges between 10 and 30% after a lightning strike. Emergency medical treatment is similar to common electrical injuries. Patients with lightning injuries should be transported to a regional or supraregional trauma center. In 15% of all cases multiple people may be injured. Therefore, it is of outstanding importance to create emergency plans and evacuation plans in good time for mass gatherings endangered by possible lightning.

  3. 12 weeks of simulated barefoot running changes foot-strike patterns in female runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, C; Fleming, N; Donne, B; Blanksby, B

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the effect of a transition program of simulated barefoot running (SBR) on running kinematics and foot-strike patterns, female recreational athletes (n=9, age 29 ± 3 yrs) without SBR experience gradually increased running distance in Vibram FiveFingers SBR footwear over 12 weeks. Matched controls (n=10, age 30 ± 4 yrs) continued running in standard footwear. A 3-D motion analysis of treadmill running at 12 km/h(-1) was performed by both groups, barefoot and shod, pre- and post-intervention. Post-intervention data indicated a more-forefoot strike pattern in the SBR group compared to controls; both running barefoot (P>0.05), and shod (Pstrike (Pforefoot strike pattern and "barefoot" kinematics, regardless of preferred footwear. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Energy Awareness Displays - Making the Invisible Visible

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Börner, D. (2011). Energy Awareness Displays - Making the Invisible Visible. Presentation given at the Startbijeenkomst SURFnet Innovatieregeling Duurzaamheid & ICT. May, 13, 2011, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

  5. Refreshable Braille displays using EAP actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2010-04-01

    Refreshable Braille can help visually impaired persons benefit from the growing advances in computer technology. The development of such displays in a full screen form is a great challenge due to the need to pack many actuators in small area without interferences. In recent years, various displays using actuators such as piezoelectric stacks have become available in commercial form but most of them are limited to one line Braille code. Researchers in the field of electroactive polymers (EAP) investigated methods of using these materials to form full screen displays. This manuscript reviews the state of the art of producing refreshable Braille displays using EAP-based actuators.

  6. NCAP projection displays: key issues for commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Akira; Jones, Philip J.

    1992-06-01

    Recently there has been much interest in a new polymer nematic dispersion technology, often called as NCAP, PDLC, PNLC, LCPC, etc., since projection displays using this technology have been shown to produce much brighter display images than projectors using conventional twisted nematic (TN) lightvalves. For commercializing projection displays based on this polymer nematic dispersion technology, the new materials must not only meet various electro- optic requirements, e.g., operational voltage, `off-state'' scattering angle, voltage holding ratio and hysteresis, but must also be stable over the lifetime of the product. This paper reports recent progress in the development of NCAP based projection displays and discusses some of the key commercialization issues.

  7. New ultraportable display technology and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvelda, Phillip; Lewis, Nancy D.

    1998-08-01

    MicroDisplay devices are based on a combination of technologies rooted in the extreme integration capability of conventionally fabricated CMOS active-matrix liquid crystal display substrates. Customized diffraction grating and optical distortion correction technology for lens-system compensation allow the elimination of many lenses and systems-level components. The MicroDisplay Corporation's miniature integrated information display technology is rapidly leading to many new defense and commercial applications. There are no moving parts in MicroDisplay substrates, and the fabrication of the color generating gratings, already part of the CMOS circuit fabrication process, is effectively cost and manufacturing process-free. The entire suite of the MicroDisplay Corporation's technologies was devised to create a line of application- specific integrated circuit single-chip display systems with integrated computing, memory, and communication circuitry. Next-generation portable communication, computer, and consumer electronic devices such as truly portable monitor and TV projectors, eyeglass and head mounted displays, pagers and Personal Communication Services hand-sets, and wristwatch-mounted video phones are among the may target commercial markets for MicroDisplay technology. Defense applications range from Maintenance and Repair support, to night-vision systems, to portable projectors for mobile command and control centers.

  8. Microencapsulated Electrophoretic Films for Electronic Paper Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Karl

    2003-03-01

    Despite the dominance of liquid crystal displays, they do not perform some functions very well. While backlit liquid crystal displays can offer excellent color performance, they wash out in bright lighting and suffer from high power consumption. Reflective liquid crystal displays have limited brightness, making these devices challenging to read for long periods of time. Flexible liquid crystal displays are difficult to manufacture and keep stable. All of these attributes (long battery lifetime, bright reflective appearance, compatibility with flexible substrates) are traits that would be found in an ideal electronic paper display - an updateable substitute for paper that could be employed in electronic books, newspapers, and other applications. I will discuss technologies that are being developed for electronic-paper-like displays, and especially on particle-based technologies. A microencapsulated electrophoretic display technology is being developed at the E Ink corporation. This display film offers offer high brightness and an ink-on-paper appearance, compatibility with flexible substrates, and image stability that can lead to very low power consumption. I will present some of the physical and chemical challenges associated with making display films with high performance.

  9. Exploring interaction with 3D volumetric displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Tovi; Wigdor, Daniel; Balakrishnan, Ravin

    2005-03-01

    Volumetric displays generate true volumetric 3D images by actually illuminating points in 3D space. As a result, viewing their contents is similar to viewing physical objects in the real world. These displays provide a 360 degree field of view, and do not require the user to wear hardware such as shutter glasses or head-trackers. These properties make them a promising alternative to traditional display systems for viewing imagery in 3D. Because these displays have only recently been made available commercially (e.g., www.actuality-systems.com), their current use tends to be limited to non-interactive output-only display devices. To take full advantage of the unique features of these displays, however, it would be desirable if the 3D data being displayed could be directly interacted with and manipulated. We investigate interaction techniques for volumetric display interfaces, through the development of an interactive 3D geometric model building application. While this application area itself presents many interesting challenges, our focus is on the interaction techniques that are likely generalizable to interactive applications for other domains. We explore a very direct style of interaction where the user interacts with the virtual data using direct finger manipulations on and around the enclosure surrounding the displayed 3D volumetric image.

  10. Refreshable Braille Displays Using EAP Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2010-01-01

    Refreshable Braille can help visually impaired persons benefit from the growing advances in computer technology. The development of such displays in a full screen form is a great challenge due to the need to pack many actuators in small area without interferences. In recent years, various displays using actuators such as piezoelectric stacks have become available in commercial form but most of them are limited to one line Braille code. Researchers in the field of electroactive polymers (EAP) investigated methods of using these materials to form full screen displays. This manuscript reviews the state of the art of producing refreshable Braille displays using EAP-based actuators..

  11. PENGARUH DISPLAY PRODUK PADA KEPUTUSAN PEMBELIAN KONSUMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Melati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of ritel outlet recently using product display as a one of their best marketing strategy, the reason is quiet easy to be understood, since consumers are too easy to be teased by those kind of beautiful product display that is being displayed by the retail outlet. The good retail outlets are trying their best to design and make the very good product display, so they can attract more consumers and make them not thinking twice to visit their store and purchase lots of thing. Clearly seeing that an attractive product design is able to influence a consumer to make a buying decision. 

  12. Human Factors Military Lexicon: Auditory Displays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Letowski, Tomasz

    2001-01-01

    .... In addition to definitions specific to auditory displays, speech communication, and audio technology, the lexicon includes several terms unique to military operational environments and human factors...

