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  1. Aging has small effects on initial ischemic acute kidney injury development despite changing intrarenal immunologic micromilieu in mice.

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    Jang, Hye Ryoun; Park, Ji Hyeon; Kwon, Ghee Young; Park, Jae Berm; Lee, Jung Eun; Kim, Dae Joong; Kim, Yoon-Goo; Kim, Sung Joo; Oh, Ha Young; Huh, Wooseong

    2016-02-15

    Inflammatory process mediated by innate and adaptive immune systems is a major pathogenic mechanism of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). There are concerns that organ recipients may be at increased risk of developing IRI after receiving kidneys from elder donors. To reveal the effects of aging on the development of renal IRI, we compared the immunologic micromilieu of normal and postischemic kidneys from mice of three different ages (9 wk, 6 mo, and 12 mo). There was a higher number of total T cells, especially effector memory CD4/CD8 T cells, and regulatory T cells in the normal kidneys of old mice. On day 2 after IRI, the proportion of necrotic tubules and renal functional changes were comparable between groups although old mice had a higher proportion of damaged tubule compared with young mice. More T cells, but less B cells, trafficked into the postischemic kidneys of old mice. The infiltration of NK T cells was similar across the groups. Macrophages and neutrophils were comparable between groups in both normal kidneys and postischemic kidneys. The intrarenal expressions of TNF-α and VEGF were decreased in normal and postischemic kidneys of aged mice. These mixed effects of aging on lymphocytes and cytokines/chemokines were not different between the two groups of old mice. Our study demonstrates that aging alters the intrarenal micromilieu but has small effects on the development of initial renal injury after IRI. Further study investigating aging-dependent differences in the repair process of renal IRI may be required. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Dendritic Cells Promote Pancreatic Viability in Mice with Acute Pancreatitis

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    Bedrosian, Andrea S.; Nguyen, Andrew H.; Hackman, Michael; Connolly, Michael K.; Malhotra, Ashim; Ibrahim, Junaid; Cieza-Rubio, Napoleon E.; Henning, Justin R.; Barilla, Rocky; Rehman, Adeel; Pachter, H. Leon; Medina-Zea, Marco V.; Cohen, Steven M.; Frey, Alan B.; Acehan, Devrim; Miller, George

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims Acute pancreatitis increases morbidity and mortality from organ necrosis by mechanisms that are incompletely understood. Dendritic cells (DCs) can promote or suppress inflammation, depending on their subtype and context. We investigated the roles of DC in development of acute pancreatitis. Methods Acute pancreatitis was induced in CD11c.DTR mice using caerulein or L-arginine; DCs were depleted by administration of diphtheria toxin. Survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results Numbers of MHC II+CD11c+DC increased 100-fold in pancreas of mice with acute pancreatitis, to account for nearly 15% of intra-pancreatic leukocytes. Intra-pancreatic DC acquired an immune phenotype in mice with acute pancreatitis; they expressed higher levels of MHC II and CD86 and increased production of interleukin-6, membrane cofactor protein (MCP)-1, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. However, rather than inducing an organ-destructive inflammatory process, DC were required for pancreatic viability; the exocrine pancreas died in mice that were depleted of DC and challenged with caerulein or L-arginine. All mice with pancreatitis that were depleted of DC died from acinar cell death within 4 days. Depletion of DC from mice with pancreatitis resulted in neutrophil infiltration and increased levels of systemic markers of inflammation. However, the organ necrosis associated with depletion of DC did not require infiltrating neutrophils, activation of NF-κB, or signaling by mitogen-activated protein kinase or TNF-α. Conclusions DC are required for pancreatic viability in mice with acute pancreatitis and might protect organs against cell stress. PMID:21801698

  3. [Expression of various matrix metalloproteinases in mice with hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury].

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    Zhang, Xiang-feng; Ding, Shao-fang; Gao, Yuan-ming; Liang, Ying; Foda, Hussein D

    2006-08-01

    To investigate the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury induced by hyperoxia. Fifty four mice were exposed in sealed cages to >98% oxygen (for 24-72 hours), and another 18 mice to room air. The severity of lung injury was assessed, and the expression of mRNA and protein of MMP-2, MMP-9 and EMMPRIN in lung tissue, after exposure for 24, 48 and 72 hours of hyperoxia were studied by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Hyperoxia caused acute lung injury; this was accompanied by increased expression of an upregulation of MMP-2, MMP-9 and EMMPRIN mRNA and protein in lung tissues. Hyperoxia causes acute lung injury in mice; increases in MMP-2, MMP-9 and EMMPRIN may play an important role in the development of hyperoxia induced lung injury in mice.

  4. Acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury in HCV transgenic mice

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    Uehara, Takeki; Kosyk, Oksana; Jeannot, Emmanuelle; Bradford, Blair U.; Tech, Katherine; Macdonald, Jeffrey M.; Boorman, Gary A.; Chatterjee, Saurabh; Mason, Ronald P.; Melnyk, Stepan B.; Tryndyak, Volodymyr P.; Pogribny, Igor P.; Rusyn, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    The exact etiology of clinical cases of acute liver failure is difficult to ascertain and it is likely that various co-morbidity factors play a role. For example, epidemiological evidence suggests that coexistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increased the risk of acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury, and was associated with an increased risk of progression to acute liver failure. However, little is known about possible mechanisms of enhanced acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in HCV-infected subjects. In this study, we tested a hypothesis that HCV-Tg mice may be more susceptible to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity, and also evaluated the mechanisms of acetaminophen-induced liver damage in wild type and HCV-Tg mice expressing core, E1 and E2 proteins. Male mice were treated with a single dose of acetaminophen (300 or 500 mg/kg in fed animals; or 200 mg/kg in fasted animals; i.g.) and liver and serum endpoints were evaluated at 4 and 24 h after dosing. Our results suggest that in fed mice, liver toxicity in HCV-Tg mice is not markedly exaggerated as compared to the wild-type mice. In fasted mice, greater liver injury was observed in HCV-Tg mice. In fed mice dosed with 300 mg/kg acetaminophen, we observed that liver mitochondria in HCV-Tg mice exhibited signs of dysfunction showing the potential mechanism for increased susceptibility. -- Highlights: ► Acetaminophen-induced liver injury is a significant clinical challenge. ► HCV-infected subjects may be at higher risk for acetaminophen-induced liver injury. ► We used HCV transgenics to test if liver injury due to acetaminophen is exacerbated.

  5. Acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury in HCV transgenic mice

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    Uehara, Takeki; Kosyk, Oksana; Jeannot, Emmanuelle; Bradford, Blair U. [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Tech, Katherine; Macdonald, Jeffrey M. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Boorman, Gary A. [Covance, Chantilly, VA 20151 (United States); Chatterjee, Saurabh; Mason, Ronald P. [Laboratory of Toxicology and Pharmacology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, RTP, NC 27713 (United States); Melnyk, Stepan B. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72201 (United States); Tryndyak, Volodymyr P.; Pogribny, Igor P. [Division of Biochemical Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Rusyn, Ivan, E-mail: iir@unc.edu [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The exact etiology of clinical cases of acute liver failure is difficult to ascertain and it is likely that various co-morbidity factors play a role. For example, epidemiological evidence suggests that coexistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increased the risk of acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury, and was associated with an increased risk of progression to acute liver failure. However, little is known about possible mechanisms of enhanced acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in HCV-infected subjects. In this study, we tested a hypothesis that HCV-Tg mice may be more susceptible to acetaminophen hepatotoxicity, and also evaluated the mechanisms of acetaminophen-induced liver damage in wild type and HCV-Tg mice expressing core, E1 and E2 proteins. Male mice were treated with a single dose of acetaminophen (300 or 500 mg/kg in fed animals; or 200 mg/kg in fasted animals; i.g.) and liver and serum endpoints were evaluated at 4 and 24 h after dosing. Our results suggest that in fed mice, liver toxicity in HCV-Tg mice is not markedly exaggerated as compared to the wild-type mice. In fasted mice, greater liver injury was observed in HCV-Tg mice. In fed mice dosed with 300 mg/kg acetaminophen, we observed that liver mitochondria in HCV-Tg mice exhibited signs of dysfunction showing the potential mechanism for increased susceptibility. -- Highlights: ► Acetaminophen-induced liver injury is a significant clinical challenge. ► HCV-infected subjects may be at higher risk for acetaminophen-induced liver injury. ► We used HCV transgenics to test if liver injury due to acetaminophen is exacerbated.

  6. Acute toxicity of intravenously administered titanium dioxide nanoparticles in mice.

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    Jiaying Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With a wide range of applications, titanium dioxide (TiO₂ nanoparticles (NPs are manufactured worldwide in large quantities. Recently, in the field of nanomedicine, intravenous injection of TiO₂ nanoparticulate carriers directly into the bloodstream has raised public concerns on their toxicity to humans. METHODS: In this study, mice were injected intravenously with a single dose of TiO₂ NPs at varying dose levels (0, 140, 300, 645, or 1387 mg/kg. Animal mortality, blood biochemistry, hematology, genotoxicity and histopathology were investigated 14 days after treatment. RESULTS: Death of mice in the highest dose (1387 mg/kg group was observed at day two after TiO₂ NPs injection. At day 7, acute toxicity symptoms, such as decreased physical activity and decreased intake of food and water, were observed in the highest dose group. Hematological analysis and the micronucleus test showed no significant acute hematological or genetic toxicity except an increase in the white blood cell (WBC count among mice 645 mg/kg dose group. However, the spleen of the mice showed significantly higher tissue weight/body weight (BW coefficients, and lower liver and kidney coefficients in the TiO₂ NPs treated mice compared to control. The biochemical parameters and histological tissue sections indicated that TiO₂ NPs treatment could induce different degrees of damage in the brain, lung, spleen, liver and kidneys. However, no pathological effects were observed in the heart in TiO₂ NPs treated mice. CONCLUSIONS: Intravenous injection of TiO₂ NPs at high doses in mice could cause acute toxicity effects in the brain, lung, spleen, liver, and kidney. No significant hematological or genetic toxicity was observed.

  7. The Acute Phase of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection Is Attenuated in 5-Lipoxygenase-Deficient Mice

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    Adriana M. C. Canavaci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we examine the contribution of 5-lipoxygenase- (5-LO- derived lipid mediators to immune responses during the acute phase of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in 5-LO gene knockout (5-LO−/− mice and wild-type (WT mice. Compared with WT mice, the 5-LO−/− mice developed less parasitemia/tissue parasitism, less inflammatory cell infiltrates, and a lower mortality. This resistance of 5-LO−/− mice correlated with several differences in the immune response to infection, including reduced PGE2 synthesis; sustained capacity of splenocytes to produce high levels of interleukin (IL-12 early in the infection; enhanced splenocyte production of IL-1β, IL-6, and IFN-γ; rapid T-cell polarization to secrete high quantities of IFN-γ and low quantities of IL-10; and greater numbers of CD8+CD44highCD62Llow memory effector T cells at the end of the acute phase of infection. The high mortality in WT mice was associated with increased production of LTB4/LTC4, T cell bias to produce IFN-γ, high levels of serum nitrite, and marked protein extravasation into the peritoneal cavity, although survival was improved by treatment with a cys-LT receptor 1 antagonist. These data also provide evidence that 5-LO-derived mediators negatively affect host survival during the acute phase of T. cruzi infection.

  8. Experimental study on acute toxicity of Qingnao tablet to mice

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    Xie, Guoqi; Wang, Huamin; Ma, Zhenzhen; Hao, Shaojun; Li, Jun; Wang, Hongyu; Wen, Zhonghua; Zhang, Zhengchen

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the effect of Qingnao tablets on acute toxicity in mice. Forty mice, half male and half female, were randomly divided into normal saline group and Qingnao tablet group. After fasting for 12 hours, the mice were given 0. 4 ml / 10 g in maximum volume. In 1st, the rats were perfused 3 times (every 8 hours). The rats in the saline group were perfused with the same volume of saline in the same way. The mice were observed continuously within 3 hours and then every hour. The mice were given a normal diet for 14 consecutive days, and the changes of autonomous activity, reaction, diet, stool, secretion, eye and nose were observed daily. The mice fasted on the 13th day and weighed on the 14th day. And then put the mice to death, The changes of the liver, heart, spleen, lung, kidney, stomach, intestines, and brain were observed by the naked eye. There was no obvious abnormality in normal saline group. The autonomous activity of mice in the administration group decreased after initial administration, and gradually returned to normal after 2 hours of administration. On the day of administration, the stool of the mice became dark brown, and the feces returned to normal after 1.1 days of normal urination. No other mice had abnormal secretion, reaction, eye nose, diet, etc. On the 14th day, there were no visible heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, gastrointestinal tract in normal saline group and Qingnao tablet group. Abnormal changes in brain and other organs (edema, color, etc.). In the normal saline group and Qingnao tablet group, the initial weight of the mice was: 21.70 ± 0.97N 21.71 ± 1.13, and the weight of the mice on the 7th day was 29.70 ± 2.4c28.65 ± 3.11. On the 14th day, the body weight was 32.38 ± 3.40, 33.77 ± 3.82. Qingnao tablet has no obvious toxicity to the main organs of mice, so it can be considered safe in clinical use.

  9. Dextran sulfate sodium-induced acute colitis impairs dermal lymphatic function in mice.

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    Agollah, Germaine D; Wu, Grace; Peng, Ho-Lan; Kwon, Sunkuk

    2015-12-07

    To investigate whether dermal lymphatic function and architecture are systemically altered in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis. Balb/c mice were administered 4% DSS in lieu of drinking water ad libitum for 7 d and monitored to assess disease activity including body weight, diarrhea severity, and fecal bleeding. Control mice received standard drinking water with no DSS. Changes in mesenteric lymphatics were assessed following oral administration of a fluorescently-labelled fatty acid analogue, while dermal lymphatic function and architecture was longitudinally characterized using dynamic near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging following intradermal injection of indocyanine green (ICG) at the base of the tail or to the dorsal aspect of the left paw prior to, 4, and 7 d after DSS administration. We also measured dye clearance rate after injection of Alexa680-bovine serum albumin (BSA). NIRF imaging data was analyzed to reveal lymphatic contractile activity after selecting fixed regions of interest (ROIs) of the same size in fluorescent lymphatic vessels on fluorescence images. The averaged fluorescence intensity within the ROI of each fluorescence image was plotted as a function of imaging time and the lymphatic contraction frequency was computed by assessing the number of fluorescent pulses arriving at a ROI. Mice treated with DSS developed acute inflammation with clinical symptoms of loss of body weight, loose feces/watery diarrhea, and fecal blood, all of which were aggravated as disease progressed to 7 d. Histological examination of colons of DSS-treated mice confirmed acute inflammation, characterized by segmental to complete loss of colonic mucosa with an associated chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate that extended into the deeper layers of the wall of the colon, compared to control mice. In situ intravital imaging revealed that mice with acute colitis showed significantly fewer fluorescent mesenteric lymphatic vessels, indicating impaired

  10. VEGF Promotes Malaria-Associated Acute Lung Injury in Mice

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    Carapau, Daniel; Pena, Ana C.; Ataíde, Ricardo; Monteiro, Carla A. A.; Félix, Nuno; Costa-Silva, Artur; Marinho, Claudio R. F.; Dias, Sérgio; Mota, Maria M.

    2010-01-01

    The spectrum of the clinical presentation and severity of malaria infections is broad, ranging from uncomplicated febrile illness to severe forms of disease such as cerebral malaria (CM), acute lung injury (ALI), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) or severe anemia (SA). Rodent models that mimic human CM, PAM and SA syndromes have been established. Here, we show that DBA/2 mice infected with P. berghei ANKA constitute a new model for malaria-associated ALI. Up to 60% of the mice showed dyspnea, airway obstruction and hypoxemia and died between days 7 and 12 post-infection. The most common pathological findings were pleural effusion, pulmonary hemorrhage and edema, consistent with increased lung vessel permeability, while the blood-brain barrier was intact. Malaria-associated ALI correlated with high levels of circulating VEGF, produced de novo in the spleen, and its blockage led to protection of mice from this syndrome. In addition, either splenectomization or administration of the anti-inflammatory molecule carbon monoxide led to a significant reduction in the levels of sera VEGF and to protection from ALI. The similarities between the physiopathological lesions described here and the ones occurring in humans, as well as the demonstration that VEGF is a critical host factor in the onset of malaria-associated ALI in mice, not only offers important mechanistic insights into the processes underlying the pathology related with malaria but may also pave the way for interventional studies. PMID:20502682

  11. Acute cognitive impact of antiseizure drugs in naive rodents and corneal-kindled mice.

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    Barker-Haliski, Melissa L; Vanegas, Fabiola; Mau, Matthew J; Underwood, Tristan K; White, H Steve

    2016-09-01

    Some antiseizure drugs (ASDs) are associated with cognitive liability in patients with epilepsy, thus ASDs without this risk would be preferred. Little comparative pharmacology exists with ASDs in preclinical models of cognition. Few pharmacologic studies exist on the acute effects in rodents with chronic seizures. Predicting risk for cognitive impact with preclinical models may supply valuable ASD differentiation data. ASDs (phenytoin [PHT]; carbamazepine [CBZ]; valproic acid [VPA]; lamotrigine [LTG]; phenobarbital [PB]; tiagabine [TGB]; retigabine [RTG]; topiramate [TPM]; and levetiracetam [LEV]) were administered equivalent to maximal electroshock median effective dose ([ED50]; mice, rats), or median dose necessary to elicit minimal motor impairment (median toxic dose [TD50]; rats). Cognition models with naive adult rodents were novel object/place recognition (NOPR) task with CF-1 mice, and Morris water maze (MWM) with Sprague-Dawley rats. Selected ASDs were also administered to rats prior to testing in an open field. The effect of chronic seizures and ASD administration on cognitive performance in NOPR was also determined with corneal-kindled mice. Mice that did not achieve kindling criterion (partially kindled) were included to examine the effect of electrical stimulation on cognitive performance. Sham-kindled and age-matched mice were also tested. No ASD (ED50) affected latency to locate the MWM platform; TD50 of PB, RTG, TPM, and VPA reduced this latency. In naive mice, CBZ and VPA (ED50) reduced time with the novel object. Of interest, no ASD (ED50) affected performance of fully kindled mice in NOPR, whereas CBZ and LEV improved cognitive performance of partially kindled mice. Standardized approaches to the preclinical evaluation of an ASD's potential cognitive impact are needed to inform drug development. This study demonstrated acute, dose- and model-dependent effects of therapeutically relevant doses of ASDs on cognitive performance of naive mice and

  12. OSO paradigm--A rapid behavioral screening method for acute psychosocial stress reactivity in mice.

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    Brzózka, M M; Unterbarnscheidt, T; Schwab, M H; Rossner, M J

    2016-02-09

    Chronic psychosocial stress is an important environmental risk factor for the development of psychiatric diseases. However, studying the impact of chronic psychosocial stress in mice is time consuming and thus not optimally suited to 'screen' increasing numbers of genetically manipulated mouse models for psychiatric endophenotypes. Moreover, many studies focus on restraint stress, a strong physical stressor with limited relevance for psychiatric disorders. Here, we describe a simple and a rapid method based on the resident-intruder paradigm to examine acute effects of mild psychosocial stress in mice. The OSO paradigm (open field--social defeat--open field) compares behavioral consequences on locomotor activity, anxiety and curiosity before and after exposure to acute social defeat stress. We first evaluated OSO in male C57Bl/6 wildtype mice where a single episode of social defeat reduced locomotor activity, increased anxiety and diminished exploratory behavior. Subsequently, we applied the OSO paradigm to mouse models of two schizophrenia (SZ) risk genes. Transgenic mice with neuronal overexpression of Neuregulin-1 (Nrg1) type III showed increased risk-taking behavior after acute stress exposure suggesting that NRG1 dysfunction is associated with altered affective behavior. In contrast, Tcf4 transgenic mice displayed a normal stress response which is in line with the postulated predominant contribution of TCF4 to cognitive deficits of SZ. In conclusion, the OSO paradigm allows for rapid screening of selected psychosocial stress-induced behavioral endophenotypes in mouse models of psychiatric diseases. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Differential Requirements for c-Myc in Chronic Hematopoietic Hyperplasia and Acute Hematopoietic Malignancies in Pten-null Mice

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    Zhang, Jun; Xiao, Yechen; Guo, Yinshi; Breslin, Peter; Zhang, Shubin; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Zhou; Zhang, Jiwang

    2011-01-01

    Myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs), lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs), acute T-lymphocytic or myeloid leukemia and T-lymphocytic lymphoma were developed in inducible Pten-knockout (Pten−/−) mice. The appearance of these multiple diseases in one animal model provides an opportunity to study the pathogenesis of multiple diseases simultaneously. To study whether Myc function is required for the development of these hematopoietic disorders in Pten−/− mice, we generated inducible Pten/Myc double-knockout mice (Pten−/−/Myc−/−). By comparing the hematopoietic phenotypes of these double-knockout mice with those of Pten−/− mice, we found that both sets of animals developed MPDs and LPDs. However, none of the compound-mutant mice developed acute leukemia or lymphoma. Interestingly, in contrast to the MPDs which developed in Pten−/− mice which are dominated by granulocytes, megakaryocytes predominate in the MPDs of Pten−/−/Myc−/− mice. Our study suggests that the deregulation of PI3K/Akt signaling in Pten−/− hematopoietic cells protects these cells from apoptotic cell death, resulting in chronic proliferative disorders. But due to the differential requirement for Myc in granulocyte as compared to megakaryocyte proliferation, Myc deletion converts Pten−/− MPDs from granulocyte-dominated to megakaryocyte-dominated conditions. Myc is absolutely required for the development of acute hematopoietic malignancies. PMID:21926961

  14. Evaluation of acute toxicity of babassu mesocarp in mice

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    Elizabeth S. B. Barroqueiro

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The safety of babassu mesocarp (Orbignya phalerata Mart., Arecaceae, which exhibited anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic activities, was evaluated by determining the potential acute toxicity in mice. A lyophilized ethanol extract of babassu mesocarp (BME was administered to C3H/HePas mice (10/group in a single dose of 1000, 3000 and 5000 mg/kg, by gavage. General behavior adverse effects and mortality were determined for up to fourteen days. Selected biochemical parameters including glucose, triacylglyceride, cholesterol, urea, alkaline phosphatase and creatinine were determined by colorimetric assay. The heart, liver, spleen, kidneys and brain were weighted and evaluated macro and microscopically. The median lethal dose (LD50 of BME was greater than 5000 mg/kg. No behavior or body weight alterations were detected after the treatment. The acute treatment with BME has no effect on macroscopic and microscopic aspect of examined organs. Instead, BME increased the alkaline phosphatase and reduced the urea concentration in all groups. A significant increase on triacylglyceride was detected in the group BME1000. In conclusion, the acute treatment with high doses of BME can affect some biochemical parameters with a long lasting effect, although any change was detected at tissue level or body and organ weight.

  15. Dynamics of Cellular Proliferation during 'Acute Homologous Disease' in Mice

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    Vitale, B.; Silobrcic, V.; Jurin, M.; Matosic, M.; Tomazic, Vesna [Laboratory for Transplantation and Tumour Immunology, Department of Biology, Institute Ruder Boskovic, Zagreb, Yugoslavia (Croatia)

    1968-08-15

    CBA mice, lethally irradiated and injected with 20 x 10{sup 6} bone-marrow cells derived from C57BL donors, develop a chronic form of 'homologous disease' and die between 20 and 40 days after treatment. If 10 x 10{sup 6} lymph node cells are added to the bone-marrow suspension, all recipients develop 'acute' homologous disease and die 6 to 10 days after irradiation. Different parameters of the disease were systematically observed. Among them, changes in spleen weight indicated early cell proliferation, which reached its maximum on day 4 and progressively decreased later on. Chromosomal analysis showed that all dividing cells in the spleen were of donor origin. Their number decreased concomitantly with the shrinkage and devastation of the organ, which started on day 6. The period of devastation of the spleen fully corresponds to the time in which all animals die. The use of cyclophosphamide in the treatment of 'acute' homologous disease transformed the disease into a chronic form with a mortality very similar to that obtained when only bone-marrow cells were injected. Among other effects, treatment with cyclophosphamide prevented early proliferation of donor cells in the spleen, and delayed spleen weight increase for about 10 days. After that period spleen weight increased, reaching its maximum on day 12. At first only donor type cells could be detected, but towards the end of the period in which spleen weight increase was registered host type cells appeared among the cells in mitosis. Their number gradually increased, and in some cases the majority or all of the dividing cells were of the host type. After a transitional decrease in spleen weight, another peak in cellular proliferation consisting of either host or donor or both types of cells was observed about day 30. In spite of the observed irregularities in the origin of dividing cells, all animals died by day 40 after application of cyclophosphamide. The relationship between proliferation of injected lymph node

  16. An acute toxicity study of Heliotropium scottae Rendle in mice.

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    Wahome, W M; Muchiri, D J; Mugera, G M

    1994-08-01

    Twenty-four hour ip median lethal doses (LD50) of freeze-dried aqueous extracts of Heliotropium scottae Rendle leaves and stems in mice were determined and clinical signs noted. The LD50 of the leaf extract was 3.0 g/kg, while that of the stems was 3.5 g/kg. Clinical signs were excitement, prostration, rapid breathing, gasping for breath and death. The signs were the same for both the leaf and stem extracts. It was concluded that both the leaves and stems of H scottae have slight acute toxicity.

  17. Spred-2 deficiency exacerbates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung inflammation in mice.

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    Yang Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is a severe and life-threatening acute lung injury (ALI that is caused by noxious stimuli and pathogens. ALI is characterized by marked acute inflammation with elevated alveolar cytokine levels. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways are involved in cytokine production, but the mechanisms that regulate these pathways remain poorly characterized. Here, we focused on the role of Sprouty-related EVH1-domain-containing protein (Spred-2, a negative regulator of the Ras-Raf-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK-MAPK pathway, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced acute lung inflammation. METHODS: Wild-type (WT mice and Spred-2(-/- mice were exposed to intratracheal LPS (50 µg in 50 µL PBS to induce pulmonary inflammation. After LPS-injection, the lungs were harvested to assess leukocyte infiltration, cytokine and chemokine production, ERK-MAPK activation and immunopathology. For ex vivo experiments, alveolar macrophages were harvested from untreated WT and Spred-2(-/- mice and stimulated with LPS. In in vitro experiments, specific knock down of Spred-2 by siRNA or overexpression of Spred-2 by transfection with a plasmid encoding the Spred-2 sense sequence was introduced into murine RAW264.7 macrophage cells or MLE-12 lung epithelial cells. RESULTS: LPS-induced acute lung inflammation was significantly exacerbated in Spred-2(-/- mice compared with WT mice, as indicated by the numbers of infiltrating leukocytes, levels of alveolar TNF-α, CXCL2 and CCL2 in a later phase, and lung pathology. U0126, a selective MEK/ERK inhibitor, reduced the augmented LPS-induced inflammation in Spred-2(-/- mice. Specific knock down of Spred-2 augmented LPS-induced cytokine and chemokine responses in RAW264.7 cells and MLE-12 cells, whereas Spred-2 overexpression decreased this response in RAW264.7 cells. CONCLUSIONS: The ERK-MAPK pathway is involved in LPS-induced acute lung inflammation. Spred-2 controls

  18. Augmented healing process in female mice with acute myocardial infarction.

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    Wang, Fangfei; Keimig, Thomas; He, Quan; Ding, Jennifer; Zhang, Zhenggang; Pourabdollah-Nejad, Siamak; Yang, Xiao-Ping

    2007-09-01

    It is well established that premenopausal women are protected from cardiovascular disease. This gender difference in favor of females is also demonstrated in animal studies. Our research group previously found that female mice had much lower incidence of cardiac rupture and mortality than did males during the acute phase of myocardial infarction (MI); however, the mechanisms responsible for such protection are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether the favorable cardiac effect observed in female mice with MI is due to an augmented healing process that includes less inflammation, reduced matrix degradation, and enhanced neovascularization. Twelve-week-old male and female C57BL/6J mice were subjected to MI by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery and then euthanized at 1, 4, 7, or 14 days post-MI. Inflammatory cell infiltration and myofibroblast transformation, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 activity, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-I expression, and neovascularization were examined by immunohistochemistry, zymography, Western blot, and laser scanning confocal microscopy, respectively. Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography on day 14. We found that: (1) neutrophil infiltration during the early phase of MI (1-4 days) was much lower in females than in males and was associated with lower MMP-9 activity and higher TIMP-1 protein expression, indicating less-exaggerated inflammation and extracellular matrix degradation in females; (2) myofibroblast transformation, as indicated by expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin, was significantly greater in females than in males at day 7 of MI (Pvascular area in the infarct border) was markedly increased in females, and was associated with better preserved cardiac function and less left ventricular dilatation. Our data suggest that less-exaggerated early inflammation and augmented reparative fibrotic response, indicated by enhanced myofibroblast

  19. Neonatal maternal separation increases susceptibility to experimental colitis and acute stress exposure in male mice

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    Isabella M. Fuentes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Experiencing early life stress can result in maladjusted stress response via dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and serves as a risk factor for developing chronic pelvic pain disorders. We investigated whether neonatal maternal separation (NMS would increase susceptibility to experimental colitis or exposure to acute or chronic stress. Male mice underwent NMS from postnatal day 1–21 and as adults were assessed for open field behavior, hindpaw sensitivity, and visceromotor response (VMR to colorectal distension (CRD. VMR was also measured before and after treatment with intracolonic trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS or exposure to acute or chronic water avoidance stress (WAS. Myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, proinflammatory gene and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF receptor expression were measured in distal colon. Baseline VMR was not affected by NMS, but undergoing CRD increased anxiety-like behaviors and mechanical hindpaw sensitivity of NMS mice. Treatment with TNBS dose-dependently decreased body weight and survival only in NMS mice. Following TNBS treatment, IL-6 and artemin mRNA levels were decreased in the distal colon of NMS mice, despite increased MPO activity. A single WAS exposure increased VMR during CRD in NMS mice and increased IL-6 mRNA and CRF2 protein levels in the distal colon of naïve mice, whereas CRF2 protein levels were heightened in NMS colon both at baseline and post-WAS exposure. Taken together, these results suggest that NMS in mice disrupts inflammatory- and stress-induced gene expression in the colon, potentially contributing towards an exaggerated response to specific stressors later in life.

  20. Aquaporin-4 deletion in mice reduces encephalopathy and brain edema in experimental acute liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama Rao, Kakulavarapu V; Verkman, A S; Curtis, Kevin M; Norenberg, Michael D

    2014-03-01

    Brain edema and associated astrocyte swelling leading to increased intracranial pressure are hallmarks of acute liver failure (ALF). Elevated blood and brain levels of ammonia have been implicated in the development of brain edema in ALF. Cultured astrocytes treated with ammonia have been shown to undergo cell swelling and such swelling was associated with an increase in the plasma membrane expression of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) protein. Further, silencing the AQP4 gene in cultured astrocytes was shown to prevent the ammonia-induced cell swelling. Here, we examined the evolution of brain edema in AQP4-null mice and their wild type counterparts (WT-mice) in different models of ALF induced by thioacetamide (TAA) or acetaminophen (APAP). Induction of ALF with TAA or APAP significantly increased brain water content in WT mice (by 1.6% ± 0.3 and 2.3 ± 0.4%, respectively). AQP4 protein was significantly increased in brain plasma membranes of WT mice with ALF induced by either TAA or APAP. In contrast to WT-mice, brain water content did not increase in AQP4-null mice. Additionally, AQP4-null mice treated with either TAA or APAP showed a remarkably lesser degree of neurological deficits as compared to WT mice; the latter displayed an inability to maintain proper gait, and demonstrated a markedly reduced exploratory behavior, with the mice remaining in one corner of the cage with its head tilted downwards. These results support a central role of AQP4 in the brain edema associated with ALF. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Coenzyme Q10 treatment ameliorates acute cisplatin nephrotoxicity in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouad, Amr A.; Al-Sultan, Ali Ibrahim; Refaie, Shereen M.; Yacoubi, Mohamed T.

    2010-01-01

    The nephroprotective effect of coenzyme Q10 was investigated in mice with acute renal injury induced by a single i.p. injection of cisplatin (5 mg/kg). Coenzyme Q10 treatment (10 mg/kg/day, i.p.) was applied for 6 consecutive days, starting 1 day before cisplatin administration. Coenzyme Q10 significantly reduced blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels which were increased by cisplatin. Coenzyme Q10 significantly compensated deficits in the antioxidant defense mechanisms (reduced glutathione level and superoxide dismutase activity), suppressed lipid peroxidation, decreased the elevations of tumor necrosis factor-α, nitric oxide and platinum ion concentration, and attenuated the reductions of selenium and zinc ions in renal tissue resulted from cisplatin administration. Also, histopathological renal tissue damage mediated by cisplatin was ameliorated by coenzyme Q10 treatment. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that coenzyme Q10 significantly decreased the cisplatin-induced overexpression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor-κB, caspase-3 and p53 in renal tissue. It was concluded that coenzyme Q10 represents a potential therapeutic option to protect against acute cisplatin nephrotoxicity commonly encountered in clinical practice.

  2. Coordinated multitissue transcriptional and plasma metabonomic profiles following acute caloric restriction in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, Colin; Kerrison, Nicola D; Cooray, Anisha; Piper, Matthew D W; Lingard, Steven J; Barton, Richard H; Schuster, Eugene F; Blanc, Eric; Gems, David; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Thornton, Janet M; Partridge, Linda; Withers, Dominic J

    2006-11-27

    Caloric restriction (CR) increases healthy life span in a range of organisms. The underlying mechanisms are not understood but appear to include changes in gene expression, protein function, and metabolism. Recent studies demonstrate that acute CR alters mortality rates within days in flies. Multitissue transcriptional changes and concomitant metabolic responses to acute CR have not been described. We generated whole genome RNA transcript profiles in liver, skeletal muscle, colon, and hypothalamus and simultaneously measured plasma metabolites using proton nuclear magnetic resonance in mice subjected to acute CR. Liver and muscle showed increased gene expressions associated with fatty acid metabolism and a reduction in those involved in hepatic lipid biosynthesis. Glucogenic amino acids increased in plasma, and gene expression for hepatic gluconeogenesis was enhanced. Increased expression of genes for hormone-mediated signaling and decreased expression of genes involved in protein binding and development occurred in hypothalamus. Cell proliferation genes were decreased and cellular transport genes increased in colon. Acute CR captured many, but not all, hepatic transcriptional changes of long-term CR. Our findings demonstrate a clear transcriptional response across multiple tissues during acute CR, with congruent plasma metabolite changes. Liver and muscle switched gene expression away from energetically expensive biosynthetic processes toward energy conservation and utilization processes, including fatty acid metabolism and gluconeogenesis. Both muscle and colon switched gene expression away from cellular proliferation. Mice undergoing acute CR rapidly adopt many transcriptional and metabolic changes of long-term CR, suggesting that the beneficial effects of CR may require only a short-term reduction in caloric intake.

  3. Effects of ascorbic acid on carcinogenicity and acute toxicity of nickel subsulfide, and on tumor transplants growth in gulonolactone oxidase knock-out mice and wild-type C57BL mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasprzak, Kazimierz S. [Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Diwan, Bhalchandra A. [Basic Research Program, Science Applications International Corporation-Frederick, Inc., National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Kaczmarek, Monika Z. [Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Logsdon, Daniel L. [Laboratory Animal Sciences Program, Science Applications International Corporation-Frederick, Inc., National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Fivash, Mathew J. [Data Management Services, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Salnikow, Konstantin, E-mail: salnikok@mail.nih.gov [Laboratory of Comparative Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    The aim of this study was to test a hypothesis that ascorbate depletion could enhance carcinogenicity and acute toxicity of nickel. Homozygous L-gulono- < gamma > -lactone oxidase gene knock-out mice (Gulo-/- mice) unable to produce ascorbate and wild-type C57BL mice (WT mice) were injected intramuscularly with carcinogenic nickel subsulfide (Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}), and observed for the development of injection site tumors for 57 weeks. Small pieces of one of the induced tumors were transplanted subcutaneously into separate groups of Gulo-/- and WT mice and the growth of these tumors was measured for up to 3 months. The two strains of mice differed significantly with regard to (1) Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} carcinogenesis: Gulo-/- mice were 40% more susceptible than WT mice; and (2) transplanted tumors development: Gulo-/- mice were more receptive to tumor growth than WT mice, but only in terms of a much shorter tumor latency; later in the exponential phase of growth, the growth rates were the same. And, with adequate ascorbate supplementation, the two strains were equally susceptible to acute toxicity of Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2}. Statistically significant effects of dietary ascorbate dosing levels were the following: (1) reduction in ascorbate supplementation increased acute toxicity of Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} in Gulo-/- mice; (2) ascorbate supplementation extended the latency of transplanted tumors in WT mice. In conclusion, the lack of endogenous ascorbate synthesis makes Gulo-/- mice more susceptible to Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} carcinogenesis. Dietary ascorbate tends to attenuate acute toxicity of Ni{sub 3}S{sub 2} and to extend the latency of transplanted tumors. The latter effects may be of practical importance to humans and thus deserve further studies. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ascorbate depletion enhances carcinogenicity and acute toxicity of nickel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gulo-/- mice unable to synthesize ascorbate were used in this study. Black

  4. Effects of ascorbic acid on carcinogenicity and acute toxicity of nickel subsulfide, and on tumor transplants growth in gulonolactone oxidase knock-out mice and wild-type C57BL mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasprzak, Kazimierz S.; Diwan, Bhalchandra A.; Kaczmarek, Monika Z.; Logsdon, Daniel L.; Fivash, Mathew J.; Salnikow, Konstantin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test a hypothesis that ascorbate depletion could enhance carcinogenicity and acute toxicity of nickel. Homozygous L-gulono- -lactone oxidase gene knock-out mice (Gulo−/− mice) unable to produce ascorbate and wild-type C57BL mice (WT mice) were injected intramuscularly with carcinogenic nickel subsulfide (Ni 3 S 2 ), and observed for the development of injection site tumors for 57 weeks. Small pieces of one of the induced tumors were transplanted subcutaneously into separate groups of Gulo−/− and WT mice and the growth of these tumors was measured for up to 3 months. The two strains of mice differed significantly with regard to (1) Ni 3 S 2 carcinogenesis: Gulo−/− mice were 40% more susceptible than WT mice; and (2) transplanted tumors development: Gulo−/− mice were more receptive to tumor growth than WT mice, but only in terms of a much shorter tumor latency; later in the exponential phase of growth, the growth rates were the same. And, with adequate ascorbate supplementation, the two strains were equally susceptible to acute toxicity of Ni 3 S 2 . Statistically significant effects of dietary ascorbate dosing levels were the following: (1) reduction in ascorbate supplementation increased acute toxicity of Ni 3 S 2 in Gulo−/− mice; (2) ascorbate supplementation extended the latency of transplanted tumors in WT mice. In conclusion, the lack of endogenous ascorbate synthesis makes Gulo−/− mice more susceptible to Ni 3 S 2 carcinogenesis. Dietary ascorbate tends to attenuate acute toxicity of Ni 3 S 2 and to extend the latency of transplanted tumors. The latter effects may be of practical importance to humans and thus deserve further studies. -- Highlights: ► Ascorbate depletion enhances carcinogenicity and acute toxicity of nickel. ► Gulo−/− mice unable to synthesize ascorbate were used in this study. ► The reduction in ascorbate levels in Gulo−/− mice increased acute toxicity induced by Ni 3 S 2 .

  5. Injury to skeletal muscle of mice following acute and sub-acute pregabalin exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Moshiri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Pregabalin (PGB is a new antiepileptic drug that has received FDA approval for patient who suffers from central neuropathic pain, partial seizures, generalized anxiety disorder, fibromyalgia and sleep disorders. This study was undertaken to evaluate the possible adverse effects of PGB on the muscular system of mice. Materials and Methods: To evaluate the effect of PGB on skeletal muscle, the animals were exposed to a single dose of 1, 2 or 5 g /kg or daily doses of 20, 40 or 80 mg/kg for 21 days, intraperitoneally (IP. Twaenty-four hr after the last drug administration, all animals were sacrificed. The level of fast-twitch skeletal muscle troponin I and CK-MM activity were evaluated in blood as an indicator of muscle injury. Skeletal muscle pathological findings were also reported as scores ranging from 1 to 3 based on the observed lesion. Results: In the acute and sub-acute toxicity assay IP injection of PGB significantly increased the activity and levels of CK-MM and fsTnI compared to the control group. Sub-acute exposure to PGB caused damages that include muscle atrophy, infiltration of inflammatory cells and cell degeneration. Conclusion: PGB administration especially in long term care causes muscle atrophy with infiltration of inflammatory cells and cell degeneration. The fsTnI and CK-MM are reliable markers in PGB-related muscle injury. The exact mechanisms behind the muscular damage are unclear and necessitate further investigations.

  6. Evaluation of the antidepressant-like effects of acute and sub-acute administration of crocin and crocetin in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Amin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the putative antidepressant effects of crocin and crocetin, two major active ingredients of Crocus sativus L. (saffron using mice in two different regimens of acute and sub-acute administration. Material and Methods: In acute treatment, antidepressant-like activities of crocin and crocetin (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg, i.p. were evaluated using forced swim test (FST. In sub-acute study (21 times with 24-h intervals, antidepressant-like effects of oral administration of drugs were examined using FST and tail suspension test (TST. Locomotor activity and motor coordination were studied using open field and rotarod tests, respectively. Results: Acute treatment with crocin (40 mg/kg and crocetin (20 and 40 mg/kg produced antidepressant-like effect in FST without affecting the baseline locomotion in mice. Sub-acute oral administration of crocin significantly decreased immobility time only at the highest dose (100 mg/kg. Crocetin (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg was able to decrease immobility time in FST and TST. Locomotor activity and coordination of mice were not affected by crocin or crocetin. Conclusion: Since higher doses of crocin was required to show antidepressant effects, more efficacy of crocetin may be concluded. This observation provides further support for metabolism of crocin to crocetin following oral administration.

  7. Kaempferol attenuates acute lung injury in caecal ligation and puncture model of sepsis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabha, Dipankar Jyoti; Singh, Thakur Uttam; Rungsung, Soya; Kumar, Tarun; Parida, Subhashree; Lingaraju, Madhu Cholenahalli; Paul, Avishek; Sahoo, Monalisa; Kumar, Dinesh

    2018-03-01

    Kaempferol is a flavonoid and important part of the diet. Kaempferol has shown antioxidant, antiinflammatory and antidiabetic activities in various studies. However, protective potential of kaempferol in acute lung injury induced by sepsis and its mechanism remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of kaempferol in sepsis-induced acute lung injury in mice and its possible mechanism of action. Acute lung injury was induced by CLP surgery in mice. Kaempferol (100 mg/kg bw) was administered orally one hour before caecal ligation and puncture surgery in mice. Mice were divided into four groups sham, KEM+sham, sepsis (CLP), and KEM+sepsis. Assessment of lung injury was done by estimation of protein content in lung tissue, lung edema, proinflammatory cytokines in plasma and lung tissue, oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes, nitrite production, and histopathology. Kaempferol pretreated mice showed significant (P Kaempferol pretreatment showed reduction in cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α in plasma as well as in lung tissue in comparison with septic mice without pretreatment. Pretreatment with kaempferol did not show any reduction in MDA level in comparison with septic mice. Antioxidant enzymes SOD and catalase and nonenzymatic antioxidant GSH activities were also increased with kaempferol pretreatment in septic mice. Further, kaempferol pretreatment reduced the lung tissue nitrite level (P Kaempferol pretreatment did not decrease bacterial load in septic mice. Mice pretreated with kaempferol followed by sepsis showed lesser infiltration of cells and more arranged alveolar structure in histopathological analysis. The study suggests that kaempferol showed attenuation in sepsis-induced acute lung injury in mice through suppression of oxidative stress, iNOS, and ICAM-1 pathways.

  8. NF-κB in The Mechanism of Brain Edema in Acute Liver Failure: Studies in Transgenic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, A.R.; Bethea, J.R.; Tong, X.Y.; Gomez, J.; Norenberg, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    Astrocyte swelling and brain edema are major complications of the acute form of hepatic encephalopathy (acute liver failure, ALF). While elevated brain ammonia level is a well-known etiological factor in ALF, the mechanism by which ammonia brings about astrocyte swelling is not well understood. We recently found that astrocyte cultures exposed to ammonia activated nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), and that pharmacological inhibition of such activation led to a reduction in astrocyte swelling. Although these findings suggest the involvement of NF-κB in astrocyte swelling in vitro, it is not known whether NF-κB contributes to the development of brain edema in ALF in vivo. Furthermore, pharmacological agents used to inhibit NF-κB may have non-specific effects. Accordingly, we used transgenic (Tg) mice that have a functional inactivation of astrocytic NF-κB and examined whether these mice are resistant to ALF-associated brain edema. ALF was induced in mice by treatment with the hepatotoxin thioacetamide (TAA). Wild type (WT) mice treated with TAA showed a significant increase in brain water content (1.65%) along with prominent astrocyte swelling and spongiosis of the neuropil, consistent with the presence of cytotoxic edema. These changes were not observed in Tg mice treated with TAA. Additionally, WT mice with ALF showed an increase in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) immunoreactivity in astrocytes from WT mice treated with TAA (iNOS is known to be activated by NF-κB and to contribute to cell swelling). By contrast, Tg mice treated with TAA did not exhibit brain edema, histological changes nor an increase in iNOS immunoreactivity. We also examined astrocytes cultures derived from Tg mice to determine whether these cells exhibit a lesser degree of swelling and cytopathological changes following exposure to ammonia. Astrocyte cultures derived from Tg mice showed no cell swelling nor morphological abnormalities when exposed to ammonia for 24 h. By contrast

  9. Food restriction affects Y-maze spatial recognition memory in developing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yu; Chen, Yanmei; Li, Liane; Wang, Yumei; Kong, Xiangyang; Wang, Jianhong

    2017-08-01

    The ambiguous effects of food restriction (FR) on cognition in rodents have been mostly explored in the aged brain by a variety of paradigms, in which either rewards or punishments are involved. This study aims to examine the effects of chronic and acute FR with varying intensities on spatial recognition memory in developing mice. We have used a Y-maze task that is based on the innate tendency of rodents to explore novel environments. In chronic FR, mice had 70-30% chow of control for seven weeks. In acute FR, mice were food restricted for 12-48h before the tests. We found that chronic FR had no effect on the preference of mice for novelty in the Y-maze, but severe FR (50-30% of control) caused impairment on spatial recognition memory. The impairment significantly correlated with the slow weight growth induced by FR. Acute FR also did not affect the novelty preference of mice, but either improved or impaired the memory retention. These data suggest chronic FR impairs Y-maze spatial recognition memory in developing mice depending on FR intensity and individual tolerability of the FR. Moreover, acute FR exerts diverse effects on the memory, either positive or negative. Our findings have revealed new insights on the effects of FR on spatial recognition memory in developing animals. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ischemic preconditioning provides both acute and delayed protection against renal ischemia and reperfusion injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Jin Deok; Kim, Mihwa; D'Agati, Vivette D; Lee, H Thomas

    2006-11-01

    Acute as well as delayed ischemic preconditioning (IPC) provides protection against cardiac and neuronal ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury. This study determined whether delayed preconditioning occurs in the kidney and further elucidated the mechanisms of renal IPC in mice. Mice were subjected to IPC (four cycles of 5 min of ischemia and reperfusion) and then to 30 min of renal ischemia either 15 min (acute IPC) or 24 h (delayed IPC) later. Both acute and delayed renal IPC provided powerful protection against renal IR injury. Inhibition of Akt but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation prevented the protection that was afforded by acute IPC. Neither extracellular signal-regulated kinase nor Akt inhibition prevented protection that was afforded by delayed renal IPC. Pretreatment with an antioxidant, N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)-glycine, to scavenge free radicals prevented the protection that was provided by acute but not delayed renal IPC. Inhibition of protein kinase C or pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins attenuated protection from both acute and delayed renal IPC. Delayed renal IPC increased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) as well as heat-shock protein 27 synthesis, and the renal protective effects of delayed preconditioning were attenuated by a selective inhibitor of iNOS (l-N(6)[1-iminoethyl]lysine). Moreover, delayed IPC was not observed in iNOS knockout mice. Both acute and delayed IPC were independent of A(1) adenosine receptors (AR) as a selective A(1)AR antagonist failed to block preconditioning and acute and delayed preconditioning occurred in mice that lacked A(1)AR. Therefore, this study demonstrated that acute or delayed IPC provides renal protection against IR injury in mice but involves distinct signaling pathways.

  11. Increased sphingosine-1-phosphate improves muscle regeneration in acutely injured mdx mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Presently, there is no effective treatment for the lethal muscle wasting disease Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Here we show that increased sphingosine-1-phoshate (S1P) through direct injection or via the administration of the small molecule 2-acetyl-4(5)-tetrahydroxybutyl imidazole (THI), an S1P lyase inhibitor, has beneficial effects in acutely injured dystrophic muscles of mdx mice. Methods We treated mdx mice with and without acute injury and characterized the histopathological and functional effects of increasing S1P levels. We also tested exogenous and direct administration of S1P on mdx muscles to examine the molecular pathways under which S1P promotes regeneration in dystrophic muscles. Results Short-term treatment with THI significantly increased muscle fiber size and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle specific force in acutely injured mdx limb muscles. In addition, the accumulation of fibrosis and fat deposition, hallmarks of DMD pathology and impaired muscle regeneration, were lower in the injured muscles of THI-treated mdx mice. Furthermore, increased muscle force was observed in uninjured EDL muscles with a longer-term treatment of THI. Such regenerative effects were linked to the response of myogenic cells, since intramuscular injection of S1P increased the number of Myf5nlacz/+ positive myogenic cells and newly regenerated myofibers in injured mdx muscles. Intramuscular injection of biotinylated-S1P localized to muscle fibers, including newly regenerated fibers, which also stained positive for S1P receptor 1 (S1PR1). Importantly, plasma membrane and perinuclear localization of phosphorylated S1PR1 was observed in regenerating muscle fibers of mdx muscles. Intramuscular increases of S1P levels, S1PR1 and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (P-rpS6), and elevated EDL muscle specific force, suggest S1P promoted the upregulation of anabolic pathways that mediate skeletal muscle mass and function. Conclusions These data show that S1P is

  12. Total Flavonoids from Mimosa Pudica Protects Carbon Tetrachloride -Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-qin QIU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the protective effect of total flavonoids from Mimosa pudica on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice. Methods: CCl4-induced acute liver injury model in mice was established. The activity of ALT and AST, the content of serum albumin (Alb and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC were determined. The content of malondiadehyde (MDA was measured and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD was determined. The histopathological changes of liver were observed.Results: Compared with CCl4 modle group, each dose group of total flavonouida from Mimosa pudica couldreduced the activity of ALT and AST in mice obviously (P<0.01, indicating they had remarkably protective effect on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice. high and middle dose groups of total flavonouida from Mimosa pudica couldincrease the content of Alb in mice (P<0.01. Each dose group of total flavonouida from Mimosa pudica could enhance the level of T-AOC (P<0.01. each dose group of total flavonouida from Mimosa pudica could lower the content of liver homogenate MDA but enhance the activity of SOD in a dose-depended manner (P<0.01. Conclusion: Total flavones from Mimosa Pudica have obvious protective effect on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in mice.

  13. The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin has limited acute anticonvulsant effects in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam L Hartman

    Full Text Available The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway integrates signals from different nutrient sources, including amino acids and glucose. Compounds that inhibit mTOR kinase activity such as rapamycin and everolimus can suppress seizures in some chronic animal models and in patients with tuberous sclerosis. However, it is not known whether mTOR inhibitors exert acute anticonvulsant effects in addition to their longer term antiepileptogenic effects. To gain insights into how rapamycin suppresses seizures, we investigated the anticonvulsant activity of rapamycin using acute seizure tests in mice.Following intraperitoneal injection of rapamycin, normal four-week-old male NIH Swiss mice were evaluated for susceptibility to a battery of acute seizure tests similar to those currently used to screen potential therapeutics by the US NIH Anticonvulsant Screening Program. To assess the short term effects of rapamycin, mice were seizure tested in ≤ 6 hours of a single dose of rapamycin, and for longer term effects of rapamycin, mice were tested after 3 or more daily doses of rapamycin.The only seizure test where short-term rapamycin treatment protected mice was against tonic hindlimb extension in the MES threshold test, though this protection waned with longer rapamycin treatment. Longer term rapamycin treatment protected against kainic acid-induced seizure activity, but only at late times after seizure onset. Rapamycin was not protective in the 6 Hz or PTZ seizure tests after short or longer rapamycin treatment times. In contrast to other metabolism-based therapies that protect in acute seizure tests, rapamycin has limited acute anticonvulsant effects in normal mice.The efficacy of rapamycin as an acute anticonvulsant agent may be limited. Furthermore, the combined pattern of acute seizure test results places rapamycin in a third category distinct from both fasting and the ketogenic diet, and which is more similar to drugs acting on sodium channels.

  14. Involvement of immune-related factors in diclofenac-induced acute liver injury in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Azusa; Higuchi, Satonori; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Fukami, Tatsuki; Nakajima, Miki; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major safety concern in drug development and clinical drug therapy. However, the underlying mechanism of DILI is little known. It is difficult to predict DILI in humans due to the lack of experimental animal models. Diclofenac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug rarely causes severe liver injury in human, but there is some evidence for immunoallergic idiosyncratic reactions. In this study, the mechanism of diclofenac-induced liver injury in mice was investigated. First, we established the dosing condition for liver injury in normal mice. Plasma ALT and AST levels were significantly increased in diclofenac-administered (80 mg/kg, i.p.) mice in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Among several interleukins (ILs) and chemokines, mRNA expression of helper T (Th) 17 cell-mediated factors, such as retinoid orphan receptor (ROR)-γt, and signal transducers and activators of transcription factor (STAT) 3 in the liver, and the plasma IL-17 level were significantly increased. Neutralization of IL-17 tended to suppress the hepatotoxicity of diclofenac, suggesting that IL-17 was partly involved. Gadolinium chloride (GdCl 3 ) administration demonstrated that Kupffer cells are not likely to be involved in diclofenac hepatotoxicity. Hepatic expressions of IL-1β mRNA and plasma IL-1β were significantly increased soon after the diclofenac administration. Then, the results of an in vivo neutralization study of IL-1β suggested that IL-1β was involved early in the time of pathogenesis of the diclofenac-induced liver injury. In conclusion, we firstly developed a diclofenac-induced acute liver injury model in normal mice, and the involvement of IL-17 and IL-1β was clarified.

  15. Involvement of immune-related factors in diclofenac-induced acute liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Azusa; Higuchi, Satonori; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Fukami, Tatsuki; Nakajima, Miki; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi

    2012-03-11

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major safety concern in drug development and clinical drug therapy. However, the underlying mechanism of DILI is little known. It is difficult to predict DILI in humans due to the lack of experimental animal models. Diclofenac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug rarely causes severe liver injury in human, but there is some evidence for immunoallergic idiosyncratic reactions. In this study, the mechanism of diclofenac-induced liver injury in mice was investigated. First, we established the dosing condition for liver injury in normal mice. Plasma ALT and AST levels were significantly increased in diclofenac-administered (80 mg/kg, i.p.) mice in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Among several interleukins (ILs) and chemokines, mRNA expression of helper T (Th) 17 cell-mediated factors, such as retinoid orphan receptor (ROR)-γt, and signal transducers and activators of transcription factor (STAT) 3 in the liver, and the plasma IL-17 level were significantly increased. Neutralization of IL-17 tended to suppress the hepatotoxicity of diclofenac, suggesting that IL-17 was partly involved. Gadolinium chloride (GdCl₃) administration demonstrated that Kupffer cells are not likely to be involved in diclofenac hepatotoxicity. Hepatic expressions of IL-1β mRNA and plasma IL-1β were significantly increased soon after the diclofenac administration. Then, the results of an in vivo neutralization study of IL-1β suggested that IL-1β was involved early in the time of pathogenesis of the diclofenac-induced liver injury. In conclusion, we firstly developed a diclofenac-induced acute liver injury model in normal mice, and the involvement of IL-17 and IL-1β was clarified. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Absence of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase reduces mortality of acute viral myocarditis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Hisako; Hoshi, Masato; Mouri, Akihiro; Tashita, Chieko; Yamamoto, Yasuko; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Saito, Kuniaki

    2017-01-01

    Infection of the encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) in mice is an established model for viral myocarditis. Previously, we have demonstrated that indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an L-tryptophan - kynurenine pathway (KP) enzyme, affects acute viral myocarditis. However, the roles of KP metabolites in EMCV infection remain unclear. Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) is one of the key regulatory enzymes, which metabolizes kynurenine to 3-hydroxykynurenine in the KP. Therefore, we examined the role of KMO in acute viral infection by comparing between KMO -/- mice and KMO +/+ mice. KMO deficiency resulted in suppressed mortality after EMCV infection. The number of infiltrating cells and F4/80 + cells in KMO -/- mice was suppressed compared with those in KMO +/+ mice. KMO -/- mice showed significantly increased levels of serum KP metabolites, and induction of KMO expression upon EMCV infection was involved in its effect on mortality through EMCV suppression. Furthermore, KMO -/- mice showed significantly suppression of CCL2, CCL3 and CCL4 on day 2 and CXCL1 on day 4 after infection. These results suggest that increased KP metabolites reduced chemokine production, resulting in suppressed mortality upon KMO knockdown in EMCV infection. KP metabolites may thus provide an effective strategy for treating acute viral myocarditis. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Acute total sleep deprivation potentiates amphetamine-induced locomotor-stimulant effects and behavioral sensitization in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Luis P; Fukushiro, Daniela F; Hollais, André W; Mári-Kawamoto, Elisa; Costa, Jacqueline M; Berro, Laís F; Aramini, Tatiana C F; Wuo-Silva, Raphael; Andersen, Monica L; Tufik, Sergio; Frussa-Filho, Roberto

    2014-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that a prolonged period (48 h) of paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) potentiates amphetamine (AMP)-induced behavioral sensitization, an animal model of addiction-related neuroadaptations. In the present study, we examined the effects of an acute short-term deprivation of total sleep (TSD) (6h) on AMP-induced behavioral sensitization in mice and compared them to the effects of short-term PSD (6 h). Three-month-old male C57BL/6J mice underwent TSD (experiment 1-gentle handling method) or PSD (experiment 2-multiple platforms method) for 6 h. Immediately after the sleep deprivation period, mice were tested in the open field for 10 min under the effects of saline or 2.0 mg/kg AMP. Seven days later, to assess behavioral sensitization, all of the mice received a challenge injection of 2.0 mg/kg AMP and were tested in the open field for 10 min. Total, peripheral, and central locomotion, and grooming duration were measured. TSD, but not PSD, potentiated the hyperlocomotion induced by an acute injection of AMP and this effect was due to an increased locomotion in the central squares of the apparatus. Similarly, TSD facilitated the development of AMP-induced sensitization, but only in the central locomotion parameter. The data indicate that an acute period of TSD may exacerbate the behavioral effects of AMP in mice. Because sleep architecture is composed of paradoxical and slow wave sleep, and 6-h PSD had no effects on AMP-induced hyperlocomotion or sensitization, our data suggest that the deprivation of slow wave sleep plays a critical role in the mechanisms that underlie the potentiating effects of TSD on both the acute and sensitized addiction-related responses to AMP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Acute Toxicity of Opuntia Ficus Indica and Pistacia Lentiscus Seed Oils in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Boukeloua, A; Belkhiri, A; Djerrou, Z; Bahri, L; Boulebda, N; Pacha, Y Hamdi

    2012-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the fixed oil of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds in mice through determination of LD50 values, and also the physicochemical characteristics of the fixed oil of these oils. The acute toxicity of their fixed oil were also investigated in mice using the method of Kabba and Berhens. The fixed oil of Pistacia lentiscus and Opunti...

  19. Radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemia in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouffler, S.D.; Silver, A.R.J.; Cox, R. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    Ample epidemiological studies of human populations implicate ionizing radiation as a carcinogen and these quantitative studies provide the foundation for the core estimates of radiation cancer risk. The majority of the epidemiological data originate from situations of radiation exposure at high dose and high dose rate. The relevance of risk estimates based on such exposures to the more commonly encountered low dose and dose rate situation has been questioned frequently. Thus, there is a need to investigate and quantitate low dose and dose rate effects. A number of approaches may be considered, for example, very large scale epidemiology, very large scale animal experimentation; however, both of these present problems of a practical and/or ethical nature. A further possible approach is that of mechanistic modelling. This requires a fairly detailed understanding of neoplastic disease and how it develops post-irradiation. Many factors and variables have to be taken into consideration in mechanistic modelling approaches. Testing of mechanistic modelling schemes is best carried out using animal model systems. Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is a radiogenic cancer of significance in man and several good mouse models of the disease are available. Here, recent studies conducted at NRPB with the aim of elucidating the post-irradiation development of AML will be discussed. In particular three areas critical for developing a sound mechanistic model will be covered, definition of the initiating event; study of disease progression, this addresses the question of the frequency of conversion of initiated cells into the neoplastic state and the influence of genetic background on leukaemogenesis. (author)

  20. T-cell-dependent control of acute Giardia lamblia infections in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, S M; Nash, T E

    2000-01-01

    We have studied immune mechanisms responsible for control of acute Giardia lamblia and Giardia muris infections in adult mice. Association of chronic G. lamblia infection with hypogammaglobulinemia and experimental infections of mice with G. muris have led to the hypothesis that antibodies are required to control these infections. We directly tested this hypothesis by infecting B-cell-deficient mice with either G. lamblia or G. muris. Both wild-type mice and B-cell-deficient mice eliminated the vast majority of parasites between 1 and 2 weeks postinfection with G. lamblia. G. muris was also eliminated in both wild-type and B-cell-deficient mice. In contrast, T-cell-deficient and scid mice failed to control G. lamblia infections, as has been shown previously for G. muris. Treatment of wild-type or B-cell-deficient mice with antibodies to CD4 also prevented elimination of G. lamblia, confirming a role for T cells in controlling infections. By infecting mice deficient in either alphabeta- or gammadelta-T-cell receptor (TCR)-expressing T cells, we show that the alphabeta-TCR-expressing T cells are required to control parasites but that the gammadelta-TCR-expressing T cells are not. Finally, infections in mice deficient in production of gamma interferon or interleukin 4 (IL-4) and mice deficient in responding to IL-4 and IL-13 revealed that neither the Th1 nor the Th2 subset is absolutely required for protection from G. lamblia. We conclude that a T-cell-dependent mechanism is essential for controlling acute Giardia infections and that this mechanism is independent of antibody and B cells.

  1. Effect of BMPs on hematopoietic injury of acute radiation sickness in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Qiong; Zhang Shaozhang; Pu Qin; Zhang Fake; Hannah, X.H.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) on hematopoietic acute radiation sickness in mice. BMP, rhBMP-2m and PBK/hBMP-2-NIH3T3 cells were obtained separately by chemistry, molecule biological method and genetherapy method. In this study, the effect of BMPs on hematopoiesis was detected at postirradiation: some hematological parameters, 30 days the survival ratio and formation of bone marrow CFU-GM colony. The experiments indicate that when phBMP (purified bovine bone morphogenetic protein) can increase the formation of bone narrow CFU-GM colony (p<0.05) at 10th d after irradiation. Irradiation control group's mice died in 30 days, but effect of rhBMP-2m on the survival of mice after 7.5Gy irradiation, was detected whereas there were 10%, 15% and 35% all mice of survived after injection i.p. with 0.5 mg, 1.0 mg and 2.0 mg of rhBMP-2m respectively. All hematological parameters of treated mice were significantly higher than control group (p<0.01). PBK/hBMP-2-NIH3T3 cells were established and transplanted into mice irradiated by 7.0Gy r ray by i.p., the survival ratio of treated mice higher than negative control group (p<0.01), and all hematopoietic parameters were increased statistically significant (p<0.01). These data support the our hypothesis: BMPs can treat the acute radiation sickness. The results indicate that in adult mice, BMPs can recover or treat the hematopoietic injury of acute radiation sickness in mice. (author)

  2. Compound edaravone alleviates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengping; Luo, Zhaowen; Bi, Aijing; Yang, Weidong; An, Wenji; Dong, Xiaoliang; Chen, Rong; Yang, Shibao; Tang, Huifang; Han, Xiaodong; Luo, Lan

    2017-09-15

    Acute lung injury (ALI) represents an unmet medical need with an urgency to develop effective pharmacotherapies. Compound edaravone, a combination of edaravone and borneol, has been developed for treatment of ischemia stroke in clinical phase III study. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of compound edaravone on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in RAW264.7 cells and the therapeutic efficacy on LPS-induced ALI in mice. Edaravone and compound edaravone concentration-dependently decreased LPS-induced interleukin-6 (IL-6) production and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in RAW264.7 cells. The efficiency of compound edaravone was stronger than edaravone alone. In the animal study, compound edaravone was injected intravenously to mice after intratracheal instillation of LPS. It remarkably alleviated LPS-induced lung injury including pulmonary histological abnormalities, polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) infiltration and extravasation. Further study demonstrated that compound edaravone suppressed LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 increase in mouse serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and inhibited LPS-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation and COX-2 expression in mice lung tissues. Importantly, our findings demonstrated that the compound edaravone showed a stronger protective effect against mouse ALI than edaravone alone, which suggested the synergies between edaravone and borneol. In conclusion, compound edaravone could be a potential novel therapeutic drug for ALI treatment and borneol might produce a synergism with edaravone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of acute and long-term typical or atypical neuroleptics on morphine-induced behavioural effects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollais, André W; Patti, Camilla L; Zanin, Karina A; Fukushiro, Daniela F; Berro, Laís F; Carvalho, Rita C; Kameda, Sonia R; Frussa-Filho, Roberto

    2014-03-01

    1. It has been suggested that the high prevalence of drug abuse in schizophrenics is related to chronic treatment with typical neuroleptics and dopaminergic supersensitivity that develops as a consequence. Within this context, atypical neuroleptics do not seem to induce this phenomenon. In the present study, we investigated the effects of acute administration or withdrawal from long-term administration of haloperidol and/or ziprasidone on morphine-induced open-field behaviour in mice. 2. In the first experiment, mice were given a single injection of haloperidol (1 mg/kg, i.p.) or several doses of ziprasidone (2, 4 or 6 mg/kg, i.p.) and motor activity was quantified by the open-field test. The aim of the second experiment was to verify the effects of an acute injection of haloperidol (1 mg/kg) or ziprasidone (6 mg/kg) on 20 mg/kg morphine-induced behaviours in the open-field test. In the third experiment, mice were treated with 1 mg/kg haloperidol and/or 2, 4 or 6 mg/kg ziprasidone for 20 days. Seventy-two hours after the last injection, mice were injected with 20 mg/kg, i.p., morphine and then subjected to the open-field test. Acute haloperidol or ziprasidone decreased spontaneous general activity and abolished morphine-induced locomotor stimulation. 3. Withdrawal from haloperidol or ziprasidone did not modify morphine-elicited behaviours in the open-field test. The results suggest that withdrawal from neuroleptic treatments does not contribute to the acute effect of morphine in schizophrenic patients. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. A mathematical model for leukemogenesis of radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia in C3H/He mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, M.; Ban, N.

    2002-01-01

    We developed a mathematical model in leukemogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia(AML) in C3H/He mice irradiated. Our previous study indicated that the leukemogenesis of AML was associated with a deletion of chromosome 2 directly induced by acute radiation. We hypothesized that radiation-induced AML needs both inactivation of one allele of a causative gene directly induced by acute radiation and another mutational event at the other allele. We analyzed data using a two-stage stochastic model for carcinogenesis. Model fitting was based on the maximum likelihood method. Our model analysis suggested that a single exposure might induce the long-lasting delayed cell death of radiation-induced initiated cells, and that the incidence of AML may be determined through both radiation-induced initiation and persistent increase of delayed cell death of the initiated cell induced by radiation

  5. TNF-α from hippocampal microglia induces working memory deficits by acute stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgidani, Masahiro; Kato, Takahiro A; Sagata, Noriaki; Hayakawa, Kohei; Shimokawa, Norihiro; Sato-Kasai, Mina; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2016-07-01

    The role of microglia in stress responses has recently been highlighted, yet the underlying mechanisms of action remain unresolved. The present study examined disruption in working memory due to acute stress using the water-immersion resistant stress (WIRS) test in mice. Mice were subjected to acute WIRS, and biochemical, immunohistochemical, and behavioral assessments were conducted. Spontaneous alternations (working memory) significantly decreased after exposure to acute WIRS for 2h. We employed a 3D morphological analysis and site- and microglia-specific gene analysis techniques to detect microglial activity. Morphological changes in hippocampal microglia were not observed after acute stress, even when assessing ramification ratios and cell somata volumes. Interestingly, hippocampal tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels were significantly elevated after acute stress, and acute stress-induced TNF-α was produced by hippocampal-ramified microglia. Conversely, plasma concentrations of TNF-α were not elevated after acute stress. Etanercept (TNF-α inhibitor) recovered working memory deficits in accordance with hippocampal TNF-α reductions. Overall, results suggest that TNF-α from hippocampal microglia is a key contributor to early-stage stress-to-mental responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. N-Acetyl Cysteine does not prevent liver toxicity from chronic low dose plus sub-acute high dose paracetamol exposure in young or old mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Alice-Elizabeth; Huizer-Pajkos, Aniko; Mach, John; McKenzie, Catriona; Mitchell, Sarah-Jayne; de Cabo, Rafael; Jones, Brett; Cogger, Victoria; Le Couteur, David G; Hilmer, Sarah-Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Paracetamol is an analgesic commonly used by people of all ages, which is well documented to cause severe hepatotoxicity with acute over-exposures. The risk of hepatotoxicity from non-acute paracetamol exposures is less extensively studied, and this is the exposure most common in older adults. Evidence on the effectiveness of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) for non-acute paracetamol exposures, in any age group, is lacking. This study aimed to examine the effect of long-term exposure to therapeutic doses of paracetamol and sub-acute paracetamol over-exposure, in young and old mice, and to investigate whether NAC was effective at preventing paracetamol hepatotoxicity induced by these exposures. Young and old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a paracetamol-containing (1.33g/kg food) or control diet for 6 weeks. Mice were then dosed orally 8 times over 3 days with additional paracetamol (250mg/kg) or saline, followed by either one or two doses of oral NAC (1200mg/kg) or saline. Chronic low-dose paracetamol exposure did not cause hepatotoxicity in young or old mice, measured by serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation, and confirmed by histology and a DNA fragmentation assay. Sub-acute paracetamol exposure caused significant hepatotoxicity in young and old mice, measured by biochemistry (ALT) and histology. Neither a single nor double dose of NAC protected against this toxicity from sub-acute paracetamol in young or old mice. This finding has important clinical implications for treating toxicity due to different paracetamol exposure types in patients of all ages, and implies a need to develop new treatments for sub-acute paracetamol toxicity. PMID:26821200

  7. Acute and subchronic airway inflammation after intratracheal instillation of quartz and titanium dioxide agglomerates in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roursgaard, Martin; Jensen, Keld A; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the acute and subchronic inflammatory effects of micrometer-size (micro-size) and nanometer-size (nano-size) particles after intratracheal (i.t.) installation in mice. The role of the type of compound, polymorphism, and size of the particles was investigated. Studied compo...

  8. Involvement of prostaglandins and histamine in nickel wire-induced acute inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirasawa, Noriyasu; Goi, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Rina; Ishihara, Kenji; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Ohuchi, Kazuo

    2010-06-15

    The irritancy of Nickel (Ni) ions has been well documented clinically. However, the chemical mediators involved in the acute inflammation induced by solid Ni are not fully understood. We used the Ni wire-implantation model in mice and examined roles of prostaglandins and histamine in plasma leakage in the acute phase. The subcutaneous implantation of a Ni wire into the back of mice induced plasma leakage from 8 to 24 h and tissue necrosis around the wire at 3 days, whereas the implantation of an aluminum wire induced no such inflammatory responses. An increase in the mRNA for cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and HDC in cells around the Ni wire was detected 4 h after the implantation. The leakage of plasma at 8 h was inhibited by indomethacin in a dose-dependent manner. Dexamethasone and the p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB203580 also inhibited the exudation of plasma consistent with the inhibition of the expression of COX-2 mRNA. Furthermore, plasma leakage was partially but siginificantly reduced in histamine H1 receptor knockout mice and histidine decarboxylase (HDC) knockout mice but not in H2 receptor knockout mice. These results suggested that the Ni ions released from the wire induced the expression of COX-2 and HDC, resulting in an increase in vascular permeability during the acute phase of inflammation. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Outer Membrane Vesicle Vaccines from Biosafe Surrogates Prevent Acute Lethal Glanders in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Norris

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia mallei is a host-adapted Gram-negative mammalian pathogen that causes the severe disease glanders. Glanders can manifest as a rapid acute progression or a chronic debilitating syndrome primarily affecting solipeds and humans in close association with infected animals. In USA, B. mallei is classified as one of the most important bacterial biothreat agents. Presently, there is no licensed glanders vaccine available for humans or animals. In this work, outer membrane vesicles (OMVs were isolated from three attenuated biosafe bacterial strains, Burkholderia pseudomallei Bp82, B. thailandensis E555, and B. thailandensis TxDOH and used to vaccinate mice. B. thailandensis OMVs induced significantly higher antibody responses that were investigated. B. mallei specific serum antibody responses were of higher magnitude in mice vaccinated with B. thailandensis OMVs compared to levels in mice vaccinated with B. pseudomallei OMVs. OMVs derived from biosafe strains protected mice from acute lethal glanders with vesicles from the two B. thailandensis strains affording significant protection (>90% up to 35 days post-infection with some up to 60 days. Organ loads from 35-day survivors indicated bacteria colonization of the lungs, liver, and spleen while those from 60 days had high CFUs in the spleens. The highest antibody producing vaccine (B. thailandensis E555 OMVs also protected C57BL/6 mice from acute inhalational glanders with evidence of full protection.

