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Sample records for mice consumed significantly

  1. The Significance of Loyalty on Consumer Credit Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Aditya Galih Prihartono; Ujang Sumarwan; Noer Azam Achsani; Kirbrandoko

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyze and test the effect of customer loyalty on consumer credit profitability. Loyalty Index Score was developed to determine the level of customers’ loyalty level through 4 main variables; Longevity, Depth, Breadth and Referrals. The effect of Loyalty Index Score on profitability was further tested by path analysis to find out the significance direct relationship between loyalty and profitablity and the indirect relationship between the two variable th...

  2. The Significance of Loyalty on Consumer Credit Profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Galih Prihartono

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyze and test the effect of customer loyalty on consumer credit profitability. Loyalty Index Score was developed to determine the level of customers’ loyalty level through 4 main variables; Longevity, Depth, Breadth and Referrals. The effect of Loyalty Index Score on profitability was further tested by path analysis to find out the significance direct relationship between loyalty and profitablity and the indirect relationship between the two variable through bucket. The result showed that loyalty has a significant effect on profitability either directly or indirectly. It was concluded that direct loyalty effect on profitability is lower than that of the indirect effect through bucket. The conclusion could be made by analyzing the available data from personal loan customers in one of the biggest multinational bank in indonesia during October 2010 until March 2011.

  3. Self-concept as a significant determinant of brand choice and consumer buying behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starčević Slađana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to predict consumer behavior outcomes is considered to be a very important issue for marketers. Today, one of the most popular psychological constructs in social sciences and marketing is the self-concept, as the total sum of ideas, thoughts and feelings through which individual can describe themselves in regards to other individuals in socially determined environment. The importance of self-concept in predicting consumer behavior and choice of brands has been recognized by many researchers. People tend to maintain and reinforce their self-concept by consumption of brands that have an image and personality in accordance to their own self-concept. Many studies have confirmed that high level of congruency between brand image/personality and consumer self-concept have positive influence on brand attitudes, preferences, evaluation of brands, buying intentions, satisfaction and brand loyalty. In this study, we have researched how has self-concept, as a psychological construct, gained in importance in the field of marketing research and practice. The concept is analyzed simultaneously as a psychological and marketing construct. By presenting literature review, we have also analysed the consequences of congruence between brand image/brand personality and consumer self-concept on consumer behavior and choice of brands. We have also pointed out the significance and references connected with the use of this concept for practical purposes in the realm of brand management. .

  4. Bone Mass and Strength are Significantly Improved in Mice Overexpressing Human WNT16 in Osteocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Imranul; Reilly, Austin M; Alkhouli, Mohammed; Gerard-O'Riley, Rita L; Kasipathi, Charishma; Oakes, Dana K; Wright, Weston B; Acton, Dena; McQueen, Amie K; Patel, Bhavmik; Lim, Kyung-Eun; Robling, Alexander G; Econs, Michael J

    2017-04-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that osteoblast-specific overexpression of human WNT16 increased both cortical and trabecular bone mass and structure in mice. To further identify the cell-specific role of Wnt16 in bone homeostasis, we created transgenic (TG) mice overexpressing human WNT16 in osteocytes using Dmp1 promoter (Dmp1-hWNT16 TG) on C57BL/6 (B6) background. We analyzed bone phenotypes and serum bone biomarkers, performed gene expression analysis and measured dynamic bone histomorphometry in Dmp1-hWNT16 TG and wild-type (WT) mice. Compared to WT mice, Dmp1-hWNT16 TG mice exhibited significantly higher whole-body, spine and femoral aBMD, BMC and trabecular (BV/TV, Tb.N, and Tb.Th) and cortical (bone area and thickness) parameters in both male and female at 12 weeks of age. Femur stiffness and ultimate force were also significantly improved in the Dmp1-hWNT16 TG female mice, compared to sex-matched WT littermates. In addition, female Dmp1-hWNT16 TG mice displayed significantly higher MS/BS, MAR and BFR/BS compared to the WT mice. Gene expression analysis demonstrated significantly higher mRNA level of Alp in both male and female Dmp1-hWNT16 TG mice and significantly higher levels of Osteocalcin, Opg and Rankl in the male Dmp1-hWNT16 TG mice in bone tissue compared to sex-matched WT mice. These results indicate that WNT16 plays a critical role for acquisition of both cortical and trabecular bone mass and strength. Strategies designed to use WNT16 as a target for therapeutic interventions will be valuable to treat osteoporosis and other low bone mass conditions.

  5. Manipulation of Ovarian Function Significantly Influenced Sarcopenia in Postreproductive-Age Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhett L. Peterson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously, transplantation of ovaries from young cycling mice into old postreproductive-age mice increased life span. We anticipated that the same factors that increased life span could also influence health span. Female CBA/J mice received new (60 d ovaries at 12 and 17 months of age and were evaluated at 16 and 25 months of age, respectively. There were no significant differences in body weight among any age or treatment group. The percentage of fat mass was significantly increased at 13 and 16 months of age but was reduced by ovarian transplantation in 16-month-old mice. The percentages of lean body mass and total body water were significantly reduced in 13-month-old control mice but were restored in 16- and 25-month-old recipient mice by ovarian transplantation to the levels found in six-month-old control mice. In summary, we have shown that skeletal muscle mass, which is negatively influenced by aging, can be positively influenced or restored by reestablishment of active ovarian function in aged female mice. These findings provide strong incentive for further investigation of the positive influence of young ovaries on restoration of health in postreproductive females.

  6. A critical review of the significance of food labelling during consumer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food purchase decisions are generally considered less complex compared to the ... and obstacles they are confronted with in terms of rational decision making. ... The importance of this information throughout the consumer decision-making ...

  7. Self-concept as a significant determinant of brand choice and consumer buying behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Starčević Slađana

    2011-01-01

    The need to predict consumer behavior outcomes is considered to be a very important issue for marketers. Today, one of the most popular psychological constructs in social sciences and marketing is the self-concept, as the total sum of ideas, thoughts and feelings through which individual can describe themselves in regards to other individuals in socially determined environment. The importance of self-concept in predicting consumer behavior and choice of brands has been recognized by many rese...

  8. Significant ELCAP analysis results: Summary report. [End-use Load and Consumer Assessment Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, R.G.; Conner, C.C.; Drost, M.K.; Miller, N.E.; Cooke, B.A.; Halverson, M.A.; Lebaron, B.A.; Lucas, R.G.; Jo, J.; Richman, E.E.; Sandusky, W.F. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Ritland, K.G. (Ritland Associates, Seattle, WA (USA)); Taylor, M.E. (USDOE Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (USA)); Hauser, S.G. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA))

    1991-02-01

    The evolution of the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP) since 1983 at Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has been eventful and somewhat tortuous. The birth pangs of a data set so large and encompassing as this have been overwhelming at times. The early adolescent stage of data set development and use has now been reached and preliminary results of early analyses of the data are becoming well known. However, the full maturity of the data set and the corresponding wealth of analytic insights are not fully realized. This document is in some sense a milestone in the brief history of the program. It is a summary of the results of the first five years of the program, principally containing excerpts from a number of previous reports. It is meant to highlight significant accomplishments and analytical results, with a focus on the principal results. Many of the results have a broad application in the utility load research community in general, although the real breadth of the data set remains largely unexplored. The first section of the document introduces the data set: how the buildings were selected, how the metering equipment was installed, and how the data set has been prepared for analysis. Each of the sections that follow the introduction summarize a particular analytic result. A large majority of the analyses to date involve the residential samples, as these were installed first and had highest priority on the analytic agenda. Two exploratory analyses using commercial data are included as an introduction to the commercial analyses that are currently underway. Most of the sections reference more complete technical reports which the reader should refer to for details of the methodology and for more complete discussion of the results. Sections have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  9. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF UNIQUE SELLING PROPOSITION ON CONSUMER PURCHASING DECISIONS IN HOTELS

    OpenAIRE

    Ng'Ang'A, Diana

    2017-01-01

    The hospitality Industry is comprised of individual hotels in which each one of them differs in the way that they position their products and services with the intention of catering for the advancing present day consumer needs. It is hence important for hospitality businesses to possess a unique selling proposition. The objective of this study is to determine the importance of the 4 P’s of marketing mix in consumer purchasing decision. The 4 P’s concept is a tool used in modern marketing ...

  10. Effects of Consuming Xylitol on Gut Microbiota and Lipid Metabolism in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebanso, Takashi; Kano, Saki; Yoshimoto, Ayumi; Naito, Chisato; Shimohata, Takaaki; Mawatari, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Akira

    2017-07-14

    The sugar alcohol xylitol inhibits the growth of some bacterial species including Streptococcus mutans . It is used as a food additive to prevent caries. We previously showed that 1.5-4.0 g/kg body weight/day xylitol as part of a high-fat diet (HFD) improved lipid metabolism in rats. However, the effects of lower daily doses of dietary xylitol on gut microbiota and lipid metabolism are unclear. We examined the effect of 40 and 200 mg/kg body weight/day xylitol intake on gut microbiota and lipid metabolism in mice. Bacterial compositions were characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and targeted real-time PCR. Luminal metabolites were determined by capillary electrophoresis electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Plasma lipid parameters and glucose tolerance were examined. Dietary supplementation with low- or medium-dose xylitol (40 or 194 mg/kg body weight/day, respectively) significantly altered the fecal microbiota composition in mice. Relative to mice not fed xylitol, the addition of medium-dose xylitol to a regular and HFD in experimental mice reduced the abundance of fecal Bacteroidetes phylum and the genus Barnesiella , whereas the abundance of Firmicutes phylum and the genus Prevotella was increased in mice fed an HFD with medium-dose dietary xylitol. Body composition, hepatic and serum lipid parameters, oral glucose tolerance, and luminal metabolites were unaffected by xylitol consumption. In mice, 40 and 194 mg/kg body weight/day xylitol in the diet induced gradual changes in gut microbiota but not in lipid metabolism.

  11. Unintended allergens in precautionary labelled and unlabelled products pose significant risks to UK allergic consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remington, B.C.; Baumert, J.L.; Blom, W.M.; Houben, G.F.; Taylor, S.L.; Kruizinga, A.G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Allergens in food may pose a risk to allergic consumers. While there is EU regulation for allergens present as an ingredient, this is not the case for unintended allergen presence (UAP). Food companies use precautionary allergen labels to inform allergic individuals of a potential risk

  12. Nicotine Significantly Improves Chronic Stress-Induced Impairments of Cognition and Synaptic Plasticity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xueliang; Shang, Yingchun; Fu, Jingxuan; Zhang, Tao

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine if nicotine was able to improve cognition deficits in a mouse model of chronic mild stress. Twenty-four male C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups: control, stress, and stress with nicotine treatment. The animal model was established by combining chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and isolated feeding. Mice were exposed to CUMS continued for 28 days, while nicotine (0.2 mg/kg) was also administrated for 28 days. Weight and sucrose consumption were measured during model establishing period. The anxiety and behavioral despair were analyzed using the forced swim test (FST) and open-field test (OFT). Spatial cognition was evaluated using Morris water maze (MWM) test. Following behavioral assessment, both long-term potentiation (LTP) and depotentiation (DEP) were recorded in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) region. Both synaptic and Notch1 proteins were measured by Western. Nicotine increased stressed mouse's sucrose consumption. The MWM test showed that spatial learning and reversal learning in stressed animals were remarkably affected relative to controls, whereas nicotine partially rescued cognitive functions. Additionally, nicotine considerably alleviated the level of anxiety and the degree of behavioral despair in stressed mice. It effectively mitigated the depression-induced impairment of hippocampal synaptic plasticity, in which both the LTP and DEP were significantly inhibited in stressed mice. Moreover, nicotine enhanced the expression of synaptic and Notch1 proteins in stressed animals. The results suggest that nicotine ameliorates the depression-like symptoms and improves the hippocampal synaptic plasticity closely associated with activating transmembrane ion channel receptors and Notch signaling components. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  13. Consumer Perspectives on Involving Family and Significant Others in a Healthy Lifestyle Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbrenner, Kelly; Bartels, Stephen; Mueser, Kim; Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth; Kinney, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This focus group study explored the potential benefits and challenges of involving family members and significant others in a healthy lifestyle program for people with serious mental illness (SMI). Six focus group interviews were conducted with a total of 30 people with SMI, who were participants in a healthy lifestyle intervention. Separate focus…

  14. Significance of metabolites in the environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals consumed by human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eun Jeong; Lee, Dong Soo

    2017-08-15

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the significance of metabolites to the ERA of human pharmaceuticals. The predicted exposure concentrations (PECs) in surface water were estimated for a total of 24 selected active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and their metabolites using a life cycle based emission estimation model combined with a multimedia fate model with Monte-Carlo calculations. With the eco-toxicity data, the hazard quotients (HQs) of the metabolites were compared with those of individual parents alone. The results showed that PEC or toxicity or both of the metabolites was predicted to be higher than that of their parent APIs, which resulted in a total of 18 metabolites (from 12 parents) that have greater HQs than their parents. This result clearly demonstrated that some metabolites may potentially pose greater risk than their parent APIs in the water environment. Therefore, significance of metabolites should be carefully evaluated for monitoring strategy, priority setting, and scoping of the environmental risk assessment of APIs. The method used in the present work may serve as a pragmatic approach for the purpose of preliminary screening or priority setting of environmental risk posed by both APIs and their metabolites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. An assessment of the radiological significance of consuming wild foods collected near the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulker, M.J.; McKay, K.; Jackson, D.; Leonard, D.R.P.

    1996-01-01

    Extensive monitoring of conventional agricultural produce in the vicinity of the BNFL Sellafield plant is undertaken, by both the operator and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, to determine levels of radioactivity and douses arising to the consumer Monitoring is also undertaken, albeit less extensively, for market garden and domestic produce. By contrast, few data exist with respect to levels of radioactivity in 'wild foods' (e.g. hedgerow fruits, field mushrooms etc.) or associated consumption habits. It has been postulated that such foodstuffs could contribute an appreciable radiation exposure dose to groups of high level consumers, potentially including members of the existing identified critical group for local agricultural produce. This paper assess the actual radiological significance of wild foods collected near Sellafield. (author)

  16. Middle age has a significant impact on gene expression during skin wound healing in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Hagai; Lumenta, David Benjamin; Vierlinger, Klemens; Hofner, Manuela; Kitzinger, Hugo-Benito; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Nöhammer, Christa; Chilosi, Marco; Fraifeld, Vadim E

    2016-08-01

    The vast majority of research on the impact of age on skin wound healing (WH) compares old animals to young ones. The middle age is often ignored in biogerontological research despite the fact that many functions that decline in an age-dependent manner have starting points in mid-life. With this in mind, we examined gene expression patterns during skin WH in late middle-aged versus young adult male mice, using the head and back punch models. The rationale behind this study was that the impact of age would first be detectable at the transcriptional level. We pinpointed several pathways which were over-activated in the middle-aged mice, both in the intact skin and during WH. Among them were various metabolic, immune-inflammatory and growth-promoting pathways. These transcriptional changes were much more pronounced in the head than in the back. In summary, the middle age has a significant impact on gene expression in intact and healing skin. It seems that the head punch model is more sensitive to the effect of age than the back model, and we suggest that it should be more widely applied in aging research on wound healing.

  17. Protective effect of tea polyphenols against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in mice is significantly correlated with cytochrome P450 suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xia; Sun, Chang-Kai; Han, Guo-Zhu; Peng, Jin-Yong; Li, Ying; Liu, Yan-Xia; Lv, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Ke-Xin; Zhou, Qin; Sun, Hui-Jun

    2009-04-21

    To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of tea polyphenols (TP) and its relation with cytochrome P450 (CYP450) expression in mice. Hepatic CYP450 and CYPb(5) levels were measured by UV-spectrophotometry in mice 2 d after intraperitoneal TP (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg per day). Then the mice were intragastricly pre-treated with TP (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg per day) for six days before paracetamol (1000 mg/kg) was given. Their acute mortality was compared with that of control mice. The mice were pre-treated with TP (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg per day) for five days before paracetamol (500 mg/kg) was given. Hepatic CYP2E1 and CYP1A2 protein and mRNA expression levels were evaluated by Western blotting, immunohistochemical staining and transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The hepatic CYP450 and CYPb(5) levels in mice of TP-treated groups (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg per day) were decreased in a dose-dependent manner compared with those in the negative control mice. TP significantly attenuated the paracetamol-induced hepatic injury and dramatically reduced the mortality of paracetamol-treated mice. Furthermore, TP reduced CYP2E1 and CYP1A2 expression at both protein and mRNA levels in a dose-dependent manner. TP possess potential hepatoprotective properties and can suppress CYP450 expression.

  18. Extensive Degradation and Low Bioavailability of Orally Consumed Corn miRNAs in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiqiu Huang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study seeks to resolve the discrepancy in the literature regarding the cross-kingdom transfer of plant microRNAs (miRNAs into mammals using an improved miRNA processing and detection method. Two studies utilizing C57BL/6 mice were performed. In the first study, mice were fed an AIN-93M diet and gavaged with water, random deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTP or isolated corn miRNAs for two weeks (n = 10 per group. In the second study, mice were fed an AIN-93M diet, or the diet supplemented with 3% fresh or autoclaved corn powder for two weeks (n = 10 per group. Corn miRNA levels were analyzed in blood and tissue samples by real-time PCR (RT-PCR following periodate oxidation and β elimination treatments to eliminate artifacts. After removing false positive detections, there were no differences in corn miRNA levels between control and treated groups in cecal, fecal, liver and blood samples. Using an in vitro digestion system, corn miRNAs in AIN-93M diet or in the extracts were found to be extensively degraded. Less than 1% was recovered in the gastrointestinal tract after oral and gastric phases. In conclusion, no evidence of increased levels of corn miRNAs in whole blood or tissues after supplementation of corn miRNAs in the diet was observed in a mouse model.

  19. Thyroid function appears to be significantly reduced in Space-borne MDS mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saverio Ambesi-Impiombato, Francesco; Curcio, Francesco; Fontanini, Elisabetta; Perrella, Giuseppina; Spelat, Renza; Zambito, Anna Maria; Damaskopoulou, Eleni; Peverini, Manola; Albi, Elisabetta

    It is known that prolonged space flights induced changes in human cardiovascular, muscu-loskeletal and nervous systems whose function is regulated by the thyroid gland but, until now, no data were reported about thyroid damage during space missions. We have demonstrated in vitro that, during space missions (Italian Soyuz Mission "ENEIDE" in 2005, Shuttle STS-120 "ESPERIA" in 2007), thyroid in vitro cultured cells did not respond to thyroid stimulating hor-mone (TSH) treatment; they appeared healthy and alive, despite their being in a pro-apopotic state characterised by a variation of sphingomyelin metabolism and consequent increase in ce-ramide content. The insensitivity to TSH was largely due to a rearrangement of specific cell membrane microdomains, acting as platforms for TSH-receptor (TEXUS-44 mission in 2008). To study if these effects were present also in vivo, as part of the Mouse Drawer System (MDS) Tissue Sharing Program, we performed experiments in mice maintained onboard the Interna-tional Space Station during the long-duration (90 days) exploration mission STS-129. After return to earth, the thyroids isolated from the 3 animals were in part immediately frozen to study the morphological modification in space and in part immediately used to study the effect of TSH treatment. For this purpose small fragments of tissue were treated with 10-7 or 10-8 M TSH for 1 hour by using untreated fragments as controls. Then the fragments were fixed with absolute ethanol for 10 min at room temperature and centrifuged for 20 min. at 3000 x g. The supernatants were used for cAMP analysis whereas the pellet were used for protein amount determination and for immunoblotting analysis of TSH-receptor, sphingomyelinase and sphingomyelin-synthase. The results showed a modification of the thyroid structure and also the values of cAMP production after treatment with 10-7 M TSH for 1 hour were significantly lower than those obtained in Earth's gravity. The treatment with TSH

  20. Continues administration of Nano-PSO significantly increased survival of genetic CJD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binyamin, Orli; Keller, Guy; Frid, Kati; Larush, Liraz; Magdassi, Shlomo; Gabizon, Ruth

    2017-12-01

    We have shown previously that Nano-PSO, a nanodroplet formulation of pomegranate seed oil, delayed progression of neurodegeneration signs when administered for a designated period of time to TgMHu2ME199K mice, modeling for genetic prion disease. In the present work, we treated these mice with a self-emulsion formulation of Nano-PSO or a parallel Soybean oil formulation from their day of birth until a terminal disease stage. We found that long term Nano-PSO administration resulted in increased survival of TgMHu2ME199K lines by several months. Interestingly, initiation of treatment at day 1 had no clinical advantage over initiation at day 70, however cessation of treatment at 9months of age resulted in the rapid loss of the beneficial clinical effect. Pathological studies revealed that treatment with Nano-PSO resulted in the reduction of GAG accumulation and lipid oxidation, indicating a strong neuroprotective effect. Contrarily, the clinical effect of Nano-PSO did not correlate with reduction in the levels of disease related PrP, the main prion marker. We conclude that long term administration of Nano-PSO is safe and may be effective in the prevention/delay of onset of neurodegenerative conditions such as genetic CJD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Polyyne-Enriched Extract from Oplopanax elatus Significantly Ameliorates the Progression of Colon Carcinogenesis in ApcMin/+ Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Qiao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer in the world. Oplopanax elatus is widely used in traditional medicine. However, little is known about its pharmacological effects and bioactive compounds. We evaluated the effects of the polyyne-enriched extract from O. elatus (PEO on the progression of colon carcinogenesis in ApcMin/+ mice. In addition, these effects were also investigated in HCT116 and SW480 cells. After PEO oral administration (0.2% diet for 12 weeks, PEO significantly improved body weight changes and reduced the tumor burden and tumor multiplicity compared with the untreated mice. Meanwhile, western blot and immunohistochemistry results showed PEO significantly reduced the expression of β-catenin and cyclinD1 in both small intestine and the colon tissues compared with the untreated mice. In addition, PEO treatment significant decreased the cell viability in both HCT116 and SW480 cell lines. It also decreased the levels of β-catenin, cyclinD1, c-myc and p-GSK-3β in HCT116 and SW480 cells at 25 μM. These results indicate that PEO may have potential value in prevention of colon cancer by down-regulating Wnt-related protein.

  2. The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrick, Mark W.; Herberg, Samuel; Arounleut, Phonepasong; He, Hong-Zhi; Shiver, Austin; Qi, Rui-Qun; Zhou, Li; Isales, Carlos M.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, known as the sarcopenia of aging. → We demonstrate that age-related muscle atrophy is associated with marked changes in miRNA expression in muscle. → Treating aged mice with the adipokine leptin significantly increased muscle mass and the expression of miRNAs involved in muscle repair. → Recombinant leptin therapy may therefore be a novel approach for treating age-related muscle atrophy. -- Abstract: Age-associated loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, contributes directly to frailty and an increased risk of falls and fractures among the elderly. Aged mice and elderly adults both show decreased muscle mass as well as relatively low levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin. Here we demonstrate that loss of muscle mass and myofiber size with aging in mice is associated with significant changes in the expression of specific miRNAs. Aging altered the expression of 57 miRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle, and many of these miRNAs are now reported to be associated specifically with age-related muscle atrophy. These include miR-221, previously identified in studies of myogenesis and muscle development as playing a role in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of myogenic precursors. We also treated aged mice with recombinant leptin, to determine whether leptin therapy could improve muscle mass and alter the miRNA expression profile of aging skeletal muscle. Leptin treatment significantly increased hindlimb muscle mass and extensor digitorum longus fiber size in aged mice. Furthermore, the expression of 37 miRNAs was altered in muscles of leptin-treated mice. In particular, leptin treatment increased the expression of miR-31 and miR-223, miRNAs known to be elevated during muscle regeneration and repair. These findings suggest that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with marked changes in the expression of specific miRNAs, and that nutrient-related hormones such as leptin

  3. The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrick, Mark W., E-mail: mhamrick@mail.mcg.edu [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Herberg, Samuel; Arounleut, Phonepasong [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); He, Hong-Zhi [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Shiver, Austin [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Qi, Rui-Qun [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Zhou, Li [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Isales, Carlos M. [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); others, and

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, known as the sarcopenia of aging. {yields} We demonstrate that age-related muscle atrophy is associated with marked changes in miRNA expression in muscle. {yields} Treating aged mice with the adipokine leptin significantly increased muscle mass and the expression of miRNAs involved in muscle repair. {yields} Recombinant leptin therapy may therefore be a novel approach for treating age-related muscle atrophy. -- Abstract: Age-associated loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, contributes directly to frailty and an increased risk of falls and fractures among the elderly. Aged mice and elderly adults both show decreased muscle mass as well as relatively low levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin. Here we demonstrate that loss of muscle mass and myofiber size with aging in mice is associated with significant changes in the expression of specific miRNAs. Aging altered the expression of 57 miRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle, and many of these miRNAs are now reported to be associated specifically with age-related muscle atrophy. These include miR-221, previously identified in studies of myogenesis and muscle development as playing a role in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of myogenic precursors. We also treated aged mice with recombinant leptin, to determine whether leptin therapy could improve muscle mass and alter the miRNA expression profile of aging skeletal muscle. Leptin treatment significantly increased hindlimb muscle mass and extensor digitorum longus fiber size in aged mice. Furthermore, the expression of 37 miRNAs was altered in muscles of leptin-treated mice. In particular, leptin treatment increased the expression of miR-31 and miR-223, miRNAs known to be elevated during muscle regeneration and repair. These findings suggest that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with marked changes in the expression of specific miRNAs, and that nutrient

  4. Post-exposure Treatment with Anti-rabies VHH and Vaccine Significantly Improves Protection of Mice from Lethal Rabies Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terryn, Sanne; Francart, Aurélie; Rommelaere, Heidi; Stortelers, Catelijne; Van Gucht, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) against rabies infection consists of a combination of passive immunisation with plasma-derived human or equine immune globulins and active immunisation with vaccine delivered shortly after exposure. Since anti-rabies immune globulins are expensive and scarce, there is a need for cheaper alternatives that can be produced more consistently. Previously, we generated potent virus-neutralising VHH, also called Nanobodies, against the rabies glycoprotein that are effectively preventing lethal disease in an in vivo mouse model. The VHH domain is the smallest antigen-binding functional fragment of camelid heavy chain-only antibodies that can be manufactured in microbial expression systems. In the current study we evaluated the efficacy of half-life extended anti-rabies VHH in combination with vaccine for PEP in an intranasal rabies infection model in mice. The PEP combination therapy of systemic anti-rabies VHH and intramuscular vaccine significantly delayed the onset of disease compared to treatment with anti-rabies VHH alone, prolonged median survival time (35 versus 14 days) and decreased mortality (60% versus 19% survival rate), when treated 24 hours after rabies virus challenge. Vaccine alone was unable to rescue mice from lethal disease. As reported also for immune globulins, some interference of anti-rabies VHH with the antigenicity of the vaccine was observed, but this did not impede the synergistic effect. Post exposure treatment with vaccine and human anti-rabies immune globulins was unable to protect mice from lethal challenge. Anti-rabies VHH and vaccine act synergistically to protect mice after rabies virus exposure, which further validates the possible use of anti-rabies VHH for rabies PEP. PMID:27483431

  5. Post-exposure Treatment with Anti-rabies VHH and Vaccine Significantly Improves Protection of Mice from Lethal Rabies Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Terryn

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP against rabies infection consists of a combination of passive immunisation with plasma-derived human or equine immune globulins and active immunisation with vaccine delivered shortly after exposure. Since anti-rabies immune globulins are expensive and scarce, there is a need for cheaper alternatives that can be produced more consistently. Previously, we generated potent virus-neutralising VHH, also called Nanobodies, against the rabies glycoprotein that are effectively preventing lethal disease in an in vivo mouse model. The VHH domain is the smallest antigen-binding functional fragment of camelid heavy chain-only antibodies that can be manufactured in microbial expression systems. In the current study we evaluated the efficacy of half-life extended anti-rabies VHH in combination with vaccine for PEP in an intranasal rabies infection model in mice. The PEP combination therapy of systemic anti-rabies VHH and intramuscular vaccine significantly delayed the onset of disease compared to treatment with anti-rabies VHH alone, prolonged median survival time (35 versus 14 days and decreased mortality (60% versus 19% survival rate, when treated 24 hours after rabies virus challenge. Vaccine alone was unable to rescue mice from lethal disease. As reported also for immune globulins, some interference of anti-rabies VHH with the antigenicity of the vaccine was observed, but this did not impede the synergistic effect. Post exposure treatment with vaccine and human anti-rabies immune globulins was unable to protect mice from lethal challenge. Anti-rabies VHH and vaccine act synergistically to protect mice after rabies virus exposure, which further validates the possible use of anti-rabies VHH for rabies PEP.

  6. A novel multi-drug metronomic chemotherapy significantly delays tumor growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliamonte, Maria; Petrizzo, Annacarmen; Napolitano, Maria; Luciano, Antonio; Rea, Domenica; Barbieri, Antonio; Arra, Claudio; Maiolino, Piera; Tornesello, Marialina; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Buonaguro, Franco M; Buonaguro, Luigi

    2016-02-24

    The tumor immunosuppressive microenvironment represents a major obstacle to an effective tumor-specific cellular immune response. In the present study, the counterbalance effect of a novel metronomic chemotherapy protocol on such an immunosuppressive microenvironment was evaluated in a mouse model upon sub-cutaneous ectopic implantation of B16 melanoma cells. The chemotherapy consisted of a novel multi-drug cocktail including taxanes and alkylating agents, administered in a daily metronomic fashion. The newly designed strategy was shown to be safe, well tolerated and significantly efficacious. Treated animals showed a remarkable delay in tumor growth and prolonged survival as compared to control group. Such an effect was directly correlated with CD4(+) T cell reduction and CD8(+) T cell increase. Furthermore, a significant reduction in the percentage of both CD25(+)FoxP3(+) and CD25(+)CD127(low) regulatory T cell population was found both in the spleens and in the tumor lesions. Finally, the metronomic chemotherapy induced an intrinsic CD8(+) T cell response specific to B16 naturally expressed Trp2 TAA. The novel multi-drug daily metronomic chemotherapy evaluated in the present study was very effective in counterbalancing the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Consequently, the intrinsic anti-tumor T cell immunity could exert its function, targeting specific TAA and significantly containing tumor growth. Overall, the results show that this represents a promising adjuvant approach to significantly enhance efficacy of intrinsic or vaccine-elicited tumor-specific cellular immunity.

  7. Lack of significant metabolic abnormalities in mice with liver-specific disruption of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lavery, Gareth G

    2012-07-01

    Glucocorticoids (GC) are implicated in the development of metabolic syndrome, and patients with GC excess share many clinical features, such as central obesity and glucose intolerance. In patients with obesity or type 2 diabetes, systemic GC concentrations seem to be invariably normal. Tissue GC concentrations determined by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and local cortisol (corticosterone in mice) regeneration from cortisone (11-dehydrocorticosterone in mice) by the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) enzyme, principally expressed in the liver. Transgenic mice have demonstrated the importance of 11β-HSD1 in mediating aspects of the metabolic syndrome, as well as HPA axis control. In order to address the primacy of hepatic 11β-HSD1 in regulating metabolism and the HPA axis, we have generated liver-specific 11β-HSD1 knockout (LKO) mice, assessed biomarkers of GC metabolism, and examined responses to high-fat feeding. LKO mice were able to regenerate cortisol from cortisone to 40% of control and had no discernible difference in a urinary metabolite marker of 11β-HSD1 activity. Although circulating corticosterone was unaltered, adrenal size was increased, indicative of chronic HPA stimulation. There was a mild improvement in glucose tolerance but with insulin sensitivity largely unaffected. Adiposity and body weight were unaffected as were aspects of hepatic lipid homeostasis, triglyceride accumulation, and serum lipids. Additionally, no changes in the expression of genes involved in glucose or lipid homeostasis were observed. Liver-specific deletion of 11β-HSD1 reduces corticosterone regeneration and may be important for setting aspects of HPA axis tone, without impacting upon urinary steroid metabolite profile. These discordant data have significant implications for the use of these biomarkers of 11β-HSD1 activity in clinical studies. The paucity of metabolic abnormalities in LKO points to important compensatory effects by HPA

  8. [Changes and significance of peripheral blood platelet count in tumor shrinkage induced by a low dose of CTX in T739 mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo-lin; Jia, Yu-jie; Jiang, Miao-na; Shu, Xiao-hong; Li, Chuan-gang

    2008-06-01

    To establish a mouse model for BTT739 tumor-bearing mice cured by a low dose of cyclophosphamide (CTX). And then to observe the dynamic changes and significance of peripheral blood counts especially blood platelet count during tumor shrinkage induced by a low dose of CTX in T739 mice. Mouse bladder carcinoma tissues were inoculated subcutaneously into T739 mice. Seven days later, different doses of CTX or the same volume of NS were administered intraperitoneally to treat these tumor-bearing T739 mice. Tumor sizes were observed and recorded subsequently to find out the minimal dose of CTX that could cure most of these tumor-bearing mice. Then another 12 tumor-bearing mice were randomly divided into 15 mg/kg CTX treatment group and control group. Blood samples were obtained from orbital venous sinus on different times after CTX treatment. Complete blood counts were performed and the relationship between peripheral blood platelet counts and tumor shrinkage was analyzed. Within 2 weeks after CTX treatment, the speed of tumor shrinkage had a positive relationship with the dose of CTX used; but the survival rate of the tumor-bearing mice had a negative relationship with the dose of CTX used in 2 months after CTX treatment. 15 mg/kg CTX could cure most of the tumor bearing mice, while it had no remarkably inhibitive effects on peripheral blood cells. The perpherial platelet count increased to (1483.4+/-184.4)x10(9)/L in mice 6 h after CTX treatment. There was significant difference compared with that in mice of control group (1086.6+/-81.0)x10(9)/L (P0.05). CTX 15 mg/kg could cure most of bladder tumor-bearing T739 mice. The transient increase of the peripheral platelet count in 6 h after CTX treatment may relate to the antitumor effects of CTX.

  9. Multivariate Analysis of Variance: Finding significant growth in mice with craniofacial dysmorphology caused by the Crouzon mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Signe Strann; Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Darvann, Tron Andre

    2010-01-01

    Crouzon syndrome is characterized by growth disturbances caused by premature fusion of the cranial growth zones. A mouse model with mutation Fgfr2C342Y, equivalent to the most common Crouzon syndrome mutation (henceforth called the Crouzon mouse model), has a phenotype showing many parallels to t...... used micro-CT scans of 4-week-old mice (N=5) and 6-week-old mice (N=10) with Crouzon syndrome (Fgfr2 C342Y/+) were compared to control groups of 4-week-old wild-type mice (N=5) and 6-week-old wild-type mice (N=10), respectively....

  10. Climate-based models for pulsed resources improve predictability of consumer population dynamics: outbreaks of house mice in forest ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Penelope Holland

    Full Text Available Accurate predictions of the timing and magnitude of consumer responses to episodic seeding events (masts are important for understanding ecosystem dynamics and for managing outbreaks of invasive species generated by masts. While models relating consumer populations to resource fluctuations have been developed successfully for a range of natural and modified ecosystems, a critical gap that needs addressing is better prediction of resource pulses. A recent model used change in summer temperature from one year to the next (ΔT for predicting masts for forest and grassland plants in New Zealand. We extend this climate-based method in the framework of a model for consumer-resource dynamics to predict invasive house mouse (Mus musculus outbreaks in forest ecosystems. Compared with previous mast models based on absolute temperature, the ΔT method for predicting masts resulted in an improved model for mouse population dynamics. There was also a threshold effect of ΔT on the likelihood of an outbreak occurring. The improved climate-based method for predicting resource pulses and consumer responses provides a straightforward rule of thumb for determining, with one year's advance warning, whether management intervention might be required in invaded ecosystems. The approach could be applied to consumer-resource systems worldwide where climatic variables are used to model the size and duration of resource pulses, and may have particular relevance for ecosystems where global change scenarios predict increased variability in climatic events.

  11. High-intensity interval training (swimming) significantly improves the adverse metabolism and comorbidities in diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Victor F; Aguila, Marcia B; Mandarim-DE-Lacerda, Carlos A

    2016-05-01

    Controlling obesity and other comorbidities in the population is a challenge in modern society. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) combines short periods of high-intensity exercise with long recovery periods or a low-intensity exercise. The aim was to assess the impact of HIIT in the context of diet-induced obesity in the animal model. C57BL/6 mice were fed one of the two diets: standard chow (lean group [LE]) or a high-fat diet (obese group [OB]). After twelve weeks, the animals were divided into non-trained groups (LE-NT and OB-NT) and trained groups (LE-T and OB-T), and began an exercise protocol. For biochemical analysis of inflammatory and lipid profile, we used a colorimetric enzymatic method and an automatic spectrophotometer. One-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis of the experimental groups with Holm-Sidak post-hoc Test. Two-way ANOVA analyzed the interactions between diet and HIIT protocol. HIIT leads to significant reductions in body mass, blood glucose, glucose tolerance and hepatic lipid profile in T-groups compared to NT-groups. HIIT was able to reduce plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, HIIT improves the insulin immunodensity in the islets, reduces the adiposity and the hepatic steatosis in the T-groups. HIIT improves beta-oxidation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha and reduces lipogenesis and PPAR-gamma levels in the liver. In skeletal muscle, HIIT improves PPAR-alpha and glucose transporter-4 and reduces PPAR-gamma levels. HIIT leads to attenuate the adverse effects caused by a chronic ingestion of a high-fat diet.

  12. Heart tissue of harlequin (hq)/Big Blue mice has elevated reactive oxygen species without significant impact on the frequency and nature of point mutations in nuclear DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crabbe, Rory A. [Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 5B7 (Canada); Hill, Kathleen A., E-mail: khill22@uwo.ca [Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 5B7 (Canada)

    2010-09-10

    Age is a major risk factor for heart disease, and cardiac aging is characterized by elevated mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) with compromised mitochondrial and nuclear DNA integrity. To assess links between increased ROS levels and mutations, we examined in situ levels of ROS and cII mutation frequency, pattern and spectrum in the heart of harlequin (hq)/Big Blue mice. The hq mouse is a model of premature aging with mitochondrial dysfunction and increased risk of oxidative stress-induced heart disease with the means for in vivo mutation detection. The hq mutation produces a significant downregulation in the X-linked apoptosis-inducing factor gene (Aif) impairing both the antioxidant and oxidative phosphorylation functions of AIF. Brain and skin of hq disease mice have elevated frequencies of point mutations in nuclear DNA and histopathology characterized by cell loss. Reports of associated elevations in ROS in brain and skin have mixed results. Herein, heart in situ ROS levels were elevated in hq disease compared to AIF-proficient mice (p < 0.0001) yet, mutation frequency and pattern were similar in hq disease, hq carrier and AIF-proficient mice. Heart cII mutations were also assessed 15 days following an acute exposure to an exogenous ROS inducer (10 mg paraquat/kg). Acute paraquat exposure with a short mutant manifestation period was insufficient to elevate mutation frequency or alter mutation pattern in the post-mitotic heart tissue of AIF-proficient mice. Paraquat induction of ROS requires mitochondrial complex I and thus is likely compromised in hq mice. Results of this preliminary survey and the context of recent literature suggest that determining causal links between AIF deficiency and the premature aging phenotypes of specific tissues is better addressed with assay of mitochondrial ROS and large-scale changes in mitochondrial DNA in specific cell types.

  13. Heart tissue of harlequin (hq)/Big Blue mice has elevated reactive oxygen species without significant impact on the frequency and nature of point mutations in nuclear DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabbe, Rory A.; Hill, Kathleen A.

    2010-01-01

    Age is a major risk factor for heart disease, and cardiac aging is characterized by elevated mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) with compromised mitochondrial and nuclear DNA integrity. To assess links between increased ROS levels and mutations, we examined in situ levels of ROS and cII mutation frequency, pattern and spectrum in the heart of harlequin (hq)/Big Blue mice. The hq mouse is a model of premature aging with mitochondrial dysfunction and increased risk of oxidative stress-induced heart disease with the means for in vivo mutation detection. The hq mutation produces a significant downregulation in the X-linked apoptosis-inducing factor gene (Aif) impairing both the antioxidant and oxidative phosphorylation functions of AIF. Brain and skin of hq disease mice have elevated frequencies of point mutations in nuclear DNA and histopathology characterized by cell loss. Reports of associated elevations in ROS in brain and skin have mixed results. Herein, heart in situ ROS levels were elevated in hq disease compared to AIF-proficient mice (p < 0.0001) yet, mutation frequency and pattern were similar in hq disease, hq carrier and AIF-proficient mice. Heart cII mutations were also assessed 15 days following an acute exposure to an exogenous ROS inducer (10 mg paraquat/kg). Acute paraquat exposure with a short mutant manifestation period was insufficient to elevate mutation frequency or alter mutation pattern in the post-mitotic heart tissue of AIF-proficient mice. Paraquat induction of ROS requires mitochondrial complex I and thus is likely compromised in hq mice. Results of this preliminary survey and the context of recent literature suggest that determining causal links between AIF deficiency and the premature aging phenotypes of specific tissues is better addressed with assay of mitochondrial ROS and large-scale changes in mitochondrial DNA in specific cell types.

  14. Defibrotide in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor significantly enhances the mobilization of primitive and committed peripheral blood progenitor cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo-Stella, Carmelo; Di Nicola, Massimo; Magni, Michele; Longoni, Paolo; Milanesi, Marco; Stucchi, Claudio; Cleris, Loredana; Formelli, Franca; Gianni, Massimo A

    2002-11-01

    Defibrotide is a polydeoxyribonucleotide, which significantly reduces the expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells. We investigated the activity of Defibrotide alone or in combination with recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) to mobilize peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs) in BALB/c mice. A 5-day treatment with Defibrotide alone (1-15 mg/mouse/day) had no effect on WBC counts, frequencies and absolute numbers of total circulating colony-forming cells (CFCs), i.e., granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units, erythroid burst-forming units, and multilineage colony-forming units. As compared with mock-injected mice, administration of rhG-CSF alone (5 micro g/mouse/day) for 5 days significantly (P Defibrotide (15 mg/mouse/day) and rhG-CSF significantly (P Defibrotide plus rhG-CSF resulted in a significant increase (P Defibrotide/rhG-CSF-mobilized mononuclear cells rescued 43% and 71% of recipient mice, respectively. Experiments of CFC homing performed in lethally irradiated or nonirradiated recipients showed that marrow homing of transplanted PBPCs was reduced by 3-fold in Defibrotide-treated animals as compared with mock-injected mice (P Defibrotide might be because of an effect on PBPC trafficking. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that Defibrotide synergizes with rhG-CSF and significantly increases the mobilization of a broad spectrum of PBPCs, including primitive and committed progenitor cells. These data might have relevant implications for autologous and allogeneic anticancer therapy in humans.