  13. Digital image display system for emergency room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murry, R.C.; Lane, T.J.; Miax, L.S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on a digital image display system for the emergency room (ER) in a major trauma hospital. Its objective is to reduce radiographic image delivery time to a busy ER while simultaneously providing a multimodality capability. Image storage, retrieval, and display will also be facilitated with this system. The system's backbone is a token-ring network of RISC and personal computers. The display terminals are higher- function RISC computers with 1,024 2 color or gray-scale monitors. The PCs serve as administrative terminals. Nuclear medicine, CT, MR, and digitized film images are transferred to the image display system

  14. Bex1 knock out mice show altered skeletal muscle regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Jae Hyung; Smiley, Mark A.; Lovering, Richard M.; Margolis, Frank L.

    2007-01-01

    Bex1 and Calmodulin (CaM) are upregulated during skeletal muscle regeneration. We confirm this finding and demonstrate the novel finding that they interact in a calcium-dependent manner. To study the role of Bex1 and its interaction with CaM in skeletal muscle regeneration, we generated Bex1 knock out (Bex1-KO) mice. These mice appeared to develop normally and are fertile, but displayed a functional deficit in exercise performance compared to wild type (WT) mice. After intramuscular injection of cardiotoxin, which causes extensive and reproducible myotrauma followed by recovery, regenerating muscles of Bex1-KO mice exhibited elevated and prolonged cell proliferation, as well as delayed cell differentiation, compared to WT mice. Thus, our results provide the first evidence that Bex1-KO mice show altered muscle regeneration, and allow us to propose that the interaction of Bex1 with Ca 2+ /CaM may be involved in skeletal muscle regeneration

  15. Dance choreography is coordinated with song repertoire in a complex avian display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalziell, Anastasia H; Peters, Richard A; Cockburn, Andrew; Dorland, Alexandra D; Maisey, Alex C; Magrath, Robert D

    2013-06-17

    All human cultures have music and dance, and the two activities are so closely integrated that many languages use just one word to describe both. Recent research points to a deep cognitive connection between music and dance-like movements in humans, fueling speculation that music and dance have coevolved and prompting the need for studies of audiovisual displays in other animals. However, little is known about how nonhuman animals integrate acoustic and movement display components. One striking property of human displays is that performers coordinate dance with music by matching types of dance movements with types of music, as when dancers waltz to waltz music. Here, we show that a bird also temporally coordinates a repertoire of song types with a repertoire of dance-like movements. During displays, male superb lyrebirds (Menura novaehollandiae) sing four different song types, matching each with a unique set of movements and delivering song and dance types in a predictable sequence. Crucially, display movements are both unnecessary for the production of sound and voluntary, because males sometimes sing without dancing. Thus, the coordination of independently produced repertoires of acoustic and movement signals is not a uniquely human trait. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ankle and knee kinetics between strike patterns at common training speeds in competitive male runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhman, Daniel; Melcher, Daniel; Paquette, Max R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction of foot strike and common speeds on sagittal plane ankle and knee joint kinetics in competitive rear foot strike (RFS) runners when running with a RFS pattern and an imposed forefoot strike (FFS) pattern. Sixteen competitive habitual male RFS runners ran at two different speeds (i.e. 8 and 6 min mile(-1)) using their habitual RFS and an imposed FFS pattern. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to assess a potential interaction between strike pattern and speed for selected ground reaction force (GRF) variables and, sagittal plane ankle and knee kinematic and kinetic variables. No foot strike and speed interaction was observed for any of the kinetic variables. Habitual RFS yielded a greater loading rate of the vertical GRF, peak ankle dorsiflexor moment, peak knee extensor moment, peak knee eccentric extensor power, peak dorsiflexion and sagittal plane knee range of motion compared to imposed FFS. Imposed FFS yielded greater maximum vertical GRF, peak ankle plantarflexor moment, peak ankle eccentric plantarflexor power and sagittal plane ankle ROM compared to habitual RFS. Consistent with previous literature, imposed FFS in habitual RFS reduces eccentric knee extensor and ankle dorsiflexor involvement but produce greater eccentric ankle plantarflexor action compared to RFS. These acute differences between strike patterns were independent of running speeds equivalent to typical easy and hard training runs in competitive male runners. Current findings along with previous literature suggest differences in lower extremity kinetics between habitual RFS and imposed FFS running are consistent among a variety of runner populations.

  17. Structured methods and striking moments: using question sequences in "living" ways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Roger

    2005-03-01

    This article draws together two seemingly incompatible practices in social constructionist therapies: the use of structured questioning methods (associated with solution-focused and narrative therapies) and the poetic elaboration of "striking moments" (associated with conversational therapies). To what extent can we value and use both styles of practice? Beginning with practitioners' concerns about the use of structured question sequences, I explore possibilities for resituating these methods in different conceptual and metaphorical frames, selectively drawing on ideas from the philosophy of striking moments. The aim is not to reduce one therapeutic style to another, but to encourage the teaching and practice of structured methods in more creative, improvisational, and "living" ways.

  18. Vådområder, flyvepladser og risiko for bird strikes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Kjær; Hounisen, Jens Peder

    2015-01-01

    Rapporten udgør en opdatering af Teknisk anvisning nr. 23 fra DMU (Christensen & Hounisen 2006), omhandlende risikovurdering for bird strikes (kollisioner mellem fugle og fly) i danske lufthavne ved etablering af vådområder nær disse. Rapporten analyserer relationen mellem ændrede forekomster af...... søer og enge/moser indenfor lufthavnenes sikkerhedszoner på 13 km og forekomsten af bird strikes i perioden 2006-2013. Anbefalinger til placering og størrelse af vådområder i lufthavnenes sikkerhedszoner er opdateret på baggrund af rapportens resultater....

  19. Research on Line Patrol Strategy of 110kV Transmission Line after Lightning Strike

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Mingjun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightning faults occupy in the majority of instantaneous fault and reclosing can usually be successful, so power supply can be restored without immediate patrol in many cases. Firstly, this paper introduces the lightning fault positioning and identifying method. Then test electrical performance of insulators after lightning strike from 110kV lines. Data shows that lightning strike has little effect on the electric performance of insulator. Finally, illustrating disposal process of the 110 kV transmission line after lightning fault, certifying that the power supply reliability be ensured without line patrol.

  20. Becoming stronger by becoming weaker: the hunger strike as a mode of doing politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsson, Carl Sebastian; Danyi, Endre

    2018-01-01

    immigrants, we aim to achieve three things. First, we foreground physical bodies as political entities caught up in multiple modes of doing politics. Second, we show how such modes relate to one another, reinforcing citizenship, activism and party politics as specific performances of agency associated...... with liberal democracy. Finally, we argue that the Brussels hunger strike also challenges these performances by failing to meet certain expectations about what it is to be political/act politically. As the European refugee crisis is generating louder and louder voices, hunger strikes sensitise us to modes...

  1. A parabolic variational inequality arising from the valuation of strike reset options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhou; Yi, Fahuai; Dai, Min

    A strike reset option is an option that allows its holder to reset the strike price to the prevailing underlying asset price at a moment chosen by the holder. The pricing model of the option can be formulated as a one-dimensional parabolic variational inequality, or equivalently, a free boundary problem, where the free boundary just corresponds to the optimal reset strategy adopted by the holder of the option. This paper is concerned with the theoretical analysis of the model. The existence and uniqueness of the solution are established. Furthermore, we study properties of the free boundary. The monotonicity and C smoothness of the free boundary are proven in some situations.