  10. Acute Toxicity of Intravenously Administered Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jiaying; Shi, Hongbo; Ruth, Magaye; Yu, Hongsheng; Lazar, Lissy; Zou, Baobo; Yang, Cui; Wu, Aiguo; Zhao, Jinshun

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With a wide range of applications, titanium dioxide (TiO₂) nanoparticles (NPs) are manufactured worldwide in large quantities. Recently, in the field of nanomedicine, intravenous injection of TiO₂ nanoparticulate carriers directly into the bloodstream has raised public concerns on their toxicity to humans. METHODS: In this study, mice were injected intravenously with a single dose of TiO₂ NPs at varying dose levels (0, 140, 300, 645, or 1387 mg/kg). Animal mortality, blood biochem...

  11. Acute stress blocks the caffeine-induced enhancement of contextual memory retrieval in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierard, Chistophe; Krazem, Ali; Henkous, Nadia; Decorte, Laurence; Béracochéa, Daniel

    2015-08-15

    This study investigated in mice the dose-effect of caffeine on memory retrieval in non-stress and stress conditions. C57 Bl/6 Jico mice learned two consecutive discriminations (D1 and D2) in a four-hole board which involved either distinct contextual (CSD) or similar contextual (SSD) cues. All mice received an i.p. injection of vehicle or caffeine (8, 16 or 32mg/kg) 30min before the test session. Results showed that in non-stress conditions, the 16mg/kg caffeine dose induced a significant enhancement of D1 performance in CSD but not in SSD. Hence, we studied the effect of an acute stress (electric footshocks) administered 15min before the test session on D1 performance in caffeine-treated mice. Results showed that stress significantly decreased D1 performance in vehicle-treated controls and the memory-enhancing effect induced by the 16mg/kg caffeine dose in non-stress condition is no longer observed. Interestingly, whereas caffeine-treated mice exhibited weaker concentrations of plasma corticosterone as compared to vehicles in non-stress condition, stress significantly increased plasma corticosterone concentrations in caffeine-treated mice which reached similar level to that of controls. Overall, the acute stress blocked both the endocrinological and memory retrieval enhancing effects of caffeine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Platelet serotonin promotes the recruitment of neutrophils to sites of acute inflammation in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suidan, Georgette L.; Demers, Melanie; Herr, Nadine; Carbo, Carla; Brill, Alexander; Cifuni, Stephen M.; Mauler, Maximilian; Cicko, Sanja; Bader, Michael; Idzko, Marco; Bode, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The majority of peripheral serotonin is stored in platelets, which secrete it on activation. Serotonin releases Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs) and we asked whether absence of platelet serotonin affects neutrophil recruitment in inflammatory responses. Tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph)1–deficient mice, lacking non-neuronal serotonin, showed mild leukocytosis compared with wild-type (WT), primarily driven by an elevated neutrophil count. Despite this, 50% fewer leukocytes rolled on unstimulated mesenteric venous endothelium of Tph1−/− mice. The velocity of rolling leukocytes was higher in Tph1−/− mice, indicating fewer selectin-mediated interactions with endothelium. Stimulation of endothelium with histamine, a secretagogue of WPBs, or injection of serotonin normalized the rolling in Tph1−/− mice. Diminished rolling in Tph1−/− mice resulted in reduced firm adhesion of leukocytes after lipopolysaccharide treatment. Blocking platelet serotonin uptake with fluoxetine in WT mice reduced serum serotonin by > 80% and similarly reduced leukocyte rolling and adhesion. Four hours after inflammatory stimulation, neutrophil extravasation into lung, peritoneum, and skin wounds was reduced in Tph1−/− mice, whereas in vitro neutrophil chemotaxis was independent of serotonin. Survival of lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxic shock was improved in Tph1−/− mice. In conclusion, platelet serotonin promotes the recruitment of neutrophils in acute inflammation, supporting an important role for platelet serotonin in innate immunity. PMID:23243271

  13. Unexpected gender difference in sensitivity to the acute toxicity of dioxin in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohjanvirta, Raimo, E-mail: raimo.pohjanvirta@helsinki.fi [Department of Food Hygiene and Environmental Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 66, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Miettinen, Hanna, E-mail: hanna.miettinen@crl.com [Department of Environmental Health, National Institute for Health and Welfare, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Sankari, Satu, E-mail: satu.sankari@helsinki.fi [Central Laboratory of the Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 57, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Hegde, Nagabhooshan [Department of Food Hygiene and Environmental Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 66, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Lindén, Jere, E-mail: jere.linden@helsinki.fi [Department of Food Hygiene and Environmental Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 66, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 66, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-07-15

    The acute toxicity of the ubiquitous environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) varies widely among species and strains. Previous studies in rats have established that females are approximately 2-fold more sensitive to TCDD lethality than males. However, there is a surprising gap in the literature regarding possible gender-related sensitivity differences in mice. In the present study, by using three substrains of TCDD-sensitive C57BL/6 mice and transgenic mice on this background, we demonstrated that: 1) in contrast to the situation in rats, female mice are the more resistant gender; 2) the magnitude of the divergence between male and female mice depends on the substrain, but can amount to over 10-fold; 3) AH receptor protein expression levels or mutations in the primary structure of this receptor are not involved in the resistance of female mice of a C57BL/6 substrain, despite their acute LD{sub 50} for TCDD being over 5000 μg/kg; 4) transgenic mice that globally express the rat wildtype AH receptor follow the mouse type of gender difference; 5) in gonadectomized mice, ovarian estrogens appear to enhance TCDD resistance, whereas testicular androgens seem to augment TCDD susceptibility; and 6) the gender difference correlates best with the severity of liver damage, which is also reflected in hepatic histopathology and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially IL-6. Hence, the two closely related rodent species most often employed in toxicological risk characterization studies, rat and mouse, represent opposite examples of the influence of gender on dioxin sensitivity, further complicating the risk assessment of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. -- Highlights: ► In contrast to rats, male mice are more sensitive to TCDD toxicity than female mice. ► The resistance of female C57BL/6Kuo mice matches or exceeds that of male DBA/2 mice. ► The resistance of female C57BL/6Kuo mice is not based on AHR structure or abundance.

  14. Unexpected gender difference in sensitivity to the acute toxicity of dioxin in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohjanvirta, Raimo; Miettinen, Hanna; Sankari, Satu; Hegde, Nagabhooshan; Lindén, Jere

    2012-01-01

    The acute toxicity of the ubiquitous environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) varies widely among species and strains. Previous studies in rats have established that females are approximately 2-fold more sensitive to TCDD lethality than males. However, there is a surprising gap in the literature regarding possible gender-related sensitivity differences in mice. In the present study, by using three substrains of TCDD-sensitive C57BL/6 mice and transgenic mice on this background, we demonstrated that: 1) in contrast to the situation in rats, female mice are the more resistant gender; 2) the magnitude of the divergence between male and female mice depends on the substrain, but can amount to over 10-fold; 3) AH receptor protein expression levels or mutations in the primary structure of this receptor are not involved in the resistance of female mice of a C57BL/6 substrain, despite their acute LD 50 for TCDD being over 5000 μg/kg; 4) transgenic mice that globally express the rat wildtype AH receptor follow the mouse type of gender difference; 5) in gonadectomized mice, ovarian estrogens appear to enhance TCDD resistance, whereas testicular androgens seem to augment TCDD susceptibility; and 6) the gender difference correlates best with the severity of liver damage, which is also reflected in hepatic histopathology and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially IL-6. Hence, the two closely related rodent species most often employed in toxicological risk characterization studies, rat and mouse, represent opposite examples of the influence of gender on dioxin sensitivity, further complicating the risk assessment of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons. -- Highlights: ► In contrast to rats, male mice are more sensitive to TCDD toxicity than female mice. ► The resistance of female C57BL/6Kuo mice matches or exceeds that of male DBA/2 mice. ► The resistance of female C57BL/6Kuo mice is not based on AHR structure or abundance.

  15. Deletion of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in genetically targeted mice supports development of intestinal inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boehm Franziska

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mice lacking Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg cells develop severe tissue inflammation in lung, skin, and liver with premature death, whereas the intestine remains uninflamed. This study aims to demonstrate the importance of Foxp3+ Treg for the activation of T cells and the development of intestinal inflammation. Methods Foxp3-GFP-DTR (human diphtheria toxin receptor C57BL/6 mice allow elimination of Foxp3+ Treg by treatment with Dx (diphtheria toxin. The influence of Foxp3+ Treg on intestinal inflammation was tested using the CD4+ T-cell transfer colitis model in Rag−/− C57BL/6 mice and the acute DSS-colitis model. Results Continuous depletion of Foxp3+ Treg in Foxp3-GFP-DTR mice led to dramatic weight loss and death of mice by day 28. After 10 days of depletion of Foxp3+ Treg, isolated CD4+ T-cells were activated and produced extensive amounts of IFN-γ, IL-13, and IL-17A. Transfer of total CD4+ T-cells isolated from Foxp3-GFP-DTR mice did not result in any changes of intestinal homeostasis in Rag−/− C57BL/6 mice. However, administration of DTx between days 14 and 18 after T-cell reconstitution, lead to elimination of Foxp3+ Treg and to immediate weight loss due to intestinal inflammation. This pro-inflammatory effect of Foxp3+ Treg depletion consecutively increased inflammatory cytokine production. Further, the depletion of Foxp3+ Treg from Foxp3-GFP-DTR mice increased the severity of acute dSS-colitis accompanied by 80% lethality of Treg-depleted mice. CD4+ effector T-cells from Foxp3+ Treg-depleted mice produced significantly more pro-inflammatory cytokines. Conclusion Intermittent depletion of Foxp3+ Treg aggravates intestinal inflammatory responses demonstrating the importance of Foxp3+ Treg for the balance at the mucosal surface of the intestine.

  16. Study on acute toxicity of anti-vertigo granule on mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhonghua; Hao, Shaojun; Xie, Guoqi; Li, Jun; Su, Feng; Liu, Xiaobin; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zhengchen

    2018-04-01

    To observe the effect of anti - glare particles on acute toxicity of mice. Methods: 40 male and female mice weighing 18 - 21 g were randomly divided into anti - glare granule group and normal saline control group. The maximum volume of anti - glare particles (0.94 g/ml) was administered before the experiment. Results: the oral toxicity of the suspension was very small. The maximal concentration of mice was given at the maximum volume of gastric perfusion, and it was given three times in 1st. The cumulative maximum tolerance dose was 112.8g/kg per day. The dose was 226 times of clinical dosage and no death was found in mice. Conclusion: the toxicity of Kangxuan granules is very small and it can be considered safe in clinical use.

  17. Inhibitory Effects of Pretreatment with Radon on Acute Alcohol-Induced Hepatopathy in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruaki Toyota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that radon inhalation activates antioxidative functions in the liver and inhibits carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatopathy in mice. In addition, it has been reported that reactive oxygen species contribute to alcohol-induced hepatopathy. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of radon inhalation on acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy in mice. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to intraperitoneal injection of 50% alcohol (5 g/kg bodyweight after inhaling approximately 4000 Bq/m3 radon for 24 h. Alcohol administration significantly increased the activities of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT, glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT in serum, and the levels of triglyceride and lipid peroxide in the liver, suggesting acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy. Radon inhalation activated antioxidative functions in the liver. Furthermore, pretreatment with radon inhibited the depression of hepatic functions and antioxidative functions. These findings suggested that radon inhalation activated antioxidative functions in the liver and inhibited acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy in mice.

  18. Stress hormonal changes in the brain and plasma after acute noise exposure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang Gyun; Kim, Min Jung; Park, So Young; Park, Shi Nae

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the effects of acute noise stress on two amine stress hormones, norepinephrine (NE) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the brain and plasma of mice after noise exposure. Mice were grouped into the control and noise groups. Mice in the noise group were exposed to white noise of 110dB sound pressure level for 60min. Auditory brainstem response thresholds, distortion product otoacoustic emissions, the organ of Corti grading scores, western blots of NE/5-HIAA in the whole brain and hippocampus, and the plasma levels of NE/5-HIAA were compared between the two groups. Significant hearing loss and cochlear damage were demonstrated in the noise group. NE and 5-HIAA in the hippocampus were elevated in the noise group (p=0.019/0.022 for NE/5-HIAA vs. the control). Plasma levels of NE and 5-HIAA were not statistically different between the groups (p=0.052/0.671 for NE/5-HIAA). Hearing loss with outer hair cell dysfunction and morphological changes of the organ of Corti after noise exposure in C57BL/6 mice proved the reliability of our animal model as an acute noise stress model. NE and 5-HIAA are suggested to be the potential biomarkers for acute noise stress in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of acute beer ingestion on the liver: studies in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanuri, Giridhar; Wagnerberger, Sabine; Landmann, Marianne; Prigl, Eva; Hellerbrand, Claus; Bischoff, Stephan C; Bergheim, Ina

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether the effects of acute consumption of stout or pilsner beer on the liver differ from those of plain ethanol in a mouse model. Seven-week-old female C57BL/6J mice received either ethanol, stout or pilsner beer (ethanol content: 6 g/kg body weight) or isocaloric maltodextrin solution. Plasma alanine transaminase, markers of steatosis, lipogenesis, activation of the toll-like receptor-4 signaling cascade as well as lipid peroxidation and fibrogenesis in the liver were measured 12 h after acute ethanol or beer intake. Acute alcohol ingestion caused a marked ~11-fold increase in hepatic triglyceride accumulation in comparison to controls, whereas in mice exposed to stout and pilsner beer, hepatic triglyceride levels were increased only by ~6.5- and ~4-fold, respectively. mRNA expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c and fatty acid synthase in the liver did not differ between alcohol and beer groups. In contrast, expression of myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88, inducible nitric oxide synthases, but also the concentrations of 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts, nuclear factor κB and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were induced in livers of ethanol treated mice but not in those exposed to the two beers. Taken together, our results suggest that acute ingestion of beer and herein especially of pilsner beer is less harmful to the liver than the ingestion of plain ethanol.

  20. Effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on platelet aggregation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuhisa, Fumikazu; Kitamura, Nobuo; Satoh, Eiki

    2014-03-01

    Although psychological stress has long been known to alter cardiovascular function, there have been few studies on the effect of psychological stress on platelets, which play a pivotal role in cardiovascular disease. In the present study, we investigated the effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on the aggregation of platelets and platelet cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). Mice were subjected to both transportation stress (exposure to novel environment, psychological stress) and restraint stress (psychological stress) for 2 h (acute stress) or 3 weeks (2 h/day) (chronic stress). In addition, adrenalectomized mice were subjected to similar chronic stress (both transportation and restraint stress for 3 weeks). The aggregation of platelets from mice and [Ca(2+)]i was determined by light transmission assay and fura-2 fluorescence assay, respectively. Although acute stress had no effect on agonist-induced platelet aggregation, chronic stress enhanced the ability of the platelet agonists thrombin and ADP to stimulate platelet aggregation. However, chronic stress failed to enhance agonist-induced increase in [Ca(2+)]i. Adrenalectomy blocked chronic stress-induced enhancement of platelet aggregation. These results suggest that chronic, but not acute, psychological stress enhances agonist-stimulated platelet aggregation independently of [Ca(2+)]i increase, and the enhancement may be mediated by stress hormones secreted from the adrenal glands.

  1. The dual role of scavenger receptor class A in development of diabetes in autoimmune NOD mice.

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    Mami Shimizu

    Full Text Available Human type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that results from the autoreactive destruction of pancreatic β cells by T cells. Antigen presenting cells including dendritic cells and macrophages are required to activate and suppress antigen-specific T cells. It has been suggested that antigen uptake from live cells by dendritic cells via scavenger receptor class A (SR-A may be important. However, the role of SR-A in autoimmune disease is unknown. In this study, SR-A-/- nonobese diabetic (NOD mice showed significant attenuation of insulitis, lower levels of insulin autoantibodies, and suppression of diabetes development compared with NOD mice. We also found that diabetes progression in SR-A-/- NOD mice treated with low-dose polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C was significantly accelerated compared with that in disease-resistant NOD mice treated with low-dose poly(I:C. In addition, injection of high-dose poly(I: C to mimic an acute RNA virus infection significantly accelerated diabetes development in young SR-A-/- NOD mice compared with untreated SR-A-/- NOD mice. Pathogenic cells including CD4+CD25+ activated T cells were increased more in SR-A-/- NOD mice treated with poly(I:C than in untreated SR-A-/- NOD mice. These results suggested that viral infection might accelerate diabetes development even in diabetes-resistant subjects. In conclusion, our studies demonstrated that diabetes progression was suppressed in SR-A-/- NOD mice and that acceleration of diabetes development could be induced in young mice by poly(I:C treatment even in SR-A-/- NOD mice. These results suggest that SR-A on antigen presenting cells such as dendritic cells may play an unfavorable role in the steady state and a protective role in a mild infection. Our findings imply that SR-A may be an important target for improving therapeutic strategies for type 1 diabetes.

  2. Acute food deprivation reverses morphine-induced locomotion deficits in M5 muscarinic receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steidl, Stephan; Lee, Esther; Wasserman, David; Yeomans, John S

    2013-09-01

    Lesions of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT), one of two sources of cholinergic input to the ventral tegmental area (VTA), block conditioned place preference (CPP) for morphine in drug-naïve rats. M5 muscarinic cholinergic receptors, expressed by midbrain dopamine neurons, are critical for the ability of morphine to increase nucleus accumbens dopamine levels and locomotion, and for morphine CPP. This suggests that M5-mediated PPT cholinergic inputs to VTA dopamine neurons critically contribute to morphine-induced dopamine activation, reward and locomotion. In the current study we tested whether food deprivation, which reduces PPT contribution to morphine CPP in rats, could also reduce M5 contributions to morphine-induced locomotion in mice. Acute 18-h food deprivation reversed the phenotypic differences usually seen between non-deprived wild-type and M5 knockout mice. That is, food deprivation increased morphine-induced locomotion in M5 knockout mice but reduced morphine-induced locomotion in wild-type mice. Food deprivation increased saline-induced locomotion equally in wild-type and M5 knockout mice. Based on these findings, we suggest that food deprivation reduces the contribution of M5-mediated PPT cholinergic inputs to the VTA in morphine-induced locomotion and increases the contribution of a PPT-independent pathway. The contributions of cholinergic, dopaminergic and GABAergic neurons to the effects of acute food deprivation are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of acute and chronic administration of neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate on neuronal excitability in mice

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    Svob Strac D

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dubravka Svob Strac,1 Josipa Vlainic,1 Janko Samardzic,2 Julija Erhardt,3 Zeljka Krsnik41Laboratory for Molecular Neuropsychiatry, Division of Molecular Medicine, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb, Croatia; 2Institute of Pharmacology, Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Medical Faculty, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia; 3Department of Animal Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, 4Croatian Institute for Brain Research, Department of Neuroscience, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, CroatiaBackground: Neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS has been associated with important brain functions, including neuronal survival, memory, and behavior, showing therapeutic potential in various neuropsychiatric and cognitive disorders. However, the antagonistic effects of DHEAS on γ-amino-butyric acidA receptors and its facilitatory action on glutamatergic neurotransmission might lead to enhanced brain excitability and seizures and thus limit DHEAS therapeutic applications. The aim of this study was to investigate possible age and sex differences in the neuronal excitability of the mice following acute and chronic DHEAS administration.Methods: DHEAS was administered intraperitoneally in male and female adult and old mice either acutely or repeatedly once daily for 4 weeks in a 10 mg/kg dose. To investigate the potential proconvulsant properties of DHEAS, we studied the effects of acute and chronic DHEAS treatment on picrotoxin-, pentylentetrazole-, and N-methyl-d-aspartate-induced seizures in mice. The effects of acute and chronic DHEAS administration on the locomotor activity, motor coordination, and body weight of the mice were also studied. We also investigated the effects of DHEAS treatment on [3H]flunitrazepam binding to the mouse brain membranes.Results: DHEAS did not modify the locomotor activity, motor coordination, body weight, and brain [3H]flunitrazepam binding of male and female mice. The results

  4. Synergistic anticonvulsant effects of pregabalin and amlodipine on acute seizure model of epilepsy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Itefaq Hussain; Riaz, Azra; Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Siddiqui, Afaq Ahmed

    2017-08-01

    Status epilepticus is a life threatening neurological medical emergency. It may cause serious damage to the brain and even death in many cases if not treated properly. There is limited choice of drugs for the short term and long term management of status epilepticus and the dugs recommended for status epilepticus possess various side effects. The present study was designed to investigate synergistic anticonvulsant effects of pregabalin with amlodipine on acute seizure model of epilepsy in mice. Pentylenetetrazole was used to induce acute seizures which mimic status epilepticus. Pregabalin and amlodipine were used in combination to evaluate synergistic anti-seizure effects on acute seizure model of epilepsy in mice. Diazepam and valproate were used as reference dugs. The acute anti-convulsive activity of pregabalin with amlodipine was evaluated in vivo by the chemical induced seizures and their anti-seizure effects were compared with pentylenetetrazole, reference drugs and to their individual effects. The anti-seizure effects of tested drugs were recorded in seconds on seizure characteristics such as latency of onset of threshold seizures, rearing and fallings and Hind limbs tonic extensions. The seizure protection and mortality to the animals exhibited by the drugs were recorded in percentage. Combination regimen of pregabalin with amlodipine exhibited dose dependent significant synergistic anticonvulsant effects on acute seizures which were superior to their individual effects and equivalent to reference drugs.

  5. Curcumin Prevents Acute Neuroinflammation and Long-Term Memory Impairment Induced by Systemic Lipopolysaccharide in Mice

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    Vincenzo Sorrenti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS induces an acute inflammatory response in the central nervous system (CNS (“neuroinflammation” characterized by altered functions of microglial cells, the major resident immune cells of the CNS, and an increased inflammatory profile that can result in long-term neuronal cell damage and severe behavioral and cognitive consequences. Curcumin, a natural compound, exerts CNS anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective functions mainly after chronic treatment. However, its effect after acute treatment has not been well investigated. In the present study, we provide evidence that 50 mg/kg of curcumin, orally administered for 2 consecutive days before a single intraperitoneal injection of a high dose of LPS (5 mg/kg in young adult mice prevents the CNS immune response. Curcumin, able to enter brain tissue in biologically relevant concentrations, reduced acute and transient microglia activation, pro-inflammatory mediator production, and the behavioral symptoms of sickness. In addition, short-term treatment with curcumin, administered at the time of LPS challenge, anticipated the recovery from memory impairments observed 1 month after the inflammatory stimulus, when mice had completely recovered from the acute neuroinflammation. Together, these results suggest that the preventive effect of curcumin in inhibiting the acute effects of neuroinflammation could be of value in reducing the long-term consequences of brain inflammation, including cognitive deficits such as memory dysfunction.

  6. Crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus is able to down-modulate the acute intestinal inflammation in mice.

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    Caroline de Souza Almeida

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD is the result of dysregulation of mucosal innate and adaptive immune responses. Factors such as genetic, microbial and environmental are involved in the development of these disorders. Accordingly, animal models that mimic human diseases are tools for the understanding the immunological processes of the IBD as well as to evaluate new therapeutic strategies. Crotoxin (CTX is the main component of Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom and has an immunomodulatory effect. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the modulatory effect of CTX in a murine model of colitis induced by 2,4,6- trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS. The CTX was administered intraperitoneally 18 hours after the TNBS intrarectal instillation in BALB/c mice. The CTX administration resulted in decreased weight loss, disease activity index (DAI, macroscopic tissue damage, histopathological score and myeloperoxidase (MPO activity analyzed after 4 days of acute TNBS colitis. Furthermore, the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were lower in colon tissue homogenates of TNBS-mice that received the CTX when compared with untreated TNBS mice. The analysis of distinct cell populations obtained from the intestinal lamina propria showed that CTX reduced the number of group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3 and Th17 population; CTX decreased IL-17 secretion but did not alter the frequency of CD4+Tbet+ T cells induced by TNBS instillation in mice. In contrast, increased CD4+FoxP3+ cell population as well as secretion of TGF-β, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and lipoxin A4 (LXA4 was observed in TNBS-colitis mice treated with CTX compared with untreated TNBS-colitis mice. In conclusion, the CTX is able to modulate the intestinal acute inflammatory response induced by TNBS, resulting in the improvement of clinical status of the mice. This effect of CTX is complex and involves the suppression of the pro-inflammatory environment elicited by intrarectal instillation of TNBS due to the

  7. Prevention and Therapeutic Effects and Mechanisms of Tanshinone IIA Sodium Sulfonate on Acute Liver Injury Mice Model

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    Lunjie Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanshinone IIA sodium sulfonate (TSS is a water-soluble derivative of tanshinone IIA, which is the main pharmacologically active component of Salvia miltiorrhiza. This study aimed to verify the preventive and therapeutic effects of TSS and its combined therapeutic effects with magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate (MI in D-galactosamine- (D-Gal- induced acute liver injury (ALI in mice. The potential regulatory mechanisms of TSS on ALI were also examined. Our results may provide a basis for the development of novel therapeutics for ALI.

  8. Biocompatible lutein-polymer-lipid nanocapsules: Acute and subacute toxicity and bioavailability in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranganathan, Arunkumar; Hindupur, Ravi; Vallikannan, Baskaran, E-mail: baskaranv@cftri.res.in

    2016-12-01

    Lutein-poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-phospholipid (PL) nanocapsules were prepared (henceforth referred as lutein nanocapsules) and studied for acute, subacute oral toxicity and bioavailability of lutein in mice. Prior to examining the safety of lutein nanocapsules, particle size, zeta potential, surface morphology and interaction between lutein, PLGA and PL were studied. In acute study, mice were gavaged with a single dose of lutein nanocapsules at 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight (BW) and examined for 2 weeks, while in subacute study, daily mice were gavaged with a dose of 1 and 10 mg/kg BW for 4 weeks. Results revealed that mean size and zeta value of lutein nanocapsules were 140 nm and − 44 mV, respectively. Acute and subacute toxicity studies did not show any mortality or treatment related adverse effect in clinical observations, ophthalmic examinations, body and organ weights. No toxicity related findings were observed in hematology, histopathology and other blood and tissue clinical chemistry parameters. In subacute study, no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of lutein nanocapsules was found to be at a dose of 10 mg/kg BW. Feeding lutein nanocapsules resulted in a significant (p < 0.01) increase in lutein level in plasma and tissue compared to the control group. Lutein nanocapsules did not cause toxicity in mice. However, human trials are warranted. - Highlights: • Acute and subacute toxicity studies of lutein-PLGA-PL showed no toxicity. • PLGA-PL nanocapsules were safe carriers for oral delivery of lutein. • Oral gavage of lutein-PLGA-PL nanocapsule improves plasma lutein levels.

  9. Natural amyloid-β oligomers acutely impair the formation of a contextual fear memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittelberger, Kara A; Piazza, Fabrizio; Tesco, Giuseppina; Reijmers, Leon G

    2012-01-01

    Memory loss is one of the hallmark symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been proposed that soluble amyloid-beta (Abeta) oligomers acutely impair neuronal function and thereby memory. We here report that natural Abeta oligomers acutely impair contextual fear memory in mice. A natural Abeta oligomer solution containing Abeta monomers, dimers, trimers, and tetramers was derived from the conditioned medium of 7PA2 cells, a cell line that expresses human amyloid precursor protein containing the Val717Phe familial AD mutation. As a control we used 7PA2 conditioned medium from which Abeta oligomers were removed through immunodepletion. Separate groups of mice were injected with Abeta and control solutions through a cannula into the lateral brain ventricle, and subjected to fear conditioning using two tone-shock pairings. One day after fear conditioning, mice were tested for contextual fear memory and tone fear memory in separate retrieval trials. Three experiments were performed. For experiment 1, mice were injected three times: 1 hour before and 3 hours after fear conditioning, and 1 hour before context retrieval. For experiments 2 and 3, mice were injected a single time at 1 hour and 2 hours before fear conditioning respectively. In all three experiments there was no effect on tone fear memory. Injection of Abeta 1 hour before fear conditioning, but not 2 hours before fear conditioning, impaired the formation of a contextual fear memory. In future studies, the acute effect of natural Abeta oligomers on contextual fear memory can be used to identify potential mechanisms and treatments of AD associated memory loss.

  10. Natural Amyloid-Beta Oligomers Acutely Impair the Formation of a Contextual Fear Memory in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittelberger, Kara A.; Piazza, Fabrizio; Tesco, Giuseppina; Reijmers, Leon G.

    2012-01-01

    Memory loss is one of the hallmark symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been proposed that soluble amyloid-beta (Abeta) oligomers acutely impair neuronal function and thereby memory. We here report that natural Abeta oligomers acutely impair contextual fear memory in mice. A natural Abeta oligomer solution containing Abeta monomers, dimers, trimers, and tetramers was derived from the conditioned medium of 7PA2 cells, a cell line that expresses human amyloid precursor protein containing the Val717Phe familial AD mutation. As a control we used 7PA2 conditioned medium from which Abeta oligomers were removed through immunodepletion. Separate groups of mice were injected with Abeta and control solutions through a cannula into the lateral brain ventricle, and subjected to fear conditioning using two tone-shock pairings. One day after fear conditioning, mice were tested for contextual fear memory and tone fear memory in separate retrieval trials. Three experiments were performed. For experiment 1, mice were injected three times: 1 hour before and 3 hours after fear conditioning, and 1 hour before context retrieval. For experiments 2 and 3, mice were injected a single time at 1 hour and 2 hours before fear conditioning respectively. In all three experiments there was no effect on tone fear memory. Injection of Abeta 1 hour before fear conditioning, but not 2 hours before fear conditioning, impaired the formation of a contextual fear memory. In future studies, the acute effect of natural Abeta oligomers on contextual fear memory can be used to identify potential mechanisms and treatments of AD associated memory loss. PMID:22238679

  11. Natural amyloid-β oligomers acutely impair the formation of a contextual fear memory in mice.

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    Kara A Kittelberger

    Full Text Available Memory loss is one of the hallmark symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD. It has been proposed that soluble amyloid-beta (Abeta oligomers acutely impair neuronal function and thereby memory. We here report that natural Abeta oligomers acutely impair contextual fear memory in mice. A natural Abeta oligomer solution containing Abeta monomers, dimers, trimers, and tetramers was derived from the conditioned medium of 7PA2 cells, a cell line that expresses human amyloid precursor protein containing the Val717Phe familial AD mutation. As a control we used 7PA2 conditioned medium from which Abeta oligomers were removed through immunodepletion. Separate groups of mice were injected with Abeta and control solutions through a cannula into the lateral brain ventricle, and subjected to fear conditioning using two tone-shock pairings. One day after fear conditioning, mice were tested for contextual fear memory and tone fear memory in separate retrieval trials. Three experiments were performed. For experiment 1, mice were injected three times: 1 hour before and 3 hours after fear conditioning, and 1 hour before context retrieval. For experiments 2 and 3, mice were injected a single time at 1 hour and 2 hours before fear conditioning respectively. In all three experiments there was no effect on tone fear memory. Injection of Abeta 1 hour before fear conditioning, but not 2 hours before fear conditioning, impaired the formation of a contextual fear memory. In future studies, the acute effect of natural Abeta oligomers on contextual fear memory can be used to identify potential mechanisms and treatments of AD associated memory loss.

  12. SAP Suppresses the Development of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in C57BL6 Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhe; Ke, Zun-Ji; Geng, Jian-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a CD4+ T cell-mediated disease of the CNS. Serum amyloid P component (SAP) is a highly conserved plasma protein named for its universal presence in amyloid deposits. Here we report SAP transgenic mice had unexpectedly attenuated EAE due to impaired encephalitogenic responses. Following induction with myelin oligodendroglial glycoprotein (MOG) peptide 35–55 in CFA, SAP transgenic mice showed reduced spinal cord inflammation with lower severity of EAE attacks as compared with control C57BL/6 mice. However in SAP-KO mice, the severity of EAE is enhanced. Adoptive transfer of Ag-restimulated T cells from wild-type to SAP transgenic mice or transfer of SAP transgenic Ag-restimulated T cells to control mice induced milder EAE. T cells from MOG-primed SAP transgenic mice showed weak proliferative responses. Furthermore, in SAP transgenic mice, there is little infiltration of CD45-positive cells in the spinal cord. In vitro, SAP suppressed the secretion of IL-2 stimulated by P-selectin, and blocked P-selectin binding to T cells. Moreover, SAP could change the affinity between α4-integrin and T cells. These data suggested that SAP could antagonize the development of the acute phase of inflammation accompanying EAE by modulating the function of P-selectin. PMID:21647172

  13. The acute pulmonary and thrombotic effects of cerium oxide nanoparticles after intratracheal instillation in mice

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    Nemmar A

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abderrahim Nemmar,1 Suhail Al-Salam,2 Sumaya Beegam,1 Priya Yuvaraju,2 Badreldin H Ali3 1Department of Physiology, 2Department of Pathology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, UAE; 3Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, College of Medicine & Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Al-Khod, Sultanate of Oman Abstract: Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs, used as a diesel fuel catalyst, can be emitted into the ambient air, resulting in exposure to humans by inhalation. Recent studies have reported the development of lung toxicity after pulmonary exposure to CeO2 NPs. However, little is known about the possible thrombotic effects of these NPs. The present study investigated the acute (24 hours effect of intratracheal (IT instillation of either CeO2 NPs (0.1 or 0.5 mg/kg or saline (control on pulmonary and systemic inflammation and oxidative stress and thrombosis in mice. CeO2 NPs induced a significant increase of neutrophils into the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid with an elevation of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα and a decrease in the activity of the antioxidant catalase. Lung sections of mice exposed to CeO2 NPs showed a dose-dependent infiltration of inflammatory cells consisting of macrophages and neutrophils. Similarly, the plasma levels of C-reactive protein and TNFα were significantly increased, whereas the activities of catalase and total antioxidant were significantly decreased. Interestingly, CeO2 NPs significantly and dose dependently induced a shortening of the thrombotic occlusion time in pial arterioles and venules. Moreover, the plasma concentrations of fibrinogen and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were significantly elevated by CeO2 NPs. The direct addition of CeO2 NPs (1, 5, or 25 µg/mL to mouse whole blood, collected from the inferior vena cava, in vitro neither caused significant platelet aggregation nor affected prothrombin time or partial

  14. Punica granatum L. Leaf Extract Attenuates Lung Inflammation in Mice with Acute Lung Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Aruanã Joaquim Matheus Costa Rodrigues; Gonçalves, Jaciara Sá; Dourado, Ádylla Wilenna Alves; de Sousa, Eduardo Martins; Brito, Natilene Mesquita; Silva, Lanna Karinny; Batista, Marisa Cristina Aranha; de Sá, Joicy Cortez; Monteiro, Cinara Regina Aragão Vieira; Fernandes, Elizabeth Soares; Campbell, Lee Ann; Zago, Patrícia Maria Wiziack

    2018-01-01

    The hydroalcoholic extract of Punica granatum (pomegranate) leaves was previously demonstrated to be anti-inflammatory in a rat model of lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced acute peritonitis. Here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of the ethyl acetate fraction obtained from the pomegranate leaf hydroalcoholic extract (EAFPg) on the LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI) mouse model. Male Swiss mice received either EAFPg at different doses or dexamethasone (per os) prior to LPS intranasal instillation. Vehicle-treated mice were used as controls. Animals were culled at 4 h after LPS challenge, and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung samples were collected for analysis. EAFPg and kaempferol effects on NO and cytokine production by LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages were also investigated. Pretreatment with EAFPg (100–300 mg/kg) markedly reduced cell accumulation (specially neutrophils) and collagen deposition in the lungs of ALI mice. The same animals presented with reduced lung and BALF TNF-α and IL-1β expression in comparison with vehicle controls (p < 0.05). Additionally, incubation with either EAFPg or kaempferol (100 μg/ml) reduced NO production and cytokine gene expression in cultured LPS-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Overall, these results demonstrate that the prophylactic treatment with EAFPg attenuates acute lung inflammation. We suggest this fraction may be useful in treating ALI. PMID:29675437

  15. Punica granatum L. Leaf Extract Attenuates Lung Inflammation in Mice with Acute Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Aruanã Joaquim Matheus Costa Rodrigues; Gonçalves, Jaciara Sá; Dourado, Ádylla Wilenna Alves; de Sousa, Eduardo Martins; Brito, Natilene Mesquita; Silva, Lanna Karinny; Batista, Marisa Cristina Aranha; de Sá, Joicy Cortez; Monteiro, Cinara Regina Aragão Vieira; Fernandes, Elizabeth Soares; Monteiro-Neto, Valério; Campbell, Lee Ann; Zago, Patrícia Maria Wiziack; Lima-Neto, Lidio Gonçalves

    2018-01-01

    The hydroalcoholic extract of Punica granatum (pomegranate) leaves was previously demonstrated to be anti-inflammatory in a rat model of lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced acute peritonitis. Here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of the ethyl acetate fraction obtained from the pomegranate leaf hydroalcoholic extract (EAFPg) on the LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI) mouse model. Male Swiss mice received either EAFPg at different doses or dexamethasone (per os) prior to LPS intranasal instillation. Vehicle-treated mice were used as controls. Animals were culled at 4 h after LPS challenge, and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung samples were collected for analysis. EAFPg and kaempferol effects on NO and cytokine production by LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages were also investigated. Pretreatment with EAFPg (100-300 mg/kg) markedly reduced cell accumulation (specially neutrophils) and collagen deposition in the lungs of ALI mice. The same animals presented with reduced lung and BALF TNF- α and IL-1 β expression in comparison with vehicle controls ( p < 0.05). Additionally, incubation with either EAFPg or kaempferol (100  μ g/ml) reduced NO production and cytokine gene expression in cultured LPS-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Overall, these results demonstrate that the prophylactic treatment with EAFPg attenuates acute lung inflammation. We suggest this fraction may be useful in treating ALI.

  16. Safety evaluation of the ethyl acetate extract on irradiated tea parasite: Acute toxicity study on mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendig Winarno

    2011-01-01

    Many studies of the pharmacological efficacy of tea parasite and the use of ionizing radiation for decontamination of microbes and extending shelf life have been reported, but there is no information on its safety, such as the acute toxicity. In this study, the acute toxicity of two ethyl acetate extracts from unirradiated and irradiated (irradiation dose of 10 kGy) tea parasites Scurrula atropurpurea on Swiss Webster mice have been examined. The observation was done after the treatment of a single oral dose of ethyl acetate extract in various dose groups, i.e.: control (0 g/kg of mice body weight), D1 (0.625 g/kg), D2 (1.25 g/kg), D3 (2.5 g/kg) D4 (5 g/kg), D5 (10 g/kg) by observing the effect on behavioral response (pharmacological profile), the body weight gains and mortality until the day 14 th . At the last day, the observation of vital organs has also been done. The result showed that no acute toxicity was found in mice treated with a single oral dose of ethyl acetate extract from unirradiated tea parasite and irradiated tea parasite at the dose of 10 kGy. At the dose up to 10 g/kg (equivalent to 77.6 g of extract which administered to human), the normal body weight gains were observed in mice of all dose groups, no mice deaths in any of the dose groups, and no significant change (p > 0.05) in organ weights relative to the body weight i.e.: liver, spleen, kidneys, lung, heart, testes and seminal vesicle (for male), and ovaries and uterus (for female). The approximate lethal doses for male and female mice were determined to be higher than 10 g/kg of mice body weight. It is suggested that the treatment of ethyl acetate extract from unirradiated and irradiated tea parasites until dose up to 10 g/kg of mice body weight was still safe. (author)

  17. Evaluation the protective effect of diphenhydramine against acute toxicity induced by levamisole in male mice

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    M.Y. Matti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of different doses of diphenhydramine against acute toxicosis with Levamisole. The Mechanism of levamisole induced acute toxicity and that of protective effect of diphenhydramine against Levamisole toxicosis also examined on the level of cholinesterase (ChE activity. Subcutanous injection of 100mg/kg levamisole in male mice with induced cholinergic over stimulation and death in 100% of animals. The Toxicosis was not related to the significantly decreased in plasma, red blood cells and brain ChE activity. Injection low dose of diphenhydramin 2.5mg/kg S.C. 15 min before levamisole produced protective effect against acute toxicity with levamisole. Significantly decreased the severity of toxicosis and increased survival rates to 100%. Diphenhydramine at low dose alone or with acute dose of levamisole did not Produced Significantly inhibition in ChE activity.The data suggested that the toxic effect of Levamisole was not related to inhibition of ChE. The low dose of diphenhydramine protected mice from Levamisole toxicity. The antidoatal effect of diphenhydramine not at the level of protection from ChE inhibition. There was no adverse interaction between two drugs.

  18. Arctigenin protects against liver injury from acute hepatitis by suppressing immune cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xixi; Wang, Huafeng; Yang, Jinlai; Cheng, Yingnan; Wang, Dan; Yang, Fengrui; Li, Yan; Zhou, Dongmei; Wang, Yanxia; Xue, Zhenyi; Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Qi; Yang, Luhong; Zhang, Rongxin; Da, Yurong

    2018-06-01

    As a phenylpropanoid and dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan present in medical plants, such as those used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine, including Arctium lappa (Niubang), arctigenin exhibits antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. In this study, we investigated the protective role of arctigenin in Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced acute hepatitis in mice. Arctigenin remarkably reduced the congestion and necroinflammation of livers, and improved hepatic function (ALT and AST) in ConA-induced acute hepatitis in vivo. The infiltration of CD4 T, NKT and macrophages into the livers was found to be reduced with arctigenin treatment. Arctigenin suppressed ConA-induced T lymphocyte proliferations that might have resulted from enhanced IL-10 production by macrophages and CD4 T cells. These results suggested that arctigenin could be a powerful drug candidate for acute hepatitis through immune suppression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Glutathione-S-transferase A3 knockout mice are sensitive to acute cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aflatoxin B1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic, Zoran; Crawford, Dana; Egner, Patricia A.; Sell, Stewart

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in humans. However, mice, a major animal model for the study of AFB1 carcinogenesis, are resistant, due to high constitutive expression, in the mouse liver, of glutathione S-transferase A3 subunit (mGSTA3) that is lacking in humans. Our objective was to establish that a mouse model for AFB1 toxicity could be used to study mechanisms of toxicity that are relevant for human disease, i.e., an mGSTA3 knockout (KO) mouse that responds to toxicants such as AFB1 in a manner similar to humans. Exons 3-6 of the mGSTA3 were replaced with a neomycin cassette by homologous recombination. Southern blotting, RT-PCR, Western blotting, and measurement of AFB1-N 7 -DNA adduct formation were used to evaluate the mGSTA3 KO mice. The KO mice have deletion of exons 3-6 of the mGSTA3 gene, as expected, as well as a lack of mGSTA3 expression at the mRNA and protein levels. Three hours after injection of 5 mg/kg AFB1, mGSTA3 KO mice have more than 100-fold more AFB1-N 7 -DNA adducts in their livers than do similarly treated wild-type (WT) mice. In addition, the mGSTA3 KO mice die of massive hepatic necrosis, at AFB1 doses that have minimal toxic effects in WT mice. We conclude that mGSTA3 KO mice are sensitive to the acute cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of AFB1, confirming the crucial role of GSTA3 subunit in protection of normal mice against AFB1 toxicity. We propose the mGSTA3 KO mouse as a useful model with which to study the interplay of risk factors leading to HCC development in humans, as well as for testing of additional possible functions of mGSTA3.

  20. Acute endocrine correlates of attack by lactating females in male mice: effects on plasma prolactin, luteinizing hormone and corticosterone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broida, J; Michael, S D; Svare, B

    1984-05-01

    Immediately following defeat inflicted by lactating Rockland-Swiss (R-S) albino mice, adult R-S male mice exhibited significant reductions in circulating prolactin (PRL) and luteinizing hormone (LH), but not corticosterone (CORT). These results suggest that acute neuroendocrine responses to intersex competition may be as dramatic as those previously reported for intermale encounters.

  1. Elastin-derived peptides are new regulators of insulin resistance development in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaise, Sébastien; Romier, Béatrice; Kawecki, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    . In the current study, we show that elastin-derived peptides (EDPs) may be involved in the development of insulin resistance (IRES) in mice. In chow-fed mice, acute or chronic intravenous injections of EDPs induced hyperglycemic effects associated with glucose uptake reduction and IRES in skeletal muscle, liver......, and adipose tissue. Based on in vivo, in vitro, and in silico approaches, we propose that this IRES is due to interaction between the insulin receptor (IR) and the neuraminidase-1 subunit of the elastin receptor complex triggered by EDPs. This interplay was correlated with decreased sialic acid levels...

  2. Effects of Acute Administration of Urtica dioica on the Novel Object-Recognition Task in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi-Firouzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Urtica dioica (nettle has a variety of uses in traditional medicine for the treatment of certain urogenital problems, gastrointestinal disorders, and diabetes. Objectives Recent studies have implicated the effect of U. dioica on brain functions such as pain and memory. However, there is no direct evidence of the acute effects of this plant on cognition. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of U. dioica aqueous extract on the novel object-recognition task (NOR in mice. Materials and Methods First, U. dioica aqueous extract was prepared, then adult male mice were randomly divided into four experimental groups. During the training session, the mice were placed in a box and given 5 minutes to explore two identical objects. The next day, they were again placed in the box and allowed to explore one familiar and one novel object. They received intraperitoneal injections of saline or U. dioica aqueous extract (100 mg/kg before or immediately after the training session or before the test session of the NOR task. Results The results showed that there was a preference for the novel object compared to the familiar one in each of the experimental groups. The object-recognition discrimination index in the group of mice that received U. dioica before training was significantly less than in the other experimental groups. There was no significant difference in the discrimination index between the other groups. U. dioica did not decrease the time spent exploring familiar and unfamiliar objects, or the total time spent exploring both objects. Conclusions Acute administration of U. dioica impairs the object-recognition task if it is used only before the training session. This may be due to its modulation on the acquisition processing of object-recognition. U. dioica has no significant effects on the consolidation or retrieval processing stages of the NOR task. These results emphasize the unfavorable effect on cognitive function of pre

  3. Dexrazoxane Diminishes Doxorubicin-Induced Acute Ovarian Damage and Preserves Ovarian Function and Fecundity in Mice.

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    Jenna Kropp

    Full Text Available Advances in cancer treatment utilizing multiple chemotherapies have dramatically increased cancer survivorship. Female cancer survivors treated with doxorubicin (DXR chemotherapy often suffer from an acute impairment of ovarian function, which can persist as long-term, permanent ovarian insufficiency. Dexrazoxane (Dexra pretreatment reduces DXR-induced insult in the heart, and protects in vitro cultured murine and non-human primate ovaries, demonstrating a drug-based shield to prevent DXR insult. The present study tested the ability of Dexra pretreatment to mitigate acute DXR chemotherapy ovarian toxicity in mice through the first 24 hours post-treatment, and improve subsequent long-term fertility throughout the reproductive lifespan. Adolescent CD-1 mice were treated with Dexra 1 hour prior to DXR treatment in a 1:1 mg or 10:1 mg Dexra:DXR ratio. During the acute injury period (2-24 hours post-injection, Dexra pretreatment at a 1:1 mg ratio decreased the extent of double strand DNA breaks, diminished γH2FAX activation, and reduced subsequent follicular cellular demise caused by DXR. In fertility and fecundity studies, dams pretreated with either Dexra:DXR dose ratio exhibited litter sizes larger than DXR-treated dams, and mice treated with a 1:1 mg Dexra:DXR ratio delivered pups with birth weights greater than DXR-treated females. While DXR significantly increased the "infertility index" (quantifying the percentage of dams failing to achieve pregnancy through 6 gestations following treatment, Dexra pretreatment significantly reduced the infertility index following DXR treatment, improving fecundity. Low dose Dexra not only protected the ovaries, but also bestowed a considerable survival advantage following exposure to DXR chemotherapy. Mouse survivorship increased from 25% post-DXR treatment to over 80% with Dexra pretreatment. These data demonstrate that Dexra provides acute ovarian protection from DXR toxicity, improving reproductive health

  4. Preclinical animal acute toxicity studies of new developed MRI contrast agent based on gadolinium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, I. F.; Zhuk, V. V.

    2015-04-01

    Acute toxicity test of new developed MRI contrast agent based on disodium salt of gadopentetic acid complex were carried out on Mus musculus and Sprague Dawley rats according to guidelines of preclinical studies [1]. Groups of six animals each were selected for experiment. Death and clinical symptoms of animals were recorded during 14 days. As a result the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for female mice is 2.8 mM/kg of body weight, male mice - 1.4 mM/kg, female rats - 2.8 mM/kg, male rats - 5.6 mM/kg of body weight. No Observed Adverse Effect Dose (NOAEL) for female mice is 1.4 mM/kg, male mice - 0.7 mM/kg, male and female rats - 0.7 mM/kg. According to experimental data new developed MRI contrast agent based on Gd-DTPA complex is low-toxic.

  5. Deletion of circadian gene Per1 alleviates acute ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tao; Yang, Ping; Zhan, Yibei; Xia, Lin; Hua, Zichun; Zhang, Jianfa

    2013-01-01

    The severity of ethanol-induced liver injury is associated with oxidative stress and lipid accumulation in the liver. Core circadian clock is known to mediate antioxidative enzyme activity and lipid metabolism. However, the link between circadian clock and ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity remains unclear. Here we showed that extents of acute ethanol-induced liver injury and steatosis in mice exhibit circadian variations consistent with hepatic expression of Period (Per) genes. Mice lacking clock gene Per1 displayed less susceptible to ethanol-induced liver injury, as evidenced by lower serum transaminase activity and less severe histopathological changes. Ethanol-induced lipid peroxidation was alleviated in Per1−/− mice. However, Per1 deletion had no effect on antioxidants depletion caused by ethanol administration. Ethanol-induced triglycerides (TG) accumulation in the serum and liver was significantly decreased in Per1−/− mice compared with that in wild-type (WT) mice. Analysis of gene expression in the liver revealed peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) and its target genes related to TG synthesis are remarkably down-regulated in Per1−/− mice. HepG2 cells were treated with ethanol at 150 mM for 3 days. Per1 overexpression augmented lipid accumulation after treatment with ethanol in HepG2 cells, but had no effect on ethanol-induced oxidative stress. Expression of genes related to lipogenesis, including PPARγ and its target genes, was up-regulated in cells overexpressing Per1. In conclusion, these results indicated that circadian rhythms of ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity are controlled by clock gene Per1, and deletion of Per1 protected mice from ethanol-induced liver injury by decreasing hepatic lipid accumulation

  6. High incidence of acute myeloid leukemia in SJL/J mice after X-irradiation and corticosteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnitzky, P.; Estrov, Z.; Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem; Haran-Ghera, N.

    1985-01-01

    SJL/J mice which developed a high incidence of spontaneous reticulum cell neoplasms, developed a low rate incidence (20-25%) of myeloid leukemia (ML) after X-irradiation. The possible effect of adrenal steroid imbalance to radiation-induced ML in SJL/J mice was tested. Intact and thymectomized animals were exposed to a single dose of 300 r whole body irradiation and treated with either hydrocortisone acetate, prednisone, metyrapone and adrenocorticotropin as coleukemogenic agents. Hydrocortisone and prednisone exerted a marked coleukemogenic effect, increasing the ML incidence to a similar rate of about 50-70%, at a mean latent period of 300 days. Prominent leukemic infiltration were observed in the bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes and liver of the leukemic animals. Results of cytological and histological studies, including cytochemistry and ultrastructure, were all consistent with the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Since AML is the type of human secondary leukemia which appears increasingly in patients treat with alkylating drugs and/or irradiation and corticosteroids for Hodgkin's disease or other neoplastic diseases, the experimental model of AML induced in SJL/J mice could be used for elucidation of mechanisms of leukemogenesis in secondary leukemia. (author)

  7. High incidence of acute myeloid leukemia in SJL/J mice after X-irradiation and corticosteroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resnitzky, P; Estrov, Z; Haran-Ghera, N

    1985-01-01

    SJL/J mice which developed a high incidence of spontaneous reticulum cell neoplasms, developed a low rate incidence (20-25%) of myeloid leukemia (ML) after X-irradiation. The possible effect of adrenal steroid imbalance to radiation-induced ML in SJL/J mice was tested. Intact and thymectomized animals were exposed to a single dose of 300 r whole body irradiation and treated with either hydrocortisone acetate, prednisone, metyrapone and adrenocorticotropin as coleukemogenic agents. Hydrocortisone and prednisone exerted a marked coleukemogenic effect, increasing the ML incidence to a similar rate of about 50-70%, at a mean latent period of 300 days. Prominent leukemic infiltration were observed in the bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes and liver of the leukemic animals. Results of cytological and histological studies, including cytochemistry and ultrastructure, were all consistent with the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Since AML is the type of human secondary leukemia which appears increasingly in patients treat with alkylating drugs and/or irradiation and corticosteroids for Hodgkin's disease or other neoplastic diseases, the experimental model of AML induced in SJL/J mice could be used for elucidation of mechanisms of leukemogenesis in secondary leukemia.

  8. Prevention of LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice by Progranulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongliang Guo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, a clinical complication of severe acute lung injury (ALI in humans, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Despite decades of research, few therapeutic strategies for clinical ARDS have emerged. Here we carefully evaluated the effect of progranulin (PGRN in treatment of ARDS using the murine model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced ALI. We reported that administration of PGRN maintained the body weight and survival of ALI mice. We revealed that administration of PGRN significantly reduced LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation, as reflected by reductions in total cell and neutrophil counts, proinflammatory cytokines, as well as chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid. Furthermore, administration of PGRN resulted in remarkable reversal of LPS-induced increases in lung permeability as assessed by reductions in total protein, albumin, and IgM in BAL fluid. Consistently, we revealed a significant reduction of histopathology changes of lung in mice received PGRN treatment. Finally, we showed that PGRN/TNFR2 interaction was crucial for the protective effect of PGRN on the LPS-induced ALI. Our findings strongly demonstrated that PGRN could effectively ameliorate the LPS-induced ALI in mice, suggesting a potential application for PGRN-based therapy to treat clinical ARDS.

  9. Protective effect of Tribulus terrestris fruit extract on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borran, Mina; Minaiyan, Mohsen; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Mahzouni, Parvin

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antimicrobial activities of Tribulus terrestris (T. terrestris) could be helpful in the treatment of acute pancreatitis; thus, this study was designed to investigate the effects of T. terrestris on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice. Materials and Methods: Three doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) of T. terrestris hydro-alcoholic extract were administered both orally (60 minutes before pancreatitis induction, p.o.) and intra-peritoneally (30 minutes before pancreatitis induction, i.p.) to different groups of mice (n=6). Pancreatitis was induced by five injections (i.p.) of cerulein 50μg/kg body weight with 1 hr intervals. Animals were euthanized 5 hr after the last injection of cerulein and tissue injures were assessed biochemically and pathologically. Results: T. terrestris extract 200 and 400mg/kg (p.o.) and T. terrestris extract 400 mg/kg (i.p.) reduced pancreatic tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and serum amylase and lipase levels and alleviated histological parameters. Conclusion: These data suggest that T. terrestris hydro-alcoholic extract was effective in protecting against experimental acute pancreatitis and possibly the efficacy depends on dose and route of administration. PMID:28748172

  10. Protective effect of Tribulus terrestris fruit extract on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borran, Mina; Minaiyan, Mohsen; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Mahzouni, Parvin

    2017-01-01

    Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antimicrobial activities of Tribulus terrestris ( T. terrestris ) could be helpful in the treatment of acute pancreatitis; thus, this study was designed to investigate the effects of T. terrestris on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice. Three doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) of T. terrestris hydro-alcoholic extract were administered both orally (60 minutes before pancreatitis induction, p.o.) and intra-peritoneally (30 minutes before pancreatitis induction, i.p.) to different groups of mice (n=6). Pancreatitis was induced by five injections (i.p.) of cerulein 50μg/kg body weight with 1 hr intervals. Animals were euthanized 5 hr after the last injection of cerulein and tissue injures were assessed biochemically and pathologically. T. terrestris extract 200 and 400mg/kg (p.o.) and T. terrestris extract 400 mg/kg (i.p.) reduced pancreatic tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and serum amylase and lipase levels and alleviated histological parameters. These data suggest that T. terrestris hydro-alcoholic extract was effective in protecting against experimental acute pancreatitis and possibly the efficacy depends on dose and route of administration.

  11. Protective effect of Tribulus terrestris fruit extract on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Borran

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antimicrobial activities of Tribulus terrestris (T. terrestris could be helpful in the treatment of acute pancreatitis; thus, this study was designed to investigate the effects of T. terrestris on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice. Materials and Methods: Three doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of T. terrestris hydro-alcoholic extract were administered both orally (60 minutes before pancreatitis induction, p.o. and intra-peritoneally (30 minutes before pancreatitis induction, i.p. to different groups of mice (n=6. Pancreatitis was induced by five injections (i.p. of cerulein 50μg/kg body weight with 1 hr intervals. Animals were euthanized 5 hr after the last injection of cerulein and tissue injures were assessed biochemically and pathologically. Results: T. terrestris extract 200 and 400mg/kg (p.o. and T. terrestris extract 400 mg/kg (i.p. reduced pancreatic tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and serum amylase and lipase levels and alleviated histological parameters. Conclusion: These data suggest that T. terrestris hydro-alcoholic extract was effective in protecting against experimental acute pancreatitis and possibly the efficacy depends on dose and route of administration.

  12. Assessment of oxidative stress parameters of brain-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous mice in acute stress model

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    Gulay Hacioglu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Exposing to stress may be associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Therefore, high level of oxidative stress may eventually give rise to accumulation of oxidative damage and development of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. It has been presented that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF supports neurons against various neurodegenerative conditions. Lately, there has been growing evidence that changes in the cerebral neurotrophic support and especially in the BDNF expression and its engagement with ROS might be important in various disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Hence, we aimed to investigate protective effects of BDNF against stress-induced oxidative damage. Materials and Methods: Five- to six-month-old male wild-type and BDNF knock-down mice were used in this study. Activities of catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD enzymes, and the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA were assessed in the cerebral homogenates of studied groups in response to acute restraint stress. Results: Exposing to acute physiological stress led to significant elevation in the markers of oxidative stress in the cerebral cortexes of experimental groups. Conclusion: As BDNF-deficient mice were observed to be more susceptible to stress-induced oxidative damage, it can be suggested that there is a direct interplay between oxidative stress indicators and BDNF levels in the brain.

  13. An iso-α-acid-rich extract from hops (Humulus lupulus) attenuates acute alcohol-induced liver steatosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hege, Marianne; Jung, Finn; Sellmann, Cathrin; Jin, Chengjun; Ziegenhardt, Doreen; Hellerbrand, Claus; Bergheim, Ina

    2018-01-01

    Results of in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that consumption of beer is less harmful for the liver than consumption of spirits. It also has been suggested that secondary plant compounds derived from hops such as xanthohumol or iso-α-acids may have beneficial effects on the development of liver diseases of various etiologies. The aim of this study was to determine whether iso-α-acids consumed in doses achieved by "normal" beer consumption have beneficial effects on health. Female C57 Bl/6 J mice, pretreated for 4 d with an iso-α-acid-rich extract (∼30% iso-α-acids from hops, 0.75 mg/kg body weight), were fed one bolus of ethanol (6 g/kg body weight intragastric) or an iso-caloric maltodextrin solution. Markers of liver damage, toll-like receptor-4 signaling, and lipid peroxidation were determined. Furthermore, the effect of isohumulone on the lipopolysaccharide-dependent activation of J774 A.1 macrophages, used as a model of Kupffer cells, was determined. In the liver, acute ethanol administration led to a significant accumulation of fat (∼10-fold), which was accompanied by significantly higher inducible nitric oxide synthase protein level, elevated nitric oxide production, and increased plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 protein concentration when compared to controls. In mice pretreated with iso-α-acids, these effects of alcohol were markedly attenuated. Pretreatment of J774 A.1 macrophages with isohumulone significantly attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and interleukin-6 as well as the release of nitric oxide. Taken together, iso-α-acids markedly attenuated the development of acute alcohol-induced damage in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate suppresses uric acid crystal-induced acute gouty arthritis in mice.

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    Laurent L Reber

    Full Text Available Gouty arthritis is caused by the deposition of monosodium urate (MSU crystals in joints. Despite many treatment options for gout, there is a substantial need for alternative treatments for patients unresponsive to current therapies. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors have demonstrated therapeutic benefit in experimental models of antibody-dependent arthritis and in rheumatoid arthritis in humans, but to date, the potential effects of such inhibitors on gouty arthritis has not been evaluated. Here we demonstrate that treatment with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate (imatinib can suppress inflammation induced by injection of MSU crystals into subcutaneous air pouches or into the ankle joint of wild type mice. Moreover, imatinib treatment also largely abolished the lower levels of inflammation which developed in IL-1R1-/- or KitW-sh/W-sh mice, indicating that this drug can inhibit IL-1-independent pathways, as well as mast cell-independent pathways, contributing to pathology in this model. Imatinib treatment not only prevented ankle swelling and synovial inflammation when administered before MSU crystals but also diminished these features when administrated after the injection of MSU crystals, a therapeutic protocol more closely mimicking the clinical situation in which treatment occurs after the development of an acute gout flare. Finally, we also assessed the efficiency of local intra-articular injections of imatinib-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticles in this model of acute gout. Treatment with low doses of this long-acting imatinib:PLGA formulation was able to reduce ankle swelling in a therapeutic protocol. Altogether, these results raise the possibility that tyrosine kinase inhibitors might have utility in the treatment of acute gout in humans.

  15. Acute Toxic Myocarditis and Pulmonary Oedema Developing from Scorpion Sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Sahin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of scorpion stings are generally seen with a set of simple clinical findings, such as pain, oedema, numbness, and tenderness in the area of the sting. However, occasionally events, such as toxic myocarditis, acute heart failure, acute pulmonary oedema, and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS, which occur in scorpion sting cases are a significant problem which determine mortality and morbidity. The case presented here was a 38-year-old man who developed acute toxic myocarditis, acute heart failure, and acute pulmonary oedema following a scorpion sting on the 3rd finger of his right hand.

  16. Body temperature measurement in mice during acute illness: implantable temperature transponder versus surface infrared thermometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jie; Riedel, Nico; Grittner, Ulrike; Endres, Matthias; Banneke, Stefanie; Emmrich, Julius Valentin

    2018-02-23

    Body temperature is a valuable parameter in determining the wellbeing of laboratory animals. However, using body temperature to refine humane endpoints during acute illness generally lacks comprehensiveness and exposes to inter-observer bias. Here we compared two methods to assess body temperature in mice, namely implanted radio frequency identification (RFID) temperature transponders (method 1) to non-contact infrared thermometry (method 2) in 435 mice for up to 7 days during normothermia and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin-induced hypothermia. There was excellent agreement between core and surface temperature as determined by method 1 and 2, respectively, whereas the intra- and inter-subject variation was higher for method 2. Nevertheless, using machine learning algorithms to determine temperature-based endpoints both methods had excellent accuracy in predicting death as an outcome event. Therefore, less expensive and cumbersome non-contact infrared thermometry can serve as a reliable alternative for implantable transponder-based systems for hypothermic responses, although requiring standardization between experimenters.

  17. Protective effects of tropisetron on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimian, Reza; Zirak, Mohammad Reza; Seyedabadi, Mohammad; Keshavarz, Mojtaba; Rashidian, Amir; Kazmi, Sareh; Jafarian, Amir Hossein; Karimi, Gholamreza; Mousavizadeh, Kazem

    2017-09-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) causes morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of tropisetron against AP induced by cerulein. Cerulein (50μg/kg, 5 doses) was used to induce AP in mice. Six hours after final cerulein injection, animals were decapitated. Hepatic/pancreatic enzymes in the serum, pancreatic content of malondialdehyde (MDA), pro-inflammatory cytokines and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were measured. Tropisetron significantly attenuated pancreatic injury markers and decreased the amount of elevated serum amylase, lipase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), MPO activities and pro-inflammatory cytokines levels caused by AP in mice. Tropisetron didn't affect the pancreatic levels of MDA. Our results suggest that tropisetron could attenuate cerulein-induced AP by combating inflammatory signaling. Further clinical studies are needed to confirm its efficacy in patients with AP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of Acycloguanosine Treatment on Acute and Latent Herpes Simplex Infections in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Hugh J.; Bell, Susanne E.; Elion, Gertrude B.; Nash, Anthony A.; Wildy, Peter

    1979-01-01

    Systemic treatment of mice with the nucleoside analog 9-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl)guanine (acycloguanosine [aciclovir]) was found to be highly effective against acute type 1 herpes simplex virus infection of the pinna. The drug ablated clinical signs and reduced virus replication both in tissue local to the inoculation site and within the nervous system. Provided that moderate-sized virus inocula were used, acycloguanosine treatment reduced or prevented the establishment of a latent infection in the dorsal root ganglia relating to the sensory nerve supply of the ear. However, although it aborted artificially produced infections in dorsal root ganglia, acycloguanosine was found not to be effective against the latent infection once established. This finding strongly indicated that latent herpes simplex virus in mice can exist in a nonreplicating form. PMID:464587

  19. Effect of acycloguanosine treatment of acute and latent herpes simplex infections in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, H J; Bell, S E; Elion, G B; Nash, A A; Wildy, P

    1979-04-01

    Systemic treatment of mice with the nucleoside analog 9-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl)guanine (acycloguanosine [aciclovir]) was found to be highly effective against acute type 1 herpes simplex virus infection of the pinna. The drug ablated clinical signs and reduced virus replication both in tissue local to the inoculation site and within the nervous system. Provided that moderate-sized virus inocula were used, acycloguanosine treatment reduced or prevented the establishment of a latent infection in the dorsal root ganglia relating to the sensory nerve supply of the ear. However, although it aborted artificially produced infections in dorsal root ganglia, acycloguanosine was found not to be effective against the latent infection once established. This finding strongly indicated that latent herpes simplex virus in mice can exist in a nonreplicating form.

  20. Adoptively transferred dendritic cells restore primary cell-mediated inflammatory competence to acutely malnourished weanling mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillyer, Lyn; Whitley, Charlene; Olver, Amy; Webster, Michelle; Steevels, Tessa; Woodward, Bill

    2008-02-01

    Immune depression associated with prepubescent malnutrition underlies a staggering burden of infection-related morbidity. This investigation centered on dendritic cells as potentially decisive in this phenomenon. C57BL/6J mice, initially 19 days old, had free access for 14 days to a complete diet or to a low-protein formulation that induced wasting deficits of protein and energy. Mice were sensitized by i.p. injection of sheep red blood cells on day 9, at which time one-half of the animals in each dietary group received a simultaneous injection of 10(6) syngeneic dendritic cells (JAWS II). All mice were challenged with the immunizing antigen in the right hind footpad on day 13, and the 24-hour delayed hypersensitivity response was assessed as percentage increase in footpad thickness. The low-protein diet reduced the inflammatory immune response, but JAWS cells, which exhibited immature phenotypic and functional characteristics, increased the response of both the malnourished group and the controls. By contrast, i.p. injection of 10(6) syngeneic T cells did not influence the inflammatory immune response of mice subjected to the low-protein protocol. Antigen-presenting cell numbers limited primary inflammatory cell-mediated competence in this model of wasting malnutrition, an outcome that challenges the prevailing multifactorial model of malnutrition-associated immune depression. Thus, a new dendritic cell-centered perspective emerges regarding the cellular mechanism underlying immune depression in acute pediatric protein and energy deficit.

  1. Sex differences in the acute locomotor response to methamphetamine in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohia-Nwoko, Odochi; Haile, Colin N; Kosten, Therese A

    2017-06-01

    Women use methamphetamine more frequently than men and are more vulnerable to its negative psychological effects. Rodent models have been an essential tool for evaluating the sex-dependent effects of psychostimulants; however, evidence of sex differences in the behavioral responses to methamphetamine in mice is lacking. In the present study, we investigated acute methamphetamine-induced (1mg/kg and 4mg/kg) locomotor activation in female and male BALB/c mice. We also evaluated whether basal locomotor activity was associated with the methamphetamine-induced locomotor response. The results indicated that female BALB/c mice displayed enhanced methamphetamine-induced locomotor activity compared to males, while basal locomotor activity was positively correlated with methamphetamine-induced activity in males, but not females. This study is the first to show sex-dependent locomotor effects of methamphetamine in BALB/c mice. Our observations emphasize the importance of considering sex when assessing behavioral responses to methamphetamine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute toxicity of Psilocybe cubensis (Ear. Sing., Strophariaceae, aqueous extract in mice

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    Thiago Berti Kirsten

    Full Text Available Psilocybe cubensis (Ear. Sing., Strophariaceae, is a hallucinogen mushroom that has been used since the old times by humans, causing several psychotic effects. P. cubensis contains two tryptamine derivates: psilocybin and psilocin, agonists of the 5-HT2 receptor (serotonin. The main objective of this study was to investigate the acute toxicity effects of P. cubensis aqueous extract (PCAE administration in mice. Male and female adult Swiss mice received PCAE 0.1 mL/10 g i.p., and were observed individually, directly in a glass box and in an open-field. In relation to the data of the control group, PCAE-treated animals presented: an increased gnawing, appearance of wet-dog shakes and a decreased locomotion and rearing frequencies after 29-38 min. Also a clear gender difference was detected, being female mice more sensible to the PCAE than males. It was suggested that PCAE administration produced specific effects on mice behaviors, characteristic of drugs which interfere on central serotonergic and dopaminergic systems. Finally, the observational methods here employed were efficient to evaluate the toxic effects of the extract.

  3. Behavioral and neural correlates of acute and scheduled hunger in C57BL/6 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M Gallardo

    Full Text Available In rodents, daily feeding schedules induce food anticipatory activity (FAA rhythms with formal properties suggesting mediation by food-entrained circadian oscillators (FEOs. The search for the neuronal substrate of FEOs responsible for FAA is an active area of research, but studies spanning several decades have yet to identify unequivocally a brain region required for FAA. Variability of results across studies leads to questions about underlying biology versus methodology. Here we describe in C57BL/6 male mice the effects of varying the 'dose' of caloric restriction (0%, 60%, 80%, 110% on the expression of FAA as measured by a video-based analysis system, and on the induction of c-Fos in brain regions that have been implicated in FAA. We determined that more severe caloric restriction (60% leads to a faster onset of FAA with increased magnitude. Using the 60% caloric restriction, we found little evidence for unique signatures of neuronal activation in the brains of mice anticipating a daily mealtime compared to mice that were fasted acutely or fed ad-libitum-even in regions such as the dorsomedial and ventrolateral hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, and cerebellum that have previously been implicated in FAA. These results underscore the importance of feeding schedule parameters in determining quantitative features of FAA in mice, and demonstrate dissociations between behavioral FAA and neural activity in brain areas thought to harbor FEOs or participate in their entrainment or output.

  4. MicroRNA-mediated Th2 bias in methimazole-induced acute liver injury in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uematsu, Yasuaki; Akai, Sho; Tochitani, Tomoaki; Oda, Shingo; Yamada, Toru; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) is a class of small non-coding RNAs containing approximately 20 nucleotides that negatively regulate target gene expression. Little is known about the role of individual miRNAs and their targets in immune- and inflammation-related responses in drug-induced liver injury. In the present study, involvement of miRNAs in the T helper (Th) 2-type immune response was investigated using a methimazole (MTZ)-induced liver injury mouse model. Co-administration of L-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine and MTZ induced acute hepatocellular necrosis and elevated plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) from 4 h onward in female Balb/c mice. The hepatic mRNA expression of Th2 promotive factors was significantly increased concomitantly with plasma ALT levels. In contrast, the hepatic mRNA expression of Th2 suppressive factors was significantly decreased during the early phase of liver injury. Comprehensive profiling of hepatic miRNA expression was analyzed before the onset of MTZ-induced liver injury. Using in silico prediction of miRNAs that possibly regulate Th2-related genes and subsequent quantification, we identified up-regulation of expression of miR-29b-1-5p and miR-449a-5p. Among targets of these miRNAs, down-regulation of Th2 suppressive transcription factors, such as SRY-related HMG-box 4 (SOX4) and lymphoid enhancer factor-1 (LEF1), were observed from the early phase of liver injury. In conclusion, negative regulation of the expression of SOX4 by miR-29b-1-5p and that of LEF1 by miR-449a-5p is suggested to play an important role in the development of Th2 bias in MTZ-induced liver injury. - Highlights: • Methimazole induced hepatic Th2 bias in the pathogenesis of liver injury in mice. • Rapid down-regulation of SOX4 and LEF1 may initiate and/or maintain hepatic Th2 bias. • Negative regulation of SOX4 by miR-29b-1-5p and LEF1 by miR-449a-5p was suggested.

  5. MicroRNA-mediated Th2 bias in methimazole-induced acute liver injury in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uematsu, Yasuaki, E-mail: yasuaki-uematsu@ds-pharma.co.jp [Department of Drug Safety Sciences, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Preclinical Research Laboratories, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma Co., Ltd., 1-98 Kasugade-naka, 3-chome, Konohana-ku, Osaka (Japan); Akai, Sho [Department of Drug Safety Sciences, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Tochitani, Tomoaki [Preclinical Research Laboratories, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma Co., Ltd., 1-98 Kasugade-naka, 3-chome, Konohana-ku, Osaka (Japan); Oda, Shingo [Department of Drug Safety Sciences, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Yamada, Toru [Preclinical Research Laboratories, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma Co., Ltd., 1-98 Kasugade-naka, 3-chome, Konohana-ku, Osaka (Japan); Yokoi, Tsuyoshi [Department of Drug Safety Sciences, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan)

    2016-09-15

    MicroRNA (miRNA) is a class of small non-coding RNAs containing approximately 20 nucleotides that negatively regulate target gene expression. Little is known about the role of individual miRNAs and their targets in immune- and inflammation-related responses in drug-induced liver injury. In the present study, involvement of miRNAs in the T helper (Th) 2-type immune response was investigated using a methimazole (MTZ)-induced liver injury mouse model. Co-administration of L-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine and MTZ induced acute hepatocellular necrosis and elevated plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) from 4 h onward in female Balb/c mice. The hepatic mRNA expression of Th2 promotive factors was significantly increased concomitantly with plasma ALT levels. In contrast, the hepatic mRNA expression of Th2 suppressive factors was significantly decreased during the early phase of liver injury. Comprehensive profiling of hepatic miRNA expression was analyzed before the onset of MTZ-induced liver injury. Using in silico prediction of miRNAs that possibly regulate Th2-related genes and subsequent quantification, we identified up-regulation of expression of miR-29b-1-5p and miR-449a-5p. Among targets of these miRNAs, down-regulation of Th2 suppressive transcription factors, such as SRY-related HMG-box 4 (SOX4) and lymphoid enhancer factor-1 (LEF1), were observed from the early phase of liver injury. In conclusion, negative regulation of the expression of SOX4 by miR-29b-1-5p and that of LEF1 by miR-449a-5p is suggested to play an important role in the development of Th2 bias in MTZ-induced liver injury. - Highlights: • Methimazole induced hepatic Th2 bias in the pathogenesis of liver injury in mice. • Rapid down-regulation of SOX4 and LEF1 may initiate and/or maintain hepatic Th2 bias. • Negative regulation of SOX4 by miR-29b-1-5p and LEF1 by miR-449a-5p was suggested.