  15. Combination of Albendazole and 2-Methoxyestradiol significantly improves the survival of HCT-116 tumor-bearing nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehteda, Anahid; Galettis, Peter; Pillai, Krishna; Morris, David L

    2013-01-01

    Albendazole (ABZ) is a microtubule-targeting anthelmintic with a remarkable activity against a variety of human cancer cells. In this study, we examined if the antitumor activity of ABZ could be enhanced by its combination with other microtubule-binding agents. The interactions between ABZ and microtubule-binding agents, paclitaxel, vinblastine, colchicine, and 2-methoxyestradiol were characterized using median effect analysis method in HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells and DU145 prostate cancer cell line. The mechanism underlying the synergistic interaction related to tubulin polymerization and apoptosis was then investigated. Finally, the effect of the combination therapy on the survival of HCT-116 tumor-bearing nude mice was evaluated. Among the tested drugs, a synergistic anti-proliferative effect was observed with the combination of low concentrations of ABZ plus colchicine and ABZ plus 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME). Exploring the mechanism of the interaction between ABZ and 2ME revealed that the combination therapy synergistically activated the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Consistent with in vitro results, the combination of low concentration of ABZ with 2ME prolonged the survival of mice-bearing HCT-116 tumors. High concentration of ABZ in combination with 2ME, however, proved to be less effective than ABZ alone. The combination of low doses of ABZ and 2ME has shown promising results in our pre-clinical model. Additionally, the finding that the combination of two microtubule-binding agents that share the same binding site can act synergistically may lead to the development of new therapeutic strategies in cancer treatment

  16. Nestin-Cre Mice Are Affected by Hypopituitarism, Which Is Not Due to Significant Activity of the Transgene in the Pituitary Gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galichet, Christophe; Lovell-Badge, Robin; Rizzoti, Karine

    2010-01-01

    Nestin-Cre mice express Cre recombinase under control of the rat nestin promoter and central nervous system (CNS) enhancer. While endogenous Nestin is expressed in some other tissues including the pituitary gland, Nestin-Cre mice induce recombination predominantly in the CNS. For this reason, they have been widely used to explore gene function or cell fate in the latter. Pituitary hormonal deficiencies, or hypopituitarism, are associated with a wide range of symptoms and with a significant morbidity. These can have a neural and/or a pituitary origin as the gland's secretions are controlled by the hypothalamus. We report here that Nestin-Cre mice themselves are affected by mild hypopituitarism. Hence, physiological consequences are expected, especially in combination with defects resulting from Cre mediated deletion of any gene under investigation. To further investigate the origin of this phenotype, we re-examined the activity of the transgene. We compared it with expression of Nestin itself in the context of the hypothalamo-pituitary axis, especially in the light of a recent report showing pituitary Nestin-Cre activity, which contrasts with previous data. Our results disagree with those of this recent study and do not support the claim that Nestin positive cells are present in the pituitary anlagen, the Rathke's pouch (RP). Moreover we did not observe any significant activity in the post-natal pituitary, in agreement with the initial report. PMID:20625432

  17. Deletion of hepatic FoxO1/3/4 genes in mice significantly impacts on glucose metabolism through downregulation of gluconeogenesis and upregulation of glycolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwen Xiong

    Full Text Available Forkhead transcription factors FoxO1/3/4 have pleiotrophic functions including anti-oxidative stress and metabolism. With regard to glucose metabolism, most studies have been focused on FoxO1. To further investigate their hepatic functions, we generated liver-specific FoxO1/3/4 knockout mice (LTKO and examined their collective impacts on glucose homeostasis under physiological and pathological conditions. As compared to wild-type mice, LTKO mice had lower blood glucose levels under both fasting and non-fasting conditions and they manifested better glucose and pyruvate tolerance on regular chow diet. After challenged by a high-fat diet, wild-type mice developed type 2 diabetes, but LTKO mice remained euglycemic and insulin-sensitive. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we examined the roles of SIRT6 (Sirtuin 6 and Gck (glucokinase in the FoxO-mediated glucose metabolism. Interestingly, ectopic expression of SIRT6 in the liver only reduced gluconeogenesis in wild-type but not LTKO mice whereas knockdown of Gck caused glucose intolerance in both wild-type and LTKO mice. The data suggest that both decreased gluconeogenesis and increased glycolysis may contribute to the overall glucose phenotype in the LTKO mice. Collectively, FoxO1/3/4 transcription factors play important roles in hepatic glucose homeostasis.

  18. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie BUDICA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marketing outcome; how consumer motivation and decision strategies differ between products that differ in their level of importance or interest that they entail for the consumer; and how marketers can adapt and improve their marketing campaigns and marketing strategies to more effectively reach the consumer.

  19. Silibinin and Paclitaxel Cotreatment Significantly Suppress the Activity and Lung Metastasis of Triple Negative 4T1 Mammary Tumor Cell in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Ying Ho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro and in vivo bioactivities of silibinin (SB, paclitaxel (PTX and SB and PTX in combination (SB+PTX against murine metastatic mammary 4T1 cancer cell line were investigated. Isobologram and combination index (CI analyses showed that SB and PTX can function synergistically in the inhibition of 4T1 cell proliferation with a CI value<1. Both SB and PTX alone or SB+PTX treatment inhibited 4T1 cell migration and motility possibly through downregulation of the serpin protease nexin-1 (PN-1 and N-cadherin expression, inhibition of matrix metalloprotease (MMP-9 activity, and upregulation of E-cadherin. Flow cytometry and Western blot analyses demonstrated that both drugs deregulated cell-cycle mediators and induced apoptosis in 4T1 cells. A real-time in vivo bioluminescence imaging system to monitor the breast cancer cell metastasis in syngeneic BALB/c mice was established using a stable 4T1pGL−COX−2/Luc cell clone carrying a COX-2 promoter driven-luciferase reporter gene. In vivo study using the allograft 4T1pGL−COX−2/Luc metastatic mouse model indicated that SB co-treated with PTX can significantly suppress lung metastasis of 4T1 cells likely through inhibiting cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Together, this study demonstrates that SB could act synergistically with PTX in 4T1 cells, providing a therapeutic option for highly metastatic triple negative breast cancer.

  20. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Ilie BUDICA; Silvia PUIU; Bogdan Andrei BUDICA

    2010-01-01

    The study of consumers helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding issues such as: the psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives; the psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment; the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions and marke...

  1. Polyomic profiling reveals significant hepatic metabolic alterations in glucagon-receptor (GCGR knockout mice: implications on anti-glucagon therapies for diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molloy Mark P

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucagon is an important hormone in the regulation of glucose homeostasis, particularly in the maintenance of euglycemia and prevention of hypoglycemia. In type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM, glucagon levels are elevated in both the fasted and postprandial states, which contributes to inappropriate hyperglycemia through excessive hepatic glucose production. Efforts to discover and evaluate glucagon receptor antagonists for the treatment of T2DM have been ongoing for approximately two decades, with the challenge being to identify an agent with appropriate pharmaceutical properties and efficacy relative to potential side effects. We sought to determine the hepatic & systemic consequence of full glucagon receptor antagonism through the study of the glucagon receptor knock-out mouse (Gcgr-/- compared to wild-type littermates. Results Liver transcriptomics was performed using Affymetric expression array profiling, and liver proteomics was performed by iTRAQ global protein analysis. To complement the transcriptomic and proteomic analyses, we also conducted metabolite profiling (~200 analytes using mass spectrometry in plasma. Overall, there was excellent concordance (R = 0.88 for changes associated with receptor knock-out between the transcript and protein analysis. Pathway analysis tools were used to map the metabolic processes in liver altered by glucagon receptor ablation, the most notable being significant down-regulation of gluconeogenesis, amino acid catabolism, and fatty acid oxidation processes, with significant up-regulation of glycolysis, fatty acid synthesis, and cholesterol biosynthetic processes. These changes at the level of the liver were manifested through an altered plasma metabolite profile in the receptor knock-out mice, e.g. decreased glucose and glucose-derived metabolites, and increased amino acids, cholesterol, and bile acid levels. Conclusions In sum, the results of this study suggest that the complete ablation

  2. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of the Cdkl5 knockout mice revealed significant enhancement in anxiety- and fear-related behaviors and impairment in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Kosuke; Takao, Keizo; Watanabe, Aya; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Tanaka, Teruyuki

    2018-01-01

    Mutations in the Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene cause severe neurodevelopmental disorders. Recently we have generated Cdkl5 KO mice by targeting exon 2 on the C57BL/6N background, and demonstrated postsynaptic overaccumulation of GluN2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the hippocampus. In the current study, we subjected the Cdkl5 KO mice to a battery of comprehensive behavioral tests, aiming to reveal the effects of loss of CDKL5 in a whole perspective of motor, emotional, social, and cognition/memory functions, and to identify its undetermined roles. The neurological screen, rotarod, hot plate, prepulse inhibition, light/dark transition, open field, elevated plus maze, Porsolt forced swim, tail suspension, one-chamber and three-chamber social interaction, 24-h home cage monitoring, contextual and cued fear conditioning, Barnes maze, and T-maze tests were applied on adult Cdkl5 -/Y and +/Y mice. Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a mild alteration in the gait. Analyses of emotional behaviors revealed significantly enhanced anxiety-like behaviors of Cdkl5 -/Y mice. Depressive-like behaviors and social interaction of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were uniquely altered. The contextual and cued fear conditioning of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were comparable to control mice; however, Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a significantly increased freezing time and a significantly decreased distance traveled during the pretone period in the altered context. Both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory were significantly impaired. The morphometric analysis of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons revealed impaired dendritic arborization and immature spine development in Cdkl5 -/Y mice. These results indicate that CDKL5 plays significant roles in regulating emotional behaviors especially on anxiety- and fear-related responses, and in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory, which suggests that focus and special attention should be paid to the

  3. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of the Cdkl5 knockout mice revealed significant enhancement in anxiety- and fear-related behaviors and impairment in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Okuda

    Full Text Available Mutations in the Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5 gene cause severe neurodevelopmental disorders. Recently we have generated Cdkl5 KO mice by targeting exon 2 on the C57BL/6N background, and demonstrated postsynaptic overaccumulation of GluN2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors in the hippocampus. In the current study, we subjected the Cdkl5 KO mice to a battery of comprehensive behavioral tests, aiming to reveal the effects of loss of CDKL5 in a whole perspective of motor, emotional, social, and cognition/memory functions, and to identify its undetermined roles. The neurological screen, rotarod, hot plate, prepulse inhibition, light/dark transition, open field, elevated plus maze, Porsolt forced swim, tail suspension, one-chamber and three-chamber social interaction, 24-h home cage monitoring, contextual and cued fear conditioning, Barnes maze, and T-maze tests were applied on adult Cdkl5 -/Y and +/Y mice. Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a mild alteration in the gait. Analyses of emotional behaviors revealed significantly enhanced anxiety-like behaviors of Cdkl5 -/Y mice. Depressive-like behaviors and social interaction of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were uniquely altered. The contextual and cued fear conditioning of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were comparable to control mice; however, Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a significantly increased freezing time and a significantly decreased distance traveled during the pretone period in the altered context. Both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory were significantly impaired. The morphometric analysis of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons revealed impaired dendritic arborization and immature spine development in Cdkl5 -/Y mice. These results indicate that CDKL5 plays significant roles in regulating emotional behaviors especially on anxiety- and fear-related responses, and in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory, which suggests that focus and special attention should be

  4. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of the Cdkl5 knockout mice revealed significant enhancement in anxiety- and fear-related behaviors and impairment in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Kosuke; Takao, Keizo; Watanabe, Aya; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Mizuguchi, Masashi

    2018-01-01

    Mutations in the Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene cause severe neurodevelopmental disorders. Recently we have generated Cdkl5 KO mice by targeting exon 2 on the C57BL/6N background, and demonstrated postsynaptic overaccumulation of GluN2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the hippocampus. In the current study, we subjected the Cdkl5 KO mice to a battery of comprehensive behavioral tests, aiming to reveal the effects of loss of CDKL5 in a whole perspective of motor, emotional, social, and cognition/memory functions, and to identify its undetermined roles. The neurological screen, rotarod, hot plate, prepulse inhibition, light/dark transition, open field, elevated plus maze, Porsolt forced swim, tail suspension, one-chamber and three-chamber social interaction, 24-h home cage monitoring, contextual and cued fear conditioning, Barnes maze, and T-maze tests were applied on adult Cdkl5 -/Y and +/Y mice. Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a mild alteration in the gait. Analyses of emotional behaviors revealed significantly enhanced anxiety-like behaviors of Cdkl5 -/Y mice. Depressive-like behaviors and social interaction of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were uniquely altered. The contextual and cued fear conditioning of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were comparable to control mice; however, Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a significantly increased freezing time and a significantly decreased distance traveled during the pretone period in the altered context. Both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory were significantly impaired. The morphometric analysis of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons revealed impaired dendritic arborization and immature spine development in Cdkl5 -/Y mice. These results indicate that CDKL5 plays significant roles in regulating emotional behaviors especially on anxiety- and fear-related responses, and in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory, which suggests that focus and special attention should be paid to the

  5. Consumer Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Tufano

    2009-01-01

    Although consumer finance is a substantial element of the economy, it has had a smaller footprint within financial economics. In this review, I suggest a functional definition of the subfield of consumer finance, focusing on four key functions: payments, risk management, moving funds from today to tomorrow (saving/investing), and from tomorrow to today (borrowing). I provide data showing the economic importance of consumer finance in the American economy. I propose a historical explanation fo...

  6. Consumer Fetish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnould, Eric; Cayla, Julien

    2015-01-01

    in the organizational fetishization of consumers, that is, how in the process of understanding and managing markets, a quasimagical fascination with amalgams of consumer voices, images, and artefacts comes about. We offer several contributions. First, we demonstrate the pertinence of (primarily anthropological...

  7. Reduced alcohol consumption in mice lacking preprodynorphin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blednov, Yuri A; Walker, Danielle; Martinez, Marni; Harris, R Adron

    2006-10-01

    Many studies suggest a role for endogenous opioid peptides and their receptors in regulation of ethanol intake. It is commonly accepted that the kappa-opioid receptors and their endogenous ligands, dynorphins, produce a dysphoric state and therefore may be responsible for avoidance of alcohol. We used mutant mice lacking preprodynorphin in a variety of behavioral tests of alcohol actions. Null mutant female, but not male, mice showed significantly lower preference for alcohol and consumed lower amounts of alcohol in a two-bottle choice test as compared with wild-type littermates. In the same test, knockout mice of both sexes showed a strong reduction of preference for saccharin compared to control mice. In contrast, under conditions of limited (4 h) access (light phase of the light/dark cycle), null mutant mice did not show any differences in consumption of saccharin, but they showed significantly reduced intake of sucrose. To determine the possible cause for reduction of ethanol preference and intake, we studied other ethanol-related behaviors in mice lacking the preprodynorphin gene. There were no differences between null mutant and wild-type mice in ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex, acute ethanol withdrawal, ethanol-induced conditioned place preference, or conditioned taste aversion to ethanol. These results indicate that deletion of preprodynorphin leads to substantial reduction of alcohol intake in female mice, and suggest that this is caused by decreased orosensory reward of alcohol (sweet taste and/or palatability).

  8. Consumer perceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngapo, T. M.; Dransfield, E.; Martin, J. F.

    2004-01-01

    Consumer focus groups in France, England, Sweden and Denmark were used to obtain insights into the decision-making involved in the choice of fresh pork and attitudes towards today's pig production systems. Many positive perceptions of pork meat were evoked. Negative images of the production systems...... that there was no link between the negative images of production methods and their purchase behaviour. The groups were clearly confused and mistrusted the limited information available at the point of purchase. Careful consideration should be given to meat labelling, in particular taking account of the evident consumer...... ethnocentrism, to assure that such information is targeted to enhance consumer confidence....

  9. Consumer Neoteny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Alemany Oliver

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This research explores childlike consumer behavior from an evolutionary perspective. More specifically, it uses the concept of neoteny to show that the retention of ancestors’ juvenile characteristics is related to specific behaviors. The results of factor analyses conducted on a UK sample (n = 499 and a French sample (n = 292 7 years later indicate four dimensions of childlike consumer behavior, namely, stimulus seeking, reality conflict, escapism, and control of aggression.

  10. Effects of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS supplementation on intestinal and systemic markers of inflammation in ApoE*3Leiden mice consuming a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksaharju, Anna; Kooistra, Teake; Kleemann, Robert; van Duyvenvoorde, Wim; Miettinen, Minja; Lappalainen, Jani; Lindstedt, Ken A; Kovanen, Petri T; Korpela, Riitta; Kekkonen, Riina A

    2013-07-14

    A high-fat diet disturbs the composition and function of the gut microbiota and generates local gut-associated and also systemic responses. Intestinal mast cells, for their part, secrete mediators which play a role in the orchestration of physiological and immunological functions of the intestine. Probiotic bacteria, again, help to maintain the homeostasis of the gut microbiota by protecting the gut epithelium and regulating the local immune system. In the present study, we explored the effects of two probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (GG) and Propionibacterium freudenreichii spp. shermanii JS (PJS), on high fat-fed ApoE*3Leiden mice by estimating the mast cell numbers and the immunoreactivity of TNF-α and IL-10 in the intestine, as well as plasma levels of several markers of inflammation and parameters of lipid metabolism. We found that mice that received GG and PJS exhibited significantly lower numbers of intestinal mast cells compared with control mice. PJS lowered intestinal immunoreactivity of TNF-α, while GG increased intestinal IL-10. PJS was also observed to lower the plasma levels of markers of inflammation including vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and also the amount of gonadal adipose tissue. GG lowered alanine aminotransferase, a marker of hepatocellular activation. Collectively, these data demonstrate that probiotic GG and PJS tend to down-regulate both intestinal and systemic pro-inflammatory changes induced by a high-fat diet in this humanised mouse model.

  11. Human Tubal-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Associated with Low Level Laser Therapy Significantly Reduces Cigarette Smoke-Induced COPD in C57BL/6 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Pierre Schatzmann Peron

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a very debilitating disease, with a very high prevalence worldwide, which results in a expressive economic and social burden. Therefore, new therapeutic approaches to treat these patients are of unquestionable relevance. The use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs is an innovative and yet accessible approach for pulmonary acute and chronic diseases, mainly due to its important immunoregulatory, anti-fibrogenic, anti-apoptotic and pro-angiogenic. Besides, the use of adjuvant therapies, whose aim is to boost or synergize with their function should be tested. Low level laser (LLL therapy is a relatively new and promising approach, with very low cost, no invasiveness and no side effects. Here, we aimed to study the effectiveness of human tube derived MSCs (htMSCs cell therapy associated with a 30mW/3J-660 nm LLL irradiation in experimental cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thus, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 75 days (twice a day and all experiments were performed on day 76. Experimental groups receive htMSCS either intraperitoneally or intranasally and/or LLL irradiation either alone or in association. We show that co-therapy greatly reduces lung inflammation, lowering the cellular infiltrate and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and KC, which were followed by decreased mucus production, collagen accumulation and tissue damage. These findings seemed to be secondary to the reduction of both NF-κB and NF-AT activation in lung tissues with a concomitant increase in IL-10. In summary, our data suggests that the concomitant use of MSCs + LLLT may be a promising therapeutic approach for lung inflammatory diseases as COPD.

  12. Behavioural Economics, Consumer Behaviour, and Consumer Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Zhao, Min

    2017-01-01

    . In particular, we discuss the impacts of key principles such as status quo bias, the endowment effect, mental accounting and the sunkcost effect, other heuristics and biases related to availability, salience, the anchoring effect and simplicity rules, as well as the effects of other supposedly irrelevant...... factors such as music, temperature and physical markers on consumers’ decisions. These principles not only add significantly to research on consumer behaviour – they also offer readily available practical implications for consumer policy to nudge behaviour in beneficial directions in consumption domains...... including financial decision making, product choice, healthy eating and sustainable consumption....

  13. Consumer Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyer, W.D.; MacInnis, D.J.; Pieters, R.

    2013-01-01

    CONSUMER BEHAVIOR combines a foundation in key concepts from marketing, psychology, sociology, and anthropology with a highly practical focus on real-world applications for today's business environment. The new edition of this popular, pioneering text incorporates the latest cutting-edge research

  14. Instigating involvement through consumer-based brand equity : an attitudinal study of consumer-based brand equity and consumer involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Bredberg, David; Holmquist, Johan

    2009-01-01

    Recent research on links between dimensions of consumer-based brand equity, as well as links to consumer involvement, has shown that it is a significant predictor of purchase behavior. The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the affect brands have on consumer involvement. We attempt to investigate how consumer-based brand equity affects the level of consumer involvement. Based on consumer behavior theory and previous research of these areas, gathered primary data (an empirical investig...

  15. Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Bass

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the role played by a producer of goods and services in consumer life. But because the manufacturer can achieve its purpose, to obtain profit and to attract more clients, he needs to know the consumer’s needs and preferences. Equally important for the producer is to find solutions for his products and services to be developed in conditions of maximum efficiency and become more aware of why they are buying, find out who, what, from where, when, how and how much to buy and h...

  16. Consumer Issues and Consumer Protection in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdows, Richard; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Looks at themes of consumer interests in Asia and comments on the directions consumer policy is taking in that region. Outlines issues facing the region's consumers, describes evolving consumer protection mechanisms, and presents a model for promoting consumer interests in the region. (JOW)

  17. Medicalization, markets and consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Peter; Leiter, Valerie

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of changes in the medical marketplace on medicalization in U.S. society. Using four cases (Viagra, Paxil, human growth hormone and in vitro fertilization), we focus on two aspects of the changing medical marketplace: the role of direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs and the emergence of private medical markets. We demonstrate how consumers and pharmaceutical corporations contribute to medicalization, with physicians, insurance coverage, and changes in regulatory practices playing facilitating roles. In some cases, insurers attempt to counteract medicalization by restricting access. We distinguish mediated and private medical markets, each characterized by differing relationships with corporations, insurers, consumers, and physicians. In the changing medical environment, with medical markets as intervening factors, corporations and insurers are becoming more significant determinants in the medicalization process.

  18. Consumer responses to ecolabels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Haugaard, Pernille; Olesen, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop and apply a framework for understanding consumer responses to ecolabelling. Design/methodology/approach - From a consumer perspective, ecolabels are tools for supporting decision making with regard to environmentally significant products. The paper...... process. Starting the adoption process depends on both motivation (intention to buy sustainable fish products) and ability (issue-relevant knowledge). Whether and how quickly the consumer completes the adoption depends on his or her motivation, past experience with using ecolabels, and trust...... scoring highly on both issue-relevant knowledge and motivation are the most likely innovators and early adopters. Their high level of expertise means that they do not need a lot of explanation for understanding the label and its self-relevance and their strong motivation means that they will search...

  19. Are mice eating up all the pine seeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafal Zwolak; Kerry Foresman; Elizabeth Crone; Dean Pearson; Yvette Ortega

    2008-01-01

    Wildlife, even miniscule mice, can play an important role in forest regeneration and composition by consuming seeds, seedlings, and saplings. Mice can, through sheer numbers, consume a tremendous number of seeds. We wanted to learn if deer mice could affect how ponderosa pine forests regenerate after fire.

  20. Marketing strategies - consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, C.

    1985-01-01

    As Australia's largest consumer organisation, the Australian Consumers' Association (ACA) has a vital role in providing information, so consumers can make an informed choice, as well as participating in formulation of standards to increase the quality of products, including foods. The consumer movement is marketing the process of irradiation and will continue to give consumers information that allows them to make an informed choice

  1. Consumer participation in housing: reflecting on consumer preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Graeme; Hemsley, Martin

    2010-12-01

    Historically, people living with mental illness have had limited chance to participate in mental health services other than as patients. Following on from a recent review focusing on consumer participation in mental health services, this paper looks at consumer participation in housing. Housing is a critical element in recovery from mental illness. Without suitable housing, people have little chance of maintaining other resources in their lives, such as supportive social relationships and meaningful activities. Consumer participation is not a common topic in the recent literature, despite the significant public policy push to promote it. The importance of appropriate housing to the recovery of people living with mental illness cannot be underestimated. Even well-meaning and well-resourced housing initiatives can fall short of meeting consumers' recovery goals when they do not incorporate the expressed needs of consumers. These expressed needs include keeping units small in size and employing drop-in support models.

  2. Consumer Economics and Consumer Mathematics Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastern Michigan Univ., Ypsilanti. National Inst. for Consumer Education.

    This publication lists a selection of consumer economics and consumer mathematics textbooks available for review from the National Institute for Consumer Education. Twenty-six textbooks for the secondary level are cited. Nine advanced level texts are also listed. These texts are generally considered college level texts but could be adapted for…

  3. Online Consumer Ethnocentrism of Danish Consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujac, Andreea Ioana

    2017-01-01

    No doubt that consumer ethnocentrism is an important phenomenon in international marketing. However, not much attention has been paid to consumer ethnocentrism in an online context. The current study aims to fill in this gap. Specifically, the ethnocentric tendency of Danish online consumers...

  4. Diet-induced obesity, energy metabolism and gut microbiota in C57BL/6J mice fed Western diets based on lean seafood or lean meat mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Jacob Bak; Rønnevik, Alexander; Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Fjære, Even; Fauske, Kristin Røen; Liisberg, Ulrike; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten; Liaset, Bjørn

    2016-05-01

    High protein diets may protect against diet-induced obesity, but little is known regarding the effects of different protein sources consumed at standard levels. We investigated how a mixture of lean seafood or lean meat in a Western background diet modulated diet-induced obesity, energy metabolism and gut microbiota. Male C57BL/6J mice fed a Western diet (WD) containing a mixture of lean seafood (seafood WD) for 12weeks accumulated less fat mass than mice fed a WD containing a mixture of lean meat (meat WD). Meat WD-fed mice exhibited increased fasting blood glucose, impaired glucose clearance, elevated fasting plasma insulin and increased plasma and liver lipid levels. We observed no first choice preference for either of the WDs, but over time, mice fed the seafood WD consumed less energy than mice fed the meat WD. Mice fed the seafood WD exhibited higher spontaneous locomotor activity and a lower respiratory exchange ratio (RER) than mice fed the meat WD. Thus, higher activity together with the decreased energy intake contributed to the different phenotypes observed in mice fed the seafood WD compared to mice fed the meat WD. Comparison of the gut microbiomes of mice fed the two WDs revealed significant differences in the relative abundance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to the orders Bacteroidales and Clostridiales, with genes involved in metabolism of aromatic amino acids exhibiting higher relative abundance in the microbiomes of mice fed the seafood WD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. CGB - Consumer Complaints Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission — Individual informal consumer complaint data detailing complaints filed with the Consumer Help Center beginning October 31, 2014. This data represents information...

  6. The consumer competence of young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice

    2007-01-01

    of consumer competence in actual consumption decisions, however more competent approaches were reported when respondents were faced with hypothetical purchase situations. The young consumers' own understanding of what consumer competence requires showed some degree of correspondence with traditional notions...... of 'desirable consumer socialization', but also added a fundamental consumer competence to the list: to carefully consider one's need to make a purchase. Research limitations/implications The study included only a certain segment of young consumers. Future studies of consumer competence may include consumers......, particularly with respect to how new, complex buying decisions are managed. Findings Guidance from family and friends was found to be of major significance as regards complex consumer decisions made in the transition period from home to first household. The young adults did not display very high levels...

  7. Dietary supplementation of chinese ginseng prevents obesity and metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxiao; Luo, Jing; Anandh Babu, Pon Velayutham; Zhang, Wei; Gilbert, Elizabeth; Cline, Mark; McMillan, Ryan; Hulver, Matthew; Alkhalidy, Hana; Zhen, Wei; Zhang, Haiyan; Liu, Dongmin

    2014-12-01

    Obesity and diabetes are growing health problems worldwide. In this study, dietary provision of Chinese ginseng (0.5 g/kg diet) prevented body weight gain in high-fat (HF) diet-fed mice. Dietary ginseng supplementation reduced body fat mass gain, improved glucose tolerance and whole body insulin sensitivity, and prevented hypertension in HF diet-induced obese mice. Ginseng consumption led to reduced concentrations of plasma insulin and leptin, but had no effect on plasma adiponectin levels in HF diet-fed mice. Body temperature was higher in mice fed the ginseng-supplemented diet but energy expenditure, respiration rate, and locomotive activity were not significantly altered. Dietary intake of ginseng increased fatty acid oxidation in the liver but not in skeletal muscle. Expression of several transcription factors associated with adipogenesis (C/EBPα and PPARγ) were decreased in the adipose tissue of HF diet-fed mice, effects that were mitigated in mice that consumed the HF diet supplemented with ginseng. Abundance of fatty acid synthase (FASN) mRNA was greater in the adipose tissue of mice that consumed the ginseng-supplemented HF diet as compared with control or un-supplemented HF diet-fed mice. Ginseng treatment had no effect on the expression of genes involved in the regulation of food intake in the hypothalamus. These data suggest that Chinese ginseng can potently prevent the development of obesity and insulin resistance in HF diet-fed mice.

  8. The Role of Consumer's Identification in Consumer Behavior and Branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mana Razeghi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate relationships between congruity of consumer and brand values, brand identification, brand commitment, and word of mouth. In order to test the relationships between variables 600 questionnaire were distributed in Dubai Malls (Sun and Sand Sports and 334 of questionnaires were received and analyzed. To verify the validity of the questionnaire and to test the significance of observer variables (questionnaire and latent variables (factors, confirmatory factor analysis was used, and Cronbach's alpha was employed to test the reliability. To evaluate the association between variables, the Pearson correlation test is used, and then to verify the conceptual model test the structural equation modeling (SEM and LISREL software are deployed. The result shows that Value congruity positively influences consumers' identification with a brand and Value congruity positively influences consumers ‘commitment to brand. The result also shows that Consumer identification has a positive influence on brand commitment and mediating variable between value congruity and brand commitment and Consumers commitment to a brand has a positive influence on positive WOM and mediating variable between consumers' identification and WOM. The results also demonstrate that Consumer identification positively influences positive WOM.

  9. Journal of Consumer Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Consumer Sciences is an official publication of the South African Association of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences (SAAFECS). The Journal of Consumer Sciences (JCS) publishes articles that focus on consumer experiences in different places and from different perspectives and methodological ...

  10. Twenty six-week exposure to 2 amino-3 methylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) does not significantly increase the incidence of tumours in HMGCR/mts1 tg579 transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Alicja; Lukanidin, E.; Ambartsumian, N.S.

    2004-01-01

    HMGCR/mtsl t9579 transgenic mice were designed to direct the expression of metastasis-promoting mts 1 (S100A4) gene to all the tissues. In order to test the usefulness of this mouse model for carcinogenicity tests shorter than that recommended by OECD guideline mr. 451, HMGCR/mtsl tg579 transgenic...

  11. Measurement and determinants of environmentally significant consumer behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gatersleben, B.C.M.; Steg, L.; Vlek, C.A.J.

    Measures of proenvironmental behavior in psychological studies do not always reflect the actual environmental impact of a person or household. Therefore, the results of these studies provide little insight into variables that could be helpful in reducing household environmental impact. In this

  12. Consumer choice of pork chops in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M T; Guo, H L; Tseng, T F; Roan, S W; Ngapo, T M

    2010-07-01

    Digital photographs of pork chops varying systematically in appearance were presented to 716 Taiwanese consumers in a study that aimed to identify the most important characteristics of fresh pork which determine consumer choice in Taiwan. Relationships between consumer segmentation in choice and socio-demographic and cultural differences were also investigated. Colour and fat cover were the most frequently chosen of the four characteristics studied. Dark red colour was preferred by 64% of consumers and lean fat cover by 44%. Marbling and drip were less important in the decision making process being used by less than a half of consumers. The four preference-based clusters of consumers showed no correlation with socio-demographic-based consumer clusters, but did show significant links with possession of a refrigerator, age at which schooling was completed, liking pork for its price and gender of consumer. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Consumer's inflation expectations in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ormonde Teixeira

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper investigates what are the main components of consumer's inflation expectations. We combine the FGV's Consumer Survey with the indices of inflation (IPCA and government regulated prices, professional forecasts disclosed in the Focus report, and media data which we crawl from one of the biggest and most important Brazilian newspapers, Folha de São Paulo, to determine what factors are responsible for and improve consumer's forecast accuracy. We found gender, age and city of residence as major elements when analyzing micro-data. Aggregate data shows the past inflation as an important trigger in the formation of consumers' expectations and professional forecasts as negligible. Moreover, the media plays a significant role, accounting not only for the expectations' formation but for a better understanding of actual inflation as well.

  14. Antibiotics protect against fructose-induced hepatic lipid accumulation in mice: role of endotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergheim, Ina; Weber, Synia; Vos, Miriam; Krämer, Sigrid; Volynets, Valentina; Kaserouni, Seline; McClain, Craig J; Bischoff, Stephan C

    2008-06-01

    Consumption of refined carbohydrates in soft drinks has been postulated to be a key factor in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of the present study was to test the effects of ad libitum access to different sugars consumed in drinking water on hepatic fat accumulation. For 8 weeks, C57BL/J6 mice had free access to solutions containing 30% glucose, fructose, sucrose, or water sweetened with artificial sweetener (AS) or plain water. Body weight, caloric intake, hepatic steatosis and lipid peroxidation were assessed. Total caloric intake and weight gain were highest in mice exposed to glucose. In contrast, hepatic lipid accumulation was significantly higher in mice consuming fructose compared to all other groups. Moreover, endotoxin levels in portal blood and lipid peroxidation as well as TNFalpha expression were significantly higher in fructose fed mice than in all other groups. Concomitant treatment of fructose fed mice with antibiotics (e.g., polymyxin B and neomycin) markedly reduced hepatic lipid accumulation in fructose fed mice. These data support the hypothesis that high fructose consumption may not only lead to liver damage through overfeeding but also may be directly pro-inflammatory by increasing intestinal translocation of endotoxin.

  15. Consumer Empowerment in Dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Heather E.; Busse, Kristine L.; Dellavalle, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Health care consumers increasingly confront and collaborate with their medical providers. We describe consumer success in other medical fields and in dermatology, especially dermatologic disease advocacy and improving dermatologist-patient interactions. PMID:19254661

  16. Into beef consumers' mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Brei, Vinicius A.

    indicated similarities amongst Brazilian and Australian consumers regarding their positive attitude towards beef and main concerns regarding its consumption. Dutch consumers, although presented negative attitudes, considered beef consumption as important. In general respondents presented a high degree...

  17. Constructive Consumer Choice Processes.

    OpenAIRE

    Bettman, James R; Luce, Mary Frances; Payne, John W

    1998-01-01

    Consumer decision making has been a focal interest in consumer research, and consideration of current marketplace trends ( e.g., technological change, an information explosion) indicates that this topic will continue to be critically important. We argue that consumer choice is inherently constructive. Due to limited processing capacity, consumers often do not have well-defined existing preferences, but construct them using a variety of strategies contingent on task demands. After describing c...

  18. Impulsive consumer behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Kovač Žnideršić, Ružica; Grubor, Aleksandar; Marić, Dražen

    2014-01-01

    Research into consumer behaviour features as the foundation of all the planned and implemented marketing activities of a company. Consumer behaviour is determined by numerous factors, and is therefore characterised as highly complex and difficult to predict. A particular challenge for marketing science and practice is to research impulse consumer behaviour in shopping – a behaviour that occurs when consumers experience a sudden, powerful and persistent urge to buy something immediately. This ...

  19. Ordered Consumer Search

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses situations in which consumers search through their options in a deliberate order, in contrast to more familiar models with random search. Topics include: network effects (consumers may be better off following the same search order as other consumers); the use of price and non-price advertising to direct search; the impact of consumers starting a new search with their previous supplier; the incentive sellers have to merge or co-locate with other sellers; and the incentive a...

  20. Shyness in consumer behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Kusterer, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Shyness is widespread among the population and affects a large group of consumers. Companies, however, have barely knowledge about this kind of consumers and their behavior. Particularly in the field of complaint management the barriers which prevent consumers of voicing a complaint are largely unknown and quite often companies are not aware of the dissatisfaction among their customers. Thus, this paper aims to analyze the impact of shyness on consumer complaint behavior. A survey-based appro...

  1. Consumer Directed Health Care

    OpenAIRE

    John Goodman

    2006-01-01

    Consumer driven health care (CDHC) is a potential solution to two perplexing problems: (1) How to choose between health care and other uses of money, and (2) how to allocate resources in an industry where normal market forces have been systemically suppressed. In the consumer-driven model, consumers occupy the primary decision-making role regarding the health care that they receive. From an employee benefits perspective, consumer driven health care in the broadest sense may refer to limited e...

  2. [Legal development of consumer protection from the Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety standpoint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Püster, M

    2010-06-01

    Ten years after publication of the White Paper on Food Safety, health consumer protection has made significant progress and, today, is a key field in politics at both the European and German levels. In addition to the protection of health and security of consumers, consumer information has become a core element of consumer protection for the Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety (Bundesamt für Verbraucherschutz and Lebensmittelsicherheit, BVL). State authorities are provided with new means of communication and interaction with consumers.

  3. Informing Consumers About Themselves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Bar-Gill (Oren)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractConsumers make mistakes. Imperfect information and imperfect rationality lead to misperception of benefits and costs associated with a product. As a result, consumers might fail to maximise their preferences in product choice or product use. A proposed taxonomy of consumer mistakes draws

  4. Radurization : the consumer perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    A three part study in which a number of consumer groups were involved was conducted. The study examined the views of South African consumers concerning radurization. The results of the study are discussed and recommendations are made with regard to possible greater consumer acceptance of radurization in South Africa. 2 figs

  5. Consumer Decisions. Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This student manual covers five areas relating to consumer decisions. Titles of the five sections are Consumer Law, Consumer Decision Making, Buying a Car, Convenience Foods, and Books for Preschool Children. Each section may contain some or all of these materials: list of objectives, informative sections, questions on the information and answers,…

  6. Consumer Protection for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, James M.

    Educational changes are examined from the perspective of consumer protection--the direct consumers are the teachers being prepared; the indirect consumers are the students and the society that supports the schools. During the colonial and early national periods of American history, there was an absence of formal and separate teacher education.…

  7. Consumer rights and protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care consumer rights; Rights of the health care consumer ... RIGHTS AND PROTECTIONS Here are ways that the health care law protects consumers. You must be covered, even if you have a pre-existing condition. No insurance plan can reject you, ...

  8. Consumer behavior research

    OpenAIRE

    Hašková, Lucie

    2010-01-01

    The major part of this work is a consumer behavior research in process of buying christmas presents. The goal of this work is to describe a consumer behavior of Prague's customers in process of buying christmas presents, also describe a a consumer behavior of different age and social groups, as well as the difference between men and women.

  9. MEASUREMENT OF CONSUMER ETHNOCENTRISM OF SLOVAK CONSUMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janka Taborecka-Petrovicova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The conceptualization of consumer ethnocentrism is inferred from the general concept of ethnocentrism which assumes that ethnocentrism starts with the culture into which an individual is born. Over time, the individual will accept the values and behaviour of this particular culture as a norm. However, when the individual becomes aware of other cultures with different values and behaviours, there develops the need of belonging and identification with own culture rather than that of others. When analysing the consumer ethnocentrism, it is also essential to examine whether consumer ethnocentrism operates uniformly across all consumers or there exist some specific factors moderating their ethnocentric tendencies. A lot of studies researching these issues can be found in various cultural contexts, however in Slovakia we found certain gap since there is just a few of them. The aim of the paper is to investigate the level of consumer ethnocentricity of Slovak consumers in general and with the respect to chosen variables – age and gender. The results can serve as an information base for decision-making process of marketing managers focusing especially on local production of domestic products.

  10. Cloning Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Atsuo

    2017-08-01

    Viable and fertile mice can be generated by somatic nuclear transfer into enucleated oocytes, presumably because the transplanted somatic cell genome becomes reprogrammed by factors in the oocyte. The first somatic cloned offspring of mice were obtained by directly injecting donor nuclei into recipient enucleated oocytes. When this method is used (the so-called Honolulu method of somatic cell nuclear transfer [SCNT]), the donor nuclei readily and completely condense within the enucleated metaphase II-arrested oocytes, which contain high levels of M-phase-promoting factor (MPF). It is believed that the condensation of the donor chromosomes promotes complete reprogramming of the donor genome within the mouse oocytes. Another key to the success of mouse cloning is the use of blunt micropipettes attached to a piezo impact-driving micromanipulation device. This system saves a significant amount of time during the micromanipulation of oocytes and thus minimizes the loss of oocyte viability in vitro. For example, a group of 20 oocytes can be enucleated within 10 min by an experienced operator. This protocol is composed of seven parts: (1) preparing micropipettes, (2) setting up the enucleation and injection micropipettes, (3) collecting and enucleating oocytes, (4) preparing nucleus donor cells, (5) injecting donor nuclei, (6) activating embryos and culturing, and (7) transferring cloned embryos. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  11. Consumer loyalty in retailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drinić Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Loyal consumers are partner enterprises and they represent stable source of income. Companies are more interested in maintaining the existing consumers, rather than attracting the newones, because loyal consumers are the most valuable asset. The aim of this article is to develop an integrative conceptual framework for creating and maintaining consumer loyalty, and ,at the same time, to be based on a thorough review of the relevant literature and the current market situation . In this context, empirical research was carried out by using the survey method on a random sample of 165 respondents. Based on the research conducted, important factors that influence consumer loyalty were identified.

  12. Analyzing the Effect of Consumers Emotions on Consumer Behavior at Matahari Department Store Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Tielung, Maria V. J.; Mekel, Peggy A.; Makarawung, Evanglin M.

    2014-01-01

    Companies have to face all of challenge that happen, utilize all of opportunity and understand all of needs and wants of consumers to get a win in business competition. Development of Department Store in Indonesia showed significant figures in line with the increasing of needs toward fulfillment of a fairly large of consumers€™ needs. Emotions are important factor in studying consumption, consumer decision making and consumer behavior. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of pos...

  13. Website quality indicators for consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Kathleen M; Christensen, Helen

    2005-11-15

    The rating tool DISCERN was designed for use by consumers without content expertise to evaluate the quality of health information. There is some evidence that DISCERN may be a valid indicator of evidence-based website quality when applied by health professionals. However, it is not known if the tool is a valid measure of evidence-based quality when used by consumers. Since it is a lengthy instrument requiring training in its use, DISCERN may prove impractical for use by the typical consumer. It is therefore important to explore the validity of other simpler potential indicators of site quality such as Google PageRank. This study aimed to determine (1) whether the instrument DISCERN is a valid indicator of evidence-based Web content quality for consumers without specific mental health training, and (2) whether Google PageRank is an indicator of website content quality as measured by an evidence-based gold standard. This was a cross-sectional survey of depression websites using consumer and health professional raters. The main outcome measures were (1) site characteristics, (2) evidence-based quality of content as measured by evidence-based depression guidelines, (3) DISCERN scores, (4) Google PageRank, and (5) user satisfaction. There was a significant association between evidence-based quality ratings and average DISCERN ratings both for consumers (r = 0.62, P = .001) and health professionals (r = 0.80, P PageRank (r = 0.59, P = .002). However, the correlation between DISCERN scores and user satisfaction was higher than the correlation between Google PageRank and user satisfaction. DISCERN has potential as an indicator of content quality when used either by experts or by consumers. Google PageRank shows some promise as an automatic indicator of quality.

  14. Field Report - Consumer Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian S.; Gwozdz, Wencke

    The present report outlines the purpose, scope, and methodology of a recently conducted four-country consumer survey that explored sustainable clothing consumption. The report also presents a sample of the descriptive findings from the survey (see Gwozdz, Nielsen & Müller, 2017 for further results...... foundation for upcoming deliverables relating to quality of life, acceptance of new business models, and consumer policy recommendations. The results presented in the report relate, specifically, to consumers’ general clothing consumption patterns, acceptance of new business models, and environmental...... purchasing outlets, and acceptance of new business models. Polish and American consumers purchased the most clothing items. Polish consumers also reported the lowest expenditures on clothing, whereas German consumers reported the highest expenditures. Only a limited proportion of consumers had previously...

  15. Impact of the internet on consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela BADEA; Bogdan PÎRVULESCU

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to show the current opportunities, prospects and the impact of the Internet on the consumer. This will be achieved by comparing the behaviour of the British consumer and the Romanian consumer and the changes that appeared under the influence of the Internet. Among the actions undertaken by the Internet marketing, which deals with the promotion of products at a certain price, a concept that has become significant in recent years, there is the placement of prod...