  2. Increased Oocyte Degeneration and Follicular Atresia during the Estrous Cycle in Anti-Müllerian Hormone Null Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Jenny A.; Durlinger, Alexandra L.L.; Peters, Isolde J.J.; Heuvel, Edwin R. van den; Rose, Ursula M.; Kramer, Piet; Jong, Frank H. de; Themmen, Axel P.N.

    2007-01-01

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) plays an important role in folliculogenesis. AMH null mice display an increased recruitment of primordial follicles. Nevertheless, these mice do not have proportionally more preovulatory follicles. Therefore, AMH null mice provide an interesting genetic model to study

  3. Effect of display location on control-display stereotype strength for translational and rotational controls with linear displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alan H S; Hoffmann, Errol R

    2015-01-01

    Experiments were designed to investigate the effects of control type and display location, relative to the operator, on the strength of control/display stereotypes. The Worringham and Beringer Visual Field principle and an extension of this principle for rotary controls (Hoffmann E.R., and Chan A.H.S. 2013). "The Worringham and Beringer 'Visual Field' Principle for Rotary Controls. Ergonomics." 56 (10): 1620-1624) indicated that, for a number of different control types (rotary and lever) on different planes, there should be no significant effect of the display location relative to the seated operator. Past data were surveyed and stereotype strengths listed. Experiments filled gaps where data are not available. Six different control types and seven display locations were used, as in the Frame of Reference Transformation Tool (FORT) model of Wickens et al. (Wickens, C.D., Keller, J.W., and Small, R.L. (2010). "Left. No, Right! Development of the Frame of Reference Transformation Tool (FORT)." Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 54th Annual Meeting September 2010, 54: 1022-1026). Control/display arrangements with high stereotype strengths were evaluated yielding data for designers of complex control/display arrangements where the control and display are in different planes and for where the operator is moving. It was found possible to predict display/control arrangements with high stereotype strength, based on past data. Practitioner Summary: Controls and displays in complex arrangements need to have high compatibility. These experiments provide arrangements for six different controls (rotary and translational) and seven different display locations relative to the operator.

  4. Lightning strikes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dance, B.

    1982-01-01

    If a nuclear weapon were struck by a powerful lightning flash, what would happen Scientists have assembled a simulator to produce exceptionally powerful discharges to try to find the answer to this question by practical test. The Sandia facility enables the extremely powerful lightning discharges which occur only once in every hundred lightning strokes to be duplicated. A bolt is composed of a series of strokes between two clouds or between one cloud and the earth. The simulator consists of four circuits, an inductor, a resistor and a special crowbar-switch developed at Sandia. The crowbar is for accuracy in the simulation of a lightning stroke. The test data is conveyed to computers for analysis by means of fibre-optic links. The first series of tests involve the warhead for the Air-Launched Cruise Missile

  5. Striking movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    Like all music performance, percussion playing requires high control over timing and sound properties. Specific to percussionists, however, is the need to adjust the movement to different instruments with varying physical properties and tactile feedback to the player. Furthermore, the well defined...... note onsets and short interaction times between player and instrument do not allow for much adjustment once a stroke is initiated. The paper surveys research that shows a close relationship between movement and sound production, and how playing conditions such as tempo and the rebound after impact...

  6. Evaluating Ambient Displays in the Wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messeter, Jörn; Molenaar, Daryn

    A prominent issue for evaluating ambient displays has been the conflict between the relative intrusiveness of evaluation methods and the intention to keep the display at the periphery of the user’s attention. There is a general lack of research discussing the difficulties of evaluating ambient di...

  7. A visual-display and storage device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosomworth, D. R.; Moles, W. H.

    1972-01-01

    Memory and display device uses cathodochromic material to store visual information and fast phosphor to recall information for display and electronic processing. Cathodochromic material changes color when bombarded with electrons, and is restored to its original color when exposed to light of appropiate wavelength.

  8. Liquid crystal displays with plastic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueder, Ernst H.

    1998-04-01

    Plastic substrates for the cells of displays exhibit only 1/6 of the weight of glass substrates; they are virtually unbreakable; their flexibility allows the designer to give them a shape suppressing reflections, to realize a display board on a curved surface or meeting the requirements for an appealing styling; displays with plastics are thinner which provides a wider viewing angle. These features render them attractive for displays in portable systems such as mobile phones, pagers, smart cards, personal digital assistants (PDAs) and portable computers. Reflective displays are especially attractive as they don't need a back light. The most important requirements are the protection of plastics against gas permeation and chemical agents, the prevention of layers on plastics to crack or peel off when the plastic is bent and the development of low temperature thin film processes because the plastics, as a rule, only tolerate temperatures below 150 degrees Celsius. Bistable reflective FLC- and PSCT-displays with plastic substrates will be introduced. Special sputtered SiO2-orientation layers preserve the displayed information even if pressure or torsion is applied. MIM-addressed PDLC-displays require additional Al- or Ti-layers which provide the necessary ductility. Sputtered or PECVD-generated TFTs can be fabricated on plastics at temperatures below 150 degrees Celsius.

  9. Volumetric, dashboard-mounted augmented display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, David; Grabowski, Christopher

    2017-11-01

    The optical design of a compact volumetric display for drivers is presented. The system displays a true volume image with realistic physical depth cues, such as focal accommodation, parallax and convergence. A large eyebox is achieved with a pupil expander. The windshield is used as the augmented reality combiner. A freeform windshield corrector is placed at the dashboard.

  10. Spielräume schulischer Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Lehn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Antje Lehn zeigt in ihrem Beitrag, wie durch einen erweiterten Display-Begriff in der Schulklasse durch konkrete Projekte Frontalunterricht unterwandert und das Klassenzimmer zu einem ergebnisoffenen Handlungsraum umgestaltet werden kann. Auch Decken, Spiegel, Tische und Spinde sind Displays ...

  11. Nucleic acid secondary structure prediction and display.

    OpenAIRE

    Stüber, K

    1986-01-01

    A set of programs has been developed for the prediction and display of nucleic acid secondary structures. Information from experimental data can be used to restrict or enforce secondary structural elements. The predictions can be displayed either on normal line printers or on graphic devices like plotters or graphic terminals.

  12. Young Children's Responses to Guilt Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaish, Amrisha; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Displaying guilt after a transgression serves to appease the victim and other group members, restore interpersonal relationships, and indicate the transgressors' awareness of and desire to conform to the group's norms. We investigated whether and when young children are sensitive to these functions of guilt displays. In Study 1, after 4- and…

  13. 27 CFR 6.55 - Display service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Display service. 6.55 Section 6.55 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Paying for Advertising, Display Or...

  14. Preference for and discrimination of paintings by mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Watanabe

    Full Text Available I measured preference for paintings (Renoir vs. Picasso or Kandinsky vs. Mondrian in mice. In general mice did not display a painting preference except for two mice: one preferred Renoir to Picasso, and the other preferred Kandinsky to Mondrian. Thereafter, I examined discrimination of paintings with new mice. When exposure to paintings of one artist was associated with an injection of morphine (3.0 mg/kg, mice displayed conditioned preference for those paintings, showing discrimination of paintings by Renoir from those by Picasso, and paintings by Kandinsky from those by Mondrian after the conditioning. They also exhibited generalization of the preference to novel paintings of the artists. After conditioning with morphine for a set of paintings consisting of two artists, mice showed discrimination between two sets of paintings also from the two artists but not in association with morphine. These results suggest that mice can discriminate not only between an artist's style but also among paintings of the same artist. When mice were trained to discriminate a pair of paintings by Kandinsky and Renoir in an operant chamber equipped with a touch screen, they showed transfer of the discrimination to new pairs of the artists, but did not show transfer of discrimination of paintings by other artists, suggesting generalization.