  6. Hepatoprotective effect of ethanol extract from Berchemia lineate against CCl4-induced acute hepatotoxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cong; Yi, Li-Tao; Geng, Di; Han, Yuan-Yuan; Weng, Lian-Jin

    2015-05-01

    The roots of Berchemia lineate (L.) DC. (Rhamnaceae) have been long used as a remedy for the treatment of some diseases in Guangxi Province, China. The present study investigates the hepatoprotective effect of Berchemia lineate ethanol extract (BELE) on CCl4-induced acute liver damage in mice. Effect of BELE administrated for 7 consecutive days was evaluated in mice by the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (TBIL), albulin (ALB), globulin (GLB), and total protein (TP) levels, as well as liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Moreover, histopathological examinations were also taken. Compared with the model group, administration of 400 mg/kg BELE for 7 d in mice significantly decreased the serum ALT (56.25 U/L), AST (297.67 U/L), ALP (188.20 U/L), and TBIL (17.90 mol/L), along with the elevation of TP (64.67 g/L). In addition, BELE (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, i.g.) treated mice recorded a dose-dependent increment of SOD (291.17, 310.32, and 325.67 U/mg prot) and reduction of MDA (7.27, 6.77, and 5.33 nmol/mg prot) levels. Histopathological examinations also confirmed that BELE can ameliorate CCl4-induced liver injuries, characterized by extensive hepatocellular degeneration/necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, congestion, and sinusoidal dilatation. The results indicated that BELE possessed remarkable protective effect against acute hepatotoxicity and oxidative injuries induced by CCl4, and that the hepatoprotective effects of BELE may be due to both the inhibition of lipid peroxidation and the increase of antioxidant activity.

  7. Respiratory syncytial virus infection facilitates acute colonization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vrankrijker, Angélica M M; Wolfs, Tom F W; Ciofu, Oana

    2009-01-01

    virus infections in facilitating colonization and infection with P. aeruginosa. A study was undertaken to determine whether respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection could facilitate the initiation of an acute infection with P. aeruginosa in vivo. Balb/c mice were infected intranasally with P......Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes opportunistic infections in immunocompromised individuals and patients ventilated mechanically and is the major pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis, in which it causes chronic infections. Epidemiological, in vitro and animal data suggest a role for respiratory....... These results suggest that RSV can facilitate the initiation of acute P. aeruginosa infection without the RSV infection being clinically apparent. This could have implications for treatment strategies to prevent opportunistic P. aeruginosa lung infection....

  8. Raman spectroscopic study of acute oxidative stress induced changes in mice skeletal muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriramoju, Vidyasagar; Alimova, Alexandra; Chakraverty, Rahul; Katz, A.; Gayen, S. K.; Larsson, L.; Savage, H. E.; Alfano, R. R.

    2008-02-01

    The oxidative stress due to free radicals is implicated in the pathogenesis of tissue damage in diseases such as muscular dystrophy, Alzheimer dementia, diabetes mellitus, and mitochrondrial myopathies. In this study, the acute oxidative stress induced changes in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides in mouse skeletal muscles are studied in vitro using Raman spectroscopy. Mammalian skeletal muscles are rich in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides in both reduced (NADH) and oxidized (NAD) states, as they are sites of aerobic and anaerobic respiration. The relative levels of NAD and NADH are altered in certain physiological and pathological conditions of skeletal muscles. In this study, near infrared Raman spectroscopy is used to identify the molecular fingerprints of NAD and NADH in five-week-old mice biceps femoris muscles. A Raman vibrational mode of NADH is identified in fresh skeletal muscle samples suspended in buffered normal saline. In the same samples, when treated with 1% H IIO II for 5 minutes and 15 minutes, the Raman spectrum shows molecular fingerprints specific to NAD and the disappearance of NADH vibrational bands. The NAD bands after 15 minutes were more intense than after 5 minutes. Since NADH fluoresces and NAD does not, fluorescence spectroscopy is used to confirm the results of the Raman measurements. Fluorescence spectra exhibit an emission peak at 460 nm, corresponding to NADH emission wavelength in fresh muscle samples; while the H IIO II treated muscle samples do not exhibit NADH fluorescence. Raman spectroscopy may be used to develop a minimally invasive, in vivo optical biopsy method to measure the relative NAD and NADH levels in muscle tissues. This may help to detect diseases of muscle, including mitochondrial myopathies and muscular dystrophies.

  9. Conditional RARα Knockout Mice Reveal Acute Requirement for Retinoic Acid and RARα in Homeostatic Plasticity

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    Federica eSarti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available All-trans retinoic acid (RA plays important roles in brain development through regulating gene transcription. Recently, a novel postdevelopmental role of RA in mature brain was proposed. Specifically, RA rapidly enhanced excitatory synaptic transmission independent of transcriptional regulation. RA synthesis was induced when excitatory synaptic transmission was chronically blocked, and RA then activated dendritic protein synthesis and synaptic insertion of homomeric GluA1 AMPA receptors, thereby compensating for the loss of neuronal activity in a homeostatic fashion. This action of RA was suggested to be mediated by its canonical receptor RARα but no genetic evidence was available. Thus, we here tested the fundamental requirement of RARα in homeostatic plasticity using conditional RARα knockout mice, and additionally performed a structure-function analysis of RARα. We show that acutely deleting RARα in neurons eliminated RA’s effect on excitatory synaptic transmission, and inhibited activity blockade-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity. By expressing various RARα rescue constructs in RARα knockout neurons, we found that the DNA-binding domain of RARα was dispensable for its role in regulating synaptic strength, further supporting the notion that RA and RARα act in a non-transcriptional manner in this context. By contrast, the ligand-binding domain (LBD and the mRNA-binding domain (F-domain are both necessary and sufficient for the function of RARα in homeostatic plasticity. Furthermore, we found that homeostatic regulation performed by the LBD/F domains leads to insertion of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors. Our results confirm with unequivocal genetic approaches that RA and RARα perform essential non-transcriptional functions in regulating synaptic strength, and establish a functional link between the various domains of RARα and their involvement in regulating protein synthesis and excitatory synaptic transmission during

  10. Radioprotective effect of cimitidine on acutely irradiated mice survival and hematopoietic system

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    Qing-rong WANG

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the radioprotective effect of cimetidine on survival rate and hematopoietic system in acutely irradiated mice. Methods The total body irradiation doses were 6.0Gy and 8.0Gy respectively at 1.01Gy/min rate. Sixty healthy male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into control group, model group, positive-drug (523 group and cimetidine groups (33.3mg/kg, 100mg/kg and 300mg/kg. Each group had ten mice. The mice were given intragastric administration of cimetidine for 6d before the irradiation in cimetidine groups, and 523 was administered before irradiation once a day for one day in 523 group, and at 5h after irradiation, was given again. The 30d survival rate after 8.0Gy irradiation was recorded. The peripheral blood cells, bone marrow DNA content and frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (fMNPCE were determined 30d after 6.0Gy irradiation. Results After 8.0Gy irradiation, all the mice died on 21th day in model control group. The survival rates in cimetidine groups were 50%, 20% and 30%, respectively. After 6.0Gy irradiation on 30th day, compared with control group, the peripheral white blood cells (WBC and bone marrow DNA content were decreased significantly (P<0.01, P<0.05 in model group, and fMNPCE was increased significantly (P<0.05. Compared with model group, WBC was significantly increased in 300mg/kg cimetidine group (P<0.01. In cimetidine groups, the bone marrow DNA content was increased significantly after irradiation (P<0.01 or P<0.05, and the fMNPCE was decreased significantly (P<0.01 or P<0.05and tended towards normal. Conclusion Cimetidine could improve 30d survival rate of acutely irradiated mice and has good protective effect on hematopoietic system. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.01.12

  11. Irgm1-deficient mice exhibit Paneth cell abnormalities and increased susceptibility to acute intestinal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Gulati, Ajay S; Cantillana, Viviana; Henry, Stanley C; Schmidt, Elyse A; Daniell, Xiaoju; Grossniklaus, Emily; Schoenborn, Alexi A; Sartor, R Balfour; Taylor, Gregory A

    2013-10-15

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, immune-mediated, inflammatory disorder of the intestine that has been linked to numerous susceptibility genes, including the immunity-related GTPase (IRG) M (IRGM). IRGs comprise a family of proteins known to confer resistance to intracellular infections through various mechanisms, including regulation of phagosome processing, cell motility, and autophagy. However, despite its association with CD, the role of IRGM and other IRGs in regulating intestinal inflammation is unclear. We investigated the involvement of Irgm1, an ortholog of IRGM, in the genesis of murine intestinal inflammation. After dextran sodium sulfate exposure, Irgm1-deficient [Irgm1 knockout (KO)] mice showed increased acute inflammation in the colon and ileum, with worsened clinical responses. Marked alterations of Paneth cell location and granule morphology were present in Irgm1 KO mice, even without dextran sodium sulfate exposure, and were associated with impaired mitophagy and autophagy in Irgm1 KO intestinal cells (including Paneth cells). This was manifested by frequent tubular and swollen mitochondria and increased LC3-positive autophagic structures. Interestingly, these LC3-positive structures often contained Paneth cell granules. These results suggest that Irgm1 modulates acute inflammatory responses in the mouse intestine, putatively through the regulation of gut autophagic processes, that may be pivotal for proper Paneth cell functioning.

  12. [Effect of Huperzine A on neural lesion of acute organophosphate poisoning in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Wang, Jian; Xie, Guangyun; Sun, Jinxiu

    2013-05-01

    Effects of neurophathologic changes and expression of Glu and 60 nNOS were observed in acute isocarbophos and phoxim poisoning in mice. KM male mice were randomly divided into three groups, which were control, non-treated and Huperzine A (HupA)-treated groups. The control group was given tween-80. Nontreated group was given isocarbophos (14.7 mg/kg) or phoxim (1702 mg/kg). HupA-treated group was given HupA 2h before phoxim or isocarbophos. Twenty-four hours after exposure, the whole brain was removed and adjacent coronal sections was obtained. One part of sections were stained with toluidine blue. The part of sections were used to assessed the expression of Glu and nNOS in the cortex and hippocampal of brain by immunohistochemistry. Compared to control group, non-treated group was observed nissal body nembers reduced and dyeing light. The animals of HupA protective group were observed nissal body nembers reduced, but the lesional degree was lighter obviously than non-treated group. The statistically reduced of the expression of Glu (PHupA-treated groups. Whereas for phoxim treatment, no changes were observed. HupA have protective effect against glutamatergic systems disorder caused by Isocarbophos poisoning. Administration of HupA have no effects of the neurotransmitter changes induces by acute poisoning of phoxim. It is different for the toxic effect mechanism of the two organophosphate.

  13. Anti-diabetic effects of Inonotus obliquus polysaccharides-chromium (III) complex in type 2 diabetic mice and its sub-acute toxicity evaluation in normal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Chen, Zhongqin; Pan, Yuxiang; Gao, Xudong; Chen, Haixia

    2017-10-01

    Polysaccharides are important bioactive ingredients from Inonotus obliquus. This study aimed to synthesize and characterize a novel I. obliquus polysaccharides-chromium (III) complex (UIOPC) and investigate the anti-diabetic effects in streptozotocin (STZ) induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) mice and sub-acute toxicity in normal mice. The molecular weight of UIOPC was about 11.5 × 10 4  Da with the chromium content was 13.01% and the chromium was linked with polysaccharides through coordination bond. After treatment of UIOPC for four weeks, the body weight, fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels, plasma insulin levels of the diabetic mice were significantly reduced when compared with those of the diabetic mice (p < 0.05). The results on serum profiles and antioxidant enzymes activities revealed that UIOPC had a positive effect on hypoglycemic and antioxidant ability. Histopathology results showed that UIOPC could effectively alleviate the STZ-lesioned tissues in diabetic mice. Furthermore, high dose administration of UIOPC had no obviously influence on serum profiles levels and antioxidant ability of the normal mice and the organ tissues maintained organized and integrity in the sub-acute toxicity study. These results suggested that UIOPC might be a good candidate for the functional food or pharmaceuticals in the treatment of T2DM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pre-adolescent and adolescent mice are less sensitive to the effects of acute nicotine on extinction and spontaneous recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Munir Gunes; Zeid, Dana; Tumolo, Jessica M; Gould, Thomas J

    2018-04-01

    Adolescence is a period of high risk for the initiation of nicotine product usage and exposure to traumatic events. In parallel, nicotine exposure has been found to age-dependently modulate acquisition of contextual fear memories; however, it is unknown if adolescent nicotine exposure alters extinction of fear related memories. Age-related differences in sensitivity to the effects of nicotine on fear extinction could increase or decrease susceptibility to anxiety disorders. In this study, we examined the effects of acute nicotine administration on extinction and spontaneous recovery of contextual fear memories in pre-adolescent (PND 23), late adolescent (PND 38), and adult (PND 53) C57B6/J mice. Mice were first trained in a background contextual fear conditioning paradigm and given an intraperitoneal injection of one of four doses of nicotine (0.045, 0.09, 0.18, or 0.36mg/kg, freebase) prior to subsequent extinction or spontaneous recovery sessions. Results indicated that all acute nicotine doses impaired extinction of contextual fear in adult mice. Late adolescent mice exhibited impaired extinction of contextual fear only following higher doses of acute nicotine, and extinction of contextual fear was unaffected by acute nicotine exposure in pre-adolescent mice. Finally, acute nicotine exposure enhanced spontaneous recovery of fear memory, but only in adult mice. Overall, our results suggest that younger mice were less sensitive to nicotine's impairing effects on extinction of contextual fear and to nicotine's enhancing effects on spontaneous recovery of contextual fear memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mice lacking major brain gangliosides develop parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gusheng; Lu, Zi-Hua; Kulkarni, Neil; Amin, Ruchi; Ledeen, Robert W

    2011-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent late-onset neurodegenerative disorder that affects nearly 1% of the global population aged 65 and older. Whereas palliative treatments are in use, the goal of blocking progression of motor and cognitive disability remains unfulfilled. A better understanding of the basic pathophysiological mechanisms underlying PD would help to advance that goal. The present study provides evidence that brain ganglioside abnormality, in particular GM1, may be involved. This is based on use of the genetically altered mice with disrupted gene Galgt1 for GM2/GD2 synthase which depletes GM2/GD2 and all the gangliotetraose gangliosides that constitute the major molecular species of brain. These knockout mice show overt motor disability on aging and clear indications of motor impairment with appropriate testing at an earlier age. This disability was rectified by L-dopa administration. These mice show other characteristic symptoms of PD, including depletion of striatal dopamine (DA), loss of DA neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta, and aggregation of alpha synuclein. These manifestations of parkinsonism were largely attenuated by administration of LIGA-20, a membrane permeable analog of GM1 that penetrates the blood brain barrier and enters living neurons. These results suggest that perturbation of intracellular mechanisms mediated by intracellular GM1 may be a contributing factor to PD.

  16. Acute toxicity and mutagenesis of three metabolites mixture of nitrobenzene in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guixia; Zhang, Xiuying; Yao, Chunzhu; Tian, Meizhan

    2011-03-01

    Nitrobenzene is a synthetic compound, more than 95% of which is used in the production of aniline. Nitrobenzene has been demonstrated to be substantially metabolized to p-Nitrophenol, p-Aminophenol and p-Nitroaniline in food animals (e.g., bovines, fowls). There have been no studies on the acute toxicity and the mutagenesis of the mixture of the three metabolites mentioned above. The aim of the present study is to testify the acute toxicity and the mutagenesis of the three metabolites mixture. Seventy Kunming mice (half male, half female) received an intragastric administration exposure to metabolites-containing suspension of 750, 638, 542, 461, 392, 333 mg kg(-1) body weight and 0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (control), followed by a 14-day observation. The medial lethal dose (LD(50)) concentration for nitrobenzene metabolites mixture in this study was 499.92 mg/kg. Their mutagenic toxicology was studied through micronucleus and sperm abnormality test. Kunming mice were twice intragastrically exposed to 1/5 LD(50), 1/10 LD(50), 1/20 LD(50) mg kg(-1) nitrobenzene metabolites-containing suspension spaced 24-h apart. Cyclophosphamide, pure water and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose served as doses of the positive group, the negative group and the solvent control group, respectively. The incidence of micronucleus and sperm abnormality increased significantly in the 1/5 LD(50) and 1/10 LD(50) group compared with the negative and solvent control group. A dose-related increase in the incidence of micronucleus and sperm abnormality was noted. In conclusion, the three metabolites mixture of nitrobenzene was secondary toxicity and mutagenic substances in mice.

  17. Human endometrial regenerative cells alleviate carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanzheng Lu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endometrial regenerative cell (ERC is a novel type of adult mesenchymal stem cell isolated from menstrual blood. Previous studies demonstrated that ERCs possess unique immunoregulatory properties in vitro and in vivo, as well as the ability to differentiate into functional hepatocyte-like cells. For these reasons, the present study was undertaken to explore the effects of ERCs on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4–induced acute liver injury (ALI. Methods An ALI model in C57BL/6 mice was induced by administration of intraperitoneal injection of CCl4. Transplanted ERCs were intravenously injected (1 million/mouse into mice 30 min after ALI induction. Liver function, pathological and immunohistological changes, cell tracking, immune cell populations and cytokine profiles were assessed 24 h after the CCl4 induction. Results ERC treatment effectively decreased the CCl4-induced elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activities and improved hepatic histopathological abnormalities compared to the untreated ALI group. Immunohistochemical staining showed that over-expression of lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus G (Ly6G was markedly inhibited, whereas expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA was increased after ERC treatment. Furthermore, the frequency of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations in the spleen was significantly down-regulated, while the percentage of splenic CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs was obviously up-regulated after ERC treatment. Moreover, splenic dendritic cells in ERC-treated mice exhibited dramatically decreased MHC-II expression. Cell tracking studies showed that transplanted PKH26-labeled ERCs engrafted to lung, spleen and injured liver. Compared to untreated controls, mice treated with ERCs had lower levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α but higher level of IL-10 in both serum and liver. Conclusions Human ERCs protect the liver from acute injury

  18. The novel cytokine interleukin-33 activates acinar cell proinflammatory pathways and induces acute pancreatic inflammation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraisamy Kempuraj

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis is potentially fatal but treatment options are limited as disease pathogenesis is poorly understood. IL-33, a novel IL-1 cytokine family member, plays a role in various inflammatory conditions but its role in acute pancreatitis is not well understood. Specifically, whether pancreatic acinar cells produce IL-33 when stressed or respond to IL-33 stimulation, and whether IL-33 exacerbates acute pancreatic inflammation is unknown.In duct ligation-induced acute pancreatitis in mice and rats, we found that (a IL-33 concentration was increased in the pancreas; (b mast cells, which secrete and also respond to IL-33, showed degranulation in the pancreas and lung; (c plasma histamine and pancreatic substance P concentrations were increased; and (d pancreatic and pulmonary proinflammatory cytokine concentrations were increased. In isolated mouse pancreatic acinar cells, TNF-α stimulation increased IL-33 release while IL-33 stimulation increased proinflammatory cytokine release, both involving the ERK MAP kinase pathway; the flavonoid luteolin inhibited IL-33-stimulated IL-6 and CCL2/MCP-1 release. In mice without duct ligation, exogenous IL-33 administration induced pancreatic inflammation without mast cell degranulation or jejunal inflammation; pancreatic changes included multifocal edema and perivascular infiltration by neutrophils and some macrophages. ERK MAP kinase (but not p38 or JNK and NF-kB subunit p65 were activated in the pancreas of mice receiving exogenous IL-33, and acinar cells isolated from the pancreas of these mice showed increased spontaneous cytokine release (IL-6, CXCL2/MIP-2α. Also, IL-33 activated ERK in human pancreatic tissue.As exogenous IL-33 does not induce jejunal inflammation in the same mice in which it induces pancreatic inflammation, we have discovered a potential role for an IL-33/acinar cell axis in the recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages and the exacerbation of acute pancreatic inflammation

  19. Inhibiting Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase Rescues Mice from Lethal Influenza Induced Acute Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florence, Jon M; Krupa, Agnieszka; Booshehri, Laela M; Davis, Sandra A; Matthay, Michael A; Kurdowska, Anna K

    2018-03-08

    Infection with seasonal influenza A virus (IAV) leads to lung inflammation and respiratory failure, a main cause of death in influenza infected patients. Previous experiments in our laboratory indicated that Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) plays a substantial role in regulating inflammation in the respiratory region during acute lung injury (ALI) in mice, therefore we sought to determine if blocking Btk activity had a protective effect in the lung during influenza induced inflammation. A Btk inhibitor (Btk Inh.) Ibrutinib (also known as PCI-32765) was administered intranasally to mice starting 72h after lethal infection with IAV. Our data indicates that treatment with the Btk inhibitor not only reduced weight loss and led to survival, but had a dramatic effect on morphological changes to the lungs of IAV infected mice. Attenuation of lung inflammation indicative of ALI such as alveolar hemorrhage, interstitial thickening, and the presence of alveolar exudate, together with reduced levels of inflammatory mediators TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, KC, and MCP-1 strongly suggest amelioration of the pathological immune response in the lungs to promote resolution of the infection. Finally, we observed that blocking Btk specifically in the alveolar compartment led to significant attenuation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NET)s released into the lung in vivo, and NET formation in vitro. Our innovative findings suggest that Btk may be a new drug target for influenza induced lung injury, and in general immunomodulatory treatment may be key in treating lung dysfunction driven by excessive inflammation.

  20. Acute toxicity of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus seed oils in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukeloua, A; Belkhiri, A; Djerrou, Z; Bahri, L; Boulebda, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

    2012-01-01

    Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds are used in traditional medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the toxicity of the fixed oil of Opuntia ficus indica and Pistacia lentiscus L. seeds in mice through determination of LD₅₀ values, and also the physicochemical characteristics of the fixed oil of these oils. The acute toxicity of their fixed oil were also investigated in mice using the method of Kabba and Berhens. The fixed oil of Pistacia lentiscus and Opuntia ficus indica seeds were extracted and analyzed for its chemical and physical properties such as acid value, free fatty acid percentage (% FFA), iodine index, and saponification value as well as refractive index and density. LD₅₀ values obtained by single doses, orally and intraperitoneally administered in mice, were respectively 43 ± 0,8 ;[40.7- 45.4 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.72 ± 0,1 ;[2.52-2.92] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Opuntia ficus indica ; and 37 ± 1 ;[34.4 - 39.8 ] ml/kg body wt. p.o. and 2.52 ± 0,2 ;[2.22 - 2.81 ] ml/kg body wt. i.p. for Pistacia lentiscus respectively. The yields of seed oil were respectively calculated as 20.25% and 10.41%. The acid and free fatty acid values indicated that the oil has a low acidity.

  1. Acute Toxicity Study of Zerumbone-Loaded Nanostructured Lipid Carrier on BALB/c Mice Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshu Sulaiman Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zerumbone- (ZER- loaded nanostructure lipid carrier (NLC (ZER-NLC prepared for its antileukemia effect in vitro was evaluated for its toxicological effects by observing changes in the liver, kidney, spleen, lung, heart, and brain tissues, serum biochemical parameters, total haemogram, and bone marrow stem cells. The acute toxicity study for ZER-NLC was conducted by orally treating BALB/c mice with a single dose with either water, olive oil, ZER, NLC, or ZER-NLC for 14 days. The animals were observed for clinical and behavioral abnormalities, toxicological symptoms, feed consumption, and gross appearance. The liver, kidney, heart, lung, spleen, and brain tissues were assessed histologically. Total haemogram was counted by hemocytometry and microhematocrit reader. Bone marrow examination in terms of cellular morphology was done by Wright staining with bone marrow smear. Furthermore, serum biochemical parameters were determined spectrophotometrically. Grossly all treated mice, their investigated tissues, serum biochemical parameters, total haemogram, and bone marrow were normal. At oral doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg ZER-NLC there was no sign of toxicity or mortality in BALB/c mice. This study suggests that the 50% lethal dose (LD50 of ZER-NLC is higher than 200 mg/kg, thus, safe by oral administration.

  2. Hepcidin mediates transcriptional changes that modulate acute cytokine-induced inflammatory responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Domenico, Ivana; Zhang, Tian Y; Koening, Curry L; Branch, Ryan W; London, Nyall; Lo, Eric; Daynes, Raymond A; Kushner, James P; Li, Dean; Ward, Diane M; Kaplan, Jerry

    2010-07-01

    Hepcidin is a peptide hormone that regulates iron homeostasis and acts as an antimicrobial peptide. It is expressed and secreted by a variety of cell types in response to iron loading and inflammation. Hepcidin mediates iron homeostasis by binding to the iron exporter ferroportin, inducing its internalization and degradation via activation of the protein kinase Jak2 and the subsequent phosphorylation of ferroportin. Here we have shown that hepcidin-activated Jak2 also phosphorylates the transcription factor Stat3, resulting in a transcriptional response. Hepcidin treatment of ferroportin-expressing mouse macrophages showed changes in mRNA expression levels of a wide variety of genes. The changes in transcript levels for half of these genes were a direct effect of hepcidin, as shown by cycloheximide insensitivity, and dependent on the presence of Stat3. Hepcidin-mediated transcriptional changes modulated LPS-induced transcription in both cultured macrophages and in vivo mouse models, as demonstrated by suppression of IL-6 and TNF-alpha transcript and secreted protein. Hepcidin-mediated transcription in mice also suppressed toxicity and morbidity due to single doses of LPS, poly(I:C), and turpentine, which is used to model chronic inflammatory disease. Most notably, we demonstrated that hepcidin pretreatment protected mice from a lethal dose of LPS and that hepcidin-knockout mice could be rescued from LPS toxicity by injection of hepcidin. The results of our study suggest a new function for hepcidin in modulating acute inflammatory responses.

  3. Phytochemistry, Brine shrimp lethality and mice acute oral toxicity studies on seed extracts of Vernonia anthelmintica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Subia; Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Afroz, Syeda; Ahmed, Shadab

    2016-11-01

    Despite the widespread use of Vernonia anthelmintica seeds in traditional medicine, the need to establish the safety of the Vernonia anthelmintica is required to ascertain the safe use of this herbal medicine. The aim of the present study is to establish the acute toxicity profile of different extracts of Vernonia anthelmintica. Hexane and ethanol extract of Vernonia Anthelmintica has been studied for its brine shrimp lethality potential. Water decoction (WDVA), Hexane (HEVA) and Ethanol (EEVA) extracts of Vernonia anthelmintica has also been evaluated for their in-vivo acute oral toxicity in mice by Lorke's method. Phytochemistry of all three extracts was also evaluated for the presence of their secondary metabolites. All three extracts showed the presence of flavonoids and terpenoids, while alkaloids, tannins and fixed oils were present in HEVA and EEVA. Furthermore EEVA also showed presence of carbohydrates and HEVA also showed the presence of cardiac glycosides. Ethanol and hexane extracts of Vernonia anthelmintica showed a positive cytotoxicity in brine shrimp lethality test at 24 hours with LC50 104.16 (224.0-48.05)μg/ml and 216.11μg/ml (378.2-128.7) respectively as compared to standard drug etoposide LC50 7.46μg/ml. The oral LD50 for EEVA, HEVA and WDVA in mice by Lorke's method was greater than 5000mg/kg. The result of brine shrimp lethality test clearly exhibited the presence of bioactive compounds with cytotoxic potential; however seems to be safe for oral use since LD50 was higher than 5000mg/kg and thus safety of acute dosing in vivo practices is justified.

  4. Glial and tissue-specific regulation of Kynurenine Pathway dioxygenases by acute stress of mice

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    Carlos R. Dostal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Stressors activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and immune system eliciting changes in cognitive function, mood and anxiety. An important link between stress and altered behavior is stimulation of the Kynurenine Pathway which generates neuroactive and immunomodulatory kynurenines. Tryptophan entry into this pathway is controlled by rate-limiting indoleamine/tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenases (DOs: Ido1, Ido2, Tdo2. Although implicated as mediating changes in behavior, detecting stress-induced DO expression has proven inconsistent. Thus, C57BL/6J mice were used to characterize DO expression in brain-regions, astrocytes and microglia to characterize restraint-stress-induced DO expression. Stress increased kynurenine in brain and plasma, demonstrating increased DO activity. Of three Ido1 transcripts, only Ido1-v1 expression was increased by stress and within astrocytes, not microglia, indicating transcript- and glial-specificity. Stress increased Ido1-v1 only in frontal cortex and hypothalamus, indicating brain-region specificity. Of eight Ido2 transcripts, Ido2-v3 expression was increased by stress, again only within astrocytes. Likewise, stress increased Tdo2-FL expression in astrocytes, not microglia. Interestingly, Ido2 and Tdo2 transcripts were not correspondingly induced in Ido1-knockout (Ido1KO mice, suggesting that Ido1 is necessary for the central DO response to acute stress. Unlike acute inflammatory models resulting in DO induction within microglia, only astrocyte DO expression was increased by acute restraint-stress, defining their unique role during stress-dependent activation of the Kynurenine Pathway. Keywords: Stress, Ido, Tdo, Kynurenine, Astrocyte, Liver

  5. Brain expression of the water channels Aquaporin-1 and -4 in mice with acute liver injury, hyperammonemia and brain edema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eefsen, Martin; Jelnes, Peter; Schmidt, Lars E

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral edema is a feared complication to acute liver failure (ALF), but the pathogenesis is still poorly understood. The water channels Aquaporin-1 (Aqp1) and -4 (Aqp4) has been associated with brain edema formation in several neuropathological conditions, indicating a possible role of Aqp1 and....../or Aqp4 in ALF mediated brain edema. We induced acute liver injury and hyperammonemia in mice, to evaluate brain edema formation and the parallel expression of Aqp1 and Aqp4 in ALF. Liver injury and hyperammonemia were induced by +D-galactosamine (GLN) plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intraperitoneally......(6266) (p edema in mice with ALF....

  6. Cell-extrinsic defective lymphocyte development in Lmna(-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Scott Hale

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the LMNA gene, which encodes all A-type lamins, result in a variety of human diseases termed laminopathies. Lmna(-/- mice appear normal at birth but become runted as early as 2 weeks of age and develop multiple tissue defects that mimic some aspects of human laminopathies. Lmna(-/- mice also display smaller spleens and thymuses. In this study, we investigated whether altered lymphoid organ sizes are correlated with specific defects in lymphocyte development.Lmna(-/- mice displayed severe age-dependent defects in T and B cell development which coincided with runting. Lmna(-/- bone marrow reconstituted normal T and B cell development in irradiated wild-type recipients, driving generation of functional and self-MHC restricted CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells. Transplantation of Lmna(-/- neonatal thymus lobes into syngeneic wild-type recipients resulted in good engraftment of thymic tissue and normal thymocyte development.Collectively, these data demonstrate that the severe defects in lymphocyte development that characterize Lmna(-/- mice do not result directly from the loss of A-type lamin function in lymphocytes or thymic stroma. Instead, the immune defects in Lmna(-/- mice likely reflect indirect damage, perhaps resulting from prolonged stress due to the striated muscle dystrophies that occur in these mice.

  7. Acute and Cumulative Effects of Unmodified 50-nm Nano-ZnO on Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Tao; Zhang, Shu-Hui; Zhang, Ji-Liang; Hao, Xue-Qin; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Cai; Yang, Zi-Jun; Zhang, Meng-Yu; Wang, Jie

    2018-01-02

    Nanometer zinc oxide (nano-ZnO) is widely used in diverse industrial and agricultural fields. Due to the extensive contact humans have with these particles, it is crucial to understand the potential effects that nano-ZnO have on human health. Currently, information related to the toxicity and mechanisms of nano-ZnO is limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate acute and cumulative toxic effects of 50-nm unmodified ZnO in mice. This investigation will seek to establish median lethal dose (LD50), a cumulative coefficient, and target organs. The acute and cumulative toxicity was investigated by Karber's method and via a dose-increasing method, respectively. During the experiment, clinical signs, mortality, body weights, hematology, serum biochemistry, gross pathology, organ weight, and histopathology were examined. The LD50 was 5177-mg/kg·bw; the 95% confidence limits for the LD50 were 5116-5238-mg/kg·bw. It could be concluded that the liver, kidney, lung, and gastrointestinal tract were target organs for the 50-nm nano-ZnO acute oral treatment. The cumulative coefficient (K) was 1.9 which indicated that the cumulative toxicity was apparent. The results also indicated that the liver, kidney, lung, and pancrea were target organs for 50-nm nano-ZnO cumulative oral exposure and might be target organs for subchronic and chronic toxicity of oral administered 50-nm ZnO.

  8. The acute and long-term neurotoxic effects of MDMA on marble burying behaviour in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Kathryn S; Elliott, J Martin; Colado, M Isabel; Green, A Richard

    2006-03-01

    When mice are exposed to harmless objects such as marbles in their cage they bury them, a behaviour sometimes known as defensive burying. We investigated the effect of an acute dose of MDMA (èecstasy') and other psychoactive drugs on marble burying and also examined the effect of a prior neurotoxic dose of MDMA or p-chloroamphetamine (PCA) on burying. Acute administration of MDMA produced dose-dependent inhibition of marble burying (EC50: 7.6 micro mol/kg). Other drugs that enhance monoamine function also produced dose-dependent inhibition: methamphetamine PCA paroxetine MDMA GBR 12909 methylphenidate. None of these drugs altered locomotor activity at a dose that inhibited burying. A prior neurotoxic dose of MDMA, which decreased striatal dopamine content by 60%, but left striatal 5-HT content unaltered, did not alter spontaneous marble burying 18 or 40 days later. However, a neurotoxic dose of PCA which decreased striatal dopamine by 60% and striatal 5-HT by 70% attenuated marble burying 28 days later. Overall, these data suggest that MDMA, primarily by acutely increasing 5-HT function, acts like several anxiolytic drugs in this behavioural model. Long-term loss of cerebral 5-HT content also produced a similar effect. Since this change was observed only after 28 days, it is probably due to an adaptive response in the brain.

  9. Relative oral efficacy and acute toxicity of hydroxypyridin-4-one iron chelators in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, J.B.; Morgan, J.; Hoyes, K.P.; Burke, L.C.; Huehns, E.R.; Hider, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between the oral efficacy and the acute toxicity of hydroxypyridin-4-one iron chelators has been investigated to clarify structure-function relationships of these compounds in vivo and to identify compounds with the maximum therapeutic safety margin. By comparing 59Fe excretion following oral or intraperitoneal administration of increasing doses of each chelator to iron-overloaded mice, the most effective compounds have been identified. These have partition coefficients (Kpart) above 0.3 in the iron-free form with a trend of increasing oral efficacy with increasing Kpart values (r = .6). However, this is achieved at a cost of increasing acute toxicity, as shown by a linear correlation between 59Fe excretion increase per unit dose and 1/LD50 (r = .83). A sharp increase in the LD50 values is observed for compounds with Kpart values above 1.0, suggesting that such compounds are unlikely to possess a sufficient therapeutic safety margin. Below a Kpart of 1.0, acute toxicity is relatively independent of lipid solubility. All the compounds are less toxic by the oral route than by the intraperitoneal route, although iron excretion is not significantly different by these two routes. At least five compounds (CP51, CP94, CP93, CP96, and CP21) are more effective orally than the same dose of intraperitoneal desferrioxamine (DFO) (P less than or equal to .02) or orally administered L1(CP20) (P less than or equal to .02)

  10. Anticonvulsant activity of Aloe vera leaf extract in acute and chronic models of epilepsy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathor, Naveen; Arora, Tarun; Manocha, Sachin; Patil, Amol N; Mediratta, Pramod K; Sharma, Krishna K

    2014-03-01

    The effect of Aloe vera in epilepsy has not yet been explored. This study was done to explore the effect of aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaf powder on three acute and one chronic model of epilepsy. In acute study, aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder was administered in doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. Dose of 400 mg/kg of Aloe vera leaf extract was chosen for chronic administration. Oxidative stress parameters viz. malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were also estimated in brain of kindled animals. In acute study, Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder in a dose-dependent manner significantly decreased duration of tonic hind limb extension in maximal electroshock seizure model, increased seizure threshold current in increasing current electroshock seizure model, and increased latency to onset and decreased duration of clonic convulsion in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) model as compared with control group. In chronic study, Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder prevented progression of kindling in PTZ-kindled mice. Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder 400 mg/kg p.o. also reduced brain levels of MDA and increased GSH levels as compared to the PTZ-kindled non-treated group. The results of study showed that Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder possessed significant anticonvulsant and anti-oxidant activity. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  11. Interaction of radiation, Dihydroxyanthraquinone, and Adriamycin on the induction of acute lethality in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimler, B.F.; Cox, G.G.; Reddy, E.K.

    1984-01-01

    The acute lethality induced by combinations of radiation, Dihydroxyanthraquinone (DHAQ), and Adriamycin (ADR) was investigated in mice. Whole-body irradiation produced acute lethality, with an LD-50/30 of approximately 6.5 Gy. ADR and DHAQ produced LD-50/30's of 14 and 4 mg/kg, respectively. When 10 mg/kg doses were fractionated into 5 x 2 mg/kg daily doses, both drugs were equally or more efficient at producing mortality, 90% by day 30. When 4 Gy radiation was combined with 5 mg/kg ADR or 5 mg/kg DHAQ, a response no greater than that produced by drug alone was obtained. However, when 5 mg/kg ADR was administered concomitantly with 5 mg/kg DHAQ, there was a less-than-additive induction of lethality, resulting in only 21% mortality by day 20. ADR and DHAQ (at doses of 5 mg/kg) were combined but with a 1 day interval between drugs, the protective effect was lost and animals died earlier than after either agent alone. At present, no definite explanation is available for this unusual protective effect of ADR against acute lethality induced by DHAQ

  12. Acute HBV infection in humanized chimeric mice has multiphasic viral kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yuji; Chung, Tje Lin; Imamura, Michio; Hiraga, Nobuhiko; Sen, Suranjana; Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Tateno, Chise; Canini, Laetitia; Perelson, Alan S; Uprichard, Susan L; Dahari, Harel; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2018-03-23

    Chimeric uPA/SCID mice reconstituted with humanized livers are useful for studying HBV infection in the absence of an adaptive immune response. However, the detailed characterization of HBV infection kinetics necessary to enable in-depth mechanistic studies in this novel in vivo HBV infection model is lacking. To characterize HBV kinetics post-inoculation (p.i.) to steady state, 42 mice were inoculated with HBV. Serum HBV DNA was frequently measured from 1 minute to 63 days p.i. Total intrahepatic HBV DNA, HBV cccDNA, and HBV RNA was measured in a subset of mice at 2, 4, 6, 10, and 13 weeks p.i. HBV half-life (t 1/2 ) was estimated using a linear mixed-effects model. During the first 6 h p.i. serum HBV declined in repopulated uPA/SCID mice with a t 1/2 =62 min [95%CI=59-67min]. Thereafter, viral decline slowed followed by a 2 day lower plateau. Subsequent viral amplification was multiphasic with an initial mean doubling time of t 2 =8±3 h followed by an interim plateau before prolonged amplification (t 2 =2±0.5 days) to a final HBV steady state of 9.3±0.3 log copies/ml. Serum HBV and intrahepatic HBV DNA were positively correlated (R 2 =0.98). HBV infection in uPA/SCID chimeric mice is highly dynamic despite the absence of an adaptive immune response. The serum HBV t 1/2 in humanized uPA/SCID mice was estimated to be ∼1 h regardless of inoculum size. The HBV acute infection kinetics presented here is an important step in characterizing this experimental model system so that it can be effectively used to elucidate the dynamics of the HBV lifecycle and thus possibly reveal effective antiviral drug targets. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  13. Increased seizure susceptibility and other toxicity symptoms following acute sulforaphane treatment in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socała, Katarzyna, E-mail: ksocala@op.pl [Department of Animal Physiology, Institute of Biology and Biochemistry, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Lublin (Poland); Nieoczym, Dorota [Department of Animal Physiology, Institute of Biology and Biochemistry, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Lublin (Poland); Kowalczuk-Vasilev, Edyta [Institute of Animal Nutrition and Bromatology, University of Life Sciences, Lublin (Poland); Wyska, Elżbieta [Department of Pharmacokinetics and Physical Pharmacy, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków (Poland); Wlaź, Piotr [Department of Animal Physiology, Institute of Biology and Biochemistry, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Lublin (Poland)

    2017-07-01

    Activation of Nrf2 with sulforaphane has recently gained attention as a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of many diseases, including epilepsy. As a plant-derived compound, sulforaphane is considered to be safe and well-tolerated. It is widely consumed, also by patients suffering from seizure and taking antiepileptic drugs, but no toxicity profile of sulforaphane exists. Since many natural remedies and dietary supplements may increase seizure risk and potentially interact with antiepileptic drugs, the aim of our study was to investigate the acute effects of sulforaphane on seizure thresholds and activity of some first- and second-generation antiepileptic drugs in mice. In addition, some preliminary toxicity profile of sulforaphane in mice after intraperitoneal injection was evaluated. The LD{sub 50} value of sulforaphane in mice was estimated at 212.67 mg/kg, while the TD{sub 50} value – at 191.58 mg/kg. In seizure tests, sulforaphane at the highest dose tested (200 mg/kg) significantly decreased the thresholds for the onset of the first myoclonic twitch and generalized clonic seizure in the iv PTZ test as well as the threshold for the 6 Hz-induced psychomotor seizure. At doses of 10–200 mg/kg, sulforaphane did not affect the threshold for the iv PTZ-induced forelimb tonus or the threshold for maximal electroshock-induced hindlimb tonus. Interestingly, sulforaphane (at 100 mg/kg) potentiated the anticonvulsant efficacy of carbamazepine in the maximal electroshock seizure test. This interaction could have been pharmacokinetic in nature, as sulforaphane increased concentrations of carbamazepine in both serum and brain tissue. The toxicity study showed that high doses of sulforaphane produced marked sedation (at 150–300 mg/kg), hypothermia (at 150–300 mg/kg), impairment of motor coordination (at 200–300 mg/kg), decrease in skeletal muscle strength (at 250–300 mg/kg), and deaths (at 200–300 mg/kg). Moreover, blood analysis showed leucopenia in

  14. Increased seizure susceptibility and other toxicity symptoms following acute sulforaphane treatment in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socała, Katarzyna; Nieoczym, Dorota; Kowalczuk-Vasilev, Edyta; Wyska, Elżbieta; Wlaź, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Activation of Nrf2 with sulforaphane has recently gained attention as a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of many diseases, including epilepsy. As a plant-derived compound, sulforaphane is considered to be safe and well-tolerated. It is widely consumed, also by patients suffering from seizure and taking antiepileptic drugs, but no toxicity profile of sulforaphane exists. Since many natural remedies and dietary supplements may increase seizure risk and potentially interact with antiepileptic drugs, the aim of our study was to investigate the acute effects of sulforaphane on seizure thresholds and activity of some first- and second-generation antiepileptic drugs in mice. In addition, some preliminary toxicity profile of sulforaphane in mice after intraperitoneal injection was evaluated. The LD 50 value of sulforaphane in mice was estimated at 212.67 mg/kg, while the TD 50 value – at 191.58 mg/kg. In seizure tests, sulforaphane at the highest dose tested (200 mg/kg) significantly decreased the thresholds for the onset of the first myoclonic twitch and generalized clonic seizure in the iv PTZ test as well as the threshold for the 6 Hz-induced psychomotor seizure. At doses of 10–200 mg/kg, sulforaphane did not affect the threshold for the iv PTZ-induced forelimb tonus or the threshold for maximal electroshock-induced hindlimb tonus. Interestingly, sulforaphane (at 100 mg/kg) potentiated the anticonvulsant efficacy of carbamazepine in the maximal electroshock seizure test. This interaction could have been pharmacokinetic in nature, as sulforaphane increased concentrations of carbamazepine in both serum and brain tissue. The toxicity study showed that high doses of sulforaphane produced marked sedation (at 150–300 mg/kg), hypothermia (at 150–300 mg/kg), impairment of motor coordination (at 200–300 mg/kg), decrease in skeletal muscle strength (at 250–300 mg/kg), and deaths (at 200–300 mg/kg). Moreover, blood analysis showed leucopenia in mice injected

  15. Fialuridine induces acute liver failure in chimeric TK-NOG mice: a model for detecting hepatic drug toxicity prior to human testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Xu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Seven of 15 clinical trial participants treated with a nucleoside analogue (fialuridine [FIAU] developed acute liver failure. Five treated participants died, and two required a liver transplant. Preclinical toxicology studies in mice, rats, dogs, and primates did not provide any indication that FIAU would be hepatotoxic in humans. Therefore, we investigated whether FIAU-induced liver toxicity could be detected in chimeric TK-NOG mice with humanized livers.Control and chimeric TK-NOG mice with humanized livers were treated orally with FIAU 400, 100, 25, or 2.5 mg/kg/d. The response to drug treatment was evaluated by measuring plasma lactate and liver enzymes, by assessing liver histology, and by electron microscopy. After treatment with FIAU 400 mg/kg/d for 4 d, chimeric mice developed clinical and serologic evidence of liver failure and lactic acidosis. Analysis of liver tissue revealed steatosis in regions with human, but not mouse, hepatocytes. Electron micrographs revealed lipid and mitochondrial abnormalities in the human hepatocytes in FIAU-treated chimeric mice. Dose-dependent liver toxicity was detected in chimeric mice treated with FIAU 100, 25, or 2.5 mg/kg/d for 14 d. Liver toxicity did not develop in control mice that were treated with the same FIAU doses for 14 d. In contrast, treatment with another nucleotide analogue (sofosbuvir 440 or 44 mg/kg/d po for 14 d, which did not cause liver toxicity in human trial participants, did not cause liver toxicity in mice with humanized livers.FIAU-induced liver toxicity could be readily detected using chimeric TK-NOG mice with humanized livers, even when the mice were treated with a FIAU dose that was only 10-fold above the dose used in human participants. The clinical features, laboratory abnormalities, liver histology, and ultra-structural changes observed in FIAU-treated chimeric mice mirrored those of FIAU-treated human participants. The use of chimeric mice in preclinical toxicology

  16. Fialuridine induces acute liver failure in chimeric TK-NOG mice: a model for detecting hepatic drug toxicity prior to human testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dan; Nishimura, Toshi; Nishimura, Sachiko; Zhang, Haili; Zheng, Ming; Guo, Ying-Ying; Masek, Marylin; Michie, Sara A; Glenn, Jeffrey; Peltz, Gary

    2014-04-01

    Seven of 15 clinical trial participants treated with a nucleoside analogue (fialuridine [FIAU]) developed acute liver failure. Five treated participants died, and two required a liver transplant. Preclinical toxicology studies in mice, rats, dogs, and primates did not provide any indication that FIAU would be hepatotoxic in humans. Therefore, we investigated whether FIAU-induced liver toxicity could be detected in chimeric TK-NOG mice with humanized livers. Control and chimeric TK-NOG mice with humanized livers were treated orally with FIAU 400, 100, 25, or 2.5 mg/kg/d. The response to drug treatment was evaluated by measuring plasma lactate and liver enzymes, by assessing liver histology, and by electron microscopy. After treatment with FIAU 400 mg/kg/d for 4 d, chimeric mice developed clinical and serologic evidence of liver failure and lactic acidosis. Analysis of liver tissue revealed steatosis in regions with human, but not mouse, hepatocytes. Electron micrographs revealed lipid and mitochondrial abnormalities in the human hepatocytes in FIAU-treated chimeric mice. Dose-dependent liver toxicity was detected in chimeric mice treated with FIAU 100, 25, or 2.5 mg/kg/d for 14 d. Liver toxicity did not develop in control mice that were treated with the same FIAU doses for 14 d. In contrast, treatment with another nucleotide analogue (sofosbuvir 440 or 44 mg/kg/d po) for 14 d, which did not cause liver toxicity in human trial participants, did not cause liver toxicity in mice with humanized livers. FIAU-induced liver toxicity could be readily detected using chimeric TK-NOG mice with humanized livers, even when the mice were treated with a FIAU dose that was only 10-fold above the dose used in human participants. The clinical features, laboratory abnormalities, liver histology, and ultra-structural changes observed in FIAU-treated chimeric mice mirrored those of FIAU-treated human participants. The use of chimeric mice in preclinical toxicology studies could improve

  17. Refeeding with a high-protein diet after a 48 h fast causes acute hepatocellular injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oarada, Motoko; Tsuzuki, Tsuyoshi; Nikawa, Takeshi; Kohno, Shohei; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Gonoi, Tohru

    2012-05-01

    Elucidating the effects of refeeding a high-protein diet after fasting on disease development is of interest in relation to excessive protein ingestion and irregular eating habits in developed countries. The objective of the present study was to address the hepatic effects of refeeding a high-protein diet after fasting. Mice were fasted for 48 h and then refed with a test diet containing 3, 15, 35, 40, 45 or 50 % casein. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and liver immediate-early gene expression levels were sequentially measured for the first 24 h after initiation of refeeding. Refeeding with a 50 % casein diet after 48 h of fasting led to a rapid (within 2-3 h) and abnormal elevation in serum ALT (P = 0·006) and AST (P = 0·001) activities and a marked increase in liver Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ) osteosarcoma oncogene (P = 0·007) and nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 1 (P = 0·002) mRNA levels. In contrast, refeeding of the 3, 15 or 35 % casein diets produced no substantial increases in serum ALT and AST activities in mice. Refeeding of 40, 45 or 50 % casein increased serum ALT and AST activities in proportion to this dietary casein content. In mice refed the 3, 15 or 35, but not 50 %, casein diets, liver heat shock protein 72 transcript levels greatly increased. We conclude from these data that the consumption of a high-protein diet after fasting causes acute hepatocellular injury in healthy animals, and propose that careful attention should be paid to the use of such diets.

  18. Synergy of mIL-21 and mIL-15 in enhancing DNA vaccine efficacy against acute and chronic Toxoplasma gondii infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Yuan; Chen, Jia; Petersen, Eskild; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Huang, Si-Yang; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-05-23

    The synergistic protective efficacy of murine interleukin 21 (mIL-21) and mIL-15 administrated with DNA vaccine against acute and chronic Toxoplasma gondii infection in mice was investigated using T. gondii MIC8 (TgMIC8) as a model. We cloned mIL-21 and mIL-15 from splenic tissues of Kunming mice, and constructed eukaryotic plasmid pVAX/mIL-15, pVAX/mIL-21, and pVAX/mIL-21/mIL-15, respectively. After immunizing with pVAX/TgMIC8 in the presence or absence of these cytokines, immune responses were analyzed using lymphoproliferative assay, cytokine and serum antibody measurements, flow cytometric surface markers on lymphocytes and protection against acute and chronic T. gondii infection. Mice receiving pVAX/TgMIC8 alone developed a strong humoral responses and Th1 type cellular immune responses, and showed an increase of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells compared with all the controls. Adding pVAX/mIL-21 to pVAX/TgMIC8 compared to pVAX/TgMIC8 resulted in only a slight increase in humoral and cellular immune responses, and this immune response was lower than that induced by the pVAX/mIL-15 combined with pVAX/TgMIC8. Co-administration of pVAX/mIL-21/mIL-15 combined with pVAX/TgMIC8 elicited the strongest humoral and cellular immune responses among all the groups, leading to significantly increased survival time against acute infection and the significant reduction of tissue cysts, compared to all the controls. Synergy of mIL-21 and mIL-15 can facilitate specific humoral as well as cellular immune responses elicited by DNA vaccine against acute and chronic T. gondii infection in mice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Anti-human tissue factor antibody ameliorated intestinal ischemia reperfusion-induced acute lung injury in human tissue factor knock-in mice.

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    Xiaolin He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interaction between the coagulation and inflammation systems plays an important role in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Anti-coagulation is an attractive option for ARDS treatment, and this has promoted development of new antibodies. However, preclinical trials for these antibodies are often limited by the high cost and availability of non-human primates. In the present study, we developed a novel alternative method to test the role of a humanized anti-tissue factor mAb in acute lung injury with transgenic mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Human tissue factor knock-in (hTF-KI transgenic mice and a novel humanized anti-human tissue factor mAb (anti-hTF mAb, CNTO859 were developed. The hTF-KI mice showed a normal and functional expression of hTF. The anti-hTF mAb specifically blocked the pro-coagulation activity of brain extracts from the hTF-KI mice and human, but not from wild type mice. An extrapulmonary ARDS model was used by intestinal ischemia-reperfusion. Significant lung tissue damage in hTF-KI mice was observed after 2 h reperfusion. Administration of CNTO859 (5 mg/kg, i.v. attenuated the severity of lung tissue injury, decreased the total cell counts and protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and reduced Evans blue leakage. In addition, the treatment significantly reduced alveolar fibrin deposition, and decreased tissue factor and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity in the serum. This treatment also down-regulated cytokine expression and reduced cell death in the lung. CONCLUSIONS: This novel anti-hTF antibody showed beneficial effects on intestinal ischemia-reperfusion induced acute lung injury, which merits further investigation for clinical usage. In addition, the use of knock-in transgenic mice to test the efficacy of antibodies against human-specific proteins is a novel strategy for preclinical studies.

  20. Effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on social development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Zeeba D; Kennedy, Bruce; Katzman, Aaron; Lahvis, Garet P; Kosofsky, Barry E

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) in humans and animals has been shown to impair social development. Molecules that mediate synaptic plasticity and learning in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), specifically brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its downstream signaling molecule, early growth response protein 1 (egr1), have been shown to affect the regulation of social interactions (SI). In this study we determined the effects of PCE on SI and the corresponding ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in developing mice. Furthermore, we studied the PCE-induced changes in the constitutive expression of BDNF, egr1 and their transcriptional regulators in the mPFC as a possible molecular mechanism mediating the altered SI. In prenatal cocaine-exposed (PCOC) mice we identified increased SI and USV production at postnatal day (PD) 25, and increased SI but not USVs at PD35. By PD45 the expression of both social behaviors normalized in PCOC mice. At the molecular level, we found increased BDNF exon IV and egr1 mRNA in the mPFC of PCOC mice at PD30 that normalized by PD45. This was concurrent with increased EGR1 protein in the mPFC of PCOC mice at PD30, suggesting a role of egr1 in the enhanced SI observed in juvenile PCOC mice. Additionally, by measuring the association of acetylation of histone 3 at lysine residues 9 and 14 (acH3K9,14) and MeCP2 at the promoters of BDNF exons I and IV and egr1, our results provide evidence of promoter-specific alterations in the mPFC of PCOC juvenile mice, with increased association of acH3K9,14 only at the BDNF exon IV promoter. These results identify a potential PCE-induced molecular alteration as the underlying neurobiological mechanism mediating the altered social development in juvenile mice. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Evaluation of acute toxicity, genotoxicity and inhibitory effect on acute inflammation of an ethanol extract of Morus alba L. (Moraceae) in mice.

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    Oliveira, Alisson Macário de; Nascimento, Matheus Ferreira do; Ferreira, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; Moura, Danielle Feijó de; Souza, Talita Giselly Dos Santos; Silva, Gabriela Cavalcante da; Ramos, Eduardo Henrique da Silva; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; Medeiros, Paloma Lys de; Silva, Teresinha Gonçalves da; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Chagas, Cristiano Aparecido; Souza, Ivone Antônia de; Napoleão, Thiago Henrique

    2016-12-24

    Morus alba L. (white mulberry) is used in traditional medicine worldwide, including Brazil. The leaves of this plant are used to treat inflammatory disorders. Universal interest in this plant necessitates studies on the toxicological safety and scientific substantiation of the medicinal properties of M. alba. In previous work, we investigated the acute toxicity of orally administered M. alba ethanol extract in mice. This work was designed to investigate the ethanol extract obtained from M. alba leaves for acute toxicity when intraperitoneally administered, in vivo genotoxicity, and potential to reduce acute inflammation. In order to further investigate the constituents of the extract, we also obtained the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint of the extract. Phytochemical analysis by thin layer chromatography (TLC) was performed and the results were used to obtain the HPLC fingerprint. Acute toxicity of 300 and 2000mg/kg b.w. i.p. doses administered to mice for 14 days was evaluated. Genotoxicity was evaluated by counting the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in the blood of mice that either received or did not receive the extract at 75, 150 and 300mg/kg b.w. per os. The anti-inflammatory effect of the same doses administered per os was investigated using the carrageenan air pouch model. The TLC analysis of the extract revealed the presence of a remarkable amount of flavonoids and cinnamic acids. The HPLC fingerprint showed the presence of one major peak corresponding to chlorogenic acid and two smaller peaks corresponding to flavonoids. In the toxicity assays, there were no deaths or deviations in behavior of treated mice as compared to the control at any dose. However, biochemical, hematological, and histological analyses showed that intraperitoneal injection caused several forms of damage to the mice, which were not observed in case of oral administration, studied in our previous work. Oral administration of the extract did

  2. Hepatoprotective effect of Scoparia dulcis on carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver injury in mice.

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    Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Peng, Wen-Huang; Chiu, Tai-Hui; Huang, Shun-Chieh; Huang, Tai-Hung; Lai, Shang-Chih; Lai, Zhen-Rung; Lee, Chao-Ying

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the hepatoprotective activity and active constituents of the ethanol extract of Scoparia dulcis (SDE). The hepatoprotective effect of SDE (0.1, 0.5 and 1 g/kg) was evaluated on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced acute liver injury. The active constituents were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Mice pretreated orally with SDE (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) and silymarin (200 mg/kg) for five consecutive days before the administering of a single dose of 0.2% CCl(4) (10 ml/kg of bw, ip) showed a significant inhibition of the increase of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Histological analyses also showed that SDE (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) and silymarin reduced the extent of liver lesions induced by CCl(4), including vacuole formation, neutrophil infiltration and necrosis. Moreover, SDE decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) level and elevated the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) in the liver as compared to those in the CCl(4) group. Furthermore, SDE (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) enhanced the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRd) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). The quantities of active constituents in SDE were about 3.1 mg luteolin/g extract and 1.1 mg apigenin/g extract. The hepatoprotective mechanisms of SDE were likely associated to the decrease in MDA level and increase in GSH level by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, GPx, GRd and GST. These results demonstrated that SDE could alleviate CCl(4)-induced acute liver injury in mice.

  3. Acute Restraint Stress Alters Wheel-Running Behavior Immediately Following Stress and up to 20 Hours Later in House Mice.

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    Malisch, Jessica L; deWolski, Karen; Meek, Thomas H; Acosta, Wendy; Middleton, Kevin M; Crino, Ondi L; Garland, Theodore

    In vertebrates, acute stressors-although short in duration-can influence physiology and behavior over a longer time course, which might have important ramifications under natural conditions. In laboratory rats, for example, acute stress has been shown to increase anxiogenic behaviors for days after a stressor. In this study, we quantified voluntary wheel-running behavior for 22 h following a restraint stress and glucocorticoid levels 24 h postrestraint. We utilized mice from four replicate lines that have been selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running activity (HR mice) for 60 generations and their nonselected control (C) lines to examine potential interactions between exercise propensity and sensitivity to stress. Following 6 d of wheel access on a 12L∶12D photo cycle (0700-1900 hours, as during the routine selective breeding protocol), 80 mice were physically restrained for 40 min, beginning at 1400 hours, while another 80 were left undisturbed. Relative to unrestrained mice, wheel running increased for both HR and C mice during the first hour postrestraint (P Wheel running was also examined at four distinct phases of the photoperiod. Running in the period of 1600-1840 hours was unaffected by restraint stress and did not differ statistically between HR and C mice. During the period of peak wheel running (1920-0140 hours), restrained mice tended to run fewer revolutions (-11%; two-tailed P = 0.0733), while HR mice ran 473% more than C (P = 0.0008), with no restraint × line type interaction. Wheel running declined for all mice in the latter part of the scotophase (0140-0600 hours), restraint had no statistical effect on wheel running, but HR again ran more than C (+467%; P = 0.0122). Finally, during the start of the photophase (0720-1200 hours), restraint increased running by an average of 53% (P = 0.0443) in both line types, but HR and C mice did not differ statistically. Mice from HR lines had statistically higher plasma corticosterone concentrations

  4. Comparison of the acute ultraviolet photoresponse in congenic albino hairless C57BL/6J mice relative to outbred SKH1 hairless mice

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    Konger, Raymond L.; Derr-Yellin, Ethel; Hojati, Delaram; Lutz, Cathleen; Sundberg, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Hairless albino Crl:SKH1-Hrhr mice are commonly utilized for studies in which hair or pigmentation would introduce an impediment to observational studies. Being an outbred strain, the SKH1 model suffers from key limitations that are not seen with congenic mouse strains. Inbred and congenic C57BL/6J mice are commonly utilized for modified genetic mouse models. We compare the acute UV-induced photoresponse between outbred SKH1 mice and an immune competent, hairless, albino C57BL/6J congenic mouse line [B6.Cg-Tyrc-2J Hrhr/J]. Histologically, B6.Cg-Tyrc-2J Hrhr/J skin is indistinguishable from that of SKH1 mice. The skin of both SKH1 and B6.Cg-Tyrc-2J Hrhr/J mice exhibited a reduction in hypodermal adipose tissue, the presence of utricles and dermal cystic structures, the presence of dermal granulomas, and epidermal thickening. In response to a single 1500 J/m2 UVB dose, the edema and apoptotic response was equivalent in both mouse strains. However, B6.Cg-Tyrc-2J Hrhr/J mice exhibited a more robust delayed sunburn reaction, with an increase in epidermal erosion, scab formation, and myeloperoxidase activity relative to SKH1 mice. Compared with SKH1 mice, B6.Cg-Tyrc-2J Hrhr/J also exhibited an aberrant proliferative response to this single UV exposure. Epidermal Ki67 immunopositivity was significantly suppressed in B6.Cg-Tyrc-2J Hrhr/J mice at 24 hours post-UV. A smaller non-significant reduction in Ki67 labeling was observed in SKH1 mice. Finally, at 72 hours post-UV, SKH1 mice, but not B6.Cg-Tyrc-2J Hrhr/J mice, exhibited a significant increase in Ki67 immunolabeling relative to non-irradiated controls. Thus, B6.Cg-Tyrc-2J Hrhr/J mice are suitable for photobiology experiments. PMID:27095432

  5. Acute toxicity of subcutaneously administered vitamin E isomers delta- and gamma-tocotrienol in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Sibyl N; Pessu, Roli L; Chakraborty, Kushal; Villa, Vilmar; Lombardini, Eric; Ghosh, Sanchita P

    2014-01-01

    The toxicity of parenterally administered vitamin E isomers, delta-tocotrienol (DT3) and gamma-tocotrienol (GT3), was evaluated in male and female CD2F1 mice. In an acute toxicity study, a single dose of DT3 or GT3 was administered subcutaneously in a dose range of 200 to 800 mg/kg. A mild to moderately severe dermatitis was observed clinically and microscopically in animals at the injection site at doses above 200 mg/kg. The severity of the reaction was reduced when the drug concentration was lowered. Neither drug produced detectable toxic effects in any other tissue at the doses tested. Based on histopathological analysis for both DT3 and GT3, and macroscopic observations of inflammation at the injection site, a dose of 300 mg/kg was selected as the lowest toxic dose in a 30-day toxicity study performed in male mice. At this dose, a mild skin irritation occurred at the injection site that recovered completely by the end of the experimental period. At a dose of 300 mg/kg of DT3 or GT3, no adverse effects were observed in any tissues or organs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Differences in the acute intestinal syndrome after partial and total abdominal irradiation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewit, L.; Oussoren, Y.; Bartelink, H.; Stewart, F.A.

    1985-01-01

    The acute intestinal syndrome in mice was analysed after partial (PAI) and total abdominal irradiation (TAI). The LDsub(50/15) was significantly higher after PAI (16.3 Gy) than after TAI(14.3 Gy). The dose-response curve for maximal weight loss also showed a shift of 1.8-2 Gy to higher doses after PAI compared with TAI. The X-ray survival curve for duodenal crypt cells was shifted by only 0.6 Gy for PAI and TAI. In order to assess the possible role of radiation-induced leucopenia and the influence of irradiating the spleen (shielded with PAI), lethality, weight loss and blood leucocyte counts were compared after PAI and TAI in splenectomized and non-splenectomized mice. No major difference in leucopenia was found between the different treatment groups, whereas the differences in lethality and weight loss between PAI and TAI remained the same. Shielding the spleen in the partial abdominal field therefore did not contribute to the difference in LDsub(50/15). These findings imply that the increased LDsub(50/15) after PAI compared with TAI was mainly due to shielding of a small part of the bowel (about 13 per cent of the abdominal area). (author)

  7. Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx Flavonoids Fraction Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice

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    Chun-jun Chu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx (Maxim. Hara, belonging to the Labiatae family, is widely used as an anti-inflammatory and antitumor drug for the treatment of different inflammations and cancers. Aim of the Study. To investigate therapeutic effects and possible mechanism of the flavonoids fraction of Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx (Maxim. Hara (RJFs in acute lung injury (ALI mice induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Materials and Methods. Mice were orally administrated with RJFs (6.4, 12.8, and 25.6 mg/kg per day for 7 days, consecutively, before LPS challenge. Lung specimens and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF were isolated for histopathological examinations and biochemical analysis. The level of complement 3 (C3 in serum was quantified by a sandwich ELISA kit. Results. RJFs significantly attenuated LPS-induced ALI via reducing productions of the level of inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, and significantly reduced complement deposition with decreasing the level of C3 in serum, which was exhibited together with the lowered myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and nitric oxide (NO and protein concentration in BALF. Conclusions. RJFs significantly attenuate LPS-induced ALI via reducing productions of proinflammatory mediators, decreasing the level of complement, and reducing radicals.

  8. Splenectomy exacerbates lung injury after ischemic acute kidney injury in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés-Hernando, Ana; Altmann, Christopher; Ahuja, Nilesh; Lanaspa, Miguel A.; Nemenoff, Raphael; He, Zhibin; Ishimoto, Takuji; Simpson, Pete A.; Weiser-Evans, Mary C.; Bacalja, Jasna

    2011-01-01

    Patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) have increased serum proinflammatory cytokines and an increased occurrence of respiratory complications. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of renal and extrarenal cytokine production on AKI-mediated lung injury in mice. C57Bl/6 mice underwent sham surgery, splenectomy, ischemic AKI, or ischemic AKI with splenectomy and kidney, spleen, and liver cytokine mRNA, serum cytokines, and lung injury were examined. The proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, CXCL1, IL-1β, and TNF-α were increased in the kidney, spleen, and liver within 6 h of ischemic AKI. Since splenic proinflammatory cytokines were increased, we hypothesized that splenectomy would protect against AKI-mediated lung injury. On the contrary, splenectomy with AKI resulted in increased serum IL-6 and worse lung injury as judged by increased lung capillary leak, higher lung myeloperoxidase activity, and higher lung CXCL1 vs. AKI alone. Splenectomy itself was not associated with increased serum IL-6 or lung injury vs. sham. To investigate the mechanism of the increased proinflammatory response, splenic production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was determined and was markedly upregulated. To confirm that splenic IL-10 downregulates the proinflammatory response of AKI, IL-10 was administered to splenectomized mice with AKI, which reduced serum IL-6 and improved lung injury. Our data demonstrate that AKI in the absence of a counter anti-inflammatory response by splenic IL-10 production results in an exuberant proinflammatory response and lung injury. PMID:21677145

  9. Role of fructose and fructokinase in acute dehydration-induced vasopressin gene expression and secretion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song 宋志林, Zhilin; Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos A; Lanaspa-Garcia, Miguel A; Oppelt, Sarah A; Kuwabara, Masanari; Jensen, Thomas; Milagres, Tamara; Andres-Hernando, Ana; Ishimoto, Takuji; Garcia, Gabriela E; Johnson, Ginger; MacLean, Paul S; Sanchez-Lozada, Laura-Gabriela; Tolan, Dean R; Johnson, Richard J

    2017-02-01

    Fructose stimulates vasopressin in humans and can be generated endogenously by activation of the polyol pathway with hyperosmolarity. We hypothesized that fructose metabolism in the hypothalamus might partly control vasopressin responses after acute dehydration. Wild-type and fructokinase-knockout mice were deprived of water for 24 h. The supraoptic nucleus was evaluated for vasopressin and markers of the aldose reductase-fructokinase pathway. The posterior pituitary vasopressin and serum copeptin levels were examined. Hypothalamic explants were evaluated for vasopressin secretion in response to exogenous fructose. Water restriction increased serum and urine osmolality and serum copeptin in both groups of mice, although the increase in copeptin in wild-type mice was larger than that in fructokinase-knockout mice. Water-restricted, wild-type mice showed an increase in vasopressin and aldose reductase mRNA, sorbitol, fructose and uric acid in the supraoptic nucleus. In contrast, fructokinase-knockout mice showed no change in vasopressin or aldose reductase mRNA, and no changes in sorbitol or uric acid, although fructose levels increased. With water restriction, vasopressin in the pituitary of wild-type mice was significantly less than that of fructokinase-knockout mice, indicating that fructokinase-driven vasopressin secretion overrode synthesis. Fructose increased vasopressin release in hypothalamic explants that was not observed in fructokinase-knockout mice. In situ hybridization documented fructokinase mRNA in the supraoptic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus and suprachiasmatic nucleus. Acute dehydration activates the aldose reductase-fructokinase pathway in the hypothalamus and partly drives the vasopressin response. Exogenous fructose increases vasopressin release in hypothalamic explants dependent on fructokinase. Nevertheless, circulating vasopressin is maintained and urinary concentrating is not impaired. This study increases our understanding of the

  10. Effects of Moxibustion Temperature on Blood Cholesterol Level in a Mice Model of Acute Hyperlipidemia: Role of TRPV1

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    Gui-Ying Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare the effects of moxibustion at two different temperatures (38°C and 46°C on the blood cholesterol level in a mice model of acute hyperlipidemia, to detect the different expression levels of transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily 1 (TRPV1 in the dorsal root ganglions of the wild mice, and to explore the correlation between TRPV1 and moxibustion’s cholesterol-lowering effects. Method. Two different mice models were used: C57BL/6J wild type (WT and TRPV1 gene knockout (TRPV1−/−. Each model was randomly divided into control group and model group with three subgroups after acute hyperlipidemia was established: model control group, 38°C moxibustion group, and 46°C moxibustion group. The mice in 38°C group and 46°C group were subject to moxibustion. After the therapy, the cholesterol concentration in serum was measured, and the expression of TRPV1 was quantified. Results. In WT mice, moxibustion caused a decrease in blood cholesterol level and upregulation of TRPV1 at the mRNA level, which was significantly greater in the 46°C group. In contrast, in TRPV1−/− mice, the differences of cholesterol-lowering effects of moxibustion were lost. Conclusions. Temperature is one of the important factors affecting the effects of moxibustion, and the cholesterol -lowering effect of moxibustion is related to the activation of TRPV1.

  11. Empirical study on protective effect of dendrobium candidum wall.ex lindl drop on acute radiation-injuried mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jingping; Zhang Guoqing

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the protective effect of Dendrobium candidum Wall.ex Lindl drop (DCWD) on acute radiation-injuried mice and the correlative mechanism. Methods: According to the body weight BALB/c mice were divided into the control group, radiation-injuried group and DCWD groups which were divided into two groups according to the dose of DCWD. Before whole-body irradiation with 4.0 Gy 6 MV X-rays, the BALB/c mice were supplied with DCWD every day. After being irradiated, these mice were continued to be given DCWD until they were killed. The DNA contents of bone marrow, the CD4 + /CD8 + ratios of peripheral blood and splenic cells, blastation of lymphocyte and the contents of IL-2 were observed. Results: DCWD hasincreased the DNA contents of bone marrow, the ability of blastation of lymphocyte and the IL-2 contents of irradiated mice. It has protected T leukomonocyte by accommodating the hyprotypes of T leukomonocyte. Conclusion: DCWD can protect the acute radiation-injuried mice which relates with protecting the hematopoiesis and the immune function etc. (authors)

  12. Elevation of susceptibility to ozone-induced acute tracheobronchial injury in transgenic mice deficient in Clara cell secretory protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plopper, C.G.; Mango, G.W.; Hatch, G.E.; Wong, V.J.; Toskala, E.; Reynolds, S.D.; Tarkington, B.K.; Stripp, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    Increases in Clara cell abundance or cellular expression of Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP) may cause increased tolerance of the lung to acute oxidant injury by repeated exposure to ozone (O 3 ). This study defines how disruption of the gene for CCSP synthesis affects the susceptibility of tracheobronchial epithelium to acute oxidant injury. Mice homozygous for a null allele of the CCSP gene (CCSP-/-) and wild type (CCSP+/+) littermates were exposed to ozone (0.2 ppm, 8 h; 1 ppm, 8 h) or filtered air. Injury was evaluated by light and scanning electron microscopy, and the abundance of necrotic, ciliated, and nonciliated cells was estimated by morphometry. Proximal and midlevel intrapulmonary airways and terminal bronchioles were evaluated. There was no difference in airway epithelial composition between CCSP+/+ and CCSP-/- mice exposed to filtered air, and exposure to 0.2 ppm ozone caused little injury to the epithelium of both CCSP+/+ and CCSP-/- mice. After exposure to 1.0 ppm ozone, CCSP-/- mice suffered from a greater degree of epithelial injury throughout the airways compared to CCSP+/+ mice. CCSP-/- mice had both ciliated and nonciliated cell injury. Furthermore, lack of CCSP was associated with a shift in airway injury to include proximal airway generations. Therefore, we conclude that CCSP modulates the susceptibility of the epithelium to oxidant-induced injury. Whether this is due to the presence of CCSP on the acellular lining layer surface and/or its intracellular distribution in the secretory cell population needs to be defined

  13. Lactose Induces Phenotypic and Functional Changes of Neutrophils and Macrophages to Alleviate Acute Pancreatitis in Mice

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    Li-Long Pan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis (AP is one common clinical acute abdominal disease, for which specific pharmacological or nutritional therapies remain elusive. Lactose, a macronutrient and an inducer of host innate immune responses, possesses immune modulatory functions. The current study aimed to investigate potential modulatory effects of lactose and the interplay between the nutrient and pancreatic immunity during experimentally induced AP in mice. We found that either prophylactic or therapeutic treatment of lactose time-dependently reduced the severity of AP, as evidenced by reduced pancreatic edema, serum amylase levels, and pancreatic myeloperoxidase activities, as well as by histological examination of pancreatic damage. Overall, lactose promoted a regulatory cytokine milieu in the pancreas and reduced infiltration of inflammatory neutrophils and macrophages. On acinar cells, lactose was able to suppress caerulein-induced inflammatory signaling pathways and to suppress chemoattractant tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 production. Additionally, lactose acted on pancreas-infiltrated macrophages, increasing interleukin-10 and decreasing tumor necrosis factor alpha production. Notably, lactose treatment reversed AP-associated infiltration of activated neutrophils. Last, the effect of lactose on neutrophil infiltration was mimicked by a galectin-3 antagonist, suggesting a potential endogenous target of lactose. Together, the current study demonstrates an immune regulatory effect of lactose to alleviate AP and suggests its potential as a convenient, value-added therapeutic macronutrient to control AP, and lower the risk of its systemic complications.