  16. Global market and consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Beba

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available All consumers in the world share certain needs and desires. They show however, remarkable diversity in the way they satisfy these needs and desires. Understanding the consumer behavior is difficult enough in the confines of a single country. Can manager understand the consumer behavior in many different world markets? International marketer must learn how to satisfy customers with widely different buying behaviors.

  17. Sustainable consumer behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Antonides, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    We summarise the contributions in this special issue on sustainable consumer behaviour and place them in perspective. Several studies focus on macro- and meso-issues, and others on micro-issues of consumer behaviour. The studies employ a variety of methods, including surveys, field experiments, eye tracking, scale development, and contingent valuation. The 12 contributions from authors of 13 different countries show the wide and varied application of consumer research focused on sustainabilit...

  18. Consumer Buying Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Irena Vida; Mojca Maher Pirc

    2006-01-01

    The study examines the phenomenon of national identity and economic ethnocentrism in consumer buying behavior. Analysis of data collected from a representative sample of adult Slovenian consumers reveals only moderately expressed ethnocentric tendencies. Similar moderation was revealed in the preferences of Slovenian consumers for patriotic purchasing behavior, whereby the domestic origin of products was more important in the case of nondurable goods and services than in the case of durable g...

  19. Transforming Consumers Into Brands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erz, Antonia; Christensen, Anna-Bertha Heeris

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this research is to explore the transformational power of a new consumption and production practice, the practice of blogging, to understand its impact on consumers' identity transformations beyond their self-concept as consumers and on the blogosphere as an organizational field....... Through an exploratory study of over 12,000 blog posts from five fashion bloggers, complemented by in-depth interviews, we trace the transformation of consumer bloggers. We identify and describe three identity phases, the individual consumer, collective blogger and blogger identity phase, and two...

  20. Alaska Consumer Protection Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drafting Manual Attorney General Opinions Executive Branch Ethics Criminal Justice Alaska Medicaid Fraud make wise purchasing decisions and avoid becoming victims of consumer fraud. The site also includes

  1. Effect of direct-to-consumer genetic tests on health behaviour and anxiety: a survey of consumers and potential consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egglestone, Corin; Morris, Anne; O'Brien, Ann

    2013-10-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic tests can be purchased over the internet. Some companies claim to provide relative genetic risks for various diseases and thus encourage healthy behaviour. There are concerns that exposure to such information may actually discourage healthy behaviour or increase health anxiety. An online survey was conducted (n = 275). Respondents were composed of individuals who had purchased a DTC genetic test and received their results (consumers, n = 189), as well as individuals who were either awaiting test results or considering purchasing a test (potential consumers, n = 86). Consumers were asked if their health behaviour or health anxiety had changed after receiving their results. Respondents' current health behaviour and health anxiety were queried and compared. In total, 27.3 % of consumers claimed a change in health behaviour, all either positive or neutral, with no reported cessation of any existing health behaviour. A change in health anxiety was claimed by 24.6 % of consumers, 85.3 % of which were a reduction. Consumers had significantly better health behaviour scores than potential consumers (p = 0.02), with no significant difference in health anxiety. This study points towards an association between receipt of DTC genetic test results and increased adoption of healthy behaviours for a minority of consumers based on self-report, with more mixed results in relation to health anxiety.

  2. Consumers Should Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Robert M.

    Consumer education can be defined as "a study of intelligent and effective methods of buying and using goods and services, competent money management, and the relationship of the consumer to the economy, the workplace, and the home." An important role of government is providing the individual with information so that the individual can…

  3. Consumers and Producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Maira (Elisa)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractIn the last few decades, advances in information and communication technology have dramatically changed the way consumers and producers interact in the marketplace. The Internet and social media have torn down the information barrier between producers and consumers, leading to

  4. Online consumer contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luzak, J.

    2014-01-01

    The new Consumer Rights Directive introduced some changes to the level of consumers’ protection online. However, just like with its predecessor, the Distance Selling Directive, the main focus of the protection that consumers have been granted online is to provide them with transparent and salient

  5. Consumer in insurance law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čorkalo Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the notion of consumer in the European Union law, and, in particular, the notion of consumer in insurance law. The author highligts the differences between the notion of consumer is in aquis communautaire and in insurance law, discussing whether the consumer can be defined in both field in the same way, concerning that insurance services differ a lot from other kind of services. Having regarded unequal position of contracting parties and information and technical disadvantages of a weaker party, author pleads for broad definition of consumer in insurance law. In Serbian law, the consumer is not defined in consistent way. That applies on Serbian insurance law as well. Therefore, the necessity of precise and broad definition of consumes is underlined, in order to delimit the circle of subject who are in need for protection. The author holds that the issue of determination of the circle of persons entitled to extended protection as consumers is of vital importance for further development of insurance market in Serbia.

  6. CONSUMER'S RIGHT TO WITHDRAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA NICOLETA GHEORGHE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The right of withdrawal (of a contract belongs to the consumer, and is an essential means for the improvement of regulations that protect the consumer.. Right of withdrawal is not a recent creation and is not even specific to the consumer field. He was previously recognized in civil and commercial law (without special regulation. The right to withdraw may even have as ground the parties will. Thus, based on the contractual freedom, the parties may agree that one of them has the right to terminate the contract unilaterally The possibility of unilateral denunciation of the contract, gives the consumer, added protection by being able to reflect the decision and to check how the trader fulfil its obligations. In this context, through its effects, the right of denunciation, forces the professional parties to conduct themselves as fair as possible to the consumer and to execute the contract properly. In the study of the consumer protection, the time of conclusion is essential because in this stage is manifested, the inequality between the consumer and professional. Thus, the lack of information, the major of products and activities, commercial practices, influence the formation of consumer will, preventing the expression of a freely and knowingly consent.

  7. Consuming apart, together

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, Jos; Reinders, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Although consumers' awareness of the environmental and ethical consequences of their behaviour has grown, research on the role of multiple consumer identities in sustainability behaviours is scarce. The aim of the current study was to explain sustainable behaviour from a social identity

  8. Sustainable consumer behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonides, Gerrit

    2017-01-01

    We summarise the contributions in this special issue on sustainable consumer behaviour and place them in perspective. Several studies focus on macro- and meso-issues, and others on micro-issues of consumer behaviour. The studies employ a variety of methods, including surveys, field experiments,

  9. Observing Reasonable Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Norman I.

    1991-01-01

    Although courts and legislators usually set legal standards that correspond to empirical knowledge of human behavior, recent developments in behavioral psychology have led courts to appreciate the limits and errors in consumer decision making. "Reasonable consumer" standards that are congruent with cognitive reality should be developed.…

  10. Cars, Cycles, and Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idleman, Hillis K. Ed.

    The purpose of this consumer education module is to provide information and skills, and the ability to raise questions and find answers, while seeking the best automobile or motorcycle buy available for the money. The module may be used for a full or part semester course. The five sections (cars and the consumer, renting and leasing cars, cars and…

  11. Environmentally Friendly Consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijonen, Satu

    2011-01-01

    on the green consumer: cultural determinism, psycho-socio-demographic determinism and calculative determinism. An explanation of the green consumer in these terms, however, loses sight of the emergence and processuality of consumer behaviour. Process oriented constructionism, by contrast, is useful to recover...... these important aspects. This paper suggests a research agenda focused on socio-material processes and situated actions that lead to the emergence and stabilization of a particular type of consumer behaviour.......Several attempts have been made by academics in the past to explain the so-called ‘environmentally conscious’ consumer. These explanations share an important feature, namely determinism. This paper identifies three different sources of determinism that are distinguished in recent literature...

  12. Promoting educated consumer choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary EU food information legislation combines and balances two main consumer interests, i.e., a consumer right to information and the freedom of choice, into one single protective standard: informed choice. Although the recent legislative measures quite openly establish a link between...... informed choice and the rather abstract societal norm of “what is good for the consumer,” this does not justify the conclusion that food information legislation has become overly meddlesome in relation to EU consumers and their choice of food. Rather, there has been a gradual maturing of the EU legislator......’s perception of its task from the mere provision of food information to ensuring educated consumer choices. This development is a logical and necessary consequence of the growing complexity of food choices....

  13. Consumer Behavior Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Peighambari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes 12 years of recent scholarly research on consumer behavior published in the five leading international journals in this field. Analyzing academic contributions to a specific area of research provides valuable insights into how it has evolved over a defined period. The approach was to briefly discuss content analysis and its application in scholarly literature review studies. The methodology used here involves the classification of topics to evaluate key trends in consumer behavior literature. It includes a ranking of topics published, typology of the published articles, the research classification in terms of methodologies, and analysis techniques. The most cited articles in the field and within each journal are also examined. The comprehensive literature review of consumer behavior research undertaken in this article could advance the discipline of consumer behavior research by elucidating the evolution of consumer behavior literature in the studied period.

  14. Business district streetscapes, trees, and consumer response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen L. Wolf

    2005-01-01

    A multistudy research program has investigated how consumers respond to the urban forest in central business districts of cities of various sizes. Trees positively affect judgments of visual quality but, more significantly, may influence other consumer responses and behaviors. Survey respondents from all regions of the United States...

  15. Consumer acceptance of irradiated poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, I.B.; Resurreccion, A.V.A.; McWatters, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    A simulated supermarket setting (SSS) test was conducted to determine whether consumers (n = 126) would purchase irradiated poultry products, and the effects of marketing strategies on consumer purchase of irradiated poultry products. Consumer preference for irradiated poultry was likewise determined using a home-use test. A slide program was the most effective educational strategy in changing consumers' purchase behavior. The number of participants who purchased irradiated boneless, skinless breasts and irradiated thighs after the educational program increased significantly from 59.5 and 61.9% to 83.3 and 85.7% for the breasts and thighs, respectively. Using a label or poster did not increase the number of participants who bought irradiated poultry products. About 84% of the participants consider it either 'somewhat necessary' or 'very necessary' to irradiate raw chicken and would like all chicken that was served in restaurants or fast food places to be irradiated. Fifty-eight percent of the participants would always buy irradiated chicken if available, and an additional 27% would buy it sometimes. About 44% of the participants were willing to pay the same price for irradiated chicken as for nonirradiated. About 42% of participants were willing to pay 5% or more than what they were currently paying for nonirradiated chicken. Seventy-three percent or more of consumers who participated in the home-use test (n = 74) gave the color, appearance, and aroma of the raw poultry products a minimum rating of 7 (= like moderately). After consumers participated in a home-use test, 84 and 88% selected irradiated thighs and breasts, respectively, over nonirradiated in a second SSS test

  16. Consumer acceptance of irradiated poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, I B; Resurreccion, A V; McWatters, K H

    1995-08-01

    A simulated supermarket setting (SSS) test was conducted to determine whether consumers (n = 126) would purchase irradiated poultry products, and the effects of marketing strategies on consumer purchase of irradiated poultry products. Consumer preference for irradiated poultry was likewise determined using a home-use test. A slide program was the most effective educational strategy in changing consumers' purchase behavior. The number of participants who purchased irradiated boneless, skinless breasts and irradiated thighs after the educational program increased significantly from 59.5 and 61.9% to 83.3 and 85.7% for the breasts and thighs, respectively. Using a label or poster did not increase the number of participants who bought irradiated poultry products. About 84% of the participants consider it either "somewhat necessary" or "very necessary" to irradiate raw chicken and would like all chicken that was served in restaurants or fast food places to be irradiated. Fifty-eight percent of the participants would always buy irradiated chicken if available, and an additional 27% would buy it sometimes. About 44% of the participants were willing to pay the same price for irradiated chicken as for nonirradiated. About 42% of participants were willing to pay 5% or more than what they were currently paying for nonirradiated chicken. Seventy-three percent or more of consumers who participated in the home-use test (n = 74) gave the color, appearance, and aroma of the raw poultry products a minimum rating of 7 (= like moderately). After consumers participated in a home-use test, 84 and 88% selected irradiated thighs and breasts, respectively, over nonirradiated in a second SSS test.

  17. Consumption and the Consumer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria VADUVA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The consumer is that trader responsible for consumption act of some final goods or services who decided what must be produce and in what cantity, being the one who make the economic mechanism to move. Consumption is in close connection with the production of goods and services, exerting an active role, any activity should be complete by consuming its results; consumption creates the motivation to achieve economic and non-economic activities. The traditional approach to consumer behavior starts from hypothesised that all consumers seek to maximize the aggregate utility obtained of satisfactions resulting from consumption of goods taking into account the budgetary constraints given by income that consumer has and the prices of these goods. In the conditions of modern economy, consumption can be increased by diseconomies. If consumption depends on permanent income, revenue growth effectively does not exert influence on consumption only to the extent that this increase of income leads to increasing permanent income consumer. Consumption is viewed as an active agent of economic life, it is not only a consumer of goods and services but also a producer.

  18. Linking consumer experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Karina Madsen

    become part of the individual self, worldview, and behaviour. This paper seeks to explore links between consumer experiences through the exploration of narrative sequences in travel blogs. Findings indicate that non-consumption is a central element to the bloggers and also indicative of a community......Consumers consume products in various ways serving a number of purposes. Much attention has been paid to experiences attached to consumption, sometimes very explicitly, e.g. in tourism, the essence of which is experiences of various sorts, but often also implicitly as internalised experiences...

  19. Representing distance, consuming distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    Title: Representing Distance, Consuming Distance Abstract: Distance is a condition for corporeal and virtual mobilities, for desired and actual travel, but yet it has received relatively little attention as a theoretical entity in its own right. Understandings of and assumptions about distance...... are being consumed in the contemporary society, in the same way as places, media, cultures and status are being consumed (Urry 1995, Featherstone 2007). An exploration of distance and its representations through contemporary consumption theory could expose what role distance plays in forming...

  20. Consumer Behavior Research Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros

    2017-01-01

    This chapter starts by distinguishing consumer behavior research methods based on the type of data used, being either secondary or primary. Most consumer behavior research studies phenomena that require researchers to enter the field and collect data on their own, and therefore the chapter...... emphasizes the discussion of primary research methods. Based on the nature of the data primary research methods are further distinguished into qualitative and quantitative. The chapter describes the most important and popular qualitative and quantitative methods. It concludes with an overall evaluation...... of the methods and how to improve quality in consumer behavior research methods....

  1. PARADIGMS IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Oktoria Sihombing

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A paradigm influences what we see and conceive about certain facts. Paradigm can also influence what we accept as a truth. Yet, the debate over which paradigm and methodology is best suit for marketing and consumer behavior has begun since 1980s. Many researchers criticized the domination of logical empiricism paradigm and offered alternative paradigm to understand marketing and consumer behavior. This article discusses several paradigms and methodology, which are part of qualitative paradigm, and compares them with positivism paradigm. This article will also point to the importance of reconciliation between qualitative and quantitative paradigm in order to improve marketing and consumer behavior studies.

  2. Deletion of vanilloid receptor (TRPV1) in mice alters behavioral effects of ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blednov, Y.A.; Harris, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    The vanilloid receptor TRPV1 is activated by ethanol and this may be important for some of the central and peripheral actions of ethanol. To determine if this receptor has a role in ethanol-mediated behaviors, we studied null mutant mice in which the Trpv1 gene was deleted. Mice lacking this gene showed significantly higher preference for ethanol and consumed more ethanol in a two-bottle choice test as compared with wild type littermates. Null mutant mice showed shorter duration of loss of righting reflex induced by low doses of ethanol (3.2 and 3.4 g/kg) and faster recovery from motor incoordination induced by ethanol (2 g/kg). However, there were no differences between null mutant and wild type mice in severity of ethanol-induced acute withdrawal (4 g/kg) or conditioned taste aversion to ethanol (2.5 g/kg). Two behavioral phenotypes (decreased sensitivity to ethanol-induced sedation and faster recovery from ethanol-induced motor incoordination) seen in null mutant mice were reproduced in wild type mice by injection of a TRPV1 antagonist, capsazepine (10 mg/kg). These two ethanol behaviors were changed in the opposite direction after injection of capsaicin, a selective TRPV1 agonist, in wild type mice. The studies provide the first evidence that TRPV1 is important for specific behavioral actions of ethanol. PMID:19705551

  3. Citrullus lanatus `Sentinel' (Watermelon) Extract Reduces Atherosclerosis in LDL Receptor Deficient Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poduri, Aruna; Rateri, Debra L.; Saha, Shubin K.; Saha, Sibu; Daugherty, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus or C. lanatus) has many potentially bioactive compounds including citrulline, which may influence atherosclerosis. In this study, we determined the effects of C. lanatus, provided as an extract of the cultivar `sentinel', on hypercholesterolemia-induced atherosclerosis in mice. Male LDL receptor deficient mice at 8 weeks old were given either C. lanatus `sentinel' extract (2% vol/vol; n=10) or a mixture of matching carbohydrates (2% vol/vol; n=8) as the control in drinking water, while fed a saturated fat-enriched diet for 12 weeks ad libitum. Mice consuming C. lanatus `sentinel' extract had significantly increased plasma citrulline concentrations. Systolic blood pressure was comparable between the two groups. Consumption of C. lanatus `sentinel' extract led to lower body weight and fat mass without influencing lean mass. There were no differences in food and water intake, and urine output between the two groups. C. lanatus `sentinel' extract administration decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations that were attributed to reductions of intermediate/low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma concentrations of MCP-1 and IFN-γ were decreased and IL-10 increased in mice consuming C. lanatus `sentinel' extract. Intake of C. lanatus `sentinel' extract resulted in reductions of atherosclerosis in both aortic arch and thoracic regions. In conclusion, consumption of C. lanatus `sentinel' extract led to reduced body weight gain, decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations, improved homeostasis of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and attenuated development of atherosclerosis without affecting systolic blood pressure in hypercholesterolemic mice. PMID:22902326

  4. Nostalgia and Consumer Sentiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Sandra Ernst; McGann, Anthony F.

    1983-01-01

    Concludes that designer magazine advertisements contain more traces of nostalgia than do those in consumer magazines and that they tend to be more extreme in their fluctuation patterns. Notes that nostalgia increases in ads when public confidence is decreasing. (FL)

  5. Consumer Product Category Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use...

  6. Consumer choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice ...... behaviour theory. A large-scale study including800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendenciesfor the brands, and relate these to involvement, type of need gratification, purchasingbehaviour, etc.......The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice...

  7. Consumer Financial Protection Bureau

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Openings Doing Business With Us Advisory Groups Project Catalyst Contact Us The CFPB: Working for you This short video covers what the CFPB is and how we are working for American consumers. An official website of ...

  8. Consumer reports [electronic resource

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1942-01-01

    ... only. A limited number of selected reports, advice on product selection and safety alerts are freely available, as are a five year listing of product recalls, a listing of major consumer product...

  9. Consumer choice behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role of emotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotions may play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have been considered in traditional consumer choice behaviour theory. A large-scale study including 800 respondents, covering 64 brands, provide findings on emotional response tendencies for the brands, and relate these to involvement...

  10. Consumer Law Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Consumer Finance Act by making short-term advances to customers who write personal checks in return for substantially smaller amounts of on-the-spot case...practices lawsuit with H&R Block, Inc. forcing tax return company to advertise its "Rapid Refund" program is actually a loan program charging customers ...home equity loans/lines of credit/home improvement loans, etc.) 2. A consumer can have only 9M principal dwelling at a time (includes mobile homes

  11. THE HICKSIAN RATIONAL CONSUMER

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel FERNÁNDEZ-GRELA

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to trace the evolution of the concept of ''rational consumer'' in Hicks's writings. After being one of the pioneers in the introduction of rationality assumptions about consumer behaviour in economic models, Hicks gradually developed a sceptical view about some of the uses to which those assumptions were put into. The focus of the paper is on continuity in Hicksian views, providing a picture of gradual changes in the long series of Hicks's works

  12. PARADIGMS IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Sabrina Oktoria Sihombing

    2011-01-01

    A paradigm influences what we see and conceive about certain facts. Paradigm can also influence what we accept as a truth. Yet, the debate over which paradigm and methodology is best suit for marketing and consumer behavior has begun since 1980s. Many researchers criticized the domination of logical empiricism paradigm and offered alternative paradigm to understand marketing and consumer behavior. This article discusses several paradigms and methodology, which are part of qualitative paradigm...

  13. Consumer behavior: a quadrennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, J; Johar, G V; Morrin, M

    1998-01-01

    Consumer behavior continued to attract additional researchers and publication outlets from 1993 through 1996. Both general interest and domain-specific scholarly contributions are discussed, along with limitations and suggested areas for future research. A concluding section observes that the integrity of consumer research is unnecessarily compromised by the failure of the major scholarly association in the field to develop and adopt a code of researcher ethics.

  14. Radioactive consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Otomaru

    1981-01-01

    Present situation of utilizing the radioactive consumer products and exposure dose were reviewed with published data. Practically, consumer products are divided into three categories, (1) radioactive nuclides intentionally incorporated into radioluminous dye, ionization chambers for smoke detector, eliminator of static electricity, and glow lamp (2) natural radioactive nuclides contained in false teeth, porcelain, glass, and gas mantle (3) natural radioactive nuclides accumulated as industrial waste at the consumption of coal, petroleum, and natural gas or in fertilizer and materials for construction. (Nakanishi, T.)

  15. Effect of alcoholic beverages on progeny and reproduction of mice

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiro, Fernanda Dias; Bispo, Ana Clara Cerato; Guarido, Karla Lorena; Marianno, Priscila; Costa, Gabriel de Araújo; Morimoto, Helena Kaminami; Salles, Maria José Sparça

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Alcohol is the most commonly consumed substance in the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of alcoholic beverages on male reproduction and possible alterations in their offspring. The mice were divided into 4 groups: beer, wine, cachaça (a type of sugarcane rum), with ethanol concentrations of 1.9 g/kg, and control group treated with PBS. The treatment period was 35 days. The animals which received cachaça, demonstrated significant weight loss in the test...

  16. Journal of Consumer Sciences - Vol 40 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Situation analysis as indicator of food security in low-income rural communities ... readiness to adopt bioactive food ingredients as part of functional food consumption by ... A critical review of the significance of food labelling during consumer ...

  17. NOWADAYS ONLINE CONSUMERS' RIGHTS AND INTERESTS. CASE STUDY- THE ROMANIAN EDUCATED ONLINE YOUNG CONSUMER

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta-Dorina RACOLŢA-PAINA; Theodora Alexandra LUCA

    2011-01-01

    The digital age brought along the appearance of a new type of consumer, the online consumer. Taking into consideration the serious security threats of the virtual market, the purpose of this article is to emphasize several significant aspects related to online consumer’s rights and interests, with a special interest on the educated online young consumers in Romania. We used desk and field research and carried out an online exploratory, quantitative survey, with the questionnaire as the main i...

  18. Factors influencing purchase intention towards consumer-to-consumer e-commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dachyar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study explores factors that influence consumer’s purchase intention at three consumer-to-consumer (C2C e-commerce companies in Indonesia. Design/methodology/approach: 5 Expert opinions are used to determine the indicators of each factor and the Structural Equation Modelling (SEM method is used to analyze the empirical data of  400 respondents for each company. Findings: It is found different significant factors that influence customer’s purchase intention in each company. Trust and risk are found to be significantly effect purchase intention in Company A. Meanwhile, the other two companies, perceived usefulness proved to be significant in Company B and benefit significantly effect consumer purchase intention in Company C. Originality/value: This study represents purchase intention in the consumer-to-consumer e-commerce by investigating three case study using technology acceptance model as a guiding theory.

  19. Education – Determinant of Consumer`s Conditions in an Era of Technological Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Burghelea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the era of technological change, consumers face an environment increasingly complex, leading to significant challenges regarding buying and consuming choices and consumer protection. The most important and most influential technological changes in terms of the impact on the consumer, are iduced by internet, digitization and globalization. However, the era of technological change also means developing biotechnologies, nanotechnologies, new materials and new energy sources, all these changing people`s lives, living conditions, their needs and their behaviour as consumers. The literature highlights the factors that influence purchasing behaviour and changes manifested in terms of values, stressing the importance of promoting and protecting consumer`s rights and interests, The new responsible consumer can become a key driving force of sustainable development only if it is able to capitalize on new opportunities and to counter new risks of modern marketing technologies based on the Internet and mobile communications. This involves the assimilation of new knowledge throughout life to keep up with the accelerating pace of technological innovation and diffusion of e-commerce solutions and mobile commerce. We study the correlation between the composite index of consumer conditions and the level of participation in lifelong learning programmes in some Member States, based on secondary analysis of the data available at EU level,. The results confirm that the consumer`s situation is better in countries where the level of participation in lifelong learning programmes is higher. At the same time, however, the correlation is not linear. This shows that the consumer`s situation does not depend exclusively on formal continuing education but also other factors such as timeliness and severity of legal and institutional framework of consumer protection, the acquisition of knowledge through informal means, the requirement of different customers in different

  20. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Consumer Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, Martin; Schilke, Oliver; Weber, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    of prior fMRI research related to consumer behavior and highlights the features that make fMRI an attractive method for consumer and marketing research. The authors discuss advantages and limitations and illustrate the proposed procedures with an applied study, which investigates loss aversion when buying......Although the field of psychology is undergoing an immense shift toward the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the application of this methodology to consumer research is relatively new. To assist consumer researchers in understanding fMRI, this paper elaborates on the findings...... and selling a common product. Results reveal a significantly stronger activation in the amygdala while consumers estimate selling prices versus buying prices, suggesting that loss aversion is associated with the processing of negative emotion. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  1. SENSORY AND CONSUMER TESTING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — These laboratories conduct a wide range of studies to characterize the sensory properties of and consumer responses to foods, beverages, and other consumer products....

  2. 76 FR 35721 - Consumer Leasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... 213 Advertising, Consumer leasing, Consumer protection, Federal Reserve System, Reporting and... contains regulatory documents #0;having general applicability and legal effect, most of which are keyed #0...

  3. Consumer experiences in a consumer-driven health plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Jon B; Parente, Stephen T; Feldman, Roger

    2004-08-01

    To assess the experience of enrollees in a consumer-driven health plan (CDHP). Survey of University of Minnesota employees regarding their 2002 health benefits. Comparison of regression-adjusted mean values for CDHP and other plan enrollees: customer service, plan paperwork, overall satisfaction, and plan switching. For CDHP enrollees only, use of plan features, willingness to recommend the plan to others, and reports of particularly negative or positive experiences. There were significant differences in experiences of CDHP enrollees versus enrollees in other plans with customer service and paperwork, but similar levels of satisfaction (on a 10-point scale) with health plans. Eight percent of CDHP enrollees left their plan after one year, compared to 5 percent of enrollees leaving other plans. A minority of CDHP enrollees used online plan features, but enrollees generally were satisfied with the amount and quality of the information provided by the CDHP. Almost half reported a particularly positive experience, compared to a quarter reporting a particularly negative experience. Thirty percent said they would recommend the plan to others, while an additional 57 percent said they would recommend it depending on the situation. Much more work is needed to determine how consumer experience varies with the number and type of plan options available, the design of the CDHP, and the length of time in the CDHP. Research also is needed on the factors that affect consumer decisions to leave CDHPs.

  4. Tourists consuming distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    The environmental impact of tourism mobility is linked to the distances travelled in order to reach a holiday destination, and with tourists travelling more and further than previously, an understanding of how the tourists view the distance they travel across becomes relevant. Based on interviews...... contribute to an understanding of how it is possible to change tourism travel behaviour towards becoming more sustainable. How tourists 'consume distance' is discussed, from the practical level of actually driving the car or sitting in the air plane, to the symbolic consumption of distance that occurs when...... travelling on holiday becomes part of a lifestyle and a social positioning game. Further, different types of tourist distance consumers are identified, ranging from the reluctant to the deliberate and nonchalant distance consumers, who display very differing attitudes towards the distance they all travel...

  5. Consumer Energy Atlas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This first edition of the Atlas provides, in reference form, a central source of information to consumers on key contacts concerned with energy in the US. Energy consumers need information appropriate to local climates and characteristics - best provided by state and local governments. The Department of Energy recognizes the authority of state and local governments to manage energy programs on their own. Therefore, emphasis has been given to government organizations on both the national and state level that influence, formulate, or administer policies affecting energy production, distribution, and use, or that provide information of interest to consumers and non-specialists. In addition, hundreds of non-government energy-related membership organizations, industry trade associations, and energy publications are included.

  6. Consumer identification with store brands: Differences between consumers according to their brand loyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Rubio

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Retail management of store brands (SBs has focused on achieving positioning in value and creating associations of smart or expert shopping. The result is that value-conscious consumers and market mavens are the main targets of these brands. This study proposes and contrasts empirically a theoretical model of the effect of market mavenism and value consciousness on consumer identification with SBs. We also perform a multi-group analysis based on the consumer tendency to be loyal to the brands he or she buys. Consumers who are loyal to brands are very attractive segments for firms, due to the potential benefits these consumers represent in the long term, whereas consumers with little loyalty to brands can be an attractive segment for potential benefits in the short term. The results obtained in this study show differences between these two groups. For consumers who are loyal to brands, the results stress strong identification with the SB among the most value-conscious consumers, due fundamentally to their greater disagreement with the greater functional risk of these brands as compared to manufacturer brands and due to their greater conviction of the better price-quality ratio of SBs. In consumers with little brand loyalty, we find identification with the SB among the consumers with the greatest market mavenism, as a result of their greater perception of smart or expert shopping for these brands. Significant implications for management are derived from this study.

  7. Amiloride Improves Endothelial Function and Reduces Vascular Stiffness in Female Mice Fed a Western Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Martinez-Lemus

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Obese premenopausal women lose their sex related cardiovascular disease protection and develop greater arterial stiffening than age matched men. In female mice, we have shown that consumption of a Western diet (WD, high in fat and refined sugars, is associated with endothelial dysfunction and vascular stiffening, which occur via activation of mineralocorticoid receptors and associated increases in epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC activity on endothelial cells (EnNaC. Herein our aim was to determine the effect that reducing EnNaC activity with a very-low-dose of amiloride would have on decreasing endothelial and arterial stiffness in young female mice consuming a WD. To this end, we fed female mice either a WD or control diet and treated them with or without a very-low-dose of the ENaC-inhibitor amiloride (1 mg/kg/day in the drinking water for 20 weeks beginning at 4 weeks of age. Mice consuming a WD were heavier and had greater percent body fat, proteinuria, and aortic stiffness as assessed by pulse-wave velocity than those fed control diet. Treatment with amiloride did not affect body weight, body composition, blood pressure, urinary sodium excretion, or insulin sensitivity, but significantly reduced the development of endothelial and aortic stiffness, aortic fibrosis, aortic oxidative stress, and mesenteric resistance artery EnNaC abundance and proteinuria in WD-fed mice. Amiloride also improved endothelial-dependent vasodilatory responses in the resistance arteries of WD-fed mice. These results indicate that a very-low-dose of amiloride, not affecting blood pressure, is sufficient to improve endothelial function and reduce aortic stiffness in female mice fed a WD, and suggest that EnNaC-inhibition may be sufficient to ameliorate the pathological vascular stiffening effects of WD-induced obesity in females.

  8. A Ketogenic Diet Extends Longevity and Healthspan in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan N; Wallace, Marita A; Tomilov, Alexey A; Zhou, Zeyu; Marcotte, George R; Tran, Dianna; Perez, Gabriella; Gutierrez-Casado, Elena; Koike, Shinichiro; Knotts, Trina A; Imai, Denise M; Griffey, Stephen M; Kim, Kyoungmi; Hagopian, Kevork; McMackin, Marissa Z; Haj, Fawaz G; Baar, Keith; Cortopassi, Gino A; Ramsey, Jon J; Lopez-Dominguez, Jose Alberto

    2017-09-05

    Calorie restriction, without malnutrition, has been shown to increase lifespan and is associated with a shift away from glycolysis toward beta-oxidation. The objective of this study was to mimic this metabolic shift using low-carbohydrate diets and to determine the influence of these diets on longevity and healthspan in mice. C57BL/6 mice were assigned to a ketogenic, low-carbohydrate, or control diet at 12 months of age and were either allowed to live their natural lifespan or tested for physiological function after 1 or 14 months of dietary intervention. The ketogenic diet (KD) significantly increased median lifespan and survival compared to controls. In aged mice, only those consuming a KD displayed preservation of physiological function. The KD increased protein acetylation levels and regulated mTORC1 signaling in a tissue-dependent manner. This study demonstrates that a KD extends longevity and healthspan in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Incorporating Transformative Consumer Research into the Consumer Behavior Course Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to understanding consumer behavior for the benefit of business organizations, transformative consumer research (TCR) seeks to understand consumer behavior for the benefit of consumers themselves. Following Mari's (2008) call for the incorporation of TCR in doctoral programs in marketing, this article outlines the relevance of TCR to…

  10. FTY720-loaded poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) electrospun scaffold significantly increases microvessel density over 7 days in streptozotocin-induced diabetic C57b16/J mice: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, D T; Chhabra, P; Langman, L; Botchwey, E A; Brayman, K L

    2011-11-01

    Nanofiber scaffolds could improve islet transplant success by physically mimicking the shape of extracellular matrix and by acting as a drug-delivery vehicle. Scaffolds implanted in alternate transplant sites must be prevascularized or very quickly vascularized following transplantation to prevent hypoxia-induced islet necrosis. The local release of the S1P prodrug FTY720 induces diameter enlargement and increases in length density. The objective of this preliminary study was to evaluate length and diameter differences between diabetic and nondiabetic animals implanted with FTY720-containing electrospun scaffolds using intravital imaging of dorsal skinfold window chambers. Electrospun mats of randomly oriented fibers we created from polymer solutions of PLAGA (50:50 LA:GA) with and without FTY720 loaded at a ratio of 1:200 (FTY720:PLAGA by wt). The implanted fiber mats were 4 mm in diameter and ∼0.2 mm thick. Increases in length density and vessel diameter were assessed by automated analysis of images over 7 days in RAVE, a Matlab program. Image analysis of repeated measures of microvessel metrics demonstrated a significant increase in the length density from day 0 to day 7 in the moderately diabetic animals of this preliminary study (P < .05). Furthermore, significant differences in length density at day 0 and day 3 were found between recently STZ-induced moderately diabetic and nondiabetic animals in response to FTY720 local release (P < .05, Student t test). Driving the islet revascularization process using local release of factors, such as FTY720, from biodegradable polymers makes an attractive system for the improvement of islet transplant success. Preliminary study results suggest that a recently induced moderately diabetic state may potentiate the mechanism by which local release of FTY720 from polymer fibers increases length density of microvessels. Therefore, local release of S1P receptor-targeted drugs is under further investigation for improvement of

  11. Facilitating consumer participation: an approach to finding the 'right' consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary health care increasingly dictates that consumers of services should become active participants in the health care system. This has placed responsibility on administrators, managers and clinicians to include consumers in key strategic and decision making initiatives. However, this direction has not been accompanied by clear policies or guidelines. Consequently confusion about selecting consumers able to provide valuable input is identified as a barrier to active consumer involvement. The purpose of this paper is to address some concerns raised in the quest to find the "right" consumer, including: finding a consumer without an axe to grind; ensuring the consumer is representative of broader views; health professionals as consumer representatives. While these concerns are common they have not yet been extensively debated and discussed in the broader Literature. Strategies necessary to support consumers in participatory roles are also considered and the controversial subject of financial remuneration for consumers is also explored.

  12. CONSIDERATIONS ON CONSUMER PERCEIVED RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catalina Timiras

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we identified a number of factors influencing the consumers’ perceived risk. In the first part we conducted a review of the main issues that define the perceived risk by the consumer at the time of purchase, some of the lines of action of the organizations to diminish this risk perception and a number of influencing factors presented in the literature, with significant impact on the intensity with which risk is perceived by consumers. The second part of the article is based on the statistical information regarding e-commerce market, market in which the perceived risk plays an important role in the purchasing decision. Thus, based on available official statistics provided by Eurostat we have revealed the existence of certain links between electronic commerce and orientation towards risk and income levels, age and consumer educational level. The review is not intended to be exhaustive, the study taking into consideration only those links that can be identified from using official statistical data.

  13. Consumer Information in the food service industry vs. food retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Rogge, C.B.E.; Becker, Tilman C.

    2008-01-01

    In order to define consumer expectations over a traceability and information system for the entire food supply chain, the information behaviour of consumers in the food service industry has been subject to an analysis for the first time. In comparison to consumers in retailing, significant differences appear in information seeking behaviour as well as in the information desired.

  14. Citrus fruit quality assessment; producer and consumer perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption of citrus fruit and juices is popular with consumers worldwide and makes an important contribution to a healthy diet. Nevertheless, consumer preferences for citrus have undergone significant changes over the last twenty years and it is important to understand what consumers are looking ...

  15. Older Consumers Safety Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 한국어 Español ภาษาไทย Tiếng Việt Text Size: Decrease Font Increase Font Contact CPSC Consumers: Businesses: Report an Unsafe Product ... can become entrapped and suffocate in older, latch-type freezers, refrigerators, dryers and coolers. GFCI Fact Sheet ...

  16. Consumer rationality in choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conlon, B.J.

    2001-01-01

    The dissertation concentrates on consumer choice and the ability of current modelling approaches to capture the underlying behaviour of the individual decision-makers. The standard assumption of a rational utility maximising individual and its implications for observed behaviour are examined and

  17. Mapping online consumer search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronnenberg, B.J.; Kim, J.; Albuquerque, P.

    2011-01-01

    The authors propose a new method to visualize browsing behavior in so-called product search maps. Manufacturers can use these maps to understand how consumers search for competing products before choice, including how information acquisition and product search are organized along brands, product

  18. Sustainable Consumer Voices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitmøller, Anders; Rask, Morten; Jensen, Nevena

    2011-01-01

    Aiming to explore how user driven innovation can inform high level design strategies, an in-depth empirical study was carried out, based on data from 50 observations of private vehicle users. This paper reports the resulting 5 consumer voices: Technology Enthusiast, Environmentalist, Design Lover...

  19. Consuming a Machinic Servicescape

    OpenAIRE

    Hietanen, Joel; Andéhn, Mikael; Iddon, Thom; Denny, Iain; Ehnhage, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Consumer encounters with servicescapes tend to emphasize the harmonic tendency of their value-creating potential. We contest this assumption from a critical non-representational perspective that foregrounds the machinic and repressive potentiality of such con- sumption contexts. We offer the airport servicescape as an illustrative example. 

  20. CONSUME: users guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.D. Ottmar; M.F. Burns; J.N. Hall; A.D. Hanson

    1993-01-01

    CONSUME is a user-friendly computer program designed for resource managers with some working knowledge of IBM-PC applications. The software predicts the amount of fuel consumption on logged units based on weather data, the amount and fuel moisture of fuels, and a number of other factors. Using these predictions, the resource manager can accurately determine when and...

  1. Hermeneutics and Consumer Research.

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Stephen J; Fischer, Eileen

    1994-01-01

    This article reviews the nature of hermeneutic philosophy and the assumptions and features of a textual interpretation consistent with this perspective. The relationship of hermeneutic philosophy to the interpretive and critical theory traditions in consumer research is also discussed. Copyright 1994 by the University of Chicago.

  2. Consumer Product Category Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use information is compiled from multiple sources while product information is gathered from publicly available Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). EPA researchers are evaluating the possibility of expanding the database with additional product and use information.

  3. Consumer financial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raaij, W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Consumer financial behavior is a domain between micro-economics, behavioral finance, and marketing. It is based on insights and behavioral theories from cognitive, economic, and social psychology (biases, heuristics, social influences), in the context of and sometimes in conflict with micro-economic

  4. Research in consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    1988-01-01

    The present state of consumer behavior research is analysed here by Klaus Grunert, of the Aarhus Graduate School of Management, Denmark. Against the background of crisis in the existing research paradigm, he suggests a number of possible new directions in the field, at the same time emphasizing...

  5. Smart Consumer Lesson Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Jersey Consortium for Consumer Education, Newark.

    Lesson plans are provided for use with different populations of pre-K through senior high school students in four different areas of consumer education. Eight units in advertising are included: A First Look at Ads (pre-K-Grade 3), Don't Judge a Book by Its Cover (Grades 1-3), Fatal Distraction (Junior High), Package Labeling (Junior High), Product…

  6. Consuming the Exotic Other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalvani, Suren

    1995-01-01

    Explores the multiple and heterogeneous deployment of the Other within discourses that intersect and contest each other. Shows how the 19th century discourse of "le femme orientale," which informed the Romantic critique of capitalism, was recuperated in a hegemonic manner to promote an expanding consumer culture. Discusses the colonial…

  7. Older Consumers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Phillips

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to understand the concerns and problems faced by older people in an industrializing middle-income country, Malaysia, in their process of acquiring products to meet their everyday needs. Respondents aged 55 and over were interviewed in eight states throughout Peninsular Malaysia providing 1356 usable questionnaires; two-thirds from urban and one-third from rural areas. Education, health status, and life satisfaction were recorded. Service patronage behaviour was examined for four main categories of commonly-sought consumer goods: groceries, health supplements, apparel, eating outlets, plus selected services (public transport, vacation packages and financial services. The findings showed that older adults in Malaysia are rather discerning consumers. Many respondents are price conscious and have developed consumer attitudes with regard to attitude of staff and assistance rendered. Many display a good ability to discriminate and to select, especially on the basis of price and durability of products and many appear to be acting as effectively as consumers in any other age group.

  8. Milk by Any Other Name... Consumer Benefits from Labeled Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Dhar, Tirtha; Foltz, Jeremy D.

    2004-01-01

    This article uses revealed preferences of consumers to study the consumer benefits from rBST-free and organic labeled milk. The article specifies and estimates a quadratic AIDS demand system model for different milk types using U.S. supermarket scanner data. The introduction of rBST-free and organic milk is used to estimate consumer benefits that are decomposed into two components, competitive and variety effects. Results show significant consumer benefits from organic milk and to a lesser ex...

  9. The Influence of Reviewers on Millennial Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Svantesdotter, Emma; Tran, Hoa Mai; Guerra, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Background: The digital world of today alters the way consumers search, communicate, and perceive information significantly. Specifically, the traditional word-of-mouth, which refers to the exchange of information between consumers about products and brand, has become digitalized. This transforms word-of-mouth into electronic wordof-mouth, which serves as a user-generated information resource and can be accessed through various social media platforms. Problem: The ubiquitous presence of socia...

  10. Social Media Communication and Consumer Brand Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Rizwan Ali Khadim; Bilal Zafar; Muhammad Younis

    2014-01-01

    Social media has changed the shape of communication strategies in the corporate world. Corporations are using social media to reach their maximum stakeholders in minimum time at different social media forums. Consumers being an important corporate stakeholder hold significant importance in corporate communication strategy. The current study examines the role of social media communication on consumer brand perceptions and their buying behavior. A comprehensive survey is conducted through vario...

  11. Development of Consumer Credit Laws in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Ahmad Saufi Abdul

    2007-01-01

    Consumer Credit is a branch of Commercial Law, which has been developing in recent years inMalaysia. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the latest amendments in the consumer credit laws inMalaysia and to highlight its significance. The discussion will be limited to the three most important laws ofconsumer credit in Malaysia: the hire-purchase, money lending and pawn broking laws.

  12. Consumers as co-developers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Lars Bo; Molin, Måns J.

    Abstract: This study describes a process in which a firm relies on an external consumer communityfor innovation. While it has been recognized that users may sometimes innovate, little is known aboutwhat commercial firms can do to motivate and capture such innovations and their related benefits...... firms purposively can do to generate consumer innovation efforts. An explorative casestudy shows that consumer innovation can be structured, motivated, and partly organized by acommercial firm that lays out the infrastructure for interactive learning by consumers in a publicKeywords: Product Development......, Consumer-to-Consumer Interaction, Learning, Consumer Innovation, Community, User-toolkits. JEL code(s): L21; L23; O31; O32...