  15. Real time speech formant analyzer and display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, George E.; Struve, Walter S.; Homer, John F.

    1987-01-01

    A speech analyzer for interpretation of sound includes a sound input which converts the sound into a signal representing the sound. The signal is passed through a plurality of frequency pass filters to derive a plurality of frequency formants. These formants are converted to voltage signals by frequency-to-voltage converters and then are prepared for visual display in continuous real time. Parameters from the inputted sound are also derived and displayed. The display may then be interpreted by the user. The preferred embodiment includes a microprocessor which is interfaced with a television set for displaying of the sound formants. The microprocessor software enables the sound analyzer to present a variety of display modes for interpretive and therapeutic used by the user.

  16. Evaluation of tactual displays for flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, W. H.; Tanner, R. B.; Triggs, T. J.

    1973-01-01

    Manual tracking experiments were conducted to determine the suitability of tactual displays for presenting flight-control information in multitask situations. Although tracking error scores are considerably greater than scores obtained with a continuous visual display, preliminary results indicate that inter-task interference effects are substantially less with the tactual display in situations that impose high visual scanning workloads. The single-task performance degradation found with the tactual display appears to be a result of the coding scheme rather than the use of the tactual sensory mode per se. Analysis with the state-variable pilot/vehicle model shows that reliable predictions of tracking errors can be obtained for wide-band tracking systems once the pilot-related model parameters have been adjusted to reflect the pilot-display interaction.

  17. Developing an integrated digitizing and display surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipple, James D.; Wedding, Daniel K.; Wedding, Donald K., Sr.

    1995-04-01

    The development of an integrated digitizing and display surface, which utilizes touch entry and flat panel display (FPD) technology, is a significant hardware advance in the field of geographic information systems (GIS). Inherent qualities of the FPD, notably the ac gas plasma display, makes such a marriage inevitable. Large diagonal sizes, high resolution color, screen flatness, and monitor thickness are desirable features of an integrated digitizing and display surface. Recently, the GIS literature has addressed a need for such an innovation. The development of graphics displays based on sophisticated technologies include `photorealistic' (or high definition) imaging at resolutions of 2048 X 2048 or greater, palates of 16.7 million colors, formats greater than 30 inches diagonal, and integrated touch entry. In this paper, there is an evaluation of FPDs and data input technologies in the development of such a product.

  18. Three-dimensional hologram display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Frederick (Inventor); Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Bryant, Nevin (Inventor); Tsou, Peter (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a three-dimensional (3D) hologram display system. The 3D hologram display system includes a projector device for projecting an image upon a display medium to form a 3D hologram. The 3D hologram is formed such that a viewer can view the holographic image from multiple angles up to 360 degrees. Multiple display media are described, namely a spinning diffusive screen, a circular diffuser screen, and an aerogel. The spinning diffusive screen utilizes spatial light modulators to control the image such that the 3D image is displayed on the rotating screen in a time-multiplexing manner. The circular diffuser screen includes multiple, simultaneously-operated projectors to project the image onto the circular diffuser screen from a plurality of locations, thereby forming the 3D image. The aerogel can use the projection device described as applicable to either the spinning diffusive screen or the circular diffuser screen.

  19. Generating Animated Displays of Spacecraft Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candey, Robert M.; Chimiak, Reine A.; Harris, Bernard T.

    2005-01-01

    Tool for Interactive Plotting, Sonification, and 3D Orbit Display (TIPSOD) is a computer program for generating interactive, animated, four-dimensional (space and time) displays of spacecraft orbits. TIPSOD utilizes the programming interface of the Satellite Situation Center Web (SSCWeb) services to communicate with the SSC logic and database by use of the open protocols of the Internet. TIPSOD is implemented in Java 3D and effects an extension of the preexisting SSCWeb two-dimensional static graphical displays of orbits. Orbits can be displayed in any or all of the following seven reference systems: true-of-date (an inertial system), J2000 (another inertial system), geographic, geomagnetic, geocentric solar ecliptic, geocentric solar magnetospheric, and solar magnetic. In addition to orbits, TIPSOD computes and displays Sibeck's magnetopause and Fairfield's bow-shock surfaces. TIPSOD can be used by the scientific community as a means of projection or interpretation. It also has potential as an educational tool.

  20. Display-management system for MFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.O.

    1981-01-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) is controlled by 65 local control microcomputers which are supervised by a local network of nine 32-bit minicomputers. Associated with seven of the nine computers are state-of-the-art graphics devices, each with extensive local processing capability. These devices provide the means for an operator to interact with the control software running on the minicomputers. It is critical that the information the operator views accurately reflects the current state of the experiment. This information is integrated into dynamically changing pictures called displays. The primary organizational component of the display system is the software-addressable segment. The segments created by the display creation software are managed by display managers associated with each graphics device. Each display manager uses sophisticated storage management mechanisms to keep the proper segments resident in the local graphics device storage

  1. Ivastimul used to increase radioresistance of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotkovska, D.; Vacek, A.; Bartonickova, A.

    1989-01-01

    A study was made of the effect of ivastimul (IS), an aqueous extract from unicellular Chlorella algae, on the radioresistance and some haemopoiesis parameters of mice exposed to 60 Co-γ-radiation. With median and absolutely lethal radiation doses, IS was shown to produce a pronounced protective effect displayed by the increased survival rate. With sublethal doses, IS elevated the postirradiation formation of endogenous colonies and restoration of bone marrow and spleen cellularity and spleen mass

  2. Why Teach a 100-Year-Old Strike?: The "Bread and Roses" Centenary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Norm

    2012-01-01

    Today's movement in support of the 99 percent is a reminder that throughout U.S. history, a major engine of change has been grass-roots organizing and solidarity. Major history textbooks, however, downplay the role of ordinary people in shaping events--especially those who formed labor unions and used the strike to assert their rights. One of the…

  3. Bird/Wildlife Strike Control for Safer Air Transportation in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kites and hawks were found to be responsible for 57% of reported strikes. Several factors including lack of adequate data, shortage of funds, inadequate training of staff and lack of public awareness about bird/wildlife hazard were found to be militating against effective control in Nigeria. The paper concludes by making ...

  4. Annotated Bibliography of Bird Hazards to Aircraft: Bird Strike Committee Citations 1967-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    birds. The products are completely biodegradable in aerobic and anaerobic environments and do not accumulate in the environment. No significant...strike database for 1976-1990 were analyzed and presented as an aerodrome digest showing trends in performance for each airport. The objective was...Carrion Garbage Invertebrates Vegetative Vertebrates Lighting Landfills (rubbish tips) Loafing/Safe Areas Roosts Sewage Slaughterhouses

  5. The effects of industrial conflicts and strikes in Nigeria: A socio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper further averred that while industrial conflicts, strikes and work stoppages affect tremendously the economic development of Nigeria through low national productivity, it also has serious sociological consequences such as the dislocation and severance of the socialisation function of work. The paper therefore ...