  14. Effects of acute sleep deprivation on motor and reversal learning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Andrew W; Kang, Mihwa; Ramesh, Priyanka V; Klann, Eric

    2014-10-01

    Sleep supports the formation of a variety of declarative and non-declarative memories, and sleep deprivation often impairs these types of memories. In human subjects, natural sleep either during a nap or overnight leads to long-lasting improvements in visuomotor and fine motor tasks, but rodent models recapitulating these findings have been scarce. Here we present evidence that 5h of acute sleep deprivation impairs mouse skilled reach learning compared to a matched period of ad libitum sleep. In sleeping mice, the duration of total sleep time during the 5h of sleep opportunity or during the first bout of sleep did not correlate with ultimate gain in motor performance. In addition, we observed that reversal learning during the skilled reaching task was also affected by sleep deprivation. Consistent with this observation, 5h of sleep deprivation also impaired reversal learning in the water-based Y-maze. In conclusion, acute sleep deprivation negatively impacts subsequent motor and reversal learning and memory. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of autophagy in development and progression of acute pancreatitis

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    YANG Shuli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis is considered an autodigestive disorder in which inappropriate activation of trypsinogen to trypsin within pancreatic acinar cells leads to the development of pancreatitis. Autophagy is an evolutionarily preserved degradation process of cytoplasmic cellular constituents, and it is one of the early pathological processes in acute pancreatitis. Autophagic flux is impaired in acute pancreatitis, which mediates the key pathologic responses of this disease. Impaired autophagy, dysfunction of lysosomes, and dysregulation of autophagy suggest a disorder of the endolysosomal pathway in acute pancreatitis. The role of autophagy in acute pancreatitis is discussed from the aspects of autophagic process, autophagy and activation of trypsinogen, impaired autophagy and acute pancreatitis, and defective autophagy promoting inflammation.

  16. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-physicochemical properties predict the systemic acute phase response following pulmonary exposure in mice.

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    Sarah S Poulsen

    Full Text Available Pulmonary exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs has been linked to an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease in addition to the well-documented physicochemical-dependent adverse lung effects. A proposed mechanism is through a strong and sustained pulmonary secretion of acute phase proteins to the blood. We identified physicochemical determinants of MWCNT-induced systemic acute phase response by analyzing effects of pulmonary exposure to 14 commercial, well-characterized MWCNTs in female C57BL/6J mice pulmonary exposed to 0, 6, 18 or 54 μg MWCNT/mouse. Plasma levels of acute phase response proteins serum amyloid A1/2 (SAA1/2 and SAA3 were determined on day 1, 28 or 92. Expression levels of hepatic Saa1 and pulmonary Saa3 mRNA levels were assessed to determine the origin of the acute phase response proteins. Pulmonary Saa3 mRNA expression levels were greater and lasted longer than hepatic Saa1 mRNA expression. Plasma SAA1/2 and SAA3 protein levels were related to time and physicochemical properties using adjusted, multiple regression analyses. SAA3 and SAA1/2 plasma protein levels were increased after exposure to almost all of the MWCNTs on day 1, whereas limited changes were observed on day 28 and 92. SAA1/2 and SAA3 protein levels did not correlate and only SAA3 protein levels correlated with neutrophil influx. The multiple regression analyses revealed a protective effect of MWCNT length on SAA1/2 protein level on day 1, such that a longer length resulted in lowered SAA1/2 plasma levels. Increased SAA3 protein levels were positively related to dose and content of Mn, Mg and Co on day 1, whereas oxidation and diameter of the MWCNTs were protective on day 28 and 92, respectively. The results of this study reveal very differently controlled pulmonary and hepatic acute phase responses after MWCNT exposure. As the responses were influenced by the physicochemical properties of the MWCNTs, this study provides the first step

  17. Deletion of the complement C5a receptor alleviates the severity of acute pneumococcal otitis media following influenza A virus infection in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Hua Tong

    Full Text Available There is considerable evidence that influenza A virus (IAV promotes adherence, colonization, and superinfection by S. pneumoniae (Spn and contributes to the pathogenesis of otitis media (OM. The complement system is a critical innate immune defense against both pathogens. To assess the role of the complement system in the host defense and the pathogenesis of acute pneumococcal OM following IAV infection, we employed a well-established transtympanically-induced mouse model of acute pneumococcal OM. We found that antecedent IAV infection enhanced the severity of acute pneumococcal OM. Mice deficient in complement C1qa (C1qa-/- or factor B (Bf -/- exhibited delayed viral and bacterial clearance from the middle ear and developed significant mucosal damage in the eustachian tube and middle ear. This indicates that both the classical and alternative complement pathways are critical for the oto-immune defense against acute pneumococcal OM following influenza infection. We also found that Spn increased complement activation following IAV infection. This was characterized by sustained increased levels of anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a in serum and middle ear lavage samples. In contrast, mice deficient in the complement C5a receptor (C5aR demonstrated enhanced bacterial clearance and reduced severity of OM. Our data support the concept that C5a-C5aR interactions play a significant role in the pathogenesis of acute pneumococcal OM following IAV infection. It is possible that targeting the C5a-C5aR axis might prove useful in attenuating acute pneumococcal OM in patients with influenza infection.

  18. Acute myeloid leukemia induction in CBA/H mice by irradiation with fission neutrons as a function of exposure rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huiskamp, R.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in male CBA/H mice was used as a model for investigation of the effect of reduced fast fission neutron exposure rates on radiation-induced carcinogenesis. Groups of about 90 male CBA/H mice were irradiated or sham-irradiated at the age of 15-20 weeks. The animals were exposed to 400 mGy fast fission neutrons at exposure rates of 2, 10 or 100 mGy/min. The investigation clearly showed that reducing the exposure rate of high-LET fast fission neutrons had no influence on the incidence of AML or on the survival of the irradiated mice. In contrast, a higher incidence of lymphosarcomas was observed in mice irradiated with higher exposure rates. (orig./MG)

  19. Acute myeloid leukemia induction in CBA/H mice by irradiation with fission neutrons as a function of exposure rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huiskamp, R [Stichting Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland, Petten (Netherlands). Radiobiology and Radio-Ecology Unit

    1991-06-01

    Radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in male CBA/H mice was used as a model for investigation of the effect of reduced fast fission neutron exposure rates on radiation-induced carcinogenesis. Groups of about 90 male CBA/H mice were irradiated or sham-irradiated at the age of 15-20 weeks. The animals were exposed to 400 mGy fast fission neutrons at exposure rates of 2, 10 or 100 mGy/min. The investigation clearly showed that reducing the exposure rate of high-LET fast fission neutrons had no influence on the incidence of AML or on the survival of the irradiated mice. In contrast, a higher incidence of lymphosarcomas was observed in mice irradiated with higher exposure rates. (orig./MG).

  20. Acute adaptive immune response correlates with late radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paun, Alexandra; Kunwar, Amit; Haston, Christina K

    2015-01-01

    The lung response to radiation exposure can involve an immediate or early reaction to the radiation challenge, including cell death and an initial immune reaction, and can be followed by a tissue injury response, of pneumonitis or fibrosis, to this acute reaction. Herein, we aimed to determine whether markers of the initial immune response, measured within days of radiation exposure, are correlated with the lung tissue injury responses occurring weeks later. Inbred strains of mice known to be susceptible (KK/HIJ, C57BL/6J, 129S1/SvImJ) or resistant (C3H/HeJ, A/J, AKR/J) to radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis and to vary in time to onset of respiratory distress post thoracic irradiation (from 10–23 weeks) were studied. Mice were untreated (controls) or received 18 Gy whole thorax irradiation and were euthanized at 6 h, 1d or 7 d after radiation treatment. Pulmonary CD4+ lymphocytes, bronchoalveolar cell profile & cytokine level, and serum cytokine levels were assayed. Thoracic irradiation and inbred strain background significantly affected the numbers of CD4+ cells in the lungs and the bronchoalveolar lavage cell differential of exposed mice. At the 7 day timepoint greater numbers of pulmonary Th1 and Th17 lymphocytes and reduced lavage interleukin17 and interferonγ levels were significant predictors of late stage fibrosis. Lavage levels of interleukin-10, measured at the 7 day timepoint, were inversely correlated with fibrosis score (R = −0.80, p = 0.05), while serum levels of interleukin-17 in control mice significantly correlated with post irradiation survival time (R = 0.81, p = 0.04). Lavage macrophage, lymphocyte or neutrophil counts were not significantly correlated with either of fibrosis score or time to respiratory distress in the six mouse strains. Specific cytokine and lymphocyte levels, but not strain dependent lavage cell profiles, were predictive of later radiation-induced lung injury in this panel of inbred strains. The online version of this

  1. Experimental approach to IGF-1 therapy in CCl4-induced acute liver damage in healthy controls and mice with partial IGF-1 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Garza, Luis A; Puche, Juan E; Aguirre, Gabriel A; Muñoz, Úrsula; García-Magariño, Mariano; De la Garza, Rocío G; Castilla-Cortazar, Inma

    2017-05-04

    Cell necrosis, oxidative damage, and fibrogenesis are involved in cirrhosis development, a condition in which insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels are diminished. This study evaluates whether the exogenous administration of low doses of IGF-1 can induce hepatoprotection in acute carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 )-induced liver damage compared to healthy controls (Wt Igf +/+ ). Additionally, the impact of IGF-1 deficiency on a damaged liver was investigated in mice with a partial deficit of this hormone (Hz Igf1 +/- ). Three groups of 25 ± 5-week-old healthy male mice (Wt Igf +/+ ) were included in the protocol: untreated controls (Wt). Controls that received CCl 4 (Wt + CCl 4 ) and Wt + CCl 4 were treated subcutaneously with IGF-1 (2 µg/100 g body weight/day) for 10 days (Wt + CCl 4  + IGF1). In parallel, three IGF-1-deficient mice (Hz Igf1 +/- ) groups were studied: untreated Hz, Hz + CCl 4 , and Hz + CCl 4  + IGF-1. Microarray and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analyses, serum aminotransferases levels, liver histology, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were assessed at the end of the treatment in all groups. All data represent mean ± SEM. An altered gene coding expression pattern for proteins of the extracellular matrix, fibrosis, and cellular protection were found, as compared to healthy controls, in which IGF-1 therapy normalized in the series including healthy mice. Liver histology showed that Wt + CCl 4  + IGF1 mice had less oxidative damage, fibrosis, lymphocytic infiltrate, and cellular changes when compared to the Wt + CCl 4 . Moreover, there was a correlation between MDA levels and the histological damage score (Pearson's r = 0.858). In the IGF-1-deficient mice series, similar findings were identified, denoting a much more vulnerable hepatic parenchyma. IGF1 treatment improved the biochemistry, histology, and genetic expression of pro-regenerative and cytoprotective factors in both series

  2. Unilateral Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion as a Robust Model for Acute to Chronic Kidney Injury in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Le Clef

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is an underestimated, yet important risk factor for development of chronic kidney disease (CKD. Even after initial total recovery of renal function, some patients develop progressive and persistent deterioration of renal function and these patients are more likely to progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD. Animal models are indispensable for unravelling the mechanisms underlying this progression towards CKD and ESRD and for the development of new therapeutic strategies in its prevention or treatment. Ischemia (i.e. hypoperfusion after surgery, bleeding, dehydration, shock, or sepsis is a major aetiology in human AKI, yet unilateral ischemia-reperfusion is a rarely used animal model for research on CKD and fibrosis. Here, we demonstrate in C57Bl/6J mice, by both histology and gene expression, that unilateral ischemia-reperfusion without contralateral nephrectomy is a very robust model to study the progression from acute renal injury to long-term tubulo-interstitial fibrosis, i.e. the histopathological hallmark of CKD. Furthermore, we report that the extent of renal fibrosis, in terms of Col I, TGFβ, CCN2 and CCN3 expression and collagen I immunostaining, increases with increasing body temperature during ischemia and ischemia-time. Thus, varying these two main determinants of ischemic injury allows tuning the extent of the long-term fibrotic outcome in this model. Finally, in order to cover the whole practical finesse of ischemia-reperfusion and allow model and data transfer, we provide a referenced overview on crucial technical issues (incl. anaesthesia, analgesia, and pre- and post-operative care with the specific aim of putting starters in the right direction of implementing ischemia in their research and stimulate them, as well as the community, to have a critical view on ischemic literature data.

  3. Deficits in spatial learning and memory in adult mice following acute, low or moderate levels of prenatal ethanol exposure during gastrulation or neurulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schambra, Uta B; Lewis, C Nicole; Harrison, Theresa A

    2017-07-01

    Debate continues on the merits of strictly limiting alcohol consumption during all of pregnancy, and whether "safe" consumption levels and/or times exist. Only a relatively few experimental studies have been conducted that limit the timing of exposure to specific events during development and the exposure level to one that might model sporadic, incidental drinking during pregnancy. In the present study, the effects of two acute gavage exposures to low and moderate levels of ethanol (peak blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) of 104 and 177mg/dl, respectively) either during gastrulation on gestational day (GD) 7 (at GD7:0h and GD7:4h) or during neurulation on GD8 (at GD8:6h and GD8:10h) on the spatial learning and memory abilities of adult mice in the radial arm maze (RAM) were examined. Mice were selected from a prenatal ethanol exposure (PAE) cohort that had been tested as neonates for their sensorimotor development (Schambra et al., 2015) and as juveniles and young adults for open field activity levels and emotionality (Schambra et al., 2016). Mice exposed on either of the two gestational days to acute, low or moderate levels of ethanol were deficient in overall performance in the RAM in adulthood. Importantly, mice in ethanol exposed groups took longer to reach criterion in the RAM, and many mice in these groups failed to do so after 48 trials when testing was terminated. Exposure to a low level of ethanol on either GD7 or GD8, or a moderate level on GD7, resulted in significant impairment in spatial reference (long-term) memory, while only mice exposed on GD7 to the low level of ethanol were significantly impaired in spatial working (short-term) memory. Mice exposed to the low ethanol level on either day had significantly shorter response latencies, which may reflect impairment of processes related to response inhibition or executive attention in these mice. For all measures, distributions of individual scores revealed a relatively small subset of mice in each PAE

  4. Hops (Humulus lupulus) Content in Beer Modulates Effects of Beer on the Liver After Acute Ingestion in Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmann, Marianne; Sellmann, Cathrin; Engstler, Anna Janina; Ziegenhardt, Doreen; Jung, Finn; Brombach, Christine; Bergheim, Ina

    2017-01-01

    Using a binge-drinking mouse model, we aimed to determine whether hops (Humulus lupulus) in beer is involved in the less damaging effects of acute beer consumption on the liver in comparison with ethanol. Female C57BL/6 J mice were either fed one iso-alcoholic and iso-caloric bolus dose of ethanol, beer, beer without hops (6 g ethanol/kg body weight) or an iso-caloric bolus of maltodextrin control solution. Markers of steatosis, intestinal barrier function, activation of toll-like receptor 4 signaling cascades, lipid peroxidation and lipogenesis were determined in liver, small intestine and plasma 2 h and 12 h after acute alcohol ingestion. Alcohol-induced hepatic fat accumulation was significantly attenuated in mice fed beer whereas in those fed beer without hops, hepatic fat accumulation was similar to that found in ethanol-fed mice. While markers of intestinal barrier function e.g. portal endotoxin levels and lipogenesis only differed slightly between groups, hepatic concentrations of myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and plasminogen-activator inhibitor 1 protein as well as of 4-hydroxynonenal and 3-nitrotyrosine protein adducts were similarly elevated in livers of mice fed ethanol or beer without hops when compared with controls. Induction of these markers was markedly attenuated in mice fed hops-containing beer. Taken together, our data suggest that hops in beer markedly attenuated acute alcohol-induced liver steatosis in female mice through mechanisms involving a suppression of iNOS induction in the liver. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  5. Protective Effects of Ethanolic Extracts from Artichoke, an Edible Herbal Medicine, against Acute Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Xuchong; Wei, Ruofan; Deng, Aihua; Lei, Tingping

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are well-documented pathological factors in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is a healthy food and folk medicine with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to evaluate the preventive effects of ethanolic extract from artichoke against acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. Male Institute of Cancer Research mice were treated with an ethanolic extract of artichoke (0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 g/kg body weight)...

  6. Aldose Reductase-Deficient Mice Develop Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Horace T. B.; Chung, Sookja K.; Law, Janice W. S.; Ko, Ben C. B.; Tam, Sidney C. F.; Brooks, Heddwen L.; Knepper, Mark A.; Chung, Stephen S. M.

    2000-01-01

    Aldose reductase (ALR2) is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases associated with diabetes mellitus, such as cataract, retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy. However, its physiological functions are not well understood. We developed mice deficient in this enzyme and found that they had no apparent developmental or reproductive abnormality except that they drank and urinated significantly more than their wild-type littermates. These ALR2-deficient mice exhibited a partially defective urine-concentrating ability, having a phenotype resembling that of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. PMID:10913167

  7. Moderate elevation of intracellular creatine by targeting the creatine transporter protects mice from acute myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lygate, Craig A.; Bohl, Steffen; ten Hove, Michiel; Faller, Kiterie M.E.; Ostrowski, Philip J.; Zervou, Sevasti; Medway, Debra J.; Aksentijevic, Dunja; Sebag-Montefiore, Liam; Wallis, Julie; Clarke, Kieran; Watkins, Hugh; Schneider, Jürgen E.; Neubauer, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Aims Increasing energy storage capacity by elevating creatine and phosphocreatine (PCr) levels to increase ATP availability is an attractive concept for protecting against ischaemia and heart failure. However, testing this hypothesis has not been possible since oral creatine supplementation is ineffectual at elevating myocardial creatine levels. We therefore used mice overexpressing creatine transporter in the heart (CrT-OE) to test for the first time whether elevated creatine is beneficial in clinically relevant disease models of heart failure and ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Methods and results CrT-OE mice were selected for left ventricular (LV) creatine 20–100% above wild-type values and subjected to acute and chronic coronary artery ligation. Increasing myocardial creatine up to 100% was not detrimental even in ageing CrT-OE. In chronic heart failure, creatine elevation was neither beneficial nor detrimental, with no effect on survival, LV remodelling or dysfunction. However, CrT-OE hearts were protected against I/R injury in vivo in a dose-dependent manner (average 27% less myocardial necrosis) and exhibited greatly improved functional recovery following ex vivo I/R (59% of baseline vs. 29%). Mechanisms contributing to ischaemic protection in CrT-OE hearts include elevated PCr and glycogen levels and improved energy reserve. Furthermore, creatine loading in HL-1 cells did not alter antioxidant defences, but delayed mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening in response to oxidative stress, suggesting an additional mechanism to prevent reperfusion injury. Conclusion Elevation of myocardial creatine by 20–100% reduced myocardial stunning and I/R injury via pleiotropic mechanisms, suggesting CrT activation as a novel, potentially translatable target for cardiac protection from ischaemia. PMID:22915766

  8. The acute glucose lowering effect of specific GPR120 activation in mice is mainly driven by glucagon-like peptide 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Sundström

    Full Text Available The mechanism behind the glucose lowering effect occurring after specific activation of GPR120 is not completely understood. In this study, a potent and selective GPR120 agonist was developed and its pharmacological properties were compared with the previously described GPR120 agonist Metabolex-36. Effects of both compounds on signaling pathways and GLP-1 secretion were investigated in vitro. The acute glucose lowering effect was studied in lean wild-type and GPR120 null mice following oral or intravenous glucose tolerance tests. In vitro, in GPR120 overexpressing cells, both agonists signaled through Gαq, Gαs and the β-arrestin pathway. However, in mouse islets the signaling pathway was different since the agonists reduced cAMP production. The GPR120 agonists stimulated GLP-1 secretion both in vitro in STC-1 cells and in vivo following oral administration. In vivo GPR120 activation induced significant glucose lowering and increased insulin secretion after intravenous glucose administration in lean mice, while the agonists had no effect in GPR120 null mice. Exendin 9-39, a GLP-1 receptor antagonist, abolished the GPR120 induced effects on glucose and insulin following an intravenous glucose challenge. In conclusion, GLP-1 secretion is an important mechanism behind the acute glucose lowering effect following specific GPR120 activation.

  9. Evaluation of immunoprotection conferred by the subunit vaccines of GRA2 and GRA5 against acute toxoplasmosis in BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Teng eChing

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a foodborne disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular parasite. Severe symptoms occur in the immunocompromised patients and pregnant women leading to fatality and abortions respectively. Vaccination development is essential to control the disease. The T. gondii dense granule antigen 2 and 5 (GRA2 and GRA5 have been targeted in this study because these proteins are essential to the development of parasitophorous vacuole (PV, a specialized compartment formed within the infected host cell. PV is resistance to host cell endosomes and lysosomes thereby protecting the invaded parasite. Recombinant dense granular proteins, GRA2 (rGRA2 and GRA5 (rGRA5 were cloned, expressed, and purified in Escherichia coli, BL21 (DE3 pLysS. The potential of these purified antigens as subunit vaccine candidates against toxoplasmosis were evaluated through subcutaneous injection of BALB/c mice followed by immunological characterization (humoral- and cellular-mediated and lethal challenge against virulent T. gondii RH strain in BALB/c mice. Results obtained demonstrated that rGRA2 and rGRA5 elicited humoral and cellular-mediated immunity in the mice. High level of IgG antibody was produced with the isotype IgG2a/IgG1 ratio of ≈0.87 (p<0.001. Significant increase (p<0.05 in the level of four cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 was obtained. The antibody and cytokine results suggest that a mix mode of Th1/Th2-immunity was elicited with predominant Th1-immune response inducing partial protection against T. gondii acute infection in BALB/c mice. Our findings indicated that both GRA2 and GRA5 are potential candidates for vaccine development against T. gondii acute infection.

  10. Standing operating procedures for developing acute exposure guideline levels for hazardous chemicals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council (U.S.). Subcommittee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels

    2001-01-01

    Standing Operating Procedures for Developing Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Chemicals contains a detailed and comprehensive methodology for developing acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs...

  11. Acute exercise does not modify brain activity and memory performance in APP/PS1 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Miki Stein

    Full Text Available Age is the main risk factor for Alzheimer´s disease (AD. With an increasingly aging population, development of affordable screening techniques to determine cognitive status will help identify population-at-risk for further follow-up. Because physical exercise is known to modulate cognitive performance, we used it as a functional test of cognitive health. Mice were submitted to treadmill running at moderate speed for 30 min, and their brain activity was monitored before and after exercise using electrocorticogram (ECG recordings. After exercise, normal, but not APP/PS1 mice, a well established AD model, showed significantly increased ECG theta rhythm. At the same time normal, but not AD mice, showed significantly enhanced performance in a spatial memory test after exercise. Therefore, we postulate that a running bout coupled to pre- and post-exercise brain activity recordings will help identify individuals with cognitive alterations, by determining the presence or absence of exercise-specific changes in brain activity. Work in humans using a bout of moderate exercise plus electroencephalography, a clinically affordable procedure, is warranted.

  12. Acute exercise does not modify brain activity and memory performance in APP/PS1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki Stein, Angelica; Munive, Victor; Fernandez, Ana M; Nuñez, Angel; Torres Aleman, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    Age is the main risk factor for Alzheimer´s disease (AD). With an increasingly aging population, development of affordable screening techniques to determine cognitive status will help identify population-at-risk for further follow-up. Because physical exercise is known to modulate cognitive performance, we used it as a functional test of cognitive health. Mice were submitted to treadmill running at moderate speed for 30 min, and their brain activity was monitored before and after exercise using electrocorticogram (ECG) recordings. After exercise, normal, but not APP/PS1 mice, a well established AD model, showed significantly increased ECG theta rhythm. At the same time normal, but not AD mice, showed significantly enhanced performance in a spatial memory test after exercise. Therefore, we postulate that a running bout coupled to pre- and post-exercise brain activity recordings will help identify individuals with cognitive alterations, by determining the presence or absence of exercise-specific changes in brain activity. Work in humans using a bout of moderate exercise plus electroencephalography, a clinically affordable procedure, is warranted.

  13. Expression of MDM2 in an acute lymphocytic leukemia mice model induced by γ-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yuecheng; Cai Jianming; Han Ling; Gao Fu; Cui Jianguo; Gao Jianguo

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of the MDM 2 in the process of carcinogenesis induced by γ-rays and its molecular mechanisms. Methods: Animal model of radiation-induced leukemia was established by γ-irradiation. According to the histological and morphological results, mice tissues were divided into three groups: cancerization group, incancerization group and control group. Expression of MDM 2 protein and mRNA in thymus/bone marrow was detected with Western blot and in situ hybridization (ISH), respectively. The authors also examined the protein phosphorylation level of MDM 2 protein by immunoprecipitation (IP). PCR-SSCP was performed to detect gene mutation. Results: A mice leukemia model was successfully established as verified by pathological findings and confirmed by transplantation test in nude mice. The protein expression in thymus/bone marrow in irradiation groups was significantly higher than that in controls (P 2 was found to be hyper-phosphorylated in the cancerization group as compared with other groups. No gene mutation was detected by SSCP/silver-staining assay in the tumor samples. Conclusion: MDM 2 may be involved in the development and progression of leukemia induced by γ-irradiation. The over-expression but not gene mutation may be responsible for malignant transformation induced by radiation. Phosphorylation is at least partly attributed to activation of MDM 2

  14. The development of lower respiratory tract microbiome in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nisha; Vats, Asheema; Sharma, Aditi; Arora, Amit; Kumar, Ashwani

    2017-06-21

    Although culture-independent methods have paved the way for characterization of the lung microbiome, the dynamic changes in the lung microbiome from neonatal stage to adult age have not been investigated. In this study, we tracked changes in composition and diversity of the lung microbiome in C57BL/6N mice, starting from 1-week-old neonates to 8-week-old mice. Towards this, the lungs were sterilely excised from mice of different ages from 1 to 8 weeks. High-throughput DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene followed by composition and diversity analysis was utilized to decipher the microbiome in these samples. Microbiome analysis suggests that the changes in the lung microbiome correlated with age. The lung microbiome was primarily dominated by phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria in all the stages from week 1 to week 8 after birth. Although Defluvibacter was the predominant genus in 1-week-old neonatal mice, Streptococcus became the dominant genus at the age of 2 weeks. Lactobacillus, Defluvibacter, Streptococcus, and Achromobacter were the dominant genera in 3-week-old mice, while Lactobacillus and Achromobacter were the most abundant genera in 4-week-old mice. Interestingly, relatively greater diversity (at the genus level) during the age of 5 to 6 weeks was observed as compared to the earlier weeks. The diversity of the lung microbiome remained stable between 6 and 8 weeks of age. In summary, we have tracked the development of the lung microbiome in mice from an early age of 1 week to adulthood. The lung microbiome is dominated by the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria. However, dynamic changes were observed at the genus level. Relatively higher richness in the microbial diversity was achieved by age of 6 weeks and then maintained at later ages. We believe that this study improves our understanding of the development of the mice lung microbiome and will facilitate further analyses of the role of

  15. Electroacupuncture acutely improves cerebral blood flow and attenuates moderate ischemic injury via an endothelial mechanism in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyun Kim

    Full Text Available Electroacupuncture (EA is a novel therapy based on traditional acupuncture combined with modern eletrotherapy that is currently being investigated as a treatment for acute ischemic stroke. Here, we studied whether acute EA stimulation improves tissue and functional outcome following experimentally induced cerebral ischemia in mice. We hypothesized that endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS-mediated perfusion augmentation was related to the beneficial effects of EA by interventions in acute ischemic injury. EA stimulation at Baihui (GV20 and Dazhui (GV14 increased cerebral perfusion in the cerebral cortex, which was suppressed in eNOS KO, but there was no mean arterial blood pressure (MABP response. The increased perfusion elicited by EA were completely abolished by a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR blocker (atropine, but not a β-adrenergic receptor blocker (propranolol, an α-adrenergic receptor blocker (phentolamine, or a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR blocker (mecamylamine. In addition, EA increased acetylcholine (ACh release and mAChR M3 expression in the cerebral cortex. Acute EA stimulation after occlusion significantly reduced infarct volume by 34.5% when compared to a control group of mice at 24 h after 60 min-middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO (moderate ischemic injury, but not 90-min MCAO (severe ischemic injury. Furthermore, the impact of EA on moderate ischemic injury was totally abolished in eNOS KO. Consistent with a smaller infarct size, acute EA stimulation led to prominent improvement of neurological function and vestibule-motor function. Our results suggest that acute EA stimulation after moderate focal cerebral ischemia, but not severe ischemia improves tissue and functional recovery and ACh/eNOS-mediated perfusion augmentation might be related to these beneficial effects of EA by interventions in acute ischemic injury.

  16. IL-25 inhibits atherosclerosis development in apolipoprotein E deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyxeni T Mantani

    Full Text Available IL-25 has been implicated in the initiation of type 2 immunity and in the protection against autoimmune inflammatory diseases. Recent studies have identified the novel innate lymphoid type 2 cells (ILC2s as an IL-25 target cell population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if IL-25 has any influence on atherosclerosis development in mice.Administration of 1 μg IL-25 per day for one week to atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein (apoE deficient mice, had limited effect on the frequency of T cell populations, but resulted in a large expansion of ILC2s in the spleen. The expansion was accompanied by increased levels of anti-phosphorylcholine (PC natural IgM antibodies in plasma and elevated levels of IL-5 in plasma and spleen. Transfer of ILC2s to apoE deficient mice elevated the natural antibody-producing B1a cell population in the spleen. Treatment of apoE/Rag-1 deficient mice with IL-25 was also associated with extensive expansion of splenic ILC2s and increased plasma IL-5, suggesting ILC2s to be the source of IL-5. Administration of IL-25 in IL-5 deficient mice resulted in an expanded ILC2 population, but did not stimulate generation of anti-PC IgM, indicating that IL-5 is not required for ILC2 expansion but for the downstream production of natural antibodies. Additionally, administration of 1 μg IL-25 per day for 4 weeks in apoE deficient mice reduced atherosclerosis in the aorta both during initiation and progression of the disease.The present findings demonstrate that IL-25 has a protective role in atherosclerosis mediated by innate responses, including ILC2 expansion, increased IL-5 secretion, B1a expansion and natural anti-PC IgM generation, rather than adaptive Th2 responses.

  17. EFFECTS OF VITEX AGNUS CASTUS ON MICE FETUS DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    M. Azarnia; S. Ejtemaee-Mehr; A. Shakoor A. Ansari

    2007-01-01

    Vitex agnus castus (chasteberry) is a popular treatment for the management of female reproductive disorders including corpus luteum insufficiency, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), menopausal symptoms, and insufficient milk production. According to developing situation of complementary medicine, and frequent use of this herb, it is important to examine its effects during pregnancy. In this research we studied its effects on mice development, and we focused on macroscopic parameters, such as CRL (C...

  18. Maltol, a Food Flavoring Agent, Attenuates Acute Alcohol-Induced Oxidative Damage in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of maltol, a food-flavoring agent, on alcohol-induced acute oxidative damage in mice. Maltol used in this study was isolated from red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A Meyer and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and mass spectrometry. For hepatoprotective activity in vivo, pretreatment with maltol (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg; 15 days drastically prevented the elevated activities of aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and triglyceride (TG in serum and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β in liver tissue (p < 0.05. Meanwhile, the levels of hepatic antioxidant, such as catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px were elevated by maltol pretreatment, compared to the alcohol group (p < 0.05. Histopathological examination revealed that maltol pretreatment significantly inhibited alcohol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis and fatty degeneration. Interestingly, pretreatment of maltol effectively relieved alcohol-induced oxidative damage in a dose-dependent manner. Maltol appeared to possess promising anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory capacities. It was suggested that the hepatoprotective effect exhibited by maltol on alcohol-induced liver oxidative injury may be due to its potent antioxidant properties.

  19. γ-Oryzanol protects against acute cadmium-induced oxidative damage in mice testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiazzi, Cristiano C; Manfredini, Vanusa; Barcellos da Silva, Fabiana E; Flores, Erico M M; Izaguirry, Aryele P; Vargas, Laura M; Soares, Melina B; Santos, Francielli W

    2013-05-01

    Cadmium is a non-essential heavy metal that is present at low levels mainly in food and water and also in cigar smoke. The present study evaluated the testicular damage caused by acute cadmium exposure and verified the protective role of γ-oryzanol (ORY). Mice were administrated with a single dose of 2.5mg/kg of CdCl2, and then treated with ORY (50mM in canola oil, 5mL/kg). Testes were removed after 24h and tested for lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonylation, DNA breakage, ascorbic acid, cadmium and non-proteic thiols contents, and for the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and δ-aminolevulic acid dehydratase (δ-ALA-D). Cadmium presented a significant alteration in all parameters, except GPx and CAT activities. Therapy reduced in a slight degree cadmium concentration in testes (around 23%). ORY restored SOD and GST activities as well as TBARS production to the control levels. Furthermore, ORY partially recovered δ-ALA-D activity inhibited by cadmium. This study provides the first evidence on the therapeutic properties of ORY in protecting against cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Morphological study of tooth development in podoplanin-deficient mice.

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    Kenyo Takara

    Full Text Available Podoplanin is a mucin-type highly O-glycosylated glycoprotein identified in several somatyic cells: podocytes, alveolar epithelial cells, lymphatic endothelial cells, lymph node stromal fibroblastic reticular cells, osteocytes, odontoblasts, mesothelial cells, glia cells, and others. It has been reported that podoplanin-RhoA interaction induces cytoskeleton relaxation and cell process stretching in fibroblastic cells and osteocytes, and that podoplanin plays a critical role in type I alveolar cell differentiation. It appears that podoplanin plays a number of different roles in contributing to cell functioning and growth by signaling. However, little is known about the functions of podoplanin in the somatic cells of the adult organism because an absence of podoplanin is lethal at birth by the respiratory failure. In this report, we investigated the tooth germ development in podoplanin-knockout mice, and the dentin formation in podoplanin-conditional knockout mice having neural crest-derived cells with deficiency in podoplanin by the Wnt1 promoter and enhancer-driven Cre recombinase: Wnt1-Cre;PdpnΔ/Δmice. In the Wnt1-Cre;PdpnΔ/Δmice, the tooth and alveolar bone showed no morphological abnormalities and grow normally, indicating that podoplanin is not critical in the development of the tooth and bone.

  1. Morphological study of tooth development in podoplanin-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Kenyo; Maruo, Naoki; Oka, Kyoko; Kaji, Chiaki; Hatakeyama, Yuji; Sawa, Naruhiko; Kato, Yukinari; Yamashita, Junro; Kojima, Hiroshi; Sawa, Yoshihiko

    2017-01-01

    Podoplanin is a mucin-type highly O-glycosylated glycoprotein identified in several somatyic cells: podocytes, alveolar epithelial cells, lymphatic endothelial cells, lymph node stromal fibroblastic reticular cells, osteocytes, odontoblasts, mesothelial cells, glia cells, and others. It has been reported that podoplanin-RhoA interaction induces cytoskeleton relaxation and cell process stretching in fibroblastic cells and osteocytes, and that podoplanin plays a critical role in type I alveolar cell differentiation. It appears that podoplanin plays a number of different roles in contributing to cell functioning and growth by signaling. However, little is known about the functions of podoplanin in the somatic cells of the adult organism because an absence of podoplanin is lethal at birth by the respiratory failure. In this report, we investigated the tooth germ development in podoplanin-knockout mice, and the dentin formation in podoplanin-conditional knockout mice having neural crest-derived cells with deficiency in podoplanin by the Wnt1 promoter and enhancer-driven Cre recombinase: Wnt1-Cre;PdpnΔ/Δmice. In the Wnt1-Cre;PdpnΔ/Δmice, the tooth and alveolar bone showed no morphological abnormalities and grow normally, indicating that podoplanin is not critical in the development of the tooth and bone.

  2. Mesenchymal stromal cell treatment prevents H9N2 avian influenza virus-induced acute lung injury in mice

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    Yan Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The avian influenza virus (AIV can cross species barriers and expand its host range from birds to mammals, even humans. Avian influenza is characterized by pronounced activation of the proinflammatory cytokine cascade, which perpetuates the inflammatory response, leading to persistent systemic inflammatory response syndrome and pulmonary infection in animals and humans. There are currently no specific treatment strategies for avian influenza. Methods We hypothesized that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs would have beneficial effects in the treatment of H9N2 AIV-induced acute lung injury in mice. Six- to 8-week-old C57BL/6 mice were infected intranasally with 1 × 104 MID50 of A/HONG KONG/2108/2003 [H9N2 (HK] H9N2 virus to induce acute lung injury. After 30 min, syngeneic MSCs were delivered through the caudal vein. Three days after infection, we measured the survival rate, lung weight, arterial blood gas, and cytokines in both bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and serum, and assessed pathological changes to the lungs. Results MSC administration significantly palliated H9N2 AIV-induced pulmonary inflammation by reducing chemokines and proinflammatory cytokines levels, as well as reducing inflammatory cell recruit into the lungs. Thus, H9N2 AIV-induced lung injury was markedly alleviated in mice treated with MSCs. Lung histopathology and arterial blood gas analysis were improved in mice with H9N2 AIV-induced lung injury following MSC treatment. Conclusions MSC treatment significantly reduces H9N2 AIV-induced acute lung injury in mice and is associated with reduced pulmonary inflammation. These results indicate a potential role for MSC therapy in the treatment of clinical avian influenza.

  3. Renal Support for Acute Kidney Injury in the Developing World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev A. Annigeri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is wide variation in the management of acute kidney injury (AKI and the practice of renal replacement therapy (RRT around the world. Clinicians in developing countries face additional challenges due to limited resources, reduced availability of trained staff and equipment, cultural and socioeconomic aspects, and administrative and governmental barriers. In this article, we report the consensus recommendations from the 18th Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative conference in Hyderabad, India. We provide the minimal requirements for provision of acute RRT in developing countries, including patient selection, choice of RRT modality and monitoring, transition, and termination of acute RRT. We also discuss areas of uncertainty and propose themes for future research. These recommendations can serve as a foundation for clinicians to implement renal support for AKI in low resource settings.

  4. Protective Effects of Ethanolic Extracts from Artichoke, an Edible Herbal Medicine, against Acute Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xuchong; Wei, Ruofan; Deng, Aihua; Lei, Tingping

    2017-09-11

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are well-documented pathological factors in alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Artichoke ( Cynara scolymus L.) is a healthy food and folk medicine with anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to evaluate the preventive effects of ethanolic extract from artichoke against acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. Male Institute of Cancer Research mice were treated with an ethanolic extract of artichoke (0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 g/kg body weight) by gavage once daily. Up to 40% alcohol (12 mL/kg body weight) was administered orally 1 h after artichoke treatment. All mice were fed for 10 consecutive days. Results showed that artichoke extract significantly prevented elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and malondialdehyde. Meanwhile, the decreased levels of superoxide dismutase and glutathione were elevated by artichoke administration. Histopathological examination showed that artichoke attenuated degeneration, inflammatory infiltration and necrosis of hepatocytes. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that expression levels of toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in liver tissues were significantly suppressed by artichoke treatment. Results obtained demonstrated that artichoke extract exhibited significant preventive protective effect against acute alcohol-induced liver injury. This finding is mainly attributed to its ability to attenuate oxidative stress and suppress the TLR4/NF-κB inflammatory pathway. To the best of our knowledge, the underlying mechanisms of artichoke on acute ALD have been rarely reported.

  5. EFFECTS OF VITEX AGNUS CASTUS ON MICE FETUS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Azarnia; S. Ejtemaee-Mehr; A. Shakoor A. Ansari

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitex agnus castus (chasteberry is a popular treatment for the management of female reproductive disorders including corpus luteum insufficiency, premenstrual syndrome (PMS, menopausal symptoms, and insufficient milk production. According to developing situation of complementary medicine, and frequent use of this herb, it is important to examine its effects during pregnancy. In this research we studied its effects on mice development, and we focused on macroscopic parameters, such as CRL (Crown-Rump length and the weight of embryos, and diameter and the weight of placenta, and microscopic parameters such as the diameters of eye and lens of embryos. We found that Vitex has special effects during different stages of mice development, for example it can improve the growth of embryos in 8th and 9th day of pregnancy (it causes significant increase in CRL and weight of embryos. Also, it may changes some microscopic parameters. These founding suggest that it should be used more cautiously during pregnancy.

  6. Whole body proton irradiation causes acute damage to bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jianhui; Wang, Yingying; Pathak, Rupak; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Jones, Tamako; Mao, Xiao Wen; Nelson, Gregory; Boerma, Marjan; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Zhou, Daohong; Shao, Lijian

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to proton irradiation during missions in deep space can lead to bone marrow injury. The acute effects of proton irradiation on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells remain undefined and thus were investigated. We exposed male C57BL/6 mice to 0.5 and 1.0 Gy proton total body irradiation (proton-TBI, 150 MeV) and examined changes in peripheral blood cells and bone marrow (BM) progenitors and LSK cells 2 weeks after exposure. 1.0 Gy proton-TBI significantly reduced the numbers of peripheral blood cells compared to 0.5 Gy proton-TBI and unirradiated animals, while the numbers of peripheral blood cell counts were comparable between 0.5 Gy proton-TBI and unirradiated mice. The frequencies and numbers of LSK cells and CMPs in BM of 0.5 and 1.0 Gy irradiated mice were decreased in comparison to those of normal controls. LSK cells and CMPs and their progeny exhibited a radiation-induced impairment in clonogenic function. Exposure to 1.0 Gy increased cellular apoptosis but not the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in CMPs two weeks after irradiation. LSK cells from irradiated mice exhibited an increase in ROS production and apoptosis. Exposure to proton-TBI can induce acute damage to BM progenitors and LSK cells.

  7. Altered brain concentrations of citalopram and escitalopram in P-glycoprotein deficient mice after acute and chronic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Louise; Carlsson, Björn; Hiemke, Christoph; Ahlner, Johan; Bengtsson, Finn; Schmitt, Ulrich; Kugelberg, Fredrik C

    2013-11-01

    According to both in vitro and in vivo data P-glycoprotein (P-gp) may restrict the uptake of several antidepressants into the brain, thus contributing to the poor success rate of current antidepressant therapies. The therapeutic activity of citalopram resides in the S-enantiomer, whereas the R-enantiomer is practically devoid of serotonin reuptake potency. To date, no in vivo data are available that address whether the enantiomers of citalopram and its metabolites are substrates of P-gp. P-gp knockout (abcb1ab (-/-)) and wild-type (abcb1ab (+/+)) mice underwent acute (single-dose) and chronic (two daily doses for 10 days) treatment with citalopram (10mg/kg) or escitalopram (5mg/kg) Serum and brain samples were collected 1-6h after the first or last i.p. injection for subsequent drug analysis by an enantioselective HPLC method. In brain, 3-fold higher concentrations of S- and R-citalopram, and its metabolites, were found in abcb1ab (-/-) mice than in abcb1ab (+/+) mice after both acute and chronic citalopram treatments. After escitalopram treatment, the S-citalopram brain concentration was 3-5 times higher in the knockout mice than in controls. The results provide novel evidence that the enantiomers of citalopram are substrates of P-gp. Possible clinical and toxicological implications of this finding need to be further elucidated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  8. Immunization with a DNA vaccine encoding Toxoplasma gondii Superoxide dismutase (TgSOD) induces partial immune protection against acute toxoplasmosis in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Cao, Aiping; Li, Yawen; Li, Xun; Cong, Hua; He, Shenyi; Zhou, Huaiyu

    2017-06-07

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that infects all warm-blooded animals including humans and causes toxoplasmosis. An effective vaccine could be an ideal choice for preventing and controlling toxoplasmosis. T. gondii Superoxide dismutase (TgSOD) might participate in affecting the intracellular growth of both bradyzoite and tachyzoite forms. In the present study, the TgSOD gene was used to construct a DNA vaccine (pEGFP-SOD). TgSOD gene was amplified and inserted into eukaryotic vector pEGFP-C1 and formed the DNA vaccine pEGFP-SOD. Then the BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly with the DNA vaccine and those injected with pEGFP-C1, PBS or nothing were treated as controls. Four weeks after the last immunization, all mouse groups followed by challenging intraperitoneally with tachyzoites of T. gondii ME49 strain. Results showed higher levels of total IgG, IgG2α in the sera and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in the splenocytes from pEGFP-SOD inoculated mice than those unvaccinated, or inoculated with either empty plasmid vector or PBS. The proportions of CD4 + T cells and CD8 + T cells in the spleen from pEGFP-SOD inoculated mice were significantly (p < 0.05) increased compared to control groups. In addition, the survival time of mice immunized with pEGFP-SOD was significantly prolonged as compared to the controls (p < 0.05) although all the mice died. The present study revealed that the DNA vaccine triggered strong humoral and cellular immune responses, and aroused partial protective immunity against acute T. gondii infection in BALB/c mice. The collective data suggests the SOD may be a potential vaccine candidate for further development.

  9. Deletion of Galgt2 (B4Galnt2) reduces muscle growth in response to acute injury and increases muscle inflammation and pathology in dystrophin-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Singhal, Neha; Serinagaoglu, Yelda; Chandrasekharan, Kumaran; Joshi, Mandar; Bauer, John A; Janssen, Paulus M L; Martin, Paul T

    2015-10-01

    Transgenic overexpression of Galgt2 (official name B4Galnt2) in skeletal muscle stimulates the glycosylation of α dystroglycan (αDG) and the up-regulation of laminin α2 and dystrophin surrogates known to inhibit muscle pathology in mouse models of congenital muscular dystrophy 1A and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Skeletal muscle Galgt2 gene expression is also normally increased in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy compared with the wild-type mice. To assess whether this increased endogenous Galgt2 expression could affect disease, we quantified muscular dystrophy measures in mdx mice deleted for Galgt2 (Galgt2(-/-)mdx). Galgt2(-/-) mdx mice had increased heart and skeletal muscle pathology and inflammation, and also worsened cardiac function, relative to age-matched mdx mice. Deletion of Galgt2 in wild-type mice also slowed skeletal muscle growth in response to acute muscle injury. In each instance where Galgt2 expression was elevated (developing muscle, regenerating muscle, and dystrophic muscle), Galgt2-dependent glycosylation of αDG was also increased. Overexpression of Galgt2 failed to inhibit skeletal muscle pathology in dystroglycan-deficient muscles, in contrast to previous studies in dystrophin-deficient mdx muscles. This study demonstrates that Galgt2 gene expression and glycosylation of αDG are dynamically regulated in muscle and that endogenous Galgt2 gene expression can ameliorate the extent of muscle pathology, inflammation, and dysfunction in mdx mice. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. G protein-coupled receptor kinase-2-deficient mice are protected from dextran sodium sulfate-induced acute colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steury, Michael D; Kang, Ho Jun; Lee, Taehyung; Lucas, Peter C; McCabe, Laura R; Parameswaran, Narayanan

    2018-06-01

    G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is a serine/threonine kinase and plays a key role in different disease processes. Previously, we showed that GRK2 knockdown enhances wound healing in colonic epithelial cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that ablation of GRK2 would protect mice from dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced acute colitis. To test this, we administered DSS to wild-type (GRK2 +/+ ) and GRK2 heterozygous (GRK +/- ) mice in their drinking water for 7 days. As predicted, GRK2 +/- mice were protected from colitis as demonstrated by decreased weight loss (20% loss in GRK2 +/+ vs. 11% loss in GRK2 +/- ). lower disease activity index (GRK2 +/+ 9.1 vs GRK2 +/- 4.1), and increased colon lengths (GRK2 +/+ 4.7 cm vs GRK2 +/- 5.3 cm). To examine the mechanisms by which GRK2 +/- mice are protected from colitis, we investigated expression of inflammatory genes in the colon as well as immune cell profiles in colonic lamina propria, mesenteric lymph node, and in bone marrow. Our results did not reveal differences in immune cell profiles between the two genotypes. However, expression of inflammatory genes was significantly decreased in DSS-treated GRK2 +/- mice compared with GRK2 +/+ . To understand the mechanisms, we generated myeloid-specific GRK2 knockout mice and subjected them to DSS-induced colitis. Similar to whole body GRK2 heterozygous knockout mice, myeloid-specific knockout of GRK2 was sufficient for the protection from DSS-induced colitis. Together our results indicate that deficiency of GRK2 protects mice from DSS-induced colitis and further suggests that the mechanism of this effect is likely via GRK2 regulation of inflammatory genes in the myeloid cells.

  11. Acute airway effects of airborne formaldehyde in sensitized and non-sensitized mice housed in a dry or humid environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Søren Thor, E-mail: stl@nrcwe.dk; Wolkoff, Peder, E-mail: pwo@nrcwe.dk; Hammer, Maria, E-mail: mha@nrcwe.dk; Kofoed-Sørensen, Vivi, E-mail: vks@nrcwe.dk; Clausen, Per Axel, E-mail: pac@nrcwe.dk; Nielsen, Gunnar Damgård, E-mail: gdn@nrcwe.dk

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the role of air humidity and allergic sensitization on the acute airway response to inhaled formaldehyde (FA) vapor. Mice were sensitized to the immunogen ovalbumin (OVA) by three intraperitoneal injections followed by two aerosol challenges, giving rise to allergic airway inflammation. Control mice were sham sensitized by saline injections and challenged by saline aerosols. Once sensitized, the mice were housed at high (85–89%) or low (< 10%) relative humidity, respectively for 48 h prior to a 60-min exposure to either 0.4, 1.8 or about 5 ppm FA. Before, during and after exposure, breathing parameters were monitored. These included the specific markers of nose and lung irritations as well as the expiratory flow rate, the latter being a marker of airflow limitation. The sensory irritation response in the upper airways was not affected by allergic inflammation or changes in humidity. At high relative humidity, the OVA-sensitized mice had a decreased expiratory airflow rate compared to the saline control mice after exposure to approximately 5 ppm FA. This is in accordance with the observations that asthmatics are more sensitive than non-asthmatics to higher concentrations of airway irritants including FA. In the dry environment, the opposite trend was seen; here, the saline control mice had a significantly decreased expiratory airflow rate compared to OVA-sensitized mice when exposed to 1.8 and 4 ppm FA. We speculate that increased mucus production in the OVA-sensitized mice has increased the “scrubber effect” in the nose, consequently protecting the conducting and lower airways. - Highlights: ► Role of air humidity and allergy on sensitivity to an airway irritant was studied. ► In the humid environment, allergy amplified the effects of formaldehyde. ► In the dry environment, allergy reduced the effect of formaldehyde. ► Neither allergy nor humidity changed the formaldehyde-induced nasal irritation.

  12. Acute airway effects of airborne formaldehyde in sensitized and non-sensitized mice housed in a dry or humid environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, Søren Thor; Wolkoff, Peder; Hammer, Maria; Kofoed-Sørensen, Vivi; Clausen, Per Axel; Nielsen, Gunnar Damgård

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the role of air humidity and allergic sensitization on the acute airway response to inhaled formaldehyde (FA) vapor. Mice were sensitized to the immunogen ovalbumin (OVA) by three intraperitoneal injections followed by two aerosol challenges, giving rise to allergic airway inflammation. Control mice were sham sensitized by saline injections and challenged by saline aerosols. Once sensitized, the mice were housed at high (85–89%) or low (< 10%) relative humidity, respectively for 48 h prior to a 60-min exposure to either 0.4, 1.8 or about 5 ppm FA. Before, during and after exposure, breathing parameters were monitored. These included the specific markers of nose and lung irritations as well as the expiratory flow rate, the latter being a marker of airflow limitation. The sensory irritation response in the upper airways was not affected by allergic inflammation or changes in humidity. At high relative humidity, the OVA-sensitized mice had a decreased expiratory airflow rate compared to the saline control mice after exposure to approximately 5 ppm FA. This is in accordance with the observations that asthmatics are more sensitive than non-asthmatics to higher concentrations of airway irritants including FA. In the dry environment, the opposite trend was seen; here, the saline control mice had a significantly decreased expiratory airflow rate compared to OVA-sensitized mice when exposed to 1.8 and 4 ppm FA. We speculate that increased mucus production in the OVA-sensitized mice has increased the “scrubber effect” in the nose, consequently protecting the conducting and lower airways. - Highlights: ► Role of air humidity and allergy on sensitivity to an airway irritant was studied. ► In the humid environment, allergy amplified the effects of formaldehyde. ► In the dry environment, allergy reduced the effect of formaldehyde. ► Neither allergy nor humidity changed the formaldehyde-induced nasal irritation

  13. Comparison between C-FOS Expression in Male and Female Mice During Morphine Withdrawal in the Presence and Absence of Acute Administration of Matricaria Recutita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesmati Mahnaz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are some evidences that indicate there are sexual differences in drug abuse and response to synthetic and herbal drugs. It has been shown that the expression of C-FOS increases in many areas of brain during morphine withdrawal. Concerning the sedative effect of Matricaria recutita extract, the aim of this study was to compare expression of C-FOS transcription factor during morphine withdrawal with and without acute administration of Matricaria recutita on male and female adult mice.Materials and Methods: This study was done at Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz in 2007 on NMRI mice. Male and female mice were assigned into 8 groups (morphine + saline; morphine + naloxone; morphine + Matricaria recutita + naloxone; and morphine + saline + naloxone. To develop morphine dependency, increasing doses of morphine (20, 40, 80 mg/kg injected subcutaneously for 4 days. Mice received a final morphine injection (40 mg/kg 3hours prior to naloxone (5 mg/kg on the day of testing (day 4. Matricaria recutita extract whit a dose of 30 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally 5 minutes before naloxone injection. In cellular study, 90minute after naloxone injection, mice were decapitated and their brains were separated, then mRNA was extracted from brain tissue. Using DIG-labeled DNA probe of C-FOS, beta-actin and dot blot technique, expression of C-FOS was analyzed by Zero Dscan software. Statistical evaluation of data was performed using student t-test and ANOVA with one factor followed by Duncan test in SPSS software. P values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The rate of expression of C-FOS increased in male mice but decreased significantly in female mice after naloxone-precipitated abstinence P<0.01(. Matricaria recutita attenuated the rate of expression of C-FOS in male mice but it showed synergistic effect on it in female mice P<0.05(.Conclusion: It seems that the cellular processes involving morphine dependency and

  14. Altered Function and Expression of ABC Transporters at the Blood–Brain Barrier and Increased Brain Distribution of Phenobarbital in Acute Liver Failure Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated alterations in the function and expression of P-glycoprotein (P-GP, breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2 at the blood–brain barrier (BBB of acute liver failure (ALF mice and its clinical significance. ALF mice were developed using intraperitoneal injection of thioacetamide. P-GP, BCRP, and MRP2 functions were determined by measuring the ratios of brain-to-plasma concentration of rhodamine 123, prazosin, and dinitrophenyl-S-glutathione, respectively. The mRNA and proteins expression levels of P-GP, BCRP, and MRP2 were evaluated with quantitative real-time PCR and western blot, respectively. MDCK-MDR1 and HCMEC/D3 cells were used to document the effects of the abnormally altered components in serum of ALF mice on the function and expression of P-GP. The clinical significance of alteration in P-GP function and expression was investigated by determining the distribution of the P-GP substrate phenobarbital (60 mg/kg, intravenous administration in the brain and loss of righting reflex (LORR induced by the drug (100 mg/kg. The results showed that ALF significantly downregulated the function and expression of both P-GP and BCRP, but increased the function and expression of MRP2 in the brain of mice. Cell study showed that increased chenodeoxycholic acid may be a reason behind the downregulated P-GP function and expression. Compared with control mice, ALF mice showed a significantly higher brain concentration of phenobarbital and higher brain-to-plasma concentration ratios. In accordance, ALF mice showed a significantly larger duration of LORR and shorter latency time of LORR by phenobarbital, inferring the enhanced pharmacological effect of phenobarbital on the central nervous system (CNS. In conclusion, the function and expression of P-GP and BCRP decreased, while the function and expression of MRP2 increased in the brain of ALF mice. The attenuated function and expression

  15. Treatment of Experimental Acute Radiation Disease in Mice with Probiotics, Quinolones, and General Gnotobiological Isolation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Korschunov, Valerji

    1998-01-01

    ...) on intestinal microflora, translocation, and mortality was studied in mice treated with 7.0 Gy radiation. Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, selected by in vitro and in vivo methods, increased survival parameters of the mice...

  16. MicroRNA-29b mediates altered innate immune development in acute leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy-Bosse, Bethany L.; Scoville, Steven D.; Chen, Li; McConnell, Kathleen; Mao, Hsiaoyin C.; Ahmed, Elshafa H.; Zorko, Nicholas; Harvey, Sophia; Cole, Jordan; Zhang, Xiaoli; Costinean, Stefan; Croce, Carlo M.; Larkin, Karilyn; Byrd, John C.; Vasu, Sumithira; Blum, William; Yu, Jianhua; Freud, Aharon G.; Caligiuri, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells can have potent antileukemic activity following haplo-mismatched, T cell–depleted stem cell transplantations for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but they are not successful in eradicating de novo AML. Here, we have used a mouse model of de novo AML to elucidate the mechanisms by which AML evades NK cell surveillance. NK cells in leukemic mice displayed a marked reduction in the cytolytic granules perforin and granzyme B. Further, as AML progressed, we noted the selective loss of an immature subset of NK cells in leukemic mice and in AML patients. This absence was not due to elimination by cell death or selective reduction in proliferation, but rather to the result of a block in NK cell differentiation. Indeed, NK cells from leukemic mice and humans with AML showed lower levels of TBET and EOMES, transcription factors that are critical for terminal NK cell differentiation. Further, the microRNA miR-29b, a regulator of T-bet and EOMES, was elevated in leukemic NK cells. Finally, deletion of miR-29b in NK cells reversed the depletion of this NK cell subset in leukemic mice. These results indicate that leukemic evasion of NK cell surveillance occurs through miR-mediated dysregulation of lymphocyte development, representing an additional mechanism of immune escape in cancer. PMID:27775550

  17. Development of an Allergic Conjunctivitis Model in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Kocatürk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To develop an animal model that simulates human allergic conjunctivitis to understand the physiopathogenesis of allergic diseases and for developing novel therapeutic interventions. Ma te ri al and Met hod: BALB/c mice (12 males were divided into two groups each comprised of six mice. For sensitization, on the 1st and 8th days, a 0.2 ml mixed solution, adjusted to a concentration to 5mg/ml of ovalbumin (OVA and 15mg/ml of aluminium hydroxide, was administered intraperitoneally to the mice in Group 1 and 0.2 ml saline solution to the mice in Group 2. To induce experimental allergic conjunctivitis, an antigen challenge was made on days 15 and 18, using an OVA solution (5mg/ml instilled into both eyes of the mice in Group 1; while the mice in Group 2 received Human Balanced Salt Solution instead of OVA. For the clinical evaluation, the occurrence of conjunctival and palpebral oedema, conjunctival hyperaemia, and lacrimation were observed. For the histological examination, eyeballs, eyelids, and lacrimal glands were removed and prepared according to the routine processing method of the tissue laboratory. Immunohistochemical examination was made with mast cell tryptase using the labeled streptavidin–biotin amplification method and 3.3´-diaminobenzidine, in addition to hematoxylin-eosin (HE, and toluidine blue (TB staining. Re sults: Evident conjunctival oedema, palpebral oedema, conjunctival hyperaemia, and lacrimation were observed in Group 1. Mean mast cell density in cells/mm2, infiltrating the subconjunctival tissue was significantly high in Group 1 (allergy group, 23.17±7.46, p<0.0001 when compared to Group 2 (5.58±3.12. There was no increase in eosinophil and lymphocyte counts as well as vascular intensity in the subconjunctival tissue in any group. Dis cus si on: The murine model developed is similar to the human allergic conjunctivitis both clinically and histopathologically and can be used as a template for future studies

  18. Respiratory reovirus 1/L induction of diffuse alveolar damage: pulmonary fibrosis is not modulated by corticosteroids in acute respiratory distress syndrome in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Lucille; Majeski, Elizabeth I; Altman-Hamamdzic, Sanja; Enockson, Candace; Paintlia, Manjeet K; Harley, Russell A; London, Steven D

    2002-06-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a clinical syndrome characterized by diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) secondary to an intense host inflammatory response of the lung to a pulmonary or extrapulmonary infectious or noninfectious insult. We have previously described a unique animal model in which CBA/J mice infected with reovirus 1/L develop ARDS. This model recapitulates the histopathological changes observed in human ARDS, which consist of the overlapping phases of exudation, including the formation of hyaline membranes, regeneration, and healing via repair with fibrosis. In this report, we show that the development of DAD in the acute phase of the disease and intraalveolar fibrosis in the late phase of the disease was not modulated by treatment with methylprednisolone (MPS). In the presence or absence of MPS, the majority of cells infiltrating the lungs after reovirus 1/L infection were polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages. A number of key proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines that are observed in the BAL fluid of ARDS patients were also found in the lungs of mice after reovirus 1/L infection and were not modulated by MPS. These include interferon-gamma, interleukin-10, and monocyte chemoattractant protein. The histopathology, cytokine/chemokine expression, and response to corticosteroids in reovirus 1/L-induced ARDS are similar to what is observed in human patients, making this a clinically relevant model.

  19. Different effects of ursodeoxycholic acid on intrahepatic cholestasis in acute and recovery stages induced by alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linlin; Su, Huizong; Li, Yue; Fan, Yujuan; Wang, Qian; Jiang, Jian; Hu, Yiyang; Chen, Gaofeng; Tan, Bo; Qiu, Furong

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on the alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT)-induced acute and recovery stage of cholestasis model mice. In the acute stage of model mice, pretreatment with UDCA (25, 50, and 100 mg·kg -1 , ig) for 12 days prior to ANIT administration (50 mg·kg -1 , ig) resulted in the dramatic increase in serum biochemistry, with aggrevation of bile infarcts and hepatocyte necrosis. The elevation of beta-muricholic acid (β-MCA), cholic acid (CA), and taurocholic acid (TCA) in serum and liver, and reduction of these bile acids (BAs) in bile was observed. In contrast, in the recovery stage of model mice, treatment with UDCA (25, 50, and 100 mg·kg -1 , ig) for 7 days after ANIT administration (50 mg·kg -1 , ig) resulted in the significant decrease in levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and total bile acid (TBA). Liver injury was attenuated, and the levels of TBA, CA, TCA, and β-MCA in the liver were significantly decreased. Additionally, UDCA can upregulate expression of BSEP, but it cannot upregulate expression of AE2. UDCA, which induced BSEP to increase bile acid-dependent bile flow, aggravated cholestasis and liver injury when the bile duct was obstructed in the acute stage of injury in model mice. In contrast, UDCA alleviated cholestasis and liver injury induced by ANIT when the obstruction was improved in the recovery stage. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Sildenafil citrate (Viagra) impairs fertilization and early embryo development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, David R J; McClure, Neil; Cosby, S Louise; Stevenson, Michael; Lewis, Sheena E M

    2009-03-01

    To determine the effects of sildenafil citrate, a cyclic monophosphate-specific type 5 phosphodiesterase inhibitor known to affect sperm function, on fertilization and early embryo cleavage. This acute mammal study included male and female mice assigned randomly, the females sacrificed after mating and their oocytes/embryos evaluated at four time periods after treatment. Academic research environment. Male and female CBAB(6) mice. Female mice were injected intraperitoneally with 5 IU gonadotropin (hCG) to stimulate follicular growth and induce ovulation. They were each caged with a male that had been gavaged with sildenafil citrate (0.06 mg/0.05 mL) and allowed to mate. After 12, 36, 60, and 84 h, females were killed, their oviducts were dissected out, and retrieved embryos were assessed for blastomere number and quality. Fertilization rates and numbers of embryos were evaluated after treatment. Fertilization rates (day 1) were markedly reduced (-33%) in matings where the male had taken sildenafil citrate. Over days 2-4, the numbers of embryos developing in the treated group were significantly fewer than in the control group. There was also a trend for impaired cleavage rates within those embryos, although this did not reach significance. The impairments to fertility caused by sildenafil citrate have important implications for infertility centers and for couples who are using this drug precoitally while attempting to conceive.

  1. Acute inhibition of central c-Jun N-terminal kinase restores hypothalamic insulin signalling and alleviates glucose intolerance in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzler, J; Ganjam, G K; Legler, K; Stöhr, S; Krüger, M; Steger, J; Tups, A

    2013-05-01

    The hypothalamus has been identified as a main insulin target tissue for regulating normal body weight and glucose metabolism. Recent observations suggest that c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK)-signalling plays a crucial role in the development of obesity and insulin resistance because neuronal JNK-1 ablation in the mouse prevented high-fat diet-induced obesity (DIO) and increased energy expenditure, as well as insulin sensitivity. In the present study, we investigated whether central JNK inhibition is associated with sensitisation of hypothalamic insulin signalling in mice fed a high-fat diet for 3 weeks and in leptin-deficient mice. We determined whether i.c.v. injection of a pharmacological JNK-inhibitor (SP600125) improved impaired glucose homeostasis. By immunohistochemistry, we first observed that JNK activity was increased in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) in both mouse models, relative to normoglycaemic controls. This suggests that up-regulation of JNK in these regions is associated with glucose intolerance and obesity, independent of leptin levels. Acute i.c.v. injection of SP600125 ameliorated glucose tolerance within 30 min in both leptin-deficient and DIO mice. Given the acute nature of i.c.v. injections, these effects cannot be attributed to changes in food intake or energy balance. In a hypothalamic cell line, and in the ARC and VMH of leptin-deficient mice, JNK inhibition by SP600125 consistently improved impaired insulin signalling. This was determined by a reduction of phospho-insulin receptor substrate-1 [IRS-1(Ser612)] protein in a hypothalamic cell line and a decline in the number of pIRS-1(Ser612) immunoreactive cells in the ARC and VMH. Serine 612 phosphorylation of IRS-1 is assumed to negatively regulate insulin signalling. In leptin-deficient mice, in both nuclei, central inhibition of JNK increased the number of cells immunoreactive for phospho-Akt (Ser473) and phospho-GSK-3β (Ser9), which are important

  2. Preventing cleavage of Mer promotes efferocytosis and suppresses acute lung injury in bleomycin treated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ye-Ji; Lee, Seung-Hae; Youn, Young-So; Choi, Ji-Yeon; Song, Keung-Sub; Cho, Min-Sun; Kang, Jihee Lee

    2012-01-01

    Mer receptor tyrosine kinase (Mer) regulates macrophage activation and promotes apoptotic cell clearance. Mer activation is regulated through proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular domain. To determine if membrane-bound Mer is cleaved during bleomycin-induced lung injury, and, if so, how preventing the cleavage of Mer enhances apoptotic cell uptake and down-regulates pulmonary immune responses. During bleomycin-induced acute lung injury in mice, membrane-bound Mer expression decreased, but production of soluble Mer and activity as well as expression of disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) were enhanced . Treatment with the ADAM inhibitor TAPI-0 restored Mer expression and diminished soluble Mer production. Furthermore, TAPI-0 increased Mer activation in alveolar macrophages and lung tissue resulting in enhanced apoptotic cell clearance in vivo and ex vivo by alveolar macrophages. Suppression of bleomycin-induced pro-inflammatory mediators, but enhancement of hepatocyte growth factor induction were seen after TAPI-0 treatment. Additional bleomycin-induced inflammatory responses reduced by TAPI-0 treatment included inflammatory cell recruitment into the lungs, levels of total protein and lactate dehydrogenase activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, as well as caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity and alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis in lung tissue. Importantly, the effects of TAPI-0 on bleomycin-induced inflammation and apoptosis were reversed by coadministration of specific Mer-neutralizing antibodies. These findings suggest that restored membrane-bound Mer expression by TAPI-0 treatment may help resolve lung inflammation and apoptosis after bleomycin treatment. -- Highlights: ►Mer expression is restored by TAPI-0 treatment in bleomycin-stimulated lung. ►Mer signaling is enhanced by TAPI-0 treatment in bleomycin-stimulated lung. ►TAPI-0 enhances efferocytosis and promotes resolution of lung injury.

  3. Corticosteroid treatment ameliorates acute lung injury induced by 2009 swine origin influenza A (H1N1 virus in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenggang Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 2009 influenza pandemic affected people in almost all countries in the world, especially in younger age groups. During this time, the debate over whether to use corticosteroid treatment in severe influenza H1N1 infections patients resurfaced and was disputed by clinicians. There is an urgent need for a susceptible animal model of 2009 H1N1 infection that can be used to evaluate the pathogenesis and the therapeutic effect of corticosteroid treatment during infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We intranasally inoculated two groups of C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice (using 4- or 6-to 8-week-old mice to compare the pathogenesis of several different H1N1 strains in mice of different ages. Based on the results, a very susceptible 4-week-old C57BL/6 mouse model of Beijing 501 strain of 2009 H1N1 virus infection was established, showing significantly elevated lung edema and cytokine levels compared to controls. Using our established animal model, the cytokine production profile and lung histology were assessed at different times post-infection, revealing increased lung lesions in a time-dependent manner. In additional,the mice were also treated with dexamethasone, which significantly improved survival rate and lung lesions in infected mice compared to those in control mice. Our data showed that corticosteroid treatment ameliorated acute lung injury induced by the 2009 A/H1N1 virus in mice and suggested that corticosteroids are valid drugs for treating 2009 A/H1N1 infection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using the established, very susceptible 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1 mouse model, our studies indicate that corticosteroids are a potential therapeutic remedy that may address the increasing concerns over future 2009 A/H1N1 pandemics.

  4. sirt1-null mice develop an autoimmune-like condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sequeira, Jedon; Boily, Gino; Bazinet, Stephanie; Saliba, Sarah; He Xiaohong; Jardine, Karen; Kennedy, Christopher; Staines, William; Rousseaux, Colin; Mueller, Rudi; McBurney, Michael W.

    2008-01-01

    The sirt1 gene encodes a protein deacetylase with a broad spectrum of reported substrates. Mice carrying null alleles for sirt1 are viable on outbred genetic backgrounds so we have examined them in detail to identify the biological processes that are dependent on SIRT1. Sera from adult sirt1-null mice contain antibodies that react with nuclear antigens and immune complexes become deposited in the livers and kidneys of these animals. Some of the sirt1-null animals develop a disease resembling diabetes insipidus when they approach 2 years of age although the relationship to the autoimmunity remains unclear. We interpret these observations as consistent with a role for SIRT1 in sustaining normal immune function and in this way delaying the onset of autoimmune disease

  5. Acute pulmonary and innate immunity health effects in mice inhaling cookstove emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Burning of solid-fuels in rudimentary stoves generates harmful emissions that contribute to poor indoor air quality and have detrimental impacts on human health. Acute health effects include respiratory and eye irritation, cough, acute lower respiratory infection and ...

  6. Eμ/miR-125b transgenic mice develop lethal B-cell malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Y; Kitaura, J; Hatakeyama, K; Watanuki, J; Akasaka, T; Kato, N; Shimanuki, M; Nishimura, K; Takahashi, M; Taniwaki, M; Haferlach, C; Siebert, R; Dyer, M J S; Asou, N; Aburatani, H; Nakakuma, H; Kitamura, T; Sonoki, T

    2011-12-01

    MicroRNA-125b-1 (miR-125b-1) is a target of a chromosomal translocation t(11;14)(q24;q32) recurrently found in human B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL). This translocation results in overexpression of miR-125b controlled by immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (IGH) regulatory elements. In addition, we found that six out of twenty-one BCP-ALL patients without t(11;14)(q24;q32) showed overexpression of miR-125b. Interestingly, four out of nine patients with BCR/ABL-positive BCP-ALL and one patient with B-cell lymphoid crisis that had progressed from chronic myelogenous leukemia overexpressed miR-125b. To examine the role of the deregulated expression of miR-125b in the development of B-cell tumor in vivo, we generated transgenic mice mimicking the t(11;14)(q24;q32) (Eμ/miR-125b-TG mice). Eμ/miR-125b-TG mice overexpressed miR-125b driven by IGH enhancer and promoter and developed IgM-negative or IgM-positive lethal B-cell malignancies with clonal proliferation. B cells obtained from the Eμ/miR-125b-TG mice were resistant to apoptosis induced by serum starvation. We identified Trp53inp1, a pro-apoptotic gene induced by cell stress, as a novel target gene of miR-125b in hematopoietic cells in vitro and in vivo. Our results provide direct evidence that miR-125b has important roles in the tumorigenesis of precursor B cells.

  7. The continuum of spreading depolarizations in acute cortical lesion development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartings, Jed A; Shuttleworth, C William; Kirov, Sergei A

    2017-01-01

    A modern understanding of how cerebral cortical lesions develop after acute brain injury is based on Aristides Leão's historic discoveries of spreading depression and asphyxial/anoxic depolarization. Treated as separate entities for decades, we now appreciate that these events define a continuum....... The causal role of these waves in lesion development has been proven by real-time monitoring of electrophysiology, blood flow, and cytotoxic edema. The spreading depolarization continuum further applies to other models of acute cortical lesions, suggesting that it is a universal principle of cortical lesion...