  13. A less stressful alternative to oral gavage for pharmacological and toxicological studies in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Mary K.; Boberg, Jason R.; Walsh, Mary T.; Wolf, Valerie; Trujillo, Alisha; Duke, Melissa Skelton; Palme, Rupert; Felton, Linda A.

    2012-01-01

    Oral gavage dosing can induce stress and potentially confound experimental measurements, particularly when blood pressure and heart rate are endpoints of interest. Thus, we developed a pill formulation that mice would voluntarily consume and tested the hypothesis that pill dosing would be significantly less stressful than oral gavage. C57Bl/6 male mice were singly housed and on four consecutive days were exposed to an individual walking into the room (week 1, control), a pill being placed into the cage (week 2), and a dose of water via oral gavage (week 3). Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded by radiotelemetry continuously for 5 h after treatment, and feces collected 6–10 h after treatment for analysis of corticosterone metabolites. Both pill and gavage dosing significantly increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) during the first hour, compared to control. However, the increase in MAP was significantly greater after gavage and remained elevated up to 5 h, while MAP returned to normal within 2 h after a pill. Neither pill nor gavage dosing significantly increased heart rate during the first hour, compared to control; however, pill dosing significantly reduced heart rate while gavage significantly increased heart rate 2–5 h post dosing. MAP and heart rate did not differ 24 h after dosing. Lastly, only gavage dosing significantly increased fecal corticosterone metabolites, indicating a systemic stress response via activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. These data demonstrated that this pill dosing method of mice is significantly less stressful than oral gavage. -- Highlights: ► Developed a novel oral dosing method using a pill that mice will readily consume. ► Assessed stress by blood pressure, heart rate, and fecal corticosterone metabolites. ► Demonstrated that pill dosing is significantly less stressful than oral gavage.

  14. A less stressful alternative to oral gavage for pharmacological and toxicological studies in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Mary K., E-mail: mwalker@salud.unm.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boberg, Jason R.; Walsh, Mary T.; Wolf, Valerie; Trujillo, Alisha; Duke, Melissa Skelton [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Palme, Rupert [Department of Biomedical Sciences/Biochemistry, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Felton, Linda A. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Oral gavage dosing can induce stress and potentially confound experimental measurements, particularly when blood pressure and heart rate are endpoints of interest. Thus, we developed a pill formulation that mice would voluntarily consume and tested the hypothesis that pill dosing would be significantly less stressful than oral gavage. C57Bl/6 male mice were singly housed and on four consecutive days were exposed to an individual walking into the room (week 1, control), a pill being placed into the cage (week 2), and a dose of water via oral gavage (week 3). Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded by radiotelemetry continuously for 5 h after treatment, and feces collected 6–10 h after treatment for analysis of corticosterone metabolites. Both pill and gavage dosing significantly increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) during the first hour, compared to control. However, the increase in MAP was significantly greater after gavage and remained elevated up to 5 h, while MAP returned to normal within 2 h after a pill. Neither pill nor gavage dosing significantly increased heart rate during the first hour, compared to control; however, pill dosing significantly reduced heart rate while gavage significantly increased heart rate 2–5 h post dosing. MAP and heart rate did not differ 24 h after dosing. Lastly, only gavage dosing significantly increased fecal corticosterone metabolites, indicating a systemic stress response via activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. These data demonstrated that this pill dosing method of mice is significantly less stressful than oral gavage. -- Highlights: ► Developed a novel oral dosing method using a pill that mice will readily consume. ► Assessed stress by blood pressure, heart rate, and fecal corticosterone metabolites. ► Demonstrated that pill dosing is significantly less stressful than oral gavage.

  15. Consumer protection in European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlová, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    The consumer protection is a very actual topic in the european policy. It is necessary for the right function of the internal market. The document mentions the development of the consumer protection policy - the past and the future strategy. The valid legislation is listed and also mentioned is the Proposal for a Directive on Consumer Rights. It gives an overview of european consumer organisations and their function . There are also mentioned some alternatives of the consumer's redress. Docum...

  16. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS ELECTRIC FANS

    OpenAIRE

    Inderpreet Singh

    2017-01-01

    The study of consumer behaviour develops great interest for consumers, students, scientists, and marketers. As consumers, we need insights into our own consumption related decisions: what we buy, why we buy, and how we buy. The aim of the study is to cover entire research about consumer behaviour towards electric fans and different factors affecting their buying decision. A sample of 200 consumers of electric fans is taken. Questionnaire has been analysed with the help of pie diagram & bar ch...

  17. Exposure from consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadagopan, Geetha

    1998-01-01

    Consumer products containing radioactive material, are available in the market place to any member of public as off the shelf item and are intended for unrestricted use by them at home or for their personal use. Radioactivity may be involved in the product for several reasons: 1. ionising radiation from the radioactive material forms the basis of the particular functioning of the product like radioisotopes in smoke detectors, radio-luminous dials, etc.; 2. chemical/spectroscopic characteristics of the radioactive material and not its radioactivity is the basis for the functional property of the product like thoriated gas mantles, uranium in glass enamels, etc. and 3. radioactive materials could be naturally occurring in consumer products, but could increase in concentration after processing like increased uranium or thorium concentrations after the processing of rare earth oxides

  18. Consuming technologies - developing routines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    technologies and in this article these processes will be investigated from three different perspectives: an historical perspective of how new technologies have entered homes, a consumer perspective of how both houses and new technologies are purchased and finally, as the primary part of the article, a user...... perspective of how routines develop while these technologies are being used. In the conclusion these insights are discussed in relation to possible ways of influencing routines....

  19. Emotions and Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Eduardo; Gururangan, Kapil; Iantorno, Stefano; Feng, Harvey; Cherone, Jennifer; Sawant, Manali; Neogi, Sushrita; Bhat, Prashant; Lukus, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Professor Eduardo Andrade received his Ph.D. in Marketing from the University of Florida in 2004 before coming to theHaas School of Business. He studies the impact of emotions on consumer decision making. One of his studies publishedin 2009 shifted the concept of emotions from transient effects to long-term processes and his recent work is movinginto the burgeoning field of decision neuroscience, which uses neuroscience tools to study economic decision-making.When Berkeley Scientific Journal ...

  20. MANIPULATING CONSUMERS THROUGH ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta -Andreea Neacşu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Marketing communication has evolved steadily in the direction of increasing complexity and increasing volume of funds needed to run their own actions. More than ever, consumers are exposed to an overwhelming variety of sources and communication tehniques, the information received being numerous, diverse and polyvalent. The desire to make more efficient the marketing communication activity urges the broadcasters to encode messages, to use effective means of propagation in order to obtain a high degree of control on receptors and to influence the consumption attitudes. Between the means used for this purpose, manipulation tehniques are well known. This paper highlights the main conclusions drawn as a result of a quantitative marketing research on the adult population from Braşov in order to identify the attitudes and opinions of consumers from Braşov regarding the manipulation techniques used by commercial practices and advertising.The results of the research have shown that 82% of the respondents buy products in promotional offers, and 18% choose not to buy these products and 61% of the respondents consider that they have not been manipulated not even once, while only 39% believe that they have been manipulated at least once through advertising or commercial practices. Advertisements on TV have a strong influence on consumers, 81% of the respondents considering that at least once they have bought a product because of a TV commercial.

  1. Consumers' quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Anne C.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bredahl, Lone

    2001-01-01

    Much has been said about food quality, and the disussion is endless because the notion of quality changes along with the changes in our life and society. This underlines the complexity of the issue of food quality. Today food production in Europe is highly concentrated, and the global market is r...... framework, the Total Food Quality Model, which we believe is useful in understanding consumers perception of food quality. We will then illustrate applications of the model using two recent examples of the quality perception of meat and fish.......Much has been said about food quality, and the disussion is endless because the notion of quality changes along with the changes in our life and society. This underlines the complexity of the issue of food quality. Today food production in Europe is highly concentrated, and the global market...... of quality and the ability of producers to react to changes in consumers' perception of quality may form the basis of market success or failure, independent of whether you are a local or multinational producer. This chapter deals with the analysis of consumers' quality perception. We will introduce a general...

  2. Consumer perception of risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    2001-01-01

    Scientists and regulators are regularly baffled by public responses to risk, especially when the issue at stake seemed unproblematic or at least technocratically solvable as long as it was only discussed within the expert community. In terms of such polarizations, the 1970s were the age of dissen...... these perceptions related to consumers' attitudes and choice behavior....... over nuclear power, while the 1990s saw the emergence of gene technology as an issue of public debate. The first decade of the new millennium aspires to become the age of food safety, and once again, a major research effort is made to find out how consumers' confidence can be restored. Brewing......, as a particular branch of food manufacturing, has in the past been able to dodge implication in major risk debates. The latest crisis in a related industry was the temporary banning of several brands of the Coca-Cola Co. in 1999 in Belgium following symptoms of nausea and vomiting amongst people who had consumed...

  3. Country-of-origin Effect and Consumer Ethnocentrism of Romanian Consumers of a Danish Beer Brand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujac, Andreea Ioana

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the impact of consumer ethnocentrism and country of origin of a low involvement product on consumer brand perception and purchase behaviour in a transitional market setting of Central and Eastern Europe. Data were collected from 317 respondents from an urban population in 3...... large cities in Romania. The results show that country of origin has a significant impact on the consumers’ perception of the Danish beer brand Tuborg. The results show statistically significant associations between consumer ethnocentrism taxation and buying Romanian products; as well as between...

  4. Consumer socialization of children in modern family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovač-Žnideršić Ružica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The research presented in this paper is based on the behavior of a specific segment of consumers - specific for its psychological as well as economic characteristics - segment of kids (children as consumers. Therefore, the kids as consumers and their influence in family decision making process, in the framework of modern ('new' families, are the subject of this research. The aim of the paper is analyising the importance of family as the main driving force of consumer socialization of children in which kids achieve more significant and active participation in making purchasing decisions. Results of empirical research, presented in this paper, are in line with the findings of foreign authors with regards to influence of children in family decision making.

  5. Teaching Consumers To Use the Internet To Make Consumer Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    An adult-education course familiarized participants with online consumer resources. Beyond teaching the mechanics of Internet use, it showed how to use the Internet as a tool for consumer decision making. (SK)

  6. High Fat High Sugar Diet Reduces Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice Independent of Sex Hormone Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellers, Heather L.; Letsinger, Ayland C.; Walker, Nicholas R.; Granados, Jorge Z.; Lightfoot, J. Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Indirect results in humans suggest that chronic overfeeding decreases physical activity with few suggestions regarding what mechanism(s) may link overfeeding and decreased activity. The primary sex hormones are known regulators of activity and there are reports that chronic overfeeding alters sex hormone levels. Thepurpose of this study was to determine if chronic overfeeding altered wheel running through altered sex hormone levels. Materials and Methods: C57BL/6J mice were bred and the pups were weaned at 3-weeks of age and randomly assigned to either a control (CFD) or high fat/high sugar (HFHS) diet for 9–11 weeks depending on activity analysis. Nutritional intake, body composition, sex hormone levels, and 3-day and 2-week wheel-running activity were measured. Additionally, groups of HFHS animals were supplemented with testosterone (males) and 17β-estradiol (females) to determine if sex hormone augmentation altered diet-induced changes in activity. Results: 117 mice (56♂, 61♀) were analyzed. The HFHS mice consumed significantly more calories per day than CFD mice (male: p running-wheel distance in male (p = 0.05, 70 ± 28%) and female mice (p = 0.02, 57 ± 26%). In animals that received hormone supplementation, there was no significant effect on activity levels. Two-weeks of wheel access was not sufficient to alter HFHS-induced reductions in activity or increases in body fat. Conclusion: Chronic overfeeding reduces wheel running, but is independent of the primary sex hormones. PMID:28890701

  7. Scallop protein with endogenous high taurine and glycine content prevents high-fat, high-sucrose-induced obesity and improves plasma lipid profile in male C57BL/6J mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Keenan, Alison H.; Madsen, Lise

    2014-01-01

    High-protein diets induce alterations in metabolism that may prevent diet-induced obesity. However, little is known as to whether different protein sources consumed at normal levels may affect diet-induced obesity and associated co-morbidities. We fed obesity-prone male C57BL/6J mice high-fat, high......-fed mice, but otherwise no changes in lean body mass were observed between the groups. Feed efficiency and apparent nitrogen digestibility were reduced in scallop-fed mice suggesting alterations in energy utilization and metabolism. Overnight fasted plasma triacylglyceride, non-esterified fatty acids......, glycerol and hydroxy-butyrate levels were significantly reduced, indicating reduced lipid mobilization in scallop-fed mice. The plasma HDL-to-total-cholesterol ratio was higher, suggesting increased reverse cholesterol transport or cholesterol clearance in scallop-fed mice in both fasted and non-fasted...

  8. Global Brands and Consumer Ethnocentrism of Youth Soft Drink Consumers in Greater Jakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammam Haris Tasurru

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is a large market for consumer products targeting youth consumers, with populations of more than 70 million young inhabitants and market size of USD 155 billion. The large size of this potential market attracts foreign products with globallyrecognized brands to enter the Indonesian market. The objective of this study is to explain the purchase intention of youth consumers toward a particular brand of soft drink with global penetration by their perceptions and ethnocentrism. This study obtained response from 156 youths in Greater Jakarta, Indonesia. The resulting data was analyzed using structural equation modeling with LISREL software package. The study found that consumer ethnocentrism decreases purchase intention, both directly and indirectly through brand image. Contrary to the hypothesis, consumer ethnocentrism does not influence corporate image of the global firm, which significantly influences brand image but only slightly impacts purchase intentions directly.

  9. Consuming the Fashion Tattoo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldgaard, Dannie; Bengtsson, Anders

    2005-01-01

    From being considered a marginal and sometimes deviant behavior, the consumption of tattoos has become a mass consumer phenomenon. As tattoos have gained in popularity, it can be expected that the reasons for why people get tattoos have shifted as well. This paper explores consumers’ motivations...... for getting a fashion tattoo and the meaning associated with its consumption. Through phenomenological interviews with fashion tattooees, the themes 'art/fashion’, 'personalization and biographing’, 'contextual representation of self’, and 'meanings?’ are related to existing consumption theory....

  10. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Labs and Research Centers Radon Contact Us Share Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ... See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ...

  11. Consumer networks and firm reputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyran, Jean-Robert; Huck, Steffen; Lünser, Gabriele K.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the role of consumer networks in markets that suffer from moral hazard. Consumers exchange information with neighbors about past experiences with different sellers. Networks foster incentives for reputation building and enhance trust and efficiency in markets....

  12. Gloves-off Consumer Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Daniel A.

    1992-01-01

    The evolution of the consumer economics course at Hobart and William Smith College demonstrates its mainstreaming in the liberal arts curriculum. The course uses principles of economics to address broad and often controversial consumer issues. (SK)

  13. BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS OF CONSUMER COMPLAINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrie Prasetyo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Complaining is one form of communication for consumers to express their dissatisfaction. Understanding the consumer complaint behavior is an important thing for businesses; however, it is not easy to do. The initial step in understanding this behavior of consumer complaints is to map consumers based on their behavior of complaints and analyze the factors that influence this. This study examines the complaint behavior of consumers in Cibubur who have experienced dissatisfaction with a product.  The objectives of this study are to map the consumer complaint behavior and identify its relationship with various factors such as consumer demographics, personality, attitude to businesses, attribution of the causes of dissatisfaction, and product attributes. A crosstab descriptive analysis method was used to map the consumers, while the Pearson correlation analysis methods was used to analyze consumer complaint behavioral relationships with various factors. The results of this study indicated that consumers in Cibubur based on their complaint behavior are classified into four groups: passive, voicers, irates and activist. The passive consumers dominate the category with a percentage of 49%.  The voicers, irates, and activist belong to the complaining type and are dominated by young women, with high levels of education and income. Keywords: consumer complaint behavior, product, crosstab, pearson correlation

  14. Consumer Acceptance of Novel Foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.; Reinders, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    The success of novel foods depends to a considerable extent on whether consumers accept those innovations. This chapter provides an overview of current knowledge relevant to consumer acceptance of innovations in food. A broad range of theories and approaches to assess consumer response to

  15. Invitation to Consumer Behavior Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an introduction to consumer behavior analysis by describing the Behavioral Perspective Model of consumer choice and showing how research has, first, confirmed this framework and, second, opened up behavior analysis and behavioral economics to the study of consumer behavior in natural settings. It concludes with a discussion…

  16. 75 FR 78632 - Consumer Leasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... The new threshold for exempt consumer leases in the CLA goes into effect on July 21, 2011. Accordingly... and 213.4) and when the availability of consumer leases on particular terms is advertised (Sec. 213.7... regulation also contain rules about advertising consumer leases. The information collection pursuant to...

  17. Alcohol consumption suppresses metastasis of B16-BL6 melanoma in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, G G; Elstad, C A; Blank, S E; Gallucci, R M; Pfister, L J

    1993-03-01

    Female C57BL/6 mice were fed a defined, pelleted diet and given 10% w/v or 20% w/v ethanol in their drinking water. Natural killer (NK) cell cytolytic activity was compared between water-drinking and ethanol-consuming mice and in mice that were also treated with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) to augment NK cell activity or with anti-NK1.1 antibody to decrease activity. NK cell cytolytic activity was not altered in mice given 10% ethanol, but was decreased in mice given 20% ethanol compared to water-drinking mice. Poly I:C treatment increased and anti-NK1.1 antibody treatment decreased NK cell activity in both water-drinking and 20% ethanol-consuming mice. Experimental and spontaneous metastases of B16-BL6 melanoma were evaluated as a function of the duration of ethanol consumption before tumor inoculation and as a function of altered NK cell activity. Experimental metastasis was inhibited after 4 and also after 6.5 weeks of ethanol exposure. Poly I:C treatment inhibited tumor lung colonization irrespective of ethanol consumption. Anti-NK1.1 antibody treatment increased metastasis, although to a lesser degree in mice consuming 10% ethanol. Spontaneous metastasis was inhibited in mice consuming 10% ethanol for 4 weeks, and in mice consuming 20% ethanol for 1 and 4 weeks before melanoma inoculation.

  18. Advertising and Consumer Choice of Telecommunication Services in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Oladipo Olalekan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the critical influence of advertising on consumer choice of telecommunication services in Nigeria. The advertisement played a key role in providing the consumers with product information. The study investigates the effect of marketing medium of telecommunication as a proxy for advertisement on preference of telecommunication services as a proxy for consumer choice in Nigeria. The Binary Logit Model (BLM and descriptive analytical frameworks are used to evaluate the statistical importance of advertisement, quality of services, income of the consumer, product’s self and related service charges for a consumer choice of telecommunication services through Wald test. The findings show that product’s self service charge and service quality are statistically significant for a consumer choice of telecommunication services in Nigeria at 1 percent significance level. And, related product’s service is statistically significant for a consumer choice of telecommunication services in Nigeria at 5 percent significance level. While advertisement and income of the consumer are statistically significant for a consumer choice of telecommunication services in Nigeria at 10 percent. The study concludes that advertisement is important for the choice of telecommunication services in Nigeria but having less impact. And, product’s self service charge and service quality are hugely significant for the choice of telecommunication services in Nigeria. Therefore, the sector of telecommunications needs more investment in advertisement so as to have telecommunications’ products information spread in order to stimulate the increase in demand for telecommunication services in Nigeria.

  19. Neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience: contributions to neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javor, Andrija; Koller, Monika; Lee, Nick; Chamberlain, Laura; Ransmayr, Gerhard

    2013-02-06

    empirical behavioral and neuroscientific evidence. Neurologists entering this field of research could profit from the extensive knowledge of the biological foundation of trust that scientists in economically-orientated neurosciences have gained.Fourth, neurologists could contribute significantly to the ethical debate about invasive methods in neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience. Further, neurologists should investigate biological and behavioral reactions of neurological patients to marketing and advertising measures, as they could show special consumer vulnerability and be subject to target marketing.

  20. Neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience: contributions to neurology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    . Third, trust research in the medical context lacks empirical behavioral and neuroscientific evidence. Neurologists entering this field of research could profit from the extensive knowledge of the biological foundation of trust that scientists in economically-orientated neurosciences have gained. Fourth, neurologists could contribute significantly to the ethical debate about invasive methods in neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience. Further, neurologists should investigate biological and behavioral reactions of neurological patients to marketing and advertising measures, as they could show special consumer vulnerability and be subject to target marketing. PMID:23383650

  1. Consumer involvement in oral nutritional supplements purchasing behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Meilia Fitriyani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to get insight of consumer involvement in purchasing behavior towards ONS (Oral Nutritional Supplements for children. By implementing an online survey with sample size of 100, the research investigated the factors (motivation and stimulus factor influencing consumer involvement and the causality between consumer involvement with the product knowledge as well as purchasing behavior. The research tool used was a 5-points Likert questionnaire in which respondents were asked to show their agreements about 40 items of 5 constructs. A partial least square - structural equation modeling by Smart-PLS software used to test the model. The results of this research also comes to conclusion that motivation and stimulus factor had significant affects on consumer involvement, consumer involvement had significant influence to product knowledge as well as ONS purchasing behavior, however product knowledge did not have significant affects on purchasing behavior. The results also showed that the product involvement has an important influence on consumers behavior.

  2. Mice Expressing a "Hyper-Sensitive" Form of the Cannabinoid Receptor 1 (CB1 Are Neither Obese Nor Diabetic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Marcus

    Full Text Available Multiple lines of evidence implicate the endocannabinoid signaling system in the modulation of metabolic disease. Genetic or pharmacological inactivation of CB1 in rodents leads to reduced body weight, resistance to diet-induced obesity, decreased intake of highly palatable food, and increased energy expenditure. Cannabinoid agonists stimulate feeding in rodents and increased levels of endocannabinoids can disrupt lipid metabolism. Therefore, the hypothesis that sustained endocannabinoid signaling can lead to obesity and diabetes was examined in this study using S426A/S430A mutant mice expressing a desensitization-resistant CB1 receptor. These mice display exaggerated and prolonged responses to acute administration of phytocannabinoids, synthetic cannabinoids, and endocannabinoids. As a consequence these mice represent a novel model for determining the effect of enhanced endocannabinoid signaling on metabolic disease. S426A/S430A mutants consumed equivalent amounts of both high fat (45% and low fat (10% chow control diet compared to wild-type littermate controls. S426A/S430A mutants and wild-type mice fed either high or low fat control diet displayed similar fasting blood glucose levels and normal glucose clearance following a 2 g/kg glucose challenge. Furthermore, S426A/S430A mutants and wild-type mice consumed similar amounts of chow following an overnight fast. While both THC and JZL195 significantly increased food intake two hours after injection, this increase was similar between the S426A/S430A mutant and wildtype control mice Our results indicate that S426A/S430A mutant mice expressing the desensitization-resistant form of CB1 do not exhibit differences in body weight, food intake, glucose homeostasis, or re-feeding following a fast.

  3. Docetaxel chronopharmacology in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampellini, M; Filipski, E; Liu, X H; Lemaigre, G; Li, X M; Vrignaud, P; François, E; Bissery, M C; Lévi, F

    1998-09-01

    Docetaxel tolerance and antitumor efficacy could be enhanced if drug administration was adapted to circadian rhythms. This hypothesis was investigated in seven experiments involving a total of 626 male B6D2F1 mice, synchronized with an alternation of 12 h of light and 12 h of darkness (12:12), after i.v. administration of docetaxel. In experiment (Exp) 1, the drug was given once a week (wk) for 6 wks (20 mg/kg/wk) or for 5 wks (30 mg/kg/wk) at one of six circadian times, during light when mice were resting [3, 7, or 11 hours after light onset (HALO)], or during darkness, when mice were active (15, 19, or 23 HALO). Endpoints were survival and body weight change. In Exp 2 and 3, docetaxel (30 mg/kg/wk) was administered twice, 1 wk apart, at one of four circadian stages (7, 11, 19, or 23 HALO). Endpoints were hematological and intestinal toxicities. In Exp 4, circadian changes in cell cycle phase distribution and BCL-2 immunofluorescence were investigated in bone marrow as possible mechanisms of docetaxel tolerability rhythm. In Exp 5 to 7, docetaxel was administered to mice bearing measurable P03 pancreatic adenocarcinoma (270-370 mg), with tumor weight and survival as endpoints. Mice from Exp 5 and 6 received a weekly schedule of docetaxel at one of six circadian stages (20 or 30 mg/kg/wk at 3, 7, 11, 15, 19, or 23 HALO). In Exp 7, docetaxel (30 mg/kg) was given every 2 days (day 1, 3, 5 schedule) at 7, 11, 19, or 23 HALO. Docetaxel dosing in the second half of darkness (19 or 23 HALO) resulted in significantly worse toxicity than its administration during the light span (3, 7, or 11 HALO). The survival rate ranged from 56.3% in the mice treated at 23 HALO to 93.8 or 87.5% in those injected at 3 or 11 HALO, respectively (Exp 1, P active at 11 HALO (percentage increase in life span, 390%) and least active at 23 HALO (210%). Docetaxel tolerability and antitumor efficacy were simultaneously enhanced by drug dosing in the light span, when mice were resting. Mechanisms

  4. Food quality and the consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jesper

    1993-01-01

    Executive Summary: 1. Consumers and professionals in the food sector will differ in the way they view food quality. Professionals have knowledge and resources to establish quality based on objective criteria. Consumers lack both, and they are typically concerned with many different products...... resources, of means of transportation, of time, of knowledge. Consumers' shopping behaviour is therefore an imperfect indicator of the quality consumers want, insufficient way of communicating consumer wishes to the food sector. 3. The fact that the food producer may be separated from the consumer...... certain attributes of food products or materials which may contradict consumer intentions. Economic pressure to reduce costs may lead to deteriorating quality. 5. While the information supplied by the market may be enough to give feed back on products launched based on the trial-and-error method...

  5. Consumer perception of bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellynck, Xavier; Kühne, Bianka; Van Bockstaele, Filip; Van de Walle, Davy; Dewettinck, Koen

    2009-08-01

    Bread contains a wide range of important nutritional components which provide a positive effect on human health. However, the consumption of bread is declining during the last decades. This is due to factors such as changing eating patterns and an increasing choice of substitutes like breakfast cereals and fast foods. The aim of this study is to investigate consumer's quality perception of bread towards sensory, health and nutrition attributes. Four consumer segments are identified based on these attributes. The different consumer segments comprise consumers being positive to all three quality aspects of bread ("enthusiastic") as wells as consumers perceiving bread strongly as "tasteless", "non-nutritious" or "unhealthy". Moreover, factors are identified which influence the consumers' quality perception of bread. The results of our study may help health professionals and policy makers to systematically inform consumers about the positive effects of bread based on its components. Furthermore, firms can use the results to build up tailor-made marketing strategies.

  6. Dietary Chitosan Supplementation Increases Microbial Diversity and Attenuates the Severity of Citrobacter rodentium Infection in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiping Guan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available C57BL/6 mice were tested in order to investigate the effects of dietary chitosan (COS supplements on intestinal microflora and resistance to Citrobacter rodentium infection. The findings reveal that, after consuming a 300 mg/kg COS diet for 14 days, microflora became more diverse as a result of the supplement. Mice receiving COS exhibited an increase in the percentage of Bacteroidetes phylum and a decrease in the percentage of Firmicutes phylum. After Citrobacter rodentium infection, the histopathology scores indicated that COS feeding resulted in less severe colitis. IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly lower in colon from COS-feeding mice than those in the control group. Furthermore, mice in COS group were also found to experience inhibited activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB in the colonic tissue. Overall, the findings revealed that adding 300 mg/kg COS to the diet changed the composition of the intestinal microflora of mice, resulting in suppressed NF-κB activation and less production of TNF-α and IL-6; and these changes led to better control of inflammation and resolution of infection with C. rodentium.

  7. Globalization of consumer confidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çelik Sadullah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of world economies and the importance of nowcasting analysis have been at the core of the recent literature. Nevertheless, these two strands of research are hardly coupled. This study aims to fill this gap through examining the globalization of the consumer confidence index (CCI by applying conventional and unconventional econometric methods. The US CCI is used as the benchmark in tests of comovement among the CCIs of several developing and developed countries, with the data sets divided into three sub-periods: global liquidity abundance, the Great Recession, and postcrisis. The existence and/or degree of globalization of the CCIs vary according to the period, whereas globalization in the form of coherence and similar paths is observed only during the Great Recession and, surprisingly, stronger in developing/emerging countries.

  8. Radioactivity of Consumer Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, David; Jokisch, Derek; Fulmer, Philip

    2006-11-01

    A variety of consumer products and household items contain varying amounts of radioactivity. Examples of these items include: FiestaWare and similar glazed china, salt substitute, bananas, brazil nuts, lantern mantles, smoke detectors and depression glass. Many of these items contain natural sources of radioactivity such as Uranium, Thorium, Radium and Potassium. A few contain man-made sources like Americium. This presentation will detail the sources and relative radioactivity of these items (including demonstrations). Further, measurements of the isotopic ratios of Uranium-235 and Uranium-238 in several pieces of china will be compared to historical uses of natural and depleted Uranium. Finally, the presenters will discuss radiation safety as it pertains to the use of these items.

  9. Consumer Protection in Cyberspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar H. Gandy, Jr.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This critical essay introduces the problem of discrimination enabled through the use of transaction-generated-information derived from the analysis of user behaviors within the network environment. The essay begins by describing how segments of the population that are already vulnerable become further victimized through the strategic use of discriminatory algorithms in support of identification, classification, segmentation, and targeting. In response, it evaluates a set of policy options that might be used to limit the harm and compensate the victims of these inherently dangerous technologies. Traditional approaches that stress the protection of privacy through restrictions on the collection and use of personal information are compared with alternatives based on individual and class actions under tort law, as well as more traditional regulatory approaches developed in the area of consumer products safety and environmental regulation.

  10. Chronic Posttraumatic Epilepsy following Neocortical Undercut Lesion in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingjie Ping

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE usually develops in a small percentage of patients of traumatic brain injury after a varying latent period. Modeling this chronic neurological condition in rodents is time consuming and inefficient, which constitutes a significant obstacle in studying its mechanism and discovering novel therapeutics for its prevention and treatment. Partially isolated neocortex, or undercut, is known to induce cortical hyperexcitability and epileptiform activity in vitro, and has been used extensively for studying the neurophysiological mechanism of posttraumatic epileptogenesis. However, whether the undercut lesion in rodents causes chronic epileptic seizures has not been systematically characterized. Here we used a miniature telemetry system to continuously monitor electroencephalography (EEG in adult C57BL mice for up to 3 months after undercut surgery. We found that 50% of animals developed spontaneous seizures between 16-50 days after injury. The mean seizure duration was 8.9±3.6 seconds, and the average seizure frequency was 0.17±0.17 times per day. There was no progression in seizure frequency and duration over the recording period. Video monitoring revealed behavioral arrests and clonic limb movement during seizure attacks. A pentylenetetrazol (PTZ test further showed increased seizure susceptibility in the undercut mice. We conclude that undercut lesion in mice is a model of chronic PTE that involves spontaneous epileptic seizures.

  11. Factors influencing purchase intention towards consumer-to-consumer e-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Dachyar; Liska Banjarnahor

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study explores factors that influence consumer’s purchase intention at three consumer-to-consumer (C2C) e-commerce companies in Indonesia. Design/methodology: 5 Expert opinions are used to determine the indicators of each factor and the Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) method is used to analyze the empirical data of 400 respondents for each company. Findings: It is found different significant factors that influence customer’s purchase intention in each compa...

  12. Consumer Value Creation in the Consumption of Luxury Goods: A Consumer Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Benvie-Ferreiros, Lidia

    2008-01-01

    The globalisation of the luxury market has presented the industry with an ever expanding and broad range of global consumers that are facilitating significant growth to the industry. In light of the downturn in Western economies, the extension and demand for luxury goods in booming Eastern economies present the luxury industry with a rosy future, estimated to be worth over $450 billion by 2012. The nature of this growth has been down to changing consumption behaviour of consumers; no longer e...

  13. Health care consumer reports: an evaluation of consumer perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Daniel R; Everet, Kevin D

    2003-01-01

    There has been a proliferation of health care consumer reports, also known as "consumer guides," "report cards," and "performance reports," which are designed to assist consumers in making more informed health care decisions. While there is evidence that providers use such reports to identify and make changes in practice, thus improving the quality of care, there is little empirical evidence on how consumer guides/report cards are used by consumers. This study fills that gap by surveying 925 patients as they wait for ambulatory care in several clinics in a midwestern city. Findings indicate that consumers are selective in their use of these reports and quickly identify those sections of the report of most interest to them. Report developers should take precautions to ensure such reports are viewed as credible sources of health care information.

  14. Consumer Generated Advertising and Brand Trust in The Consumer Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Reeves, C

    2010-01-01

    Increasing media clutter now exposes consumers to thousands of commercial messages every day (Gritten, 2007). The advent of the internet and technology over the past twenty years now means consumer-generated media such as blogs, podcasts, and online social networking sites are a further source (Gritten, 2007). Building brand trust remains, now more than ever, crucial to corporate marketers, in a world where consumers are losing faith in traditional marketing strategies. Social media has give...

  15. Price Intransparency, Consumer Decision Making and European Consumer Law

    OpenAIRE

    Boom, Willem

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPrice comparison is a basic element of competition. For comparison to work, at least prices need to be transparent. Moreover, price is usually a focal point in consumer thinking and deciding on transactions. Hence, obfuscating prices can be detrimental to consumers. Therefore, it is vital for policymakers to know how transparent pricing is in reality. Commercial practices involving price intransparency can be detrimental to consumer decision making and may be associated with marke...

  16. Cell Phone Roulette and "Consumer Interactive" Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Under current policies, cell phone consumers face a lower probability of finding the best carrier for their usage patterns than winning at roulette. Corroborating survey data consistently show significant dissatisfaction among cell phone users, network performance is a major issue, and customer "churn" is high. This problem may be traced to a new…

  17. Bringing the DERP to consumers: 'Consumer Reports Best Buy Drugs'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Steven D

    2006-01-01

    Consumers Union, publisher of Consumer Reports magazine, has used the drug class reviews of the Drug Effectiveness Review Project (DERP) as one critical component of a free public information project on the comparative effectiveness, safety, and cost of prescription drugs. The project translates the DERP findings for consumers. Drawing on other sources and adding information on drug costs, the project chooses Best Buy drugs in each category it evaluates. This guidance can help consumers save up to thousands of dollars per year, and it has the potential to reduce overall drug spending.

  18. How may consumer policy empower consumers for sustainable lifestyles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2005-01-01

    Consumer policy can empower consumers for changing lifestyles by reducing personal constraints and limitations, but it should also attempt to loosen some of the external constraints that make changes towards a more sustainable lifestyle difficult. In terms of reducing consumers' subjectively felt...... restrictions on their ability to change lifestyle, the two approaches are equivalent. Policies that increase a feeling of empowerment may also have a positive effect on consumers' motivation to make an effort, thus amplifying its effects. In this paper both types of constraints on lifestyle changes...

  19. Entrainment to feeding but not to light: circadian phenotype of VPAC2 receptor-null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheward, W John; Maywood, Elizabeth S; French, Karen L; Horn, Jacqueline M; Hastings, Michael H; Seckl, Jonathan R; Holmes, Megan C; Harmar, Anthony J

    2007-04-18

    The master clock driving mammalian circadian rhythms is located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus and entrained by daily light/dark cycles. SCN lesions abolish circadian rhythms of behavior and result in a loss of synchronized circadian rhythms of clock gene expression in peripheral organs (e.g., the liver) and of hormone secretion (e.g., corticosterone). We examined rhythms of behavior, hepatic clock gene expression, and corticosterone secretion in VPAC2 receptor-null (Vipr2-/-) mice, which lack a functional SCN clock. Unexpectedly, although Vipr2-/- mice lacked robust circadian rhythms of wheel-running activity and corticosterone secretion, hepatic clock gene expression was strongly rhythmic, but advanced in phase compared with that in wild-type mice. The timing of food availability is thought to be an important entrainment signal for circadian clocks outside the SCN. Vipr2-/- mice consumed food significantly earlier in the 24 h cycle than wild-type mice, consistent with the observed timing of peripheral rhythms of circadian gene expression. When restricted to feeding only during the daytime (RF), mice develop rhythms of activity and of corticosterone secretion in anticipation of feeding time, thought to be driven by a food-entrainable circadian oscillator, located outside the SCN. Under RF, mice of both genotypes developed food-anticipatory rhythms of activity and corticosterone secretion, and hepatic gene expression rhythms also became synchronized to the RF stimulus. Thus, food intake is an effective zeitgeber capable of coordinating circadian rhythms of behavior, peripheral clock gene expression, and hormone secretion, even in the absence of a functional SCN clock.

  20. Consumer Networks and Firm Reputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Lünser, Gabriele K.; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    Arguing that consumers are the carriers of firms' reputations, we examine the role of consumer networks for trust in markets that suffer from moral hazard. When consumers are embedded in a network, they can exchange information with their neighbours about their private experiences with different ...... sellers. We find that such information exchange fosters firms' incentives for reputation building and, thus, enhances trust and efficiency in markets. This efficiency-enhancing effect is already achieved with a rather low level of network density......Arguing that consumers are the carriers of firms' reputations, we examine the role of consumer networks for trust in markets that suffer from moral hazard. When consumers are embedded in a network, they can exchange information with their neighbours about their private experiences with different...

  1. Consumer acceptance of irradiated food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/ IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1998-12-31

    There was a widely held opinion during the 1970`s and 1980`s that consumers would be reluctant to purchase irradiated food, as it was perceived that consumers would confuse irradiated food with food contaminated by radionuclides. Indeed, a number of consumer attitude surveys conducted in several western countries during these two decades demonstrated that the concerns of consumers on irradiated food varied from very concerned to seriously concerned.This paper attempts to review parameters conducting in measuring consumer acceptance of irradiated food during the past three decades and to project the trends on this subject. It is believed that important lessons learned from past studies will guide further efforts to market irradiated food with wide consumer acceptance in the future. (Author)

  2. Consumer acceptance of irradiated food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P. [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/ IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    There was a widely held opinion during the 1970`s and 1980`s that consumers would be reluctant to purchase irradiated food, as it was perceived that consumers would confuse irradiated food with food contaminated by radionuclides. Indeed, a number of consumer attitude surveys conducted in several western countries during these two decades demonstrated that the concerns of consumers on irradiated food varied from very concerned to seriously concerned.This paper attempts to review parameters conducting in measuring consumer acceptance of irradiated food during the past three decades and to project the trends on this subject. It is believed that important lessons learned from past studies will guide further efforts to market irradiated food with wide consumer acceptance in the future. (Author)

  3. Do attitudes predict consumer's behavior?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đelošević Ivana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many themes in marketing to analyze the psychological and marketing aspect of research. The survey of consumer attitudes is one of them. The consumer attitudes have long been discussed and written about. For this purpose, numerous theories, models and researches have emerged. The research of powerful feelings of consumers towards products is something that marketers are constantly trying to achieve. Therefore it is very important for them to understand the factors affecting the attitudes of consumers. Issues related to consumers' attitudes have always been subject matter of the marketers who are trying to keep and maintain the positive and minimize negative attitudes towards the products and services of company. Bearing in the mind that attitudes play a central role in purchase decision, marketers are trying to explore the relation between attitudes and behavior of consumers.

  4. Consumer acceptance of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, P.

    1997-01-01

    There was a widely held opinion during the 1970's and 1980's that consumers would be reluctant to purchase irradiated food, as it was perceived that consumers would confuse irradiated food with food contaminated by radionuclides. Indeed, a number of consumer attitude surveys conducted in several western countries during these two decades demonstrated that the concerns of consumers on irradiated food varied from very concerned to seriously concerned.This paper attempts to review parameters conducting in measuring consumer acceptance of irradiated food during the past three decades and to project the trends on this subject. It is believed that important lessons learned from past studies will guide further efforts to market irradiated food with wide consumer acceptance in the future. (Author)

  5. Logo design: examining consumer response to figurativeness across cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Joana César; Vacas de Carvalho, Leonor; Torres, Anna; Van de Velden, Michel; Costa, Patrício

    2014-01-01

    Literature concerned with logo strategy suggests that the aesthetic appeal of brand logo significantly influences consumer reactions. The main purpose of this research is to study the influence of the different categories of figurative logo designs on consumer response. Through two studies in three countries, this research sheds light on consumer logo preferences, by investigating the psychological properties of the figurativeness of logo design. Results showed that figurativeness is an essen...

  6. Alterations in ethanol-induced behaviors and consumption in knock-in mice expressing ethanol-resistant NMDA receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina R den Hartog

    Full Text Available Ethanol's action on the brain likely reflects altered function of key ion channels such as glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs. In this study, we determined how expression of a mutant GluN1 subunit (F639A that reduces ethanol inhibition of NMDARs affects ethanol-induced behaviors in mice. Mice homozygous for the F639A allele died prematurely while heterozygous knock-in mice grew and bred normally. Ethanol (44 mM; ∼0.2 g/dl significantly inhibited NMDA-mediated EPSCs in wild-type mice but had little effect on responses in knock-in mice. Knock-in mice had normal expression of GluN1 and GluN2B protein across different brain regions and a small reduction in levels of GluN2A in medial prefrontal cortex. Ethanol (0.75-2.0 g/kg; i.p. increased locomotor activity in wild-type mice but had no effect on knock-in mice while MK-801 enhanced activity to the same extent in both groups. Ethanol (2.0 g/kg reduced rotarod performance equally in both groups but knock-in mice recovered faster following a higher dose (2.5 g/kg. In the elevated zero maze, knock-in mice had a blunted anxiolytic response to ethanol (1.25 g/kg as compared to wild-type animals. No differences were noted between wild-type and knock-in mice for ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex, sleep time, hypothermia or ethanol metabolism. Knock-in mice consumed less ethanol than wild-type mice during daily limited-access sessions but drank more in an intermittent 24 h access paradigm with no change in taste reactivity or conditioned taste aversion. Overall, these data support the hypothesis that NMDA receptors are important in regulating a specific constellation of effects following exposure to ethanol.

  7. Alterations in ethanol-induced behaviors and consumption in knock-in mice expressing ethanol-resistant NMDA receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hartog, Carolina R; Beckley, Jacob T; Smothers, Thetford C; Lench, Daniel H; Holseberg, Zack L; Fedarovich, Hleb; Gilstrap, Meghin J; Homanics, Gregg E; Woodward, John J

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol's action on the brain likely reflects altered function of key ion channels such as glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). In this study, we determined how expression of a mutant GluN1 subunit (F639A) that reduces ethanol inhibition of NMDARs affects ethanol-induced behaviors in mice. Mice homozygous for the F639A allele died prematurely while heterozygous knock-in mice grew and bred normally. Ethanol (44 mM; ∼0.2 g/dl) significantly inhibited NMDA-mediated EPSCs in wild-type mice but had little effect on responses in knock-in mice. Knock-in mice had normal expression of GluN1 and GluN2B protein across different brain regions and a small reduction in levels of GluN2A in medial prefrontal cortex. Ethanol (0.75-2.0 g/kg; i.p.) increased locomotor activity in wild-type mice but had no effect on knock-in mice while MK-801 enhanced activity to the same extent in both groups. Ethanol (2.0 g/kg) reduced rotarod performance equally in both groups but knock-in mice recovered faster following a higher dose (2.5 g/kg). In the elevated zero maze, knock-in mice had a blunted anxiolytic response to ethanol (1.25 g/kg) as compared to wild-type animals. No differences were noted between wild-type and knock-in mice for ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex, sleep time, hypothermia or ethanol metabolism. Knock-in mice consumed less ethanol than wild-type mice during daily limited-access sessions but drank more in an intermittent 24 h access paradigm with no change in taste reactivity or conditioned taste aversion. Overall, these data support the hypothesis that NMDA receptors are important in regulating a specific constellation of effects following exposure to ethanol.