  6. Alleged Death Threats, a Hunger Strike, and a Department at Risk Over a Tenure Decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherman, Courtney

    2000-01-01

    Reports on a tenure controversy within the Indiana University department of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures that has involved possible death threats, a hunger strike, and controversy over the department's continued existence. For now the professor, an expert on Islamic philosophy, remains at the institution, other faculty have left, and…

  7. Evaluating a novel endophytic grass for suppressing invertebrates that contribute to bird strike risk at airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Tall fescue containing a selected strain of the fungal endophyte Epichlöe coenophiala purported to express high levels of bioactive alkaloids (Avanex®) was recently commercialized for reducing airport bird strike hazard. We compared bioactivity of Avanex and KY 31, a ubiquitous cultivar...

  8. Relationship between ionospheric plasma bubble occurrence and lightning strikes over the Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sousasantos

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The vertical coupling between the troposphere and the ionosphere presents some remarkable features. Under intense tropospheric convection, gravity waves may be generated, and once they reach the ionosphere, these waves may seed instabilities and spread F and equatorial plasma bubble events may take place. Additionally, there is a close association between severe tropospheric convection and lightning strikes. In this work an investigation covering an equinox period (September–October during the deep solar minimum (2009 presents the relation between lightning strike activity and spread F (equatorial plasma bubble detected over a low-latitude Brazilian region. The results show a considerable correlation between these two phenomena. The common element in the center of this conformity seems to be the gravity waves. Once gravity waves and lightning strikes share the same source (intense tropospheric convection and the effects of such gravity waves in the ionosphere include the seeding of instabilities according to the gravity waves magnitude, the monitoring of the lightning strike activity seems to offer some information about the subsequent development of spread F over the equatorial region.

  9. F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program: Background, Status, and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bolkcom, Christopher; Murch, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    The Defense Department's F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) is one of three aircraft modernization programs in tactical aviation, the others being the Air Force F-22A fighter and the Navy F/A-18E/F fighter/attack plane...

  10. F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter "JSF" Program: Background, Status, and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murch, Anthony; Bolkcom, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    The Defense Department's F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) is one of three aircraft modernization programs in tactical aviation, the others being the Air Force F-22A fighter and the Navy F/A-18E/F fighter/attack plane...

  11. F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) Program: Background, Status, and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bolkcom, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    The Defense Department's F-35 Lightning II Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) is one of three aircraft modernization programs in tactical aviation, the others being the Air Force F-22A fighter and the Navy F/A-18E/F fighter/attack plane...

  12. Synthesis and testing of a conducting polymeric composite material for lightning strike protection applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katunin, A.; Krukiewicz, K.; Turczyn, R.; Sul, P.; Łasica, A.; Catalanotti, G.; Bilewicz, M.

    2017-02-01

    Lightning strike protection is one of the important issues in the modern maintenance problems of aircraft. This is due to a fact that the most of exterior elements of modern aircraft is manufactured from polymeric composites which are characterized by isolating electrical properties, and thus cannot carry the giant electrical charge when the lightning strikes. This causes serious damage of an aircraft structure and necessity of repairs and tests before returning a vehicle to operation. In order to overcome this problem, usually metallic meshes are immersed in the polymeric elements. This approach is quite effective, but increases a mass of an aircraft and significantly complicates the manufacturing process. The approach proposed by the authors is based on a mixture of conducting and dielectric polymers. Numerous modeling studies which are based on percolation clustering using kinetic Monte Carlo methods, finite element modeling of electrical and mechanical properties, and preliminary experimental studies, allow achieving an optimal content of conducting particles in a dielectric matrix in order to achieve possibly the best electrical conductivity and mechanical properties, simultaneously. After manufacturing the samples with optimal content of a conducting polymer, mechanical and electrical characterization as well as high-voltage testing was performed. The application of such a material simplifies manufacturing process and ensures unique properties of aircraft structures, which allows for minimizing damage after lightning strike, as well as provide electrical bounding and grounding, interference shielding, etc. The proposed solution can minimize costs of repair, testing and certification of aircraft structures damaged by lightning strikes.

  13. Making inference from wildlife collision data: inferring predator absence from prey strikes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Caley

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife collision data are ubiquitous, though challenging for making ecological inference due to typically irreducible uncertainty relating to the sampling process. We illustrate a new approach that is useful for generating inference from predator data arising from wildlife collisions. By simply conditioning on a second prey species sampled via the same collision process, and by using a biologically realistic numerical response functions, we can produce a coherent numerical response relationship between predator and prey. This relationship can then be used to make inference on the population size of the predator species, including the probability of extinction. The statistical conditioning enables us to account for unmeasured variation in factors influencing the runway strike incidence for individual airports and to enable valid comparisons. A practical application of the approach for testing hypotheses about the distribution and abundance of a predator species is illustrated using the hypothesized red fox incursion into Tasmania, Australia. We estimate that conditional on the numerical response between fox and lagomorph runway strikes on mainland Australia, the predictive probability of observing no runway strikes of foxes in Tasmania after observing 15 lagomorph strikes is 0.001. We conclude there is enough evidence to safely reject the null hypothesis that there is a widespread red fox population in Tasmania at a population density consistent with prey availability. The method is novel and has potential wider application.

  14. Foot strike patterns and hind limb joint angles during running in Hadza hunter-gatherers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Pontzer

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Unlike other habitually barefoot populations which prefer FFS while running, Hadza men preferred MFS, and Hadza women and juveniles preferred RFS. Sex and age differences in foot strike behavior among Hadza adults may reflect differences in running experience, with men learning to prefer MFS as they accumulate more running experience.

  15. Interaction effects of stride angle and strike pattern on running economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Concejero, J; Tam, N; Granados, C; Irazusta, J; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, I; Zabala-Lili, J; Gil, S M

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between stride angle and running economy (RE) in athletes with different foot strike patterns. 30 male runners completed 4 min running stages on a treadmill at different velocities. During the test, biomechanical variables such as stride angle, swing time, contact time, stride length and frequency were recorded using an optical measurement system. Their foot strike pattern was determined, and VO2 at velocities below the lactate threshold were measured to calculate RE. Midfoot/forefoot strikers had better RE than rearfoot strikers (201.5±5.6 ml · kg(-1) · km(-1) vs. 213.5±4.2 ml · kg(-1) · km(-1)respectively; p=0.019). Additionally, midfoot/fore-foot strikers presented higher stride angles than rearfoot strikers (p=0.043). Linear modelling analysis showed that stride angle is closely related to RE (r=0.62, pstrike pattern is likely to be more economical, whereas at any lower degree, the midfoot/forefoot strike pattern appears to be more desirable. A biomechanical running technique characterised by high stride angles and a midfoot/forefoot strike pattern is advantageous for a better RE. Athletes may find stride angle useful for improving RE. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Relationship between Achilles tendon properties and foot strike patterns in long-distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Keitaro; Miyazaki, Daisuke; Tanaka, Shigeharu; Shimoju, Shozo; Tsunoda, Naoya

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between Achilles tendon properties and foot strike patterns in long-distance runners. Forty-one highly trained male long-distance runners participated in this study. Elongation of the Achilles tendon and aponeurosis of the medial gastrocnemius muscle were measured using ultrasonography, while the participants performed ramp isometric plantar flexion up to the voluntary maximum. The relationship between the estimated muscle force and tendon elongation during the ascending phase was fit to a linear regression, the slope of which was defined as stiffness. In addition, the cross-sectional area of the Achilles tendon was measured using ultrasonography. Foot strike patterns (forefoot, midfoot and rearfoot) during running were determined at submaximal velocity (18 km · h(-1)) on a treadmill. The number of each foot strike runner was 12 for the forefoot (29.3%), 12 for the midfoot (29.3%) and 17 for the rearfoot (41.5%). No significant differences were observed in the variables measured for the Achilles tendon among the three groups. These results suggested that the foot strike pattern during running did not affect the morphological or mechanical properties of the Achilles tendon in long-distance runners.