  8. Development of mice without Cip/Kip CDK inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateishi, Yuki; Matsumoto, Akinobu; Kanie, Tomoharu [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Hara, Eiji [Cancer Institute, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, 3-8-31 Ariake, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8550 (Japan); Nakayama, Keiko [Department of Developmental Genetics, Center for Translational and Advanced Animal Research, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan); Nakayama, Keiichi I., E-mail: nakayak1@bioreg.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mice lacking Cip/Kip CKIs (p21, p27, and p57) survive until embryonic day 13.5. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proliferation of MEFs lacking all three Cip/Kip CKIs appears unexpectedly normal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CDK2 kinase activity of the triple mutant MEFs is increased in G0 phase. -- Abstract: Timely exit of cells from the cell cycle is essential for proper cell differentiation during embryogenesis. Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors (CKIs) of the Cip/Kip family (p21, p27, and p57) are negative regulators of cell cycle progression and are thought to be essential for development. However, the extent of functional redundancy among Cip/Kip family members has remained largely unknown. We have now generated mice that lack all three Cip/Kip CKIs (TKO mice) and compared them with those lacking each possible pair of these proteins (DKO mice). We found that the TKO embryos develop normally until midgestation but die around embryonic day (E) 13.5, slightly earlier than p27/p57 DKO embryos. The TKO embryos manifested morphological abnormalities as well as increased rates of cell proliferation and apoptosis in the placenta and lens that were essentially indistinguishable from those of p27/p57 DKO mice. Unexpectedly, the proliferation rate and cell cycle profile of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking all three Cip/Kip CKIs did not differ substantially from those of control MEFs. The abundance and kinase activity of CDK2 were markedly increased, whereas CDK4 activity and cyclin D1 abundance were decreased, in both p27/p57 DKO and TKO MEFs during progression from G{sub 0} to S phase compared with those in control MEFs. The extents of the increase in CDK2 activity and the decrease in CDK4 activity and cyclin D1 abundance were greater in TKO MEFs than in p27/p57 DKO MEFs. These results suggest that p27 and p57 play an essential role in mouse development after midgestation, and that p21 plays only an auxiliary role in

  9. Acute Phase Response and Neutrophils : Lymphocyte Ratio in Response to Astaxanthin in Staphylococcal Mice Mastitis Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshering Dolma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the immunotherapeutic effect of astaxanthin (AX on total clinical score (TCS, C-reactive protein (CRP, and neutrophil : lymphocyte ratio in mice mastitis model challenged with pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus. Twenty-four lactating mice were divided in 4 equal groups: group I mice served as normal healthy control, group II, positive control, were challenged with pathogenic S. aureus, group III mice were challenged and treated with AX, and group IV were treated with amoxicillin plus sulbactum. The TCS was higher in postchallenged mice; however it was significantly higher in group II untreated mice as compared to group III and group IV mice. The neutrophil was higher and lymphocyte count was lower in group II mice at 120 hrs post challenge (PC. The CRP was positive in all the challenged group at 24 hrs PC, but it remained positive till 120 hrs PC in group II. The parameters are related to enhancement of the mammary defense and reduction of inflammation. Hence AX may be used alone or as an adjunct therapy with antibiotic for amelioration of mastitis. Development of such therapy may be useful to reduce the antibiotic burden in management of intramammary infection.

  10. Effects of Shuang Wuzhen Tong Capsule on acute toxicity of mice caused by swelling and auricular dimethylbenzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shaojun; Sun, Youshu; Guo, Junyi; Chen, Weiliang; Wang, Hongyu; Sun, Jianhua; Guan, Zhijiang; Zhang, Zhengchen; Wang, Fang

    2018-04-01

    To observe the effect of Shuang Wuzhen Tong Capsule on acute toxicity of mice caused by swelling and auricular dimethylbenzene. 40 rats, weighing 18 ˜ 22G, half male and half female. Shuang Wuzhen Tong Capsule maximum concentration maximum volume to mice for 1 days by gavage for 1 times, for 7 consecutive days, to observe the situation of animal death, the maximum tolerance; the other 50 mice, were divided into 5 groups, were fed with Shuang Wuzhen Tong capsule suspension, Jingfukang granule suspension and the same volume 0.5%CMC. No death in 7 days. After death animal autopsy, heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, brain, stomach, intestine and no important organ obvious bleeding, hyperemia and edema, exudation, ulcer, perforation, pleural, peritoneal, pericardial cavity without effusion. Shuang Wuzhen Tong Capsule group and Jingfukang granule group could obviously reduce the xylene induced swelling of mouse ear, ear swelling degree decreased significantly (P<0.01). Shuang Wuzhen Tong Capsule has no obvious acute toxicity, anti-inflammatory effects.

  11. Mice null for the deubiquitinase USP18 spontaneously develop leiomyosarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinyengetere, Fadzai; Sekula, David J.; Lu, Yun; Giustini, Andrew J.; Sanglikar, Aarti; Kawakami, Masanori; Ma, Tian; Burkett, Sandra S.; Eisenberg, Burton L.; Wells, Wendy A.; Hoopes, Paul J.; Demicco, Elizabeth G.; Lazar, Alexander J; Torres, Keila E.; Memoli, Vincent; Freemantle, Sarah J.; Dmitrovsky, Ethan

    2015-01-01

    USP18 (ubiquitin-specific protease 18) removes ubiquitin-like modifier interferon stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) from conjugated proteins. USP18 null mice in a FVB/N background develop tumors as early as 2 months of age. These tumors are leiomyosarcomas and thus represent a new murine model for this disease. Heterozygous USP18 +/− FVB/N mice were bred to generate wild-type, heterozygous and homozygous cohorts. Tumors were characterized immunohistochemically and two cell lines were derived from independent tumors. Cell lines were karyotyped and their responses to restoration of USP18 activity assessed. Drug testing and tumorigenic assays were also performed. USP18 immunohistochemical staining in a large series of human leiomyosacomas was examined. USP18 −/− FVB/N mice spontaneously develop tumors predominantly on the back of the neck with most tumors evident between 6–12 months (80 % penetrance). Immunohistochemical characterization of the tumors confirmed they were leiomyosarcomas, which originate from smooth muscle. Restoration of USP18 activity in sarcoma-derived cell lines did not reduce anchorage dependent or independent growth or xenograft tumor formation demonstrating that these cells no longer require USP18 suppression for tumorigenesis. Karyotyping revealed that both tumor-derived cell lines were aneuploid with extra copies of chromosomes 3 and 15. Chromosome 15 contains the Myc locus and MYC is also amplified in human leiomyosarcomas. MYC protein levels were elevated in both murine leiomyosarcoma cell lines. Stabilized P53 protein was detected in a subset of these murine tumors, another feature of human leiomyosarcomas. Immunohistochemical analyses of USP18 in human leiomyosarcomas revealed a range of staining intensities with the highest USP18 expression in normal vascular smooth muscle. USP18 tissue array analysis of primary leiomyosarcomas from 89 patients with a clinical database revealed cases with reduced USP18 levels had a significantly

  12. Treatment of Experimental Acute Radiation Disease in Mice with Probiotics, Quinolones, and General Gnotobiological Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    isolates recovered from the saline- des (5 isolates ), Eubacterium spp . (4), Peptococcus treated mice (14 isolates ) and from the other groups, spp . (2...high bifidobacterial counts were found These Bifidobacterium spp . isolates demonstrated the in the feces of a majority of the mice at day 5 after same...intes- Leuconostoc spp . (26), and Lactobacillus spp . (13). tinal aerobic bacteria in the saline-treated mice were Other frequent isolates (19) were

  13. Usefulness of acute phase proteins for monitoring development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Serum levels of acute phase proteins (APP) have been used to diagnose and follow up treatment of liver diseases. This study was carried out to determine the usefulness of APP to predict development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among Hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers. Study design: In a prospective ...

  14. Acute renal failure (AFR) in developing countries: which factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute renal failure (AFR) in developing countries: which factors actually influence survival. F.A Arogundade, A.A Sanusi, O.O Okunola, F.O Soyinka, O.E Ojo, A Akinsola. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  15. Acute and chronic effects of treatment with mesenchymal stromal cells on LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation, emphysema and atherosclerosis development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Padmini S J Khedoe

    Full Text Available COPD is a pulmonary disorder often accompanied by cardiovascular disease (CVD, and current treatment of this comorbidity is suboptimal. Systemic inflammation in COPD triggered by smoke and microbial exposure is suggested to link COPD and CVD. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC possess anti-inflammatory capacities and MSC treatment is considered an attractive treatment option for various chronic inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we investigated the immunomodulatory properties of MSC in an acute and chronic model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammation, emphysema and atherosclerosis development in APOE*3-Leiden (E3L mice.Hyperlipidemic E3L mice were intranasally instilled with 10 μg LPS or vehicle twice in an acute 4-day study, or twice weekly during 20 weeks Western-type diet feeding in a chronic study. Mice received 0.5x106 MSC or vehicle intravenously twice after the first LPS instillation (acute study or in week 14, 16, 18 and 20 (chronic study. Inflammatory parameters were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL and lung tissue. Emphysema, pulmonary inflammation and atherosclerosis were assessed in the chronic study.In the acute study, intranasal LPS administration induced a marked systemic IL-6 response on day 3, which was inhibited after MSC treatment. Furthermore, MSC treatment reduced LPS-induced total cell count in BAL due to reduced neutrophil numbers. In the chronic study, LPS increased emphysema but did not aggravate atherosclerosis. Emphysema and atherosclerosis development were unaffected after MSC treatment.These data show that MSC inhibit LPS-induced pulmonary and systemic inflammation in the acute study, whereas MSC treatment had no effect on inflammation, emphysema and atherosclerosis development in the chronic study.

  16. Safety of dried sambiloto Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) nees gamma irradiated based on acute toxicity aspect in mice swiss webster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermin Katrin; Susanto; Hendig Winarno

    2014-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata nees (Family: Acanthaceae) is a medicinal plant commonly cultivated in Asian countries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of gamma irradiated sambiloto against to animal test (mice) and to support the application of nuclear techniques for radiation pasteurization of sambiloto as health products without changing the properties. In the acute toxicity test was observed the effects of the tested material on behavioral changes, abnormalities in the function of several organs and body weight changes in animal test every day for 2 weeks. The results showed that the ethanol extract of unirradiated and irradiated with dose of 7.5 kGy) sambiloto were not toxic to mice. Lethal Dose 50 (DL 50 ) of ethanol extract from sambiloto unirradiated or irradiated at the dose of 7.5 kGy was > 5000 mg/kg BW. At the highest dose tested 5000 mg/kg BW mice there were no significant toxic effects and no mice that died during the experiment, therefore ethanol extracts of un irradiated and irradiated samples could be declared safe. (author)

  17. Combined effects of radon inhalation and antioxidant vitamin administration on acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etani, Reo; Kataoka, Takahiro; Nishiyama, Yuichi; Takata, Yuji; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that radon inhalation activates antioxidative functions in liver and has an antioxidative effect against hepatopathy similar to that of the antioxidative effects of ascorbic acid (VC) or α-tocopherol (VE). In this study, we examined the combined effects of radon inhalation and antioxidant vitamin administration on acute alcohol-induced hepatopathy in mice. ICR mice were subjected to intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of alcohol after pretreating with air only (sham) or radon at a concentration of approximately 2000 Bq/m 3 for 24 hours and i.p. administration of VC (300 mg/kg body weight) or VE (300 mg/kg body weight). In mice injected with alcohol, the combined radon and antioxidant vitamins treatment significantly decreased the activities of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase in serum compared to not only the alcohol-administered group (sham group), but also the radon inhalation with alcohol administration group or the vitamin and alcohol administration group. In addition, radon inhalation significantly increased the antioxidant level, in such as the catalase activity and the total glutathione content in liver compared to the sham group. These results suggested that the combined radon and antioxidant vitamin treatment could effectively inhibit alcohol-induced hepatopathy in mice without any antagonizing action. (author)

  18. The Healing of Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells on Motor Functions in Acute Spinal Cord Injury of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Gashmardi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Spinal cord injury is a devastating damage that can cause motor and sensory deficits reducing quality of life and life expectancy of patients. Stem cell transplantation can be one of the promising therapeutic strategies. Bone marrow is a rich source of stem cells that is able to differentiate into various cell types. In this study, bone marrow stem cells were transplanted into mice spinal cord injury model to evaluate the motor function test. Methods: Bone marrow stem cells were isolated from 3 mice. Thirty six mice were randomly divided into 3 groups: the control, sham and experimental. In sham group, mice were subjected to spinal cord compression. In experimental group, one day after lesion, isolated stem cells (200,000 were injected intravenously. Assessment of locomotor function was done by Toyama Mouse Score (TMS after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 week post-injury. The data were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance and Tukey tests and statistical software Graph Pad and SPSS.P > 0/05 was considered as significant difference.  Results: The score of TMS after cell transplantation was higher in cell transplantation group (experimental, while it was significantly higher after fifth week when compared to other groups. Conclusion: The increase in TMS score in cell transplantation group showed that injection of stem cells in acute spinal cord injury can have a therapeutic effect and promote locomotor function.

  19. Factors secreted from dental pulp stem cells show multifaceted benefits for treating acute lung injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakayama, Hirotaka; Hashimoto, Naozumi; Matsushita, Yoshihiro; Matsubara, Kohki; Yamamoto, Noriyuki; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Ueda, Minoru; Yamamoto, Akihito

    2015-08-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe inflammatory disorder characterized by acute respiratory failure, resulting from severe, destructive lung inflammation and irreversible lung fibrosis. We evaluated the use of stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) or SHED-derived serum-free conditioned medium (SHED-CM) as treatments for bleomycin (BLM)-induced mice acute lung injury (ALI), exhibiting several pathogenic features associated with the human disease ARDS. Mice with BLM-induced ALI with or without SHED or SHED-CM treatment were examined for weight loss and survival. The lung tissue was characterized by histological and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. The effects of SHED-CM on macrophage differentiation in vitro were also assessed. A single intravenous administration of either SHEDs or SHED-CM attenuated the lung injury and weight loss in BLM-treated mice and improved their survival rate. Similar recovery levels were seen in the SHEDs and SHED-CM treatment groups, suggesting that SHED improves ALI by paracrine mechanisms. SHED-CM contained multiple therapeutic factors involved in lung-regenerative mechanisms. Importantly, SHED-CM attenuated the BLM-induced pro-inflammatory response and generated an anti-inflammatory/tissue-regenerating environment, accompanied by the induction of anti-inflammatory M2-like lung macrophages. Furthermore, SHED-CM promoted the in vitro differentiation of bone marrow-derived macrophages into M2-like cells, which expressed high levels of Arginase1, CD206 and Ym-1. Our results suggest that SHED-secreted factors provide multifaceted therapeutic effects, including a strong M2-inducing activity, for treating BLM-induced ALI. This work may open new avenues for research on stem cell-based ARDS therapies. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Antitoxic effect of Veratrilla baillonii on the acute toxicity in mice induced by Aconitum brachypodum, one of the genus Aconitum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yue-Bin; Jiang, Yi; Zhou, Huan; Zheng, Mi; Li, Jun; Huang, Xian-Ju; Gao, Yue

    2016-02-17

    Aconitum brachypodum Diels (Family Ranunculaceae) is well known for both its good therapy and high toxicity in Yunnan and Sichuan provinces in China. Noticeably, Veratrilla baillonii Franch (Family Gentianaceae), an ethnodrug used by Naxi and Lisu nationalities in Yunnan Province, has been widely considered to possess antitoxic effects on Aconitum plants in herbal therapy and folklore medicines. The present study was conducted to determine the detoxic activities of the water decoction of Veratrilla baillonii Franch (WVBF) on the the chloroform fraction of Aconitum brachypodum Diels (CFA) induced acute toxicity in mice. The physiological (symptoms, body weight, etc.) as well as pathological and clinical biochemistry parameters were assessed and used as the markers for the toxicity. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolic approach was adopted to further discuss the mechanism. The acute poisoning effects of CFA on mice were observed at doses of 20-62.5mgkg(-1), resulting in an oral median lethal dose (LD50) of 41.3mgkg(-1). Histologically, distinct degenerative changes of the heart, liver and kidney were observed. The biochemistry parameters in the serum as well as metabolites in heart and brain were also altered. However, WVBF (25-200mg/kg) attenuated all the acute toxicity and pathological changes, properly regulated the biochemistry parameters, and reversed the concentration alterations for some metabolites in the heart and brain of mice induced by 40mg/kg of CFA to a certain extent. WVBF significantly reduced the onset of the CFA toxicity. This study may contribute to further understanding of the toxicological and pharmacological profiles of Aconitum brachypodum and the detoxic property of Veratrilla baillonii. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. NOAEL-dose of a neonicotinoid pesticide, clothianidin, acutely induce anxiety-related behavior with human-audible vocalizations in male mice in a novel environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Tetsushi; Yanai, Shogo; Takada, Tadashi; Yoneda, Naoki; Omotehara, Takuya; Kubota, Naoto; Minami, Kiichi; Yamamoto, Anzu; Mantani, Youhei; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Hoshi, Nobuhiko

    2018-01-05

    Neonicotinoids are novel systemic pesticides acting as agonists on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of insects. Experimental studies have revealed that neonicotinoids pose potential risks for the nervous systems of non-target species, but the brain regions responsible for their behavioral effects remain incompletely understood. This study aimed to assess the neurobehavioral effects of clothianidin (CTD), a later neonicotinoid developed in 2001 and widely used worldwide, and to explore the target regions of neonicotinoids in the mammalian brain. A single-administration of 5 or 50mg/kg CTD to male C57BL/6N mice at or below the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) induced an acute increase in anxiety during the elevated plus-maze test. In addition, mice in the CTD-administered group spontaneously emitted human-audible vocalizations (4-16kHz), which are behavioral signs of aversive emotions, and showed increased numbers of c-fos immunoreactive cells in the paraventricular thalamic nucleus and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. In conclusion, mice exposed to NOAEL-dose CTD would be rendered vulnerable to a novel environment via the activation of thalamic and hippocampal regions related to stress responses. These findings should provide critical insight into the neurobehavioral effects of neonicotinoids on mammals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute heat-evoked temperature sensation is impaired but not abolished in mice lacking TRPV1 and TRPV3 channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marics, Irène; Malapert, Pascale; Reynders, Ana; Gaillard, Stéphane; Moqrich, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of heat-sensitive Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid ion channels (ThermoTRPVs) greatly advanced our molecular understanding of acute and injury-evoked heat temperature sensation. ThermoTRPV channels are activated by partially overlapping temperatures ranging from warm to supra-threshold noxious heat. TRPV1 is activated by noxious heat temperature whereas TRPV3 can be activated by warm as well as noxious heat temperatures. Loss-of-function studies in single TRPV1 and TRPV3 knock-out mice have shown that heat temperature sensation is not completely abolished suggesting functional redundancies among these two channels and highlighting the need of a detailed analysis of TRPV1::TRPV3 double knock-out mice (V1V3dKO) which is hampered by the close proximity of the loci expressing the two channels. Here we describe the generation of a novel mouse model in which trpv1 and trpv3 genes have been inactivated using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. In these mice, using classical thermosensory tests such hot plate, tail flick and the thermotaxis gradient paradigms, we confirm that TRPV1 is the master channel for sensing noxious heat temperatures and identify a cooperative role of TRPV1 and TRPV3 for sensing a well-defined window of acute moderate heat temperature. Using the dynamic hot plate assay, we unravel an intriguing and unexpected pronounced escape behavior in TRPV1 knock-out mice that was attenuated in the V1V3dKO. Together, and in agreement with the temperature activation overlap between TRPV1 and TRPV3 channels, our data provide in vivo evidence of a cooperative role between skin-derived TRPV3 and primary sensory neurons-enriched TRPV1 in modulation of moderate and noxious heat temperature sensation and suggest that other mechanisms are required for heat temperature sensation.

  3. The TRIF-dependent signaling pathway is not required for acute cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Fang, E-mail: fhua2@emory.edu [Department of Emergency Medicine, Brain Research Laboratory, Emory University School of Medicine, 1365B Clifton Road, Suite 5100, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Wang, Jun; Sayeed, Iqbal; Ishrat, Tauheed; Atif, Fahim; Stein, Donald G. [Department of Emergency Medicine, Brain Research Laboratory, Emory University School of Medicine, 1365B Clifton Road, Suite 5100, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States)

    2009-12-18

    TIR domain-containing adaptor protein (TRIF) is an adaptor protein in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways. Activation of TRIF leads to the activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B). While studies have shown that TLRs are implicated in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and in neuroprotection against ischemia afforded by preconditioning, little is known about TRIF's role in the pathological process following cerebral I/R. The present study investigated the role that TRIF may play in acute cerebral I/R injury. In a mouse model of cerebral I/R induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, we examined the activation of NF-{kappa}B and IRF3 signaling in ischemic cerebral tissue using ELISA and Western blots. Neurological function and cerebral infarct size were also evaluated 24 h after cerebral I/R. NF-{kappa}B activity and phosphorylation of the inhibitor of kappa B (I{kappa}B{alpha}) increased in ischemic brains, but IRF3, inhibitor of {kappa}B kinase complex-{epsilon} (IKK{epsilon}), and TANK-binding kinase1 (TBK1) were not activated after cerebral I/R in wild-type (WT) mice. Interestingly, TRIF deficit did not inhibit NF-{kappa}B activity or p-I{kappa}B{alpha} induced by cerebral I/R. Moreover, although cerebral I/R induced neurological and functional impairments and brain infarction in WT mice, the deficits were not improved and brain infarct size was not reduced in TRIF knockout mice compared to WT mice. Our results demonstrate that the TRIF-dependent signaling pathway is not required for the activation of NF-{kappa}B signaling and brain injury after acute cerebral I/R.

  4. The TRIF-dependent signaling pathway is not required for acute cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, Fang; Wang, Jun; Sayeed, Iqbal; Ishrat, Tauheed; Atif, Fahim; Stein, Donald G.

    2009-01-01

    TIR domain-containing adaptor protein (TRIF) is an adaptor protein in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways. Activation of TRIF leads to the activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). While studies have shown that TLRs are implicated in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and in neuroprotection against ischemia afforded by preconditioning, little is known about TRIF's role in the pathological process following cerebral I/R. The present study investigated the role that TRIF may play in acute cerebral I/R injury. In a mouse model of cerebral I/R induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, we examined the activation of NF-κB and IRF3 signaling in ischemic cerebral tissue using ELISA and Western blots. Neurological function and cerebral infarct size were also evaluated 24 h after cerebral I/R. NF-κB activity and phosphorylation of the inhibitor of kappa B (IκBα) increased in ischemic brains, but IRF3, inhibitor of κB kinase complex-ε (IKKε), and TANK-binding kinase1 (TBK1) were not activated after cerebral I/R in wild-type (WT) mice. Interestingly, TRIF deficit did not inhibit NF-κB activity or p-IκBα induced by cerebral I/R. Moreover, although cerebral I/R induced neurological and functional impairments and brain infarction in WT mice, the deficits were not improved and brain infarct size was not reduced in TRIF knockout mice compared to WT mice. Our results demonstrate that the TRIF-dependent signaling pathway is not required for the activation of NF-κB signaling and brain injury after acute cerebral I/R.

  5. Angiotensin II blockade causes acute renal failure in eNOS-deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Schnermann

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Compared with wild-type mice, adult endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS knockout mice (eight months of age have increased blood pressure (BP (126±9 mmHg vs. 100±4 mmHg, and an increased renal vascular resistance (155±16 vs. 65±4 mmHg.min/ml. Renal vascular resistance responses to i.v. administration of noradrenaline were markedly enhanced in eNOS knockout mice. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR of anaesthetised eNOS -/- mice was 324±57 µl/min gKW, significantly lower than the GFR of 761±126 µl/min.gKW in wild-type mice. AT1-receptor blockade with i.v. candesartan (1—1.5 mg/kg reduced arterial blood pressure and renal vascular resistance, and increased renal blood flow (RBF to about the same extent in wild-type and eNOS -/- mice. Candesartan did not alter GFR in wild-type mice (761±126 vs. 720±95 µl/min.gKW, but caused a marked decrease in GFR in eNOS -/- mice (324.5±75.2 vs. 77±18 µl/min.gKW. A similar reduction in GFR of eNOS deficient mice was also caused by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibition. Afferent arteriolar granularity, a measure of renal renin expression, was found to be reduced in eNOS -/- compared with wild-type mice. In chronically eNOS-deficient mice, angiotensin II (Ang II is critical for maintaining glomerular filtration pressure and GFR, presumably through its effect on efferent arteriolar tone.

  6. The role of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 in the progression of fatty liver after acute ethanol administration in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tomoki; Morita, Akihito; Mori, Nobuko; Miura, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ethanol administration increased GPD1 mRNA expression. • Ethanol administration increased glucose incorporation into TG glycerol moieties. • No increase in hepatic TG levels was observed in ethanol-injected GPD1 null mice. • We propose that GPD1 is required for ethanol-induced TG accumulation in the liver. - Abstract: Acute ethanol consumption leads to the accumulation of triglycerides (TGs) in hepatocytes. The increase in lipogenesis and reduction of fatty acid oxidation are implicated as the mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation. Although glycerol-3-phosphate (Gro3P), formed by glycerol kinase (GYK) or glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (GPD1), is also required for TG synthesis, the roles of GYK and GPD1 have been the subject of some debate. In this study, we examine (1) the expression of genes involved in Gro3P production in the liver of C57BL/6J mice in the context of hepatic TG accumulation after acute ethanol intake, and (2) the role of GPD1 in the progression of ethanol-induced fatty liver using GPD1 null mice. As a result, in C57BL/6J mice, ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation began within 2 h and was 1.7-fold greater than that observed in the control group after 6 h. The up-regulation of GPD1 began 2 h after administering ethanol, and significantly increased 6 h later with the concomitant escalation in the glycolytic gene expression. The incorporation of 14 C-labelled glucose into TG glycerol moieties increased during the same period. On the other hand, in GPD1 null mice carrying normal GYK activity, no significant increase in hepatic TG level was observed after acute ethanol intake. In conclusion, GPD1 and glycolytic gene expression is up-regulated by ethanol, and GPD1-mediated incorporation of glucose into TG glycerol moieties together with increased lipogenesis, is suggested to play an important role in ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation

  7. The role of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 in the progression of fatty liver after acute ethanol administration in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Tomoki, E-mail: s13220@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp [Laboratory of Nutritional Biochemistry, Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); Morita, Akihito, E-mail: moritaa@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp [Laboratory of Nutritional Biochemistry, Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan); Mori, Nobuko, E-mail: morin@b.s.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-2 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai 599-8570 (Japan); Miura, Shinji, E-mail: miura@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp [Laboratory of Nutritional Biochemistry, Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8526 (Japan)

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • Ethanol administration increased GPD1 mRNA expression. • Ethanol administration increased glucose incorporation into TG glycerol moieties. • No increase in hepatic TG levels was observed in ethanol-injected GPD1 null mice. • We propose that GPD1 is required for ethanol-induced TG accumulation in the liver. - Abstract: Acute ethanol consumption leads to the accumulation of triglycerides (TGs) in hepatocytes. The increase in lipogenesis and reduction of fatty acid oxidation are implicated as the mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation. Although glycerol-3-phosphate (Gro3P), formed by glycerol kinase (GYK) or glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (GPD1), is also required for TG synthesis, the roles of GYK and GPD1 have been the subject of some debate. In this study, we examine (1) the expression of genes involved in Gro3P production in the liver of C57BL/6J mice in the context of hepatic TG accumulation after acute ethanol intake, and (2) the role of GPD1 in the progression of ethanol-induced fatty liver using GPD1 null mice. As a result, in C57BL/6J mice, ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation began within 2 h and was 1.7-fold greater than that observed in the control group after 6 h. The up-regulation of GPD1 began 2 h after administering ethanol, and significantly increased 6 h later with the concomitant escalation in the glycolytic gene expression. The incorporation of {sup 14}C-labelled glucose into TG glycerol moieties increased during the same period. On the other hand, in GPD1 null mice carrying normal GYK activity, no significant increase in hepatic TG level was observed after acute ethanol intake. In conclusion, GPD1 and glycolytic gene expression is up-regulated by ethanol, and GPD1-mediated incorporation of glucose into TG glycerol moieties together with increased lipogenesis, is suggested to play an important role in ethanol-induced hepatic TG accumulation.

  8. Differential Efficacy of Ketamine in the Acute versus Chronic Stages of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajerian, Maral; Leu, David; Yang, Phillip; Huang, Ting Ting; Kingery, Wade S; Clark, J David

    2015-01-01

    Background Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a painful, disabling and often chronic condition, where many patients transition from an acute phase with prominent peripheral neurogenic inflammation to a chronic phase with evident central nervous system (CNS) changes. Ketamine is a centrally-acting agent believed to work through blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and is being increasingly used for the treatment of refractory CRPS, although the basis for the drug’s effects and efficacy at different stages of the syndrome remain unclear. Methods We used a mouse model of CRPS (n=8–12/group) involving tibia fracture/cast immobilization to test the efficacy of ketamine (2 mg/kg/day; 7 days) or vehicle infusion during acute (3weeks [3w] post-fracture) and chronic (7w post-fracture) stages. Results Acute phase fracture mice displayed elevated limb temperature, edema and nociceptive sensitization that were not reduced by ketamine. Fracture mice treated with ketamine during the chronic phase showed reduced nociceptive sensitization that persisted beyond completion of the infusion. During this chronic phase, ketamine also reduced latent nociceptive sensitization and improved motor function at 18 weeks post-fracture. No side effects of the infusions were identified. These behavioral changes were associated with altered spinal astrocyte activation and expression of pain-related proteins including NMDA receptor 2b (NR2b), Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase ii (CaMK2), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF). Conclusions Collectively, these results demonstrate that ketamine is efficacious in the chronic, but not acute stages of CRPS, suggesting that the centrally-acting drug is relatively ineffective in early CRPS when peripheral mechanisms are more critical for supporting nociceptive sensitization. PMID:26492479

  9. Phytochemical Screening and Acute Toxicity of Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus in Swiss Albino Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Dayane K D; Souza, Ivone A DE; Oliveira, Antônio F M DE; Barbosa, Mariana O; Santana, Marllon A N; Pereira, Daniel F; Lira, Eduardo C; Vieira, Jeymesson R C

    2016-09-01

    Mangroves represent areas of high biological productivity and it is a region rich in bioactive substances used in medicine production. Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae) known as button mangrove is one of the species found in mangroves and it is used in folk medicine in the treatment of anemia, catarrh, conjunctivitis, diabetes, diarrhea, fever, gonorrhea, headache, hemorrhage, orchitis, rash, bumps and syphilis. The present study aimed to investigate the acute toxicity of aqueous extract of leaves of C. erectus in Swiss albino mice. The plant material was collected in Vila Velha mangroves, located in Itamaracá (PE). The material was subjected to a phytochemical screening where extractive protocols to identify majority molecules present in leaves were used. The evaluation of acute toxicity of aqueous extract of C. erectus followed the model of Acute Toxicity Class based on OECD 423 Guideline, 2001. The majority molecules were identified: flavonoids, tannins and saponins. The LD50 was estimated at 2,000 mg/kg bw. Therefore, the aqueous extract showed low acute toxicity classified in category 5.

  10. Phytochemical Screening and Acute Toxicity of Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus in Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAYANE K.D. NASCIMENTO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mangroves represent areas of high biological productivity and it is a region rich in bioactive substances used in medicine production. Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae known as button mangrove is one of the species found in mangroves and it is used in folk medicine in the treatment of anemia, catarrh, conjunctivitis, diabetes, diarrhea, fever, gonorrhea, headache, hemorrhage, orchitis, rash, bumps and syphilis. The present study aimed to investigate the acute toxicity of aqueous extract of leaves of C. erectus in Swiss albino mice. The plant material was collected in Vila Velha mangroves, located in Itamaracá (PE. The material was subjected to a phytochemical screening where extractive protocols to identify majority molecules present in leaves were used. The evaluation of acute toxicity of aqueous extract of C. erectus followed the model of Acute Toxicity Class based on OECD 423 Guideline, 2001. The majority molecules were identified: flavonoids, tannins and saponins. The LD50 was estimated at 2,000 mg/kg bw. Therefore, the aqueous extract showed low acute toxicity classified in category 5.

  11. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-physicochemical properties predict the systemic acute phase response following pulmonary exposure in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Sarah Søs; Knudsen, Kristina Bram; Jackson, Petra

    2017-01-01

    of acute phase proteins to the blood. We identified physicochemical determinants of MWCNT-induced systemic acute phase response by analyzing effects of pulmonary exposure to 14 commercial, well-characterized MWCNTs in female C57BLI6J mice pulmonary exposed to 0, 6, 18 or 54 lag MWCNT/mouse. Plasma levels...... of acute phase response proteins serum amyloid A1/2 (SAA1/2) and SAA3 were determined on day 1, 28 or 92. Expression levels of hepatic Saal and pulmonary Saa3 mRNA levels were assessed to determine the origin of the acute phase response proteins. Pulmonary Saa3 mRNA expression levels were greater...... limited changes were observed on day 28 and 92. SAA1/2 and SAA3 protein levels did not correlate and only SAA3 protein levels correlated with neutrophil influx. The multiple regression analyses revealed a protective effect of MWCNT length on SAA1/2 protein level on day 1, such that a longer length...

  12. Medicinal Mushroom Cracked-Cap Polypore, Phellinus rimosus (Higher Basidiomycetes) Attenuates Acute Ethanol-Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajith, Thekkuttuparambil A; Janardhanan, Kainoor K

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and alcoholism remain one of the major health issues worldwide, especially in developing countries. The protective effect of Phellinus rimosus against acute alcohol-induced lipid peroxidation in the liver, kidney, and brain as well as its effect against antioxidant enzyme activity such as superoxide (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the liver was evaluated in mice. Ethyl acetate extract of Ph. Rimosus (50 mg/kg body wt, p.o.) 1 h before each administration of alcohol (3 mL/kg, p.o.; total 2 doses at 24-h intervals) protected against lipid peroxidation in all organs and attenuated the decline of SOD and CAT activity in the liver. The fold increase in lipid peroxidation, including conjugated diene and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels, was highest in the liver. There were 2.6- and 1.5- fold increases in TBARS levels in the liver of the alcohol alone- and alcohol+Ph. Rimosus-treated groups, compared with that of the normal group. Activity of SOD and CAT in the liver of alcohol- and alcohol+Ph. Rimosus- treated animals was 9.05±1.38, 18.76±1.71, and 11.26±1.02, 31.58±3.35 IU/mg protein, respectively. Extract at 1 mg/mL inhibited 50.6% activity of aniline hydroxylase (CYP2E1) in liver homogenate. From these results, we concluded that the extract significantly protected against the lipid peroxidation. Protection in the liver may be due to the inhibitory effect on CYP2E1 as well as the direct radical scavenging effect of Ph. Rimosus, which warrants further research.

  13. Preventive Effect of Three Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Seeds Fractions on Cerulein-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaiyan, Mohsen; Zolfaghari, Behzd; Taheri, Diana; Gomarian, Mahdi

    2014-04-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) refers to afflicted inflammation of pancreas with unfavorable adverse effects and developed multiple organ failures. Unfortunately, there is not a certain therapeutic method for this disease. Oxidative stress has a serious role in the pathogenesis of AP. Thus, decreasing of oxidative stress may prevent induction and progression of AP. Punica granatum L. has been extensively used in traditional medicine and possesses various active biological elements. Due to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of pomegranate, it could be considered as a good candidate alternative medicine with beneficial effects on AP. In this study, we decided to study the protective effect of three fractions of pomegranate seeds on cerulein-induced AP. AP was induced in male Syrian mice by five intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of cerulein (50 μg/kg) with 1 h intervals. Treatments with pomegranate freeze-dried powder (PFDP) and hydroalcoholic pomegranate seeds extract (PSE) at doses of 125, 250, 500 mg/kg (i.p.) were started 30 min before pancreatitis induction. Pomegranate seed oil fraction (PSOF) was orally administered (50, 100, 200 μL/kg) and continued for 10 days. Pancreatic tissue was evaluated for histopathological parameters and pancreatic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity as well as lipase and amylase levels were measured in plasma. The higher doses of three fractions (250 and 500 mg/kg for PFDP and PSE and doses of 100, 200 μL/kg for PSOF) significantly reduced amylase and lipase activity in serum (at least P < 0.01), pancreatic MPO activity (P < 0.001), edema, leukocyte infiltration and vacuolization in comparison to the control group (P < 0.05). These results propose that pomegranate seeds fractions can prevent and/or treat the AP.

  14. Glucagon receptor knockout mice are protected against acute olanzapine-induced hyperglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, Laura N; Peppler, Willem T; Sutton, Charles D; Whitfield, Jamie; Charron, Maureen J; Wright, David C

    2017-08-01

    To determine if glucagon is involved in mediating the increase in blood glucose levels caused by the second-generation antipsychotic drug olanzapine. Whole body glucagon receptor deficient mice (Gcgr -/- ) or WT littermate controls were injected with olanzapine (5mg/kg BW IP) and changes in blood glucose measured over the following 120min. Separate cohorts of mice were treated with olanzapine and changes in pyruvate tolerance, insulin tolerance and whole body substrate oxidation were determined. Olanzapine treatment increased serum glucagon and lead to rapid increases in blood glucose concentrations in WT mice. Gcgr -/- mice were protected against olanzapine-induced increases in blood glucose but this was not explained by differences in terminal serum insulin concentrations, enhanced AKT phosphorylation in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue or liver or differences in RER. In both genotypes olanzapine induced an equivalent degree of insulin resistance as measured using an insulin tolerance test. Olanzapine treatment led to an exaggerated glucose response to a pyruvate challenge in WT but not Gcgr -/- mice and this was paralleled by reductions in the protein content of PEPCK and G6Pase in livers from Gcgr -/- mice. Gcgr -/- mice are protected against olanzapine-induced increases in blood glucose. This is likely a result of reductions in liver glucose output, perhaps secondary to decreases in PEPCK and G6Pase protein content. Our findings highlight the central role of the liver in mediating olanzapine-induced disturbances in glucose homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Acute cold hypersensitivity characteristically induced by oxaliplatin is caused by the enhanced responsiveness of TRPA1 in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Meng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxaliplatin, a platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent, causes an unusual acute peripheral neuropathy. Oxaliplatin-induced acute peripheral neuropathy appears in almost all patients rapidly after infusion, and is triggered or exacerbated by cold, while its mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, the involvement of thermosensitive transient receptor potential channels (TRPA1, TRPM8 and TRPV1 in oxaliplatin-induced acute hypersensitivity was investigated in mice. Results A single intraperitoneal administration of oxaliplatin (1–10 mg/kg induced cold but not mechanical hypersensitivity within 2 h in a dose-dependent manner. Infusion of the oxaliplatin metabolite, oxalate (1.7 mg/kg, also induced acute cold hypersensitivity, while another platinum-based chemotherapeutic agent, cisplatin (5 mg/kg, or the non-platinum-containing chemotherapeutic agent, paclitaxel (6 mg/kg failed to induce mechanical or cold hypersensitivity. The oxaliplatin-induced acute cold hypersensitivity was abolished by the TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 (100 mg/kg and by TRPA1 deficiency. The nocifensive behaviors evoked by intraplantar injections of allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC; TRPA1 agonist were significantly enhanced in mice treated for 2 h with oxaliplatin (1–10 mg/kg in a dose-dependent manner, while capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist-evoked nocifensive behaviors were not affected. Menthol (TRPM8/TRPA1 agonist-evoked nocifensive-like behaviors were also enhanced by oxaliplatin pretreatment, which were inhibited by TRPA1 deficiency. Similarly, oxalate enhanced, but neither cisplatin nor paclitaxel affected AITC-evoked nocifensive behaviors. Pretreatment of cultured mouse dorsal root ganglia (DRG neurons with oxaliplatin (30–300 μM for 1, 2, or 4 h significantly increased the number of AITC-sensitive neurons in a concentration-dependent manner whereas there was no change in the number of menthol- or capsaicin-sensitive neurons

  16. Efficacy and Safety of Platelet Glycoprotein Receptor Blockade in Aged and Comorbid Mice With Acute Experimental Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Peter; Schuhmann, Michael K; Fluri, Felix; Lorenz, Kristina; Zernecke, Alma; Stoll, Guido; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Kleinschnitz, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Despite the medical and socioeconomic effect of ischemic stroke and extensive preclinical research, treatment options for ischemic stroke are limited. We recently identified and characterized essential steps of thrombus formation in stroke and demonstrated that inhibition of the platelet glycoprotein (GP) receptors Ib and VI, but not IIb/IIIa, protects young and healthy mice from ischemic neurodegeneration. Whether these findings translate to the clinic remains unclear. Considering that the typical stroke patient is elderly with comorbidity, we aimed to analyze the efficacy and safety of novel preclinical antithrombotics in adult and comorbid mice with acute experimental stroke. We subjected adult, healthy, atherosclerotic (Ldlr(-/-)), diabetic (streptozotocin treated), and hypertensive (RenTgMK) mice to a 60-minute transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Animals were pretreated with anti-GPVI antibodies or treated 1 hour after stroke induction with anti-GPIb or anti-GPIIb/IIIa antigen-binding fragments, respectively. Isotype treatment served as control. Twenty-four hours after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, we visually assessed the intracerebral hemorrhage rate and measured infarct volumes (using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride-stained brain slices) and functional outcome (using Bederson and grip-test scores). GPIb and GPVI inhibition protected the mice from ischemic stroke without increasing bleeding complications. In contrast, GPIIb/IIIa inhibition was not protective but increased the intracerebral hemorrhage rate. Inhibition of early steps of thrombus formation protects adult and comorbid mice from ischemic stroke. The use of clinically meaningful mouse strains might improve the translation of preclinical stroke research to the clinic. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Halofuginone alleviates acute viral myocarditis in suckling BALB/c mice by inhibiting TGF-β1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiao-Hua [Department of Emergency, Xi’an Children’s Hospital, Xi' an, 710003, Shanxi (China); Fu, Jia [Department of Infection, Xi’an Children’s Hospital, Xi' an, 710003, Shanxi (China); Sun, Da-Qing, E-mail: daqingsuncd@163.com [Department of Respiration, Xi’an Children’s Hospital, NO. 69 Xijuyuan Lane, Xi' an 710003, Shanxi (China)

    2016-04-29

    Viral myocarditis (VMC) is an inflammation of heart muscle in infants and young adolescents. This study explored the function of halofuginone (HF) in Coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) -treated suckling mice. HF-treated animal exhibited higher survival rate, lower heart/body weight, and more decreased blood sugar concentration than CVB3 group. HF also reduced the expressions of interleukin(IL)-17 and IL-23 and the numbers of Th17 cells. Moreover, HF downregulated pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and increased anti-inflammatory cytokine levels. The expressions of transforming growth factor(TGF-β1) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B (NF-κB) p65/ tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) proteins were decreased by HF as well. Finally, the overexpression of TGF-β1 counteracted the protection effect of HF in CVB3-treated suckling mice. In summary, our study suggests HF increases the survival of CVB3 suckling mice, reduces the Th17 cells and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, and may through downregulation of the TGF-β1-mediated expression of NF-κB p65/TNF-α pathway proteins. These results offer a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of VMC. - Highlights: • Halofuginone (HF) increases the survival of suckling BALB/c mice infected with acute CVB3. • HF reduces the expression of Th17 cell markers (IL-17 and IL-23) and the number of CD4{sup +} IL17{sup +} cells. • Pro-inflammatory cytokines levels associated with myocarditis were reduced by HF in CVB3-treated suckling mice. • HF alleviates VMC via inhibition of TGF-β1-mediated NF-κB p65/TNF-α pathway.

  18. Pathophysiological and behavioral deficits in developing mice following rotational acceleration-deceleration traumatic brain injury

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    Guoxiang Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abusive head trauma (AHT is the leading cause of death from trauma in infants and young children. An AHT animal model was developed on 12-day-old mice subjected to 90° head extension-flexion sagittal shaking repeated 30, 60, 80 and 100 times. The mortality and time until return of consciousness were dependent on the number of repeats and severity of the injury. Following 60 episodes of repeated head shakings, the pups demonstrated apnea and/or bradycardia immediately after injury. Acute oxygen desaturation was observed by pulse oximetry during respiratory and cardiac suppression. The cerebral blood perfusion was assessed by laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA using a PeriCam PSI system. There was a severe reduction in cerebral blood perfusion immediately after the trauma that did not significantly improve within 24 h. The injured mice began to experience reversible sensorimotor function at 9 days postinjury (dpi, which had completely recovered at 28 dpi. However, cognitive deficits and anxiety-like behavior remained. Subdural/subarachnoid hemorrhage, damage to the brain-blood barrier and parenchymal edema were found in all pups subjected to 60 insults. Proinflammatory response and reactive gliosis were upregulated at 3 dpi. Degenerated neurons were found in the cerebral cortex and olfactory tubercles at 30 dpi. This mouse model of repetitive brain injury by rotational head acceleration-deceleration partially mimics the major pathophysiological and behavioral events that occur in children with AHT. The resultant hypoxia/ischemia suggests a potential mechanism underlying the secondary rotational acceleration-deceleration-induced brain injury in developing mice.

  19. Agmatine Protects against Zymosan-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice by Inhibiting NF-κB-Mediated Inflammatory Response

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    Xuanfei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury (ALI is characterized by overwhelming lung inflammation and anti-inflammation treatment is proposed to be a therapeutic strategy for ALI. Agmatine, a cationic polyamine formed by decarboxylation of L-arginine, is an endogenous neuromodulator that plays protective roles in diverse central nervous system (CNS disorders. Consistent with its neuromodulatory and neuroprotective properties, agmatine has been reported to have beneficial effects on depression, anxiety, hypoxic ischemia, Parkinson’s disease, and gastric disorder. In this study, we tested the effect of agmatine on the lung inflammation induced by Zymosan (ZYM challenge in mice. We found that agmatine treatment relieved ZYM-induced acute lung injury, as evidenced by the reduced histological scores, wet/dry weight ratio, and myeloperoxidase activity in the lung tissue. This was accompanied by reduced levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in lung and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and decreased iNOS expression in lung. Furthermore, agmatine inhibited the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB and subsequently blocked the activation of nuclear factor (NF-κB induced by Zymosan. Taken together, our results showed that agmatine treatment inhibited NF-κB signaling in lungs and protected mice against ALI induced by Zymosan, suggesting agmatine may be a potential safe and effective approach for the treatment of ALI.

  20. Agmatine protects against zymosan-induced acute lung injury in mice by inhibiting NF-κB-mediated inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuanfei; Liu, Zheng; Jin, He; Fan, Xia; Yang, Xue; Tang, Wanqi; Yan, Jun; Liang, Huaping

    2014-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by overwhelming lung inflammation and anti-inflammation treatment is proposed to be a therapeutic strategy for ALI. Agmatine, a cationic polyamine formed by decarboxylation of L-arginine, is an endogenous neuromodulator that plays protective roles in diverse central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Consistent with its neuromodulatory and neuroprotective properties, agmatine has been reported to have beneficial effects on depression, anxiety, hypoxic ischemia, Parkinson's disease, and gastric disorder. In this study, we tested the effect of agmatine on the lung inflammation induced by Zymosan (ZYM) challenge in mice. We found that agmatine treatment relieved ZYM-induced acute lung injury, as evidenced by the reduced histological scores, wet/dry weight ratio, and myeloperoxidase activity in the lung tissue. This was accompanied by reduced levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in lung and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and decreased iNOS expression in lung. Furthermore, agmatine inhibited the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB and subsequently blocked the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB induced by Zymosan. Taken together, our results showed that agmatine treatment inhibited NF-κB signaling in lungs and protected mice against ALI induced by Zymosan, suggesting agmatine may be a potential safe and effective approach for the treatment of ALI.

  1. Skeletal muscle relaxant effect of a standardized extract of Valeriana officinalis L. after acute administration in mice

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    Dorian Caudal

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Valeriana officinalis L. root extracts are traditionally taken for their sedative and anxiolytic properties and are also used for muscle relaxation. Relaxant effects were clearly observed on smooth muscle whereas data on effects on skeletal muscle are scarce and inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess whether a standardized extract (SE of V. officinalis had myorelaxant effects by decreasing skeletal muscle strength and/or neuromuscular tone in mice. Mice received an acute dose of V. officinalis SE (2 or 5 g/kg per os or tetrazepam (10 mg/kg ip, a standard myorelaxant drug. Thirty minutes later, the maximal muscle strength was measured using a grip test, while global skeletal muscle function (endurance and neuromuscular tone was assessed in a wire hanging test. Compared to tetrazepam, both doses of V. officinalis SE induced a pronounced decrease in skeletal muscle strength without any significant effects on endurance and neuromuscular tone. This study provides clear evidence that the extract of V. officinalis tested has a relaxant effect on skeletal muscle. By decreasing skeletal muscle strength without impacting endurance and neuromuscular tone, V. officinalis SE could induce less undesirable side effects than standard myorelaxant agents, and be particularly useful for avoiding falls in the elderly. Keywords: Valeriana officinalis, Skeletal muscle relaxant, Strength, Hydroethanolic root extract, Acute treatment, Mouse

  2. Efficacy of Pistacia khinjuk Fruits on Viability of Hydatid Cyst Protoscoleces and Its Acute Toxicity in Mice Model

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    Hossein MAHMOUDVAND

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This investigation aimed to evaluate the in vitro scolicidal effects of Pistacia khinjuk methanolic extract against protoscoleces of hydatid cysts and its acute toxicity in mice NMRI model.Methods: Protoscoleces were aseptically extracted from sheep livers having hydatid cysts. Various concentrations of the essential oil (12.5- 100 mg/mL were used for 10 to 60 min. Viability of protoscoleces was confirmed using eosin exclusion test (0.1% eosin staining. Twenty-four male NMRI mice were used to assess the acute toxicity of P. khinjuk.Results: P. khinjuk extract at the concentrations of 100 mg/mL after 10 min of exposure killed 100% of protoscoleces. Similarly, the mean of mortality rate of protoscoleces after 20 min of exposure to the concentration of 50 mg/mL was 100%. The LD50 of the intraperitoneal injection of the P. khinjuk methanolic extract was 2.8 g/kg and the maximum non-fatal dose was 1.7 g/kg.Conclusion: The findings demonstrated effective scolicidal effects of P. khinjuk extract with no considerable toxicity that might be a natural source for the producing of new scolicidal agent.

  3. Antigenotoxic effect of acute, subacute and chronic treatments with Amazonian camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) juice on mice blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Francisco Carlos; Arruda, Andrelisse; Ledel, Alexandre; Dauth, Cíntia; Romão, Nathalia Faria; Viana, Rafaele Nazário; de Barros Falcão Ferraz, Alexandre; Picada, Jaqueline Nascimento; Pereira, Patrícia

    2012-07-01

    Myrciaria dubia, a plant native to the Amazon region, stands out as a fruit rich in vitamin C and other metabolites with nutritional potential. We evaluated the antioxidant, genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of M. dubia juice on blood cells of mice after acute, subacute and chronic treatments. Flavonoids and vitamin C present in the fruit of M. dubia were quantified. In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH assay. Blood samples were collected for analysis after treatment, and the alkaline comet assay was used to analyze the genotoxic and antigenotoxic activity (ex vivo analysis using H(2)O(2)). The amount of vitamin C per 100mL of M. dubia was 52.5mg. DPPH assay showed an antioxidant potential of the fruit. No M. dubia concentration tested exerted any genotoxic effect on mice blood cells. In the ex vivo test, the juice demonstrated antigenotoxic effect, and acute treatment produced the most significant results. After the treatments, there was no evidence of toxicity or death. In conclusion, our data show that M. dubia juice has antigenotoxic and antioxidant activities, though with no genotoxicity for blood cells. Nevertheless, more in-depth studies should be conducted to assess the safety of this fruit for human consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hepatoprotective Effect of Terminalia chebula against t-BHP-Induced Acute Liver Injury in C57/BL6 Mice

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    Min-Kyung Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to identify the hepatoprotective effects of Terminalia chebula water extract (TCW and its corresponding pharmacological actions using C57/BL6 mice model of tert-butylhydroperoxide-(t-BHP- induced acute liver injury. Mice were orally administered with TCW (0, 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg or gallic acid (100 mg/kg for 5 days before t-BHP (2.5 mM/kg injection. Liver enzymes, histopathology, oxidative stress parameters, antioxidant components, and inflammatory cytokines were examined 18 h after t-BHP injection. t-BHP injection caused dramatic elevation of serum AST, ALT, and LDH level, while TCW pretreatment notably attenuated these elevations. Inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were notably increased in hepatic tissues, and then these were efficiently attenuated by TCW pretreatment. t-BHP injection notably increased malondialdehyde, total reactive oxygen species, and nitric oxide in the liver tissue, while it markedly dropped the antioxidant activities including total antioxidant capacity, total glutathione contents, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. TCW pretreatment remarkably ameliorated these alterations, and these effects were relevant to gene expressions. Histopathological examinations supported the above findings. Collectively, these findings well prove that TCW beneficially prevents acute and severe liver injury and clarify its corresponding mechanisms involved in the inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines.

  5. Conventional alpha beta (αβ) T cells do not contribute to acute intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yi; Feng, Xiaoyan; Vieten, Gertrud; Dippel, Stephanie; Imvised, Tawan; Gueler, Faikah; Ure, Benno M; Kuebler, Jochen F; Klemann, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is associated with significant patient mortality and morbidity. The complex cascade of IRI is incompletely understood, but inflammation is known to be a key mediator. In addition to the predominant innate immune responses, previous research has also indicated that αβ T cells contribute to IRI in various organ models. The aim of this study was to clarify the role αβ T cells play in IRI to the gut. Adult wild-type (WT) and αβ T cell-deficient mice were subjected to acute intestinal IRI with 30min ischemia followed by 4h reperfusion. The gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was measured by qPCR, and the influx of leukocyte subpopulations in the gut was assessed via flow cytometry and histology. Pro-inflammatory cytokines in the serum were measured, and transaminases were assessed as an indicator of distant organ IRI. Intestinal IRI led to an increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the gut tissue and an influx of leukocytes that predominantly consisted of neutrophils and macrophages. Furthermore, intestinal IRI increased serum IL-6, TNF-α, and ALT/AST levels. The αβ T cell-deficient mice did not exhibit a more significant increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines in the gut or serum following IR than the WT mice. There was also no difference between WT- and αβ T cell-deficient mice in terms of neutrophil infiltration or macrophage activation. Furthermore, the increase in transaminases was equal in both groups indicating that the level of distant organ injury was comparable. An increasing body of evidence demonstrates that αβ T cells play a key role in IRI. In the gut, however, αβ T cells are not pivotal in the first hours following acute IRI as deficiency does not impact cytokine production, neutrophil recruitment, macrophage activation, or distant organ injury. Thus, αβ T cells may be considered innocent bystanders during the acute phase of intestinal IRI.

  6. Conventional alpha beta (αβ T cells do not contribute to acute intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Yu

    Full Text Available Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI is associated with significant patient mortality and morbidity. The complex cascade of IRI is incompletely understood, but inflammation is known to be a key mediator. In addition to the predominant innate immune responses, previous research has also indicated that αβ T cells contribute to IRI in various organ models. The aim of this study was to clarify the role αβ T cells play in IRI to the gut.Adult wild-type (WT and αβ T cell-deficient mice were subjected to acute intestinal IRI with 30min ischemia followed by 4h reperfusion. The gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines was measured by qPCR, and the influx of leukocyte subpopulations in the gut was assessed via flow cytometry and histology. Pro-inflammatory cytokines in the serum were measured, and transaminases were assessed as an indicator of distant organ IRI.Intestinal IRI led to an increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the gut tissue and an influx of leukocytes that predominantly consisted of neutrophils and macrophages. Furthermore, intestinal IRI increased serum IL-6, TNF-α, and ALT/AST levels. The αβ T cell-deficient mice did not exhibit a more significant increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines in the gut or serum following IR than the WT mice. There was also no difference between WT- and αβ T cell-deficient mice in terms of neutrophil infiltration or macrophage activation. Furthermore, the increase in transaminases was equal in both groups indicating that the level of distant organ injury was comparable.An increasing body of evidence demonstrates that αβ T cells play a key role in IRI. In the gut, however, αβ T cells are not pivotal in the first hours following acute IRI as deficiency does not impact cytokine production, neutrophil recruitment, macrophage activation, or distant organ injury. Thus, αβ T cells may be considered innocent bystanders during the acute phase of intestinal IRI.

  7. Abnormal megakaryocyte development and platelet function in Nbeal2(-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahr, Walter H A; Lo, Richard W; Li, Ling; Pluthero, Fred G; Christensen, Hilary; Ni, Ran; Vaezzadeh, Nima; Hawkins, Cynthia E; Weyrich, Andrew S; Di Paola, Jorge; Landolt-Marticorena, Carolina; Gross, Peter L

    2013-11-07

    Gray platelet syndrome (GPS) is an inherited bleeding disorder associated with macrothrombocytopenia and α-granule-deficient platelets. GPS has been linked to loss of function mutations in NEABL2 (neurobeachin-like 2), and we describe here a murine GPS model, the Nbeal2(-/-) mouse. As in GPS, Nbeal2(-/-) mice exhibit splenomegaly, macrothrombocytopenia, and a deficiency of platelet α-granules and their cargo, including von Willebrand factor (VWF), thrombospondin-1, and platelet factor 4. The platelet α-granule membrane protein P-selectin is expressed at 48% of wild-type levels and externalized upon platelet activation. The presence of P-selectin and normal levels of VPS33B and VPS16B in Nbeal2(-/-) platelets suggests that NBEAL2 acts independently of VPS33B/VPS16B at a later stage of α-granule biogenesis. Impaired Nbeal2(-/-) platelet function was shown by flow cytometry, platelet aggregometry, bleeding assays, and intravital imaging of laser-induced arterial thrombus formation. Microscopic analysis detected marked abnormalities in Nbeal2(-/-) bone marrow megakaryocytes, which when cultured showed delayed maturation, decreased survival, decreased ploidy, and developmental abnormalities, including abnormal extracellular distribution of VWF. Our results confirm that α-granule secretion plays a significant role in platelet function, and they also indicate that abnormal α-granule formation in Nbeal2(-/-) mice has deleterious effects on megakaryocyte survival, development, and platelet production.

  8. Antibiotics in acute necrotizing pancreatitis --- perspective of a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Khan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Prophylactic antibiotics in acute necrotizing pancreatitis is controversial. The mortality of acute necrotizing pancreatitis is 8-25% in the western world. In view of the limited resources available for managing the complications of infected pancreatitis in developing countries, the use of prophylactic antibiotics may be recommended in selected cases. Various antibiotics show good penetration into the pancreatic tissue; imipenem and quinolones have better penetration. Clinical trials on the use of prophylactic antibiotics in necrotizing pancreatitis have been reviewed. Prophylactic antibiotics have been considered if greater than 30% pancreatic necrosis as documented by CT scan. Imipenem can be given for a duration of 10 to 14 days if no systemic complications are present. In a developing country where the cost of managing complications of pancreatitis can be a limiting factor for patients, the use of prophylactic antibiotics early on in the disease in selected cases can be beneficial. (author)

  9. T1-mapping for assessment of ischemia-induced acute kidney injury and prediction of chronic kidney disease in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueper, Katja; Gutberlet, Marcel; Wacker, Frank; Hartung, Dagmar [Hannover Medical School, Department of Radiology, Hannover (Germany); Hannover Medical School, REBIRTH Cluster of Excellence, Hannover (Germany); Peperhove, Matti; Tewes, Susanne; Barrmeyer, Amelie [Hannover Medical School, Department of Radiology, Hannover (Germany); Rong, Song [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nephrology, Hannover (Germany); Zunyi Medical College, Laboratory of Organ Transplantation, Zunyi (China); Gerstenberg, Jessica; Haller, Herman; Gueler, Faikah [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nephrology, Hannover (Germany); Mengel, Michael [University of Alberta, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Edmonton (Canada); Meier, Martin [Hannover Medical School, REBIRTH Cluster of Excellence, Hannover (Germany); Hannover Medical School, Institute for Animal Science, Hannover (Germany); Chen, Rongjun [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nephrology, Hannover (Germany); Zhejiang University, The Kidney Disease Center of the First Affiliated Hospital, Hangzhou (China)

    2014-09-15

    To investigate whether T1-mapping allows assessment of acute kidney injury (AKI) and prediction of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in mice. AKI was induced in C57Bl/6N mice by clamping of the right renal pedicle for 35 min (moderate AKI, n = 26) or 45 min (severe AKI, n = 23). Sham animals served as controls (n = 9). Renal histology was assessed in the acute (day 1 + day 7; d1 + d7) and chronic phase (d28) after AKI. Furthermore, longitudinal MRI-examinations (prior to until d28 after surgery) were performed using a 7-Tesla magnet. T1-maps were calculated from a fat-saturated echoplanar inversion recovery sequence, and mean and relative T1-relaxation times were determined. Renal histology showed severe tubular injury at d1 + d7 in both AKI groups, whereas, at d28, only animals with prolonged 45-min ischemia showed persistent signs of AKI. Following both AKI severities T1-values significantly increased and peaked at d7. T1-times in the contralateral kidney without AKI remained stable. At d7 relative T1-values in the outer stripe of the outer medulla were significantly higher after severe than after moderate AKI (138 ± 2 % vs. 121 ± 3 %, p = 0.001). T1-elevation persisted until d28 only after severe AKI. Already at d7 T1 in the outer stripe of the outer medulla correlated with kidney volume loss indicating CKD (r = 0.83). T1-mapping non-invasively detects AKI severity in mice and predicts further outcome. (orig.)

  10. T1-mapping for assessment of ischemia-induced acute kidney injury and prediction of chronic kidney disease in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueper, Katja; Gutberlet, Marcel; Wacker, Frank; Hartung, Dagmar; Peperhove, Matti; Tewes, Susanne; Barrmeyer, Amelie; Rong, Song; Gerstenberg, Jessica; Haller, Herman; Gueler, Faikah; Mengel, Michael; Meier, Martin; Chen, Rongjun

    2014-01-01

    To investigate whether T1-mapping allows assessment of acute kidney injury (AKI) and prediction of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in mice. AKI was induced in C57Bl/6N mice by clamping of the right renal pedicle for 35 min (moderate AKI, n = 26) or 45 min (severe AKI, n = 23). Sham animals served as controls (n = 9). Renal histology was assessed in the acute (day 1 + day 7; d1 + d7) and chronic phase (d28) after AKI. Furthermore, longitudinal MRI-examinations (prior to until d28 after surgery) were performed using a 7-Tesla magnet. T1-maps were calculated from a fat-saturated echoplanar inversion recovery sequence, and mean and relative T1-relaxation times were determined. Renal histology showed severe tubular injury at d1 + d7 in both AKI groups, whereas, at d28, only animals with prolonged 45-min ischemia showed persistent signs of AKI. Following both AKI severities T1-values significantly increased and peaked at d7. T1-times in the contralateral kidney without AKI remained stable. At d7 relative T1-values in the outer stripe of the outer medulla were significantly higher after severe than after moderate AKI (138 ± 2 % vs. 121 ± 3 %, p = 0.001). T1-elevation persisted until d28 only after severe AKI. Already at d7 T1 in the outer stripe of the outer medulla correlated with kidney volume loss indicating CKD (r = 0.83). T1-mapping non-invasively detects AKI severity in mice and predicts further outcome. (orig.)

  11. GEP analysis validates high risk MDS and acute myeloid leukemia post MDS mice models and highlights novel dysregulated pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerenne, Laura; Beurlet, Stéphanie; Said, Mohamed; Gorombei, Petra; Le Pogam, Carole; Guidez, Fabien; de la Grange, Pierre; Omidvar, Nader; Vanneaux, Valérie; Mills, Ken; Mufti, Ghulam J; Sarda-Mantel, Laure; Noguera, Maria Elena; Pla, Marika; Fenaux, Pierre; Padua, Rose Ann; Chomienne, Christine; Krief, Patricia

    2016-01-27

    In spite of the recent discovery of genetic mutations in most myelodysplasic (MDS) patients, the pathophysiology of these disorders still remains poorly understood, and only few in vivo models are available to help unravel the disease. We performed global specific gene expression profiling and functional pathway analysis in purified Sca1+ cells of two MDS transgenic mouse models that mimic human high-risk MDS (HR-MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) post MDS, with NRASD12 and BCL2 transgenes under the control of different promoters MRP8NRASD12/tethBCL-2 or MRP8[NRASD12/hBCL-2], respectively. Analysis of dysregulated genes that were unique to the diseased HR-MDS and AML post MDS mice and not their founder mice pointed first to pathways that had previously been reported in MDS patients, including DNA replication/damage/repair, cell cycle, apoptosis, immune responses, and canonical Wnt pathways, further validating these models at the gene expression level. Interestingly, pathways not previously reported in MDS were discovered. These included dysregulated genes of noncanonical Wnt pathways and energy and lipid metabolisms. These dysregulated genes were not only confirmed in a different independent set of BM and spleen Sca1+ cells from the MDS mice but also in MDS CD34+ BM patient samples. These two MDS models may thus provide useful preclinical models to target pathways previously identified in MDS patients and to unravel novel pathways highlighted by this study.

  12. GEP analysis validates high risk MDS and acute myeloid leukemia post MDS mice models and highlights novel dysregulated pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Guerenne

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In spite of the recent discovery of genetic mutations in most myelodysplasic (MDS patients, the pathophysiology of these disorders still remains poorly understood, and only few in vivo models are available to help unravel the disease. Methods We performed global specific gene expression profiling and functional pathway analysis in purified Sca1+ cells of two MDS transgenic mouse models that mimic human high-risk MDS (HR-MDS and acute myeloid leukemia (AML post MDS, with NRASD12 and BCL2 transgenes under the control of different promoters MRP8NRASD12/tethBCL-2 or MRP8[NRASD12/hBCL-2], respectively. Results Analysis of dysregulated genes that were unique to the diseased HR-MDS and AML post MDS mice and not their founder mice pointed first to pathways that had previously been reported in MDS patients, including DNA replication/damage/repair, cell cycle, apoptosis, immune responses, and canonical Wnt pathways, further validating these models at the gene expression level. Interestingly, pathways not previously reported in MDS were discovered. These included dysregulated genes of noncanonical Wnt pathways and energy and lipid metabolisms. These dysregulated genes were not only confirmed in a different independent set of BM and spleen Sca1+ cells from the MDS mice but also in MDS CD34+ BM patient samples. Conclusions These two MDS models may thus provide useful preclinical models to target pathways previously identified in MDS patients and to unravel novel pathways highlighted by this study.

  13. Acute and subchronic toxicity of the antitumor agent rhodium (II citrate in Balb/c mice after intraperitoneal administration

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    Marcella L.B. Carneiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate potential acute and subchronic toxicity of rhodium (II citrate in female Balb/c mice after intraperitoneal injections. In the acute test, independent groups received five doses; the highest dose (107.5 mg/kg was equivalent to 33 times that used in our previous reports. The other doses were chosen as proportions of the highest, being 80.7 (75%, 53.8 (50%, 26.9 (25% or 13.8 mg/kg (12.5%. Animals were monitored over 38 days and no severe signs of toxicity were observed, according to mortality, monitoring of adverse symptoms, hematological, biochemical and genotoxic parameters. We conclude that the median lethal dose (LD50 could be greater than 107.5 mg/kg. In the subchronic test, five doses of Rh2Cit (80, 60, 40, 20 or 10 mg/kg were evaluated and injections were conducted on alternate days, totaling five applications per animal. Paclitaxel (57.5 mg/kg and saline solution were controls. Clinical observations, histopathology of liver, lung and kidneys and effects on hematological, biochemistry and genotoxic records indicated that Rh2Cit induced no severe toxic effects, even at an accumulated dose up to 400 mg/kg.We suggest Rh2Cit has great potential as an antitumor drug without presenting acute and subchronic toxicity.

  14. DNA copy number analysis from mice with radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Certain mouse strains such as CBA C3H and RFM have high incidence of radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The data in this series wer generated by using...

  15. Attenuated stress response to acute restraint and forced swimming stress in arginine vasopressin 1b receptor subtype (Avpr1b) receptor knockout mice and wild-type mice treated with a novel Avpr1b receptor antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, J A; Craighead, M; O'Carroll, A-M; Lolait, S J

    2010-11-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) synthesised in the parvocellular region of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and released into the pituitary portal vessels acts on the 1b receptor subtype (Avpr1b) present in anterior pituitary corticotrophs to modulate the release of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH). Corticotrophin-releasing hormone is considered the major drive behind ACTH release; however, its action is augmented synergistically by AVP. To determine the extent of vasopressinergic influence in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to restraint and forced swimming stress, we compared the stress hormone levels [plasma ACTH in both stressors and corticosterone (CORT) in restraint stress only] following acute stress in mutant Avpr1b knockout (KO) mice compared to their wild-type controls following the administration of a novel Avpr1b antagonist. Restraint and forced swimming stress-induced increases in plasma ACTH were significantly diminished in mice lacking a functional Avpr1b and in wild-type mice that had been pre-treated with Avpr1b antagonist. A corresponding decrease in plasma CORT levels was also observed in acute restraint-stressed knockout male mice, and in Avpr1b-antagonist-treated male wild-type mice. By contrast, plasma CORT levels were not reduced in acutely restraint-stressed female knockout animals, or in female wild-type animals pre-treated with Avpr1b antagonist. These results demonstrate that pharmacological antagonism or inactivation of Avpr1b causes a reduction in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response, particularly ACTH, to acute restraint and forced swimming stress, and show that Avpr1b knockout mice constitute a model by which to study the contribution of Avpr1b to the HPA axis response to acute stressors. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Lysosome associated membrane proteins maintain pancreatic acinar cell homeostasis: LAMP-2 deficient mice develop pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareninova, Olga A; Sendler, Matthias; Malla, Sudarshan Ravi; Yakubov, Iskandar; French, Samuel W; Tokhtaeva, Elmira; Vagin, Olga; Oorschot, Viola; Lüllmann-Rauch, Renate; Blanz, Judith; Dawson, David; Klumperman, Judith; Lerch, Markus M; Mayerle, Julia; Gukovsky, Ilya; Gukovskaya, Anna S

    2015-11-01

    The pathogenic mechanism of pancreatitis is poorly understood. Recent evidence implicates defective autophagy in pancreatitis responses; however, the pathways mediating impaired autophagy in pancreas remain largely unknown. Here, we investigate the role of lysosome associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) in pancreatitis. We analyzed changes in LAMPs in experimental models and human pancreatitis, and the underlying mechanisms: LAMP de-glycosylation and degradation. LAMP cleavage by cathepsin B (CatB) was analyzed by mass spectrometry. We used mice deficient in LAMP-2 to assess its role in pancreatitis. Pancreatic levels of LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 greatly decrease across various pancreatitis models and in human disease. Pancreatitis does not trigger LAMPs' bulk de-glycosylation, but induces their degradation via CatB-mediated cleavage of LAMP molecule close to the boundary between luminal and transmembrane domains. LAMP-2 null mice spontaneously develop pancreatitis that begins with acinar cell vacuolization due to impaired autophagic flux, and progresses to severe pancreas damage characterized by trypsinogen activation, macrophage-driven inflammation, and acinar cell death. LAMP-2 deficiency causes a decrease in pancreatic digestive enzymes content, stimulates the basal and inhibits CCK-induced amylase secretion by acinar cells. The effects of LAMP-2 knockout and acute cerulein pancreatitis overlap, which corroborates the pathogenic role of LAMP decrease in experimental pancreatitis models. The results indicate a critical role for LAMPs, particularly LAMP-2, in maintaining pancreatic acinar cell homeostasis, and provide evidence that defective lysosomal function, resulting in impaired autophagy, leads to pancreatitis. Mice with LAMP-2 deficiency present a novel genetic model of human pancreatitis caused by lysosomal/autophagic dysfunction.

  17. Deficiency in Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase PTP1B Shortens Lifespan and Leads to Development of Acute Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Sommer, Samantha; Morrice, Nicola; Pesaresi, Martina; Thompson, Dawn; Vickers, Mark A; Murray, Graeme I; Mody, Nimesh; Neel, Benjamin G; Bence, Kendra K; Wilson, Heather M; Delibegović, Mirela

    2018-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B is a critical regulator of signaling pathways controlling metabolic homeostasis, cell proliferation, and immunity. In this study, we report that global or myeloid-specific deficiency of PTP1B in mice decreases lifespan. We demonstrate that myeloid-specific deficiency of PTP1B is sufficient to promote the development of acute myeloid leukemia. LysM-PTP1B -/- mice lacking PTP1B in the innate myeloid cell lineage displayed a dysregulation of bone marrow cells with a rapid decline in population at midlife and a concomitant increase in peripheral blood blast cells. This phenotype manifested further with extramedullary tumors, hepatic macrophage infiltration, and metabolic reprogramming, suggesting increased hepatic lipid metabolism prior to overt tumor development. Mechanistic investigations revealed an increase in anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage responses in liver and spleen, as associated with increased expression of arginase I and the cytokines IL10 and IL4. We also documented STAT3 hypersphosphorylation and signaling along with JAK-dependent upregulation of antiapoptotic proteins Bcl2 and BclXL. Our results establish a tumor suppressor role for PTP1B in the myeloid lineage cells, with evidence that its genetic inactivation in mice is sufficient to drive acute myeloid leukemia. Significance: This study defines a tumor suppressor function for the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B in myeloid lineage cells, with evidence that its genetic inactivation in mice is sufficient to drive acute myeloid leukemia. Cancer Res; 78(1); 75-87. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. The protective effects of resveratral on acute radiation injury in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Hao; Wang Hui; Zhang Heng

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the protective function of resveratrol on radiation-induced small intestine injury and lethal effect in mice. Methods: Mice were randomly divided into three groups: irradiation (IR) control, IR only, and IR+ resveratrol. 15 mice each group were irradiated on abdomen with 7.2 Gy γ-rays for cell lethal assay and 8 mice each group were irradiated with 6.5 Gy for small intestine injury assay. For the IR+ resveratrol group, the mouse was given resveratrol by intragastric administration 24 h before irradiation and then was fed with resveratrol daily for 5 days. The control and IR alone groups were fed with placebo. After 30 days of IR, mouse survival rate was detected. For small intestine injury experiments, 24 h after IR, the mice were terminated and the small intestines were treated with HE and immunohistochemical staining. Results: Compared with the irradiation group, resveratrol increased mouse survival by 33.3%, decreased apoptosis in intestinal crypt cells (t = 17.35, P < 0.05), and increased Ki67 expression (t = 13.62, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Resveratrol could protect small intestine injury from ionizing irradiation. (authors)

  19. No effect of ablation of surfactant protein-D on acute cerebral infarction in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambertsen, Kate Lykke; Østergaard, Kamilla; Clausen, Bettina Hjelm

    2014-01-01

    known to be involved in extrapulmonary modulation of inflammation in mice. We investigated whether SP-D affected cerebral ischemic infarction and ischemia-induced inflammatory responses in mice. METHODS: The effect of SP-D was studied by comparing the size of ischemic infarction and the inflammatory...... and astroglial responses in SP-D knock out (KO) and wild type (WT) mice subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. SP-D mRNA production was assessed in isolated cerebral arteries and in the whole brain by PCR, and SP-D protein in normal appearing and ischemic human brain by immunohistochemistry......-induced increase in TNF mRNA production one day after induction of ischemia; however the TNF response to the ischemic insult was affected at five days. SP-D mRNA was not detected in parenchymal brain cells in either naïve mice or in mice subjected to focal cerebral ischemia. However, SP-D mRNA was detected...