  8. Consumption of a low-carbohydrate and high-fat diet (the ketogenic diet) exaggerates biotin deficiency in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Masahiro; Matsui, Tomoyoshi; Ando, Saori; Ishii, Yoshie; Sawamura, Hiromi; Ebara, Shuhei; Watanabe, Toshiaki

    2013-10-01

    Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin that acts as a cofactor for several carboxylases. The ketogenic diet, a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet, is used to treat drug-resistant epilepsy and promote weight loss. In Japan, the infant version of the ketogenic diet is known as the "ketone formula." However, as the special infant formulas used in Japan, including the ketone formula, do not contain sufficient amounts of biotin, biotin deficiency can develop in infants who consume the ketone formula. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the ketogenic diet on biotin status in mice. Male mice (N = 32) were divided into the following groups: control diet group, biotin-deficient (BD) diet group, ketogenic control diet group, and ketogenic biotin-deficient (KBD) diet group. Eight mice were used in each group. At 9 wk, the typical symptoms of biotin deficiency such as hair loss and dermatitis had only developed in the KBD diet group. The total protein expression level of biotin-dependent carboxylases and the total tissue biotin content were significantly decreased in the KBD and BD diet groups. However, these changes were more severe in the KBD diet group. These findings demonstrated that the ketogenic diet increases biotin bioavailability and consumption, and hence, promotes energy production by gluconeogenesis and branched-chain amino acid metabolism, which results in exaggerated biotin deficiency in biotin-deficient mice. Therefore, biotin supplementation is important for mice that consume the ketogenic diet. It is suggested that individuals that consume the ketogenic diet have an increased biotin requirement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Consumer protection in electronic commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Andreea NEACŞU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce is one of the most important aspects of the Internet and allows people to buy instant. Fast and easy development of e-commerce has led to the necessity of consumer protection in cyberspace, where trade takes place, so as to ensure consumer safety and security matters. This article examines e-commerce in terms of consumer protection and data security, which concerns equally all stakeholders in the electronic market: buyers, sellers, banks, courier cargo and other participants.

  10. Women as Video Game Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Kiviranta, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this Thesis is to study women as video game consumers through the games that they play. This was done by case studies on the content of five video games from genres that statistically are popular amongst women. To introduce the topic and to build the theoretical framework, the key terms and the video game industry are introduced. The reader is acquainted with theories on consumer behaviour, buying processes and factors that influence our consuming habits. These aspects are...

  11. Consumer Online Grocery Buying Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Torben; Jensen, Jan Møller; Solgaard, Hans Stubbe

    2003-01-01

    This paper tests the ability of two consumer theories - the theory of reasoned action and the theory of planned behavior - in predicting consumer online grocery buying intention. In addition, a comparison of the two theories is conducted. Data were collected from two web-based surveys of Danish (n=1222) and Swedish (n=1038) consumers using self-administered questionnaires. Lisrel results suggest that the theory of planned behavior (with the inclusion of a path from subjective norm to attitude...

  12. Cognitive style and consumer innovativeness

    OpenAIRE

    Foxall, Gordon R.; Haskins, Christopher

    1986-01-01

    The identification of consumer innovators offers marketing managers the opportunity to tailor new products to the buyers who initiate the diffusion of innovations. Progress has been made in identifying such consumers in economic and social terms, but there are advantages of cost and convenience in isolating the personality profiles of innovators, especially during prelaunch product testing. But innovative consumers' distinctive personality traits have proved elusive. This paper reports an inv...

  13. Effects of High Fat Feeding and Diabetes on Regression of Atherosclerosis Induced by Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor Gene Therapy in LDL Receptor-Deficient Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Willecke

    Full Text Available We tested whether a high fat diet (HFD containing the inflammatory dietary fatty acid palmitate or insulin deficient diabetes altered the remodeling of atherosclerotic plaques in LDL receptor knockout (Ldlr-/- mice. Cholesterol reduction was achieved by using a helper-dependent adenovirus (HDAd carrying the gene for the low-density lipoprotein receptor (Ldlr; HDAd-LDLR. After injection of the HDAd-LDLR, mice consuming either HFD, which led to insulin resistance but not hyperglycemia, or low fat diet (LFD, showed regression compared to baseline. However there was no difference between the two groups in terms of atherosclerotic lesion size, or CD68+ cell and lipid content. Because of the lack of effects of these two diets, we then tested whether viral-mediated cholesterol reduction would lead to defective regression in mice with greater hyperglycemia. In both normoglycemic and streptozotocin (STZ-treated hyperglycemic mice, HDAd-LDLR significantly reduced plasma cholesterol levels, decreased atherosclerotic lesion size, reduced macrophage area and lipid content, and increased collagen content of plaque in the aortic sinus. However, reductions in anti-inflammatory and ER stress-related genes were less pronounced in STZ-diabetic mice compared to non-diabetic mice. In conclusion, HDAd-mediated Ldlr gene therapy is an effective and simple method to induce atherosclerosis regression in Ldlr-/- mice in different metabolic states.

  14. Citrullus lanatus 'sentinel' (watermelon) extract reduces atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poduri, Aruna; Rateri, Debra L; Saha, Shubin K; Saha, Sibu; Daugherty, Alan

    2013-05-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus or C. lanatus) has many potentially bioactive compounds including citrulline, which may influence atherosclerosis. In this study, we determined the effects of C. lanatus, provided as an extract of the cultivar 'sentinel,' on hypercholesterolemia-induced atherosclerosis in mice. Male low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice at 8 weeks old were given either C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract (2% vol/vol; n=10) or a mixture of matching carbohydrates (2% vol/vol; n=8) as the control in drinking water while being fed a saturated fat-enriched diet for 12 weeks ad libitum. Mice consuming C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract had significantly increased plasma citrulline concentrations. Systolic blood pressure was comparable between the two groups. Consumption of C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract led to lower body weight and fat mass without influencing lean mass. There were no differences in food and water intake and in urine output between the two groups. C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract administration decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations that were attributed to reductions of intermediate-/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma concentrations of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interferon-gamma were decreased and those of interleukin-10 were increased in mice consuming C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract. Intake of C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract resulted in reductions of atherosclerosis in both aortic arch and thoracic regions. In conclusion, consumption of C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract led to reduced body weight gain, decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations, improved homeostasis of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and attenuated development of atherosclerosis without affecting systolic blood pressure in hypercholesterolemic mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Adopted: February 2010 Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials Everything we encounter in our daily lives contains some radioactive material, ...

  16. Consumer viewpoints on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazal, A.

    1985-01-01

    The International Organization of Consumers Unions (IOCU), a non-profit, non-party political foundation that represents the interests of consumers worldwide. It consists of some 1,140 organizations in over 50 countries of the world in the North, South, East and West. IOCU also represents the interest of the consumers in the U N system and enjoys consultative status with many of its various organs and agencies. This paper also speaks from the additional perspective of a Third World person who active in consumer public affairs issues over the last two decades

  17. Consumer behavior and energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    A conference was convened to provide an overview of major empirical studies in the area of behavioral research related to energy consumption and conservation. Papers were presented in the areas of national and international perspectives of consumer energy behaviors, methodological issues in consumer behavior research, consumers and travel, energy conservation programs implemented by governments and electric utilities, household energy decision making, financial incentives and disincentives, energy information and its relation to product purchase decisions, solar energy and the consumer, and the impact of conservation programs. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 29 papers from this conference.

  18. Setting stroke research priorities: The consumer perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangvatanakul, Pukkaporn; Hillege, Sharon; Lalor, Erin; Levi, Christopher; Hill, Kelvin; Middleton, Sandy

    2010-12-01

    To test a method of engaging consumers in research priority-setting using a quantitative approach and to determine consumer views on stroke research priorities for clinical practice recommendations with lower levels of evidence (Level III and Level IV) and expert consensus opinion as published in the Australian stroke clinical practice guidelines. Survey Urban community Eighteen stroke survivors (n = 12) and carers (n = 6) who were members of the "Working Aged Group - Stroke" (WAGS) consumer support group. Phase I: Participants were asked whether recommendations were "worth" researching ("yes" or "no"); and, if researched, what potential impact they likely would have on patient outcomes. Phase II: Participants were asked to rank recommendations rated by more than 75% of participants in Phase I as "worth" researching and "highly likely" or "likely" to generate research with a significant effect on patient outcomes (n = 13) in order of priority for future stroke research. All recommendations were rated by at least half (n = 9, 50%) of participants as "worth" researching. The majority (67% to 100%) rated all recommendations as "highly likely" or "likely" that research would have a significant effect on patient outcomes. Thirteen out of 20 recommendations were ranked for their research priorities. Recommendations under the topic heading Getting to hospital were ranked highest and Organization of care and Living with stroke were ranked as a lower priority for research. This study provided an example of how to involve consumers in research priority setting successfully using a quantitative approach. Stroke research priorities from the consumer perspective were different from those of health professionals, as published in the literature; thus, consumer opinion should be considered when setting research priorities. Copyright © 2010 Society for Vascular Nursing, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Consumer Acceptance of a Polyphenolic Coffee Beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy; Kuchera, Meredith; Smoot, Katie; Diako, Charles; Vixie, Beata; Ross, Carolyn F

    2016-10-05

    The objective of this study was to determine if Chardonnay grape seed pomace (GSP), a waste stream of wine production, could be used as a functional ingredient in brewed coffee. Two consumer panels were conducted to assess the acceptance of coffee at coffee replacement (w/w) values of 0% (control), 6.25%, 12.50%, 18.75%, or 25% GSP. The 1st consumer panel (n = 80) assessed the coffee samples served "black." The 2nd panel (n = 67) assessed the coffee samples with adjustment (that is, sweeteners, milk, and cream) options available. Consumer sensory evaluation involved evaluating the 5 treatments individually for acceptance of appearance, aroma, taste/flavor, and overall acceptance using a 9-point hedonic scale. A check-all-that-apply questionnaire surveyed the sensory attributes describing aroma, appearance, and taste/flavor of the samples. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity was used to measure the effects of antioxidant levels in GSP coffee samples. Results showed that GSP could be added at 6.25% replacement without significantly affecting the overall consumer acceptance of coffee compared to the control (0% GSP). Above 6.25% GSP supplementation, the coffee beverage was described as more tan, milky, watery/dilute, and mild, and was generally less accepted by the consumers. GSP also increased the antioxidant capacity of the coffee compared to the control (0% GSP), with no significant differences among replacement values. Therefore, 6.25% GSP replacement is recommended for creating coffee beverages acceptable to consumers. Further in vivo investigation may substantiate the free-radical scavenging capacity of GSP coffee and its potential health benefits. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. Consumer Behavior: Developing Skills for Assertiveness. Consumer Education Training Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Lou

    The goal of this inservice guide for teaching consumer education at the secondary and adult level is to help consumers become more assertive when buying goods and services. A major section in the guide defines assertiveness. The four basic components of assertive behavior are the ability to express emotions openly, the capacity to exercise one's…

  1. Consumer Information. NASFAA Task Force Report. Consumer Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The National Association of Student Financial Aid and Administrators (NASFAA) Consumer Information Task Force was convened to conduct a thorough review of the current student consumer information requirements and propose ways to streamline both the content and delivery of those requirements. The proposals in the this report were produced for…

  2. Price Intransparency, Consumer Decision Making and European Consumer Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H. van Boom (Willem)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPrice comparison is a basic element of competition. For comparison to work, at least prices need to be transparent. Moreover, price is usually a focal point in consumer thinking and deciding on transactions. Hence, obfuscating prices can be detrimental to consumers. Therefore, it is

  3. How may consumer policy empower consumers for sustainable lifestyles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    At least judged by its outcome, it seems that consumers in the rich parts of the world make less of an effort at changing their lifestyle in a sustainable direction than is desired by society and than is in their own collective long-term interest. Part of the explanations is that individual......'s striving for sustainability. The relevant external conditions are an extremely diverse set of factors, perhaps their only commonality being that, unless making an organized effort, consumers can do nothing about them. Because external conditions influence all or many consumers, making them more...... facilitating for sustainable consumption can be much more effective than anything an individual consumer can do. Many of the external constraints facing consumers who want to adopt a more sustainable lifestyle are of a relative nature and their impact depends on the individual's resources. For instance...

  4. Safety and anti-hyperglycemic efficacy of various tea types in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Manman; Zhao, Guangshan; Wang, Yijun; Wang, Dongxu; Sun, Feng; Ning, Jingming; Wan, Xiachun; Zhang, Jinsong

    2016-01-01

    Tea, a beverage consumed worldwide, has proven anti-hyperglycemic effects in animal models. Better efficacies of tea beverages are frequently associated with high-dose levels, whose safety attracts considerable attention. Based on the inherent nature of tea catechin oxidation, fresh tea leaves are manufactured into diverse tea types by modulating the oxidation degree of catechins. The present study aimed to assess various tea types for their safety properties and anti-hyperglycemic effects. Mice were allowed free access to tea infusion (1:30, w/v) for one week, and the rare smoked tea caused salient adverse reactions, including hepatic and gastrointestinal toxicities; meanwhile, the widely-consumed green and black teas, unlike the rare yellow tea, suppressed growth in fast-growing healthy mice. When mice were fed a high-fat diet and allowed free access to tea infusion (1:30, w/v) for 25 days, only yellow tea significantly reduced blood glucose. Therefore, various teas showed different safety profiles as well as anti-hyperglycemic efficacy strengths. To achieve an effective and safe anti-hyperglycemic outcome, yellow tea, which effectively suppressed high-fat diet-induced early elevation of hepatic thioredoxin-interacting protein, is an optimal choice. PMID:27531374

  5. Perinatal exposure to low doses of tributyltin chloride reduces sperm count and quality in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jiliang; Li, Peng; Xin, Quanbing; Li, Xuewen; An, Lihong; Li, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to endocrine disruptors (EDs) during early development might lead to adverse health outcomes later in life. Tributyltin (TBT), a proven ED, is widely used in consumer goods and industrial products. Herein we demonstrate the effects of low doses of tributyltin chloride (TBTCl) on reproduction of male KM mice. Pregnant mice were administered by gavage with 0, 1, 10, or 100 μg TBTCl/kg body weight/day from day 6 of pregnancy through the period of lactation. TBTCl dramatically decreased sperm counts and motility on postnatal days (PNDs) 49 and 152. Meanwhile, a significant increase in sperm abnormality was observed in exposed mice on PND 49, but comparable to that in the control on PND 152. The histopathological analysis of testes of treated animals showed a dose-dependent increase in sloughing of germ cells in seminiferous tubules. Mice treated with 10 μg TBTCl/kg exhibited decreased intratesticular 17β-estradiol (E2) levels on PND 49, and then followed by an obvious recovery on PND 152. While, no significant differences in serum E2, testosterone (T) levels and intratesticular T levels were detectable between control and TBTCl-exposed offspring at the sacrifice. These results suggest that perinatal TBTCl exposure is implicated in causing long lasting alterations in male reproductive system and these changes may persist far into adulthood. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Under consumers' scrutiny - an investigation into consumers' attitudes and concerns about nudging in the realm of health behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junghans, Astrid F; Cheung, Tracy T L; De Ridder, Denise D T

    2015-04-09

    Nudging strategies have recently attracted attention from scholars and policy makers for their potential in influencing people's behaviors on large scales. But is the fact that nudges do not forbid any choice-options or significantly alter people's economic incentives sufficient to conclude that nudges should be implemented? While this is discussed amongst scholars from various disciplines the voices of consumers, the target-group of nudges, remain unheard. Since understanding their knowledge about nudging and their opinions on being nudged are crucial for the evaluation of the moral appropriateness of nudging, the current study examines consumers' knowledge of and attitudes toward nudging in general and the realm of health behavior. In this qualitative investigation in-depth semi-structured interviews with UK consumers were conducted to examine consumers' attitudes to four domains of inquiry around which the scholarly discussions about nudging have revolved: consumers' approval of nudging, consumers' views on the origin of nudges, consumers' perceived effectiveness of nudging, and consumers' concerns about manipulative aspects of nudging. Interviews revealed that consumers are largely unfamiliar with the concept of nudging altogether. Once defined and explained to them most consumers approve of the concept, especially in the realm of health behavior, given particular conditions: 1. Nudges should be designed for benefiting individuals and society; 2. consumers comprehend the decision-making context and the reasoning behind the promotion of the targeted behavior. Interviews revealed very limited concerns with manipulative aspects of nudges. These findings call for better information-management to ensure consumers knowledge of nudges and awareness of their current implementation. Under that condition the findings encourage the implementation of nudges benefitting individuals and society in domains that consumers comprehend, such as health behaviors. Further research

  7. Consumer attitudes toward health policy and knowledge about health legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riska, E; Taylor, J A

    1978-01-01

    Consumer attitudes toward key issues affecting health policy decisions in the local community have been ignored both by local health policy makers and by medical sociologists. The authors report an empirical analysis of: (1) consumer attitudes towards federal intervention in health care; (2) consumer perceptions of the free market philosophy of health providers; (3) consumer perceptions of their involvement in health policy making; (4) consumer confidence in present systems of health services delivery; and (5) consumer awareness of recent major health legislation. It was found that consumers are poorly informed about recent health care legislation. The authors compared the attitudes of consumers with those held by local hospital board members toward health policy issues. The differences for all comparisons were statistically significant. The authors argue that hospital board members attribute problems in health services delivery to demand dysfunctions while consumers perceive the problems to be a result of supply dysfunctions. Thus, failure to include consumers on health policy boards guarantees the absence of a solution-oriented dialogue and promotes the continuing predominance of a provider-biased ideology.

  8. Food-induced reinforcement is abrogated by the genetic deletion of the MT1 or MT2 melatonin receptor in C3H/HeN mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Shannon J; Hudson, Randall L; Dubocovich, Margarita L

    2018-05-02

    Palatable food is known for its ability to enhance reinforcing responses. Studies have suggested a circadian variation in both drug and natural reinforcement, with each following its own time course. The goal of this study was to determine the role of the MT 1 and MT 2 melatonin receptors in palatable snack food-induced reinforcement, as measured by the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm during the light and dark phases. C3H/HeN wild-type mice were trained for snack food-induced CPP at either ZT 6 - 8 (ZT: Zeitgeber time; ZT 0 = lights on), when endogenous melatonin levels are low, or ZT 19 - 21, when melatonin levels are high. These time points also correspond to the high and low points for expression of the circadian gene Period1, respectively. The amount of snack food (chow, Cheetos®, Froot Loops® and Oreos®) consumed was of similar magnitude at both times, however only C3H/HeN mice conditioned to snack food at ZT 6 - 8 developed a place preference. C3H/HeN mice with a genetic deletion of either the MT 1 (MT 1 KO) or MT 2 (MT 2 KO) receptor tested at ZT 6 - 8 did not develop a place preference for snack food. Although the MT 2 KO mice showed a similar amount of snack food consumed when compared to wild-type mice, the MT 1 KO mice consumed significantly less than either genotype. We conclude that in our mouse model snack food-induced CPP is dependent on time of day and the presence of the MT 1 or MT 2 receptors, suggesting a role for melatonin and its receptors in snack food-induced reinforcement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Influencing the online consumer's behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constantinides, Efthymios

    2004-01-01

    Addresses one of the fundamental issues of e-marketing: how to attract and win over the consumer in the highly competitive Internet marketplace. Analyses the factors affecting the online consumer's behavior and examines how e-marketers can influence the outcome of the virtual interaction and buying

  10. Attention, motivation, and consumer judgement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund

    and what happens when they process it? The dissertation contains four papers which report nine different experiments. The first three papers are concerned with the question of what health information consumers process while the last paper explores the consequences of strategically exposing consumers...

  11. Transportation Consumer Education Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Peter; And Others

    Materials in this curriculum guide represent a selection of the major transportation consumer topics and ideas and are designed to set the stage for more intensive transportation consumer education curriculum development and teacher efforts. (Eleven manuals covering the four transportation topics of public transportation, transportation and the…

  12. Empirical analysis of consumer behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of three essays in quantitative marketing, focusing on structural empirical analysis of consumer behavior. In the first essay, he investigates the role of a consumer's skill of product usage, and its imperfect transferability across brands, in her product choice. It shows that

  13. Consumer knowledge and attitudes toward nutritional labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannoosamy, Komeela; Pugo-Gunsam, Prity; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    To determine Mauritian consumers' attitudes toward nutritional labels based on the Kano model and to identify determinants of the use and understanding of nutrition labels. The researchers also used a Kano model questionnaire to determine consumers' attitudes toward nutrition labeling. Four hundred consumers residing in Mauritius. Information was elicited via a questionnaire that assessed nutritional knowledge and information about the use and understanding of nutritional labels and demographic factors. Nutritional label use and understanding, nutrition knowledge, and association of demographic factors with label use. Statistical tests performed included 1-way ANOVA and independent samples t tests. Statistically significant relationships (P nutritional knowledge and nutritional label usage with demographic factors. All demographic factors with the exception of gender were significantly associated (P nutritional label understanding. Based on the outcome of the Kano survey, calorie content, trans fat content, protein content, and cholesterol content were found to be must-be attributes: that is, attributes that, when not present, result in consumer dissatisfaction. Age, education, income, household size, and nutrition knowledge had an impact on nutritional label use. Health promoters should aim to increase the use of nutritional labels. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Gender differences in Croatian consumer decision-making styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan-Damir Anić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests the applicability of the CSI instrument to measuring consumer decision-making styles in the Croatian environment. The analysis assesses the validity and the reliability of CSI scales and examines gender differences in consumer-decision making styles. Research results point to the existence of eight consumer characteristics and thus validate the applicability of CSI instrument in the Croatian environment. Our findings further indicate that there were gender differences on five factors of consumer-decision making styles (perfectionist, novelty-fashion consciousness, recreational-hedonistic consumer, impulsiveness, habitual shopping behavioral. No significant differences in consumer decision styles between men and women were found with regard to three factors (brand consciousness, price consciousness and confused by overabundant choice. The CSI measurement system may help practitioners to gain a better understanding of how to position their products and services more effectively.

  15. Consumer knowledge structures with regards to organic foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone; Thøgersen, John; Dean, Moira

    2004-01-01

    associated with self-relevant consequences do not appear to discriminate clearly among segments, however. Generally, organic origin has significant links to personal values among segments of adventurous, enthusiastic, hedonistic and eco-healthy food consumers while it appears a dysfunctional means......This paper presents results of an empirical study conducted among European consumers to explore consumer knowledge structures with regard to organic foods and to identify the beliefs and the attribute-to-value chains that discriminate best among different consumer segments. Using means-end chain...... theory as the theoretical basis, the objectives of the study were met through carrying out laddering interviews with consumers in Germany, Great Britain, Denmark and Spain, using a Food-Related Lifestyle (FRL) segment-based approach and interviewing both organic and non-organic consumers. Respondents...

  16. Consumer Disidentification and Its Effects on Domestic Product Purchases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josiassen, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Consumers' local bias is an important determinant of domestic product purchase behavior. Because of its importance, authors across various disciplines have investigated this phenomenon using the consumer ethnocentrism model. However, the research reported herein demonstrates that such an approach...... provides an incomplete picture at best. This research provides an initial test of the consumer disidentification (CDI) construct. In contrast with consumer ethnocentrism, the CDI model predicts that consumers' repulsion toward their domestic country negatively affects the purchase of products made...... in their domestic country or by domestic firms. The model is tested using survey data from 1534 second-generation immigrants who were born in and live in the Netherlands. Structural equation modeling supports the model and shows that CDI has a significant impact on buying decisions beyond the effect of consumer...

  17. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Dutra de Barcellos, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. CONCLUSIONS: The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct......BACKGROUND: Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. METHODS: Eight focus group...... as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness...

  18. Food safety and consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn; Fischer, Arnout; Scholderer, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    Food safety is a priority for many consumers, and there is an expectation throughout society that the food supplied for human consumption is safe and nutritious to eat. Understanding technical risk estimates alone, however, will not explain the risk-related behaviours of consumers. On the one hand......, consumers may not pay enough attention to some types of food safety issue, such as the risk of food poisoning from microbial contamination, which may at best be debilitating, and at worst fatal (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 1994). This risk is certainly largely avoidable through taking...... appropriate risk mitigation measures through the food chain, not least in the domestic kitchen. However, factors related to consumer psychology may increase the risks to consumers as they produce barriers to self-protective behaviours (Frewer & Fischer, in press; Worsfold & Griffith, 1997). In contrast...

  19. Food safety and consumer behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn; Fischer, Arnout; Scholderer, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    , consumers may not pay enough attention to some types of food safety issue, such as the risk of food poisoning from microbial contamination, which may at best be debilitating, and at worst fatal (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 1994). This risk is certainly largely avoidable through taking......Food safety is a priority for many consumers, and there is an expectation throughout society that the food supplied for human consumption is safe and nutritious to eat. Understanding technical risk estimates alone, however, will not explain the risk-related behaviours of consumers. On the one hand...... appropriate risk mitigation measures through the food chain, not least in the domestic kitchen. However, factors related to consumer psychology may increase the risks to consumers as they produce barriers to self-protective behaviours (Frewer & Fischer, in press; Worsfold & Griffith, 1997). In contrast...

  20. Profile of organic food consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kranjac Mirjana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to prove that profile of organic food consumers is dependent on their socio-demographic characteristics as well as to shape universal organic food consumer profile. The survey included 398 consumers in Serbia. Results indicate existence of typical consumer's profile. The findings could be generalized proving that socio-demographic profiles in a larger population are strictly related to the decision to utilize organic food. The study finally contributes to the stakeholders in general, since the knowledge of the attributes can help all of them to play more active role in this supply chain. It should stimulate the personalized approach to the particular groups of consumers based on socio-demographic characteristics in order to intensify consumption of organic food and to create different marketing plans dependent on the particular countries or areas.

  1. Consumer demand and quality assurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Wognum, Nel; Trienekens, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Consumers differ in their demands, and this mau have implications for the type of supply chain governance that is most suitable for serving them. We present a segmentation of pork consumers in the EU based on their food-related lifestyles and demand for different pork products. We then present...... an inventory of pork chain governance and quality management systems, also resulting from a pan-European study, and attempt to match types of chains to consumer segments, arguing that the type of quality demanded by the consumers has implications especially for the quality management system governing the chain......, and that these implications are different for fresh meat and processed meat. The paper closes with a call for more collaboration between chain researchers and consumer researchers....

  2. European consumers and beef safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens Oliver

    2010-01-01

    European beef consumption has been gradually declining during the past decades, while consumers' concerns about beef safety have increased. This paper explores consumer perceptions of and interest in beef safety and beef safety information, and their role in beef safety assessment and the beef...... consumption decision making process. Eight focus group discussions were performed with a total of 65 beef consumers in four European countries. Content analysis revealed that European consumers experienced difficulties in the assessment of the safety of beef and beef products and adopted diverging uncertainty...... reduction strategies. These include the use of colour, labels, brands and indications of origin as cues signalling beef safety. In general, consumer trust in beef safety was relatively high, despite distrust in particular actors....

  3. Consumer protection in energy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Krom, H.; Van Leeuwen, E.T.W.M.; Schaap, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the protection that energy consumers are entitled to in the framework of the energy law. First we provide an overview of the parties operating in the energy market that consumers deal with directly or indirectly. Next the supply permit is addressed, which provides an important safeguard for consumers against unreliable suppliers. In part 4 we address the protection of the consumer prior to and while closing an agreement. Part 5 addresses the supplier's obligations. Part 6 discusses the judicial processes that are available to the consumer in case of (partial) non-observance of the agreement. We also pay attention to the compensation schemes and emergency supply in case a supplier is permanently unable to fulfill his obligations. Finally, we address the termination of the agreement. [nl

  4. Variances in consumers prices of selected food items among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... had insignificant differences in their consumer prices while beans consumer prices had significant differences between Okurikang market and the other two markets. The results imply perfect information flow in garri and rice markets and hence high possibility of a perfectly competitive market structure for these products.

  5. Simple improvement of consumer fit in external preference mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, N.M.; Mojet, J.; Poelman, A.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    In the common implementation of external preference mapping consumer preferences are fitted as polynomial functions of the first two principal components (PCs) of the sensory data. A major weakness of the method is the relatively small number of consumers that can be significantly fitted. Several

  6. Long term rebaudioside A treatment does not alter circadian activity rhythms, adiposity, or insulin action in male mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H Reynolds

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major public health problem that is highly associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, two conditions associated with circadian disruption. To date, dieting is one of the only interventions that result in substantial weight loss, but restricting caloric intake is difficult to maintain long-term. The use of artificial sweeteners, particularly in individuals that consume sugar sweetened beverages (energy drinks, soda, can reduce caloric intake and possibly facilitate weight loss. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of the artificial sweetener, rebaudioside A (Reb-A, on circadian rhythms, in vivo insulin action, and the susceptibility to diet-induced obesity. Six month old male C57BL/6 mice were assigned to a control or Reb-A (0.1% Reb-A supplemented drinking water group for six months. Circadian wheel running rhythms, body weight, caloric intake, insulin action, and susceptibility to diet-induced obesity were assessed. Time of peak physical activity under a 12:12 light-dark (LD cycle, mean activity levels, and circadian period in constant dark were not significantly different in mice that consumed Reb-A supplemented water compared to normal drinking water, indicating that circadian rhythms and biological clock function were unaltered. Although wheel running significantly reduced body weight in both Reb-A and control mice (P = 0.0001, consuming Reb-A supplemented water did not alter the changes in body weight following wheel running (P = 0.916. In vivo insulin action, as assessed by glucose, insulin, and pyruvate tolerance tests, was not different between mice that consumed Reb-A treated water compared to normal drinking water. Finally, Reb-A does not appear to change the susceptibility to diet-induced obesity as both groups of mice gained similar amounts of body weight when placed on a high fat diet. Our results indicate that consuming Reb-A supplemented water does not promote circadian disruption

  7. Effects of alcoholic beverage treatment on spatial learning and fear memory in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashikawa-Hobara, Narumi; Mishima, Shuta; Nagase, Shotaro; Morita, Keishi; Otsuka, Ami; Hashikawa, Naoya

    2018-04-24

    Although chronic ethanol treatment is known to impair learning and memory, humans commonly consume a range of alcoholic beverages. However, the specific effects of some alcoholic beverages on behavioral performance are largely unknown. The present study compared the effects of a range of alcoholic beverages (plain ethanol solution, red wine, sake and whiskey; with a matched alcohol concentration of 10%) on learning and memory. 6-week-old C57BL6J mice were orally administered alcohol for 7 weeks. The results revealed that red wine treatment exhibited a trend toward improvement of spatial memory and advanced extinction of fear memory. Additionally, red wine treatment significantly increased mRNA levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in mice hippocampus. These results support previous reports that red wine has beneficial effects.

  8. Consumer-to-Consumer Electronic Commerce: A Distinct Research Stream

    OpenAIRE

    Kiku Jones; Lori N.K. Leonard

    2007-01-01

    Consumer-to-consumer (C2C) e-commerce is a growing area of e-commerce. However, according to a meta-analysis of critical themes of e-commerce, C2C e-commerce was only represented in the area of online auctions (Wareham, Zheng, & Straub, 2005). C2C e-commerce can encompass much more than just auctions. The question then becomes, “is C2C e-commerce a different research area that deserves its own stream of research?†This study adapts constructs from a business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce st...

  9. Direct-to-consumer advertising of predictive genetic tests: a health belief model based examination of consumer response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Brent L; Ramakrishnan, Shravanan; Perri, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising of predictive genetic tests (PGTs) has added a new dimension to health advertising. This study used an online survey based on the health belief model framework to examine and more fully understand consumers' responses and behavioral intentions in response to a PGT DTC advertisement. Overall, consumers reported moderate intentions to talk with their doctor and seek more information about PGTs after advertisement exposure, though consumers did not seem ready to take the advertised test or engage in active information search. Those who perceived greater threat from the disease, however, had significantly greater behavioral intentions and information search behavior.

  10. High Fat High Sugar Diet Reduces Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice Independent of Sex Hormone Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L. Vellers

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Indirect results in humans suggest that chronic overfeeding decreases physical activity with few suggestions regarding what mechanism(s may link overfeeding and decreased activity. The primary sex hormones are known regulators of activity and there are reports that chronic overfeeding alters sex hormone levels. Thepurpose of this study was to determine if chronic overfeeding altered wheel running through altered sex hormone levels.Materials and Methods: C57BL/6J mice were bred and the pups were weaned at 3-weeks of age and randomly assigned to either a control (CFD or high fat/high sugar (HFHS diet for 9–11 weeks depending on activity analysis. Nutritional intake, body composition, sex hormone levels, and 3-day and 2-week wheel-running activity were measured. Additionally, groups of HFHS animals were supplemented with testosterone (males and 17β-estradiol (females to determine if sex hormone augmentation altered diet-induced changes in activity.Results: 117 mice (56♂, 61♀ were analyzed. The HFHS mice consumed significantly more calories per day than CFD mice (male: p < 0.0001; female: p < 0.0001 and had significantly higher body fat (male: p < 0.0001; female: p < 0.0001. The HFHS diet did not reduce sex hormone levels, but did significantly reduce acute running-wheel distance in male (p = 0.05, 70 ± 28% and female mice (p = 0.02, 57 ± 26%. In animals that received hormone supplementation, there was no significant effect on activity levels. Two-weeks of wheel access was not sufficient to alter HFHS-induced reductions in activity or increases in body fat.Conclusion: Chronic overfeeding reduces wheel running, but is independent of the primary sex hormones.

  11. Consumer attitude toward food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhn, C.M.M.

    1986-01-01

    Consumer attitudes toward food irradiation were evaluated. The influence of educational efforts on consumer concern for the safety of irradiated products and willingness to buy irradiated foods were measured. Demographic and psychological factors were studied in relation to attitudes. An educational leaflet describing current scientific information regarding the safety, advantages, and disadvantages of food irradiation was developed and used in two studies evaluating attitude change. In the first study, attitude change among two groups of consumers with different philosophic orientations was measured. In a second study, the effectiveness of an educational leaflet received through the mail and a poster display were examined. In a third study response to food irradiation was related to value hierarchy, locus of control, innovativeness, and demographic parameters. Initially, subjects showed a higher concern for other areas of food safety, particularly the use of chemicals and sprays on food, than toward food irradiation. After educational efforts, conventional consumers expressed minor concern toward irradiation whereas ecologically sensitive alternative consumers obtained from a food cooperative expressed major concern. A knowledgeable discussion leader lowered irradiation concern among conventional consumers. In contrast, concern among alternative consumers did not diminish when given the opportunity to discuss safety issues with a knowledgeable person

  12. True or False: Consumer Perception to Green Consumer Retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Silva Braga Junior

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of greenwshing in consumer awareness for green consumption in retail. Under this approach was evaluated if the greenwashing confuses consumers about what is to be green consumption and if it relies on green consumption. For the verification of the objective proposed by this work, an exploratory survey was conducted quantitative, through a survey with a sample of 359 respondents of São Paulo/Brazil. As for the justification of the method used, the exploratory research, with a non-probabilistic convenience sampling and quantitative nature, are characterized by a field approach seeking situational characteristics presented by respondents to generate quantitative measures of the attributes observed by them. For data collection was used a specialized company and market research and thus were collected data from real consumers. As a result it was observed that the greenwashing confuses consumed and does not influence the confidence of the green product.

  13. fundamental consumer rights under the consumer protection act 68

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Castle walk

    (g) a collective agreement in terms of Section 213 of the Labour Relations Act. 59 ..... "Direct marketing" means to approach a person, either in person or by ..... literacy skills and minimal experience as a consumer, to understand the contents.

  14. Detecting Novelty and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance. PMID:19400680

  15. Measuring consumer attitudes towards gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Rousseau

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to measure consumer attitudes towards gambling amongst various sociodemographic groups in Port Elizabeth. The study was based on past research and used a modified version of a questionnaire developed by various authors. The sample (N=355 was drawn, using a non-probability sampling technique from English, Afrikaans and Xhosa speaking respondents in the Port Elizabeth Uitenhage area. Fieldwork was carried out by students of Industrial Psychology at the University of Port Elizabeth. Results showed significant differences between socio-demographic groups regarding attitudes towards gambling. Cultural influences deduced from home language and religion seems to influence gambling attitudes in particular. These results have important implications for the gaming industry and welfare organisations. Opsomming Die hoof doelstelling van hierdie studie was om verbruikerhoudings ten opsigte van dobbel onder verskeie sosiodemografiese groepe in Port Elizabeth te ondersoek. Die studie is gegrond op vorige navorsing in die veld en maak gebruik van n aangepaste vraelys, ontwikkel deur verskeie outeurs. ‘n Nie-ewekansige steekproef (N=355 is getrek uit Engels, Afrikaans en Xhosa-sprekende respondente in die Port Elizabeth Uitenhage gebied. Veldwerk is uitgevoer deur Bedryfsielkunde studente van die Universiteit van Port Elizabeth. Bevindinge toon beduidende verskille tussen sosio-demografiese groepe ten opsigte van houdings oor dobbel. Kultuurinvloede afgelei uit taal en godsdiens blyk om dobbelhoudings te beinvloed. Die resultate het belangrike implikasies vir die dobbelspelbedryf en welsynsorganisasies.

  16. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  17. Consumer motivations for sustainable consumption:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezvani, Zeinab; Jansson, Johan; Bengtsson, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Recent conceptual studies identify gain, normative and hedonic factors as three categories of motivations of consumer proenvironmental behavior. However, empirical understanding of how these motivations interact and affect proenvironmental behavior is limited. This study is based on a survey of car...... owners in Sweden (N = 573) and uses structural equation modeling to analyze the data. The empirical findings point to the importance of all three motivations (gain, normative and hedonic) in consumer electric vehicle adoption intentions. Furthermore, for consumers who perceive high social norms regarding...

  18. Design of resilient consumer products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Consumer product sustainability is a topic that has been of increasing interest to practice and academia in recent decades. In this context, a widely discussed means of achieving sustainability is to design more durable products, thereby reducing the need for the production of new products....... In particular, the emotional perspective on product durability has received attention in recent design literature, since consumer products are often replaced long before they become physically non-functioning. However, the literature does not provide a full account of the causes of product replacement...... for designers to design resilient consumer products and for researchers to engage in further studies....

  19. Consumer acceptance of functional foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frewer, Lynn J.; Scholderer, Joachim; Lambert, Nigel

    2003-01-01

    In the past, it has been assumed that consumers would accept novel foods if there is a concrete and tangible consumer benefit associated with them, which implies that those functional foods would quickly be accepted. However, there is evidence that individuals are likely to differ in the extent...... to which they are likely to buy products with particular functional properties. Various cross-cultural and demographic differences in acceptance found in the literature are reviewed, as well as barriers to dietary change. In conclusion, it is argued that understanding consumer's risk perceptions...

  20. Marketing research of consumer perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodić Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Perception involves the collection, processing and interpretation of information through sensory receptors and represents the reality of an individual. Collecting customer information is imperative for marketing, because consumers are in the focus of defining all its objectives, strategies and plans. The result of the perception depends on a number of factors and that is why people do not experience stimuli in the same way. A marketing research of consumer perceptions has been carried out in order to identify the habits and understand the behavior of consumers when choosing products with special emphasis on the influence of perception, stimuli from the environment and perceptions of risk in their decision. .

  1. Consumer demand for cars in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R P

    1975-01-01

    Since the Second World War the American public has bought almost two hundred million cars, and the abrupt year to year variations in the number of new cars sold have had a substantial impact on the level of activity of the U.S. economy. This book examines the factors that determine the demand for cars and suggests an explanation for the large fluctuations in their sales. A wide variety of information, including data from market research, surveys of industry and consumer opinion, cross section studies and aggregate time series, is used to construct and estimate econometric models that will explain consumer decisions about the ownership, purchase and replacement of cars. This quantitative analysis is supplemented by information of a more qualitative nature on the significance for the car market of such factors as model changes, the oil crisis, and the prevailing social climate. One of the main conclusions of the book is that traditional neo-classical models of consumer behavior do not provide a satisfactory explanation of observed market behavior, and that account has to be taken of the role of variations in consumer confidence and expectations in determining demand. The study will be of interest to students and teachers of economics and business studies as well as to those concerned with the motor industry. (50 references) (from publisher's description)

  2. SEXISM IN CONSUMERS AND THEIR SEXIST ASESSMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Velandia-Morales

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research identifies the relationship between the score for consumers of television media in Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (ASI, Glick and Fiske, 1996. Adapt. Expósito et al., 1998 and they valuation around level of sexism than 14 television commercials broadcast in the national channels. The study was conducted with 100 participants, of both genders, aged between 18 and 60 years of strata 4, 5, 6, consumers of television media. It is an ex post facto study, a prospective with single independent variable (Montero & Leon, 2007. The level of ambivalent sexism is the independent variable by classification and the valuation of commercial is the dependent variable. The main findings show an interaction statistically significant between level of ambivalent sexism in the component of gender differentiation and the perception of sexism in advertising, but without a statistically significant effect with gender, age and other demo-graphic variables.