  17. Foot strike pattern in preschool children during running: sex and shod-unshod differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Román, Pedro Á; Párraga-Montilla, Juan A; Guardia-Monteagudo, Ignacio; García-Pinillos, Felipe

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to determine the foot strike patterns (FSPs) and neutral support (no inversion [INV]/eversion [EVE] and no foot rotation) in preschool children, as well as to determine the influence of shod/unshod conditions and sex. A total of 1356 children aged 3-6 years (673 boys and 683 girls) participated in this study. A sagittal and frontal-plane video (240 Hz) was recorded using a high-speed camcorder to record the following variables: rearfoot strike (RFS), midfoot strike (MFS), forefoot strike (FFS), inversion/ eversion (INV/EVE) and foot rotation on initial contact. There were no between-sex significant differences in both shod and unshod conditions in RFS. In the unshod condition, there was a significant reduction (p < 0.001) of RFS prevalence in both boys (shod condition = 44.2% vs. 34.7% unshod condition) and girls (shod condition = 48.5% vs. 36.1% unshod condition). As for neutral support, there were no between-sex differences in both shod and unshod conditions or in the shod-unshod comparison. In preschool children, no between-sex differences were found in relation to prevalence of RFS and neutral support (no INV/EVE). Shod running alters FSP of running barefoot, producing a significant increase of RFS prevalence.

  18. Effects of foot strike on low back posture, shock attenuation, and comfort in running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Traci L; Kubera-Shelton, Emilia; Robb, Robert R; Hickman, Robbin; Wallmann, Harvey W; Dufek, Janet S

    2013-03-01

    Barefoot running (BF) is gaining popularity in the running community. Biomechanical changes occur with BF, especially when initial contact changes from rearfoot strike (RFS) to forefoot strike (FFS). Changes in lumbar spine range of motion (ROM), particularly involving lumbar lordosis, have been associated with increased low back pain. However, it is not known if changing from RFS to FFS affects lumbar lordosis or low back pain. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a change from RFS to FFS would change lumbar lordosis, influence shock attenuation, or change comfort levels in healthy recreational/experienced runners. Forty-three subjects performed a warm-up on the treadmill where a self-selected foot strike pattern was determined. Instructions on running RFS/FFS were taught, and two conditions were examined. Each condition consisted of 90 s of BF with RFS or FFS, order randomly assigned. A comfort questionnaire was completed after both conditions. Fifteen consecutive strides from each condition were extracted for analyses. Statistically significant differences between FFS and RFS shock attenuation (P strike from RFS to FFS decreased overall ROM in the lumbar spine but did not make a difference in flexion or extension in which the lumbar spine is positioned. Shock attenuation was greater in RFS. RFS was perceived a more comfortable running pattern.

  19. High tsunami frequency as a result of combined strike-slip faulting and coastal landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbach, Matthew J.; Braudy, Nicole; Briggs, Richard W.; Cormier, Marie-Helene; Davis, Marcy B.; Diebold, John B.; Dieudonne, Nicole; Douilly, Roby; Frohlich, Cliff; Gulick, Sean P.S.; Johnson, Harold E.; Mann, Paul; McHugh, Cecilia; Ryan-Mishkin, Katherine; Prentice, Carol S.; Seeber, Leonardo; Sorlien, Christopher C.; Steckler, Michael S.; Symithe, Steeve Julien; Taylor, Frederick W.; Templeton, John

    2010-01-01

    Earthquakes on strike-slip faults can produce devastating natural hazards. However, because they consist predominantly of lateral motion, these faults are rarely associated with significant uplift or tsunami generation. And although submarine slides can generate tsunami, only a few per cent of all tsunami are believed to be triggered in this way. The 12 January Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake exhibited primarily strike-slip motion but nevertheless generated a tsunami. Here we present data from a comprehensive field survey that covered the onshore and offshore area around the epicentre to document that modest uplift together with slope failure caused tsunamigenesis. Submarine landslides caused the most severe tsunami locally. Our analysis suggests that slide-generated tsunami occur an order-of-magnitude more frequently along the Gonave microplate than global estimates predict. Uplift was generated because of the earthquake's location, where the Caribbean and Gonave microplates collide obliquely. The earthquake also caused liquefaction at several river deltas that prograde rapidly and are prone to failure. We conclude that coastal strike-slip fault systems such as the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault produce relief conducive to rapid sedimentation, erosion and slope failure, so that even modest predominantly strike-slip earthquakes can cause potentially catastrophic slide-generated tsunami - a risk that is underestimated at present.

  20. A numerical model for bird strike on sidewall structure of an aircraft nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine the potential of using the coupled smooth particles hydrodynamic (SPH and finite element (FE method to predict the dynamic responses of aircraft structures in bird strike events, bird-strike tests on the sidewall structure of an aircraft nose are carried out and numerically simulated. The bird is modeled with SPH and described by the Murnaghan equation of state, while the structure is modeled with finite elements. A coupled SPH–FE method is developed to simulate the bird-strike tests and a numerical model is established using a commercial software PAM-CRASH. The bird model shows no signs of instability and correctly modeled the break-up of the bird into particles. Finally the dynamic response such as strains in the skin is simulated and compared with test results, and the simulated deformation and fracture process of the sidewall structure is compared with images recorded by a high speed camera. Good agreement between the simulation results and test data indicates that the coupled SPH–FE method can provide a very powerful tool in predicting the dynamic responses of aircraft structures in events of bird strike.

  1. Trust Your Boss or Listen to the Union? Information, Social Identification, Trust, and Strike Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Born, Marieke J.; Akkerman, Agnes; Torenvlied, René

    2013-01-01

    We investigate two questions regarding the effect of information on participation in labor strikes: First, how are social identification and trust used as filters for information? Second, we investigate how cross-pressures affect willingness to participate. Using a dataset of 468 union members, we

  2. Identifying ideology: media representations of the Irving Oil Refinery strike, 1994-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steuter, E.C.

    1998-07-01

    Media coverage of a strike at the Irving Oil Refinery in Saint John, New Brunswick which began in 1994 and lasted until 1996 is used as a background for the examination of ideology, used here in the more inclusive sense, one in which the term suggests a frame of mind without the coherence and easily recognized label usually associated with political ideology. Central issues such as monopoly ownership of the New Brunswick media by the Irving Group of Companies (also owners of the refinery) , the ideological presentation of strikes in general, and the representation of changing labour relations in a post-industrial, globally-oriented society are analyzed to show how these issues influenced media coverage. Four New Brunswick dailies as well as selected English-language dailies from other parts of Canada have been scrutinized in an effort to determine their ideological stand. It was found that restrictive ideologies such as liberalism or conservatism are on the decline; instead, more inclusive ideologies like defeatism and individualism were prominently featured especially by the St. John Telegraph-Journal in New Brunswick and other papers outside the province. The most striking finding was that if the media coverage of the Irving Refinery strike is representative of public opinion, the current organization of the provincial political economy is accepted as 'natural' by a majority of New Brunswickers.

  3. Understanding the limitations to the right to strike in essential and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nature of the limitations to the right to strike in essential and public services in the nine sub-regional countries of Southern Africa – South Africa, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, Swaziland, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe – is examined in this contribution. While all of these countries share common influences ...