  20. Sleep loss and acute drug abuse can induce DNA damage in multiple organs of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, T A; Ribeiro, D A; Araujo, P; Hirotsu, C; Mazaro-Costa, R; Costa, J L; Battisti, M C; Tufik, S; Andersen, M L

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to characterize the genetic damage induced by paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) in combination with cocaine or ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine; MDMA) in multiple organs of male mice using the single cell gel (comet) assay. C57BL/6J mice were submitted to PSD by the platform technique for 72 hours, followed by drug administration and evaluation of DNA damage in peripheral blood, liver and brain tissues. Cocaine was able to induce genetic damage in the blood, brain and liver cells of sleep-deprived mice at the majority of the doses evaluated. Ecstasy also induced increased DNA migration in peripheral blood cells for all concentrations tested. Analysis of damaged cells by the tail moment data suggests that ecstasy is a genotoxic chemical at the highest concentrations tested, inducing damage in liver or brain cells after sleep deprivation in mice. Taken together, our results suggest that cocaine and ecstasy/MDMA act as potent genotoxins in multiple organs of mice when associated with sleep loss.

  1. The Acute Toxicity Test of Methanolic Extract of Hyptis pectinata Poit on Liver Balb/c Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzery, M.; Cahyono, B.; Astuti, P.

    2017-02-01

    Plants from Lamiaceae family has almost entirely reported having physiological activities. One of them is Hyptis pectinata Poit plant. Research on the toxicity of Hyptis pectinata needs to be done to protect people from the possibility of its harmful effects. This study aim to know the acute toxicity effects of Hyptis pectinata extract (HPE) on liver of Balb/c mice. This research was a laboratory experimental study using the post test only controlled group design. Balb/c mice were randomly divided into 4 groups. K (control group), P1, P2 and P3 (treatment groups; given HPE 200mg/kgBW, 1000 mg/kgBW, and 5000 mg/kgBW, respectively). The extract was orally given with gastric tube on the first day and the mice were terminated at the 8th day then the livers were observed. The Kruskal-Wallis test for macroscopic morphological and volume of the liver showed there were no significant difference with p=0.406 and p=0.054. The highest liver histopathological score was in P3 group. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed significantly difference (p=0.000). Continued with Mann-Withney test that showed a significant difference in K-P1 (p=0.009), K-P2 (p=0.009), K-P3 (p=0.009), P1-P2 (p=0.028), and P1-P3 (p=0.009). In conclusion, the HPE is safe to use which has no complication with liver of mice.

  2. Phototherapy with low intensity laser in carrageenan-induced acute inflammatory process in mice paw - dosimetry studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneguzzo, Daiane Thais

    2010-01-01

    The importance of modulation of inflammation on the treatment of inflammatory diseases and the difficulty in determining the laser irradiation parameters has led us to study the effects of different protocols of phototherapy with low intensity laser (power, energy, time and place of irradiation) in the treatment and prevention of edema in acute inflammatory process using the experimental model of paw edema induced by carrageenan (CGN) in three strains of mice (Balb-c, Swiss and C57BL/6). The first stage of the study evaluated different combinations of energy (1J and 3J) with different powers (30, 60 and 100mW) in Balb-C mice paw irradiated 1 and 2h after injection of CGN. The second stage studied different combinations of location (foot, inguinal lymph nodes and both) and exposure time (2 and 1h before, 1h and immediately before the CGN, 1 and 2h and 3.5 and 4.5h after CGN) using fixed irradiation parameters (1J, 100mW, 35J/cm 2 , spot area of 0.028 cm 2 ). The third stage compared different strains of mice Balb-c and C57BL/6) in the best local and time parameters found in step 2. At all stages, we evaluated the change in paw volume by plethysmography and inflammatory infiltrate by histomorphometry or analysis of myeloperoxidase (MPO). The results showed that laser phototherapy treated and prevented edema and modulated the inflammatory process with paw and inguinal lymph nodes irradiations accordingly with the parameters and mice strain used. (author)

  3. Differential exposure and acute health impacts of inhaled solid-fuel emissions from rudimentary and advanced cookstoves in female CD-1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs-Flournoy, Eugene A; Gilmour, M Ian; Higuchi, Mark; Jetter, James; George, Ingrid; Copeland, Lisa; Harrison, Randy; Moser, Virginia C; Dye, Janice A

    2018-02-01

    There is an urgent need to provide access to cleaner end user energy technologies for the nearly 40% of the world's population who currently depend on rudimentary cooking and heating systems. Advanced cookstoves (CS) are designed to cut emissions and solid-fuel consumption, thus reducing adverse human health and environmental impacts. We hypothesized that, compared to a traditional (Tier 0) three-stone (3-S) fire, acute inhalation of solid-fuel emissions from advanced natural-draft (ND; Tier 2) or forced-draft (FD; Tier 3) stoves would reduce exposure biomarkers and lessen pulmonary and innate immune system health effects in exposed mice. Across two simulated cooking cycles (duration ~ 3h), emitted particulate mass concentrations were reduced 80% and 62% by FD and ND stoves, respectively, compared to the 3-S fire; with corresponding decreases in particles visible within murine alveolar macrophages. Emitted carbon monoxide was reduced ~ 90% and ~ 60%, respectively. Only 3-S-fire-exposed mice had increased carboxyhemoglobin levels. Emitted volatile organic compounds were FD ≪ 3-S-fire ≤ ND stove; increased expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism (COX-2, NQO1, CYP1a1) was detected only in ND- and 3-S-fire-exposed mice. Diminished macrophage phagocytosis was observed in the ND group. Lung glutathione was significantly depleted across all CS groups, however the FD group had the most severe, ongoing oxidative stress. These results are consistent with reports associating exposure to solid fuel stove emissions with modulation of the innate immune system and increased susceptibility to infection. Lower respiratory infections continue to be a leading cause of death in low-income economies. Notably, 3-S-fire-exposed mice were the only group to develop acute lung injury, possibly because they inhaled the highest concentrations of hazardous air toxicants (e.g., 1,3-butadiene, toluene, benzene, acrolein) in association with the greatest number of particles, and

  4. Placental growth factor deficiency is associated with impaired cerebral vascular development in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Rayana Leal; Kay, Vanessa R; Rätsep, Matthew T; Khalaj, Kasra; Bidarimath, Mallikarjun; Peterson, Nichole; Carmeliet, Peter; Jin, Albert; Croy, B Anne

    2016-02-01

    Placental growth factor (PGF) is expressed in the developing mouse brain and contributes to vascularization and vessel patterning. PGF is dynamically expressed in fetal mouse brain, particularly forebrain, and is essential for normal cerebrovascular development. PGF rises in maternal plasma over normal human and mouse pregnancy but is low in many women with the acute onset hypertensive syndrome, pre-eclampsia (PE). Little is known about the expression of PGF in the fetus during PE. Pgf  (-/-) mice appear normal but recently cerebral vascular defects were documented in adult Pgf  (-/-) mice. Here, temporal-spatial expression of PGF is mapped in normal fetal mouse brains and cerebral vasculature development is compared between normal and congenic Pgf  (-/-) fetuses to assess the actions of PGF during cerebrovascular development. Pgf/PGF, Vegfa/VEGF, Vegf receptor (Vegfr)1 and Vegfr2 expression were examined in the brains of embryonic day (E)12.5, 14.5, 16.5 and 18.5 C57BL/6 (B6) mice using quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. The cerebral vasculature was compared between Pgf  (-/-) and B6 embryonic and adult brains using whole mount techniques. Vulnerability to cerebral ischemia was investigated using a left common carotid ligation assay. Pgf/PGF and Vegfr1 are highly expressed in E12.5-14.5 forebrain relative to VEGF and Vegfr2. Vegfa/VEGF is relatively more abundant in hindbrain (HB). PGF and VEGF expression were similar in midbrain. Delayed HB vascularization was seen at E10.5 and 11.5 in Pgf  (-/-) brains. At E14.5, Pgf  (-/-) circle of Willis showed unilateral hypoplasia and fewer collateral vessels, defects that persisted post-natally. Functionally, adult Pgf  (-/-) mice experienced cerebral ischemia after left common carotid arterial occlusion while B6 mice did not. Since Pgf  (-/-) mice were used, consequences of complete absence of maternal and fetal PGF were defined. Therefore, the effects of maternal versus fetal PGF

  5. Commensal Lactobacillus Controls Immune Tolerance during Acute Liver Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiro Nakamoto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Gut-derived microbial antigens trigger the innate immune system during acute liver injury. During recovery, regulatory immunity plays a role in suppressing inflammation; however, the precise mechanism underlying this process remains obscure. Here, we find that recruitment of immune-regulatory classical dendritic cells (cDCs is crucial for liver tolerance in concanavalin A-induced acute liver injury. Acute liver injury resulted in enrichment of commensal Lactobacillus in the gut. Notably, Lactobacillus activated IL-22 production by gut innate lymphoid cells and raised systemic IL-22 levels. Gut-derived IL-22 enhanced mucosal barrier function and promoted the recruitment of regulatory cDCs to the liver. These cDCs produced IL-10 and TGF-β through TLR9 activation, preventing further liver inflammation. Collectively, our results indicate that beneficial gut microbes influence tolerogenic immune responses in the liver. Therefore, modulation of the gut microbiota might be a potential option to regulate liver tolerance. : Nakamoto et.al. find that Lactobacillus accumulates in the gut and activates IL-22 production by innate lymphoid cells during acute liver injury. Gut-derived IL-22 contributes to liver tolerance via induction of regulatory DCs. Keywords: immune tolerance, dendritic cell, innate lymphoid cell, acute liver injury, interleukin-10, interleukin-22, microbiota, dysbiosis

  6. Metabolomics analysis reveals elevation of 3-indoxyl sulfate in plasma and brain during chemically-induced acute kidney injury in mice: Investigation of nicotinic acid receptor agonists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zgoda-Pols, Joanna R.; Chowdhury, Swapan; Wirth, Mark; Milburn, Michael V.; Alexander, Danny C.; Alton, Kevin B.

    2011-01-01

    An investigative renal toxicity study using metabolomics was conducted with a potent nicotinic acid receptor (NAR) agonist, SCH 900424. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques were used to identify small molecule biomarkers of acute kidney injury (AKI) that could aid in a better mechanistic understanding of SCH 900424-induced AKI in mice. The metabolomics study revealed 3-indoxyl sulfate (3IS) as a more sensitive marker of SCH 900424-induced renal toxicity than creatinine or urea. An LC-MS assay for quantitative determination of 3IS in mouse matrices was also developed. Following treatment with SCH 900424, 3IS levels were markedly increased in murine plasma and brain, thereby potentially contributing to renal- and central nervous system (CNS)-related rapid onset of toxicities. Furthermore, significant decrease in urinary excretion of 3IS in those animals due to compromised renal function may be associated with the elevation of 3IS in plasma and brain. These data suggest that 3IS has a potential to be a marker of renal and CNS toxicities during chemically-induced AKI in mice. In addition, based on the metabolomic analysis other statistically significant plasma markers including p-cresol-sulfate and tryptophan catabolites (kynurenate, kynurenine, 3-indole-lactate) might be of toxicological importance but have not been studied in detail. This comprehensive approach that includes untargeted metabolomic and targeted bioanalytical sample analyses could be used to investigate toxicity of other compounds that pose preclinical or clinical development challenges in a pharmaceutical discovery and development. - Research highlights: → Nicotinic acid receptor agonist, SCH 900424, caused acute kidney injury in mice. → MS-based metabolomics was conducted to identify potential small molecule markers of renal toxicity. → 3-indoxyl-sulfate was found to be as a more sensitive marker of renal toxicity than

  7. The effects of gut commensal bacteria depletion on mice exposed to acute lethal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Bing; Xu Zhiwei; Zhang Chenggang

    2007-01-01

    The prevention and management of bacterial infection are the mainstays of therapies for irradiation victims. However, worries about adverse effects arise from gut commensal flora depletion owing to the broad-spectrum antibiotics treatment. In the present study, we investigated the effects of gut bacteria depletion on the mice receiving total-body irradiation (TBI) at a single dose of 12 Gy. One group of mice was merely exposed to TBI but was free of antibiotic treatment throughout the experiment, while the other two groups of mice were additionally given broad-spectrum antibiotics, either from 2 weeks before or immediately after irradiation. The survival time of each animal in each group was recorded for analysis. Results showed that the mean survival time of mice was longest in the group without antibiotic treatment and shortest in the group treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics from 2 weeks before TBI. In conclusion, our data suggested that depletion of gut commensal bacteria with broad-spectrum antibiotics seemed deleterious for mammals receiving lethal TBI. (author)

  8. Acute ethanol administration reduces the antidote effect of N-acetylcysteine after acetaminophen overdose in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalhoff, K; Hansen, P B; Ott, P

    1991-01-01

    given ethanol or saline alone only 7% and 3%, respectively, survived 96 h. 4. The data suggest that the protective effect of N-acetylcysteine on acetaminophen-induced toxicity in fed mice is reduced by concomitant administration of ethanol. This may explain the clinical observation that ingestion...

  9. Preventive and therapeutic effects of lithium carbonate on acute radiation injury of hemopoietic system in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, X Y; Wang, Y F; Jia, T Z

    1991-01-01

    The administration of Li2CO3 to female LACA mice for three consecutive days before or after 4Gy whole body gamma-irradiation appeared to have both preventive and therapeutic effects on radiation-induced leucopenia, especially on the depression of CFU-GM. It is effective in small dosage, short course, and even when given 24 hours after irradiation.

  10. Intratracheal IL-6 protects against lung inflammation in direct, but not indirect, causes of acute lung injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Rhea; Janssen, William; Altmann, Christopher; Andrés-Hernando, Ana; Okamura, Kayo; Vandivier, R William; Ahuja, Nilesh; Faubel, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Serum and bronchoalveolar fluid IL-6 are increased in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and predict prolonged mechanical ventilation and poor outcomes, although the role of intra-alveolar IL-6 in indirect lung injury is unknown. We investigated the role of endogenous and exogenous intra-alveolar IL-6 in AKI-mediated lung injury (indirect lung injury), intraperitoneal (IP) endotoxin administration (indirect lung injury) and, for comparison, intratracheal (IT) endotoxin administration (direct lung injury) with the hypothesis that IL-6 would exert a pro-inflammatory effect in these causes of acute lung inflammation. Bronchoalveolar cytokines (IL-6, CXCL1, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-10), BAL fluid neutrophils, lung inflammation (lung cytokines, MPO activity [a biochemical marker of neutrophil infiltration]), and serum cytokines were determined in adult male C57Bl/6 mice with no intervention or 4 hours after ischemic AKI (22 minutes of renal pedicle clamping), IP endotoxin (10 µg), or IT endotoxin (80 µg) with and without intratracheal (IT) IL-6 (25 ng or 200 ng) treatment. Lung inflammation was similar after AKI, IP endotoxin, and IT endotoxin. BAL fluid IL-6 was markedly increased after IT endotoxin, and not increased after AKI or IP endotoxin. Unexpectedly, IT IL-6 exerted an anti-inflammatory effect in healthy mice characterized by reduced BAL fluid cytokines. IT IL-6 also exerted an anti-inflammatory effect in IT endotoxin characterized by reduced BAL fluid cytokines and lung inflammation; IT IL-6 had no effect on lung inflammation in AKI or IP endotoxin. IL-6 exerts an anti-inflammatory effect in direct lung injury from IT endotoxin, yet has no role in the pathogenesis or treatment of indirect lung injury from AKI or IP endotoxin. Since intra-alveolar inflammation is important in the pathogenesis of direct, but not indirect, causes of lung inflammation, IT anti-inflammatory treatments may have a role in direct, but not indirect, causes of ARDS.

  11. Interaction between diazepam and hippocampal corticosterone after acute stress: impact on memory in middle-aged mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eBeracochea

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Benzodiazepines (BDZ are widely prescribed in the treatment of anxiety disorders associated to aging. Interestingly, whereas a reciprocal interaction between the GABAergic system and HPA axis has been evidenced, there is to our knowledge no direct evaluation of the impact of BDZ on both hippocampus (HPC corticosterone concentrations and HPC-dependent memory in stressed middle-aged subjects. We showed previously that an acute stress induced in middle-aged mice severe memory impairments in a hippocampus-dependent task, and increased in parallel hippocampus corticosterone concentrations, as compared to non stressed middle-aged controls (Tronche et al., 2010. Based on these findings, the aims of the present study were to evidence the impact of diazepam (a positive allosteric modulator of the GABA-A receptor on HPC glucocorticoids concentrations and in parallel on HPC-dependent memory in acutely stressed middle-aged mice.Microdialysis experiments showed an interaction between diazepam doses and corticosterone concentrations into the HPC. From 0.25 mg/kg to 0.5 mg/kg, diazepam dose-dependently reduces intra-HPC corticosterone concentrations and in parallel, dose-dependently increased hippocampal-dependent memory performance. In contrast, the highest (1.0mg/kg diazepam dose induces a reduction in HPC corticosterone concentration, which was of greater magnitude as compared to the two other diazepam doses, but however decreased the hippocampal-dependent memory performance. In summary, our study provides first evidence that diazepam restores in stressed middle-aged animals the hippocampus-dependent response, in relation with HPC corticosterone concentrations. Overall, our data illustrate how stress and benzodiazepines could modulate cognitive functions depending on hippocampus activity.

  12. [The role of disequilibrium of expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 and their tissue inhibitors in pathogenesis of hyperoxia-induced acute lung injury in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang-feng; Zhu, Guang-fa; Liu, Shuang; Foda, Hussein D

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the role of matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 (MMP-2/9) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMP-1/2) in pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI) induced by hyperoxia. Seventy-two C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into normal control group, hyperoxia for 24 hours group, hyperoxia for 48 hours group, and hyperoxia for 72 hours group, with 18 mice in each group. The mice in hyperoxia groups were exposed to >98% oxygen in sealed cages, and the normal control group were placed outside of the cage to breathe room air. At the end of the exposure time the animals were euthanized, the right lung was removed and phosphate buffer solution (PBS) was used to lavage the lung through the endotracheal catheter. The wet/dry weight ratio, broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) protein content and the volume of pleural fluid were measured, the severity of lung injury was assessed; the expression of MMP-2/9 and TIMP-1/2 mRNA in lung tissue at 24, 48 and 72 hours of hyperoxia were assessed by reverse transcript-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); the amount of MMP-2/9 and TIMP-1/2 protein in lung tissue were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Hyperoxia caused ALI as evidenced by the increase in lung wet/dry weight ratio, BALF protein content and the volume of pleural fluid as compared with the normal control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). RT-PCR study showed increased expression of MMP-2/9 and TIMP-1 mRNA in lung tissues (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and ELISA assay also demonstrated upregulation of MMP-2/9 and an increase in TIMP-1 amount in BALF compared with their normal control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The ratios of both MMP-2 mRNA/TIMP-2 mRNA and MMP-2 protein/TIMP-2 protein were all increased in hyperoxia groups as compared with their normal control group (all P<0.01). Hyperoxia causes ALI in mice, and disturbance of MMP-2/TIMP-2 balance plays an important role in the development of hyperoxia-induced ALI in mice.

  13. 9 Expression in Rats with Acute Spinal Cord Injury by Cantharidin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To demonstrate the anti-apoptotic effects of cantharidin in mice with acute spinal cord injury. (ASCI). Methods: In total, 30 ... were obtained from the Shanghai Laboratory .... prevent the development of secondary spinal injury in mice ...

  14. Recombinant canine adenovirus type-2 expressing TgROP16 provides partial protection against acute Toxoplasma gondii infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-Zhen; Lv, Lin; Zhang, Xu; Anchang, Kenneth Yongabi; Abdullahi, Auwalu Yusuf; Tu, Liqing; Wang, Xiaohu; Xia, Lijun; Zhang, Xiu-Xiang; Feng, Weili; Lu, Chunxia; Li, Shoujun; Yuan, Zi-Guo

    2016-11-01

    We previously demonstrated that the survival time of BALB/c mice challenged with Toxoplasma gondii RH strain was prolonged by immunising the mice with a eukaryotic vector expressing the protein ROP16 of T. gondii. Building upon previous findings, we are exploring improved vaccination strategies to enhance protection. In this work, a novel recombinant canine adenovirus type 2 expressing ROP16 (CAV-2-ROP16) of T. gondii was constructed and identified to express ROP16 in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK) cells by western blot (WB) and indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) assays. Intramuscular immunisation of BALB/c mice with CAV-2-ROP16 was performed to evaluate the humoral and cellular immune responses. This vaccination triggered significant humoral and cellular responses, including ROP16-stimulated lymphoproliferation (P0.05), revealing that a predominant Th1-type response had developed. The cell-mediated cytotoxic activity with high levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α was significantly increased in both CD4 + and CD8 + T-cell compartments in the mice immunised with CAV-2-ROP16 (Pdays post infection compared with control mice that all died within seven days (Pvaccination until now. Our work presents the successful use of recombinant virus CAV-2-ROP16 in vaccination protocols to protect against intraperitoneal challenge with the virulent RH strain of T. gondii. This system was shown to be extremely efficient in eliciting humoral and cellular immune responses that led to a significant improvement in survival time in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Variability of LD50 Values from Rat Oral Acute Toxicity Studies: Implications for Alternative Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative models developed for estimating acute systemic toxicity are generally evaluated using in vivo LD50 values. However, in vivo acute systemic toxicity studies can produce variable results, even when conducted according to accepted test guidelines. This variability can ma...

  16. Acute and subacute pulmonary toxicity caused by a single intratracheal instillation of colloidal silver nanoparticles in mice: pathobiological changes and metallothionein responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewamatawong, Theerayuth; Banlunara, Wijit; Maneewattanapinyo, Pattwat; Thammachareon, Chuchaat; Ekgasit, Sanong

    2014-01-01

    To study the acute and subacute pulmonary toxicity of colloidal silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), 0 or 100 ppm of Ag-NPs were instilled intratracheally in mice. Cellular and biochemical parameters in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and histological alterations were determined 1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days after instillation. Ag-NPs induced moderate pulmonary inflammation and injury on BALF indices during the acute period; however, these changes gradually regressed in a time-dependent manner. Concomitant histopathological and laminin immunohistochemical findings generally correlated to BALF data. Superoxide dismutase and metallothionein expression occurred in particle-laden macrophages and alveolar epithelial cells, which correlated to lung lesions in mice treated with Ag-NPs. These findings suggest that instillation of Ag-NPs causes transient moderate acute lung inflammation and tissue damage. Oxidative stress may underlie the induction of injury to lung tissue. Moreover, the expression of metallothionein in tissues indicated the protective response to exposure to Ag-NPs.

  17. Chlamydia pneumoniae acute liver infection affects hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangoni, Antonella; Fiorino, Erika; Gilardi, Federica; Aldini, Rita; Scotti, Elena; Nardini, Paola; Foschi, Claudio; Donati, Manuela; Montagnani, Marco; Cevenini, Monica; Franco, Placido; Roda, Aldo; Crestani, Maurizio; Cevenini, Roberto

    2015-08-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae has been linked to atherosclerosis, strictly associated with hyperlipidemia. The liver plays a central role in the regulation of lipid metabolism. Since in animal models C. pneumoniae can be found at hepatic level, this study aims to elucidate whether C. pneumoniae infection accelerates atherosclerosis by affecting lipid metabolism. Thirty Balb/c mice were challenged intra-peritoneally with C. pneumoniae elementary bodies and thirty with Chlamydia trachomatis, serovar D. Thirty mice were injected with sucrose-phosphate-glutamate buffer, as negative controls. Seven days after infection, liver samples were examined both for presence of chlamydia and expression of genes involved in inflammation and lipid metabolism. C. pneumoniae was isolated from 26 liver homogenates, whereas C. trachomatis was never re-cultivated (P triglycerides levels compared both with negative controls (P metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of N-acetylcysteine and imipramine in a model of acute rhythm disruption in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Luísa K; Trojan, Yasmine; Quiles, Caroline L; Benvenutti, Radharani; Melo, Gabriela; Levandovski, Rosa; Hidalgo, Maria Paz L; Elisabetsky, Elaine

    2015-03-01

    Circadian rhythm disturbances are among the risk factors for depression, but specific animal models are lacking. This study aimed to characterize the effects of acute rhythm disruption in mice and investigate the effects of imipramine and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on rhythm disruption-induced changes. Mice were exposed to 12:12-hour followed by 10:10-hour light:dark cycles (LD); under the latter, mice were treated with saline, imipramine or NAC. Rhythms of rest/activity and temperature were assessed with actigraphs and iButtons, respectively. Hole-board and social preference tests were performed at the beginning of the experiment and again at the 8th 10:10 LD, when plasma corticosterone and IL-6 levels were also assessed. Actograms showed that the 10:10 LD schedule prevents the entrainment of temperature and activity rhythms for at least 13 cycles. Subsequent light regimen change activity and temperature amplitudes showed similar patterns of decline followed by recovery attempts. During the 10:10 LD schedule, activity and temperature amplitudes were significantly decreased (paired t test), an effect exacerbated by imipramine (ANOVA/SNK). The 10:10 LD schedule increased anxiety (paired t test), an effect prevented by NAC (30 mg/kg). This study identified mild but significant behavioral changes at specific time points after light regimen change. We suggest that if repeated overtime, these subtle changes may contribute to lasting behavioral disturbancess relevant to anxiety and mood disorders. Data suggest that imipramine may contribute to sustained rhythm disturbances, while NAC appears to prevent rhythm disruption-induced anxiety. Associations between sleep/circadian disturbances and the recurrence of depressive episodes underscore the relevance of potential drug-induced maintenance of disturbed rhythms.

  19. Research on acute toxicity and the behavioral effects of methanolic extract from psilocybin mushrooms and psilocin in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuk, Olga; Jasicka-Misiak, Izabela; Poliwoda, Anna; Kazakova, Anastasia; Godovan, Vladlena V; Halama, Marek; Wieczorek, Piotr P

    2015-03-27

    The pharmacological activities and acute toxicity of the psilocin (PC) and dried residues of the crude extracts of psychotropic mushrooms were investigated in mice. The hallucinogenic substances were effectively isolated, by using methanol, from the species of Psilocybe semilanceata and Pholiotina cyanopus, that were collected in the north-east region of Poland. The chemical analysis of these extracts, which was performed by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection (LC-MS), indicated the presence of psilocin and other hallucinogenic substances, including indolealkylamines and their phosphorylated analogues. When the pure psilocin or fungal extracts were used, slight differences in determined LD50 values were observed. However, the application of PC evoked the highest level of toxicity (293.07 mg/kg) compared to the activity of extracts from Ph. cyanopus and P. semilanceata, where the level of LD50 was 316.87 mg/kg and 324.37 mg/kg, respectively. Furthermore, the behavioral test, which considered the head-twitching response (HTR), was used to assess the effects of the studied psychotropic factors on the serotonergic system. Both, the fungal extracts and psilocin evoked characteristic serotoninergic effects depending on the dose administered to mice, acting as an agonist/partial agonist on the serotonergic system. A dose of 200 mg/kg 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) induced spontaneous head-twitching in mice (100% effect), as a result of the formation of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the brain. Compared to the activity of 5-HTP, the intraperitoneal administration of 1mg/kg of psilocin or hallucinogenic extracts of studied mushrooms (Ph. cyanopus and P. semilanceata) reduced the number of head-twitch responses of about 46% and 30%, respectively. In contrast, the administration of PC exhibited a reduction of about 60% in HTR numbers.

  20. Research on Acute Toxicity and the Behavioral Effects of Methanolic Extract from Psilocybin Mushrooms and Psilocin in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Zhuk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacological activities and acute toxicity of the psilocin (PC and dried residues of the crude extracts of psychotropic mushrooms were investigated in mice. The hallucinogenic substances were effectively isolated, by using methanol, from the species of Psilocybe semilanceata and Pholiotina cyanopus, that were collected in the north-east region of Poland. The chemical analysis of these extracts, which was performed by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry detection (LC-MS, indicated the presence of psilocin and other hallucinogenic substances, including indolealkylamines and their phosphorylated analogues. When the pure psilocin or fungal extracts were used, slight differences in determined LD50 values were observed. However, the application of PC evoked the highest level of toxicity (293.07 mg/kg compared to the activity of extracts from Ph. cyanopus and P. semilanceata, where the level of LD50 was 316.87 mg/kg and 324.37 mg/kg, respectively. Furthermore, the behavioral test, which considered the head-twitching response (HTR, was used to assess the effects of the studied psychotropic factors on the serotonergic system. Both, the fungal extracts and psilocin evoked characteristic serotoninergic effects depending on the dose administered to mice, acting as an agonist/partial agonist on the serotonergic system. A dose of 200 mg/kg 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP induced spontaneous head-twitching in mice (100% effect, as a result of the formation of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT in the brain. Compared to the activity of 5-HTP, the intraperitoneal administration of 1mg/kg of psilocin or hallucinogenic extracts of studied mushrooms (Ph. cyanopus and P. semilanceata reduced the number of head-twitch responses of about 46% and 30%, respectively. In contrast, the administration of PC exhibited a reduction of about 60% in HTR numbers.

  1. Acute agmatine administration, similar to ketamine, reverses depressive-like behavior induced by chronic unpredictable stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neis, Vivian B; Bettio, Luis E B; Moretti, Morgana; Rosa, Priscila B; Ribeiro, Camille M; Freitas, Andiara E; Gonçalves, Filipe M; Leal, Rodrigo B; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    Agmatine is an endogenous neuromodulator that has been shown to have antidepressant-like properties. We have previously demonstrated that it can induce a rapid increase in BDNF levels after acute administration, suggesting that agmatine may be a fast-acting antidepressant. To investigate this hypothesis, the present study evaluated the effects of a single administration of agmatine in mice subjected to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), a model of depression responsive only to chronic treatment with conventional antidepressants. The ability of agmatine to reverse CUS-induced behavioral and biochemical alterations was evaluated and compared with those elicited by the fast-acting antidepressant (ketamine) and the conventional antidepressant (fluoxetine). After exposed to CUS for 14days, mice received a single oral dose of agmatine (0.1mg/kg), ketamine (1mg/kg) or fluoxetine (10mg/kg), and were submitted to behavioral evaluation after 24h. The exposure to CUS caused an increased immobility time in the tail suspension test (TST) but did not change anhedonic-related parameters in the splash test. Our findings provided evidence that, similarly to ketamine, agmatine is able to reverse CUS-induced depressive-like behavior in the TST. Western blot analyses of prefrontal cortex (PFC) demonstrated that mice exposed to CUS and/or treated with agmatine, fluoxetine or ketamine did not present alterations in the immunocontent of synaptic proteins [i.e. GluA1, postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) and synapsin]. Altogether, our findings indicate that a single administration of agmatine is able to reverse behavioral alterations induced by CUS in the TST, suggesting that this compound may have fast-acting antidepressant-like properties. However, there was no alteration in the levels of synaptic proteins in the PFC, a result that need to be further investigated in other time points. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A negative search of acute canine distemper virus infection in DogSLAM transgenic C57BL/6 mice

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    Somporn Techangamsuwan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Canine distemper is a highly contagious and immunosuppressive viral disease caused by canine distemper virus(CDV, an enveloped RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae. The susceptible host spectrum of CDV is broad andincludes all families of the order Carnivora. To accomplish the infection, CDV requires an expression of signaling lymphocyteactivation molecule (SLAM functioning as a cellular receptor which generally presents in a variety of different lymphoid cellsubpopulations, including immature thymocytes, primary B cells, activated T cells, memory T cells, macrophages and maturedendritic cells. The distribution of SLAM-presenting cells is in accordance with the lymphotropism and immunosuppressionfollowing morbillivirus infection. In the present study, the C57BL/6 mice engrafted with dog-specific SLAM sequence(DogSLAM were used. The weanling (3-week-old transgenic offspring C57BL/6 mice were infected with CDV Snyder Hill(CDV-SH strain via the intranasal (n=6, intracerebral (n=6 and intraperitoneal (n=5 routes. Clinical signs, hematology,histopathology, immunohistochemistry, virus isolation and RT-PCR were observed for two weeks post infection. Resultsshowed that CDV-SH-inoculated transgenic mice displayed mild-to-moderate congestion of various organs (brain, lung,spleen, kidney, lymph node, and adrenal gland. By means of immunohistochemistry, virus isolation and RT-PCR, CDV couldnot be detected. The evidence of CDV infection in this study could not be demonstrated in acute phase. Even though thetransgenic mouse is not a suitable animal model for CDV, or a longer incubation period is prerequisite, it needs to be clarifiedin a future study.

  3. Brain glucose transport and phosphorylation under acute insulin-induced hypoglycemia in mice: an 18F-FDG PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alf, Malte F; Duarte, João M N; Schibli, Roger; Gruetter, Rolf; Krämer, Stefanie D

    2013-12-01

    We addressed the questions of how cerebral glucose transport and phosphorylation change under acute hypoglycemia and what the underlying mechanisms of adaptation are. Quantitative (18)F-FDG PET combined with the acquisition of real-time arterial input function was performed on mice. Hypoglycemia was induced and maintained by insulin infusion. PET data were analyzed with the 2-tissue-compartment model for (18)F-FDG, and the results were evaluated with Michaelis-Menten saturation kinetics. Glucose clearance from plasma to brain (K1,glc) and the phosphorylation rate constant increased with decreasing plasma glucose (Gp), in particular at a Gp of less than 2.5 mmol/L. Estimated cerebral glucose extraction ratios taking into account an increased cerebral blood flow (CBF) at a Gp of less than 2 mmol/L were between 0.14 and 0.79. CBF-normalized K1,glc values were in agreement with saturation kinetics. Phosphorylation rate constants indicated intracellular glucose depletion at a Gp of less than 2-3 mmol/L. When brain regions were compared, glucose transport under hypoglycemia was lowest in the hypothalamus. Alterations in glucose transport and phosphorylation, as well as intracellular glucose depletion, under acute hypoglycemia can be modeled by saturation kinetics taking into account an increase in CBF. Distinct transport kinetics in the hypothalamus may be involved in its glucose-sensing function.

  4. Acute systemic accumulation of acrolein in mice by inhalation at a concentration similar to that in cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, Melissa; Zheng, Lingxing; Acosta, Glen; Tian, Ran; Shi, Riyi

    2014-12-01

    Cigarette smoke is an important environmental factor associated with a wide array of public health concerns. Acrolein, a component of tobacco smoke and a known toxin to various cell types, may be a key pathological factor mediating the adverse effects linked with tobacco smoke. Although acrolein is known to accumulate in the respiratory system after acute nasal exposure, it is not clear if it accumulates systemically, and less is known in the nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the degree of acrolein accumulation in the circulation and in the spinal cord following acute acrolein inhalation in mice. Using a laboratory-fabricated inhalation chamber, we found elevated urinary 3-HPMA, an acrolein metabolite, and increased acrolein adducts in the spinal cord after weeks of nasal exposure to acrolein at a concentration similar to that in tobacco smoke. The data indicated that acrolein is absorbed into the circulatory system and some enters the nervous system. It is expected that these findings may facilitate further studies to probe the pathological role of acrolein in the nervous system resulting from smoke and other external sources.

  5. Acute and subacute toxicity profiles of thymoquinone-loaded nanostructured lipid carrier in BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ong YS

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Yong Sze Ong,1 Latifah Saiful Yazan,1,2 Wei Keat Ng,1 Mustapha M Noordin,3 Sarah Sapuan,1 Jhi Biau Foo,1 Yin Sim Tor1 1Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, 2Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 3Department of Pathology and Veterinary Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia Background: Thymoquinone (TQ, the predominant active lipophilic component in Nigella sativa seed oil, has a variety of pharmacological properties such as anticancer activities. However, translation of TQ to clinical phase is still not possible due to its hydrophobic properties. This problem can be solved by encapsulating it in nanoformulations to enhance its pharmacological properties. In our previous study, TQ has been successfully encapsulated in a nanostructured lipid carrier (hereinafter referred to as TQNLC with excellent physiochemical properties such as high encapsulation efficiency, high drug-loading capacity, particle diameter less than 100 nm, and stability up to 2 years. In vitro studies also proved that TQNLC exhibited antiproliferative activity toward breast and cervical cancer cell lines. However, no toxicity profile related to this formulation has been reported. In this study, we determine and compare the in vivo toxicity of both TQNLC and TQ. Materials and methods: The in vivo toxicity (acute and subacute toxicity study was carried out by oral administration of TQNLC and TQ to BALB/c mice. Animal survival, body weight, organ weight-to-body weight ratio, hematological profile, biochemistry profile, and histopathological changes were analyzed. Results: In acute toxicity, TQ that is loaded in nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC was found to be less toxic than pure TQ. It can be concluded that encapsulation of TQ in lipid carrier minimizes the toxicity of the compound. In the subacute toxicity study, oral administration of 100 mg/kg of TQNLC and TQ

  6. A novel therapy to attenuate acute kidney injury and ischemic allograft damage after allogenic kidney transplantation in mice.

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    Faikah Gueler

    Full Text Available Ischemia followed by reperfusion contributes to the initial damage to allografts after kidney transplantation (ktx. In this study we tested the hypothesis that a tetrapeptide EA-230 (AQGV, might improve survival and attenuate loss of kidney function in a mouse model of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI and ischemia-induced delayed graft function after allogenic kidney transplantation. IRI was induced in male C57Bl/6N mice by transient bilateral renal pedicle clamping for 35 min. Treatment with EA-230 (20-50mg/kg twice daily i.p. for four consecutive days was initiated 24 hours after IRI when acute kidney injury (AKI was already established. The treatment resulted in markedly improved survival in a dose dependent manner. Acute tubular injury two days after IRI was diminished and tubular epithelial cell proliferation was significantly enhanced by EA-230 treatment. Furthermore, CTGF up-regulation, a marker of post-ischemic fibrosis, at four weeks after IRI was significantly less in EA-230 treated renal tissue. To learn more about these effects, we measured renal blood flow (RBF and glomerular filtration rate (GFR at 28 hours after IRI. EA-230 improved both GFR and RBF significantly. Next, EA-230 treatment was tested in a model of ischemia-induced delayed graft function after allogenic kidney transplantation. The recipients were treated with EA-230 (50 mg/kg twice daily i.p. which improved renal function and allograft survival by attenuating ischemic allograft damage. In conclusion, EA-230 is a novel and promising therapeutic agent for treating acute kidney injury and preventing IRI-induced post-transplant ischemic allograft injury. Its beneficial effect is associated with improved renal perfusion after IRI and enhanced regeneration of tubular epithelial cells.

  7. Effect of radiophosphorus on hematology of mice during postnatal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, N.; Srivastava, P.N.

    1975-01-01

    Swiss albino mice at different stages of their postnatal development (one day, one week, two weeks,three weeks, four weeks age groups) were injected intraperitoneally with radioactive phosphorus (P-32) at the dose of 1.0 μCi/g body weight and studied for their hematological response at weekly intervals up to six weeks of age when they attain sexual maturity. In all the treated groups in both males and females, the radiation injury was evident after injection of radioactive phosphorus. Animals showed reduction in blood cell number and fall in hemoglobin and hematocrit levels after injection. Reparation was also evident in the animals after some lapse of time following P-32 administration. Morphological changes in different white blood cells were not observed. No radiation sickness symptoms were observed in any of the treated groups during the study. There was no radiation mortality. The radiation damage to blood forming organs was moderate. It was observed that the females showed a greater hematological damage than the males. (orig.) [de

  8. Protective effects of C-phycocyanin on alcohol-induced acute liver injury in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dong; Liu, Bing; Luan, Xiying; Sun, Junyan; Liu, Nana; Qin, Song; Du, Zhenning

    2016-03-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption leads to liver disease. Extensive evidence suggests that C-phycocyanin (C-PC), a chromophore phycocyanobilin derived from Spirulina platensis, exerts protective effects against chemical-induced organ damage. In this study, we investigated whether C-PC could protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (CHOL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), liver homogenate malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) content were measured, and pathological examination of liver sections were examined. C-PC showed obvious inhibitory effects on serum ALT, AST, TG, CHOL, LDL and MDA, and SOD content significantly increased in the liver. The structure of hepatic lobules was clear, liver sinus returned to normal, and liver cell cords were arranged in neat rows. Cloudiness, swelling, inflammatory cell infiltration and spotty necrosis of liver cells were significantly reduced. Therefore, C-PC can significantly protect against ethanol-induced acute liver injury.

  9. Ghrelin treatment prevents development of activity based anorexia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Romain; Lucas, Nicolas; Breton, Jonathan; Azhar, Saïda; do Rego, Jean-Claude; Déchelotte, Pierre; Coëffier, Moïse; Fetissov, Sergueï O

    2016-06-01

    Stimulation of feeding is necessary for treatment of pathological conditions of chronic malnutrition due to anorexia. Ghrelin, a hunger hormone, is one of the candidate for pharmacological treatments of anorexia, but because of its instability in plasma has limited efficacy. We previously showed that plasmatic IgG protect ghrelin from degradation and that IgG from obese subjects and mice may increase ghrelin׳s orexigenic effect. In this study we tested if ghrelin alone or combined with IgG may improve feeding in chronically food-restricted mice with or without physical activity-based anorexia (ABA) induced by free access to a running wheel. Mice received a single daily intraperitoneal injection of ghrelin (1nM) together or not with total IgG (1nM) from obese ob/ob or lean mice before access to food during 8 days of 3h/day feeding time. We found that both ghrelin and ghrelin combined with IgG from obese, but not lean mice, prevented ABA, however, they were not able to diminish body weight loss. Physical activity was lower during the feeding period and was increased shortly after feeding in mice receiving ghrelin together with IgG from obese mice. In food-restricted mice without ABA, ghrelin treatments did not have significant effects on food intake. Thus, this study supports pharmacological use of ghrelin or ghrelin combined with IgG from obese animals for treatment of anorexia accompanied by elevated physical activity. The utility of combining ghrelin with protective IgG should be further determined in animal models of anorexia with unrestricted access to food. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  10. Acute central neuropeptide Y administration increases food intake but does not affect hepatic very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL production in mice.

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    Janine J Geerling

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Central neuropeptide Y (NPY administration stimulates food intake in rodents. In addition, acute modulation of central NPY signaling increases hepatic production of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-triglyceride (TG in rats. As hypertriglyceridemia is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis, for which well-established mouse models are available, we set out to validate the effect of NPY on hepatic VLDL-TG production in mice, to ultimately investigate whether NPY, by increasing VLDL production, contributes to the development of atherosclerosis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Male C57Bl/6J mice received an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v. cannula into the lateral (LV or third (3V ventricle of the brain. One week later, after a 4 h fast, the animals received an intravenous (i.v. injection of Tran(35S (100 µCi followed by tyloxapol (500 mg/kg body weight; BW, enabling the study of hepatic VLDL-apoB and VLDL-TG production, respectively. Immediately after the i.v. injection of tyloxapol, the animals received either an i.c.v. injection of NPY (0.2 mg/kg BW in artificial cerebrospinal fluid; aCSF, synthetic Y1 receptor antagonist GR231118 (0.5 mg/kg BW in aCSF or vehicle (aCSF, or an i.v. injection of PYY3-36 (0.5 mg/kg BW in PBS or vehicle (PBS. RESULTS: Administration of NPY into both the LV and 3V increased food intake within one hour after injection (+164%, p<0.001 and +367%, p<0.001, respectively. NPY administration neither in the LV nor in the 3V affected hepatic VLDL-TG or VLDL-apoB production. Likewise, antagonizing central NPY signaling by either PYY3-36 or GR231118 administration did not affect hepatic VLDL production. CONCLUSION: In mice, as opposed to rats, acute central administration of NPY increases food intake without affecting hepatic VLDL production. These results are of great significance when extrapolating findings on the central regulation of hepatic VLDL production between species.

  11. Acute toxicity of quantum dots on late pregnancy mice: Effects of nanoscale size and surface coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wanyi [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330000 (China); Yang, Lin; Kuang, Huijuan; Yang, Pengfei [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Aguilar, Zoraida P.; Wang, Andrew [Ocean NanoTech, LLC, Springdale, AR72764 (United States); Fu, Fen, E-mail: fu_fen@163.com [The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330000 (China); Xu, Hengyi, E-mail: kidyxu@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Graphical abstract: In spite of the immense benefits from quantum dots (QDs), there is scanty information regarding their toxicity mechanisms against late pregnancy. - Highlights: • QDs and CdCl{sub 2} were effectively blocked by the placental barrier. • CdSe QDs more effectively altered the expression levels of susceptive genes. • Nanoscale size of QDs is more important than free Cd in inducing toxicity. • Outer surface shell coating of QDs played a protective role. - Abstract: In this study, the effects of cadmium containing QDs (such as CdSe/ZnS and CdSe QDs) and bulk CdCl{sub 2} in pregnant mice, their fetuses, and the pregnancy outcomes were investigated. It was shown that although the QDs and bulk CdCl{sub 2} were effectively blocked by the placental barrier, the damage on the placenta caused by CdSe QDs still led to fetus malformation, while the mice in CdSe/ZnS QDs treatment group exhibited slightly hampered growth but showed no significant abnormalities. Moreover, the Cd contents in the placenta and the uterus of CdSe QDs and CdSe/ZnS QDs treatment groups showed significantly higher than the CdCl{sub 2} treated group which indicated that the nanoscale size of the QDs allowed relative ease of entry into the gestation tissues. In addition, the CdSe QDs more effectively altered the expression levels of susceptive genes related to cell apoptosis, dysplasia, metal transport, cryptorrhea, and oxidative stress, etc. These findings suggested that the nanoscale size of the QDs were probably more important than the free Cd in inducing toxicity. Furthermore, the results indicated that the outer surface shell coating played a protective role in the adverse effects of QDs on late pregnancy mice.

  12. Development of resistance to serotonin-induced itch in bile duct ligated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostadhadi, Sattar; Haddadi, Nazgol-Sadat; Foroutan, Arash; Azimi, Ehsan; Elmariah, Sarina; Dehpour, Ahmad-Reza

    2017-06-01

    Cholestatic itch can be severe and significantly impair the quality of life of patients. The serotonin system is implicated in cholestatic itch; however, the pruritogenic properties of serotonin have not been evaluated in cholestatic mice. Here, we investigated the serotonin-induced itch in cholestatic mice which was induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). Serotonin, sertraline or saline were administered intradermally to the rostral back area in BDL and sham operated (SHAM) mice, and the scratching behaviour was videotaped for 1 hour. Bile duct ligated mice had significantly increased scratching responses to saline injection on the seventh day after surgery. Additionally, serotonin or sertraline significantly induced scratching behaviour in BDL mice compared to saline at day 7 after surgery, while it did not induce itch at day 5. The scratching behaviour induced by serotonin or sertraline was significantly less in BDL mice compared to SHAM mice. Likewise, the locomotor activity of BDL or SHAM mice was not significantly different from unoperated (UNOP) mice on the fifth and seventh day, suggesting that the scratching behaviour was not affected by motor dysfunctions. Our data suggest that despite the potentiation of evoked itch, a resistance to serotonin-induced itch is developed in cholestatic mice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Plasticity of the systemic inflammatory response to acute infection during critical illness: development of the riboleukogram.

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    Jonathan E McDunn

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of acute infection in the critically ill remains a challenge. We hypothesized that circulating leukocyte transcriptional profiles can be used to monitor the host response to and recovery from infection complicating critical illness.A translational research approach was employed. Fifteen mice underwent intratracheal injections of live P. aeruginosa, P. aeruginosa endotoxin, live S. pneumoniae, or normal saline. At 24 hours after injury, GeneChip microarray analysis of circulating buffy coat RNA identified 219 genes that distinguished between the pulmonary insults and differences in 7-day mortality. Similarly, buffy coat microarray expression profiles were generated from 27 mechanically ventilated patients every two days for up to three weeks. Significant heterogeneity of VAP microarray profiles was observed secondary to patient ethnicity, age, and gender, yet 85 genes were identified with consistent changes in abundance during the seven days bracketing the diagnosis of VAP. Principal components analysis of these 85 genes appeared to differentiate between the responses of subjects who did versus those who did not develop VAP, as defined by a general trajectory (riboleukogram for the onset and resolution of VAP. As patients recovered from critical illness complicated by acute infection, the riboleukograms converged, consistent with an immune attractor.Here we present the culmination of a mouse pneumonia study, demonstrating for the first time that disease trajectories derived from microarray expression profiles can be used to quantitatively track the clinical course of acute disease and identify a state of immune recovery. These data suggest that the onset of an infection-specific transcriptional program may precede the clinical diagnosis of pneumonia in patients. Moreover, riboleukograms may help explain variance in the host response due to differences in ethnic background, gender, and pathogen. Prospective clinical trials are indicated

  14. Development of acute parotitis after non-invasive ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    A 90-year-old woman underwent laparoscopic exploratory laparotomy for evaluation of suspected mesenteric ischemia. She was promptly extubated postoperatively and transferred to the intensive care unit, where on the first postoperative day she developed hypoxemia necessitating initiation of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) with bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP). After 8 hours of BiPAP, she was noted to have swelling, erythema and tenderness in the right preauricular area. Ultrasound evaluation demonstrated an enlarged right parotid gland. With discontinuation of BiPAP and supportive measures, parotitis resolved within 6 days. The mechanism of NIV-induced acute parotitis likely involves transmission of positive pressure to the oral cavity, causing obstruction to salivary flow within the parotid (Stensen) duct. Conditions that increase salivary viscosity and promote salivary stasis, such as advanced age, dehydration, and absence of salivary gland stimulation due to restriction of oral intake, may render patients more susceptible to this complication. As NIV will continue to be a commonly-used modality for the treatment of acute respiratory failure, clinicians should be aware of this phenomenon. PMID:28840025

  15. Development of a murine model of acute radiation encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Yigang; Tang Yamei; Liu Jun; Sun Ying

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To develop a murine model of acute radiation encephalopathy. Methods: A total of 40 rats were subjected to local γ-irradiation to the brain with the dosage of 7 Gy/d for 6 consecutive days. The amount of food intake, hairs and skin of irradiated field, body weight, general activities, CNS symptoms and signs were examined and recorded after irradiation. On day 3, 7, 14 and 30, the brain tissue was removed to observe histopathologic changes. Results: During the first two days after irradiation, the irradiated rats were agitated, and the amount of food intake decreased from day 2 onwards. No serious skin reaction to irradiation was observed. Survived rats had normal activities without any abnormal nervous signs. Histopathologic changes showed slight neuronal degeneration, smaller cell body, red-colored cytoplasm, disappearance of Nissl body, vacuolation, typical cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and nuclear divergence. On the 14th and 30th days, hypochromatism, loose and reticular necrotic foci were found in some samples. Conclusion: The murine model of acute radiation encephalopathy is useful and practical in radiobiological studies

  16. Effects of beer administration in mice on acute toxicities induced by X rays and carbon ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monobe, Manami

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the tissue specificity of radioprotection by beer, which was previously found for human lymphocytes. C3H/He female mice, aged 14 weeks, received an oral administration of beer, ethanol or saline at a dose of 1 ml/mouse 30 min before whole-body irradiation with 137 Cs γ rays or 50 keV/μm carbon ions. The dicentrics of chromosome aberrations in spleen cells were significantly (p 0 (slope of a dose-survival curve) for γ rays and carbon ions as well. Beer administration significantly (p 50/30 (radiation dose required to kill 50% of mice within 30 days) for γ rays and carbon ions. Ethanol-administration also significantly (p 50/30 value for γ rays, but not for carbon ions. It is concluded that beer administration reduces the radiation injury caused by photons and carbon ions, depending on the tissue type. Radioprotection by beer administration is not solely due to OH radical-scavenging action by the ethanol contained in beer. (author)

  17. Acute secondhand smoke-induced pulmonary inflammation is diminished in RAGE knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Tyler T; Winden, Duane R; Marlor, Derek R; Wright, Alex J; Jones, Cameron M; Chavarria, Michael; Rogers, Geraldine D; Reynolds, Paul R

    2014-11-15

    The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) has increasingly been demonstrated to be an important modulator of inflammation in cases of pulmonary disease. Published reports involving tobacco smoke exposure have demonstrated increased expression of RAGE, its participation in proinflammatory signaling, and its role in irreversible pulmonary remodeling. The current research evaluated the in vivo effects of short-term secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in RAGE knockout and control mice compared with identical animals exposed to room air only. Quantitative PCR, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry revealed elevated RAGE expression in controls after 4 wk of SHS exposure and an anticipated absence of RAGE expression in RAGE knockout mice regardless of smoke exposure. Ras activation, NF-κB activity, and cytokine elaboration were assessed to characterize the molecular basis of SHS-induced inflammation in the mouse lung. Furthermore, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was procured from RAGE knockout and control animals for the assessment of inflammatory cells and molecules. As a general theme, inflammation coincident with leukocyte recruitment was induced by SHS exposure and significantly influenced by the availability of RAGE. These data reveal captivating information suggesting a role for RAGE signaling in lungs exposed to SHS. However, ongoing research is still warranted to fully explain roles for RAGE and other receptors in cells coping with involuntary smoke exposure for prolonged periods of time. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Synergistic effects of Isatis tinctoria L. and tacrolimus in the prevention of acute heart rejection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongzhi; Qin, Qing; Chen, Jibing; Kuang, Xiaocong; Xia, Junjie; Xie, Baiyi; Wang, Feng; Liang, Hua; Qi, Zhongquan

    2009-12-01

    Although immunosuppressive treatments are available for acute cardiac rejection no viable treatment exists for long-term cardiac graft failure. Moreover, the extended use of calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressants, the mainstay of current treatment for cardiac transplantation, leads to significant side effects such as nephrotoxicity and an increased risk of cardiac disease. Because some agents used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) have strong immunosuppressive effects coupled with low toxicity, we investigated the effect of Compound K (K), the synthesized analogue of highly unsaturated fatty acids from Isatis tinctoria L., either as a single treatment or combined with tacrolimus (FK-506) on acute cardiac allograft rejection. We compared the ability of K alone, or in combination with FK-506, to inhibit acute heart transplant rejection both in vitro and in vivo. We found that the inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation was positively correlated with K concentration. K significantly reduced IL-2 and IFN-gamma expression levels and significantly inhibited lymphocyte proliferation in both a lymphocyte transformation test and a mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). We also found that the inhibitory effect of a combination of K and a sub-therapeutic dose of FK-506 (SubFK-506) was stronger than that of full-dose FK-506 alone. Oral administration of K reduced acute cardiac allograft rejection in mice and had no apparent toxicity. In vivo, the immunosuppressive effect of K combined with a half-dose of FK-506 was equivalent to that of a full-dose of FK-506 alone. K combined with a half-dose of FK-506 reduced the expression levels of IL-2 and IFN-gamma (both within the graft and in the recipients' serum) more effectively than a full-dose of FK-506. These results show that K has significant immunosuppressive effects both in vitro and in vivo. When used as a combination therapy with FK-506 we see a powerful inhibition of rejection with no obvious toxic side effects. The

  19. Curcumin protects against radiation-induced acute and chronic cutaneous toxicity in mice and decreases mRNA expression of inflammatory and fibrogenic cytokines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okunieff, Paul; Xu Jianhua; Hu Dongping; Liu Weimin; Zhang Lurong; Morrow, Gary; Pentland, Alice; Ryan, Julie L.; Ding, Ivan M.D.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether curcumin ameliorates acute and chronic radiation skin toxicity and to examine the expression of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1, IL-6, IL-18, IL-1Ra, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, and lymphotoxin-β) or fibrogenic cytokines (transforming growth factor [TGF]-β) during the same acute and chronic phases. Methods and Materials: Curcumin was given intragastrically or intraperitoneally to C3H/HeN mice either: 5 days before radiation; 5 days after radiation; or both 5 days before and 5 days after radiation. The cutaneous damage was assessed at 15-21 days (acute) and 90 days (chronic) after a single 50 Gy radiation dose was given to the hind leg. Skin and muscle tissues were collected for measurement of cytokine mRNA. Results: Curcumin, administered before or after radiation, markedly reduced acute and chronic skin toxicity in mice (p < 0.05). Additionally, curcumin significantly decreased mRNA expression of early responding cytokines (IL-1 IL-6, IL-18, TNF-α, and lymphotoxin-β) and the fibrogenic cytokine, TGF-β, in cutaneous tissues at 21 days postradiation. Conclusion: Curcumin has a protective effect on radiation-induced cutaneous damage in mice, which is characterized by a downregulation of both inflammatory and fibrogenic cytokines in irradiated skin and muscle, particularly in the early phase after radiation. These results may provide the molecular basis for the application of curcumin in clinical radiation therapy

  20. Mice deficient in PAPP-A show resistance to the development of diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Jessica R; Resch, Zachary T; McLean, Gary R; Mikkelsen, Jakob H; Oxvig, Claus; Marler, Ronald J; Conover, Cheryl A

    2013-10-01

    We investigated pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) in diabetic nephropathy. Normal human kidney showed specific staining for PAPP-A in glomeruli, and this staining was markedly increased in diabetic kidney. To assess the possible contribution of PAPP-A in the development of diabetic nephropathy, we induced diabetes with streptozotocin in 14-month-old WT and Papp-A knockout (KO) mice. Renal histopathology was evaluated after 4 months of stable hyperglycemia. Kidneys from diabetic WT mice showed multiple abnormalities including thickening of Bowman's capsule (100% of mice), increased glomerular size (80% of mice), tubule dilation (80% of mice), and mononuclear cell infiltration (90% of mice). Kidneys of age-matched non-diabetic WT mice had similar evidence of tubule dilation and mononuclear cell infiltration to those of diabetic WT mice, indicating that these changes were predominantly age-related. However, thickened Bowman's capsule and increased glomerular size appeared specific for the experimental diabetes. Kidneys from diabetic Papp-A KO mice had significantly reduced or no evidence of changes in Bowman's capsule thickening and glomerular size. There was also a shift to larger mesangial area and increased macrophage staining in diabetic WT mice compared with Papp-A KO mice. In summary, elevated PAPP-A expression in glomeruli is associated with diabetic nephropathy in humans and absence of PAPP-A is associated with resistance to the development of indicators of diabetic nephropathy in mice. These data suggest PAPP-A as a potential therapeutic target for diabetic nephropathy.

  1. A comparison of the development of tolerance to ethanol and cross-tolerance to nicotine after chronic ethanol treatment in long- and short-sleep mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fiebre, C M; Collins, A C

    1993-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that inbred mouse strains differ in the development of tolerance to both nicotine and ethanol, indicating that genetic factors regulate tolerance development. Those mouse strains that are most sensitive to an acute challenge dose of either drug develop the most tolerance to that drug. The ethanol-sensitive long-sleep (LS) mice are more sensitive to several behavioral and physiological effects of nicotine than are the ethanol-resistant short-sleep (SS) mice. The experiments reported here assessed whether the LS and SS mice develop tolerance to ethanol after chronic treatment with ethanol-containing liquid diets and whether cross-tolerance to nicotine also developed. Tolerance and cross-tolerance were measured by assessing the effects of acute challenge doses of drug on Y-maze crossing and rearing activities, heart rate and body temperature. The LS mice developed tolerance to ethanol's effects on three of the four measures and were cross-tolerant to nicotine on all of the measures. In contrast, the SS mice developed tolerance to ethanol for only two of the measures, but failed to develop cross-tolerance to any action of nicotine. These findings support the hypothesis that ethanol and nicotine share sites of action and that common genes regulate responses to these two drugs. Evidence suggests that tolerance to nicotine may be related to an up-regulation of brain nicotinic receptors, at least in some inbred mouse strains, but chronic ethanol treatment did not reproducibly change either [3H]nicotine or alpha-[125I]bungarotoxin binding. Therefore, other mechanisms must underlie the tolerance and cross-tolerance that was seen.

  2. The effects of a selective inhibitor of c-Fos/activator protein-1 on endotoxin-induced acute kidney injury in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyazaki Hiroyuki

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sepsis has been identified as the most common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI in intensive care units. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS induces the production of several proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha, a major pathogenetic factor in septic AKI. c-Fos/activator protein (AP-1 controls the expression of these cytokines by binding directly to AP-1 motifs in the cytokine promoter regions. T-5224 is a new drug developed by computer-aided drug design that selectively inhibits c-Fos/AP-1 binding to DNA. In this study, we tested whether T-5224 has a potential inhibitory effect against LPS-induced AKI, by suppressing the TNF-alpha inflammatory response and other downstream effectors. Methods To test this hypothesis, male C57BL/6 mice at 7 weeks old were divided into three groups (control, LPS and T-5224 groups. Mice in the control group received saline intraperitoneally and polyvinylpyrrolidone solution orally. Mice in the LPS group were injected intraperitoneally with a 6 mg/kg dose of LPS and were given polyvinylpyrrolidone solution immediately after LPS injection. In the T-5224 group, mice were administered T-5224 orally at a dose of 300 mg/kg immediately after LPS injection. Serum concentrations of TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-10 were measured by ELISA. Moreover, the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1 mRNA in kidney was examined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Finally, we evaluated renal histological changes. Results LPS injection induced high serum levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6. However, the administration of T-5224 inhibited the LPS-induced increase in these cytokine levels. The serum levels of IL-10 in the LPS group and T-5224 group were markedly elevated compared with the control group. T-5224 also inhibited LPS-induced ICAM-1 mRNA expression. Furthermore histological studies supported an anti-inflammatory role of T-5224. Conclusions In endotoxin

  3. A case of acutely developed delayed radiation myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Shintaro; Amari, Masakuni; Fukuda, Toshio; Okamoto, Koichi

    2002-01-01

    A 66-year-old man with a history of hypertension received radiation therapy on his neck at age 61 because of laryngeal cancer (T1bN0M0). Five years after the radiation, he acutely developed dysuria, tetraparesis and dissociated sensory disturbances below bilateral Th4 level. T2 weighted MRI showed a high signal lesion affecting the central area of the spinal cord extending from C1 to C7. On the second clinical day, he developed respiratory arrest and was ventilated. The cerebrospinal fluid contained 20/mm 3 (monocyte 15, neutorophil 5) white cells; protein was 52.5 mg/dl; IgG index 0.54; Q albumin was 9.6; tests for oligoclonal band and myelin basic protein were negative; a culture yielded no microorganism. He was treated with steroids and supportive measures without improvement, and died of a sudden cardiac arrest on the 8th clinical day. postmortem examination confirmed conspicuous focal spongy changes with many axonal swellings, especially in the posterior and lateral columns at cervical and Th1 levels. The pathological findings were considered to be compatible with those of delayed radiation myelopathy (DRM). In the anterior horn of the cervical cord there were lesions of diffuse racification and the proliferation of small vessels. There were no findings of hyaline vascular changes, infarction or metastasis of laryngeal cancer at the spinal cord. It is considered that hyperintensity of signals on T2-weighted may originate from racification and proliferation of small vessels in the gray matter, and these pathological changes would be intimately associated with the severe neurologic morbidity of this patient. Acute development of neurological findings and the pathological changes in the gray matter of the spinal cord are rare manifestations of DRM. (author)

  4. Acute crush injuries of skeletal muscle of mice with ice-compression therapy: a dynamic study with diffusion tensor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fengzhe; Pan Shinong; An Qi; Shu Hong; Li Qi; Sun He; Zhang Guangxin; Guo Qiyong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the value of ice-compression therapy in mice skeletal muscle after acute crush injuries and correlate treatment effect with different compression time by MR DTI. Methods: Forty Weistar mice were randomly divided into 4 groups by random number table method: control group (A), 5 min compression time group (B), 15 min compression time group (C) and 30 min compression time group (D). Diffusion tensor imaging examinations were performed before, immediately after, 24, 48 and 72 hours after injuries. ADC and FA values were calculated by fiber tracking tool. The morphological changes were confirmed by histopathology, and immunohistochemical methods were used for the assessment of Desmin expression with mean of A value. Statistical analysis by LSD-t test and Spearman rank correlation. Results: (1) For every group before injuries, ADC values were (1.38±0.04) × 10 -3 , (1.38±0.08) × 10 -3 , (1.34±0.05) × 10 -3 , (1.36±0.09) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s respectively, FA value were 0.46±0.05, 0.45±0.03, 0.45±0.05, 0.48±0.04 respectively. ADC values increased significantly and FA values reduced in each group immediately after injuries compared with pre-injury values. ADC values were (1.84± 0.10) × 10 -3 (1.79±0.09) × 10 -3 , (1.55±0.07) × 10 -3 , (1.57±0.04) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s respectively, FA value were 0.21±0.04, 0.26±0.03, 0.31±0.02, 0.30±0.04 respectively. ADC values were still higher and FA values lower than pre-injury values at 24 hours after injury in A, B groups. ADC values were (1.54±0.13) × 10 -3 , (1.57±0.13) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s, FA value were 0.25±0.03, 0.26±0.02. (2) DTT showed fibers distorted and the number of fiber bundles reduced, some separation and displacement in each group immediately after injury. C, D groups improved more than A, B groups over time. (3) The disorder arrangement of skeletal muscle cells with edema and filaments separation were found in HE staining after injury, but the degree mitigated in C, D groups. Desmin

  5. Differences in inflammation and acute phase response but similar genotoxicity in mice following pulmonary exposure to graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtson, Stefan; Knudsen, Kristina Bram; Kyjovska, Zdenka O.

    2017-01-01

    assessed exposure levels of particulate matter emitted during production of graphene in a clean room and in a normal industrial environment using chemical vapour deposition. Toxicity was evaluated at day 1, 3, 28 and 90 days (18, 54 and 162 μg/mouse), except for GO exposed mice at day 28 and 90 where only......We investigated toxicity of 2-3 layered >1 μm sized graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in mice following single intratracheal exposure with respect to pulmonary inflammation, acute phase response (biomarker for risk of cardiovascular disease) and genotoxicity. In addition, we...

  6. Silencing of microRNA-155 in mice during acute inflammatory response leads to derepression of c/ebp Beta and down-regulation of G-CSF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Jesper; Stenvang, Jan; Petri, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    microRNA-155 (miR-155) has been implicated as a central regulator of the immune system, but its function during acute inflammatory responses is still poorly understood. Here we show that exposure of cultured macrophages and mice to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) leads to up-regulation of miR-155......-stimulating factor (G-CSF), a central regulator of granulopoiesis during inflammatory responses. Consistent with these data, we show that silencing of miR-155 in LPS-treated mice by systemically administered LNA-antimiR results in derepression of the c/ebp Beta isoforms and down-regulation of G-CSF expression...

  7. The development of an acute care case manager orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzelecki, S; Brobst, R

    1997-01-01

    The authors describe the development of an inpatient acute care case manager orientation in a community hospital. Benner's application of the Dreyfus model of skill acquisition provides the basis for the orientation program. The candidates for the case manager position were expert clinicians. Because of the role change it was projected that they would function as advanced beginners. It was also predicted that, as the case managers progressed within the role, the educational process would need to be adapted to facilitate progression of skills to the proficient level. Feedback from participants reinforced that the model supported the case manager in the role transition. In addition, the model provided a predictive framework for ongoing educational activities.

  8. Acute behavioral effects of co-administration of mephedrone and MDMA in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzynska, Barbara; Michalak, Agnieszka; Frankowska, Małgorzata; Kaszubska, Katarzyna; Biała, Grażyna

    2017-04-01

    Abuse of more than one psychoactive drug is becoming a global problem. Our experiments were designed to examine the effects of a concomitant administration of 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) and mephedrone on depression- and anxiety-like behaviors and cognitive processes in Swiss mice. In order to investigate the drug interactions the forced swimming test (FST) - an animal model of depression, the passive avoidance (PA) test - a memory and learning paradigm, as well as the elevated plus maze (EPM) test - test for anxiety level were used. The results revealed that a concomitant administration of non-effective doses of mephedrone (1mg/kg) and MDMA (1mg/kg) exerted marked antidepressive effects in the FST. Also a co-administration of mephedrone (2.5mg/kg) and MDMA (1mg/kg) displayed a pro-cognitive action in the PA paradigm. Furthermore, even though mephedrone and MDMA can, in general, exert some anxiogenic effects in mice, the concomitant administration of nonactive doses of both drugs (0.05 and 0.1mg/kg, respectively) in the EPM test, did not show any synergistic effect in our study. The effects of mephedrone and MDMA combination on mammalian organisms were attempted to be evaluated in our study and the results are described in the present report. These results may help explain the reasons for and consequences of a concomitant administration of psychoactive substances with regards to the central nervous system, while being possibly useful in the treatment of polydrug intoxication. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  9. Metalloporphyrin Co(III)TMPyP ameliorates acute, sublethal cyanide toxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Oscar S; Yuan, Quan; Amoscato, Andrew A; Pearce, Linda L; Peterson, Jim

    2012-12-17

    The formation of Co(III)TMPyP(CN)(2) at pH 7.4 has been shown to be completely cooperative (α(H) = 2) with an association constant of 2.1 (±0.2) × 10(11). The kinetics were investigated by stopped-flow spectrophotometry and revealed a complicated net reaction exhibiting 4 phases at pH 7.4 under conditions where cyanide was in excess. The data suggest molecular HCN (rather than CN(-)) to be the attacking nucleophile around neutrality. The two slower phases do not seem to be present when cyanide is not in excess, and the other two phases have rates comparable to that observed for cobalamin, a known effective cyanide scavenger. Addition of bovine serum albumin (BSA) did not affect the cooperativity of cyanide binding to Co(III)TMPyP, only lowered the equilibrium constant slightly to 1.2 (±0.2) × 10(11) and had an insignificant effect on the observed rate. A sublethal mouse model was used to assess the effectiveness of Co(III)TMPyP as a potential cyanide antidote. The administration of Co(III)TMPyP to sodium cyanide intoxicated mice resulted in the time required for the surviving mice to right themselves from a supine position being significantly decreased (9 ± 2 min) compared to that of the controls (33 ± 2 min). All observations were consistent with the demonstrated antidotal activity of Co(III)TMPyP operating through a cyanide-binding (i.e., scavenging) mechanism.

  10. Acute Oral Toxicity of 3-Chloro-4,4-dimethyl-2-oxazolidinone (Compound 1) in ICR Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-01

    number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Acute Oral Toxicity, N- Chloramine , Mouse, Mammalian Toxicology, Water Disinfectant , 3-Chloro-4, 4 -dimethyl-2...Amer Ind Hyg Assoc Q 1943; 10:93-96. 7. Mora EC, Kohl HH, Wheatley WB, et al. Properties or a new chloramine disinfectant and detoxicant. Poultry Sci...ORGANIZATION Mammalian Toxicology (If applicable) US Army Biomedical Research Division of Toxicology SGRD-ULE- T and Development Laboratory 6c. ADDRESS

  11. Evaluation of the acute toxicity, phytochemical constituents and anti - ulcer properties of methanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine Uneojo Omoja

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the acute toxicity, phytochemical constituents and anti - ulcer properties of methanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata in mice. The anti - ulcer activity was evaluated using absolute ethanol-induced ulcer and aspirin-induced ulcer models in mice. An LD50 of 354.8 +/- 8 mg/kg body weight, bw of the extract was obtained on oral administration. Investigation of the phytochemical constituents of the plant extract revealed the presence of saponins, alkaloids and traces of tannins. All doses of the extract (50, 75 and 100 mg/kg used for the study significantly reduced (p<0.05 the mean number of ulcers in both ulcer models when compared to the untreated group A (10 ml/kg distil water. Optimum antiulcer activity of the extract against absolute ethanol-induced ulcer was noted at 50 mg/kg bw. At this 50 mg/kg, the mean number of ulcers and mean ulcer index of the extract was significantly lower (p<0.05 than that of Cimetidine at 100 mg/kg (3.60 +/- 0.51: 5.00 +/- 0.32; 1.5+/-0.05: 0.98+/-0.03, the treated control group whereas the protective index of the extract was higher than that of cimetidine (50.51 %: 24.24 %. The results obtained from this study strongly suggest that methanolic leaf extract of Annona muricata can be effectively used for the treatment of ulcer in low doses and can provide better therapeutic effect than cimetidine if used in ulcers caused by alcoholism and related agents. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2014; 3(1.000: 37-43

  12. Lipopolysaccharide precipitates hepatic encephalopathy and increases blood-brain barrier permeability in mice with acute liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastre, Anne; Bélanger, Mireille; Nguyen, Bich N; Butterworth, Roger F

    2014-03-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is frequently complicated by infection leading to precipitation of central nervous system complications such as hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and increased mortality. There is evidence to suggest that when infection occurs in ALF patients, the resulting pro-inflammatory mechanisms may be amplified that could, in turn, have a major impact on blood-brain barrier (BBB) function. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of endotoxemia on the progression of encephalopathy in relation to BBB permeability during ALF. Adult male C57-BL6 mice with ALF resulting from azoxymethane-induced toxic liver injury were administered trace amounts of the endotoxin component lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Effects on the magnitude of the systemic inflammatory response, liver pathology and BBB integrity were measured as a function of progression of HE, defined as time to loss of corneal reflex (coma). Lipopolysaccharide caused additional two- to seven-fold (P liver pathology and associated increases of circulating transaminases as well as increased hyperammonaemia consistent with a further loss of viable hepatocytes. LPS treatment of ALF mice led to a rapid precipitation of hepatic coma and the BBB became permeable to the 25-kDa protein immunoglobulin G (IgG). This extravasation of IgG was accompanied by ignificant up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), an endopeptidase known to modulate opening of the BBB in a wide range of neurological disorders. These findings represent the first direct evidence of inflammation-related BBB permeability changes in ALF. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Publishing by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Selective Toll-Like Receptor 4 Antagonists Prevent Acute Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takeshi; Kawakita, Fumihiro; Nishikawa, Hirofumi; Nakano, Fumi; Liu, Lei; Suzuki, Hidenori

    2018-05-31

    There are no direct evidences showing the linkage between Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The purpose of this study was to examine if selective blockage of TLR4 prevents BBB disruption after SAH in mice and if the TLR4 signaling involves mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). One hundred and fifty-one C57BL/6 male mice underwent sham or endovascular perforation SAH operation, randomly followed by an intracerebroventricular infusion of vehicle or two dosages (117 or 585 ng) of a selective TLR4 antagonist IAXO-102 at 30 min post-operation. The effects were evaluated by survival rates, neurological scores, and brain water content at 24-72 h and immunoglobulin G immunostaining and Western blotting at 24 h post-SAH. IAXO-102 significantly prevented post-SAH neurological impairments, brain edema, and BBB disruption, resulting in improved survival rates. IAXO-102 also significantly suppressed post-SAH activation of a major isoform of MAPK p46 c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 as well as periostin induction and preserved tight junction protein zona occludens-1. Another selective TLR4 antagonist TAK-242, which has a different binding site from IAXO-102, also showed similar effects to IAXO-102. This study first provided the evidence that TLR4 signaling is involved in post-SAH acute BBB disruption and that the signaling is mediated at least partly by JNK activation. TLR4-targeted therapy may be promising to reduce post-SAH morbidities and mortalities.