  3. Blueberry polyphenol-enriched soybean flour reduces hyperglycemia, body weight gain and serum cholesterol in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopchand, Diana E.; Kuhn, Peter; Rojo, Leonel E.; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    Defatted soybean flour (DSF) can sorb and concentrate blueberry anthocyanins and other polyphenols, but not sugars. In this study blueberry polyphenol-enriched DSF (BB-DSF) or DSF were incorporated into very high fat diet (VHFD) formulations and provided ad libitum to obese and hyperglycemic C57BL/6 mice for 13 weeks to investigate anti-diabetic effects. Compared to the VHFD containing DSF, the diet supplemented with BB-DSF reduced weight gain by 5.6%, improved glucose tolerance, and lowered fasting blood glucose levels in mice within 7 weeks of intervention. Serum cholesterol of mice consuming the BB-DSF-supplemented diet was 13.2% lower than mice on the diet containing DSF. Compounds were eluted from DSF and BB-DSF for in vitro assays of glucose production and uptake. Compared to untreated control, doses of BB-DSF eluate containing 0.05 – 10 μg/μL of blueberry anthocyanins significantly reduced glucose production by 24% - 74% in H4IIE rat hepatocytes, but did not increase glucose uptake in L6 myotubes. The results indicate that delivery of blueberry polyphenols stabilized in a high-protein food matrix may be useful for the dietary management of pre-diabetes and/or diabetes. PMID:23220243

  4. Mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running behavior conserve more fat despite increased exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Layla; Garland, Theodore

    2018-04-20

    Physical activity is an important component of energy expenditure, and acute changes in activity can lead to energy imbalances that affect body composition, even under ad libitum food availability. One example of acute increases in physical activity is four replicate, selectively-bred High Runner (HR) lines of mice that voluntarily run ~3-fold more wheel revolutions per day over 6-day trials and are leaner, as compared with four non-selected control (C) lines. We expected that voluntary exercise would increase food consumption, build lean mass, and reduce fat mass, but that these effects would likely differ between HR and C lines or between the sexes. We compared wheel running, cage activity, food consumption, and body composition between HR and C lines for young adults of both sexes, and examined interrelationships of those traits across 6 days of wheel access. Before wheel testing, HR mice weighed less than C, primarily due to reduced lean mass, and females were lighter than males, entirely due to lower lean mass. Over 6 days of wheel access, all groups tended to gain small amounts of lean mass, but lose fat mass. HR mice lost less fat than C mice, in spite of much higher activity levels, resulting in convergence to a fat mass of ~1.7 g for all 4 groups. HR mice consumed more food than C mice (with body mass as a covariate), even accounting for their higher activity levels. No significant sex-by-linetype interactions were observed for any of the foregoing traits. Structural equation models showed that the four sex-by-linetype groups differed considerably in the complex phenotypic architecture of these traits. Interrelationships among traits differed by genetic background and sex, lending support to the idea that recommendations regarding weight management, diet, and exercise may need to be tailored to the individual level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Estimation of TiO₂ nanoparticle-induced genotoxicity persistence and possible chronic gastritis-induction in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Hanan Ramadan Hamad

    2015-09-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles are widely used as a food additive and coloring agent in many consumer products however limited data is available on the nano-TiO2 induced genotoxicity persistence. Thus, this study investigated the persistence of nano-TiO2 induced genotoxicity and possible induction of chronic gastritis in mice. The mice were orally administered 5, 50 or 500 mg/kg body weight nano-TiO2 for five consecutive days, and then mice from each dosage group were sacrificed 24 h or one or two weeks after the last treatment. The administration of nano-TiO2 resulted in persistent apoptotic DNA fragmentation and mutations in p53 exons (5-8) as well as significant persistent elevations in malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels and decreases in the reduced glutathione level and catalase activity compared with the control mice in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Necrosis and inflammation were evident upon histological examination. These findings could be attributed to the persistent accumulation of nano-TiO2 at the tested doses at all three time points. Based on these findings, we conclude that the administration of nano-TiO2, even at low doses, leads to persistent accumulation of nano-TiO2 in mice, resulting in persistent inflammation, apoptosis and oxidative stress, ultimately leading to the induction of chronic gastritis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Morphometric and functional abnormalities of kidneys in the progeny of mice fed chocolate during pregnancy and lactation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Skopińska-Rózewska

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Even most commonly consumed beverages like tea, coffee, chocolate and cocoa contain methylxanthines, biogenic amines and polyphenols, among them catechins, that exhibit significant biological activity and might profoundly affect the organism homeostasis. We have previously shown that 400 mg of bitter chocolate or 6 mg of theobromine added to the daily diet of pregnant and afterwards lactating mice affected embryonic angiogenesis and caused bone mineralization disturbances as well as limb shortening in 4-weeks old offspring. The aim of the present study was the morphometric and functional evaluation of kidneys in the 4-weeks old progeny mice fed according to the protocol mentioned above. Progeny from the mice fed chocolate presented considerable morphometric abnormalities in the kidney structure, with the lower number of glomeruli per mm2 and their increased diameter. Moreover, higher serum creatinine concentration was observed in that group of offspring. No morphometric or functional irregularities were found in the progeny of mice fed theobromine. Abnormalities demonstrated in the offspring of mice fed chocolate are not related to its theobromine content. Consequently, identification of active compound(s responsible for the observed effects is of vital importance.

  7. Risk assessment: 'A consumer's perspective'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterhouse, Rachel [Consumer' s Association, Health and Safety Commission (United Kingdom)

    1992-07-01

    The paper assesses the concept of risk, risk assessment and tolerability of risk from consumer point of view. Review of existing UK and EC directives on certain products and appliances is also covered.

  8. Consumer Education in Any Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingo, Rosetta F.

    1977-01-01

    Examples are offered of how the classroom teacher can blend consumer education into typewriting, business English, business math, and other classes by intentionally focusing on principles and concepts or by including it incidentally when the opportunity arises. (TA)

  9. Risk assessment: 'A consumer's perspective'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterhouse, Rachel

    1992-01-01

    The paper assesses the concept of risk, risk assessment and tolerability of risk from consumer point of view. Review of existing UK and EC directives on certain products and appliances is also covered

  10. Consumer food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stancu, Violeta; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    Linket til højre henviser til rapporten i trykt format til download. Dokumentet over linket er selve leveringen til ministeriet med følgebrev. Household food waste is one of the main contributors to the food waste amounts across the food supply chain. This report is based on a study conducted...... in September 2017 by MAPP Research Centre – Research on Value Creation in the Food Sector. The study aimed to examine consumer food waste, with a focus on consumer perceptions and practices related to food waste. A survey was completed by 508 respondents in Denmark to provide insights into self......-reported consumer food waste, consumer understanding and perceptions of food waste, household food-related practices as well as individual and household characteristics with a role in food waste....

  11. Consumer response to packaging design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, Nigel D.; Herpen, van Erica; Lans, van der Ivo A.; Ligthart, Tom N.; Trijp, van Hans C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Building on theories of cue utilization, this paper investigates whether and how packaging sustainability influences consumer perceptions, inferences and attitudes towards packaged products. A framework is tested in an empirical study among 249 students using soup products varying in packaging

  12. Utility shopping: are consumers ready?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrados, A.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides an overview of public readiness to deal with deregulation of the electric power industry , based on an analysis of public reaction to the deregulation of the transportation, telecommunications and natural gas industries which already have taken place. The report also examines the reasons why residential consumers have reason to be wary of deregulation. These include the likelihood of slow development of the intended competition, the consequent limits on consumer choices, the possibility of increased prices, decreased quality of service and erosion of social values such as affordability and accessibility. The report concludes with a number of recommendations aimed at ensuring the existence of workable competition for residential consumers, that reliable and meaningful information is available as competition in deregulated markets gets underway, that independent sources of information are widely available, and that basic consumer protection against deceptive and borderline marketing practices, a regulatory oversight mechanism and public reporting mechanisms are in place before competition begins. 33 refs

  13. Influencing the online consumer's behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Constantinides, Efthymios

    2004-01-01

    Addresses one of the fundamental issues of e-marketing: how to attract and win over the consumer in the highly competitive Internet marketplace. Analyses the factors affecting the online consumer's behavior and examines how e-marketers can influence the outcome of the virtual interaction and buying process by focusing their marketing efforts on elements shaping the customer's virtual experience, the Web experience. Identifying the Web experience components and understanding their role as inpu...

  14. Consumer Behavior dan Marketing Mix

    OpenAIRE

    Pura A, Agus Hasan

    2005-01-01

    Marketing concept emerged since business philosophy shifted to a customer-centered, the job is to find the right products for your choosen target markets. The reason for customer orientation in which all functions work together to respond to, Serve, and satisfy customer. To satisfy consumer (end user) the marketing concept use integrated marketing, that is segmenting, Targeting, positioning, and marketing mix (4p/7p). And to.be success, marketer have to understand the behavior of consumers of...

  15. Tactile Stimulation and Consumer Response.

    OpenAIRE

    Hornik, Jacob

    1992-01-01

    Tactile behavior is a basic communication form as well as an expression of interpersonal involvement. This article presents three studies offering evidence for the positive role of casual interpersonal touch on consumer behavior. More specifically, it provides initial support for the view that tactile stimulation in various consumer behavior situations enhances the positive feeling for and evaluation of both the external stimuli and the touching source. Further, customers touched by a request...

  16. Consumer-based product profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacalone, Davide; Ribeiro, Leticia Machado; Frøst, Michael Bom

    2013-01-01

    Napping® is an inexpensive and rapid method for sensory characterization, suitable for both trained and untrained subjects. In the study presented, the method was applied on 9 specialty beers. Subjects were 17 consumers without any training as sensory panelists, of whom 8 were beer experts and 9 ...... for sensory characterization, with the advantage of providing a product characterization based on consumer descriptions, thus better reflecting consumers’ experience with the product....

  17. Consumer Behaviour in Online Shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Hasslinger, Anders; Hodzic, Selma; Opazo, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    The Internet has developed into a new distribution channel and online transactions are rapidly increasing. This has created a need to understand how the consumer perceives online purchases. The purpose of this dissertation was to examine if there are any particular factors that influence the online consumer. Primary data was collected through a survey that was conducted on students at the University of Kristianstad. Price, Trust and Convenience were identified as important factors. Price was ...

  18. Motherhood, Marketization, and Consumer Vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Andrea; Prothero, Andrea; Sørensen, Elin

    2010-01-01

    This article explores consumer vulnerability and the role of public policy by focusing on new mothers. Developing the consumer vulnerability model of Baker, Gentry, and Rittenburg, the authors consider how medical contexts, political and legal factors, economic resources, societal prescriptions...... a time of physical and psychological changes in mothers-to-be. This article illustrates that the extended market logic dominating contemporary mothering environments both contributes to and has the potential to exacerbate new mothers’ vulnerability, raising important challenges for public policy, both...

  19. Consumer oriented new product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Trijp, Hans C.M.; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    New product development is a necessary activity for a company’s competitiveness, profitability and growth. However, new product development is a risky activity as a large percentage of new product introductions fail to achieve their commercial targets. The present chapter reviews the existing evi...... evidence on new product success and failure factors. From that it introduces the perspective of consumer-oriented new product development as a way to balance new technological opportunity against identified consumer needs and desires....

  20. Consumer perceptions of free will

    OpenAIRE

    Alba, Joseph W.; Vanhouche, Wouter; van Osselaer, Stijn

    2009-01-01

    The topic of free will has a long and distinguished history in philosophy and psychology. Consumer research has implicitly confronted the issue through empirical investigation of psychological processes that speak to the existence of free will; more recently, consumer psychologists have explicitly debated the question and its implications for decision making. The present research takes a different approach by investigating consumers’ perceptions of their free will. Our results suggest that...

  1. Body Image of Pakistani Consumers.

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq Jalees; Ernest C de Run

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how media exposure, self-esteem, and religiosity influence body image of Pakistan consumers. The underpinning of this study is based on Social Comparison Theory with two additional variables (religiosity and self-esteem) for understanding understand consumer attitude towards body image. A self-administered questionnaire was used. 193 persons responded at mall intercepts. The Conceptual framework was empirically tested through SEM. A positive relationship between exposure t...

  2. How Amount of Brand Advertising is Related to Consumer Buying Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefner, James E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Finds that total brand advertising in 63 consumer product categories is positively and significantly related to the total number of brands in the category and to the average number of brands consumers usually buy. (FL)

  3. Excessive Vitamin E Intake Does Not Cause Bone Loss in Male or Ovariectomized Female Mice Fed Normal or High-Fat Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Hiroko; Kawawa, Rie; Ichi, Ikuyo; Ishikawa, Tomoko; Koike, Taisuke; Aoki, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Yoko

    2017-10-01

    Background: Animal studies on the effects of vitamin E on bone health have yielded conflicting and inconclusive results, and to our knowledge, no studies have addressed the effect of vitamin E on bone in animals consuming a high-fat diet (HFD). Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of excessive vitamin E on bone metabolism in normal male mice and ovariectomized female mice fed a normal diet (ND) or HFD. Methods: In the first 2 experiments, 7-wk-old male mice were fed an ND (16% energy from fat) containing 75 (control), 0 (vitamin E-free), or 1000 (high vitamin E) mg vitamin E/kg (experiment 1) or an HFD (46% energy from fat) containing 0, 200, 500, or 1000 mg vitamin E/kg (experiment 2) for 18 wk. In the third experiment, 7-wk-old sham-operated or ovariectomized female mice were fed the ND (75 mg vitamin E/kg) or HFD containing 0 or 1000 mg vitamin E/kg for 8 wk. At the end of the feeding period, blood and femurs were collected to measure bone turnover markers and analyze histology and microcomputed tomography. Results: In experiments 1 and 2, vitamin E intake had no effect on plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, or bone formation, resorption, or volume in femurs in mice fed the ND or HFDs. In experiment 3, bone volume was significantly reduced (85%) in ovariectomized mice compared with that in sham-operated mice ( P vitamin E/kg. Conclusions: The results suggest that excess vitamin E intake does not cause bone loss in normal male mice or in ovariectomized or sham-operated female mice, regardless of dietary fat content. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Zinc metabolism in genetically obese mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, M.L.; Failla, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that the concentrations and total amounts of several essential trace metals in various tissues of genetically obese rodents differ markedly from lean controls. In the present studies the absorption, retention and tissue distribution of zinc was compared in obese (ob/ob) and lean (+/?) C57BL/6J mice. When administered 0.1 and 1 umole 65 Zn by stomach tube and killed after 4 h, fasted 10 week old obese mice had 2.7 and 2.2 times more radioactivity in their carcasses, respectively, than age-matched lean mice. Higher levels of 65 Zn were also present in the intestinal mucosa of obese mice. To eliminate possible differences in the effects of fasting and gastric emptying rates between the phenotypes, zinc absorption and retention were determined according to the method of Heth and Hoekstra. Analysis of data revealed that obese and lean mice absorbed 43 and 18% of the oral dose, respectively. Also, the rate of 65 Zn excretion between 2 and 6 days post-treatment was similar for obese and lean mice. After 6 days obese mice had significantly lower levels of radioisotope in skin, muscle plus bone, spleen and testes and higher levels of 65 Zn in liver, small intestine and adipose tissue compared to tissues from lean mice. These results demonstrate increased absorption, altered tissue distribution and similar excretion of zinc in ob/ob mice

  5. Consumer acceptance of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feenstra, M.H.; Scholten, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    Although the first experiments on food irradiation were carried out in 1916 in Sweden, food irradiation, is for consumers, a relatively new technology. From the sixties food irradiation has been applied more and more, so that the consumer movement has become alert to this technology. Since then a lot of controversies have arisen in the literature about wholesomeness, safety, effects, etc. Food irradiation is currently permitted on a small scale in about 30 countries; in some countries or states food irradiation has been put under a ban (e.g. Australia, New Zealand, New Jersey). The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) have, however, chosen food irradiation as a safe and sound method for preserving and improving the safety of food. Reactions on the part of the consumer organizations of many countries are however not in favour of or are even opposed to food irradiation. In this chapter consumer acceptance related to technological developments is described, then the convergence of the consumer movement on public opinion and concern on food irradiation is discussed. The need for labelling of irradiated food products is discussed and finally recommendations are given of ways to change consumers attitudes to food irradiation. (author)

  6. Beef customer satisfaction: factors affecting consumer evaluations of clod steaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, K J; Morgan, W W; Reagan, J O; Gwartney, B L; Courington, S M; Wise, J W; Savell, J W

    2002-02-01

    An in-home beef study evaluated consumer ratings of clod steaks (n = 1,264) as influenced by USDA quality grade (Top Choice, Low Choice, High Select, and Low Select), city (Chicago and Philadelphia), consumer segment (Beef Loyals, who are heavy consumers of beef; Budget Rotators, who are cost-driven and split meat consumption between beef and chicken; and Variety Rotators, who have higher incomes and education and split their meat consumption among beef, poultry, and other foods), degree of doneness, and cooking method. Consumers evaluated each steak for Overall Like, Tenderness, Juiciness, Flavor Like, and Flavor Amount using 10-point scales. Grilling was the predominant cooking method used, and steaks were cooked to medium-well and greater degrees of doneness. Interactions existed involving the consumer-controlled factors of degree of doneness and(or) cooking method for all consumer-evaluated traits for the clod steak (P affect any consumer evaluation traits or Warner-Bratzler shear force values (P > 0.05). One significant main effect, segment (P = 0.006), and one significant interaction, cooking method x city (P = 0.0407), existed for Overall Like ratings. Consumers in the Beef Loyals segment rated clod steaks higher in Overall Like than the other segments. Consumers in Chicago tended to give more uniform Overall Like ratings to clod steaks cooked by various methods; however, consumers in Philadelphia gave among the highest ratings to clod steaks that were fried and among the lowest to those that were grilled. Additionally, although clod steaks that were fried were given generally high ratings by consumers in Philadelphia, consumers in Chicago rated clod steaks cooked in this manner significantly lower than those in Philadelphia. Conversely, consumers in Chicago rated clod steaks that were grilled significantly higher than consumers in Philadelphia. Correlation and stepwise regression analyses indicated that Flavor Like was driving customer satisfaction of the

  7. Financial insight and behaviour of household consumers in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Financial insight and behaviour of household consumers in Port Elizabeth. ... improve their money management skills and ensure they eliminate debt, which can be ... Significant relationships between demographical variables and financial ...

  8. Quantifying and Disaggregating Consumer Purchasing Behavior for Energy Systems Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer behaviors such as energy conservation, adoption of more efficient technologies, and fuel switching represent significant potential for greenhouse gas mitigation. Current efforts to model future energy outcomes have tended to use simplified economic assumptions ...

  9. [Anatomy and histology characteristics of lymph node in nude mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, R; Gao, B; Guo, C B

    2017-10-18

    To compare the differences of anatomical and histological characteristics of lymph nodes between BALB/c nude mice and BALB/c mice. Firstly, twenty BALB/c nude mice and twenty BALB/c mice were dissected by using a surgical microscope. Secondly, the differences of T cells and B cells at the lymph node were compared by the expressions of CD 3 and CD 20 immunohistochemistry dyes. There were, on average, 23 nodes per mouse contained within the large lymph node assembly in the BALB/c nude mouse. The anatomical features of the lymph node distribution in the nude mice were mainly found in the neck with relatively higher density. There were two lymph nodes both in the submandible lymph nodes group and in the superficial cervical lymph nodes group (the constituent ratios were 95% and 90%, respectively) in the BALB/c nude mice, but there were four lymph nodes (the constituent ratios were 95% and 90%, respectively) in the BALB/c mice. There were significant difference between the BALB/c nude mice and the BALB/c mice. Mostly there were two lymph nodes of deep cervical lymph nodes both in the BALB/c nude mice and the BALB/c mice (the constituent ratios were 95% and 100%, respectively). There were no significant difference between the BALB/c nude mice and the BALB/c mice. We confirmed that the number of CD 3 -positive T lymphocytes in lymph nodes of the nude mice decreased greatly as compared with the BALB/c mice. Expressions of CD3 in T cells were 95% and 100% in the BALB/c nude mice and in the BALB/c mice, respectively. There were significant differences between the BALB/c nude mice and the BALB/c mice. Expressions of CD20 in B cells were 95% and 100% in the BALB/c nude mice and in the BALB/c mice, respectively. There was no significant difference between the BALB/c nude mice and BALB/c mice. The anatomical pictures of lymph node distribution in the nude mouse will be benefit to those who are interested. The anatomical features of the lymph node local higher density in neck of

  10. Probiotic microbes sustain youthful serum testosterone levels and testicular size in aging mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theofilos Poutahidis

    Full Text Available The decline of circulating testosterone levels in aging men is associated with adverse health effects. During studies of probiotic bacteria and obesity, we discovered that male mice routinely consuming purified lactic acid bacteria originally isolated from human milk had larger testicles and increased serum testosterone levels compared to their age-matched controls. Further investigation using microscopy-assisted histomorphometry of testicular tissue showed that mice consuming Lactobacillus reuteri in their drinking water had significantly increased seminiferous tubule cross-sectional profiles and increased spermatogenesis and Leydig cell numbers per testis when compared with matched diet counterparts This showed that criteria of gonadal aging were reduced after routinely consuming a purified microbe such as L. reuteri. We tested whether these features typical of sustained reproductive fitness may be due to anti-inflammatory properties of L. reuteri, and found that testicular mass and other indicators typical of old age were similarly restored to youthful levels using systemic administration of antibodies blocking pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-17A. This indicated that uncontrolled host inflammatory responses contributed to the testicular atrophy phenotype in aged mice. Reduced circulating testosterone levels have been implicated in many adverse effects; dietary L. reuteri or other probiotic supplementation may provide a viable natural approach to prevention of male hypogonadism, absent the controversy and side-effects of traditional therapies, and yield practical options for management of disorders typically associated with normal aging. These novel findings suggest a potential high impact for microbe therapy in public health by imparting hormonal and gonad features of reproductive fitness typical of much younger healthy individuals.

  11. Change of values in the consumer society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austruma S.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A common feature of our age is orientation of young people towards transitional values. Economic partnership of consumer society has a direct impact on values of society and even if the process of change of values can be affected by formers of education politics, economists and politicians, young people still choose values, which conform with their own lifestyle. Content of educational subjects is connected with study, succession of cultural values, study of classified knowledge and skills, which is also a prerequisite of formation of personality. Societies of all ages has formed according to the specific mechanism, accumulating and integrating general, notable at that time ideas, preserving and transforming their own social experience to the next generations. Each culture declares itself from its scale of values and norms. Priority of change of post material and material values changes together with conditions of cultural, historical and social-political life. Change of paradigms is change of viewpoint of the world, therefore conditions of value choice relate not only to separate groups, but to whole cultures. Young people, similar to other members of society, are forced to construct their own identity and to form their own life insurance strategies offered by the consumer society. Consumer society forms its values and it is creator of its own significance, but young people as social agents are reproducers of values of consumer society. Research results of World Value Surveys (WVS from six continents discovered big differences in value priorities between younger and older generations, which indicates not only inter-generation value change, but also changes in the whole society. The research “Value choice of young people in consumer society” in our country shows, that although the lifestyle of young people is pragmatic, traditional value – family is also one of the most often mentioned and important values in consumer society. But

  12. Consumer energy conservation options - professional and consumer perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, B.J.R.; Claxton, J.D.; McDougall, G.H.G.

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to: identify government policies for reducing Canadian consumption of home heating fuel, electricity, and gasoline; assess probable effectiveness of different policy alternatives as a means of reducing consumer energy consumption; and measure the acceptability to Canadian consumers of the different policy alternatives. Interviews were conducted with energy conservation professionals to identify and evaluate existing energy conservation programs, and interviews were conducted with consumers who had evaluated selected programs previously reviewed by the professionals. Information was also gathered on energy conservation activities of consumers surveyed. A directory of 34 energy conservation programs was also compiled. Some of the conclusions reached in this report are as follows. There is a need for an information system to gather data on existing conservation programs in order to increase the knowledge of relevant parties as to the outcomes of operating programs. This would help evaluation and improvement of current programs and suggest new program possibilities. The professionals rated six of the 34 programs highly, including the Energuide and the Canadian Home Insulation Program (CHIP). Retrofitting programs for houses are recommended for continuation and expansion, with some consideration given to linking these kinds of programs with home audit programs. In the private transport sector, any new conservation programs should be thoroughly tested on a small scale before widespread implementation, as evidence indicates that certain programs favorably evaluated by professionals may not be received favorably by consumers. 3 refs., 24 tabs.

  13. Consumer attitudes and olive oil acceptance: The potential consumer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McEwan, Jean A.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available       This paper outlines the results of consumer research to investigate consumer attitudes towards olive oil, and to evaluate selected experimental samples for acceptability.
          Consumer focus group discussions were used to investigate consumer attitudes to and awareness of olive oil, in relation to other culinary oils. A wide range of information was obtained, indicating the increasing importance of olive oil in the UK.
           Product use was examined to investigate the different types of olive oils consumers use, and the importance of different attributes for purchase. Price, quality and colour were the most important considerations for purchasing an olive oil, whilst package design, package material and brand were the least important.       Eight samples of virgin olive oil were evaluated for acceptability of appearance, odour, flavour and mouthfeel. These data indicated clear differences in acceptability between the samples, particularly on flavour, mouthfeel and overall acceptability. These data were then linked to sensory information to determine the characteristics of oil associated with liking for the product.

  14. Are consumers concerned about plastic water bottles environmental impact?

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Orset; Nicolas Barret; Aurélien Lemaire

    2015-01-01

    Although plastic induces environmental damages, almost all water bottles are made from plastic. However, these damages are more or less significant according to the plastic used. This study evaluates the consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for different plastics used for water packaging. Successive messages emphasizing the characteristics of plastic are delivered to participants allowing explaining information influence on the consumers' WTP. We find that information has a significant effect ...

  15. Adolescent C57BL/6J mice show elevated alcohol intake, but reduced taste aversion, as compared to adult mice: a potential behavioral mechanism for binge drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstein, Sarah E; Spanos, Marina; Hodge, Clyde W

    2011-10-01

    Binge alcohol drinking during adolescence is a serious health problem that may increase future risk of an alcohol use disorder. Although there are several different procedures by which to preclinically model binge-like alcohol intake, limited-access procedures offer the advantage of achieving high voluntary alcohol intake and pharmacologically relevant blood alcohol concentrations (BACs). Therefore, in the current study, developmental differences in binge-like alcohol drinking using a limited-access cycling procedure were examined. In addition, as alcohol drinking has been negatively correlated with sensitivity to the aversive properties of alcohol, we examined developmental differences in sensitivity to an alcohol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Binge-like alcohol consumption was investigated in adolescent (4 weeks) and adult (10 weeks) male C57BL/6J mice for 2 to 4 h/d for 16 days. Developmental differences in sensitivity to an alcohol-induced CTA were examined in adolescent and adult mice, with saline or alcohol (3 or 4 g/kg) repeatedly paired with the intake of a novel tastant (NaCl). Adolescent mice showed a significant increase in alcohol intake as compared to adults, with adolescents achieving higher BACs and increasing alcohol consumption over successive cycles of the binge procedure. Conversely, adolescent mice exhibited a dose-dependent reduction in sensitivity to the aversive properties of alcohol, as compared to adult mice, with adolescent mice failing to develop a CTA to 3 g/kg alcohol. Finally, extinction of an alcohol CTA was observed following conditioning with a higher dose of alcohol in adolescent, versus adult, mice. These results indicate that adolescent mice consume more alcohol, per kilogram body weight, than adults in a binge-like model of alcohol drinking and demonstrate a blunted sensitivity to the conditioned aversive effects of alcohol. Overall, this supports a behavioral framework by which heightened binge alcohol intake during

  16. Reduced immune responses in chimeric mice engrafted with bone marrow cells from mice with airways inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Naomi M; Ng, Royce L X; McGonigle, Terence A; Gorman, Shelley; Hart, Prue H

    2015-11-01

    During respiratory inflammation, it is generally assumed that dendritic cells differentiating from the bone marrow are immunogenic rather than immunoregulatory. Using chimeric mice, the outcomes of airways inflammation on bone marrow progenitor cells were studied. Immune responses were analyzed in chimeric mice engrafted for >16 weeks with bone marrow cells from mice with experimental allergic airways disease (EAAD). Responses to sensitization and challenge with the allergen causing inflammation in the bone marrow-donor mice were significantly reduced in the chimeric mice engrafted with bone marrow cells from mice with EAAD (EAAD-chimeric). Responses to intranasal LPS and topical fluorescein isothiocyanate (non-specific challenges) were significantly attenuated. Fewer activated dendritic cells from the airways and skin of the EAAD-chimeric mice could be tracked to the draining lymph nodes, and may contribute to the significantly reduced antigen/chemical-induced hypertrophy in the draining nodes, and the reduced immune responses to sensitizing allergens. Dendritic cells differentiating in vitro from the bone marrow of >16 weeks reconstituted EAAD-chimeric mice retained an ability to poorly prime immune responses when transferred into naïve mice. Dendritic cells developing from bone marrow progenitors during airways inflammation are altered such that daughter cells have reduced antigen priming capabilities.

  17. Attitudes of Consumers from Podgorica toward Advertising through Sport among the Question how often Consumers purchase Sporting Goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Djurisic

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at gaining relevant knowledge about the attitudes of Podgorica consumers toward advertising through sport among the question how often consumers purchase sporting goods. The sample included 330 students from Faculty of Economics in Podgorica, divided into six subsample groups: consumers who do not purchase sport goods at all, then consumers who purchase sport goods less than ones a month, next 1–3 a month, 4–6 a month, 7–9 a month, as well as consumers who purchase sport goods more than 10 times a month. The sample of variables contained the system of three general attitudes which were modelled by seven-point Likert scale. The results of the measuring were analyzed by multivariate analysis (MANOVA and univariate analysis (ANOVA and Post Hoc test. Based on the statistical analyses it was found that significant differences occur at multivariate level, as well as between all three variables at a significance level of (p=.000. Hence, it is interesting to highlight that it was found there were significant differences showed up between the consumers who purchase sport goods. The significant differences were found in two of three variables, while the consumers who purchase sport goods less than 3 times a moths had much more negative attitudes toward advertising though sport.

  18. USSR Report: Consumer Goods and Domestic Trade

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1985-01-01

    .... This document contains articles on consumer goods and domestic trade within the USSR. Topics include: consumer goods production and distribution, housing and personal services, and consumer sector policy and economics.

  19. Marketing biofortified crops: insights from consumer research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing biofortified crops: insights from consumer research. ... To develop a global strategy for consumer marketing of biofortified crops, research is needed to understand consumer ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  20. 77 FR 69735 - Consumer Leasing (Regulation M)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... Part 213 Advertising, Consumer leasing, Consumer protection, Federal Reserve System, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. 12 CFR Part 1013 Advertising, Consumer leasing, Reporting and recordkeeping... contains regulatory documents #0;having general applicability and legal effect, most of which are keyed #0...

  1. Inner ear dysfunction in caspase-3 deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Minna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caspase-3 is one of the most downstream enzymes activated in the apoptotic pathway. In caspase-3 deficient mice, loss of cochlear hair cells and spiral ganglion cells coincide closely with hearing loss. In contrast with the auditory system, details of the vestibular phenotype have not been characterized. Here we report the vestibular phenotype and inner ear anatomy in the caspase-3 deficient (Casp3-/- mouse strain. Results Average ABR thresholds of Casp3-/- mice were significantly elevated (P Casp3+/- mice and Casp3+/+ mice at 3 months of age. In DPOAE testing, distortion product 2F1-F2 was significantly decreased (P Casp3-/- mice, whereas Casp3+/- and Casp3+/+ mice showed normal and comparable values to each other. Casp3-/- mice were hyperactive and exhibited circling behavior when excited. In lateral canal VOR testing, Casp3-/- mice had minimal response to any of the stimuli tested, whereas Casp3+/- mice had an intermediate response compared to Casp3+/+ mice. Inner ear anatomical and histological analysis revealed gross hypomorphism of the vestibular organs, in which the main site was the anterior semicircular canal. Hair cell numbers in the anterior- and lateral crista, and utricle were significantly smaller in Casp3-/- mice whereas the Casp3+/- and Casp3+/+ mice had normal hair cell numbers. Conclusions These results indicate that caspase-3 is essential for correct functioning of the cochlea as well as normal development and function of the vestibule.

  2. Ethical aspects of advertising in the struggle for consumer confidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galavtina Anna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the issues associated with ethical aspects of advertising activities of the enterprise and consumer perception. The significance of this study is primarily due to the fact that in today's world, the realization of any products (goods is impossible without advertising support. The consumer has the right to receive the necessary, affordable, reliable and timely information about the product, which allows its conscious and informed choice. The purpose of this article is to reveal the problematic issues of ethics and truthfulness in advertising and to show their influence on consumer choice. The results of the study show that consumers tend to choose the product, which they are more informed about, even being aware of the shortcomings of this product. Companies, open to consumers, increasingly come into market leaders.

  3. Continuous research of consumer satisfaction in hotel business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miloš

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Consistent system for management of consumer satisfaction, based on continuous marketing research, contributes to more efficient adaptation of the offering package of a hotel enterprise to the expectations of target marketing segments, achieving higher level of marketing goals realization. By analyzing the degree of satisfaction through history, consumer loyalty, together with the determining factors of satisfaction and developed database on the consumer, it is possible to construct models, which provide a reliable base for prediction of future consumer behavior, giving to that particular hotel a significant competitive advantage. On the basis of information created in the system for research of satisfaction, it is possible to identify potentially attractive segments of the consumer with whom the hotel should develop very close communication and long-term relationships. .

  4. Consumer engagement in social networks brand community

    OpenAIRE

    Rybakovas, Paulius

    2016-01-01

    Consumers increasingly integrate social media into their day-to-day lives. For companies consumer engagement in a brand community on social network is becoming increasingly important for developing relations with consumers. Consumer engagement in a brand community on social network creates a dynamic relationship between the community members and the brand which contributes to an increase in consumer loyalty to the brand. The literature is abundant of studies, which examines the consumer engag...

  5. Ludwigia octovalvis extract improves glycemic control and memory performance in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Sheng; Lo, Jung-Hsin; Yang, Jo-Hsuan; Wang, Hao-Wei; Fan, Shou-Zen; Yen, Jui-Hung; Wang, Pei-Yu

    2017-07-31

    Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) P.H. Raven (Onagraceae) extracts have historically been consumed as a healthful drink for treating various conditions, including edema, nephritis, hypotension and diabetes. We have previously shown that Ludwigia octovalvis extract (LOE) can significantly extend lifespan and improve age-related memory deficits in Drosophila melanogaster through activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Since AMPK has become a critical target for treating diabetes, we herein investigate the anti-hyperglycemic potential of LOE. Differentiated C2C12 muscle cells, HepG2 hepatocellular cells, streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice and high fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetic mice were used to investigate the anti-hyperglycemic potential of LOE. The open field test and novel object recognition test were used to evaluate spontaneous motor activity and memory performance of HFD-induced diabetic mice. In differentiated C2C12 muscle cells and HepG2 hepatocellular cells, treatments with LOE and its active component (β-sitosterol) induced significant AMPK phosphorylation. LOE also enhanced uptake of a fluorescent glucose derivative (2-NBDG) and inhibited glucose production in these cells. The beneficial effects of LOE were completely abolished when an AMPK inhibitor, dorsomorphin, was added to the culture system, suggesting that LOE requires AMPK activation for its action in vitro. In streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice, we found that both LOE and β-sitosterol induced an anti-hyperglycemic effect comparable to that of metformin, a drug that is commonly prescribed to treat diabetes. Moreover, LOE also improved glycemic control and memory performance of mice fed a HFD. These results indicate that LOE is a potent anti-diabetic intervention that may have potential for future clinical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Behavioral Targeting—Consumer Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimani, P. K.; Srinivas, A.

    2011-12-01

    Behavioral targeting is an online marketing method that collects data on the browsing activities of consumers, in order to `target' more relevant online advertising. Behavioral targeting enables marketers to reach in-market consumers and increases the value of publisher inventory. At the heart of behavioral targeting is a learning-based investigation of consumer behaviors. It helps marketers understand consumers' purchase patterns over time, mapping out a customer's activities based not only on a single purchase but also on an annual or even lifetime basis. As marketers increasingly appreciate the importance of customer lifetime value, behavioral targeting can be a foundation for creating a continuous analytical study of consumer trends and patterns. But as behavioural-targeting systems become more sophisticated and invasive, it is vital that the companies behind them are open with users about what is going on, and give them control over their personal information. The aim of this paper is to explore the various tools and techniques of behavioral targeting and its benefits to online marketing. A multiple—case study approach was used for exploring the effectiveness and acceptance of online marketing in the area of the online marketing.

  7. Food irradiation and the consumer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The poster presents a review of research work undertaken on the perception and understanding that consumers have of food irradiation. Food irradiation is not a revolutionary new food processing technique, in fact it is probably one of the most investigated methods presently available. Many countries such as Belgium, France, Denmark, Italy, Spain, the Netherlands and the United States of America permit food irradiation. In Britain it is presently banned although this is currently under review. Awareness of food irradiation by the general public in Britain, although not extensively researched would appear to be increasing, especially in the light of recent media coverage. New quantitative and qualitative work indicates that the general public are concerned about the safety and effectiveness of food irradiation. Research has shown that a large proportion of consumers in Britain, if given the opportunity to purchase irradiated food, would not do so. Further exploration into this response revealed the fact that consumers are confused over what food irradiation is. In addition, there is concern over the detection of irradiated food. The views presented in this paper, of the consumer reaction to irradiated food are of great importance to those involved in the food industry and industries allied to it, which are ultimately dependent on the consumer for their commercial survival. (author)

  8. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  9. How Consumers and Physicians View New Medical Technology: Comparative Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeldt, Debra L; Wineinger, Nathan E; Waalen, Jill; Gollamudi, Shreya; Grossberg, Adam; Steinhubl, Steven R; McCollister-Slipp, Anna; Rogers, Marc A; Silvers, Carey; Topol, Eric J

    2015-09-14

    As a result of the digital revolution coming to medicine, a number of new tools are becoming available and are starting to be introduced in clinical practice. We aim to assess health care professional and consumer attitudes toward new medical technology including smartphones, genetic testing, privacy, and patient-accessible electronic health records. We performed a survey with 1406 health care providers and 1102 consumer responders. Consumers who completed the survey were more likely to prefer new technologies for a medical diagnosis (437/1102, 39.66%) compared with providers (194/1406, 13.80%; P<.001), with more providers (393/1406, 27.95%) than consumers (175/1102, 15.88%) reporting feeling uneasy about using technology for a diagnosis. Both providers and consumers supported genetic testing for various purposes, with providers (1234/1406, 87.77%) being significantly more likely than consumers (806/1102, 73.14%) to support genetic testing when planning to have a baby (P<.001). Similarly, 91.68% (1289/1406) of providers and 81.22% (895/1102) of consumers supported diagnosing problems in a fetus (P<.001). Among providers, 90.33% (1270/1406) were concerned that patients would experience anxiety after accessing health records, and 81.95% (1149/1406) felt it would lead to requests for unnecessary medical evaluations, but only 34.30% (378/1102; P<.001) and 24.59% (271/1102; P<.001) of consumers expressed the same concerns, respectively. Physicians (137/827, 16.6%) reported less concern about the use of technology for diagnosis compared to medical students (21/235, 8.9%; P=.03) and also more frequently felt that patients owned their medical record (323/827, 39.1%; and 30/235, 12.8%, respectively; P<.001). Consumers and health professionals differ significantly and broadly in their views of emerging medical technology, with more enthusiasm and support expressed by consumers.

  10. Secondary School Student's Attitude towards Consumer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Keywords: Consumer Education, Attitude, Home Economics, Secondary. School Students. ... Home Management taught at Senior Secondary School level. Today ..... indicate that facilities for teaching Consumer Education especially textbooks.

  11. Consumer food choices: the role of price and pricing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhuis, Ingrid H M; Waterlander, Wilma E; de Mul, Anika

    2011-12-01

    To study differences in the role of price and value in food choice between low-income and higher-income consumers and to study the perception of consumers about pricing strategies that are of relevance during grocery shopping. A cross-sectional study was conducted using structured, written questionnaires. Food choice motives as well as price perceptions and opinion on pricing strategies were measured. The study was carried out in point-of-purchase settings, i.e. supermarkets, fast-food restaurants and sports canteens. Adults (n 159) visiting a point-of-purchase setting were included. Price is an important factor in food choice, especially for low-income consumers. Low-income consumers were significantly more conscious of value and price than higher-income consumers. The most attractive strategies, according to the consumers, were discounting healthy food more often and applying a lower VAT (Value Added Tax) rate on healthy food. Low-income consumers differ in their preferences for pricing strategies. Since price is more important for low-income consumers we recommend mainly focusing on their preferences and needs.

  12. Segmentation: Identification of consumer segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg, Esben

    2005-01-01

    It is very common to categorise people, especially in the advertising business. Also traditional marketing theory has taken in consumer segments as a favorite topic. Segmentation is closely related to the broader concept of classification. From a historical point of view, classification has its...... origin in other sciences as for example biology, anthropology etc. From an economic point of view, it is called segmentation when specific scientific techniques are used to classify consumers to different characteristic groupings. What is the purpose of segmentation? For example, to be able to obtain...... a basic understanding of grouping people. Advertising agencies may use segmentation totarget advertisements, while food companies may usesegmentation to develop products to various groups of consumers. MAPP has for example investigated the positioning of fish in relation to other food products...

  13. Surfactant protein D is proatherogenic in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Grith L; Madsen, Jens; Kejling, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an important innate immune defense molecule that mediates clearance of pathogens and modulates the inflammatory response. Moreover, SP-D is involved in lipid homeostasis, and pulmonary accumulation of phospholipids has previously been observed in SP-D-deficient (Spd......-/-) mice. Atherogenesis involves both inflammation and lipid deposition, and we investigated the role of SP-D in the development of atherosclerosis. SP-D synthesis was localized to vascular endothelial cells. Atherosclerotic lesion areas were 5.6-fold smaller in the aortic roots in Spd-/- mice compared...... with wild-type C57BL/6N mice on an atherogenic diet. HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly elevated in Spd-/- mice. Treatment of Spd-/- mice with a recombinant fragment of human SP-D resulted in decreases of HDL-C (21%) as well as total cholesterol (26%), and LDL cholesterol (28%). Plasma TNF...

  14. The Consumer Reports Effectiveness Score: What Did Consumers Report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Stevan Lars; Smart, David W.; Isakson, Richard L.; Worthen, Vaughn E.; Gregersen, Ann T.; Lambert, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    From readers' ratings of satisfaction, problem resolution, and perceived emotional change during treatment, Consumer Reports magazine (CR, 1995) concluded both that psychotherapy is effective and that longer, more intensive therapy is more effective. The authors compared prospectively gathered 45-Item Outcome Questionnaire scores (OQ-45; M. J.…

  15. Preferences of cut flowers consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Kierczyńska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of interviews suggest that majority of the cut flowers’ consumers has favourite kind of flower, among which most frequently pointed one was the rose. More than half of the interviewed favour the uniform colour of cut flowers and red colour was the most favourite one. The subtle smell of flowers was the most preferable one but the intensive fragrance was favoured for more consumers than odourless flowers. The data from selected florists’ confirm the information from interviews – in spite of the occasion, roses were the most demanded cut flowers.

  16. Approval of radioactive consumer goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paynter, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    The 1980 Euratom Directive obliges the UK to draw up a system of prior authorization for the use of radioactive substances in a range of consumer products, and the Government intends to make regulations to fulfil the requirements of the Directive. These regulations will empower NRPB to approve such products prior to their supply to the public. In this brief article, the NRPB reviews the criteria against which to consider any proposed use of radioactive substances, considers radiological production standards for products and discusses the questions of the labelling of radioactive consumer goods. (UK)

  17. Consumer versus expert hazard identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagemann, Kit S.; Scholderer, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Novel foods have been the object of intense public debate in recent years. Despite efforts to communicate the outcomes of risk assessments to consumers, public confidence in the management of potential risks has been low. Various reasons behind this have been identified, chiefly a disagreement...... between technical experts and consumers over the nature of the hazards on which risk assessments should focus, and perceptions of insufficient openness about uncertainties in risk assessment. Whilst previous research has almost exclusively focused on genetically modified foods, the present paper...

  18. Recreating Intimacy With Connected Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Andrew

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the good old times shop manager knew their customers personally and were able to tailor offerings to their needs and desires. But how can we create meaningful moments for connected consumers in global markets? Yasmeen Ahmad explains how in digital times data fill in. Smart algorithms help generate insights and enable real time action to provide the right product and service to the right customer at the right time. Companies that don’t want to be left behind a digital elite need to remain close to their customers across multiple digital touchpoints. Being capable of reading, interpreting and acting upon consumers` traces is a prerequisite.

  19. Acceptability of GM foods among Pakistani consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Akhter; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In Pakistan majority of the consumers do not have information about genetically modified (GM) foods. In developing countries particularly in Pakistan few studies have focused on consumers' acceptability about GM foods. Using comprehensive primary dataset collected from 320 consumers in 2013 from Pakistan, this study analyzes the determinants of consumers' acceptability of GM foods. The data was analyzed by employing the bivariate probit model and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) models. The empirical results indicated that urban consumers are more aware of GM foods compared to rural consumers. The acceptance of GM foods was more among females' consumers as compared to male consumers. In addition, the older consumers were more willing to accept GM food compared to young consumers. The acceptability of GM foods was also higher among wealthier households. Low price is the key factor leading to the acceptability of GM foods. The acceptability of the GM foods also reduces the risks among Pakistani consumers. PMID:27494790

  20. Acceptability of GM foods among Pakistani consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Akhter; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2016-04-02

    In Pakistan majority of the consumers do not have information about genetically modified (GM) foods. In developing countries particularly in Pakistan few studies have focused on consumers' acceptability about GM foods. Using comprehensive primary dataset collected from 320 consumers in 2013 from Pakistan, this study analyzes the determinants of consumers' acceptability of GM foods. The data was analyzed by employing the bivariate probit model and censored least absolute deviation (CLAD) models. The empirical results indicated that urban consumers are more aware of GM foods compared to rural consumers. The acceptance of GM foods was more among females' consumers as compared to male consumers. In addition, the older consumers were more willing to accept GM food compared to young consumers. The acceptability of GM foods was also higher among wealthier households. Low price is the key factor leading to the acceptability of GM foods. The acceptability of the GM foods also reduces the risks among Pakistani consumers.