  4. The balancing act between the constitutional right to strike and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (a) a service the interruption of which endangers the life, personal safety or health of the whole or ... companies act through organs such as the board of directors. ... Once a right to strike is recognised, an application for the right to picket must.

  5. Strike-slip deformation reflects complex partitioning of strain in the Nankai Accretionary Prism (SE Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Marco C.; Alves, Tiago M.; Fonseca, Paulo E.; Moore, Gregory F.

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested predominant extensional tectonics acting, at present, on the Nankai Accretionary Prism (NAP), and following a parallel direction to the convergence vector between the Philippine Sea and Amur Plates. However, a complex set of thrusts, pop-up structures, thrust anticlines and strike-slip faults is observed on seismic data in the outer wedge of the NAP, hinting at a complex strain distribution across SE Japan. Three-dimensional (3D) seismic data reveal three main families of faults: (1) NE-trending thrusts and back-thrusts; (2) NNW- to N-trending left-lateral strike-slip faults; and (3) WNW-trending to E-W right-lateral strike-slip faults. Such a fault pattern suggests that lateral slip, together with thrusting, are the two major styles of deformation operating in the outer wedge of the NAP. Both styles of deformation reflect a transpressional tectonic regime in which the maximum horizontal stress is geometrically close to the convergence vector. This work is relevant because it shows a progressive change from faults trending perpendicularly to the convergence vector, to a broader partitioning of strain in the form of thrusts and conjugate strike-slip faults. We suggest that similar families of faults exist within the inner wedge of the NAP, below the Kumano Basin, and control stress accumulation and strain accommodation in this latter region.

  6. Actual and perceived collision risk for bird strikes at Namibian airports

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At Namibia's two major airports, Hosea Kutako International and Eros (domestic), 117 bird strike collision incidents were recorded between 2006 and 2010. A risk assessment, which included a proposed risk weighting methodology, was conducted at Hosea Kutako and Eros airports, which estimated the probability of an ...

  7. Changes in Kicking Pattern: Effect of Experience, Speed, Accuracy, and Effective Striking Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Dan L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study were to: (a) examine the effect of experience and goal constraints (speed, accuracy) on kicking patterns; (b) determine if effective striking mass was independent of ankle velocity at impact; and (c) determine the accuracy of kicks relative to independent factors. Method: Twenty participants were recruited to…

  8. A note on 2-D lithospheric deformation due to a blind strike-slip fault

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mic deformation. Several researchers have devel- oped models of coseismic lithospheric deformation. Rybicki (1971) found a closed-form analytical solu- tion for the problem of a long vertical strike-slip fault in a two-layer model of the earth. Chinnery and Jovanovich (1972) extended the solution to a three-layer model.

  9. Conventional Prompt Global Strike and Long-Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-24

    FY2008, Congress rejected the requested funding for this program, but the Navy has continued to consider the possibility of deploying intermediate ...10 Submarine-Launched Intermediate -Range Global Strike .................................................. 11 Air Force Programs...Missiles............................................................................ 36 Submarine-Launched Intermediate -Range Ballistic Missiles

  10. Electromiographic and kinematic characteristics of Kung Fu Yau-Man palm strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, O P; Magini, Marcio

    2008-12-01

    A kinematic and electromyographic analysis of Kung Fu (KF) Yau-Man palm strikes without impact is presented. An empirical model applied to data obtained by a high-speed camera describes the kinematic characteristics of the movement. The electromyographic patterns of the biceps brachii, brachioradialis and triceps brachii muscles were studied during the strike in the time (root mean square) and frequency (wavelet transform) domains. Eight KF practitioners participated in the investigation. A wooden board was placed in front of the subjects, and they were asked to perform the strike imagining a target above the board. The results show that the Yau-Man KF palm strike has very similar kinematic characteristics to a simple moderate speed elbow extension movement. All practitioners positioned themselves in relation to the wooden board in a way to achieve their highest hand speeds in the instant their hands crossed the board. The analyses of the electromyography data shows a well developed muscle coordination of the practitioners in agreement with kinematic results. The results of this paper are important not only for improving the performance of practitioners but also to demonstrate the applicability of KF in the process of motor control development.

  11. Relationship between ionospheric plasma bubble occurrence and lightning strikes over the Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousasantos, Jonas; Sobral, José Humberto Andrade; Alam Kherani, Esfhan; Magalhães Fares Saba, Marcelo; Rodolfo de Campos, Diovane

    2018-03-01

    The vertical coupling between the troposphere and the ionosphere presents some remarkable features. Under intense tropospheric convection, gravity waves may be generated, and once they reach the ionosphere, these waves may seed instabilities and spread F and equatorial plasma bubble events may take place. Additionally, there is a close association between severe tropospheric convection and lightning strikes. In this work an investigation covering an equinox period (September-October) during the deep solar minimum (2009) presents the relation between lightning strike activity and spread F (equatorial plasma bubble) detected over a low-latitude Brazilian region. The results show a considerable correlation between these two phenomena. The common element in the center of this conformity seems to be the gravity waves. Once gravity waves and lightning strikes share the same source (intense tropospheric convection) and the effects of such gravity waves in the ionosphere include the seeding of instabilities according to the gravity waves magnitude, the monitoring of the lightning strike activity seems to offer some information about the subsequent development of spread F over the equatorial region.

  12. Moengo on strike: the politics of labour in Suriname’s Bauxite industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, A.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines one crucial period of contestation in colonial Suriname, the years 1941 and 1942, when sustained labour unrest in the bauxite town of Moengo led to the establishment of the first mining unions. It argues that these strikes laid the groundwork for future relations between

  13. Agreement reached at Unilever after three-week strike over plant closures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünell, M.

    2008-01-01

    In mid October 2007, staff at the Unilever plant in the Netherlands went on strike for over three weeks in protest against the group’s plan to close three of the country’s six Unilever plants. The trade unions believe that the closures are unnecessary and are calling for job guarantees for employees

  14. Making inference from wildlife collision data: inferring predator absence from prey strikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caley, Peter; Hosack, Geoffrey R; Barry, Simon C

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife collision data are ubiquitous, though challenging for making ecological inference due to typically irreducible uncertainty relating to the sampling process. We illustrate a new approach that is useful for generating inference from predator data arising from wildlife collisions. By simply conditioning on a second prey species sampled via the same collision process, and by using a biologically realistic numerical response functions, we can produce a coherent numerical response relationship between predator and prey. This relationship can then be used to make inference on the population size of the predator species, including the probability of extinction. The statistical conditioning enables us to account for unmeasured variation in factors influencing the runway strike incidence for individual airports and to enable valid comparisons. A practical application of the approach for testing hypotheses about the distribution and abundance of a predator species is illustrated using the hypothesized red fox incursion into Tasmania, Australia. We estimate that conditional on the numerical response between fox and lagomorph runway strikes on mainland Australia, the predictive probability of observing no runway strikes of foxes in Tasmania after observing 15 lagomorph strikes is 0.001. We conclude there is enough evidence to safely reject the null hypothesis that there is a widespread red fox population in Tasmania at a population density consistent with prey availability. The method is novel and has potential wider application.

  15. Carpathian Shear Corridor – A strike-slip boundary of an extruded crustal segment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marko, F.; Andriessen, P.A.M.; Tomek, Č.; Bezák, V.; Fojtíková, Lucia; Bošanský, M.; Piovarči, M.; Reichenwalder, P.