  14. Intratracheal IL-6 protects against lung inflammation in direct, but not indirect, causes of acute lung injury in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhea Bhargava

    Full Text Available Serum and bronchoalveolar fluid IL-6 are increased in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS and predict prolonged mechanical ventilation and poor outcomes, although the role of intra-alveolar IL-6 in indirect lung injury is unknown. We investigated the role of endogenous and exogenous intra-alveolar IL-6 in AKI-mediated lung injury (indirect lung injury, intraperitoneal (IP endotoxin administration (indirect lung injury and, for comparison, intratracheal (IT endotoxin administration (direct lung injury with the hypothesis that IL-6 would exert a pro-inflammatory effect in these causes of acute lung inflammation.Bronchoalveolar cytokines (IL-6, CXCL1, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-10, BAL fluid neutrophils, lung inflammation (lung cytokines, MPO activity [a biochemical marker of neutrophil infiltration], and serum cytokines were determined in adult male C57Bl/6 mice with no intervention or 4 hours after ischemic AKI (22 minutes of renal pedicle clamping, IP endotoxin (10 µg, or IT endotoxin (80 µg with and without intratracheal (IT IL-6 (25 ng or 200 ng treatment.Lung inflammation was similar after AKI, IP endotoxin, and IT endotoxin. BAL fluid IL-6 was markedly increased after IT endotoxin, and not increased after AKI or IP endotoxin. Unexpectedly, IT IL-6 exerted an anti-inflammatory effect in healthy mice characterized by reduced BAL fluid cytokines. IT IL-6 also exerted an anti-inflammatory effect in IT endotoxin characterized by reduced BAL fluid cytokines and lung inflammation; IT IL-6 had no effect on lung inflammation in AKI or IP endotoxin.IL-6 exerts an anti-inflammatory effect in direct lung injury from IT endotoxin, yet has no role in the pathogenesis or treatment of indirect lung injury from AKI or IP endotoxin. Since intra-alveolar inflammation is important in the pathogenesis of direct, but not indirect, causes of lung inflammation, IT anti-inflammatory treatments may have a role in direct, but not indirect, causes of

  15. Rate of lens lesion development and the age of mice at time of irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajewski, A.K.; Majewska, K.; Slowikowska, M.G.

    1976-01-01

    The rate of lens lesion development has been studied in mice irradiated at different age ranging from one day up to one year old mice. The time needed for the first appearance of lens lesion was shortest in groups of mice irradiated at the age of one, two and three days of life, and longest in groups of mice irradiated at the age of 5 days, 1 week and 2 weeks of life. The time needed for the first appearance of lens lesion for mice irradiated between the third week and one year of life was constant. It was longer than for mice irradiated during the first three days of life and shorter than for mice irradiated at 5 up to 14 days of life. In all but one irradiated groups the age at which the first lens lesion occurred differed significantly from the age at which the first senile changes occurred in the lens of control mice. The one exception was the group of mice irradiated at the age of one year. (author)

  16. Sox9 induces testis development in XX transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vidal, V. P.; Chaboissier, M. C.; de rooij, D. G.; Schedl, A.

    2001-01-01

    Mutations in SOX9 are associated with male-to-female sex reversal in humans. To analyze Sox9 function during sex determination, we ectopically expressed this gene in XX gonads. Here, we show that Sox9 is sufficient to induce testis formation in mice, indicating that it can substitute for the

  17. Acute alterations of somatodendritic action potential dynamics in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells after kainate-induced status epilepticus in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Minge

    Full Text Available Pathophysiological remodeling processes at an early stage of an acquired epilepsy are critical but not well understood. Therefore, we examined acute changes in action potential (AP dynamics immediately following status epilepticus (SE in mice. SE was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of kainate, and behavioral manifestation of SE was monitored for 3-4 h. After this time interval CA1 pyramidal cells were studied ex vivo with whole-cell current-clamp and Ca(2+ imaging techniques in a hippocampal slice preparation. Following acute SE both resting potential and firing threshold were modestly depolarized (2-5 mV. No changes were seen in input resistance or membrane time constant, but AP latency was prolonged and AP upstroke velocity reduced following acute SE. All cells showed an increase in AP halfwidth and regular (rather than burst firing, and in a fraction of cells the notch, typically preceding spike afterdepolarization (ADP, was absent following acute SE. Notably, the typical attenuation of backpropagating action potential (b-AP-induced Ca(2+ signals along the apical dendrite was strengthened following acute SE. The effects of acute SE on the retrograde spread of excitation were mimicked by applying the Kv4 current potentiating drug NS5806. Our data unveil a reduced somatodendritic excitability in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells immediately after acute SE with a possible involvement of both Na(+ and K(+ current components.

  18. TAP1-deficiency does not alter atherosclerosis development in Apoe-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kolbus

    Full Text Available Antigen presenting cells (APC have the ability to present both extra-cellular and intra-cellular antigens via MHC class I molecules to CD8(+ T cells. The cross presentation of extra-cellular antigens is reduced in mice with deficient Antigen Peptide Transporter 1 (TAP1-dependent MHC class I antigen presentation, and these mice are characterized by a diminished CD8(+ T cell population. We have recently reported an increased activation of CD8(+ T cells in hypercholesterolemic Apoe(-/- mice. Therefore, this study included TAP1-deficient Apoe(-/- mice (Apoe(-/-Tap1(-/- to test the atherogenicity of CD8(+ T cells and TAP1-dependent cross presentation in a hypercholesterolemic environment. As expected the CD8(+ T cell numbers were low in Apoe(-/-Tap1(-/- mice in comparison to Apoe(-/- mice, constituting ~1% of the lymphocyte population. In spite of this there were no differences in the extent of atherosclerosis as assessed by en face Oil Red O staining of the aorta and cross-sections of the aortic root between Apoe(-/-Tap1(-/- and Apoe(-/- mice. Moreover, no differences were detected in lesion infiltration of macrophages or CD3(+ T cells in Apoe(-/-Tap1(-/- compared to Apoe(-/- mice. The CD3(+CD4(+ T cell fraction was increased in Apoe(-/-Tap1(-/- mice, suggesting a compensation for the decreased CD8(+ T cell population. Interestingly, the fraction of CD8(+ effector memory T cells was increased but this appeared to have little impact on the atherosclerosis development.In conclusion, Apoe(-/-Tap1(-/- mice develop atherosclerosis equal to Apoe(-/- mice, indicating a minor role for CD8(+ T cells and TAP1-dependent antigen presentation in the disease process.

  19. Receptor Interacting Protein 3-Mediated Necroptosis Promotes Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Mice.

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    Linlin Wang

    Full Text Available Necrosis amplifies inflammation and plays important roles in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Necroptosis is a newly identified programmed necrosis that is mediated by receptor interacting protein 3 (RIP3. However, the potential involvement and impact of necroptosis in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced ARDS remains unknown. We therefore explored the role and mechanism of RIP3-mediated necroptosis in LPS-induced ARDS. Mice were instilled with increasing doses of LPS intratracheally to induce different degrees of ARDS. Lung tissues were harvested for histological and TUNEL staining and western blot for RIP3, p-RIP3, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP, mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL, total and cleaved caspases-3/8. Then, wild-type and RIP3 knock-out mice were induced ARDS with 30 mg/kg LPS. Pulmonary cellular necrosis was labeled by the propidium Iodide (PI staining. Levels of TNF-a, Interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-1α, IL-10 and HMGB1, tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, neutrophil counts and total protein concentration were measured. Results showed that in high dose LPS (30mg/kg and 40mg/kg -induced severe ARDS, RIP3 protein was increased significantly, accompanied by increases of p-RIP3 and MLKL, while in low dose LPS (10mg/kg and 20mg/kg -induced mild ARDS, apoptosis was remarkably increased. In LPS-induced severe ARDS, RIP3 knock-out alleviated the hypothermia symptom, increased survival rate and ameliorated the lung tissue injury RIP3 depletion also attenuated LPS-induced increase in IL-1α/β, IL-6 and HMGB1 release, decreased tissue MPO activity, and reduced neutrophil influx and total protein concentration in BALF in severe ARDS. Further, RIP3 depletion reduced the necrotic cells in the lung and decreased the expression of MLKL, but had no impact on cleaved caspase-3 in LPS-induced ARDS. It is concluded that RIP3-mediated necroptosis is a major mechanism of enhanced inflammation and lung tissue injury in

  20. Impact of PACAP and PAC1 receptor deficiency on the neurochemical and behavioral effects of acute and chronic restraint stress in male C57BL/6 mice.

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    Mustafa, Tomris; Jiang, Sunny Zhihong; Eiden, Adrian M; Weihe, Eberhard; Thistlethwaite, Ian; Eiden, Lee E

    2015-01-01

    Acute restraint stress (ARS) for 3 h causes corticosterone (CORT) elevation in venous blood, which is accompanied by Fos up-regulation in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of male C57BL/6 mice. CORT elevation by ARS is attenuated in PACAP-deficient mice, but unaffected in PAC1-deficient mice. Correspondingly, Fos up-regulation by ARS is greatly attenuated in PACAP-deficient mice, but much less so in PAC1-deficient animals. We noted that both PACAP- and PAC1-deficiency greatly attenuate CORT elevation after ARS when CORT measurements are performed on trunk blood following euthanasia by abrupt cervical separation: this latter observation is of critical importance in assessing the role of PACAP neurotransmission in ARS, based on previous reports in which serum CORT was sampled from trunk blood. Seven days of chronic restraint stress (CRS) induces non-habituating CORT elevation, and weight loss consequent to hypophagia, in wild-type male C57BL/6 mice. Both CORT elevation and weight loss following 7-day CRS are severely blunted in PACAP-deficient mice, but only slightly in PAC1-deficient mice. However, longer periods of daily restraint (14-21 days) resulted in sustained weight loss and elevated CORT in wild-type mice, and these effects of long-term chronic stress were attenuated or abolished in both PACAP- and PAC1-deficient mice. We conclude that while a PACAP receptor in addition to PAC1 may mediate some of the PACAP-dependent central effects of ARS and short-term (7 days) CRS.

  1. FTO is a relevant factor for the development of the metabolic syndrome in mice.

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    Kathrin Ikels

    Full Text Available The metabolic syndrome is a worldwide problem mainly caused by obesity. FTO was found to be a obesity-risk gene in humans and FTO deficiency in mice led to reduction in adipose tissue. Thus, FTO is an important factor for the development of obesity. Leptin-deficient mice are a well characterized model for analysing the metabolic syndrome. To determine the relevance of FTO for the development of the metabolic syndrome we analysed different parameters in combined homozygous deficient mice (Lep(ob/ob;Fto(-/-. Lep(ob/ob;Fto(-/- mice showed an improvement in analysed hallmarks of the metabolic syndrome in comparison to leptin-deficient mice wild type or heterozygous for Fto. Lep(ob/ob;Fto(-/- mice did not develop hyperglycaemia and showed an improved glucose tolerance. Furthermore, extension of beta-cell mass was prevented in Lep(ob/ob;Fto(-/-mice and accumulation of ectopic fat in the liver was reduced. In conclusion this study demonstrates that FTO deficiency has a protective effect not only on the development of obesity but also on the metabolic syndrome. Thus, FTO plays an important role in the development of metabolic disorders and is an interesting target for therapeutic agents.

  2. Development of Murine Cyp3a Knockout Chimeric Mice with Humanized Liver.

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    Kato, Kota; Ohbuchi, Masato; Hamamura, Satoko; Ohshita, Hiroki; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Sato, Koya; Nakada, Naoyuki; Kawamura, Akio; Usui, Takashi; Kamimura, Hidetaka; Tateno, Chise

    2015-08-01

    We developed murine CYP3A knockout ko chimeric mice with humanized liver expressing human P450S similar to those in humans and whose livers and small intestines do not express murine CYP3A this: approach may overcome effects of residual mouse metabolic enzymes like Cyp3a in conventional chimeric mice with humanized liver, such as PXB-mice [urokinase plasminogen activator/severe combined immunodeficiency (uPA/SCID) mice repopulated with over 70% human hepatocytes] to improve the prediction of drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics in humans. After human hepatocytes were transplanted into Cyp3a KO/uPA/SCID host mice, human albumin levels logarithmically increased until approximately 60 days after transplantation, findings similar to those in PXB-mice. Quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that hepatic human P450s, UGTs, SULTs, and transporters mRNA expression levels in Cyp3a KO chimeric mice were also similar to those in PXB-mice and confirmed the absence of Cyp3a11 mRNA expression in mouse liver and intestine. Findings for midazolam and triazolam metabolic activities in liver microsomes were comparable between Cyp3a KO chimeric mice and PXB-mice. In contrast, these activities in the intestine of Cyp3a KO chimeric mice were attenuated compared with PXB-mice. Owing to the knockout of murine Cyp3a, hepatic Cyp2b10 and 2c55 mRNA levels in Cyp3a KO/uPA/SCID mice (without hepatocyte transplants) were 8.4- and 61-fold upregulated compared with PXB-mice, respectively. However, human hepatocyte transplantation successfully restored Cyp2b10 level nearly fully and Cyp2c55 level partly (still 13-fold upregulated) compared with those in PXB-mice. Intestinal Cyp2b10 and 2c55 were also repressed by human hepatocyte transplantation in Cyp3a KO chimeric mice. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  3. ATP catabolism by tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase contributes to development of ARDS in influenza-infected mice.

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    Woods, Parker S; Doolittle, Lauren M; Hickman-Davis, Judy M; Davis, Ian C

    2018-01-01

    Influenza A viruses are highly contagious respiratory pathogens that are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide on an annual basis. We have shown previously that influenza infection of mice leads to increased ATP and adenosine accumulation in the airway lumen. Moreover, we demonstrated that A 1 -adenosine receptor activation contributes significantly to influenza-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, we found that development of ARDS in influenza-infected mice does not require catabolism of ATP to adenosine by ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73). Hence, we hypothesized that increased adenosine generation in response to infection is mediated by tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP), which is a low-affinity, high-capacity enzyme that catabolizes nucleotides in a nonspecific manner. In the current study, we found that whole lung and BALF TNAP expression and alkaline phosphatase enzymatic activity increased as early as 2 days postinfection (dpi) of C57BL/6 mice with 10,000 pfu/mouse of influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1). Treatment at 2 and 4 dpi with a highly specific quinolinyl-benzenesulfonamide TNAP inhibitor (TNAPi) significantly reduced whole lung alkaline phosphatase activity at 6 dpi but did not alter TNAP gene or protein expression. TNAPi treatment attenuated hypoxemia, lung dysfunction, histopathology, and pulmonary edema at 6 dpi without impacting viral replication or BALF adenosine. Treatment also improved epithelial barrier function and attenuated cellular and humoral immune responses to influenza infection. These data indicate that TNAP inhibition can attenuate influenza-induced ARDS by reducing inflammation and fluid accumulation within the lung. They also further emphasize the importance of adenosine generation for development of ARDS in influenza-infected mice.

  4. CD28 in thymocyte development and peripheral T cell activation in mice exposed to suspended particulate matter

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    Drela, Nadzieja; Zesko, Izabela; Jakubowska, Martyna; Biernacka, Marzena

    2006-01-01

    The CD28:B7 signaling pathway is very important for the activity of mature peripheral T lymphocytes and thymocyte development. The proper development of thymocytes into mature single positive CD4 + and CD8 + T cells is crucial for almost all immune functions. In naturally occurring conditions, T cells maturation in the thymus is influenced by environmental agents. The expression of CD28 and the distribution of CD28 low/high thymocytes have been examined at various stages of thymocyte development in BALB/c mice exposed to air-suspended particulate matter (ASM). Acute exposure to ASM resulted in the decrease of CD28 expression in the total thymocyte population. The increase of the percentage of CD28 low and the decrease of CD28 high thymocytes were observed, which may account for the acceleration of thymocyte development under the conditions of elevated risk resulting from the exposure of animals to environmental xenobiotics. ASM exposure resulted in the increase of the level of proliferation of lymph node T cells induced by anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies activation despite normal expression of CD28 molecule. In contrast, the level of proliferation of spleen T cells was lowered or normal dependently of the concentration of stimuli used for activation. Results of these studies demonstrate that acute exposure of mice to ASM can result in the progression of two contrasting processes in the immune system: upregulation of thymocyte development, which contributes to the maintenance of peripheral T cell pool, and over-activation of lymph node lymphocytes, which may lead to uncontrolled immunostimulation

  5. Protective effects of a bacterially expressed NIF-KGF fusion protein against bleomycin-induced acute lung injury in mice.

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    Li, Xinping; Li, Shengli; Zhang, Miaotao; Li, Xiukun; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Wenlong; Li, Chuanghong

    2010-08-01

    Current evidence suggests that the keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and the polymorphonuclear leukocyte may play key roles in the development of lung fibrosis. Here we describe the construction, expression, purification, and identification of a novel NIF (neutrophil inhibitory factor)-KGF mutant fusion protein (NKM). The fusion gene was ligated via a flexible octapeptide hinge and expressed as an insoluble protein in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The fusion protein retained the activities of KGF and NIF, as it inhibited both fibroblast proliferation and leukocyte adhesion. Next, the effects of NKM on bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in mice were examined. The mice were divided into the following four groups: (i) saline group; (ii) bleomycin group (instilled with 5 mg/kg bleomycin intratracheally); (iii) bleomycin plus dexamethasone (Dex) group (Dex was given intraperitoneally (i.p.) at 1 mg/kg/day 2 days prior to bleomycin instillation and daily after bleomycin instillation until the end of the treatment); and (iv) bleomycin plus NKM group (NKM was given i.p. at 2 mg/kg/day using the same protocol as the Dex group). NKM significantly improved the survival rates of mice exposed to bleomycin. The marked morphological changes and increased hydroxyproline levels resulted from the instillation of bleomycin (on Day 17) in the lungs were significantly inhibited by NKM. These results revealed that NKM can attenuate bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis, suggesting that NKM could be used to prevent bleomycin-induced lung damage or other interstitial pulmonary fibrosis.

  6. Acute and long-term administration of palmitoylcarnitine induces muscle-specific insulin resistance in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liepinsh, Edgars; Makrecka-Kuka, Marina; Makarova, Elina; Volska, Kristine; Vilks, Karlis; Sevostjanovs, Eduards; Antone, Unigunde; Kuka, Janis; Vilskersts, Reinis; Lola, Daina; Loza, Einars; Grinberga, Solveiga; Dambrova, Maija

    2017-09-10

    Acylcarnitine accumulation has been linked to perturbations in energy metabolism pathways. In this study, we demonstrate that long-chain (LC) acylcarnitines are active metabolites involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism in vivo. Single-dose administration of palmitoylcarnitine (PC) in fed mice induced marked insulin insensitivity, decreased glucose uptake in muscles, and elevated blood glucose levels. Increase in the content of LC acylcarnitine induced insulin resistance by impairing Akt phosphorylation at Ser473. The long-term administration of PC using slow-release osmotic minipumps induced marked hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance, suggesting that the permanent accumulation of LC acylcarnitines can accelerate the progression of insulin resistance. The decrease of acylcarnitine content significantly improved glucose tolerance in a mouse model of diet-induced glucose intolerance. In conclusion, we show that the physiological increase in content of acylcarnitines ensures the transition from a fed to fasted state in order to limit glucose metabolism in the fasted state. In the fed state, the inability of insulin to inhibit LC acylcarnitine production induces disturbances in glucose uptake and metabolism. The reduction of acylcarnitine content could be an effective strategy to improve insulin sensitivity. © 2017 BioFactors, 43(5):718-730, 2017. © 2017 The Authors BioFactors published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  7. Acute oral toxicity of 3-MCPD mono- and di-palmitic esters in Swiss mice and their cytotoxicity in NRK-52E rat kidney cells.

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    Liu, Man; Gao, Bo-Yan; Qin, Fang; Wu, Ping-Ping; Shi, Hai-Ming; Luo, Wei; Ma, Ai-Niu; Jiang, Yuan-Rong; Xu, Xue-Bing; Yu, Liang-Li Lucy

    2012-10-01

    The acute oral toxicity of 1-palmitoyl-3-chloropropanediol (3-MCPD 1-monopalmitate) and 1,2-bis-palmitoyl-3-chloropropanediol (3-MCPD dipalmitate) in Swiss mice were examined, along with their cytotoxicity in NRK-52E rat kidney cells. LD50 (median lethal dose) value of 3-MCPD 1-monopalmitate was determined 2676.81 mg/kg body weight (BW). The results showed that 3-MCPD 1-monopalmitate dose-dependently decreased the mean body weight, and caused significant increase of serum urea nitrogen and creatinine in dead mice compared to the control and survived mice. Major histopathological changes in mice fed 3-MCPD 1-monopalmitate were renal tubular necrosis, protein casts and spermatids decrease in the seminiferous tubules. According to the limit test for 3-MCPD dipalmitate, LD50 value of 3-MCPD dipalmitate was presumed to be greater than 5000 mg/kg BW. Obvious changes were not observed on mean body weight, absolute and relative organ weight or serum urea nitrogen and creatinine levels in mice fed 3-MCPD dipalmitate. However, renal tubular necrosis, protein casts and spermatids decrease were also observed in the dead mice. In addition, MTT and LDH assay results only showed the cytotoxicity of 3-MCPD 1-monopalmitate in NRK-52E rat kidney cells in a dose-dependent manner. Together, the results indicated a greater toxicity of 3-MCPD 1-monopalmitate compared to 3-MCPD dipalmitate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Splenic CD11clowCD45RBhigh dendritic cells derived from endotoxin-tolerant mice attenuate experimental acute liver failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sai-Nan; Yang, Nai-Bin; Ni, Shun-Lan; Dong, Jin-Zhong; Shi, Chun-Wei; Li, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Sheng-Guo; Tang, Xin-Yue; Lu, Ming-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Endotoxin tolerance (ET) is suggested to attenuate the severity of acute liver failure (ALF) in mice, possibly through both innate and adaptive immunity. However, the involvement of regulatory dendritic cells (DCregs) in ET has not been fully elucidated. In this study, their effect on ALF in mice was investigated. Splenic DCregs from ET-exposed mice (ET-DCregs) showed lower expression levels of CD40, CD80, and MHC-II markers and stronger inhibition of allogenic T cells and regulation of IL-10 and IL-12 secretion than splenic DCregs from normal mice (nDCregs). Moreover, the mRNA and protein levels of TNF-α and P65 in splenic ET-DCregs were significantly lower than those in the splenic nDCregs. The survival rate was significantly increased and liver injury was mitigated in mice with ALF treated with splenic ET-DCregs. In addition, A20 expression was decreased in the liver of ALF mice, but elevated after infusion of splenic nDCregs and ET-DCregs, and a much higher elevation was observed after infusing the latter cells. The functionality of splenic DCregs was altered after ET exposure, contributing to protection of the livers against D-GalN/LPS-induced ALF. PMID:27625297

  9. Plasma Hsp90 Level as a Marker of Early Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Engraftment and Progression in Mice.

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    Mateus Milani

    Full Text Available Current monitoring of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL in living mice is based on FACS analysis of blood hCD45+ cells. In this work, we evaluated the use of human IGFBP2, B2M or Hsp90 as soluble markers of leukemia. ELISA for B2M and IGFBP2 resulted in high background levels in healthy animals, precluding its use. Conversely, plasma levels of Hsp90 showed low background and linear correlation to FACS results. In another experiment, we compared Hsp90 levels with percentage of hCD45+ cells in blood, bone marrow, liver and spleen of animals weekly sacrificed. Hsp90 levels proved to be a superior method for the earlier detection of ALL engraftment and correlated linearly to ALL burden and progression in all compartments, even at minimal residual disease levels. Importantly, the Hsp90/hCD45+ ratio was not altered when animals were treated with dexamethasone or a PI3K inhibitor, indicating that chemotherapy does not directly interfere with leukemia production of Hsp90. In conclusion, plasma Hsp90 was validated as a soluble biomarker of ALL, useful for earlier detection of leukemia engraftment, monitoring leukemia kinetics at residual disease levels, and pre-clinical or mouse avatar evaluations of anti-leukemic drugs.

  10. Plasma Hsp90 Level as a Marker of Early Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Engraftment and Progression in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcellos, Jaíra Ferreira; Brandalise, Silvia Regina; Nowill, Alexandre Eduardo; Yunes, José Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Current monitoring of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in living mice is based on FACS analysis of blood hCD45+ cells. In this work, we evaluated the use of human IGFBP2, B2M or Hsp90 as soluble markers of leukemia. ELISA for B2M and IGFBP2 resulted in high background levels in healthy animals, precluding its use. Conversely, plasma levels of Hsp90 showed low background and linear correlation to FACS results. In another experiment, we compared Hsp90 levels with percentage of hCD45+ cells in blood, bone marrow, liver and spleen of animals weekly sacrificed. Hsp90 levels proved to be a superior method for the earlier detection of ALL engraftment and correlated linearly to ALL burden and progression in all compartments, even at minimal residual disease levels. Importantly, the Hsp90/hCD45+ ratio was not altered when animals were treated with dexamethasone or a PI3K inhibitor, indicating that chemotherapy does not directly interfere with leukemia production of Hsp90. In conclusion, plasma Hsp90 was validated as a soluble biomarker of ALL, useful for earlier detection of leukemia engraftment, monitoring leukemia kinetics at residual disease levels, and pre-clinical or mouse avatar evaluations of anti-leukemic drugs. PMID:26068922

  11. Quercetin Inhibits Peripheral and Spinal Cord Nociceptive Mechanisms to Reduce Intense Acute Swimming-Induced Muscle Pain in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Sergio M.; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A.; Fattori, Victor; Bussmann, Allan J. C.; Vignoli, Josiane A.; Camilios-Neto, Doumit; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A.

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of the flavonoid quercetin (3,3´,4´,5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) in a mice model of intense acute swimming-induced muscle pain, which resembles delayed onset muscle soreness. Quercetin intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatment dose-dependently reduced muscle mechanical hyperalgesia. Quercetin inhibited myeloperoxidase (MPO) and N-acetyl-β-D- glucosaminidase (NAG) activities, cytokine production, oxidative stress, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and gp91phox mRNA expression and muscle injury (creatinine kinase [CK] blood levels and myoblast determination protein [MyoD] mRNA expression) as well as inhibited NFκB activation and induced Nrf2 and HO-1 mRNA expression in the soleus muscle. Beyond inhibiting those peripheral effects, quercetin also inhibited spinal cord cytokine production, oxidative stress and glial cells activation (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP] and ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 [Iba-1] mRNA expression). Concluding, the present data demonstrate that quercetin is a potential molecule for the treatment of muscle pain conditions related to unaccustomed exercise. PMID:27583449

  12. Effects of a Natural Prolyl Oligopeptidase Inhibitor, Rosmarinic Acid, on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice

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    Miaomiao Wei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Rosmarinic acid (RA, a polyphenolic phytochemical, is a natural prolyl oligopeptidase inhibitor. In the present study, we found that RA exerted potent anti-inflammatory effects in in vivo models of acute lung injury (ALI induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Mice were pretreated with RA one hour before challenge with a dose of 0.5 mg/kg LPS. Twenty-four hours after LPS was given, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF was obtained to measure pro-inflammatory mediator and total cell counts. RA significantly decreased the production of LPS-induced TNF-a, IL-6, and IL-1β compare with the LPS group. When pretreated with RA (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg the lung wet-to-dry weight (W/D ratio of the lung tissue and the number of total cells, neutrophils and macrophages in the BALF were decreased significantly. Furthermore, RA may enhance oxidase dimutase (SOD activity during the inflammatory response to LPS-induced ALI. And we further demonstrated that RA exerts anti-inflammation effect in vivo models of ALI through suppresses ERK/MAPK signaling in a dose dependent manner. These studies have important implications for RA administration as a potential treatment for ALI.

  13. Pulmonary permeability assessed by fluorescent-labeled dextran instilled intranasally into mice with LPS-induced acute lung injury.

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    Honglei Chen

    Full Text Available Several different methods have been used to assess pulmonary permeability in response to acute lung injury (ALI. However, these methods often involve complicated procedures and algorithms that are difficult to precisely control. The purpose of the current study is to establish a feasible method to evaluate alterations in lung permeability by instilling fluorescently labeled dextran (FITC-Dextran intranasally.For the mouse model of direct ALI, lipopolysaccharide (LPS was administered intranasally. FITC-Dextran was instilled intranasally one hour before the mice were euthanized. Plasma fluorescence intensities from the LPS group were significantly higher than in the control group. To determine the reliability and reproducibility of the procedure, we also measured the lung wet-to-dry weight ratio, the protein concentration of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, tight and adherens junction markers and pathological changes. Consistent results were observed when the LPS group was compared with the control group. Simultaneously, we found that the concentration of plasma FITC-Dextran was LPS dose-dependent. The concentration of plasma FITC-Dextran also increased with initial intranasal FITC-Dextran doses. Furthermore, increased fluorescence intensity of plasma FITC-Dextran was found in the intraperitoneally LPS-induced ALI model.In conclusion, the measurement of FITC-Dextran in plasma after intranasal instillation is a simple, reliable, and reproducible method to evaluate lung permeability alterations in vivo. The concentration of FITC-Dextran in the plasma may be useful as a potential peripheral biomarker of ALI in experimental clinical studies.

  14. Pulmonary permeability assessed by fluorescent-labeled dextran instilled intranasally into mice with LPS-induced acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Honglei; Wu, Shaoping; Lu, Rong; Zhang, Yong-guo; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Sun, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Several different methods have been used to assess pulmonary permeability in response to acute lung injury (ALI). However, these methods often involve complicated procedures and algorithms that are difficult to precisely control. The purpose of the current study is to establish a feasible method to evaluate alterations in lung permeability by instilling fluorescently labeled dextran (FITC-Dextran) intranasally. For the mouse model of direct ALI, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was administered intranasally. FITC-Dextran was instilled intranasally one hour before the mice were euthanized. Plasma fluorescence intensities from the LPS group were significantly higher than in the control group. To determine the reliability and reproducibility of the procedure, we also measured the lung wet-to-dry weight ratio, the protein concentration of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, tight and adherens junction markers and pathological changes. Consistent results were observed when the LPS group was compared with the control group. Simultaneously, we found that the concentration of plasma FITC-Dextran was LPS dose-dependent. The concentration of plasma FITC-Dextran also increased with initial intranasal FITC-Dextran doses. Furthermore, increased fluorescence intensity of plasma FITC-Dextran was found in the intraperitoneally LPS-induced ALI model. In conclusion, the measurement of FITC-Dextran in plasma after intranasal instillation is a simple, reliable, and reproducible method to evaluate lung permeability alterations in vivo. The concentration of FITC-Dextran in the plasma may be useful as a potential peripheral biomarker of ALI in experimental clinical studies.

  15. N-acetyl-heparin attenuates acute lung injury caused by acid aspiration mainly by antagonizing histones in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanlin; Zhao, Zanmei; Guan, Li; Mao, Lijun; Li, Shuqiang; Guan, Xiaoxu; Chen, Ming; Guo, Lixia; Ding, Lihua; Cong, Cuicui; Wen, Tao; Zhao, Jinyuan

    2014-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is the leading cause of death in intensive care units. Extracellular histones have recently been recognized to be pivotal inflammatory mediators. Heparin and its derivatives can bind histones through electrostatic interaction. The purpose of this study was to investigate 1) the role of extracellular histones in the pathogenesis of ALI caused by acid aspiration and 2) whether N-acetyl-heparin (NAH) provides more protection than heparin against histones at the high dose. ALI was induced in mice via intratracheal instillation of hydrochloric acid (HCl). Lethality rate, blood gas, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, lung edema and pathological changes were used to evaluate the degree of ALI. Heparin/NAH was administered intraperitoneally, twice a day, for 3 days or until death. Acid aspiration caused an obvious increase in extracellular histones. A significant correlation existed between the concentration of HCl aspirated and the circulating histones. Heparin/NAH (10 mg/kg) improved the lethality rate, blood gas, MPO activity, lung edema and pathological score. At a dose of 20 mg/kg, NAH still provided protection, however heparin tended to aggravate the injury due to hemorrhagic complications. The specific interaction between heparin and histones was verified by the binding assay. In summary, high levels of extracellular histones can be pathogenic in ALI caused by acid aspiration. By neutralizing extracellular histones, heparin/NAH can offer similar protection at the moderate doses. At the high dose, NAH provides better protection than heparin.

  16. Chemomics-Integrated Proteomics Analysis of Jie-Geng-Tang to Ameliorate Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice

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    Jin Tao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Jie-Geng-Tang (JGT, a classic and famous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM prescription composed of Platycodon grandiflorum (Jacq. A. DC. (PG and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. (GU, is well known for “clearing heat and relieving toxicity” and its ability to “diffuse the lung and relieve sore throat.” However, the mechanism underlying its action remains unclear. In this study, potential anti-inflammatory ingredients were screened and submitted to PharmMapper and the KEGG bioinformatics website to predict the target proteins and related pathways, respectively. Differentially expressed candidate proteins from acute lung injury (ALI mice treated with JGT were identified by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ and LC Triple-TOF. Eleven potential anti-inflammatory ingredients were found, including the derivatives of glycyrrhizic acid, licorice-saponin, liquiritin, and platycodigenin. A total of sixty-seven differentially expressed proteins were confirmed after JGT treatment with four therapeutic functions, including immunoregulation, anti-inflammation, ribosome, and muscle contraction. PG and GU comediate PI3K/Akt signal pathway inhibition of NF-κB, VCAM1, and ICAM1 release which primarily act on PI3K, PDK1, AKT, and GSK3β. GU markedly inhibits the ERK/MAPK signaling pathways and primarily acts on LCK, RAS, and MEK. A network was constructed using bioactive ingredients, targets, and pathways to determine the mechanism underlying JGT treatment of ALI.

  17. Quantified kidney echogenicity in mice with renal ischemia reperfusion injury: evaluation as a noninvasive biomarker of acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Shinya; Sugiyama, Noriyuki; Maemura, Kentaro; Otsuki, Yoshinori

    2017-09-01

    The purpose is to evaluate quantified kidney echogenicity as a biomarker for the early diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) and predicting progression to chronic kidney disease (CKD) in a mouse model of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Two separate protocols of murine models of IRI were used: (1) 10, 30, and 40 min of bilateral ischemia duration and (2) 45 and 60 min of unilateral ischemia duration. Renal echogenicity was measured with ultrasound and compared with serum creatinine or urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) at various timepoints after IRI. In mice subjected to 10, 30, and 40 min of bilateral ischemia, renal echogenicity increased about 2 h after IRI for all ischemia times, earlier than serum creatinine or urine NGAL. In those subjected to 45 and 60 min of unilateral ischemia, 60 min of unilateral ischemia, which represents atrophic changes 28 days after IRI, resulted in a sustained high level of echogenicity and was significantly different 24 h after IRI, while 45 min of unilateral ischemia resulted in trivial levels of histological damage 28 days after IRI. Renal echogenicity might have the potential to be a biomarker for the early diagnosis of AKI and the prognosis of CKD.

  18. Characterization of Regulatory Dendritic Cells That Mitigate Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease in Older Mice Following Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Scroggins, Sabrina M.; Olivier, Alicia K.; Meyerholz, David K.; Schlueter, Annette J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite improvements in human leukocyte antigen matching and pharmacologic prophylaxis, acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is often a fatal complication following hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Older HSCT recipients experience significantly increased morbidity and mortality compared to young recipients. Prophylaxis with syngeneic regulatory dendritic cells (DCreg) in young bone marrow transplanted (BMT) mice has been shown to decrease GVHD-associated mortality. To evaluate thi...

  19. Developing a consensus classification system for acute renal failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kellum, John A.; Levin, Nathan; Bouman, Catherine; Lameire, Norbert

    2002-01-01

    A biochemical definition and classification system for acute renal dysfunction is long overdue. Its absence has impeded progress in clinical and even basic research concerning a syndrome associated with mortality rates of 30 to 80%. No definition of acute renal dysfunction will be perfect, but the

  20. Tetranectin Knockout Mice Develop Features of Parkinson Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Er-song Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Aggregation of insoluble α-synuclein to form Lewy bodies (LBs may contribute to the selective loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson disease (PD. Lack of robust animal models has impeded elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of LB formation and other critical aspects of PD pathogenesis. Methods: We established a mouse model with targeted deletion of the plasminogen-binding protein tetranectin (TN gene (TN-/- and measured the behavioral and histopathological features of PD. Results: Aged (15-to 20-month-old TN-/- mice displayed motor deficits resembling PD symptoms, including limb rigidity and both slower ambulation (bradykinesia and reduced rearing activity in the open field. In addition, these mice exhibited more numerous α-synuclein-positive LB-like inclusions within the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc and reduced numbers of SNc dopaminergic neurons than age-matched wild type (WT mice. These pathological changes were also accompanied by loss of dopamine terminals in the dorsal striatum. Conclusion: The TN-/- mouse exhibits several key features of PD and so may be a valuable model for studying LB formation and testing candidate neuroprotective therapies for PD and other synucleinopathies.

  1. In-vivo monitoring of acute DSS-Colitis using Colonoscopy, high resolution Ultrasound and bench-top Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walldorf, J.; Hermann, M.; Pohl, S.; Zipprich, A.; Porzner, M.; Seufferlein, T.; Metz, H.; Maeder, K.; Christ, B.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish and evaluate (colour Doppler-) high-resolution-ultrasound (hrUS) and bench-top magnetic resonance imaging (btMRI) as new methods to monitor experimental colitis. hrUS, btMRI and endoscopy were performed in mice without colitis (n = 15), in mice with acute colitis (n = 14) and in mice with acute colitis and simultaneous treatment with infliximab (n = 19). Determination of colon wall thickness using hrUS (32 MHz) and measurement of the cross-sectional colonic areas by btMRI allowed discrimination between the treatment groups (mean a vs. b vs. c - btMRI: 922 vs. 2051 vs. 1472 pixel, hrUS: 0.26 vs. 0.45 vs. 0.31 mm). btMRI, endoscopy, hrUS and colour Doppler-hrUS correlated to histological scoring (p < 0.05), while endoscopy and btMRI correlated to post-mortem colon length (p < 0.05). The innovative in vivo techniques btMRI and hrUS are safe and technically feasible. They differentiate between distinct grades of colitis in an experimental setting, and correlate with established post-mortem parameters. In addition to endoscopic procedures, these techniques provide information regarding colon wall thickness and perfusion. Depending on the availability of these techniques, their application increases the value of in vivo monitoring in experimental acute colitis in small rodents. (orig.)

  2. Physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities and protective effect against acute ethanol-induced hepatic injury in mice of foxtail millet (Setaria italica) bran oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Min; He, Shujian; Wang, Lu; Cao, Xinmin; Cao, Lili; Jiang, Shaotong

    2014-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate physicochemical characterization of the oil extracted from foxtail millet bran (FMBO), and the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects against acute ethanol-induced hepatic injury in mice. GC-MS analysis revealed that unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) account for 83.76% of the total fatty acids; in particular, the linoleic acid (C18:2) is the predominant polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), and the compounds of squalene and six phytosterols (or phytostanols) were identified in unsaponifiable matter of FMBO. The antioxidant activity examination of FMBO in vitro showed highly ferric-reducing antioxidant power and scavenging effects against DPPH· and HO· radicals. Furthermore, the protective effect of FMBO against acute hepatic injuries induced by ethanol was verified in mice. In this, intragastric administration with different dosages of FMBO in mice ahead of acute ethanol administration could observably antagonize the ethanol-induced increases in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), and the hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, respectively, along with enhanced hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels relative to the control. Hepatic histological changes were also observed and confirmed that FMBO is capable of attenuating ethanol-induced hepatic injury.

  3. In-vivo monitoring of acute DSS-Colitis using Colonoscopy, high resolution Ultrasound and bench-top Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walldorf, J.; Hermann, M.; Pohl, S.; Zipprich, A. [Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Internal Medicine I, Halle (Germany); Porzner, M.; Seufferlein, T. [University of Ulm, Department of Internal Medicine I, Ulm (Germany); Metz, H.; Maeder, K. [Martin Luther University, Institut of Pharmacy, Halle-Wittenberg (Germany); Christ, B. [University of Leipzig, Department of Surgery II, Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to establish and evaluate (colour Doppler-) high-resolution-ultrasound (hrUS) and bench-top magnetic resonance imaging (btMRI) as new methods to monitor experimental colitis. hrUS, btMRI and endoscopy were performed in mice without colitis (n = 15), in mice with acute colitis (n = 14) and in mice with acute colitis and simultaneous treatment with infliximab (n = 19). Determination of colon wall thickness using hrUS (32 MHz) and measurement of the cross-sectional colonic areas by btMRI allowed discrimination between the treatment groups (mean a vs. b vs. c - btMRI: 922 vs. 2051 vs. 1472 pixel, hrUS: 0.26 vs. 0.45 vs. 0.31 mm). btMRI, endoscopy, hrUS and colour Doppler-hrUS correlated to histological scoring (p < 0.05), while endoscopy and btMRI correlated to post-mortem colon length (p < 0.05). The innovative in vivo techniques btMRI and hrUS are safe and technically feasible. They differentiate between distinct grades of colitis in an experimental setting, and correlate with established post-mortem parameters. In addition to endoscopic procedures, these techniques provide information regarding colon wall thickness and perfusion. Depending on the availability of these techniques, their application increases the value of in vivo monitoring in experimental acute colitis in small rodents. (orig.)

  4. The growth and development of Schistosoma mansoni in mice exposed to sublethal doses of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, R.; Wilson, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    The maturation of Schistosoma mansoni was studied in mice exposed to various sublethal doses of radiation. Although the treatment of mice with 500 rads of radiation prior to infection did not alter parasite maturation, doses in excess of 500 rads led to a reduction in worm burden. This could not be attributed to a delay in the arrival of parasites in the hepatic portal system. Worms developing in mice treated with 800 rads commenced egg-laying about 1 wk later than worms in intact mice, and the rate of egg deposition appeared to be lower in irradiated hosts. The data demonstrate that exposure of C57BL/6 mice to doses of radiation in excess of 500 rads impairs their ability to carry infections of S. mansoni. The findings do not support the hypothesis that primary worm burdens in the mouse are controlled by a host immune response

  5. Drugs' development in acute heart failure: what went wrong?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teneggi, Vincenzo; Sivakumar, Nithy; Chen, Deborah; Matter, Alex

    2018-05-08

    Acute heart failure (AHF) is a major burden disease, with a complex physiopathology, unsatisfactory diagnosis, treatment and a very poor prognosis. In the last two decades, a number of drugs have progressed from preclinical to early and late clinical development, but only a few of them have been approved and added to a stagnant pharmacological armamentarium. We have reviewed the data published on drugs developed for AHF since early 2000s, trying to recognise factors that have worked for a successful approval or for the stoppage of the program, in an attempt to delineate future trajectories for AHF drug development. Our review has identified limitations at both preclinical and clinical levels. At the preclinical level, the major shortcoming is represented by animal models looking at short-term endpoints which do not recapitulate the complexity of the human disease. At the clinical level, the main weakness is given by the disconnect between short-term endpoints assessed in the early stage of drug development, and medium-long-term endpoints requested in Phase 3 for regulatory approval. This is further amplified by the lack of validation and standardisation of short- and long-term endpoints; absence of predictive biomarkers; conduct of studies on heterogeneous populations; and use of different eligibility criteria, time of assessments, drug schedules and background therapies. Key goals remain a better understanding of AHF and the construction of a successful drug development program. A reasonable way to move forward resides in a strong collaboration between main stakeholders of therapeutic innovation: scientific community, industry and regulatory agencies.

  6. Recent developments in immunotherapy of acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix S. Lichtenegger

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The advent of new immunotherapeutic agents in clinical practice has revolutionized cancer treatment in the past decade, both in oncology and hematology. The transfer of the immunotherapeutic concepts to the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML is hampered by various characteristics of the disease, including non-leukemia-restricted target antigen expression profile, low endogenous immune responses, and intrinsic resistance mechanisms of the leukemic blasts against immune responses. However, considerable progress has been made in this field in the past few years. Within this manuscript, we review the recent developments and the current status of the five currently most prominent immunotherapeutic concepts: (1 antibody-drug conjugates, (2 T cell-recruiting antibody constructs, (3 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR T cells, (4 checkpoint inhibitors, and (5 dendritic cell vaccination. We focus on the clinical data that has been published so far, both for newly diagnosed and refractory/relapsed AML, but omitting immunotherapeutic concepts in conjunction with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Besides, we have included important clinical trials that are currently running or have recently been completed but are still lacking full publication of their results. While each of the concepts has its particular merits and inherent problems, the field of immunotherapy of AML seems to have taken some significant steps forward. Results of currently running trials will reveal the direction of further development including approaches combining two or more of these concepts.

  7. Orally administered indomethacin acutely reduces cellular prion protein in the small intestine and modestly increases survival of mice exposed to infectious prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary R; Sharkey, Keith A; Jirik, Frank R

    2015-05-01

    The oral uptake of infectious prions represents a common way to acquire a prion disease; thus, host factors, such as gut inflammation and intestinal "leakiness", have the potential to influence infectivity. For example, the ingestion of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is known to induce intestinal inflammation and increase intestinal permeability. Previously, we reported that normal cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) expression was increased in experimental colitis, and since the level of PrP(C) expressed is a determinant of prion disease propagation, we hypothesized that NSAID administration prior to the oral inoculation of mice with infectious prions would increase intestinal PrP(C) expression and accelerate the onset of neurological disease. In the long-term experiments, one group of mice was gavaged with indomethacin, followed by a second gavage with brain homogenate containing mouse-adapted scrapie (ME7). Control mice received ME7 brain homogenate alone. Brain and splenic tissues were harvested at several time points for immunoblotting, including at the onset of clinical signs of disease. In a second series of experiments, mice were gavaged with indomethacin to assess the acute effects of this treatment on intestinal PrP(C) expression. Acutely, NSAID treatment reduced intestinal PrP(C) expression, and chronically, there was a modest delay in the onset of neurological disease. In contrast to our hypothesis, brief exposure to an NSAID decreased intestinal PrP(C) expression and led to a modest survival advantage following oral ingestion of infectious prions.

  8. Mitochondrial DNA mutations in mutator mice confer respiration defects and B-cell lymphoma development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Mito

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA mutator mice are proposed to express premature aging phenotypes including kyphosis and hair loss (alopecia due to their carrying a nuclear-encoded mtDNA polymerase with a defective proofreading function, which causes accelerated accumulation of random mutations in mtDNA, resulting in expression of respiration defects. On the contrary, transmitochondrial mito-miceΔ carrying mtDNA with a large-scale deletion mutation (ΔmtDNA also express respiration defects, but not express premature aging phenotypes. Here, we resolved this discrepancy by generating mtDNA mutator mice sharing the same C57BL/6J (B6J nuclear background with that of mito-miceΔ. Expression patterns of premature aging phenotypes are very close, when we compared between homozygous mtDNA mutator mice carrying a B6J nuclear background and selected mito-miceΔ only carrying predominant amounts of ΔmtDNA, in their expression of significant respiration defects, kyphosis, and a short lifespan, but not the alopecia. Therefore, the apparent discrepancy in the presence and absence of premature aging phenotypes in mtDNA mutator mice and mito-miceΔ, respectively, is partly the result of differences in the nuclear background of mtDNA mutator mice and of the broad range of ΔmtDNA proportions of mito-miceΔ used in previous studies. We also provided direct evidence that mtDNA abnormalities in homozygous mtDNA mutator mice are responsible for respiration defects by demonstrating the co-transfer of mtDNA and respiration defects from mtDNA mutator mice into mtDNA-less (ρ(0 mouse cells. Moreover, heterozygous mtDNA mutator mice had a normal lifespan, but frequently developed B-cell lymphoma, suggesting that the mtDNA abnormalities in heterozygous mutator mice are not sufficient to induce a short lifespan and aging phenotypes, but are able to contribute to the B-cell lymphoma development during their prolonged lifespan.

  9. Bee venom phospholipase A2 protects against acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury by modulating regulatory T cells and IL-10 in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunseong Kim

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of phospholipase A2 (PLA2 from bee venom against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity through CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells (Treg in mice. Acetaminophen (APAP is a widely used antipyretic and analgesic, but an acute or cumulative overdose of acetaminophen can cause severe hepatic failure. Tregs have been reported to possess protective effects in various liver diseases and kidney toxicity. We previously found that bee venom strongly increased the Treg population in splenocytes and subsequently suppressed immune disorders. More recently, we found that the effective component of bee venom is PLA2. Thus, we hypothesized that PLA2 could protect against liver injury induced by acetaminophen. To evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of PLA2, C57BL/6 mice or interleukin-10-deficient (IL-10-/- mice were injected with PLA2 once a day for five days and sacrificed 24 h (h after acetaminophen injection. The blood sera were collected 0, 6, and 24 h after acetaminophen injection for the analysis of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT. PLA2-injected mice showed reduced levels of serum AST, ALT, proinflammatory cytokines, and nitric oxide (NO compared with the PBS-injected control mice. However, IL-10 was significantly increased in the PLA2-injected mice. These hepatic protective effects were abolished in Treg-depleted mice by antibody treatment and in IL-10-/- mice. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that the protective effects of PLA2 against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity can be mediated by modulating the Treg and IL-10 production.

  10. Bee venom phospholipase A2 protects against acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury by modulating regulatory T cells and IL-10 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunseong; Keum, Dong June; Kwak, Jung won; Chung, Hwan-Suck; Bae, Hyunsu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) from bee venom against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity through CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells (Treg) in mice. Acetaminophen (APAP) is a widely used antipyretic and analgesic, but an acute or cumulative overdose of acetaminophen can cause severe hepatic failure. Tregs have been reported to possess protective effects in various liver diseases and kidney toxicity. We previously found that bee venom strongly increased the Treg population in splenocytes and subsequently suppressed immune disorders. More recently, we found that the effective component of bee venom is PLA2. Thus, we hypothesized that PLA2 could protect against liver injury induced by acetaminophen. To evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of PLA2, C57BL/6 mice or interleukin-10-deficient (IL-10-/-) mice were injected with PLA2 once a day for five days and sacrificed 24 h (h) after acetaminophen injection. The blood sera were collected 0, 6, and 24 h after acetaminophen injection for the analysis of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). PLA2-injected mice showed reduced levels of serum AST, ALT, proinflammatory cytokines, and nitric oxide (NO) compared with the PBS-injected control mice. However, IL-10 was significantly increased in the PLA2-injected mice. These hepatic protective effects were abolished in Treg-depleted mice by antibody treatment and in IL-10-/- mice. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that the protective effects of PLA2 against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity can be mediated by modulating the Treg and IL-10 production.

  11. Acute but not chronic activation of brain glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudurí, E; Beiroa, D; Porteiro, B; López, M; Diéguez, C; Nogueiras, R

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the role of brain glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in pancreatic β-cell function. To determine the role of brain GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) on β-cell function, we administered intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusions of GLP-1 or the specific GLP-1 antagonist exendin-9 (Ex-9), in both an acute and a chronic setting. We observed that acute i.c.v. GLP-1 infusion potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and improves glucose tolerance, whereas central GLP-1R blockade with Ex-9 impaired glucose excursion after a glucose load. Sustained activation of central nervous system GLP-1R, however, did not produce any effect on either GSIS or glucose tolerance. Similarly, ex vivo GSIS performed in islets from mice chronically infused with i.c.v. GLP-1 resulted in no differences compared with controls. In addition, in mice fed a high-fat diet we observed that acute i.c.v. GLP-1 infusion improved glucose tolerance without changes in GSIS, while chronic GLP-1R activation had no effect on glucose homeostasis. Our results indicate that, under non-clamped conditions, brain GLP-1 plays a functional neuroendocrine role in the acute regulation of glucose homeostasis in both lean and obese rodents. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effects of standard ethanolic extract from Erythrina velutina in acute cerebral ischemia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Francisca Taciana Sousa; de Sousa, Caren Nádia Soares; Ximenes, Naiara Coelho; Almeida, Anália Barbosa; Cabral, Lucas Moraes; Patrocínio, Cláudio Felipe Vasconcelos; Silva, Aline Holanda; Leal, Luzia Kalyne Almeida Moreira; Honório Júnior, José Eduardo Ribeiro; Macedo, Danielle; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to verify a possible neuroprotective effect of the ethanolic extract of Erythrina velutina (EEEV). Male Swiss mice were submitted to transient cerebral ischemia by occlusion of both carotid arteries for 30 min and treated for 5 days with EEEV (200 or 400 mg/kg) or Memantine (MEM) 10 mg/kg, with initiation of treatment 2 or 24 h after Ischemia. On the 6th day after the induction of ischemia, the animals were submitted to evaluation of locomotor activity and memory and then sacrificed. The brains were dissected for the removal of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HC) and striatum (ST) for determination of amino acid concentrations. In the step down and Y-maze tests, ischemia caused damage to the animals and treatment with EEEV or MEM reversed this effect. The animals submitted to ischemia also showed memory deficit in the object recognition test, an effect that was reverted by EEEV400 and MEM10. Amino acid dosage showed an increase in excitatory amino acid concentrations in the PFC of the ischemic animals and this effect was reversed by the treatment with EEEV400/24H. Regarding the inhibitory amino acids, ischemia caused an increase of taurine in the PFC while treatment with MEM10/24H or EEEV400/24H reversed this effect. In HC, an increase in excitatory amino acids was also observed in ischemiated animals having treatment with EEEV200/2H or EEEV400/24H reversed this effect. Similar effect was also observed in the same area in relation to the inhibitory amino acids with treatment with MEM10/24H or EEEV400/24H. In the ST, ischemia was also able to cause an increase in excitatory amino acids that was reversed more efficiently by the treatments with MEM10/24H and EEEV200. Also in this area, an increase of taurine and GABA was observed and only the treatment with EEEV200/2H showed a reversion of this effect. In view of these findings, EEEV presents a neuroprotective effect possibly due to its action on amino acid

  13. HemaMax™, a recombinant human interleukin-12, is a potent mitigator of acute radiation injury in mice and non-human primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena A Basile

    Full Text Available HemaMax, a recombinant human interleukin-12 (IL-12, is under development to address an unmet medical need for effective treatments against acute radiation syndrome due to radiological terrorism or accident when administered at least 24 hours after radiation exposure. This study investigated pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and efficacy of m-HemaMax (recombinant murine IL-12, and HemaMax to increase survival after total body irradiation (TBI in mice and rhesus monkeys, respectively, with no supportive care. In mice, m-HemaMax at an optimal 20 ng/mouse dose significantly increased percent survival and survival time when administered 24 hours after TBI between 8-9 Gy (p<0.05 Pearson's chi-square test. This survival benefit was accompanied by increases in plasma interferon-γ (IFN-γ and erythropoietin levels, recovery of femoral bone hematopoiesis characterized with the presence of IL-12 receptor β2 subunit-expressing myeloid progenitors, megakaryocytes, and osteoblasts. Mitigation of jejunal radiation damage was also examined. At allometrically equivalent doses, HemaMax showed similar pharmacokinetics in rhesus monkeys compared to m-HemaMax in mice, but more robustly increased plasma IFN-γ levels. HemaMax also increased plasma erythropoietin, IL-15, IL-18, and neopterin levels. At non-human primate doses pharmacologically equivalent to murine doses, HemaMax (100 ng/Kg and 250 ng/Kg administered at 24 hours after TBI (6.7 Gy/LD(50/30 significantly increased percent survival of HemaMax groups compared to vehicle (p<0.05 Pearson's chi-square test. This survival benefit was accompanied by a significantly higher leukocyte (neutrophils and lymphocytes, thrombocyte, and reticulocyte counts during nadir (days 12-14 and significantly less weight loss at day 12 compared to vehicle. These findings indicate successful interspecies dose conversion and provide proof of concept that HemaMax increases survival in irradiated rhesus monkeys by promoting

  14. Spray-drying process preserves the protective capacity of a breast milk-derived Bifidobacterium lactis strain on acute and chronic colitis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Patricia; Alard, Jeanne; Hrdỳ, Jiri; Boutillier, Denise; Páez, Roxana; Reinheimer, Jorge; Pot, Bruno; Vinderola, Gabriel; Grangette, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    Gut microbiota dysbiosis plays a central role in the development and perpetuation of chronic inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and therefore is key target for interventions with high quality and functional probiotics. The local production of stable probiotic formulations at limited cost is considered an advantage as it reduces transportation cost and time, thereby increasing the effective period at the consumer side. In the present study, we compared the anti-inflammatory capacities of the Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (B. lactis) INL1, a probiotic strain isolated in Argentina from human breast milk, with the commercial strain B. animalis subsp. lactis BB12. The impact of spray-drying, a low-cost alternative of bacterial dehydration, on the functionality of both bifidobacteria was also investigated. We showed for both bacteria that the spray-drying process did not impact on bacterial survival nor on their protective capacities against acute and chronic colitis in mice, opening future perspectives for the use of strain INL1 in populations with IBD. PMID:28233848

  15. Small heterodimer partner overexpression partially protects against liver tumor development in farnesoid X receptor knockout mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guodong; Kong, Bo; Zhu, Yan; Zhan, Le; Williams, Jessica A.; Tawfik, Ossama; Kassel, Karen M.; Luyendyk, James P.; Wang, Li; Guo, Grace L.

    2013-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR, Nr1h4) and small heterodimer partner (SHP, Nr0b2) are nuclear receptors that are critical to liver homeostasis. Induction of SHP serves as a major mechanism of FXR in suppressing gene expression. Both FXR −/− and SHP −/− mice develop spontaneous hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). SHP is one of the most strongly induced genes by FXR in the liver and is a tumor suppressor, therefore, we hypothesized that deficiency of SHP contributes to HCC development in the livers of FXR −/− mice and therefore, increased SHP expression in FXR −/− mice reduces liver tumorigenesis. To test this hypothesis, we generated FXR −/− mice with overexpression of SHP in hepatocytes (FXR −/− /SHP Tg ) and determined the contribution of SHP in HCC development in FXR −/− mice. Hepatocyte-specific SHP overexpression did not affect liver tumor incidence or size in FXR −/− mice. However, SHP overexpression led to a lower grade of dysplasia, reduced indicator cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. All tumor-bearing mice had increased serum bile acid levels and IL-6 levels, which was associated with activation of hepatic STAT3. In conclusion, SHP partially protects FXR −/− mice from HCC formation by reducing tumor malignancy. However, disrupted bile acid homeostasis by FXR deficiency leads to inflammation and injury, which ultimately results in uncontrolled cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in the liver. - Highlights: • SHP does not prevent HCC incidence nor size in FXR KO mice but reduces malignancy. • Increased SHP promotes apoptosis. • Bile acids and inflammation maybe critical for HCC formation with FXR deficiency

  16. Persistent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium Infection Increases the Susceptibility of Mice to Develop Intestinal Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara M. Schultz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic intestinal inflammations are triggered by genetic and environmental components. However, it remains unclear how specific changes in the microbiota, host immunity, or pathogen exposure could promote the onset and exacerbation of these diseases. Here, we evaluated whether Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium infection increases the susceptibility to develop intestinal inflammation in mice. Two mouse models were used to evaluate the impact of S. Typhimurium infection: the chemical induction of colitis by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS and interleukin (IL-10−/− mice, which develop spontaneous intestinal inflammation. We observed that S. Typhimurium infection makes DSS-treated and IL-10−/− mice more susceptible to develop intestinal inflammation. Importantly, this increased susceptibility is associated to the ability of S. Typhimurium to persist in liver and spleen of infected mice, which depends on the virulence proteins secreted by Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2-encoded type three secretion system (TTSS-2. Although immunization with a live attenuated vaccine resulted in a moderate reduction of the IL-10−/− mice susceptibility to develop intestinal inflammation due to previous S. Typhimurium infection, it did not prevent bacterial persistence. Our results suggest that persistent S. Typhimurium infection may increase the susceptibility of mice to develop inflammation in the intestine, which could be associated with virulence proteins secreted by TTSS-2.

  17. Development of ceftazidime resistance in an acute Burkholderia pseudomallei infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarovich DS

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Derek S Sarovich,1,2,* Erin P Price,1,2,* Direk Limmathurotsakul,3 James M Cook,1 Alex T Von Schulze,1 Spenser R Wolken,1 Paul Keim,1 Sharon J Peacock,3,4 Talima Pearson1 1Center for Microbial Genetics and Genomics, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ, USA; 2Tropical and Emerging Infectious Diseases Division, Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin, Australia; 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 4Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Burkholderia pseudomallei, a bacterium that causes the disease melioidosis, is intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics. First-line antibiotic therapy for treating melioidosis is usually the synthetic β-lactam, ceftazidime (CAZ, as almost all B. pseudomallei strains are susceptible to this drug. However, acquired CAZ resistance can develop in vivo during treatment with CAZ, which can lead to mortality if therapy is not switched to a different drug in a timely manner. Serial B. pseudomallei isolates obtained from an acute Thai melioidosis patient infected by a CAZ susceptible strain, who ultimately succumbed to infection despite being on CAZ therapy for the duration of their infection, were analyzed. Isolates that developed CAZ resistance due to a proline to serine change at position 167 in the β-lactamase PenA were identified. Importantly, these CAZ resistant isolates remained sensitive to the alternative melioidosis treatments; namely, amoxicillin-clavulanate, imipenem, and meropenem. Lastly, real-time polymerase chain reaction-based assays capable of rapidly identifying CAZ resistance in B. pseudomallei isolates at the position 167 mutation site were developed. The ability to rapidly identify the emergence of CAZ resistant B. pseudomallei populations in melioidosis patients will allow timely alterations in treatment strategies

  18. Effects of gamma radiation on fetal development in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahere Dehghan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many cancer patients receive radiotherapy which may lead to serious damages to the ovary storage and the matrix muscle state. Some of these patients may admit to infertility clinics for having pregnancy and on the other hand hormonal administration for superovulation induction is a routine procedure in assisted reproduction technology (ART clinics. Objective: This study aimed to investigate fertility and fetuses of hormone treated super ovulated female mice who had received whole-body gamma irradiation before mating. Materials and Methods: Female mice were randomly categorized into a control group and 3 experimental groups including: Group I (Irradiation, Group II (Superovulation, and Group III (Superovulation and Irradiation. In hormone treated groups, mice were injected with different doses of 59Tpregnant mare's serum gonadotropin59T (PMSG followed with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG. Irradiation was done using a Co-60 gamma ray generator with doses of 2 and 4 Gy. Number of fetuses counted and the fetus’s weight, head circumference, birth height, the number of live healthy fetuses, the number of fetuses with detected anomalies in the body, the sum of resorption and arrested fetuses were all recorded as outcome of treatments. Results: In the group I and group II, increased radiation and hormone dose led to a decrease in the number of survived fetuses (45 in 2 Gy vs. 29 in 4 Gy for irradiated group as well as from 76 in 10 units into 48 in 15 units. In the group III, a higher dose of hormone in the presence of a 2 Gy irradiation boosted the slink rate; i.e. the number of aborted fetuses reached 21 cases while applying the dose of 15 Iu, whereas 6 cases of abortion were reported applying the hormone with a lower dose. Among different parameters studied, there was a significant difference in parameters of weight and height in the mouse fetuses (p=0.01. Conclusion: The data indicated that use of ovarian stimulating hormones in mice

  19. Evaluation of Sub-acute Oral Toxicity of Lithium Carbonate Microemulsion (Nano Size) on Liver and Kidney of Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Heibatullah; Salimi, Anayatollah; Rezaie, Anahita; Jazayeri Shushtari, Fereshteh; Goudarzi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The development of drug delivery systems has improved the therapeutic and toxic properties of existing drugs in therapy. Microemulsion systems are novel vehicles for drug delivery, which have been developed in recent years. These systems are currently of interest to the pharmaceutical scientist because of their considerable potential to act as drug delivery vehicles by incorporating into a wide range of drug molecules. Although these systems improved solubility and bioavailability of drugs, they may have potential toxic effects on the body organs. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine a possible hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic effect of lithium carbonate microemulsion (LCME) in a mice model. Materials and Methods: Eighty male Swiss albino mice were randomly allocated to eight experimental groups, as follows: Group 1, as negative control group were treated orally with normal saline (0.9% NaCl); Group 2, received microemulsion base without drug as control group; Groups 3 to 5, received lithium carbonate (LC) solution in doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively; Groups 6 to 8, received LCME orally in doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, respectively. All drugs were administered orally for ten consecutive days. Serum glutamate pyruvate aminotransferase (SGPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate aminotransferase (SGOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and plasma creatinine (Cr), as markers of liver and kidney toxicity in treated mice, were measured. Furthermore, the changes of tissue were assessed by histopathologic examination. Results: The findings showed that serum activity of ALP, SGOT, and SGPT and the levels of BUN and Cr in microemulsion base group was greater than normal saline group. However, this difference was not significant. Administration of LC and LCME in all doses resulted in a significant increase in the levels of BUN and serum activity of SGOT and SGPT in comparison to normal saline group (P < 0

  20. Characterization of regulatory dendritic cells that mitigate acute graft-versus-host disease in older mice following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scroggins, Sabrina M; Olivier, Alicia K; Meyerholz, David K; Schlueter, Annette J

    2013-01-01

    Despite improvements in human leukocyte antigen matching and pharmacologic prophylaxis, acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is often a fatal complication following hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Older HSCT recipients experience significantly increased morbidity and mortality compared to young recipients. Prophylaxis with syngeneic regulatory dendritic cells (DCreg) in young bone marrow transplanted (BMT) mice has been shown to decrease GVHD-associated mortality. To evaluate this approach in older BMT recipients, young (3-4 months) and older (14-18 months) DCreg were generated using GM-CSF, IL-10, and TGFβ. Analysis of young versus older DCreg following culture revealed no differences in phenotype. The efficacy of DCreg treatment in older BMT mice was evaluated in a BALB/c→C57Bl/6 model of GVHD; on day 2 post-BMT (d +2), mice received syngeneic, age-matched DCreg. Although older DCreg-treated BMT mice showed decreased morbidity and mortality compared to untreated BMT mice (all of which died), there was a small but significant decrease in the survival of older DCreg-treated BMT mice (75% survival) compared to young DCreg-treated BMT mice (90% survival). To investigate differences between dendritic cells (DC) in young and older DCreg-treated BMT mice that may play a role in DCreg function in vivo, DC phenotypes were assessed following DCreg adoptive transfer. Transferred DCreg identified in older DCreg-treated BMT mice at d +3 showed significantly lower expression of PD-L1 and PIR B compared to DCreg from young DCreg-treated BMT mice. In addition, donor DC identified in d +21 DCreg-treated BMT mice displayed increased inhibitory molecule and decreased co-stimulatory molecule expression compared to d +3, suggesting induction of a regulatory phenotype on the donor DC. In conclusion, these data indicate DCreg treatment is effective in the modulation of GVHD in older BMT recipients and provide evidence for inhibitory pathways that DCreg and donor DC may

  1. Characterization of regulatory dendritic cells that mitigate acute graft-versus-host disease in older mice following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina M Scroggins

    Full Text Available Despite improvements in human leukocyte antigen matching and pharmacologic prophylaxis, acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD is often a fatal complication following hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT. Older HSCT recipients experience significantly increased morbidity and mortality compared to young recipients. Prophylaxis with syngeneic regulatory dendritic cells (DCreg in young bone marrow transplanted (BMT mice has been shown to decrease GVHD-associated mortality. To evaluate this approach in older BMT recipients, young (3-4 months and older (14-18 months DCreg were generated using GM-CSF, IL-10, and TGFβ. Analysis of young versus older DCreg following culture revealed no differences in phenotype. The efficacy of DCreg treatment in older BMT mice was evaluated in a BALB/c→C57Bl/6 model of GVHD; on day 2 post-BMT (d +2, mice received syngeneic, age-matched DCreg. Although older DCreg-treated BMT mice showed decreased morbidity and mortality compared to untreated BMT mice (all of which died, there was a small but significant decrease in the survival of older DCreg-treated BMT mice (75% survival compared to young DCreg-treated BMT mice (90% survival. To investigate differences between dendritic cells (DC in young and older DCreg-treated BMT mice that may play a role in DCreg function in vivo, DC phenotypes were assessed following DCreg adoptive transfer. Transferred DCreg identified in older DCreg-treated BMT mice at d +3 showed significantly lower expression of PD-L1 and PIR B compared to DCreg from young DCreg-treated BMT mice. In addition, donor DC identified in d +21 DCreg-treated BMT mice displayed increased inhibitory molecule and decreased co-stimulatory molecule expression compared to d +3, suggesting induction of a regulatory phenotype on the donor DC. In conclusion, these data indicate DCreg treatment is effective in the modulation of GVHD in older BMT recipients and provide evidence for inhibitory pathways that DCreg and

  2. Helicobacter bilis Infection Alters Mucosal Bacteria and Modulates Colitis Development in Defined Microbiota Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherly, Todd; Mosher, Curtis; Wang, Chong; Hostetter, Jesse; Proctor, Alexandra; Brand, Meghan W; Phillips, Gregory J; Wannemuehler, Michael; Jergens, Albert E

    2016-11-01

    Helicobacter bilis infection of C3H/HeN mice harboring the altered Schaedler flora (ASF) triggers progressive immune responsiveness and the development of colitis. We sought to investigate temporal alterations in community structure of a defined (ASF-colonized) microbiota in normal and inflamed murine intestines and to correlate microbiota changes to histopathologic lesions. The colonic mucosal microbiota of healthy mice and ASF mice colonized with H. bilis for 3, 6, or 12 weeks were investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA genes of total bacteria, group-specific organisms, and individual ASF bacterial species. Microbial profiling of ASF and H. bilis abundance was performed on cecal contents. Helicobacter bilis-colonized mice developed colitis associated with temporal changes in composition and spatial distribution of the mucosal microbiota. The number of total bacteria, ASF519, and helicobacter-positive bacteria were increased (P attachment, or by invasion, and this interaction is differentially expressed over time.

  3. NFC Evaluation in the Development of Mobile Applications for MICE in Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Silva-Pedroza

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis and implementation of a service for the deployment of events in the Meetings, Incentives, Conferences, and Exhibitions (MICE category, to answer the question: how can Near Field Communication (NFC and mobile applications contribute to the development of tourism in the MICE category? First is an analysis of the applications that are currently on the market and an extraction of the features of greater relevance; later, we define the functionalities for our service, and finally we provide a performance test in a MICE-type event, the seventh Seminar on Emerging Technologies in Telecommunications “TET 2016” developed in Popayán, Colombia and the results of the experience are analyzed. The use of NFC technology with a mobile application allows the experience to be improved when a MICE event was made, for both the user and the organizer.