  1. Inherent and antigen-induced airway hyperreactivity in NC mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuto Kobayashi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to clarify the airway physiology of NC mice, the following experiments were carried out. To investigate inherent airway reactivity, we compared tracheal reactivity to various chemical mediators in NC, BALB/c, C57BL/6 and A/J mice in vitro. NC mice showed significantly greater reactivity to acetylcholine than BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice and a reactivity comparable to that of A/J mice, which are known as high responders. Then, airway reactivity to acetylcholine was investigated in those strains in vivo. NC mice again showed comparable airway reactivity to that seen in A/J mice and a significantly greater reactivity than that seen in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. To investigate the effects of airway inflammation on airway reactivity to acetylcholine in vivo, NC and BALB/c mice were sensitized to and challenged with antigen. Sensitization to and challenge with antigen induced accumulation of inflammatory cells, especially eosinophils, in lung and increased airway reactivity in NC and BALB/c mice. These results indicate that NC mice exhibit inherent and antigen-induced airway hyperreactivity. Therefore, NC mice are a suitable strain to use in investigating the mechanisms underlying airway hyperreactivity and such studies will provide beneficial information for understanding the pathophysiology of asthma.

  2. Consumer motivations toward buying local rice: The case of northern Iranian consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnama, Hassan

    2017-07-01

    This research had two purposes. The first aim was to identify Iranian and Non-Iranian rice consumers based on demographic characteristics and examine difference of these features with buying behaviors. The second purpose of study was to investigate consumer's motivation to buy local rice in Iran. The sample were 1500 people (men and women). The data was collected by using questionnaire based on a face-to-face survey. Chi-square, confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple linear regression were applied to assess collected data by a questionnaire survey. Regarding Iranian local rice buyers, 884 people buy local rice. Chi-square test showed that there is a significant difference between gender, having children, and marital status in buying local rice. Habitual Iranian local rice buyers include: female (51%), people who are more than 45 years old (51%), people with children (63%), people who are living urban (61%), married people (48%) and individuals that their monthly income is between 321.5 and 625 Dollars (53%). Regarding non-Iranian rice buyers, 616 people buy it. Also there is a significant difference between gender, location, marital status, and income in buying local rice. For considering consumers motivation toward buying local rice the econometrical model is used. Model had three aspects including; quality aspects (taste, good appearance), economic aspects (price, convenience, consumer's ethnocentrism), and safety aspects (health, not using pesticides and environment protection) and seven subset. The results of analysis indicated that quality aspects, economic aspects and safety aspects have positive effects on buying Iranian local rice. Also, indicative variables including; taste, good appearance, price, convenience, consumer's ethnocentrism, health, not using pesticides and environment have significant effects on buying it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Does Practicing CSR Makes Consumers Like Your Shop More? Consumer-Retailer Love Mediates CSR and Behavioral Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Wei Ho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research paper was designed to examine the influence of corporate social responsibility (CSR associations and environmental concerns on consumer-retailer love and attitude toward the retailer, as well as the subsequent effects on consumer behavioral intentions regarding the retailer, such as repeat patronage intention and willingness to pay a premium price for products offered by the retailer. In this study, a questionnaire survey was conducted on consumers for the purpose of investigating five proposed hypotheses. This research applied partial least squares (PLS to exam the hypotheses and analyze the data. The findings of this research indicated that CSR association and environmental concern both have positive effects on consumer-retailer love and attitude toward the retailer. Also, the results showed that consumer-retailer love has a significantly positive effect on consumer attitude towards the retailer. This paper establishes that consumer-retailer love and attitude toward a retailer are main mediators of the relationship between CSR associations, environmental concern, and consumer behavioral intentions.

  4. Does Practicing CSR Makes Consumers Like Your Shop More? Consumer-Retailer Love Mediates CSR and Behavioral Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ching-Wei

    2017-01-01

    This research paper was designed to examine the influence of corporate social responsibility (CSR) associations and environmental concerns on consumer-retailer love and attitude toward the retailer, as well as the subsequent effects on consumer behavioral intentions regarding the retailer, such as repeat patronage intention and willingness to pay a premium price for products offered by the retailer. In this study, a questionnaire survey was conducted on consumers for the purpose of investigating five proposed hypotheses. This research applied partial least squares (PLS) to exam the hypotheses and analyze the data. The findings of this research indicated that CSR association and environmental concern both have positive effects on consumer-retailer love and attitude toward the retailer. Also, the results showed that consumer-retailer love has a significantly positive effect on consumer attitude towards the retailer. This paper establishes that consumer-retailer love and attitude toward a retailer are main mediators of the relationship between CSR associations, environmental concern, and consumer behavioral intentions. PMID:29231873

  5. Does Practicing CSR Makes Consumers Like Your Shop More? Consumer-Retailer Love Mediates CSR and Behavioral Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ching-Wei

    2017-12-12

    This research paper was designed to examine the influence of corporate social responsibility (CSR) associations and environmental concerns on consumer-retailer love and attitude toward the retailer, as well as the subsequent effects on consumer behavioral intentions regarding the retailer, such as repeat patronage intention and willingness to pay a premium price for products offered by the retailer. In this study, a questionnaire survey was conducted on consumers for the purpose of investigating five proposed hypotheses. This research applied partial least squares (PLS) to exam the hypotheses and analyze the data. The findings of this research indicated that CSR association and environmental concern both have positive effects on consumer-retailer love and attitude toward the retailer. Also, the results showed that consumer-retailer love has a significantly positive effect on consumer attitude towards the retailer. This paper establishes that consumer-retailer love and attitude toward a retailer are main mediators of the relationship between CSR associations, environmental concern, and consumer behavioral intentions.

  6. Cardiovascular phenotype in Smad3 deficient mice with renovascular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Sonu; Warner, Gina; Hu, Zeng; Gao, Feng; Osman, Mazen; Al Saiegh, Yousif; Lien, Karen R; Nath, Karl; Grande, Joseph P

    2017-01-01

    Renovascular hypertension (RVH) has deleterious effects on both the kidney and the heart. TGF-β signaling through Smad3 directs tissue fibrosis in chronic injury models. In the 2-kidney 1-clip (2K1C) model of RVH, employing mice on the 129 genetic background, Smad3 deficiency (KO) protects the stenotic kidney (STK) from development of interstitial fibrosis. However, these mice have an increased incidence of sudden cardiac death following 2K1C surgery. The purpose of this study was to characterize the cardiovascular phenotype of these mice. Renal artery stenosis (RAS) was established in Wild-type (WT) and Smad3 KO mice (129 genetic background) by placement of a polytetrafluoroethylene cuff on the right renal artery. Mortality was 25.5% for KO mice with RAS, 4.1% for KO sham mice, 1.2% for WT with RAS, and 1.8% for WT sham mice. Myocardial tissue of mice studied at 3 days following surgery showed extensive myocyte necrosis in KO but not WT mice. Myocyte necrosis was associated with a rapid induction of Ccl2 expression, macrophage influx, and increased MMP-9 activity. At later time points, both KO and WT mice developed myocardial fibrosis. No aortic aneurysms or dissections were observed at any time point. Smad3 KO mice were backcrossed to the C57BL/6J strain and subjected to RAS. Sudden death was observed at 10-14 days following surgery in 62.5% of mice; necropsy revealed aortic dissections as the cause of death. As observed in the 129 mice, the STK of Smad3 KO mice on the C57BL/6J background did not develop significant chronic renal damage. We conclude that the cardiovascular manifestations of Smad3 deficient mice are strain-specific, with myocyte necrosis in 129 mice and aortic rupture in C57BL/6J mice. Future studies will define mechanisms underlying this strain-specific effect on the cardiovascular system.

  7. Water scarcity, market-based incentives, and consumer response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, K.; Chermak, J. M.; Brookshire, D. S.

    2003-04-01

    Water is an increasingly scarce resource and the future viability of many regions will depend in large part on how efficiently resources are utilized. A key factor to this success will be a thorough understanding of consumers and the characteristics that drive their water use. In this research test and find support for the hypothesis that residential water consumers are heterogeneous. We combine experimental and survey responses to test for statistically significant consumer characteristics that are observable factors of demand for water. Significant factors include "stage of life" (i.e., student versus workforce versus retired), as well as various social and cultural factors including age, ethnicity, political affiliation and religious affiliation. Identification of these characteristics allows us to econometrically estimate disaggregated water demand for a sample of urban water consumers in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. The results provide unique parameter estimates for different consumer types. Using these results we design an incentive compatible, non-linear pricing program that allows individual consumers to choose a fixed fee/commodity charge from a menu that not only allows the individual to maximize his or her utility, while meeting the conservation goals of the program. We show that this program, with the attention to consumer differences is more efficient than the traditional "one size fits all" programs commonly employed by many water utilities.

  8. Testing Significance Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim I. Krueger

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of Significance Testing (ST remains widespread in psychological science despite continual criticism of its flaws and abuses. Using simulation experiments, we address four concerns about ST and for two of these we compare ST’s performance with prominent alternatives. We find the following: First, the 'p' values delivered by ST predict the posterior probability of the tested hypothesis well under many research conditions. Second, low 'p' values support inductive inferences because they are most likely to occur when the tested hypothesis is false. Third, 'p' values track likelihood ratios without raising the uncertainties of relative inference. Fourth, 'p' values predict the replicability of research findings better than confidence intervals do. Given these results, we conclude that 'p' values may be used judiciously as a heuristic tool for inductive inference. Yet, 'p' values cannot bear the full burden of inference. We encourage researchers to be flexible in their selection and use of statistical methods.

  9. Safety significance evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, B.S.; Yee, D.; Brewer, W.K.; Quattro, P.J.; Kirby, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E), in cooperation with ABZ, Incorporated and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), investigated the use of artificial intelligence-based programming techniques to assist utility personnel in regulatory compliance problems. The result of this investigation is that artificial intelligence-based programming techniques can successfully be applied to this problem. To demonstrate this, a general methodology was developed and several prototype systems based on this methodology were developed. The prototypes address U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) event reportability requirements, technical specification compliance based on plant equipment status, and quality assurance assistance. This collection of prototype modules is named the safety significance evaluation system

  10. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  11. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  12. Alcohol facilitates CD1d loading, subsequent activation of NKT cells, and reduces the incidence of diabetes in NOD mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Buschard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ethanol ('alcohol' is a partly hydrophobic detergent that may affect the accessibility of glycolipids thereby influencing immunological effects of these molecules. METHODS: The study included cellular in vitro tests using α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer, and in vivo NOD mice experiments detecting diabetes incidence and performing behavioural and bacterial analyses. RESULTS: Alcohol in concentrations from 0.6% to 2.5% increased IL-2 production from NKT cells stimulated with αGalCer by 60% (p<0.05. CD1d expressed on HeLa cells contained significantly increasing amounts of αGalCer with increasing concentrations of alcohol, suggesting that alcohol facilitated the passive loading of αGalCer to CD1d. NOD mice were found to tolerate 5% ethanol in their drinking water without signs of impairment in liver function. Giving this treatment, the diabetes incidence declined significantly. Higher numbers of CD3+CD49b+ NKT cells were found in spleen and liver of the alcohol treated compared to the control mice (p<0.05, whereas the amount of CD4+Foxp3+ regulator T cells did not differ. Increased concentrations of IFN-γ were detected in 24-hour blood samples of alcohol treated mice. Behavioural studies showed no change in attitude of the ethanol-consuming mice, and bacterial composition of caecum samples was not affected by alcohol, disqualifying these as protective mechanisms. CONCLUSION: Alcohol facilitates the uptake of glycolipids and the stimulation of NKT cells, which are known to counteract Type 1 diabetes development. We propose that this is the acting mechanism by which treatment with alcohol reduces the incidence of diabetes in NOD mice. This is corroborated by epidemiology showing beneficial effect of alcohol to reduce the severity of atherosclerosis and related diseases.

  13. Fragranced consumer products: Chemicals emitted, ingredients unlisted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinemann, Anne C.; MacGregor, Ian C.; Gordon, Sydney M.; Gallagher, Lisa G.; Davis, Amy L.; Ribeiro, Daniel S.; Wallace, Lance A.

    2011-01-01

    Fragranced consumer products are pervasive in society. Relatively little is known about the composition of these products, due to lack of prior study, complexity of formulations, and limitations and protections on ingredient disclosure in the U.S. We investigated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from 25 common fragranced consumer products-laundry products, personal care products, cleaning supplies, and air fresheners-using headspace analysis with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Our analysis found 133 different VOCs emitted from the 25 products, with an average of 17 VOCs per product. Of these 133 VOCs, 24 are classified as toxic or hazardous under U.S. federal laws, and each product emitted at least one of these compounds. For 'green' products, emissions of these compounds were not significantly different from the other products. Of all VOCs identified across the products, only 1 was listed on any product label, and only 2 were listed on any material safety data sheet (MSDS). While virtually none of the chemicals identified were listed, this nonetheless accords with U.S. regulations, which do not require disclosure of all ingredients in a consumer product, or of any ingredients in a mixture called 'fragrance.' Because the analysis focused on compounds emitted and listed, rather than exposures and effects, it makes no claims regarding possible risks from product use. Results of this study contribute to understanding emissions from common products, and their links with labeling and legislation.

  14. CONSUMER EVALUATIONS OF BEAUTIFICATION PRODUCTS: EFFECTS OF EXTRINSIC CUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Humayun Kabir Chowdhury

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the influence of extrinsic cues, i.e. brand image, perceived price, perceived quality, and perceived country of origin on consumers' evaluative judgments for beautification products. Multi-item measures were used for data collection. Resultsrevealed that three extrinsic cues: brand image, perceived quality, and perceived country of origin have positive and significant influence on consumers' brand evaluation of beautification brands. Only perceived price has shown no such influence on consumers' brand evaluation. Finally, unanswered questions and future researchdirections are presented.

  15. New insights into consumer-led food product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Ana I. A.; Jongen, W.M.F.

    2006-01-01

    industry are described. Contrary to previous optimistic views, it is put forward that without significant changes taking place in the mindset of the organizations involved in Europe's food R&D, the way forward for consumer-led innovation strategies in the agri-business sector will be long and hard.......This paper builds upon a review of relevant marketing, consumer science and innovation management literature to introduce the concept of consumer-led new product development and describe its main implementation stages. The potential shortcomings of this concept's application in European food...

  16. AN APPLICATION OF CHOICE MODELING TO MEASURE U.S. CONSUMER PREFERENCES FOR GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS

    OpenAIRE

    Onyango, Benjamin M.; Govindasamy, Ramu; Nayga, Rodolfo M., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Food biotechnology promises to deliver a wide range of enhanced consumer benefits. This study models consumer's willingness to trade-off the potential risks of GM foods with the possibility of extracting significant benefits. It estimates the marginal effects and relationships between product characteristics and consumer attributes on acceptance of GM foods.

  17. A model of service quality perceptions and health care consumer behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, S J; Shewchuk, R M; Bowers, M R

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of covariance structures (LISREL) was used to examine the influence of consumer held perceptions of service quality on consumer satisfaction and intentions to return. Results indicate that service quality is a significant predictor of consumer satisfaction which, in turn, predicts intention to return. Health care marketing implications are discussed.

  18. Tumor significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, S.J.; Nagalaxmi, K.V.; Meenakshi, L.

    1983-01-01

    In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/

  19. Direct-to-consumer (DTC) antidepressant advertising and consumer misperceptions about the chemical imbalance theory of depression: the moderating role of skepticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Seong; Ahn, Ho-Young Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Based on a survey with members of an online consumer panel (N= 699), this study revealed that: (a) a substantial percentage of consumers held misperceptions about the chemical imbalance theory of depression; (b) personal and interpersonal experiences with depression positively related to such misperceptions; (c) overall, exposure to direct-to-consumer (DTC) antidepressant advertising did not significantly relate to misperceptions; and (d) DTC exposure magnified misperceptions when consumers were highly trustful of DTC advertising, whereas exposure diluted misperceptions when consumers were highly skeptical. Theoretical and practical implications of the research are discussed, especially in light of the social responsibility of DTC advertising.

  20. Consumer Acceptability Of Irradiated Foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awoyinka, A.; Akingbohungbe, A.E.

    1994-01-01

    Three commonly used food items; maize, beans and smoked fish were irradiated and consumer acceptability was tested through a questionnaire method. Subjects were residents in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Respondents attitudes towards the processing and tasting of the food were very positive and the possibility of marketing the foods was suggested by them

  1. Consumer Preferences for Mass Customization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.G.C. Dellaert (Benedict); S. Stremersch (Stefan)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIncreasingly, firms adopt mass customization, which allows consumers to customize products by self-selecting their most preferred composition of the product for a predefined set of modules. For example, PC vendors such as Dell allow customers to customize their PC by choosing the type of

  2. 76 FR 18349 - Consumer Leasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Stephen Shin, Attorney, or Benjamin K. Olson, Counsel, Division of Consumer... Workers (CPI-W), as published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Therefore, from July 21, 2011 to December..., Division of Research and Statistics, Mail Stop 95-A, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System...

  3. Designing a New Electricity Consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Trine; Jenle, Rasmus Ploug

    The paper reports on a smart grid experiment for the making of a new retail electricity market integrating fluctuating electricity generation into electricity systems. An outline of design challenges faced by the market engineers when dealing with different and lacking conceptions of consumers...

  4. CONSUMER BETWEEN OBJECTIVE AND SUBJECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Dina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We live in a society where the consumer, due to the diversity and abundance of products and services whose characteristics are becoming more similar, has to make choices that are increasingly difficult. Another aspect that has led to a profound transformation of the consumer behavior is due to the large volume of information, supplied by the Internet, information which in some cases is not accurate, but is decisively influencing the consumer. In equal measure, the difficulty of making a purchasing decision is caused by the fact that with the opening to the global market, where the products and services were depersonalized, gaining common features, and where the concept of quality tends to no longer relate to the same standards as a few decades ago, having suffered major changes. The quality of products is a fundamental requirement of competitiveness, and quality assessment is a personal right of the consumer, because this is a direct effect of quality of life. (“Fundamentele ştiinţei mărfurilor” Dinu Vasile, 2008

  5. Consumer Behavior and Food Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.

    2015-01-01

    From the consumer's point of view, food is at the same time among the most trivial and the most complex of all product groups. Food is at the same time a mundane and a functional product. Sometimes we eat for sustenance, for example, while sitting behind our desks when typing reports, and at other

  6. Consumer perceptions of farmed fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Machiel J.; Banović, Marija; Guerrero, Lluis; Krystallis, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate possible cross-cultural consumer segments in the EU aquaculture market and provide direction and focus for marketing strategies for farmed fish products. Design/methodology/approach: Selected psychographic constructs (i.e. category involvement,

  7. Food sovereignty and consumer sovereignty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermann, Cristian; Félix, Georges F.; Tittonell, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    The concept of food sovereignty is becoming an element of everyday parlance in development politics and food justice advocacy. Yet to successfully achieve food sovereignty, the demands within this movement have to be compatible with the way people are pursuing consumer sovereignty and vice versa.

  8. Social media and consumer choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronner, F.; de Hoog, R.

    2014-01-01

    Social media are becoming increasingly important for consumer decisions. This holds true in particular for vacation decision-making, as an example of a high-involvement decision. The research focuses upon the relation between the information people search regarding aspects or properties of choice

  9. Consumer surplus and CES demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Raa, Thijs

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the consumer surplus formula for constant elasticity of substitution (CES) demands. The formula is used to compare the monopoly and optimum provisions of product variety. It is shown that a monopolist under-provides variety. This result is contrasted with Lambertini’s analysis

  10. Quantitative effects of diet on fecal corticosterone metabolites in two strains of laboratory mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliokoski, Otto; Jacobsen, Kirsten Rosenmaj; Teilmann, Anne Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    /6 mice. Furthermore, throughout the experiment, the C57bl/6 mice excreted significantly higher levels of FCM compared to the BALB/c mice. The mice were also challenged with synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and dexamethasone (DEX). The effect of the challenges could readily be detected...

  11. Uranium chemistry: significant advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, M.

    2011-01-01

    The author reviews recent progress in uranium chemistry achieved in CEA laboratories. Like its neighbors in the Mendeleev chart uranium undergoes hydrolysis, oxidation and disproportionation reactions which make the chemistry of these species in water highly complex. The study of the chemistry of uranium in an anhydrous medium has led to correlate the structural and electronic differences observed in the interaction of uranium(III) and the lanthanides(III) with nitrogen or sulfur molecules and the effectiveness of these molecules in An(III)/Ln(III) separation via liquid-liquid extraction. Recent work on the redox reactivity of trivalent uranium U(III) in an organic medium with molecules such as water or an azide ion (N 3 - ) in stoichiometric quantities, led to extremely interesting uranium aggregates particular those involved in actinide migration in the environment or in aggregation problems in the fuel processing cycle. Another significant advance was the discovery of a compound containing the uranyl ion with a degree of oxidation (V) UO 2 + , obtained by oxidation of uranium(III). Recently chemists have succeeded in blocking the disproportionation reaction of uranyl(V) and in stabilizing polymetallic complexes of uranyl(V), opening the way to to a systematic study of the reactivity and the electronic and magnetic properties of uranyl(V) compounds. (A.C.)

  12. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  13. Consumer behavior on the market with food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Turčínková

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with consumer behavior on the market with selected food products. It focuses on expenditures on food, development of prices and comparison of results among EU countries. When comparing the development of consumer prices and incomes in 1990–2003, it is obvious that the growth of income was lower then the total increase of consumer prices. There were not only changes in price levels, but also in the structure of consumer expenditures, where we can see growth of expenditures for housing and decline in share of expenditures for food. In the Czech Republic, there was a decrease in consumption of beef and pork meet, and increase in poultry consumption. The consumption of fish is significantly below the EU average. Consumption of butter, potatoes and sugar reaches the similar level as the EU average. The analysis of motives for changes in consumption of selected foodstuffs provides some insight in reasons for changes in consumption of bakery products and sweets, where it mostly is the healthy lifestyle (motive for whole-grain bakery product consumption and improved market offer and advertising (for sweets and durable bakery products. Changes in meat consumption are motivated by healthy lifestyle for poultry and fish and improved market offer and advertising for canned meat products and salamis. Advertising and improved market offer played an important role for changes in consumption of yoghurts and cheeses, healthy lifestyle caused changes of yoghurts and milk. In category of selected beverages, it were advertising and improved market offer the motives for change of consumption of tea, wine and mineral waters, while healthy lifestyle motivated the change of mineral water consumption.

  14. Supply Chain Coordination and Consumer Awareness for Pollution Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowon Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To understand the dynamics of the manufacturer’s effort to reduce pollution in a supply chain consisting of manufacturer, retailer, and consumers, we analyze four cases according to consumer awareness of the pollution’s harmful effect, i.e., environmentally aware versus ignorant, and supply chain coordination, i.e., competitive versus cooperative. Applying differential games, we derive managerial implications: the most significant is that the supply chain coordination strategy becomes irrelevant to reducing the pollution, if the consumers are not environmentally aware or sensitive enough. It highlights the critical role played by the consumer awareness in curbing the pollution in the supply chain. In addition, we find the transfer price and the potential market size are important factors to determine each case’s relative effectiveness. Under a regular condition, where the transfer price from the retailer to the manufacturer is sufficiently high, the consumer-aware and competitive case can generate a better outcome in reducing the pollution than those with ignorant consumers. However, the opposite might occur if the transfer price is excessively low, giving the manufacturer little motivation to make an effort to reduce the pollution. For the cooperative supply chain, it is the potential market size that determines whether the consumer-aware case is better than the consumer-ignorant. In fact, it turns out that there is a stronger result, i.e., the feasibility condition enforces that the market is always big enough to make the consumer-aware cooperative case better than the consumer-ignorant cases. We further discuss managerial as well as policy implications of these analysis outcomes.

  15. Consumer trait variation influences tritrophic interactions in salt marsh communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Anne Randall; Hanley, Torrance C; Orozco, Nohelia P; Zerebecki, Robyn A

    2015-07-01

    The importance of intraspecific variation has emerged as a key question in community ecology, helping to bridge the gap between ecology and evolution. Although much of this work has focused on plant species, recent syntheses have highlighted the prevalence and potential importance of morphological, behavioral, and life history variation within animals for ecological and evolutionary processes. Many small-bodied consumers live on the plant that they consume, often resulting in host plant-associated trait variation within and across consumer species. Given the central position of consumer species within tritrophic food webs, such consumer trait variation may play a particularly important role in mediating trophic dynamics, including trophic cascades. In this study, we used a series of field surveys and laboratory experiments to document intraspecific trait variation in a key consumer species, the marsh periwinkle Littoraria irrorata, based on its host plant species (Spartina alterniflora or Juncus roemerianus) in a mixed species assemblage. We then conducted a 12-week mesocosm experiment to examine the effects of Littoraria trait variation on plant community structure and dynamics in a tritrophic salt marsh food web. Littoraria from different host plant species varied across a suite of morphological and behavioral traits. These consumer trait differences interacted with plant community composition and predator presence to affect overall plant stem height, as well as differentially alter the density and biomass of the two key plant species in this system. Whether due to genetic differences or phenotypic plasticity, trait differences between consumer types had significant ecological consequences for the tritrophic marsh food web over seasonal time scales. By altering the cascading effects of the top predator on plant community structure and dynamics, consumer differences may generate a feedback over longer time scales, which in turn influences the degree of trait

  16. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of fermented soybean paste (Doenjang).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H G; Hong, J H; Song, C K; Shin, H W; Kim, K O

    2010-09-01

    This study was conducted to examine the sensory profiles of fermented soybean paste (Doenjang), to understand consumers' acceptability of different types of Doenjang samples and to identify the sensory characteristics that drive consumer acceptability of Doenjang products. Descriptive analysis and consumer acceptability test were conducted for 7 different types of Doenjang samples. The samples included 2 types of Doenjang made by either traditional or commercially modified methods. For the descriptive analysis, 8 trained panelists developed and evaluated 31 descriptors. There were significant differences in all 31 attributes among the samples. Principal component analysis was also performed to summarize the sensory characteristics of the samples. In consumer testing, 200 consumers evaluated the acceptability of Doenjang samples. Significant differences in consumer acceptability were observed among the samples. The consumers preferred the Doenjang samples manufactured using a commercially modified method. In overall point of view, most consumers liked the Doenjang samples that had strong "sweet" and "MSG (monosodium glutamate)" tastes. It appears that "sweet" and "MSG" tastes are the drivers of liking for Doenjang. "Salty" taste, "meju,"traditional Korean soy sauce," and "fermented fish" odor/flavors seem to be the drivers of disliking for Doenjang. Cluster analysis identified 3 subconsumer segments sharing a common preference pattern for the 7 samples within a cluster. The results showed that each consumer cluster preferred different Doenjang samples. External preference mapping was performed to establish the relationships between the sensory attributes and consumer acceptability in each cluster. Consumption of the fermented soybean products is gradually expanding around the world, due to their various health benefits. Therefore, understanding sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of Doenjang are becoming increasingly important. The intense and complex

  17. Perceived Attributes of Event Sustainability in the MICE Industry in Thailand: A Viewpoint from Governmental, Academic, Venue and Practitioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantapop Buathong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impacts of meetings, incentives, conventions, and exhibitions (MICE, Event industries are as far reaching as their economic reach. The travelers who attend events patronize a wide variety of businesses: airlines, car rental agencies, hotels, restaurants, performance venues, and tour operators. The overall research objectives of this study fall on two aspects of sustainability in the event industry: the most prevalent practices that the industry employs and the relative importance of sustainability to convention consumers. This study implements mixed research methods in order to explore the perceptions of sustainable event development in the metropolitan area of Bangkok, Thailand. Empirical evidence on significant issues for event sustainability is provided. Based on the results, recommendations are made to improve sustainable event development in Thailand and offer guidance to the event industry so that it can develop its potential and gain greater prominence on the world MICE stage.

  18. The female innovation-generation consumer's evaluation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    to date is the millennial consumer segment ... consumers (Eastman et al, 2014; Pérez-Luño et al, 2011), due to their love of technology and the virtual world. Consumers of the innovation- generation were born between 1980 and 2000 and currently fall in the age ... The constantly changing media habits of consumers ...

  19. A signaling theory of consumer boycotts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, P.; van der Made, A

    We present a theory that explains the prevalence of consumer boycotts. In our model, a firm does not know how concerned consumers are about the firm's misconduct. Because it is only optimal for the firm to alter its behavior if consumers are very concerned, consumers have an incentive to overstate

  20. Information Sensitive Consumers and Market Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Linda L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Past research on consumer information has emphasized the effects of informed consumers of the provision of goods by sellers. This paper examines the effects of informed consumers on other consumers' product choices. These are demand-side effects. Directions for research are outlined. Author/CH)

  1. Choisen problems of the consumer protection

    OpenAIRE

    HUML, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The main aim is to determine consumers' awareness of their rights in the area of consumer protection. Secondary targets are to explored the reason of ignorance of law, determine consumer satisfaction with consumer protection and design measures to improve the situation.

  2. 7 CFR 1230.5 - Consumer information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer information. 1230.5 Section 1230.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1230.5 Consumer...

  3. Consumer Behavior Determined by Social Classes

    OpenAIRE

    ªerban Comãnescu Adrian; Muhcinã Silvia

    2011-01-01

    Information on consumer behavior is essential in trade policy decision-making process. The study of consumer behavior has concerned different subjects:psychology, sociology, economy. In a marketing approach knowledge of consumer behavior is not an end in itself, but only a tool, a means by which business decisions are adapted to the consumer expectations.

  4. 76 FR 78500 - Consumer Leasing (Regulation M)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1013 [Docket No. CFPB-2011-0026] RIN 3170-AA06 Consumer Leasing (Regulation M) AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Interim final rule... Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act) transferred rulemaking authority for a number of consumer financial...

  5. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  6. Consumer behaviour towards new products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bucatariu Mihaela

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to find a structure of consumer behaviour, especially regarding the preference for the newly-released products from the market. We intend to study the impact of the new, innovative products compared to the traditional ones. Empirical research is based on the selling mix of a company in Romania and Austria. The analysis of this case will be done with the support of an econometric model of simple regression. This research confirms the validation of the structure and the attitude of the consumers towards the new products, launched by that company. By applying this linear model, it is possible to identify the percentage of the increase or decrease in consumption of new products. The need of carrying out this study regarding the impact of the consumption of new products is to create a profile and to find the causes that influence their acquisition. The originality of this paper lays in studying some aspects of influence over the consumption of new products from McDonald’s in Romania and Austria. Where does McDonald’s stand regarding the digitalization? It is not enough to sell new products; it is also necessary to bring innovation in the organization. Nowadays consumers are more present in the online environment and retailers are adapting at a fast pace to their needs of direct communication and transparency. How does a company that faces Slow Food and Bio era, deal with consumers who are more preoccupied with the nutritive values of the nourishment act? Platforms for real-time communication with clients such as “Our food. Your question” redefined the term of transparency and helped McDonald’s stop bad rumors. The results of the research will show us if there really is transformation in behaviour towards traditional products and in what degree consumers are influenced by innovation.

  7. Consumer Perception of Store Brand and National Brand in Hypermart Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Pandowo, Merinda; Bawata, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Coffee is one global community of beverage that is consumed by many people in this world. The Consumer Perception on Brand, especially for coffee commodity, is changed based on the understanding of Promotion Perception, Product Perception, Price Perception, Store Perception, Self-perception and Perception Risk. In this research, the main objective is to figure out whether there is any significant difference for Consumer Perception on Brand concept between Luwak White Coffee consumers and Valu...

  8. Application of the Engel, Kollat and Blackwell Model to Consumers of Automobile Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph C. Bonnice

    1985-01-01

    A significant stage of the analysis of consumer behavior was reached in the 1960s with the development of three models of consumer behavior in the following studies: Nicosia], Howard and Sheth, Engel Koolat, and Blackwell (EKB), all of which attempted to present a conceptual framework for the analysis of consumer behavior . This article focuses on the examination of these conceptual models of consumer behavior and the determination of whether these models accurately depict the behavior of con...

  9. Consumption, Health Attitudes and Perception Toward Fast Food Among Arab Consumers in Kuwait: Gender Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate gender differences in the fast food intake, health attitudes, and perceptions of fast food among adult Arab consumers aged 19 to 65 years in Kuwait. A total of 499 consumers (252 males, 247 females) were selected at convenience from three shopping malls in Kuwait City. The consumers were interviewed using a specially designed questionnaire. The findings revealed that men were more frequently consumed fast food than women (p < 0.001). Men were significantly more...

  10. Bodyweight Assessment of Enamelin Null Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert H.-L. Chan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Enam null mice appear to be smaller than wild-type mice, which prompted the hypothesis that enamel defects negatively influence nutritional intake and bodyweight gain (BWG. We compared the BWG of Enam−/− and wild-type mice from birth (D0 to Day 42 (D42. Wild-type (WT and Enam−/− (N mice were given either hard chow (HC or soft chow (SC. Four experimental groups were studied: WTHC, WTSC, NHC, and NSC. The mother’s bodyweight (DBW and the average litter bodyweight (ALBW were obtained from D0 to D21. After D21, the pups were separated from the mother and provided the same type of food. Litter bodyweights were measured until D42. ALBW was compared at 7-day intervals using one-way ANOVA, while the influence of DBW on ALBW was analyzed by mixed-model analyses. The ALBW of Enam−/− mice maintained on hard chow (NHC was significantly lower than the two WT groups at D21 and the differences persisted into young adulthood. The ALBW of Enam−/− mice maintained on soft chow (NSC trended lower, but was not significantly different than that of the WT groups. We conclude that genotype, which affects enamel integrity, and food hardness influence bodyweight gain in postnatal and young adult mice.

  11. How message framing affects consumer attitudes in food crises

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, V-W.; Bakewell, C.; Jackson, P. R.; Heslin, C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between consumer risk perceptions and behaviour when information about food risks is framed in a positive or negative way.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach - Using food consumption scenarios in an on-line experiment consumers perceived risk and risk tolerance is examined when messages are framed in three different news-type stories.\\ud \\ud Findings - As anticipated, message framing emerged as a significant predictor of perce...

  12. Mobile payments: What’s in it for consumers?

    OpenAIRE

    Fumiko Hayashi

    2012-01-01

    Mobile payments—those initiated on a mobile device such as a cell phone or tablet computer—have received a significant amount of attention recently but still have not been widely adopted in the United States. ; Hayashi examines the barriers that have limited the takeoff of mobile payments in the United States. The article also draws on consumer payments research to assess which attributes of mobile payments might encourage or discourage adoption by U.S. consumers. ; The article concludes that...

  13. The Impact of Sustainability Information on Consumer Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    O'Rourke, D; Ringer, A

    2016-01-01

    © 2015 by Yale University This article presents an empirical analysis of the impact of sustainability information on consumer purchase intentions and how this influence varies by issue (health, environment, and social responsibility), product category, type of consumer, and type of information. We assess over 40,000 online purchase interactions on the website GoodGuide.com and find a significant impact of certain types of sustainability information on purchase intentions, varying across diffe...

  14. Boycott or buycott?: Internal politics and consumer choices

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier Cuadras Morató; Josep M. Raya

    2014-01-01

    Do political tensions affect economic relations? In particular, does politics significantly affect consumer choices? Firms are often threatened by consumer boycotts that pretend to modify their business strategies and behavior. Sometimes these are caused by general political conflicts. The main objective of the paper is to study the consequences of political conflicts between Spain and Catalonia (a region of Spain) and the subsequent boycott calls on sales of Catalan sparkling ...

  15. Quinine controls body weight gain without affecting food intake in male C57BL6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cettour-Rose Philippe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quinine is a natural molecule commonly used as a flavouring agent in tonic water. Diet supplementation with quinine leads to decreased body weight and food intake in rats. Quinine is an in vitro inhibitor of Trpm5, a cation channel expressed in taste bud cells, the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of diet supplementation with quinine on body weight and body composition in male mice, to investigate its mechanism of action, and whether the effect is mediated through Trpm5. Results Compared with mice consuming AIN, a regular balanced diet, mice consuming AIN diet supplemented with 0.1% quinine gained less weight (2.89 ± 0.30 g vs 5.39 ± 0.50 g and less fat mass (2.22 ± 0.26 g vs 4.33 ± 0.43 g after 13 weeks of diet, and had lower blood glucose and plasma triglycerides. There was no difference in food intake between the mice consuming quinine supplemented diet and those consuming control diet. Trpm5 knockout mice gained less fat mass than wild-type mice. There was a trend for a diet-genotype interaction for body weight and body weight gain, with the effect of quinine less pronounced in the Trpm5 KO than in the WT background. Faecal weight, energy and lipid contents were higher in quinine fed mice compared to regular AIN fed mice and in Trpm5 KO mice compared to wild type mice. Conclusion Quinine contributes to weight control in male C57BL6 mice without affecting food intake. A partial contribution of Trpm5 to quinine dependent body weight control is suggested.

  16. Materialism, status consumption, and consumer independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Ronald Earl; Clark, Ronald A

    2012-01-01

    Materialism influences many people. We focus on two aspects of this influence: reactions to prestige products and to the influence of others. A study of 187 U.S. student consumers shows that materialism is positively related to buying products that confer status. In contrast, materialism is negatively related to consumer independence, an enduring tendency to pay minimal attention to the prescribed norms of other consumers and to make product and brand decisions according to personal preferences. Consuming products for status is also negatively related to consumer independence. Moreover, the association between materialism and consumer independence is completely mediated by consuming for status. Materialism urges consumers to be status conscious so that they follow social norms in purchasing, but seeking status through goods is avoided by less materialistic, independent consumers. A second study (n = 258) also using student consumers confirmed these results.

  17. Measuring Consumer Innovativeness: Identifying Innovators among Consumers of Modern Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Filová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The methods currently used in innovation marketing research are focused on the late phases of the innovation process and are usually methodologically complex. This limits their practical impact. The presented work aims to create a simple self-report scale applicable in the initial and late phases of the innovation process, highly modular and suitable for a wide range of research. The main battery of questions was inspired by the adopter categorization by Rogers. The questions determine both (1 general characteristics of innovation adopters and (2 their relationship to a specific innovation. The scale was tested during robust longitudinal online research, thematically focused on users of modern technologies. A representative sample of 4,000 Internet users in the Czech Republic took part in the survey from 2013 to 2015. The result is a new self-report scale measuring consumer innovativeness applicable for prototyping, strategic decisions and effective communication of innovations to consumers.

  18. Inherent and antigen-induced airway hyperreactivity in NC mice

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsuto Kobayashi; Toru Miura; Tomoko Haba; Miyuki Sato; Masao Takei; Isao Serizawa

    1999-01-01

    In order to clarify the airway physiology of NC mice, the following experiments were carried out. To investigate inherent airway reactivity, we compared tracheal reactivity to various chemical mediators in NC, BALB/c, C57BL/6 and A/J mice in vitro. NC mice showed significantly greater reactivity to acetylcholine than BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice and a reactivity comparable to that of A/J mice, which are known as high responders. Then, airway reactivity to acetylcholine was investigated in those st...

  19. Chronotoxicity of glufosinate ammonium in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiyama, Y; Kobayashi, T; Kondo, R; Tomonaga, F; Ohwada, T

    1995-02-01

    The effect of a circadian-stage dependent dosing schedule on the toxicity of glufosinate was studied in mice. Male ICR mice were housed in a standardized 12:12 light:dark cycle for 3 w. Each animal was given 1500 or 3000 mg glufosinate/kg po. A highly significant circadian rhythm occurred in the resulting mortality, with the highest mortality from doses given during the light phase and the lowest from doses administered during the dark phase. The circadian-stage dependent dosing schedule had a marked influence on the pattern of acute glufosinate toxicity in mice.

  20. Consumer's Negative emotions, Financial Decisions, Financial Advice

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantaki, Violetta

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study is to explore the consumers decision making process. In particular, this study attempts to examine consumers negative emotions, which elicit during a decision processing. Especially, the case of a financial decision will be examined. Moreover, consumers negative emotion will be investigated in relation with consumers coping behaviour. To be more specific, the option of seeking advice as a successful consumers coping behaviour will be explor...

  1. Service quality in consumer's credit branch

    OpenAIRE

    Blechová, Věra

    2008-01-01

    The diploma thesis deals with consumer's credit grants of banking and non-banking corporations and comparison of their service quality. The first part of research is dedicated to consumer's knowledge of credit issues. Second describes main difficulties of consumer's credit grants of banking and non-banking corporations and proves their use of unfair manners. The final part of thesis propose improvements, which will boost consumer's protection on field of consumer's credits.

  2. Interactive survey of consumer awareness of nanotechnologies and nanoparticles in consumer products in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim YR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Ri Kim,1 Eun Jeong Lee,1 Sung Ha Park,2 Hyo Jin Kwon,3 Seong Soo A An,4 Sang Wook Son,5 Young Rok Seo,6 Jae-Eun Pie,7 Myoung Yoon,8 Ja Hei Kim,8 Meyoung-Kon Kim1 1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University Medical School and College, Seoul, South Korea; 2Department of Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath, UK; 3Department of Medical Education, Korea University Medical School and College, Seoul, South Korea; 4Department of Bionanotechnology, Gachon University, Seongnam, South Korea; 5Department of Dermatology, Korea University Medical School and College, 6Department of Life Science, Institute of Environmental Medicine for Green Chemistry, Dongguk University, Seoul, South Korea; 7Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Science and Engineering, Anyang University, Anyang, Korea; 8Consumers Korea, Seoul, South Korea Background: The purpose of our study was to understand consumers' risk awareness and need for relevant information about nanotechnology and nanoparticles contained in products currently being sold in Korea. Methods: One thousand and seven adult consumers (aged 20–50 years were randomly selected from all over South Korea between November 1 and 9, 2010. We surveyed the origin and degree of their concern and their need for information and education regarding nanomaterials. Results: Analysis of the survey results showed no significant differences in responses by sex, age, and level of education, but significant differences were found in responses based on average monthly household income. Our research showed that consumers have vague expectations for and positive image of nanotechnology and nanoproducts but do not clearly understand what they are. In addition, we found that preparing and disseminating information to consumers is required in order to provide correct information about nanotechnology to the public. Conclusion: A communication system should be established among the multiple stakeholders involved

  3. Consumers' perceptions of African wildlife meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radder, Laetitia; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2009-01-01

    African wildlife meat offers South Africans' a healthy and novel red meat alternative, yet consumption is far less than that of beef and lamb. Laddering interviews with 40 respondents were employed to identify the consequences and values associated with the product's perceived attributes. Important...... attributes included low levels of fat, dryness, novelty, and special preparation requirements. Significant values included security, self-esteem, hedonism, tradition, and stimulation. Promoters of the product are advised to capitalize on consumers' interest in health and the health benefits of the meat...