    703-704, APR 22 (2017), s. 119-134 ISSN 0040-1951 Grant - others:Slovak Foundation Grant(SK) VEGA 2/0188/15 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : extrusion * Neo-alpine evolution * strike-slip faulting * uplift history * Western Carpathians Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 2.693, year: 2016

  16. Care around birth, infant and mother health and maternal health investments - Evidence from a nurse strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronborg, Hanne; Sievertsen, Hans Henrik; Wüst, Miriam

    2016-02-01

    Care around birth may impact child and mother health and parental health investments. We exploit the 2008 national strike among Danish nurses to identify the effects of care around birth on infant and mother health (proxied by health care usage) and maternal investments in the health of their newborns. We use administrative data from the population register on 39,810 Danish births in the years 2007-2010 and complementary survey and municipal administrative data on 8288 births in the years 2007-2009 in a differences-in-differences framework. We show that the strike reduced the number of mothers' prenatal midwife consultations, their length of hospital stay at birth, and the number of home visits by trained nurses after hospital discharge. We find that this reduction in care around birth increased the number of child and mother general practitioner (GP) contacts in the first month. As we do not find strong effects of strike exposure on infant and mother GP contacts in the longer run, this result suggests that parents substitute one type of care for another. While we lack power to identify the effects of care around birth on hospital readmissions and diagnoses, our results for maternal health investments indicate that strike-exposed mothers-especially those who lacked postnatal early home visits-are less likely to exclusively breastfeed their child at four months. Thus reduced care around birth may have persistent effects on treated children through its impact on parental investments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Role of Near-Fault Relief in Creating and Maintaining Strike-Slip Landscape Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbert, S.; Duvall, A. R.; Tucker, G. E.

    2016-12-01

    Geomorphic landforms, such as shutter ridges, offset river terraces, and deflected stream channels, are often used to assess the activity and slip rates of strike-slip faults. However, in some systems, such as parts of the Marlborough Fault System (South Island, NZ), an active strike-slip fault does not leave a strong landscape signature. Here we explore the factors that dampen or enhance the landscape signature of strike-slip faulting using the Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development model (CHILD). We focus on variables affecting the length of channel offsets, which enhance the signature of strike-slip motion, and the frequency of stream captures, which eliminate offsets and reduce this signature. We model a strike-slip fault that passes through a mountain ridge, offsetting streams that drain across this fault. We use this setup to test the response of channel offset length and capture frequency to fault characteristics, such as slip rate and ratio of lateral to vertical motion, and to landscape characteristics, such as relief contrasts controlled by erodibility. Our experiments show that relief downhill of the fault, whether generated by differential uplift across the fault or by an erodibility contrast, has the strongest effect on offset length and capture frequency. This relief creates shutter ridges, which block and divert streams while being advected along a fault. Shutter ridges and the streams they divert have long been recognized as markers of strike-slip motion. Our results show specifically that the height of shutter ridges is most responsible for the degree to which they create long channel offsets by preventing stream captures. We compare these results to landscape metrics in the Marlborough Fault System, where shutter ridges are common and often lithologically controlled. We compare shutter ridge length and height to channel offset length in order to assess the influence of relief on offset channel features in a real landscape. Based on our

  18. Parkinsonian abnormality of foot strike: a phenomenon of ageing and/or one responsive to levodopa therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J R; Bowes, S G; Leeman, A L; O'Neill, C J; Deshmukh, A A; Nicholson, P W; Dobbs, S M; Dobbs, R J

    1990-01-01

    1. Normally during walking, the heel strikes the ground before the forefoot. Abnormalities of foot strike in idiopathic Parkinson's disease may be amenable to therapy: objective measurements may reveal response which is not clinically apparent. Occult changes in foot strike leading to instability may parallel the normal, age-related loss of striatal dopamine. 2. The nature of foot strike was studied using pedobarography in 160 healthy volunteers, aged 15 to 91 years. Although 16% of strikes were made simultaneously by heel and forefoot, there were no instances of the forefoot preceding the heel. No significant effect of age on an index of normality of foot strikes was detected (P greater than 0.3). 3. The effect on foot strike of substituting placebo for a morning dose of a levodopa/carbidopa combination was studied in a double-blind, cross-over trial in 14 patients, aged 64 to 88 years, with no overt fluctuations in control of their idiopathic Parkinson's disease in relation to dosing. On placebo treatment there was a highly significant (P = 0.004) reduction in the number of more normal strikes, i.e. heel strikes plus simultaneous heel and forefoot strikes. The effect appeared unrelated to the corresponding difference between active and placebo treatments in plasma concentration of levodopa or a metabolite of long half-time, 3-O-methyldopa (3OMD). However, it correlated negatively (P less than 0.05) with the mean of the 3OMD concentrations. 4. It appears that some abnormalities of foot strike due to Parkinson's disease are reversible. Employing test conditions, designed to provoke abnormalities of foot strike, might be useful in screening for pre-clinical Parkinson's disease. PMID:2306409

  19. Heel-toe running: A new look at the influence of foot strike pattern on impact force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, John A; Horsch, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    It is important to understand the factors that influence the impact force observed during running, since the impact force is likely to be related to overuse injuries. The purpose of this study was to compare the impact force during running when participants were instructed to use different foot strike patterns: obvious heel strike (Obvious-HS), subtle heel strike (Subtle-HS), midfoot strike (Mid-FS), and fore foot strike (Fore-FS) patterns. Participants ( n  = 10, 25 ± 5.7 years, 70.2 ± 12.1 kg, 174.6 ± 7.2 cm) completed four foot strike patterns while running over ground: Obvious-HS, Subtle-HS, Mid-FS, and Fore-FS. Speed was controlled between conditions (random order). Vertical ground reaction forces were recorded (1000 Hz) along with the impact force, peak force, and stance time for analysis. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare each variable across foot strike instructions, with post hoc comparisons contrasting Obvious-HS to each of the other conditions. Impact force was influenced by foot strike instructions, with Obvious-HS being greater than Subtle-HS and Fore-FS ( p   0.05). The peak force was not influenced by foot strike instructions ( p  > 0.05); stance time was longer during Obvious-HS than during Mid-FS or Fore-FS ( p   0.05). The unique observation of this study was that impact force was different when participants were instructed to run with either an Obvious-HS or a Subtle-HS at contact. Both these foot strike patterns would have been considered rear foot strike patterns, suggesting that something other than which specific part of the foot strikes the ground initially influenced impact force.

  20. Antibody phage display applications for nuclear medicine imaging and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winthrop, M.D.; Denardo, G.L.; Denardo, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    Antibody-based constructs genetically engineered from genes of diverse origin provide a remarkable opportunity to develop functional molecular imaging techniques and specific molecular targeted radionuclide therapies. Phage display libraries of antibody fragment genes can be used to select antibody-based constructs that bind any chosen epitope. A large naive human antibody-based library was used to illustrate binding of antibody constructs to a variety of common and unique antigens. Antibody-based libraries from hybridoma cells, lymphocytes from immunized humans or from mice and human antibody repertoires produced in transgenic mice have also been described. Several orders of magnitude of affinity enhancement can be achieved by random or site specific mutations of the selected binding peptide domains of the scFv. Affinities (K d ) as high as 10 - 11 M (10 pM) for affinity-matured scFv have been documented. Such gene libraries thus offer an almost limitless variety of antibody-based molecular binding peptide modules that can be used in creative ways for the construction of new targeting agents for functional or molecular imaging and therapy