  4. Sex differences in obesity development in pair-fed neuronal lipoprotein lipase deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Compared to men, postmenopausal women suffer from a disproportionate burden of many co-morbidities associated with obesity, e.g. cardiovascular disease, cancer, and dementia. The underlying mechanism for this sex difference is not well understood but is believed to relate to absence of the protective effect of estrogen through the action of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα in the central nervous system. With the recently developed neuron-specific lipoprotein lipase deficient mice (NEXLPL−/− (Wang et al., Cell Metabolism, 2011 [15], we set to explore the possible role of lipid sensing in sex differences in obesity development. Methods: Both male and female NEXLPL−/− mice and littermate WT controls were subjected to pair feeding (pf where daily food amount given was adjusted according to body weight to match the food intake of ad libitum (ad fed control WT mice. Food intake and body weight were measured daily, and pair feeding was maintained to 42 wk in male mice and to 38 wk in female mice. Various brain regions of the mice were harvested, and ERα gene expression was examined in both male and female NEXLPL−/− and WT control mice under both ad- and pf-fed conditions. Results: Although both male and female NEXLPL−/− mice developed obesity similarly on standard chow, male NEXLPL−/− mice still developed obesity under with pair feeding, but on a much delayed time course, while female NEXLPL−/− mice were protected from extra body weight and fat mass gain compared to pair-fed WT control mice. Pair feeding alone induced extra fat mass gain in both male and female WT mice, and this was mostly driven by the reduction in physical activity. LPL deficiency resulted in an increase in ERα mRNA in the hypothalamus of ad-fed female mice, while pair feeding alone also resulted in an increase of ERα in both female WT control and NEXLPL−/− mice. The effect on increasing ERα by pair feeding and LPL deficiency was additive in

  5. Inhibition of CD147 (Cluster of Differentiation 147) Ameliorates Acute Ischemic Stroke in Mice by Reducing Thromboinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Rong; Xiao, Adam Y; Chen, Rui; Granger, D Neil; Li, Guohong

    2017-12-01

    Inflammation and thrombosis currently are recognized as critical contributors to the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. CD147 (cluster of differentiation 147), also known as extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, can function as a key mediator of inflammatory and immune responses. CD147 expression is increased in the brain after cerebral ischemia, but its role in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke remains unknown. In this study, we show that CD147 acts as a key player in ischemic stroke by driving thrombotic and inflammatory responses. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced in C57BL/6 mice by a 60-minute transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Animals were treated with anti-CD147 function-blocking antibody (αCD147) or isotype control antibody. Blood-brain barrier permeability, thrombus formation, and microvascular patency were assessed 24 hours after ischemia. Infarct size, neurological deficits, and inflammatory cells invaded in the brain were assessed 72 hours after ischemia. CD147 expression was rapidly increased in ischemic brain endothelium after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Inhibition of CD147 reduced infarct size and improved functional outcome on day 3 after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. The neuroprotective effects were associated with (1) prevented blood-brain barrier damage, (2) decreased intravascular fibrin and platelet deposition, which in turn reduced thrombosis and increased cerebral perfusion, and (3) reduced brain inflammatory cell infiltration. The underlying mechanism may include reduced NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) activation, MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9) activity, and PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) expression in brain microvascular endothelial cells. Inhibition of CD147 ameliorates acute ischemic stroke by reducing thromboinflammation. CD147 might represent a novel and promising therapeutic target for ischemic stroke and possibly other thromboinflammatory disorders. © 2017 American Heart

  6. LFG-500, a newly synthesized flavonoid, attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury and inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenglin; Yang, Dan; Cao, Xin; Wang, Fan; Jiang, Haijing; Guo, Hao; Du, Lei; Guo, Qinglong; Yin, Xiaoxing

    2016-08-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) often causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Improved treatment and effective strategies are still required for ALI patients. Our previous studies demonstrated that LFG-500, a novel synthesized flavonoid, has potent anti-cancer activities, while its anti-inflammatory effect has not been revealed. In the present study, the in vivo protective effect of LFG-500 on the amelioration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI and inflammation was detected. LFG-500 attenuated LPS-induced histological alterations, suppressed the infiltration of inflammatory cells in lung tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, as well as inhibited the secretion of several inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 in lung tissues after LPS challenge. In addition, the in vitro effects and mechanisms were studied in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and THP-1 cells. LFG-500 significantly decreased the secretion and expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 through inhibiting the transcriptional activation of NF-κB. Moreover, overexpression of NF-κB p65 reversed the inhibitory effect of LFG-500 on LPS-induced NF-κB activation and inflammatory cytokine secretion. Further elucidation of the mechanism revealed that p38 and JNK MAPK pathways were involved in the anti-inflammation effect of LFG-500, through which LFG-500 inhibited the classical IKK-dependent pathway and led to inactivation of NF-κB. More importantly, LFG-500 suppressed the expression and nuclear localization of NF-κB in LPS-induced ALI mice. Taken together, these results demonstrated that LFG-500 could attenuate LPS-induced ALI and inflammation by suppressing NF-κB activation, which provides new evidence for the anti-inflammation activity of LFG-500. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fish Oil-Based Fat Emulsion Reduces Acute Kidney Injury and Inflammatory Response in Antibiotic-Treated Polymicrobial Septic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juey-Ming Shih

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a common complication in sepsis. This study compared the effects of a fish oil-based with a mixed oil fat emulsion on remote renal injury in an antibiotic-treated septic murine model. Mice were randomly assigned to a normal control (NC group and three septic groups. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP. The antibiotic was injected intraperitoneally (IP after CLP and then daily till the time of sacrifice. Three hours after antibiotic treatment, one of the septic groups was injected IP with a fish oil-based emulsion (FO, while the other two groups were given either a mixed oil emulsion (MO or saline (SC. The septic groups were further divided into two separate time groups, with blood and kidneys samples collected at 24 h or 72 h post-CLP. The results showed that sepsis leads to the activation of neutrophils, T helper (Th1/Th-2/Th-17 and Treg cells (p < 0.05. Plasma NGAL and mRNA expressions of renal MyD88 and TLR4 were also enhanced (p < 0.05. Compared to the SC group, the group given the fish oil-based emulsion had decreased plasma NGAL by 22% and Treg by 33%. Furthermore, renal gene expressions of MyD88 and TLR4 reduced by 46% and 62%, respectively, whereas heat shock protein 70 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ increased by 158% and 69%, respectively (p < 0.05, at Day 3 after CLP. These results suggest that administration of a fish oil-based emulsion has favorable effects, maintaining blood T cell percentage, downregulating Treg expression, attenuating systemic and local inflammation and offering renal protection under conditions of antibiotic-treated polymicrobial sepsis.

  8. Phrenic nerve deficits and neurological immunopathology associated with acute West Nile virus infection in mice and hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukor, Katherine; Wang, Hong; Hurst, Brett L; Siddharthan, Venkatraman; Van Wettere, Arnaud; Pilowsky, Paul M; Morrey, John D

    2017-04-01

    Neurological respiratory deficits are serious outcomes of West Nile virus (WNV) disease. WNV patients requiring intubation have a poor prognosis. We previously reported that WNV-infected rodents also appear to have respiratory deficits when assessed by whole-body plethysmography and diaphragmatic electromyography. The purpose of this study was to determine if the nature of the respiratory deficits in WNV-infected rodents is neurological and if deficits are due to a disorder of brainstem respiratory centers, cervical spinal cord (CSC) phrenic motor neuron (PMN) circuitry, or both. We recorded phrenic nerve (PN) activity and found that in WNV-infected mice, PN amplitude is reduced, corroborating a neurological basis for respiratory deficits. These results were associated with a reduction in CSC motor neuron number. We found no dramatic deficits, however, in brainstem-mediated breathing rhythm generation or responses to hypercapnia. PN frequency and pattern parameters were normal, and all PN parameters changed appropriately upon a CO 2 challenge. Histological analysis revealed generalized microglia activation, astrocyte reactivity, T cell and neutrophil infiltration, and mild histopathologic lesions in both the brainstem and CSC, but none of these were tightly correlated with PN function. Similar results in PN activity, brainstem function, motor neuron number, and histopathology were seen in WNV-infected hamsters, except that histopathologic lesions were more severe. Taken together, the results suggest that respiratory deficits in acute WNV infection are primarily due to a lower motor neuron disorder affecting PMNs and the PN rather than a brainstem disorder. Future efforts should focus on markers of neuronal dysfunction, axonal degeneration, and myelination.

  9. Thymus-directed immunotoxicity of airborne dust particles from Upper Silesia (Poland) under acute extrapulmonary studies in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowska, E. [Warsaw Univ. (Poland); Krzystniak, K. [Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Drela, N. [Warsaw Univ. (Poland)] [and others

    1996-12-27

    Industrial air pollutants from Upper Silesia, Poland, contain over 250 polycyclic and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals, including mutagenic and carcinogenic chemicals that have been shown to from DNA adducts. Over 4 million habitants of Silesia are permanently exposed to the industrial pollution by pulmonary and dermal routes and by contaminated food and water. These chemicals, when examined separately in animals models, were proven immunotoxic. We studied the extrapulmonary immunotoxic potential of a typical mixture of Silesian filter-suspended matter from a selected area, over a specific season and time period. Early changes in the immune system were analyzed in BALB/c mice exposed ip to acute doses of 20-330 mg dust mixture/kg body weight (0.06-1.0 LD50). No major changes were noted for weight and the cellularity of spleen, liver and kidneys. However, dramatic decrease in thymus weight index and thymocyte cell count were noted as early as 24-72 h postexposure, which correlated with almost complete depletion of immature, double-positive CD4{sup +}CD8{sup +} thymocytes. Changes in spleen were less profound; however, increased depletion of B cells over T cells was noted at high doses of the suspended matter. Exposure to the airborne dust also decreased cytokine production by spleen cells, such as interferon-{gamma} (IFN-{gamma}) and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}). Overall, a single exposure to Silesian dust, even at the relatively low 0.06 LD50 dose, affected lymphokine production, suppressed B-cell proliferative response, and depleted thymuses of immature, double-positive CD4{sup +}CD8{sup +} cells. A chemical synergism is suspected. To our knowledge, none of the known components of Silesian suspended matter, when examined as a single chemical, was shown to exert such a profound biological effect. 32 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Development of infection with Streptococcus bovis and Aspergillus sp. in irradiated mice after glycopeptide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brook, I.; Tom, S.P.; Ledney, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    The use of ofloxacin and glycopeptides was evaluated for the treatment of infections arising in C3H/HeN female mice irradiated with 8.3 Gy from a 60 Co source. The 21 day regimen began 72 h after irradiation when each of five sets of experimental animals received three antimicrobial therapy regimens and a saline-treated control group. With 40 mice in each group, 20 were used to monitor survival, 20 for the recovery of bacteria from the liver culture. Treatment groups were oral ofloxacin; oral or intramuscular vancomycin oral teicoplanin, ofloxacin and vancomycin; ofloxacin and teicoplanin; or saline. Bacteria recovered from saline treated mice were Enterobacteriaceae and Streptococcus spp. By comparison, fewer Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from ofloxacin treated mice and fewer Streptococcus spp. in both vancomycin and teicoplanin treated mice. However, glycopeptide-treated mice developed infection with Aspergillis fumigatus and glycopeptide resistant Streptococcus bovis. Mortality rates within 60 days of irradiation were 100% in all treatment and control groups with the exception of ofloxacin which was 25%-35%. These data suggest that glycopeptide therapy increases rates of systemic infection with fungi and antibiotic resistant bacteria in irradiated mice. (Author)

  11. Development of infection with Streptococcus bovis and Aspergillus sp. in irradiated mice after glycopeptide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brook, I.; Tom, S.P.; Ledney, G.D. (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1993-11-01

    The use of ofloxacin and glycopeptides was evaluated for the treatment of infections arising in C3H/HeN female mice irradiated with 8.3 Gy from a [sup 60]Co source. The 21 day regimen began 72 h after irradiation when each of five sets of experimental animals received three antimicrobial therapy regimens and a saline-treated control group. With 40 mice in each group, 20 were used to monitor survival, 20 for the recovery of bacteria from the liver culture. Treatment groups were oral ofloxacin; oral or intramuscular vancomycin oral teicoplanin, ofloxacin and vancomycin; ofloxacin and teicoplanin; or saline. Bacteria recovered from saline treated mice were Enterobacteriaceae and Streptococcus spp. By comparison, fewer Enterobacteriaceae were isolated from ofloxacin treated mice and fewer Streptococcus spp. in both vancomycin and teicoplanin treated mice. However, glycopeptide-treated mice developed infection with Aspergillis fumigatus and glycopeptide resistant Streptococcus bovis. Mortality rates within 60 days of irradiation were 100% in all treatment and control groups with the exception of ofloxacin which was 25%-35%. These data suggest that glycopeptide therapy increases rates of systemic infection with fungi and antibiotic resistant bacteria in irradiated mice. (Author).

  12. RIPK3 Mediates Necroptosis during Embryonic Development and Postnatal Inflammation in Fadd-Deficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Zhao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available RIPK3 mediates cell death and regulates inflammatory responses. Although genetic studies have suggested that RIPK3-MLKL-mediated necroptosis leads to embryonic lethality in Fadd or Caspase-8-deficient mice, the exact mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we generated Ripk3 mutant mice by altering the RIPK3 kinase domain (Ripk3Δ/Δ mice, thus abolishing its kinase activity. Ripk3Δ/Δ cells were resistant to necroptosis stimulation in vitro, and Ripk3Δ/Δ mice were protected from necroptotic diseases. Although the Ripk3Δ/Δ mutation rescued embryonic lethality in Fadd−/− embryos, Fadd−/− Ripk3Δ/Δ mice died within 1 day after birth due to massive inflammation. These results indicate that Ripk3 ablation rescues embryonic lethality in Fadd-deficient mice by suppressing two RIPK3-mediating processes: necroptosis during embryogenesis and inflammation during postnatal development in Fadd−/− mice.

  13. Ageing Fxr deficient mice develop increased energy expenditure, improved glucose control and liver damage resembling NASH.

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    Mikael Bjursell

    Full Text Available Nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4 (Nr1h4, FXR is a bile acid activated nuclear receptor mainly expressed in the liver, intestine, kidney and adrenal glands. Upon activation, the primary function is to suppress cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1, the rate-limiting enzyme in the classic or neutral bile acid synthesis pathway. In the present study, a novel Fxr deficient mouse line was created and studied with respect to metabolism and liver function in ageing mice fed chow diet. The Fxr deficient mice were similar to wild type mice in terms of body weight, body composition, energy intake and expenditure as well as behaviours at a young age. However, from 15 weeks of age and onwards, the Fxr deficient mice had almost no body weight increase up to 39 weeks of age mainly because of lower body fat mass. The lower body weight gain was associated with increased energy expenditure that was not compensated by increased food intake. Fasting levels of glucose and insulin were lower and glucose tolerance was improved in old and lean Fxr deficient mice. However, the Fxr deficient mice displayed significantly increased liver weight, steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning degeneration and lobular inflammation together with elevated plasma levels of ALT, bilirubin and bile acids, findings compatible with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH and cholestasis. In conclusion, ageing Fxr deficient mice display late onset leanness associated with elevated energy expenditure and improved glucose control but develop severe NASH-like liver pathology.

  14. Ageing Fxr deficient mice develop increased energy expenditure, improved glucose control and liver damage resembling NASH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjursell, Mikael; Wedin, Marianne; Admyre, Therése; Hermansson, Majlis; Böttcher, Gerhard; Göransson, Melker; Lindén, Daniel; Bamberg, Krister; Oscarsson, Jan; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4 (Nr1h4, FXR) is a bile acid activated nuclear receptor mainly expressed in the liver, intestine, kidney and adrenal glands. Upon activation, the primary function is to suppress cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the classic or neutral bile acid synthesis pathway. In the present study, a novel Fxr deficient mouse line was created and studied with respect to metabolism and liver function in ageing mice fed chow diet. The Fxr deficient mice were similar to wild type mice in terms of body weight, body composition, energy intake and expenditure as well as behaviours at a young age. However, from 15 weeks of age and onwards, the Fxr deficient mice had almost no body weight increase up to 39 weeks of age mainly because of lower body fat mass. The lower body weight gain was associated with increased energy expenditure that was not compensated by increased food intake. Fasting levels of glucose and insulin were lower and glucose tolerance was improved in old and lean Fxr deficient mice. However, the Fxr deficient mice displayed significantly increased liver weight, steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning degeneration and lobular inflammation together with elevated plasma levels of ALT, bilirubin and bile acids, findings compatible with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cholestasis. In conclusion, ageing Fxr deficient mice display late onset leanness associated with elevated energy expenditure and improved glucose control but develop severe NASH-like liver pathology.

  15. Mice do not develop conditioned taste aversion because of immunity loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Jose

    2011-01-01

    This study intends to test the generation of conditioned taste aversion and conditioned immunodepression by daily paired administration of saccharin solution with cyclophosphamide, 15 mg/kg, for 4 days. One group of male mice of the outbred CD1 strain drank 0.15% saccharin and received 1 injection of cyclophosphamide, 15 mg/kg, for 4 days (paired group), another group (unpaired group) received the same doses of saccharin and cyclophosphamide noncontingently, the third group (cy60) received saccharin paired with cyclophosphamide, 60 mg/kg, and the fourth group (placebo) received saccharin in the absence of cyclophosphamide. All mice were immunized with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), 0.2 mg, 1 day before the treatments. Mice of the paired, unpaired and cy60 groups displayed a similarly decreased antibody response to KLH, but mice of the paired group did not develop an aversion to saccharin while mice of the cy60 group did. Besides, repeat presentation of saccharin to mice of the paired group did not alter their antibody response to ovalbumin compared with mice of the unpaired or placebo group. Taste aversion was not elicited in response to impaired immunity and the conditioned stimulus (saccharin) did not impair the antibody response. 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Regulatory T cells are strong promoters of acute ischemic stroke in mice by inducing dysfunction of the cerebral microvasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Kraft, Peter; Dreykluft, Angela; Hagedorn, Ina; Göbel, Kerstin; Schuhmann, Michael K; Langhauser, Friederike; Helluy, Xavier; Schwarz, Tobias; Bittner, Stefan; Mayer, Christian T; Brede, Marc; Varallyay, Csanad; Pham, Mirko; Bendszus, Martin; Jakob, Peter; Magnus, Tim; Meuth, Sven G; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Zernecke, Alma; Sparwasser, Tim; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Stoll, Guido; Wiendl, Heinz

    2013-01-24

    We have recently identified T cells as important mediators of ischemic brain damage, but the contribution of the different T-cell subsets is unclear. Forkhead box P3 (FoxP3)-positive regulatory T cells (Tregs) are generally regarded as prototypic anti-inflammatory cells that maintain immune tolerance and counteract tissue damage in a variety of immune-mediated disorders. In the present study, we examined the role of Tregs after experimental brain ischemia/reperfusion injury. Selective depletion of Tregs in the DEREG mouse model dramatically reduced infarct size and improved neurologic function 24 hours after stroke and this protective effect was preserved at later stages of infarct development. The specificity of this detrimental Treg effect was confirmed by adoptive transfer experiments in wild-type mice and in Rag1(-/-) mice lacking lymphocytes. Mechanistically, Tregs induced microvascular dysfunction in vivo by increased interaction with the ischemic brain endothelium via the LFA-1/ICAM-1 pathway and platelets and these findings were confirmed in vitro. Ablation of Tregs reduced microvascular thrombus formation and improved cerebral reperfusion on stroke, as revealed by ultra-high-field magnetic resonance imaging at 17.6 Tesla. In contrast, established immunoregulatory characteristics of Tregs had no functional relevance. We define herein a novel and unexpected role of Tregs in a primary nonimmunologic disease state.

  17. Evidence for a novel functional role of astrocytes in the acute homeostatic response to high-fat diet intake in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckman, Laura B.; Thompson, Misty M.; Lippert, Rachel N.; Blackwell, Timothy S.; Yull, Fiona E.; Ellacott, Kate L.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Introduction of a high-fat diet to mice results in a period of voracious feeding, known as hyperphagia, before homeostatic mechanisms prevail to restore energy intake to an isocaloric level. Acute high-fat diet hyperphagia induces astrocyte activation in the rodent hypothalamus, suggesting a potential role of these cells in the homeostatic response to the diet. The objective of this study was to determine physiologic role of astrocytes in the acute homeostatic response to high-fat feeding. Methods We bred a transgenic mouse model with doxycycline-inducible inhibition of NFkappaB (NFκB) signaling in astrocytes to determine the effect of loss of NFκB-mediated astrocyte activation on acute high-fat hyperphagia. ELISA was used to measure the levels of markers of astrocyte activation, glial-fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S100B, in the medial basal hypothalamus. Results Inhibition of NFκB signaling in astrocytes prevented acute high-fat diet-induced astrocyte activation and resulted in a 15% increase in caloric intake (P < 0.01) in the first 24 h after introduction of the diet. Conclusions These data reveal a novel homeostatic role for astrocytes in the acute physiologic regulation of food intake in response to high-fat feeding. PMID:25685690

  18. The Development of Diet-Induced Obesity and Glucose Intolerance in C57Bl/6 Mice on a High-Fat Diet Consists of Distinct Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lynda M.; Campbell, Fiona M.; Drew, Janice E.; Koch, Christiane; Hoggard, Nigel; Rees, William D.; Kamolrat, Torkamol; Thi Ngo, Ha; Steffensen, Inger-Lise; Gray, Stuart R.; Tups, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    High–fat (HF) diet-induced obesity and insulin insensitivity are associated with inflammation, particularly in white adipose tissue (WAT). However, insulin insensitivity is apparent within days of HF feeding when gains in adiposity and changes in markers of inflammation are relatively minor. To investigate further the effects of HF diet, C57Bl/6J mice were fed either a low (LF) or HF diet for 3 days to 16 weeks, or fed the HF-diet matched to the caloric intake of the LF diet (PF) for 3 days or 1 week, with the time course of glucose tolerance and inflammatory gene expression measured in liver, muscle and WAT. HF fed mice gained adiposity and liver lipid steadily over 16 weeks, but developed glucose intolerance, assessed by intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTT), in two phases. The first phase, after 3 days, resulted in a 50% increase in area under the curve (AUC) for HF and PF mice, which improved to 30% after 1 week and remained stable until 12 weeks. Between 12 and 16 weeks the difference in AUC increased to 60%, when gene markers of inflammation appeared in WAT and muscle but not in liver. Plasma proteomics were used to reveal an acute phase response at day 3. Data from PF mice reveals that glucose intolerance and the acute phase response are the result of the HF composition of the diet and increased caloric intake respectively. Thus, the initial increase in glucose intolerance due to a HF diet occurs concurrently with an acute phase response but these effects are caused by different properties of the diet. The second increase in glucose intolerance occurs between 12 - 16 weeks of HF diet and is correlated with WAT and muscle inflammation. Between these times glucose tolerance remains stable and markers of inflammation are undetectable. PMID:25170916

  19. Fas-deficient mice have impaired alveolar neutrophil recruitment and decreased expression of anti-KC autoantibody:KC complexes in a model of acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Sucheol

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to mechanical ventilation enhances lung injury in response to various stimuli, such as bacterial endotoxin (LPS. The Fas/FasL system is a receptor ligand system that has dual pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory functions and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of lung injury. In this study we test the hypothesis that a functioning Fas/FasL system is required for the development of lung injury in mechanically ventilated mice. Methods C57BL/6 (B6 and Fas-deficient lpr mice were exposed to either intra-tracheal PBS followed by spontaneous breathing or intra-tracheal LPS followed by four hours mechanical ventilation with tidal volumes of 10 mL/kg, respiratory rate of 150 breaths per minute, inspired oxygen 0.21 and positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP of 3 cm of water. Results Compared with the B6 mice, the lpr mice showed attenuation of the neutrophilic response as measured by decreased numbers of BAL neutrophils and lung myeloperoxidase activity. Interestingly, the B6 and lpr mice had similar concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including CXCL1 (KC, and similar measurements of permeability and apoptosis. However, the B6 mice showed greater deposition of anti-KC:KC immune complexes in the lungs, as compared with the lpr mice. Conclusions We conclude that a functioning Fas/FasL system is required for full neutrophilic response to LPS in mechanically ventilated mice.

  20. Preventative effect of OMZ-SPT on lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury and inflammation via nuclear factor-kappa B signaling in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ting; Hou, Wanru; Fu, Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is an early pathophysiologic change in acute respiratory distress syndrome and its management can be challenging. Omalizumab (Xolair™) is a recombinant DNA-derived, humanized antibody. OMZ-SPT is a polypeptide on the heavy chain of omalizumab monoclonal antibody. Here, we found that intramuscular administration of OMZ-SPT significantly improved survival and attenuated lung inflammation in female C57BL/6 mice suffering from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. We also demonstrated that OMZ-SPT can inhibit expression of the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 by ELISA in mice suffering from LPS-induced ALI and a mouse macrophage line (RAW264.7 cells). In addition, we showed that OMZ-SPT inhibited LPS-induced activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling and total expression of NF-κB by western blotting. These data suggest that OMZ-SPT could be a novel therapeutic choice for ALI. - Highlights: • OMZ-SPT is a polypeptide on the heavy chain of omalizumab monoclonal antibody. • Omalizumab (Xolair™) have anti-inflammatory effects. • OMZ-SPT can inhibit inflammatory responses and lung injury in LPS-induced ALI mice. • Protective effect of OMZ-SPT on ALI is due to inhibition of NF-κB signaling. • OMZ-SPT could be a novel therapeutic choice for ALI.

  1. OCT imaging of acute vascular changes following mild traumatic brain injury in mice (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chico-Calero, Isabel; Shishkov, Milen; Welt, Jonathan; Blatter, Cedric; Vakoc, Benjamin J.

    2016-03-01

    While most people recover completely from mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs) and concussions, a subset develop lasting neurological disorders. Understanding the complex pathophysiology of these injuries is critical to developing improved prognostic and therapeutic approaches. Multiple studies have shown that the structure and perfusion of brain vessels are altered after mTBI. It is possible that these vascular injuries contribute to or trigger neurodegeneration. Intravital microscopy and mouse models of TBI offer a powerful platform to study the vascular component of mTBI. Because optical coherence tomography based angiography is based on perfusion contrast and is not significantly degraded by vessel leakage or blood brain barrier disruption, it is uniquely suited to studies of brain perfusion in the setting of trauma. However, existing TBI imaging models require surgical exposure of the brain at the time of injury which conflates TBI-related vascular changes with those caused by surgery. In this work, we describe a modified cranial window preparation based on a flexible, transparent polyurethane membrane. Impact injuries were delivered directly through this membrane, and imaging was performed immediately after injury without the need for additional surgical procedures. Using this model, we demonstrate that mTBI induces a transient cessation of flow in the capillaries and smaller vessels near the injury point. Reperfusion is observed in all animals within 3 hours of injury. This work describes new insight into the transient vascular changes induced by mTBI, and demonstrates more broadly the utility of the OCT/polyurethane window model platform in preclinical studies of mTBI.

  2. Possible role of the microbiome in the development of acute malnutrition and implications for food-based strategies to prevent and treat acute malnutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manary, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Full text: The microbiome is the ecological community of commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms within our bodies. Housed primarily in the small intestine, it contains over 100 trillion microorganisms, 100-fold more genes than the human genome. The microbiome facilitates the absorption of food and plays a role in homeostasis, micronutrient synthesis, detoxification and immune function. The microbiome has adapted to diet and environments to help the host best utilize dietary intakes where dietary intake affects the species and relative abundance of bacteria and genes in the microbiome. In young children, malnutrition hinders the co-evolution of the microbiome and immune system, often impairing the function of the small intestine mucosal lining, which can cause enteropathogen infection and impede nutrient absorption. The core microbiota is made up of a broad spectrum of bacterial species that vary from person-to-person based on age and environment. This finding was observed in a comparative metagenomic study of the gut microbiomes of 531 healthy infants, children, and adults living in the USA, Venezuela, and Malawi which found that the representation of genes related to micro- and macronutrient biosynthesis and metabolism changed during development and based on environment. In a study examining 317 Malawian twin pairs during the first three years of life, 50% remained well nourished, 43% became discordant and 7% manifested concordance for acute malnutrition. Fecal samples were taken from each twin over time, and those samples were transferred into germ-free mice where meaningful changes in the fecal taxonomic, genetic, and metabolic content accompanied the transplantations. Specifically in kwashiorkor mice, a rapid weight loss was experienced when initially fed a Malawian diet followed by a rapid weight gain with the introduction of therapeutic food and subsequent weight loss after return to the Malawian diet. These data provide evidence that food

  3. Possible role of the microbiome in the development of acute malnutrition and implications for food-based strategies to prevent and treat acute malnutrition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manary, Mark [Washington University, School of Medicine (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Full text: The microbiome is the ecological community of commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms within our bodies. Housed primarily in the small intestine, it contains over 100 trillion microorganisms, 100-fold more genes than the human genome. The microbiome facilitates the absorption of food and plays a role in homeostasis, micronutrient synthesis, detoxification and immune function. The microbiome has adapted to diet and environments to help the host best utilize dietary intakes where dietary intake affects the species and relative abundance of bacteria and genes in the microbiome. In young children, malnutrition hinders the co-evolution of the microbiome and immune system, often impairing the function of the small intestine mucosal lining, which can cause enteropathogen infection and impede nutrient absorption. The core microbiota is made up of a broad spectrum of bacterial species that vary from person-to-person based on age and environment. This finding was observed in a comparative metagenomic study of the gut microbiomes of 531 healthy infants, children, and adults living in the USA, Venezuela, and Malawi which found that the representation of genes related to micro- and macronutrient biosynthesis and metabolism changed during development and based on environment. In a study examining 317 Malawian twin pairs during the first three years of life, 50% remained well nourished, 43% became discordant and 7% manifested concordance for acute malnutrition. Fecal samples were taken from each twin over time, and those samples were transferred into germ-free mice where meaningful changes in the fecal taxonomic, genetic, and metabolic content accompanied the transplantations. Specifically in kwashiorkor mice, a rapid weight loss was experienced when initially fed a Malawian diet followed by a rapid weight gain with the introduction of therapeutic food and subsequent weight loss after return to the Malawian diet. These data provide evidence that food

  4. Effects of a 4.7 T static magnetic field on fetal development in ICR mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Ryuji; Ootsuyama, Akira; Uchida, Soshi; Norimura, Toshiyuki

    2001-01-01

    In order to determine the effects of a 4.7 T static magnetic field (SMF) on fetal development in mice, we evaluated fetal teratogenesis and endochondral ossification following exposure in utero. Pregnant ICR mice were exposed to a 4.7 T SMF from day 7.5 to 9.5 of gestation in a whole-body dose, and sacrificed on day 18.5 of gestation. We examined with incidence of prenatal death, external malformations and fetal skeletal malformations. There were no significant differences observed in the incidence of prenatal death and/or malformations between SMF-exposed mice and control mice. Further, we evaluated the immunoreactivity for the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is implicated in angiogenesis and osteogenesis, in the sternum of fetal mice following magnetic exposure. Our studies also indicated that on day 16.5 of gestation following SMF exposure, the immunoreactivity for VEGF was increased compared to unexposed controls. However, it was decreased in the exposed group compared to the control group on day 18.5 of gestation. DNA and proteoglycan (PG) synthesis were also measured in rabbit costal growth plate chondrocytes in vitro. No significant differences were observed in DNA synthesis between the SMF exposed chondrocytes and the control chondrocytes; however, PG synthesis in SMF exposed chondrocytes increased compared to the controls. Based on these results, we suggest that while SMF exposure promoted the endochondral ossification of chondrocytes, it did not induce any harmful effects on fetal development in ICR mice. (author)

  5. Effects of a 4.7 T static magnetic field on fetal development in ICR mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okazaki, Ryuji; Ootsuyama, Akira; Uchida, Soshi; Norimura, Toshiyuki [Univ. of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-09-01

    In order to determine the effects of a 4.7 T static magnetic field (SMF) on fetal development in mice, we evaluated fetal teratogenesis and endochondral ossification following exposure in utero. Pregnant ICR mice were exposed to a 4.7 T SMF from day 7.5 to 9.5 of gestation in a whole-body dose, and sacrificed on day 18.5 of gestation. We examined with incidence of prenatal death, external malformations and fetal skeletal malformations. There were no significant differences observed in the incidence of prenatal death and/or malformations between SMF-exposed mice and control mice. Further, we evaluated the immunoreactivity for the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is implicated in angiogenesis and osteogenesis, in the sternum of fetal mice following magnetic exposure. Our studies also indicated that on day 16.5 of gestation following SMF exposure, the immunoreactivity for VEGF was increased compared to unexposed controls. However, it was decreased in the exposed group compared to the control group on day 18.5 of gestation. DNA and proteoglycan (PG) synthesis were also measured in rabbit costal growth plate chondrocytes in vitro. No significant differences were observed in DNA synthesis between the SMF exposed chondrocytes and the control chondrocytes; however, PG synthesis in SMF exposed chondrocytes increased compared to the controls. Based on these results, we suggest that while SMF exposure promoted the endochondral ossification of chondrocytes, it did not induce any harmful effects on fetal development in ICR mice. (author)

  6. Hydrolyzed whey protein prevents the development of food allergy to β-lactoglobulin in sensitized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Santos, Ana Cristina; Fonseca, Roberta Cristelli; Lemos, Luisa; Reis, Daniela Silva; Moreira, Thaís Garcias; Souza, Adna Luciana; Silva, Mauro Ramalho; Silvestre, Marialice Pinto Coelho; Cara, Denise Carmona; Faria, Ana Maria Caetano

    2015-01-01

    Food allergy is an adverse immune response to dietary proteins. Hydrolysates are frequently used for children with milk allergy. However, hydrolysates effects afterwards are poorly studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunological consequences of hydrolyzed whey protein in allergic mice. For that, we developed a novel model of food allergy in BALB/c mice sensitized with alum-adsorbed β-lactoglobulin. These mice were orally challenged with either whey protein or whey hydrolysate. Whey-challenged mice had elevated levels of specific IgE and lost weight. They also presented gut inflammation, enhanced levels of SIgA and IL-5 as well as decreased production of IL-4 and IL-10 in the intestinal mucosa. Conversely, mice challenged with hydrolyzate maintained normal levels of IgE, IL-4 and IL-5 and showed no sign of gut inflammation probably due to increased IL-12 production in the gut. Thus, consumption of hydrolysate prevented the development of clinical signs of food allergy in mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ruscogenin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice: involvement of tissue factor, inducible NO synthase and nuclear factor (NF)-κB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Chen, Ling; Gao, Mengyu; Jiang, Wenwen; Shao, Fangxian; Li, Jingjing; Wang, Jun; Kou, Junping; Yu, Boyang

    2012-01-01

    Acute lung injury is still a significant clinical problem with a high mortality rate and there are few effective therapies in clinic. Here, we studied the inhibitory effect of ruscogenin, an anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic natural product, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury in mice basing on our previous studies. The results showed that a single oral administration of ruscogenin significantly decreased lung wet to dry weight (W/D) ratio at doses of 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg 1 h prior to LPS challenge (30 mg/kg, intravenous injection). Histopathological changes such as pulmonary edema, coagulation and infiltration of inflammatory cells were also attenuated by ruscogenin. In addition, ruscogenin markedly decreased LPS-induced myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and nitrate/nitrite content, and also downregulated expression of tissue factor (TF), inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB p-p65 (Ser 536) in the lung tissue at three doses. Furthermore, ruscogenin reduced plasma TF procoagulant activity and nitrate/nitrite content in LPS-induced ALI mice. These findings confirmed that ruscogenin significantly attenuate LPS-induced acute lung injury via inhibiting expressions of TF and iNOS and NF-κB p65 activation, indicating it as a potential therapeutic agent for ALI or sepsis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Licorice and Roasted Licorice Extracts on TPA-Induced Acute Inflammation and Collagen-Induced Arthritis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Rim Kim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory activity of licorice (LE and roated licorice (rLE extracts determined in the murine phorbol ester-induced acute inflammation model and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA model of human rheumatoid arthritis. rLE possessed greater activity than LE in inhibiting phorbol ester-induced ear edema. Oral administration of LE or rLE reduced clinical arthritis score, paw swelling, and histopathological changes in a murine CIA. LE and rLE decreased the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in serum and matrix metalloproteinase-3 expression in the joints. Cell proliferation and cytokine secretion in response to type II collagen or lipopolysaccharide stimulation were suppressed in spleen cells from LE or rLE-treated CIA mice. Furthermore, LE and rLE treatment prevented oxidative damages in liver and kidney tissues of CIA mice. Taken together, LE and rLE have benefits in protecting against both acute inflammation and chronic inflammatory conditions including rheumatoid arthritis. rLE may inhibit the acute inflammation more potently than LE.

  9. Prenatal exposure to fenugreek impairs sensorimotor development and the operation of spinal cord networks in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loubna Khalki

    Full Text Available Fenugreek is a medicinal plant whose seeds are widely used in traditional medicine, mainly for its laxative, galactagogue and antidiabetic effects. However, consumption of fenugreek seeds during pregnancy has been associated with a range of congenital malformations, including hydrocephalus, anencephaly and spina bifida in humans. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of prenatal treatment of fenugreek seeds on the development of sensorimotor functions from birth to young adults. Pregnant mice were treated by gavage with 1 g/kg/day of lyophilized fenugreek seeds aqueous extract (FSAE or distilled water during the gestational period. Behavioral tests revealed in prenatally treated mice a significant delay in righting, cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis responses and the swimming development. In addition, extracellular recording of motor output in spinal cord isolated from neonatal mice showed that the frequency of spontaneous activity and fictive locomotion was reduced in FSAE-exposed mice. On the other hand, the cross-correlation coefficient in control mice was significantly more negative than in treated animals indicating that alternating patterns are deteriorated in FSAE-treated animals. At advanced age, prenatally treated mice displayed altered locomotor coordination in the rotarod test and also changes in static and dynamic parameters assessed by the CatWalk automated gait analysis system. We conclude that FSAE impairs sensorimotor and coordination functions not only in neonates but also in adult mice. Moreover, spinal neuronal networks are less excitable in prenatally FSAE-exposed mice suggesting that modifications within the central nervous system are responsible, at least in part, for the motor impairments.

  10. Acute otitis media guidelines in selected developed and developing countries: uniformity and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovnat Tamir, Sharon; Shemesh, Shay; Oron, Yahav; Marom, Tal

    2017-05-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common childhood disease, with an enormous economic and healthcare-related burden. Guidelines and consensus papers for AOM diagnosis and management were published in many countries. Our objective was to study the differences and similarities between these protocols in developing and developed countries. The keywords: 'acute otitis media' AND 'children' AND ['treatment' or 'management'] AND ['guideline' or 'consensus'] were used in various electronic databases between 1 January 1989 through 31 December 2015. Overall, 99 sources from 62 countries were retrieved: 53 from 22 developed countries, and 46 from 40 developing countries. Representative guidelines from America (the USA, Argentina), Europe (Italy, Moldova), Africa (South Africa, Tanzania, Ethiopia), Asia (Japan, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka),and Oceania (South Australia, Fiji) were compared. Paediatric societies publish guidelines in most developed countries; in developing countries, the Ministry of Health usually initiates guideline formulation. Most guidelines use the same diagnostic criteria and offer watchful waiting in mild-moderate scenarios. Amoxicillin is the suggested first-line antibiotic, whereas options for second-line and third-line therapies vary. Duration of therapy varies and is usually age dependent: 5-7 days for children 2 years in developed countries, while duration and age groups vary greatly in developing countries. Reduction of AOM risk factors is encouraged in developed countries, but rarely in developing countries. Guidelines for AOM from developing and developed countries are similar in many aspects, with variation in specific recommendations, due to local epidemiology and healthcare accessibility. Formulation of regional guidelines may help reduce AOM burden. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Evaluation of the acute and sub-acute toxicity of the ethanolic extract of Pericampylus glaucus (Lam. Merr. in BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kifayatullah

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: The result indicates that the oral administration of Pericampylus glaucus (Lam. Merr. extract did not produce any significant toxic effect in BALB/c mice. Hence, the extract can be utilized safely for therapeutic use in pharmaceutical formulations.

  12. [Effect of Huanglian Jiedu Decoction on Monocyte Development in apoE Gene Knockout Mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing; Kong, Ya-xian; Ll, Yu-mei; Xue, Xin; Zhang, Jian-ping; Zeng, Hui; Hu, Jing- qing; Ma, Ya-luan

    2016-01-01

    To observe monocyte (Mo) development in wild type C57BL/6 mice and apoE gene knockout (apoE(-/-)) mice, and to evaluate the immuno-regulatory effect of Huanglian Jiedu Decoction (HJD) on peripheral Mo development in apoE(-/-) mice. Four, 8, 12, and 16 weeks old female C57BL/6 mice were set up as control groups of different ages, while 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks old female apoE(-/-) mice were set up as hyperlipidemia groups of different ages. Four-week old female C57BL/6 mice were recruited as a blank group. Four-week old female apoE(-/-) mice were randomly divided into the control group, the Western medicine group, and the Chinese medicine group by paired comparison, 5 in each group. Equivalent clinical dose was administered to mice according to body weight. Mice in the Western medicine group were administered with Atrovastatin at the daily dose of 10 mg/kg by gastrogavage, while those in the Chinese medicine group were administered with HJD at the daily dose of 5 g/kg by gastrogavage. Body weight was detected each week. After 4 weeks blood lipids levels (such as TG, TC, LDL-C, and HDL-C), and the proportions of Mo and Ly6c(hi) were detected. Compared with 4-week-old homogenic mice, the proportion of Mo decreased in 16-week-old C57BL/6 mice (P < 0.05). Levels of TC and TG, and the proportion of Ly6c(hi) subtype increased, but the proportion of Mo de- creased in 8-week-old apoE(-/-) mice (P <0. 05). Levels of TC, TG, and LDL-C increased in 12-week-old apoE(-/-) mice (P < 0.05). Levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, and HDL-C increased in 16-week-old apoE(-/-) mice (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Compared with 8-week-old homogenic mice, the proportion of Mo decreased in 16-week-old C57BL/6 mice (P < 0.05); levels of TC and LDL-C increased in 12-week-old apoE(-/-) mice (P < 0.05); levels of TC and HDL-C increased in 16-week-old apoE(-/-) mice (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Compared with C57BL/6 mice of the same age, TC and TG increased, HDL-C decreased (P < 0.01) in 4-and 8-week-old apoE(-/-) mice (P

  13. Junctional Adhesion Molecule (JAM)-C Deficient C57BL/6 Mice Develop a Severe Hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebner, Stefan; Mittelbronn, Michel; Deutsch, Urban; Enzmann, Gaby; Adams, Ralf H.; Aurrand-Lions, Michel; Plate, Karl H.; Imhof, Beat A.; Engelhardt, Britta

    2012-01-01

    The junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)-C is a widely expressed adhesion molecule regulating cell adhesion, cell polarity and inflammation. JAM-C expression and function in the central nervous system (CNS) has been poorly characterized to date. Here we show that JAM-C−/− mice backcrossed onto the C57BL/6 genetic background developed a severe hydrocephalus. An in depth immunohistochemical study revealed specific immunostaining for JAM-C in vascular endothelial cells in the CNS parenchyma, the meninges and in the choroid plexus of healthy C57BL/6 mice. Additional JAM-C immunostaining was detected on ependymal cells lining the ventricles and on choroid plexus epithelial cells. Despite the presence of hemorrhages in the brains of JAM-C−/− mice, our study demonstrates that development of the hydrocephalus was not due to a vascular function of JAM-C as endothelial re-expression of JAM-C failed to rescue the hydrocephalus phenotype of JAM-C−/− C57BL/6 mice. Evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation within the ventricular system of JAM-C−/− mice excluded occlusion of the cerebral aqueduct as the cause of hydrocephalus development but showed the acquisition of a block or reduction of CSF drainage from the lateral to the 3rd ventricle in JAM-C−/− C57BL/6 mice. Taken together, our study suggests that JAM-C−/− C57BL/6 mice model the important role for JAM-C in brain development and CSF homeostasis as recently observed in humans with a loss-of-function mutation in JAM-C. PMID:23029139

  14. Overactivation of Hedgehog Signaling Alters Development of the Ovarian Vasculature in Mice1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yi; Cowan, Robert G.; Migone, Fernando F.; Quirk, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway is critical for ovarian function in Drosophila, but its role in the mammalian ovary has not been defined. Previously, expression of a dominant active allele of the HH signal transducer protein smoothened (SMO) in Amhr2cre/+SmoM2 mice caused anovulation in association with a lack of smooth muscle in the theca of developing follicles. The current study examined events during the first 2 wk of life in Amhr2cre/+SmoM2 mice to gain insight into the cause of anovulation. Expression of transcriptional targets of HH signaling, Gli1, Ptch1, and Hhip, which are used as measures of pathway activity, were elevated during the first several days of life in Amhr2cre/+SmoM2 mice compared to controls but were similar to controls in older mice. Microarray analysis showed that genes with increased expression in 2-day-old mutants compared to controls were enriched for the processes of vascular and tube development and steroidogenesis. The density of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-labeled endothelial tubes was increased in the cortex of newborn ovaries of mutant mice. Costaining of preovulatory follicles for PECAM and smooth muscle actin showed that muscle-type vascular support cells are deficient in theca of mutant mice. Expression of genes for steroidogenic enzymes that are normally expressed in the fetal adrenal gland were elevated in newborn ovaries of mutant mice. In summary, overactivation of HH signaling during early life alters gene expression and vascular development and this is associated with the lifelong development of anovulatory follicles in which the thecal vasculature fails to mature appropriately. PMID:22402963

  15. Developing diagnostic guidelines for the acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Densow, D.; Fliedner, T.M.; Kindler, H.

    1996-01-01

    Diagnostic guidelines seem to be promising for improving medical care. One aspect of a diagnostic guideline for the acute radiation syndrome has been tested against an extensive case history database. Subsequently, the guideline has been optimized for a small set of case histories. The improved performance has been proven by a test against the rest of the case history database

  16. Vulnerability of female germ cells in developing mice and monkeys to tritium, gamma rays, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, R.L.; Koehler, C.G.; Felton, J.S.; Kwan, T.C.; Wuebbles, B.J.; Jones, D.C.L.

    1978-01-01

    During development female germ cells in both mouse and monkey are extremely sensitive to destruction by low-level chronic tritium exposure (via 3 HOH in maternal drinking water). Practical significance of this stems from tritium's importance in nuclear energy production and as an environmental pollutant. In mice exposed from conception to 14 days of age, the LD 50 level for oocytes is only 2 μCi per mililiter of body water. The present studies indicate that, for female germ cells in squirrel monkeys exposed in utero, the LD 50 is even lower, about 0.5 μCi/ml. This striking sensitivity contrasts with reported radioresistance for primate oocytes, chiefly from acute x-irradiation experiments. The discrepancy is reconciled if germ cells in the fetal primate pass through a highly sensitive period of limited duration. In light of other data showing germ-cell loss following repeated semiweekly x-irradiation during late but not during mid gestation, these results indicate that exceedingly high sensitivity occurs probably about the middle of the last trimester, at which time the LD 50 for monkey germ cells is, as for that of the mouse, less than 5 rads. Whereas highest radiosensitivity in primates is before birth, in mice it is after birth. To define the period of sensitivity more sharply, we measured oocyte responses to standard gamma-ray exposures in Swiss-Webster mice at various ages and found them to be maximal between days 5 and 19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's), important as pollutants, also can destroy female germ cells effectively

  17. Brain-specific Crmp2 deletion leads to neuronal development deficits and behavioural impairments in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongsheng; Kang, Eunchai; Wang, Yaqing; Yang, Chaojuan; Yu, Hui; Wang, Qin; Chen, Zheyu; Zhang, Chen; Christian, Kimberly M; Song, Hongjun; Ming, Guo-Li; Xu, Zhiheng

    2016-06-01

    Several genome- and proteome-wide studies have associated transcription and translation changes of CRMP2 (collapsing response mediator protein 2) with psychiatric disorders, yet little is known about its function in the developing or adult mammalian brain in vivo. Here we show that brain-specific Crmp2 knockout (cKO) mice display molecular, cellular, structural and behavioural deficits, many of which are reminiscent of neural features and symptoms associated with schizophrenia. cKO mice exhibit enlarged ventricles and impaired social behaviour, locomotor activity, and learning and memory. Loss of Crmp2 in the hippocampus leads to reduced long-term potentiation, abnormal NMDA receptor composition, aberrant dendrite development and defective synapse formation in CA1 neurons. Furthermore, knockdown of crmp2 specifically in newborn neurons results in stage-dependent defects in their development during adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Our findings reveal a critical role for CRMP2 in neuronal plasticity, neural function and behavioural modulation in mice.

  18. Hypertension is a conditional factor for the development of cardiac hypertrophy in type 2 diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc van Bilsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is frequently associated with co-morbidities, including hypertension. Here we investigated if hypertension is a critical factor in myocardial remodeling and the development of cardiac dysfunction in type 2 diabetic db/db mice. METHODS: Thereto, 14-wks-old male db/db mice and non-diabetic db/+ mice received vehicle or angiotensin II (AngII for 4 wks to induce mild hypertension (n = 9-10 per group. Left ventricular (LV function was assessed by serial echocardiography and during a dobutamine stress test. LV tissue was subjected to molecular and (immunohistochemical analysis to assess effects on hypertrophy, fibrosis and inflammation. RESULTS: Vehicle-treated diabetic mice neither displayed marked myocardial structural remodeling nor cardiac dysfunction. AngII-treatment did not affect body weight and fasting glucose levels, and induced a comparable increase in blood pressure in diabetic and control mice. Nonetheless, AngII-induced LV hypertrophy was significantly more pronounced in diabetic than in control mice as assessed by LV mass (increase +51% and +34%, respectively, p<0.01 and cardiomyocyte size (+53% and +31%, p<0.001. This was associated with enhanced LV mRNA expression of markers of hypertrophy and fibrosis and reduced activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, while accumulation of Advanced Glycation End products (AGEs and the expression levels of markers of inflammation were not altered. Moreover, AngII-treatment reduced LV fractional shortening and contractility in diabetic mice, but not in control mice. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, the present findings indicate that type 2 diabetes in its early stage is not yet associated with adverse cardiac structural changes, but already renders the heart more susceptible to hypertension-induced hypertrophic remodeling.

  19. TRAF3IP2 mediates atherosclerotic plaque development and vulnerability in ApoE−/− mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Sakamuri Siva Sankara Vara; Higashi, Yusuke; Sukhanov, Sergiy; Siddesha, Jalahalli M; Delafontaine, Patrice; Siebenlist, Ulrich; Chandrasekar, Bysani

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Atherosclerosis is a major cause of heart attack and stroke. Inflammation plays a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis. Since the cytoplasmic adaptor molecule TRAF3IP2 (TRAF3-Interacting Protein 2) plays a causal role in various autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, we hypothesized that TRAF3IP2 mediates atherosclerotic plaque development. Methods TRAF3IP2/ApoE double knockout (DKO) mice were generated by crossing TRAF3IP2−/− and ApoE−/− mice. ApoE−/− mice served as controls. Both DKO and control mice were fed a high-fat diet for 12 weeks. Plasma lipids were measured by ELISA, atherosclerosis by en face analysis of aorta and plaque cross-section measurements at the aortic valve region, plaque necrotic core area, collagen and smooth muscle cell content by histomorphometry, and aortic gene expression by RT-qPCR. Results The plasma lipoprotein profile was not altered by TRAF3IP2 gene deletion in ApoE−/− mice. While total aortic plaque area was decreased in DKO female, but not male mice, the plaque necrotic area was significantly decreased in DKO mice of both genders. Plaque collagen and smooth muscle cell contents were increased significantly in both female and male DKO mice compared to respective controls. Aortic expression of proinflammatory cytokine (Tumor necrosis factor α, TNFα), chemokine (Chemokine (C-X-C motif) Ligand 1, CXCL1) and adhesion molecule (Vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, VCAM1; and Intercellular adhesion molecule 1, ICAM1) gene expression were decreased in both male and female DKO mice. In addition, the male DKO mice showed a markedly reduced expression of extracellular matrix (ECM)-related genes, including TIMP1 (Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1), RECK (Reversion-Inducing- Cysteine-Rich Protein with Kazal Motifs) and ADAM17 (A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase 17). Conclusions TRAF3IP2 plays a causal role in atherosclerotic plaque development and vulnerability, possibly by inducing the

  20. FGF21, a liver hormone that inhibits alcohol intake in mice, increases in human circulation after acute alcohol ingestion and sustained binge drinking at Oktoberfest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Susanna; Andersen, Emilie S; Dalgaard, Niels B

    2018-01-01

    . KLB encodes β-klotho, co-receptor for the liver-derived hormone fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21). In mice, FGF21 reduces alcohol intake, and human Fgf21 variants are enriched among heavy drinkers. Thus, the liver may limit alcohol consumption by secreting FGF21. However, whether full-length, active...... plasma FGF21 (FGF21 (1-181)) levels in humans increase acutely or sub-chronically in response to alcohol ingestion is uncertain. METHODS: We recruited 10 healthy, fasted male subjects to receive an oral water or alcohol bolus with concurrent blood sampling for FGF21 (1-181) measurement in plasma...... correlated fasting FGF21 (1-181) levels in 49 healthy, non-alcoholic subjects of mixed sex with self-reports of alcohol-related behaviors, emotional responses, and problems. Finally, we characterized the effect of recombinant human FGF21 injection on ad libitum alcohol intake in mice. RESULTS: We show...

  1. Development of electrocardiogram intervals during growth of FVB/N neonate mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Electrocardiography remains the best diagnostic tool and therapeutic biomarker for a spectrum of pediatric diseases involving cardiac or autonomic nervous system defects. As genetic links to these disorders are established and transgenic mouse models produced in efforts to understand and treat them, there is a surprising lack of information on electrocardiograms (ECGs) and ECG abnormalities in neonate mice. This is likely due to the trauma and anaesthesia required of many legacy approaches to ECG recording in mice, exacerbated by the fragility of many mutant neonates. Here, we use a non-invasive system to characterize development of the heart rate and electrocardiogram throughout the growth of conscious neonate FVB/N mice. Results We examine ECG waveforms as early as two days after birth. At this point males and females demonstrate comparable heart rates that are 50% lower than adult mice. Neonatal mice exhibit very low heart rate variability. Within 12 days of birth PR, QRS and QTc interval durations are near adult values while heart rate continues to increase until weaning. Upon weaning FVB/N females quickly develop slower heart rates than males, though PR intervals are comparable between sexes until a later age. This suggests separate developmental events may contribute to these gender differences in electrocardiography. Conclusions We provide insight with a new level of detail to the natural course of heart rate establishment in neonate mice. ECG can now be conveniently and repeatedly used in neonatal mice. This should serve to be of broad utility, facilitating further investigations into development of a diverse group of diseases and therapeutics in preclinical mouse studies. PMID:20735846

  2. Mammalian target of rapamycin is essential for cardiomyocyte survival and heart development in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Pengpeng; Shan, Tizhong; Liang, Xinrong; Deng, Changyan; Kuang, Shihuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • mTOR is a critical regulator of many biological processes yet its function in heart is not well understood. • MCK-Cre/Mtor flox/flox mice were established to delete Mtor in cardiomyocytes. • The mTOR-mKO mice developed normally but die prematurely within 5 weeks after birth due to heart disease. • The mTOR-mKO mice had dilated myocardium and increased cell death. • mTOR-mKO hearts had reduced expression of metabolic genes and activation of mTOR target proteins. - Abstract: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a critical regulator of protein synthesis, cell proliferation and energy metabolism. As constitutive knockout of Mtor leads to embryonic lethality, the in vivo function of mTOR in perinatal development and postnatal growth of heart is not well defined. In this study, we established a muscle-specific mTOR conditional knockout mouse model (mTOR-mKO) by crossing MCK-Cre and Mtor flox/flox mice. Although the mTOR-mKO mice survived embryonic and perinatal development, they exhibited severe postnatal growth retardation, cardiac muscle pathology and premature death. At the cellular level, the cardiac muscle of mTOR-mKO mice had fewer cardiomyocytes due to apoptosis and necrosis, leading to dilated cardiomyopathy. At the molecular level, the cardiac muscle of mTOR-mKO mice expressed lower levels of fatty acid oxidation and glycolysis related genes compared to the WT littermates. In addition, the mTOR-mKO cardiac muscle had reduced Myh6 but elevated Myh7 expression, indicating cardiac muscle degeneration. Furthermore, deletion of Mtor dramatically decreased the phosphorylation of S6 and AKT, two key targets downstream of mTORC1 and mTORC2 mediating the normal function of mTOR. These results demonstrate that mTOR is essential for cardiomyocyte survival and cardiac muscle function

  3. Podocyte changes after induction of acute albuminuria in mice by anti-aminopeptidase A mAb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkman, Henry B P M; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E; van der Laak, Jeroen A W M; Wetzels, Jack F M; Groenen, Patricia J T A; Assmann, Karel J M

    2003-01-01

    Administration of a specific combination of anti-aminopeptidase A (APA) mAb (ASD-37/41) in mice induces an acute albuminuria which is independent of angiotensin II, a well-known substrate of APA. In the present experiments, we examined whether binding of the mAb initiated changes in the podocytic expression of cytoskeleton (-associated), adhesion and slit-diaphragm proteins in relation to the time course of albuminuria. In addition, we measured ultrastructurally the extent of foot process retraction (the number of foot processes per microm GBM) and the width of the slit pore between the podocytes by morphometric methods. An injection of the mAb combination ASD-37/41 induced a massive but transient albuminuria that started at 6 h, and peaked at 8 h, after which it declined. However, even at day 7 after injection of the mAbs some albuminuria was present. Injection of the combination ASD-3/41 or saline did not induce an albuminuria. Notably, we observed changes in the staining of CD2AP and podocin, two slit-pore-associated proteins that coincided with the start of the albuminuria. Nephrin staining was reduced and podocytic actin staining became more granular only at a time albuminuria was declining (24 h). The number of foot processes per microm GBM was already decreased at 4 h with a further reduction thereafter. The width of the slit pore was unchanged at the time of peak albuminuria and gradually decreased thereafter. At day 7, podocytic foot process effacement was even more prominent although albuminuria was only slightly abnormal. Expression of CD2AP was still granular. We observed however a change toward normal in the expression of podocin. Injection of saline or ASD-3/41 had no effect on the expression of podocytic proteins, the number of foot processes or width of the slit pore. Our data show that the onset of albuminuria in the anti-APA model is related to alterations in CD2AP and podocin, proteins that are important for maintaining slit-diaphragm structure

  4. The anticancer drug tamoxifen is active against Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro but ineffective in the treatment of the acute phase of Chagas disease in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Ciccone Miguel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The activity of the antineoplastic drug tamoxifen was evaluated against Trypanosoma cruzi. In vitro activity was determined against epimastigote, trypomastigote and amastigote forms of CL14, Y and Y benznidazole resistant T. cruzi strains. Regardless of the strain used, the drug was active against all life-cycle stages of the parasite with a half maximal effective concentration ranging from 0.7-17.9 µM. Two experimental models of acute Chagas disease were used to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of treatment with tamoxifen. No differences in parasitemia and mortality were observed between control mock-treated and tamoxifen-treated mice.

  5. Evidence for a novel functional role of astrocytes in the acute homeostatic response to high-fat diet intake in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckman, Laura B; Thompson, Misty M; Lippert, Rachel N; Blackwell, Timothy S; Yull, Fiona E; Ellacott, Kate L J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction of a high-fat diet to mice results in a period of voracious feeding, known as hyperphagia, before homeostatic mechanisms prevail to restore energy intake to an isocaloric level. Acute high-fat diet hyperphagia induces astrocyte activation in the rodent hypothalamus, suggesting a potential role of these cells in the homeostatic response to the diet. The objective of this study was to determine physiologic role of astrocytes in the acute homeostatic response to high-fat feeding. We bred a transgenic mouse model with doxycycline-inducible inhibition of NFkappaB (NFκB) signaling in astrocytes to determine the effect of loss of NFκB-mediated astrocyte activation on acute high-fat hyperphagia. ELISA was used to measure the levels of markers of astrocyte activation, glial-fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S100B, in the medial basal hypothalamus. Inhibition of NFκB signaling in astrocytes prevented acute high-fat diet-induced astrocyte activation and resulted in a 15% increase in caloric intake (P fat feeding.

  6. Acute Q fever and the risk of developing endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Aspas, A; Collado-Pérez, C; Vela-Manzano, L; Fernández-Gutiérrez Del Álamo, C; Tinoco-Racero, I; Girón-González, J A

    2015-01-01

    Assess clinical and serological data as parameters indicative of a possible evolution to endocarditis after an episode of acute Q fever. Retrospective cohort study of evolution to endocarditis after an acute Q fever episode, analyzing the clinical and serological evolution and the antibiotic treatment administered. Eighty patients were recruited, 20% of whom had phase i IgG antibody levels ≥ 1:1024 in the first 3 months. Only 44% of the patients underwent antibiotherapy in the acute phase; only 2 patients underwent extended antibiotherapy. Fifteen percent of the patients underwent an echocardiogram. None of the patients had symptoms suggestive of chronic infection or progressed to endocarditis after a median follow-up of 100 months, regardless of the early increase in phase i IgG antibodies. The early increase in phase i IgG antibodies in asymptomatic patients is not associated with progression to endocarditis despite not undergoing prolonged antibiotic treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  7. Suppressive effects of cacao polyphenols on the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, Midori; Baba, Seigo

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies in humans have shown that the cacao polyphenols, (-)-epicatechin and its oligomers, prevent in vitro and ex vivo low-density lipoprotein oxidation mediated by free radical generators and metal ions and also reduce plasma LDL-cholesterol levels. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of cacao polyphenols on the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (-/-) mice. Mice aged 8 weeks (n = 90) were randomized into three groups, and fed either normal mouse chow (controls) or chow supplemented with 0.25 or 0.40 % cacao polyphenols for 16 weeks. The mean plaque area in cross-sections of the brachiocephalic trunk was measured and found to be lower in the 0.25 % cacao polyphenol group than in the control group (p cacao polyphenol group (p cacao polyphenols inhibit the development of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient (-/-) mice by reducing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses.

  8. Excess TSH causes abnormal skeletal development in young mice with hypothyroidism via suppressive effects on the growth plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Toyoshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuro

    2013-09-01

    Hypothyroidism in the young leads to irreversible growth failure. hyt/hyt Mice have a nonfunctional TSH receptor (TSHR) and are severely hypothyroid, but growth retardation was not observed in adult mice. We found that epiphysial cartilage as well as cultured chondrocytes expressed functional TSHR at levels comparable to that seen in the thyroid, and that addition of TSH to cultured chondrocytes suppressed expression of chondrocyte differentiation marker genes such as Sox-9 and type IIa collagen. Next, we compared the long bone phenotypes of two distinct mouse models of hypothyroidism: thyroidectomized (THYx) mice and hyt/hyt mice. Although both THYx and hyt/hyt mice were severely hypothyroid and had similar serum Ca(2+) and growth hormone levels, the tibia was shorter and the proliferating and hypertrophic zones in the growth plate was significantly narrower in THYx mice than in hyt/hyt mice. Supplementation of hyt/hyt mice thyroid hormone resulted in a wider growth plate compared with that of wild-type mice. Expressions of chondrocyte differentiation marker genes Sox-9 and type IIa collagen in growth plate from THYx mice were 52 and 60% lower than those of hyt/hyt mice, respectively. High serum TSH causes abnormal skeletal development in young mice with hypothyroidism via suppressive effects on the growth plate.

  9. Internal gallbladder drainage prevents development of acute cholecystitis in a pig model: a randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Daniel W; Mortensen, Frank V; Møller, Jens K

    2010-01-01

    removed and histologically scored for the presence of cholecystitis. Bile and blood samples were collected for bacterial culturing and biochemical analyses. RESULTS: The histological examination demonstrated statistical significant differences in acute cholecystitis development between groups, the degree...

  10. Tissue Respiration and Glycolysis in the Development of Acute Radiation Sickness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Golubentsev, D

    1960-01-01

    The condition of tissue respiration and glycolysis in the development of acute radiation sickness has been insufficiently studied, and the factual data and opinions of various investigators are frequently contradictory...

  11. Types and rate of cataract development in mice irradiated at different ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajewski, A.K.; Majewska, K.; Slowikowska, M.G.; Chomiczewski, K.; Kulig, A.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of age on the development of radiation cataract has been investigated in an inbred A strain of mice and, as a result, the patterns of age dependence and senile mice cataract development were obtained. In general, the lenses of mice 1 to 3 days old were the most sensitive to radiation; the maximum resistance was noted in 5-day-old mice, and from this age up to 3 to 7 weeks of life there was a period of increasing sensitivity. In older animals the lens sensitivity tends to level off. The early stages of cataract occurred in all irradiated groups at a younger age than in the control group, but the late stages occurred in irradiated groups at the same age as the senile cataract occurred in the control group. Two types of cataract were observed. One was typical for young irradiated mice 1 to 5 days of age and the other was typical for all remaining irradiated groups and for a control group. Also, an attempt was made to correlate the obtained results with the cell kinetics in normal lens epithelium

  12. Lgl1 Is Required for Olfaction and Development of Olfactory Bulb in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenzu; Zhang, Tingting; Lin, Zhuchun; Hou, Congzhe; Zhang, Jian; Men, Yuqin; Li, Huashun

    2016-01-01

    Lethal giant larvae 1 (Lgl1) was initially identified as a tumor suppressor in Drosophila and functioned as a key regulator of epithelial polarity and asymmetric cell division. In this study, we generated Lgl1 conditional knockout mice mediated by Pax2-Cre, which is expressed in olfactory bulb (OB). Next, we examined the effects of Lgl1 loss in the OB. First, we determined the expression patterns of Lgl1 in the neurogenic regions of the embryonic dorsal region of the LGE (dLGE) and postnatal OB. Furthermore, the Lgl1 conditional mutants exhibited abnormal morphological characteristics of the OB. Our behavioral analysis exhibited greatly impaired olfaction in Lgl1 mutant mice. To elucidate the possible mechanisms of impaired olfaction in Lgl1 mutant mice, we investigated the development of the OB. Interestingly, reduced thickness of the MCL and decreased density of mitral cells (MCs) were observed in Lgl1 mutant mice. Additionally, we observed a dramatic loss in SP8+ interneurons (e.g. calretinin and GABAergic/non-dopaminergic interneurons) in the GL of the OB. Our results demonstrate that Lgl1 is required for the development of the OB and the deletion of Lgl1 results in impaired olfaction in mice. PMID:27603780

  13. Development of Novel Local Analgesics for Management of Acute Tissue Injury Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Project Manager Boston Biomedical Innovation Center 215 First Street, Suite 500; Cambridge, MA 02142 857-307-2441 | rblackman1@partners.org | b...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0480 TITLE: Development of Novel Local Analgesics for Management of Acute Tissue Injury Pain PRINCIPAL...31/2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Development of Novel Local Analgesics for Management of Acute Tissue Injury Pain 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Tissue Injury

  14. p120-Catenin Is Critical for the Development of Invasive Lobular Carcinoma in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenhagen, Milou; Klarenbeek, Sjoerd; Braumuller, Tanya M; Hofmann, Ilse; van der Groep, Petra; Ter Hoeve, Natalie; van der Wall, Elsken; Jonkers, Jos; Derksen, Patrick W B

    2016-12-01

    Loss of E-cadherin expression is causal to the development of invasive lobular breast carcinoma (ILC). E-cadherin loss leads to dismantling of the adherens junction and subsequent translocation of p120-catenin (p120) to the cytosol and nucleus. Although p120 is critical for the metastatic potential of ILC through the regulation of Rock-dependent anoikis resistance, it remains unknown whether p120 also contributes to ILC development. Using genetically engineered mouse models with mammary gland-specific inactivation of E-cadherin, p120 and p53, we demonstrate that ILC formation induced by E-cadherin and p53 loss is severely impaired upon concomitant inactivation of p120. Tumors that developed in the triple-knockout mice were mostly basal sarcomatoid carcinomas that displayed overt nuclear atypia and multinucleation. In line with the strong reduction in ILC incidence in triple-knockout mice compared to E-cadherin and p53 double-knockout mice, no functional redundancy of p120 family members was observed in mouse ILC development, as expression and localization of ARVCF, p0071 or δ-catenin was unaltered in ILCs from triple-knockout mice. In conclusion, we show that loss of p120 in the context of the p53-deficient mouse models is dominant over E-cadherin inactivation and its inactivation promotes the development of basal, epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EMT)-type invasive mammary tumors.

  15. Identification of Novel Translational Urinary Biomarkers for Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Injury Using Proteomic Profiling in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Swelm, Rachel P. L.; Laarakkers, Coby M. M.; van der Kuur, Ellen C.; Morava-Kozicz, Eva; Wevers, Ron A.; Augustijn, Kevin D.; Touw, Daan J.; Sandel, Maro H.; Masereeuw, Rosalinde; Russel, Frans G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the leading cause of acute liver failure. Currently, no adequate predictive biomarkers for DILI are available. This study describes a translational approach using proteomic profiling for the identification of urinary proteins related to acute liver injury induced

  16. Acute pancreatitis in mice impairs bacterial clearance from the lungs, whereas concurrent pneumonia prolongs the course of pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Westerloo, David J.; Schultz, Marcus J.; Bruno, Marco J.; de Vos, Alex F.; Florquin, Sandrine; van der Poll, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Nosocomial pneumonia is a feared complication in the critically ill patient. Serious acute pancreatitis is frequently complicated by infections. The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of acute pancreatitis on host defense against Pseudomonas pneumonia and to

  17. Testicular development in mice lacking receptors for follicle stimulating hormone and androgen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J O'Shaughnessy

    Full Text Available Post-natal testicular development is dependent on gonadotrophin and androgen stimulation. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH acts through receptors (FSHR on the Sertoli cell to stimulate spermatogenesis while androgens promote testis growth through receptors (AR on the Sertoli cells, Leydig cells and peritubular myoid cells. In this study we have examined the effects on testis development of ablating FSHRs (FSHRKO mice and/or ARs ubiquitously (ARKO mice or specifically on the Sertoli cells (SCARKO mice. Cell numbers were measured using stereological methods. In ARKO mice Sertoli cell numbers were reduced at all ages from birth until adulthood. FSHR ablation also caused small reductions in Sertoli cell numbers up to day 20 with more marked effects seen in the adult. Germ cell numbers were unaffected by FSHR and/or AR ablation at birth. By day 20 ubiquitous AR or FSHR ablation caused a marked reduction in germ cell numbers with a synergistic effect of losing both receptors (germ cell numbers in FSHRKO.ARKO mice were 3% of control. Germ cell numbers in SCARKO mice were less affected. By adulthood, in contrast, clear synergistic control of germ cell numbers had become established between the actions of FSH and androgen through the Sertoli cells. Leydig cell numbers were normal on day 1 and day 5 in all groups. By day 20 and in adult animals total AR or FSHR ablation significantly reduced Leydig cell numbers but Sertoli cell specific AR ablation had no effect. Results show that, prior to puberty, development of most testicular parameters is more dependent on FSH action than androgen action mediated through the Sertoli cells although androgen action through other cells types is crucial. Post-pubertally, germ cell numbers and spermatogenesis are dependent on FSH and androgen action through the Sertoli cells.

  18. Sodium meta-arsenite prevents the development of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.S.; Kim, D.; Lee, E.K.; Kim, S.; Choi, C.S.; Jun, H.S.

    2015-01-01

    Sodium meta-arsenite (SA) is an orally available arsenic compound. We investigated the effects of SA on the development of autoimmune type 1 diabetes. Female non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice were orally intubated with SA (5 mg/kg/day) from 8 weeks of age for 8 weeks. The cumulative incidence of diabetes was monitored until 30 weeks of age, islet histology was examined, and lymphocytes including T cells, B cells, CD4+ IFN-γ+ cells, CD8+ IFN-γ+ cells, CD4+ IL-4+ cells, and regulatory T cells were analyzed. We also investigated the diabetogenic ability of splenocytes using an adoptive transfer model and the effect of SA on the proliferation, activation, and expression of glucose transporter 1 (Glut1) in splenocytes treated with SA in vitro and splenocytes isolated from SA-treated mice. SA treatment decreased the incidence of diabetes and delayed disease onset. SA treatment reduced the infiltration of immunocytes in islets, and splenocytes from SA-treated mice showed a reduced ability to transfer diabetes. The number of total splenocytes and T cells and both the number and the proportion of CD4+ IFN-γ+ and CD8+ IFN-γ+ T cells in the spleen were significantly reduced in SA-treated NOD mice compared with controls. The number, but not the proportion, of regulatory T cells was decreased in SA-treated NOD mice. Treatment with SA either in vitro or in vivo inhibited proliferation of splenocytes. In addition, the expression of Glut1 and phosphorylated ERK1/2 was decreased by SA treatment. These results suggest that SA reduces proliferation and activation of T cells, thus preventing autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. - Highlights: • SA prevents the development of diabetes and delays the age of onset in NOD mice. • SA decreases the number but not the proportion of T lymphocytes in NOD mice. • SA reduces IFN-γ-producing T lymphocytes in NOD mice. • SA reduces proliferation and activation of T lymphocytes in vitro and in vivo. • SA reduces the expression of glucose

  19. Sodium meta-arsenite prevents the development of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.S.; Kim, D.; Lee, E.K. [Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University, 7-45 Songdo-dong, Yeonsu-ku, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, S. [Komipharm International Co. Ltd., 3188, Seongnam-dong, Jungwon-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 462-827 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, C.S. [Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University, 7-45 Songdo-dong, Yeonsu-ku, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Endocrinology, Internal Medicine, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, 1198 Guwol-Dong, Namdong-Gu, Incheon 405-760 (Korea, Republic of); Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gil Hospital, 1198 Guwol-Dong, Namdong-Gu, Incheon 405-760 (Korea, Republic of); Jun, H.S., E-mail: hsjun@gachon.ac.kr [Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Gachon University, 7-45 Songdo-dong, Yeonsu-ku, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); College of Pharmacy and Gachon Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Gachon University, 7-45 Songdo-dong, Yeonsu-ku, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gil Hospital, 1198 Guwol-Dong, Namdong-Gu, Incheon 405-760 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Sodium meta-arsenite (SA) is an orally available arsenic compound. We investigated the effects of SA on the development of autoimmune type 1 diabetes. Female non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice were orally intubated with SA (5 mg/kg/day) from 8 weeks of age for 8 weeks. The cumulative incidence of diabetes was monitored until 30 weeks of age, islet histology was examined, and lymphocytes including T cells, B cells, CD4+ IFN-γ+ cells, CD8+ IFN-γ+ cells, CD4+ IL-4+ cells, and regulatory T cells were analyzed. We also investigated the diabetogenic ability of splenocytes using an adoptive transfer model and the effect of SA on the proliferation, activation, and expression of glucose transporter 1 (Glut1) in splenocytes treated with SA in vitro and splenocytes isolated from SA-treated mice. SA treatment decreased the incidence of diabetes and delayed disease onset. SA treatment reduced the infiltration of immunocytes in islets, and splenocytes from SA-treated mice showed a reduced ability to transfer diabetes. The number of total splenocytes and T cells and both the number and the proportion of CD4+ IFN-γ+ and CD8+ IFN-γ+ T cells in the spleen were significantly reduced in SA-treated NOD mice compared with controls. The number, but not the proportion, of regulatory T cells was decreased in SA-treated NOD mice. Treatment with SA either in vitro or in vivo inhibited proliferation of splenocytes. In addition, the expression of Glut1 and phosphorylated ERK1/2 was decreased by SA treatment. These results suggest that SA reduces proliferation and activation of T cells, thus preventing autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. - Highlights: • SA prevents the development of diabetes and delays the age of onset in NOD mice. • SA decreases the number but not the proportion of T lymphocytes in NOD mice. • SA reduces IFN-γ-producing T lymphocytes in NOD mice. •