  4. Consumers in a Sustainable Food Supply Chain (COSUS): Understanding Consumer Behavior to Encourage Food Waste Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohm, Harald; Oostindjer, Marije; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Symmank, Claudia; L Almli, Valérie; de Hooge, Ilona E; Normann, Anne; Karantininis, Kostas

    2017-11-27

    Consumers are directly and indirectly responsible for a significant fraction of food waste which, for a large part, could be avoided if they were willing to accept food that is suboptimal, i.e., food that deviates in sensory characteristics (odd shape, discoloration), or that has a best-before date which is approaching or has passed, but that is still perfectly fine to eat. The choice to accept or discard suboptimal food is taken either before or after purchase (hence, in the retail store or in the household). The aim of the European research project COSUS (Consumers in a sustainable food supply chain) was to increase consumer acceptance of suboptimal food, before and after purchase, by implementing targeted strategies that are based on consumer insights, and that are feasible for and acceptable by the food sector. To reach this aim, different methodological approaches were applied to analyze this issue, to experiment with different aspects, and to test the resulting interventions. Each of these approaches was undertaken by competent consortium partners from Denmark, Germany, Norway, Sweden and The Netherlands. The project finally provides validated strategies to promote the distribution and consumption of suboptimal foods, thereby improving resource efficiency in the food chain and contributing to a more sustainable food supply.

  5. Consumers in a Sustainable Food Supply Chain (COSUS: Understanding Consumer Behavior to Encourage Food Waste Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Rohm

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Consumers are directly and indirectly responsible for a significant fraction of food waste which, for a large part, could be avoided if they were willing to accept food that is suboptimal, i.e., food that deviates in sensory characteristics (odd shape, discoloration, or that has a best-before date which is approaching or has passed, but that is still perfectly fine to eat. The choice to accept or discard suboptimal food is taken either before or after purchase (hence, in the retail store or in the household. The aim of the European research project COSUS (Consumers in a sustainable food supply chain was to increase consumer acceptance of suboptimal food, before and after purchase, by implementing targeted strategies that are based on consumer insights, and that are feasible for and acceptable by the food sector. To reach this aim, different methodological approaches were applied to analyze this issue, to experiment with different aspects, and to test the resulting interventions. Each of these approaches was undertaken by competent consortium partners from Denmark, Germany, Norway, Sweden and The Netherlands. The project finally provides validated strategies to promote the distribution and consumption of suboptimal foods, thereby improving resource efficiency in the food chain and contributing to a more sustainable food supply.

  6. Consumers in a Sustainable Food Supply Chain (COSUS): Understanding Consumer Behavior to Encourage Food Waste Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohm, Harald; Oostindjer, Marije; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Symmank, Claudia; L. Almli, Valérie; de Hooge, Ilona E.; Normann, Anne; Karantininis, Kostas

    2017-01-01

    Consumers are directly and indirectly responsible for a significant fraction of food waste which, for a large part, could be avoided if they were willing to accept food that is suboptimal, i.e., food that deviates in sensory characteristics (odd shape, discoloration), or that has a best-before date which is approaching or has passed, but that is still perfectly fine to eat. The choice to accept or discard suboptimal food is taken either before or after purchase (hence, in the retail store or in the household). The aim of the European research project COSUS (Consumers in a sustainable food supply chain) was to increase consumer acceptance of suboptimal food, before and after purchase, by implementing targeted strategies that are based on consumer insights, and that are feasible for and acceptable by the food sector. To reach this aim, different methodological approaches were applied to analyze this issue, to experiment with different aspects, and to test the resulting interventions. Each of these approaches was undertaken by competent consortium partners from Denmark, Germany, Norway, Sweden and The Netherlands. The project finally provides validated strategies to promote the distribution and consumption of suboptimal foods, thereby improving resource efficiency in the food chain and contributing to a more sustainable food supply. PMID:29186883

  7. Lead-poisoned wildfowl in Spain: a significant threat for human consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitart, Raimon; Serratosa, Jordi; Thomas, Vernon G

    2002-12-01

    Each year, 1.2 million Spanish hunters and shooters discharge 6,000 t of lead shot, of which 30-50 t are deposited in wetlands of this European country. Waterfowl may accidentally ingest lead pellets in these aquatic habitats and become fatally lead poisoned. It has been estimated that 50,000 birds die from this cause in Spain each year, but many more are chronically affected. Most of them are species that can be hunted legally, and the lead toxicosis enhances their susceptibility to being killed by hunting. Consequently, about 30,000 waterfowl hunters and their families, especially children, are at risk from secondary lead ingestion from these poisoned birds. The consumption of a single liver (often eaten in Spain) from any waterfowl shot in this country may result in the direct uptake of 0.01-2.3 mg of lead in 40.4% of cases. This is based on the percentage of 411 analyzed waterfowl having liver lead contents over 0.5 mg kg(-1) wet weight, the maximum lead level in poultry offal that current EU regulations permit. Therefore, health management authorities should draw urgent attention to this environmental problem that presents such an established risk to human health.

  8. Consumer perception of bread quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudmila Nagyová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate consumers’ perception of bread quality in Slovakia. Bread belongs to essential foodstuffs and we all have it served on our table every day.Cereal products keep their importance in people’s nutrition mainly because of their preventive effects on health. They saturate about 40 % of the daily energy need of an average European, who in ave­ra­ge acquires from cereals about 30 % of proteins, vitamin B1, niatin and phosphorus, around 1/6 of fats (out of it 19 % of linol acid, almost 60 % of saccharides, Ľ iron and about 13 % of vitamin B2 and calcium. If we add some cereal fiber which is an effective prevention factor of cardiovascular di­sea­ses, metabolic and oncological diseases of colon and anus, we will get a complex picture about positive effects of cereals in our nutrition. If we were to mark any foodstuff which has been accompanying the mankind in the course of history, it could be bread. Its consummation is spread in the whole world. Only the ones who once suffered from its lack have recognized its value.It results from our research that consumers in Slovakia prefer consuming the wheat-ray bread (38.5 %. The respondents – consumers prefer at choosing buying bread in terms of the external, subjective factors, the overall shape when choosing bread (45 % and dark color of crust (25 %. They showed minimum interest in white color crust and packaging size. In terms of the internal, objective factors, the most important factor for respondents, for women as well as for men was freshness of foodstuffs followed by fiber (with a big difference (12.82 %.Almost 60 % of bread consumers claimed that they did not have any possibility to obtain the required information regarding bread in supermarkets and hypermarkets because it is not possible to find professional staff providing them with the required information. A different situation is in the classical, small, self-service, and

  9. Consumer Behaviour in the New Products Management in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Bogosavljević Jovanović

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Initiating the process of new product development based on consumer needs and by satisfying their expectations, as required by the concept of marketing, emphasizes indubitable significance and contribution of consumer behaviour in marketing. However, insufficient or inadequate application and understanding of the consumer has been observed in the practice, in the process of innovation. Therefore, managers of the two companies that were involved in the process of new instant coffee development were interviewed. Secondary data, concerning the brand performance are data of the longitudinal studies of market research agencies. The paper shows that insufficient attention paid to consumers in the new product development impacts the success of the product. It has been confirmed that the marketing managers rely on consumer behaviour and that they are aware of its importance, but use it quite superficially. The conclusion is that, in practice, enterprises in Serbia, in addition to the insufficient application of consumer behaviour in the new products development, face the shortcomings related to the process itself, such as the lack of marketing concept acceptance, production of certain formal documents, strategic planning as well as consumer research. The paper proposes a modification of the new products development model that insists on the four observed shortcomings.

  10. The influences of consumer characteristics on the amount of rice consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriana, T.; Pane, TC

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to analyze the characteristics of rice consumers and the influences of consumer characteristics on the amount of rice consumption. The research areas were determined purposively in the sub-districts with the most significant population in Medan City. The analytical methods used were descriptive and multiple linear regression analysis. The results showed that consumers in the study areas have various characteristics, concerning age, income, family size, health, and education. Simultaneously, characteristics of rice consumers have the significant effect on the amount of rice consumed. Partially, age and the number of family members have the significant effect on the amount of rice consumed. The implications of this research are, need different policies toward consumers of rice based on their income strata. Rice policies cannot be generalized.

  11. The US considers consumer choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCaughey, John.

    1996-01-01

    About half the states in the USA are seriously considering giving domestic customers the right to choose their own gas supplier as large consumers have been able to for years. This is referred to as ''unbundling''. Of the 1400 or so natural gas local distribution companies (LDCs), about one third appear to support unbundling, another third are opposed and the remainder are uncertain; small and medium sized LDCs are most likely to be opposed. A number of state regulators are also ambivalent or actively hostile to the idea. The LDCs supply consumers with gas at the price the LDC pays for it. Their profits are made from connections and the transport of as large a volume of gas as possible for which the supplier pays passthrough charges. The complex arguments as to whether unbundling will prove favourable to the LDCs and what benefits and disadvantages there may be for customers are examined. (UK)

  12. Consumer Profile Of Hunting Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Knowing the profileof hunting tourism consumers is particularly useful to the administrators ofhunting funds or natural parks, and of travel agencies that develop huntingtourism products for the hunting of large game for trophy, of small game asrecreational activity and also for the experienced hunting tourists who loveadventure and hunting with traditional weapons. The motivation for huntingconsists in the existing fauna in a certain area, but there are also cultural,historical reasons or spending time in the middle of nature. Consumers ofhunting tourism have a wide range of ages: hunting tourists prefer watching theanimals in their natural habitat and are less adventure-oriented, unlike trophyhunting tourists who are self-contended, travel much and wish to know thehistory, the culture and the behaviour of animals in protected areas. Theyprefer special accommodation and transport conditions and rely on largeincomes: they wish to get the rarest trophies to display back home as a symbolof their hunting skills and courage

  13. Consumer behaviour and the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2005-01-01

    -style are not easily achieved, however. In a report issued by United Na-tions Secretary-General Kofi Annan in preparation for the Johannesburg Summit it was concluded that "Progress towards the goals established at Rio has been slower than anticipated and in some respects conditions are worse than they were ten years...... ago." It continues to be true that a funda-mental requirement for success in this endeavour is consumers' active support and willing participation (Norwegian Ministry of Environment, 1994). Information is an important tool in this connection. Not only for marshalling public support......, that information alone is usually not sufficient to change behaviour (Stern, 1999). My aim here is to present a broad-brush overview of some of the most important roles that information has been found to play as a tool for pro-moting environmentally responsible consumer behaviour. Because this publication...

  14. Are contemporary tourists consuming distance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    2012. Background The background for this research, which explores how tourists represent distance and whether or not distance can be said to be consumed by contemporary tourists, is the increasing leisure mobility of people. Travelling for the purpose of visiting friends and relatives is increasing...... of understanding mobility at a conceptual level, and distance matters to people's manifest mobility: how they travel and how far they travel are central elements of their movements. Therefore leisure mobility (indeed all mobility) is the activity of relating across distance, either through actual corporeal...... metric representation. These representations are the focus for this research. Research Aim and Questions The aim of this research is thus to explore how distance is being represented within the context of leisure mobility. Further the aim is to explore how or whether distance is being consumed...

  15. Consumer-Related Food Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Hooge, Ilona de; Normann, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Food waste has received increasing attention in recent years. As part of their corporate social responsibility strategies, food supply chain actors have started to act towards avoiding and reducing food waste. Based on a literature review, an expert interview study, and example cases, we discuss...... food marketing and the role and responsibility of retail. Food marketing and retailing contribute to consumer-related food waste via decisions on date labeling, packaging sizes and design elements, and pricing strategies encouraging overpurchase, as well as communication shifting consumer priorities...... to the disadvantage of food waste avoidance. Potential actions to tackle food waste relate to improved packaging and information, altering pricing strategies, and cooperation with other actors across the supply chain. Three cases highlight the extent to which moral and strategic motives are interlinked...

  16. Food irradiation and consumer values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhn, C.M.; Schutz, H.G.; Sommer, R.

    1988-01-01

    A mail survey technique was used to determine if value hierarchy, locus of control, innovativeness, and demographic parameters could distinguish between subjects expressing different levels of concern and willingness to buy irradiated food. Concern toward irradiated food was lower than concern for other food safety issues, probably because many expressed uncertainty regarding irradiation. Those ranking the value “an ecologically balanced world” expressed the greatest irradiation concern. Factors which could predict high irradiation concern were being highly concerned about the use of chemical sprays on food, completing more formal education and being female; those believing that life was controlled by luck were less concerned. Irradiation concern was a principal factor determining willingness to buy irradiated foods. Innovative consumers were more likely to try irradiated foods than noninnovative. Implications for consumer education are presented

  17. Connecting cognition and consumer choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Daniel M; Johnson, Eric J

    2015-02-01

    We describe what can be gained from connecting cognition and consumer choice by discussing two contexts ripe for interaction between the two fields. The first-context effects on choice-has already been addressed by cognitive science yielding insights about cognitive process but there is promise for more interaction. The second is learning and representation in choice where relevant theories in cognitive science could be informed by consumer choice, and in return, could pose and answer new questions. We conclude by discussing how these two fields of research stand to benefit from more interaction, citing examples of how interfaces of cognitive science with other fields have been illuminating for theories of cognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Utility unbundling : large consumer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, C.

    1997-01-01

    The perspectives of Sunoco as a large user of electric power on utility unbundling were presented. Sunoco's Sarnia refinery runs up an energy bill of over $60 million per year for electricity, natural gas (used both as a feedstock as well as a fuel), natural gas liquids and steam. As a large customer Sunoco advocates unbundling of all services, leaving only the 'pipes and wires' as true monopolies. In their view, regulation distorts the market place and prevents the lower prices that would result from competition as has been seen in the airline and telephone industries. Sunoco's expectation is that in the post-deregulated environment large and small consumers will have a choice of energy supplier, and large consumers will increasingly turn to co-generation as the most desirable way of meeting their power needs

  19. Direct-to-consumer antidepressant advertising and consumers' optimistic bias about the future risk of depression: the moderating role of advertising skepticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Seong; Ju, Ilwoo; Kim, Kenneth Eunhan

    2014-01-01

    Although exposure to direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising (DTCA) is reported to influence the public's beliefs about diseases, no research has investigated how DTCA may affect the extent of consumers' optimistic bias about the future risk of diseases. Based on a survey with members of an online consumer panel (n = 699), the current study revealed that: (a) Consumers exhibited a tendency to believe they were at less risk of developing clinical depression in the future than their peers, demonstrating an optimistic bias. (b) Exposure to antidepressant DTCA acted to reduce the extent of such bias, especially when consumers were less skeptical of prescription drug advertising. When consumers were highly skeptical, DTCA exposure did not significantly relate to the extent of optimistic bias. (c) Once formed, the extent of optimistic bias negatively related to consumers' intention to seek information about depression. Implications of the research for the theory and practice of DTCA were discussed.

  20. Advertising Expenditure and Consumer Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdinand Rauch

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of a change in the marginal costs of advertising on advertising expenditures of firms and consumer prices across industries. It makes use of a unique policy change that caused a decrease of the taxation on advertising expenditures in parts of Austria and a simultaneous increase in other parts. Advertising expenditures move immediately in the opposite direction to the marginal costs of advertising. Simultaneously the price reaction to advertising is negative in so...

  1. The future of consumer cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiato, Sebastiano; Moltisanti, Marco

    2015-03-01

    In the last two decades multimedia, and in particular imaging devices (camcorders, tablets, mobile phones, etc.) have been dramatically diffused. Moreover the increasing of their computational performances, combined with an higher storage capability, allows them to process large amount of data. In this paper an overview of the current trends of consumer cameras market and technology will be given, providing also some details about the recent past (from Digital Still Camera up today) and forthcoming key issues.

  2. Drug use as consumer behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxall, Gordon Robert; Sigurdsson, Valdimar

    2011-12-01

    Seeking integration of drug consumption research by a theory of memory function and emphasizing drug consumption rather than addiction, Müller & Schumann (M&S) treat drug self-administration as part of a general pattern of consumption. This insight is located within a more comprehensive framework for understanding drug use as consumer behavior that explicates the reinforcement contingencies associated with modes of drug consumption.

  3. Investor response to consumer elasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenaa Jensen, Stine; Meibom, Peter; Ravn, H.F.; Straarup, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    In the Nordic electricity system there is considerable uncertainty with respect to the long-term development in production capacity. The process towards liberalisation of the electricity sector started in a situation with a large reserve margin, but this margin is gradually vanishing. Since the potential investors in new production capacity are unaccustomed with investments under the new regime it is unknown if and when investments will take place. The electricity price is the key market signal to potential investors. The price is settled as a balance between supply and demand, and it is generally assumed that the demand side has an important role in this, and increasingly so. However, since consumers have not earlier had the incentive to respond to electricity prices, no reliable estimate of demand elasticity is known. The purpose of the present study is to analyse the role of electricity demand elasticity for investments in new electricity production capacity. Electricity price scenarios generated with a partial equilibrium model (Balmorel) are combined with a model of investment decisions. In this, various scenarios concerning the development in the demand elasticity are used. The simulated investment decisions are taken in a stochastic, dynamic setting, where a key point is the timing of the investment decision in relation to the gathering of new information relative to the stochastic elements. Based on this, the consequences of the development in consumer price elasticity for investments in a base load and a peak load plant are investigated. The main result of the analysis is that peak load investments can be made unprofitable by the development in consumer price elasticity, such that an investor will tend to wait with his peak load investment, until the development in consumer price elasticity has been revealed. (au)

  4. Brand values for consumers and companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljković Saša

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary business management, which is characterized by intense competitive pressure, marketing is getting more and more dominant role. Companies on the market are more exposed to competitive pressure due to the growing number of suppliers (bidders and substitutive products on the home market, and increase of foreign competition due to the world economy globalization. The success of marketing tools usage largely depends on the expected financial effects realization, as well as the survival of company on the market does, both in long and short terms. Brand marketing is a useful tool in modern business environment and it is an important source of competitive advantage. The concept and essence of brand have been significantly changed recently, compared to the period of twenty or more years ago. Brand is no more considered as just a label or sign, it is a tool that creates value for consumers and significantly contributes to improving the competitive position on the market. In brand creating process one should start from the elements that influence the creation of value for consumers and to consistently apply mechanisms to maximize the function of the brand on the market and enable companies to achieve maximum impact in terms of achievement of competitive advantage. It is important at the same time, in the respect of analysis of the financial payback investment in brand creating, to conceder brand impacts on the financial performance of the company. The aim of this paper is to point out the role, importance and concept of brand in modern marketing, and to highlight the role and way of creating value for consumers with help of the brand, which contributes to improving the competitive position and points out the brand influence on the financial performance of companies.

  5. New Rules on Consumer Sales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelvang-Hansen, Peter; Lando, Henrik; Kristensen, Bo

    2006-01-01

    The project described in this report was carried out with support from The Ministry of Justice's Research Pool. The aim of the project is to examine the effects of Amending Act no. 213/2002, amending the rules on consumer sales in the Danish Sale of Goods Act. The amendments were part of Denmark......'s implementation of Directive 1999/44/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on certain aspects of the sale of consumer goods and associated guarantees. The Amending Act came into force on 24 April 2002, having effect on consumer sales made on and after 1 January 2002. At the time of completion...... of this report, the Amending Act had been in force for more than two and a half years. In the planning of this project, we assumed that at this point in time sufficient experience with the new rules would be available, enabling us to get an impression of its practical consequences for businesses. Also, we...

  6. Radioactivity in Dutch consumer products

    CERN Document Server

    Janssen, M P M

    2002-01-01

    This study took place within the framework of a general update of the average radiation dose for the Dutch population. It focuses on consumer products in which radionuclides have been intentionally incorporated and on radiation-emitting devices that can be supplied to members of the public without special surveillance. Eleven consumer products were studied in more detail. The radiation from these products determined 90% of the total collective dose due to consumer products in the Netherlands in 1988. Individual and collective doses are presented here for each product. The total collective dose has decreased from 130 personSv in 1988 to 4.6 personSv at present. This reduction was attributed to: a decrease in the number of radioactive products (gas mantles), lower estimates of the number of radioactive products present in the Netherlands thanks to new information (camera lenses, smoke detectors containing Ra-226), replacement of radioactive by non-radioactive products (gas mantles, dental protheses), and a lowe...

  7. Consumer perceptions of green power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, I.; Parker, P.; Scott, D.

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between consumer perceptions of the environmental impact of different energy sources and their willingness to pay a premium for green electricity was examined using the ANOVA analysis of variance and the chi-square test procedures. Since green power producers can include several energy resources in their offerings, it is important to understand the preferences of their customers. A survey sent to 480 residents in the Waterloo region of southern Ontario showed that when asked about purchasing nuclear, large scale hydropower or natural gas out of a choice of 11 energy sources, there was a wide discrepancy between those who stated a willingness to pay a large premium for green power and those who stated a willingness to pay only a small, or no, premium for green power. It was determined that these 3 energy resources were not popular among the most environmentally inclined portion of the consumer market. It was noted however that willingness to pay should be interpreted with caution because peoples' stated intentions to pay a premium for green power do not necessarily translate into action once they have the opportunity to buy power from renewable energy sources. However, marketing strategies could be used to improve the uptake of green power by consumers. The study suggests that landfill gas, is probably preferred to large-scale hydro. It was also suggested that the relative position of biomass, natural gas, garbage and nuclear power should be examined more closely. 29 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  8. Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) for prescription drugs: consumers' attitudes and preferences concerning its regulation in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Hae Sun; Lee, Donghyun; Kim, Sang Yong; Chee, Dong Hyun; Kang, Hye-Young

    2011-08-01

    To examine consumers' attitudes toward direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) for prescription drugs in Korea. We conducted a survey of 350 patients visiting community pharmacies to fill their prescriptions. Consumers' attitudes toward DTCA were assessed in terms of whether they felt DTCA was necessary, their trust in the information provided by DTCA, and their intention to use the information provided by DTCA. We examined consumers' preferences regarding the regulation of DTCA and their expectations of the effects of DTCA. About 60% of the respondents responded that DTCA is necessary and that they intended to use the information from DTCA. Less than half of the respondents reported that they would trust DTCA information. About 70% of the participants expressed the need for prior vetting of the DTCA content. Respondents had the highest expectation on the effect of DTCA as an information source for patients. Positive consumer expectations regarding the effects of DTCA were significantly associated with positive consumer attitudes toward DTCA (odds ratio=4.70, 95% confidence interval: 2.25-9.82). This study provides evidence that consumers in South Korea generally have positive attitudes toward DTCA. However, most of the respondents wanted a prior examination system of DTCA content to ensure that the information conveyed to them via DTCA was trustworthy. Policy-makers should be cautious and well-prepared if they decide to introduce DTCA in Korea. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Tritium ( 3 H) Retention In Mice: Administered As HTO, DTO or as 3 H-Labeled Amino-Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Nicholas D; Blimkie, Melinda S J; Wyatt, Heather; Bugden, Michelle; Bannister, Laura A; Gueguen, Yann; Jourdain, Jean-Rene; Klokov, Dmitry

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the biokinetics of injected H-labeled light (HTO) and heavy (DTO) water in CBA/CaJ mice and to compare the organ distribution and/or body content of H administered by chronic ingestion for 1 mo to C57Bl/6J mice, as either H-labeled water or H-labeled amino acids (glycine, alanine and proline). HTO and DTO were administered to CBA/CaJ mice by single intraperitoneal injection and body retention was determined for up to 384 h post-injection. Tritium-labeled water or H-labeled amino acids were given to C57Bl/6J mice ad libitum for 30 d in drinking water. Body content and organ distribution of H during the period of administration and subsequent to administration was determined by liquid scintillation counting. No differences were found between the biokinetics of HTO and DTO, indicating that data generated using HTO can be used to help assess the consequences of H releases from heavy water reactors. The results for H-water showed that the concentration of radionuclide in the mice reached a peak after about 10 d and dropped rapidly after the cessation of H administration. The maximum concentration reached was only 50% of that in the water consumed, indicating that mice receive a significant fraction of their water from respiration. Contrary to the findings of others, the pattern of H retention following the administration of a cocktail of the labeled amino acids was very little different from that found for the water. This is consistent with the suggestion that most of the ingested amino acids were rapidly metabolized, releasing water and carbon dioxide.

  10. Neurobeachin, a Regulator of Synaptic Protein Targeting, Is Associated with Body Fat Mass and Feeding Behavior in Mice and Body-Mass Index in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Pawel K.; Rozman, Jan; Jacobsson, Josefin A.; Rathkolb, Birgit; Strömberg, Siv; Hans, Wolfgang; Klockars, Anica; Alsiö, Johan; Risérus, Ulf; Becker, Lore; Hölter, Sabine M.; Elvert, Ralf; Ehrhardt, Nicole; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Fuchs, Helmut; Fredriksson, Robert; Wolf, Eckhard; Klopstock, Thomas; Wurst, Wolfgang; Levine, Allen S.; Marcus, Claude; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Klingenspor, Martin; Schiöth, Helgi B.; Kilimann, Manfred W.

    2012-01-01

    Neurobeachin (Nbea) regulates neuronal membrane protein trafficking and is required for the development and functioning of central and neuromuscular synapses. In homozygous knockout (KO) mice, Nbea deficiency causes perinatal death. Here, we report that heterozygous KO mice haploinsufficient for Nbea have higher body weight due to increased adipose tissue mass. In several feeding paradigms, heterozygous KO mice consumed more food than wild-type (WT) controls, and this consumption was primarily driven by calories rather than palatability. Expression analysis of feeding-related genes in the hypothalamus and brainstem with real-time PCR showed differential expression of a subset of neuropeptide or neuropeptide receptor mRNAs between WT and Nbea+/− mice in the sated state and in response to food deprivation, but not to feeding reward. In humans, we identified two intronic NBEA single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are significantly associated with body-mass index (BMI) in adult and juvenile cohorts. Overall, data obtained in mice and humans suggest that variation of Nbea abundance or activity critically affects body weight, presumably by influencing the activity of feeding-related neural circuits. Our study emphasizes the importance of neural mechanisms in body weight control and points out NBEA as a potential risk gene in human obesity. PMID:22438821

  11. Supplementation with α-lipoic acid, CoQ10, and vitamin E augments running performance and mitochondrial function in female mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkan Abadi

    Full Text Available Antioxidant supplements are widely consumed by the general public; however, their effects of on exercise performance are controversial. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an antioxidant cocktail (α-lipoic acid, vitamin E and coenzyme Q10 on exercise performance, muscle function and training adaptations in mice. C57Bl/J6 mice were placed on antioxidant supplement or placebo-control diets (n = 36/group and divided into trained (8 wks treadmill running (n = 12/group and untrained groups (n = 24/group. Antioxidant supplementation had no effect on the running performance of trained mice nor did it affect training adaptations; however, untrained female mice that received antioxidants performed significantly better than placebo-control mice (p ≤ 0.05. Furthermore, antioxidant-supplemented females (untrained showed elevated respiratory capacity in freshly excised muscle fibers (quadriceps femoris (p ≤ 0.05, reduced oxidative damage to muscle proteins (p ≤ 0.05, and increased expression of mitochondrial proteins (p ≤ 0.05 compared to placebo-controls. These changes were attributed to increased expression of proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α (p ≤ 0.05 via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK (p ≤ 0.05 by antioxidant supplementation. Overall, these results indicate that this antioxidant supplement exerts gender specific effects; augmenting performance and mitochondrial function in untrained females, but does not attenuate training adaptations.

  12. Effects of dietary gamma-linolenic acid and docosahexaenoic acid with paclitaxel on the treatment of mice mammary carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Rakhshan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is one of the most important causes of death in women. One of the various gene expression involved in breast cancer is human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu gene expression increases. Factors of dietary affect on regulation of hormone secretion and the rate of breast cancer. One of these factors is amount and type of fats in diet. Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA and Docosah-exaenoic acid (DHA are members of poly unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, effects of dietary GLA and DHA alone or together with paclitaxel on treatment of mice mammary carcinoma has been evaluated.Methods: Thirty female balb/c mice were divided in six groups randomly. Carcinoma-tous mass induced by tumor implantation method. Spontaneous breast adenocarcinoma of mice were used as tumor stock. The tumors of these mice were removed aseptically, dissected into 0.5 cm3 pieces. These pieces were transplanted subcutaneously into their right flank. GLA and DHA added to the mice diet two week prior to tumor implanta-tion. At the end of intervention, tumors were removed and HER2 gene expression was measured. The weight of animal and tumor volume measured weekly.Results: It was not significant change in the weight of animals that consumed DHA and DHA with taxol. Tumor volume in those groups that received corn oil with taxol (P<0.01, DHA (P<0.05 and DHA with taxol (P<0.001 showed significant decrease in comparison with control group. HER2 gene expression in DHA with taxol decreased significantly in comparison with control group (P<0.05.Conclusion: Consumption of DHA oil with taxol causes decrease the volume of carcin-oma mass. The future studies with large number of sample is needed to support this finding.

  13. The Anatomy of the Long Tail of Consumer Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broder, Andrei

    The long tail of consumer demand is consistent with two fundamentally different theories. The first, and more popular hypothesis, is that a majority of consumers have similar tastes and only few have any interest in niche content; the second, is that everyone is a bit eccentric, consuming both popular and niche products. By examining extensive data on user preferences for movies, music, web search, and web browsing, we found overwhelming support for the latter theory. Our investigation suggests an additional factor in the success of "infinite-inventory" retailers such as Netflix and Amazon: besides the significant revenue obtained from tail sales, tail availability may boost head sales by offering consumers the convenience of "one-stop shopping" for both their mainstream and niche interests.

  14. Factoring consumers' perspectives into policy decisions for nursing competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Jean B; Lee, N Genell

    2006-08-01

    Health care delivery competence and accountability have typically been defined from providers' perspectives, rather than those of consumers as purchasers of services. In 1999, in the face of broad public concern about nursing competence the Alabama Board of Nursing developed an accountability model that established consumers at the center of the model and placed accountability for competent nursing practice at all levels of providers including regulatory agencies, health care organizations, educators, and licensees. The Board then authorized two research projects involving first, consumers perceptions on nursing competence and regulation, and second, comparing their perceptions with those of licensees, nurse educators, and organizational leaders (N = 1,127). Comparative data evidenced significant differences between consumers' and other participants' perceptions. This article highlights how policy implications derived from research resulted in regulatory changes for nursing competence. Five years of progress in policy changes made in the interest of public safety are summarized.

  15. Phthalate Metabolites, Consumer Habits and Health Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wallner

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates are multifunctional chemicals used in a wide variety of consumer products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether levels of urinary phthalate metabolites in urine samples of Austrian mothers and their children were associated with consumer habits and health indicators. Within an Austrian biomonitoring survey, urine samples from 50 mother-child pairs of five communities (two-stage random stratified sampling were analysed. The concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites were determined, and a questionnaire was administered. Monoethyl phthalate (MEP, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP, mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP, monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP, mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate (5OH-MEHP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (5oxo-MEHP, mono-(5-carboxy-2-ethylpentyl phthalate (5cx-MEPP, and 3-carboxy-mono-propyl phthalate (3cx-MPP could be quantified in the majority of samples. Significant correlations were found between the use of hair mousse, hair dye, makeup, chewing gum, polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottles and the diethyl phthalate (DEP metabolite MEP. With regard to health effects, significant associations of MEP in urine with headache, repeated coughing, diarrhoea, and hormonal problems were observed. MBzP was associated with repeated coughing and MEHP was associated with itching.

  16. Phthalate Metabolites, Consumer Habits and Health Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Peter; Kundi, Michael; Hohenblum, Philipp; Scharf, Sigrid; Hutter, Hans-Peter

    2016-07-15

    Phthalates are multifunctional chemicals used in a wide variety of consumer products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether levels of urinary phthalate metabolites in urine samples of Austrian mothers and their children were associated with consumer habits and health indicators. Within an Austrian biomonitoring survey, urine samples from 50 mother-child pairs of five communities (two-stage random stratified sampling) were analysed. The concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites were determined, and a questionnaire was administered. Monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5OH-MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (5oxo-MEHP), mono-(5-carboxy-2-ethylpentyl) phthalate (5cx-MEPP), and 3-carboxy-mono-propyl phthalate (3cx-MPP) could be quantified in the majority of samples. Significant correlations were found between the use of hair mousse, hair dye, makeup, chewing gum, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and the diethyl phthalate (DEP) metabolite MEP. With regard to health effects, significant associations of MEP in urine with headache, repeated coughing, diarrhoea, and hormonal problems were observed. MBzP was associated with repeated coughing and MEHP was associated with itching.

  17. Of mice and men

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    At the end of March , sixty mice were irradiated at the synchro-cyclotron in the course of an experimental programme studying radiation effects on mice and plants (Vicia faba bean roots) being carried out by the CERN Health Physics Group.

  18. Characteristics and consequences of consumer society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trandafilović Igor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper's aim is studying the term of consumer society and its characteristics as well as its consequences on the community as a whole. Nowadays, a consumer is no longer a passive observer but an active participant. As the consumer's role has changed in the modern market, a new approach to marketing is required by companies. The term 'consumer society' entails defining consumerism in more detail as it has been used refer to the consumerists movement or movement for consumer rights protection. In another context, consumerism refers to the so-called consumer mentality.

  19. Key Factors Determining the Ethnocentric Tendencies of Consumers in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Gašević

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ethnocentric behaviour of consumers is related to the attitude and intentions of consumers when deciding upon purchasing a product, i.e., it is such a kind of behaviour which implies giving priority to purchasing domestic rather than foreign products. The results of a large number of studies show that not all consumers are equally ethnocentric. Therefore, it is of utmost significance to realize that consumers rely on various signals and make different decisions depending on their inclinations towards consumer ethnocentrism. The aim of this paper is to examine the influence and interaction of demographic characteristics of respondents in Serbia on consumer ethnocentrism. Several statistical techniques that provided support during the testing of research hypotheses have been applied in the preparation of this paper. We used nonparametric techniques (Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test. The results indicate that men are more ethnocentric than women, as well as persons with lower level of education than those with higher level of education. Also, the results have shown that respondents who achieve the highest level of income are not ethnocentric in the least. In addition, it has been established that there is no statistically significant impact of the criteria of the year on the level of consumer ethnocentrism. The research results provide useful information for marketers and managers of companies that currently operate or are planning to enter Serbian market in the forthcoming period. Another great benefit is reflected in the fact that these results draw the managers’ attention to the fact which consumer groups are the most ethnocentric and thus allow the creation of high quality strategies.

  20. The MICE Online Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is designed to test transverse cooling of a muon beam, demonstrating an important step along the path toward creating future high intensity muon beam facilities. Protons in the ISIS synchrotron impact a titanium target, producing pions which decay into muons that propagate through the beam line to the MICE cooling channel. Along the beam line, particle identification (PID) detectors, scintillating fiber tracking detectors, and beam diagnostic tools identify and measure individual muons moving through the cooling channel. The MICE Online Systems encompass all tools; including hardware, software, and documentation, within the MLCR (MICE Local Control Room) that allow the experiment to efficiently record high quality data. Controls and Monitoring (C&M), Data Acquisition (DAQ), Online Monitoring and Reconstruction, Data Transfer, and Networking all fall under the Online Systems umbrella. C&M controls all MICE systems including the target, conventional an...

  1. Collation of Scientific Evidence on Consumer Acceptance of New Food Technologies: Three roads to consumer choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.; Trijp, van J.C.M.; Hofenk, D.J.B.; Ronteltap, A.; Tudoran, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The current report investigates consumer acceptance of new food technologies by reviewing the scientific literature. The review is organised along three routes to consumer acceptance of new technologies: The consumer benefit road: the central road of technology features influencing experienced

  2. Linking Consumer Rights with Citizen Roles: An Opportunity for Consumer Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Georgia L.

    1994-01-01

    Consumer educators can help students develop consumer/citizen roles through curricula linking consumer rights with citizen responsibilities. Dialogue about issues, community needs assessment, and community volunteer service enable students to practice citizen roles. (SK)

  3. The new frontiers for CCT: Considering consumer-producer interaction in consumer culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MSc Lotte Salome

    2010-01-01

    Previous investigations of consumer subcultures in the CCT tradition focused primarily on consumer behaviours, feelings, experiences and meanings of consumption. This paper advocates that in order to deeply understand and interpret a particular subculture, researchers in consumer culture should

  4. Mutagenicity of nicotine in Schistosoma mansoni - infected mice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of meiotic chromosomes showed significant elevation in the Schistosoma-infected mice. Administration of nicotine to infected mice substantially increased the percentages of micronucleated cells and total CAs. The percentage of chromosomal abnormalities in spermatocyte metaphase-I cells increased significantly ...

  5. Attitudes, perceptions, and trust. Insights from a consumer survey regarding genetically modified banana in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikulwe, Enoch M; Wesseler, Justus; Falck-Zepeda, Jose

    2011-10-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops and food are still controversial. This paper analyzes consumers' perceptions and institutional awareness and trust toward GM banana regulation in Uganda. Results are based on a study conducted among 421 banana-consuming households between July and August 2007. Results show a high willingness to purchase GM banana among consumers. An explanatory factor analysis is conducted to identify the perceptions toward genetic modification. The identified factors are used in a cluster analysis that grouped consumers into segments of GM skepticism, government trust, health safety concern, and food and environmental safety concern. Socioeconomic characteristics differed significantly across segments. Consumer characteristics and perception factors influence consumers' willingness to purchase GM banana. The institutional awareness and trust varied significantly across segments as well. The findings would be essential to policy makers when designing risk-communication strategies targeting different consumer segments to ensure proper discussion and addressing potential concerns about GM technology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Consumer profile analysis for different types of meat in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriba-Perez, Carmen; Baviera-Puig, Amparo; Buitrago-Vera, Juan; Montero-Vicente, Luis

    2017-07-01

    It is important to analyse the consumer profile of each type of meat to better adapt the marketing mix to each one. To this end, we examined the average consumption frequency of different types of meat based on two methodologies: consumer segmentation using the food-related lifestyle (FRL) framework, giving rise to 4 segments, and analysis of socio-demographic profiles. The variables used were: sex, age, educational level, social class, number of people in the household, presence of children younger than 18 in the home, geographical area and habitual residence. Beef was the only meat type significant in both analyses. Turkey meat only appeared as significant in the FRL analysis. The other meats (chicken, pork, rabbit and lamb) were only significant in the sociodemographic variables analysis. From the outcomes we may conclude that there is no single consumer profile, which rather depends on the type of meat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Predicting consumers' intention to consume ready-to-eat meals. The role of moral attitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nina Veflen; Sijtsema, Siet J; Hall, Gunnar

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the usefulness of integrating moral attitude into the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) model when predicting intention to consume ready-to-eat (RTE) meals. Questionnaire data were gathered in three countries: Norway (N = 112), The Netherlands (N = 99), and Finland (N = 134...... in all the three countries tested, and the explained variance (R²) for TPB increased when moral was added as an explanatory factor. However, although the test showed significant results for the effect of attitude towards behavior and moral in all countries, non-significant results were observed...

  8. Postpartum estrogen withdrawal impairs hippocampal neurogenesis and causes depression- and anxiety-like behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuan; Hong, Juan; Zhang, Suyun; Zhang, Tingting; Sha, Sha; Yang, Rong; Qian, Yanning; Chen, Ling

    2016-04-01

    Postpartum estrogen withdrawal is known to be a particularly vulnerable time for depressive symptoms. Ovariectomized adult mice (OVX-mice) treated with hormone-simulated pregnancy (HSP mice) followed by a subsequent estradiol benzoate (EB) withdrawal (EW mice) exhibited depression- and anxiety-like behaviors, as assessed by forced swim, tail suspension and elevated plus-maze, while HSP mice, OVX mice or EB-treated OVX mice (OVX/EB mice) did not. The survival and neurite growth of newborn neurons in hippocampal dentate gyrus were examined on day 5 after EW. Compared with controls, the numbers of 28-day-old BrdU(+) and BrdU(+)/NeuN(+) cells were increased in HSP mice but significantly decreased in EW mice; the numbers of 10-day-old BrdU(+) cells were increased in HSP mice and OVX/EB mice; and the density of DCX(+) fibers was reduced in EW mice and OVX mice. The phosphorylation of hippocampal NMDA receptor (NMDAr) NR2B subunit or Src was increased in HSP mice but decreased in EW mice. NMDAr agonist NMDA prevented the loss of 28-day-old BrdU(+) cells and the depression- and anxiety-like behaviors in EW mice. NR2B inhibitor Ro25-6981 or Src inhibitor dasatinib caused depression- and anxiety-like behaviors in HSP mice with the reduction of 28-day-old BrdU(+) cells. The hippocampal BDNF levels were reduced in EW mice and OVX mice. TrkB receptor inhibitor K252a reduced the density of DCX(+) fibers in HSP mice without the reduction of 28-day-old BrdU(+) cells, or the production of affective disorder. Collectively, these results indicate that postpartum estrogen withdrawal impairs hippocampal neurogenesis in mice that show depression- and anxiety-like behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Alcohol consumption negates estrogen-mediated myocardial repair in ovariectomized mice by inhibiting endothelial progenitor cell mobilization and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Alexander R; Krishnamurthy, Prasanna; Verma, Suresh K; Thorne, Tina; Ramirez, Veronica; Qin, Gangjian; Abramova, Tatiana; Hamada, Hiromichi; Losordo, Douglas W; Kishore, Raj

    2013-06-21

    We have shown previously that estrogen (estradiol, E2) supplementation enhances voluntary alcohol consumption in ovariectomized female rodents and that increased alcohol consumption impairs ischemic hind limb vascular repair. However, the effect of E2-induced alcohol consumption on post-infarct myocardial repair and on the phenotypic/functional properties of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) is not known. Additionally, the molecular signaling of alcohol-estrogen interactions remains to be elucidated. This study examined the effect of E2-induced increases in ethanol consumption on post-infarct myocardial function/repair. Ovariectomized female mice, implanted with 17β-E2 or placebo pellets were given access to alcohol for 6 weeks and subjected to acute myocardial infarction. Left ventricular functions were consistently depressed in mice consuming ethanol compared with those receiving only E2. Alcohol-consuming mice also displayed significantly increased infarct size and reduced capillary density. Ethanol consumption also reduced E2-induced mobilization and homing of EPCs to injured myocardium compared with the E2-alone group. In vitro, exposure of EPCs to ethanol suppressed E2-induced proliferation, survival, and migration and markedly altered E2-induced estrogen receptor-dependent cell survival signaling and gene expression. Furthermore, ethanol-mediated suppression of EPC biology was endothelial nitric oxide synthase-dependent because endothelial nitric oxide synthase-null mice displayed an exaggerated response to post-acute myocardial infarction left ventricular functions. These data suggest that E2 modulation of alcohol consumption, and the ensuing EPC dysfunction, may negatively compete with the beneficial effects of estrogen on post-infarct myocardial repair.

  10. Bortezomib alters sour taste sensitivity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Ohishi

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced taste disorder is one of the critical issues in cancer therapy. Bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, is a key agent in multiple myeloma therapy, but it induces a taste disorder. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of bortezomib-induced taste disorder and the underlying mechanism in mice. Among the five basic tastes, the sour taste sensitivity of mice was significantly increased by bortezomib administration. In bortezomib-administered mice, protein expression of PKD2L1 was increased. The increased sour taste sensitivity induced by bortezomib returned to the control level on cessation of its administration. These results suggest that an increase in protein expression of PKD2L1 enhances the sour taste sensitivity in bortezomib-administered mice, and this alteration is reversed on cessation of its administration. Keywords: Taste disorder, Bortezomib, Sour taste, Chemotherapy, Adverse effect

  11. Consumer flexibility - State and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grande, Ove S.; Saele, Hanne; Morch, Andrei Z.

    2002-02-01

    This report summarises experiences and results from relevant projects carried out within the area of consumer flexibility in the last years. A general description of the projects is presented. In addition are testing activities, economical signals for motivating the end user for load reductions and appropriate technology for communication and effect management mentioned separately. Briefly summarised is the following achieved: 1) The potential for effect regulating measures in ordinary consumption and in power demanding industry is analysed and estimated to 1750 MW and 3360 MW respectively. 2) Time varied rates are developed and are tested. The NVE has decided on this basis that all the network owners should offer season varied rates to their customers. 3) Test projects in Drammen, Oslo and Trondheim have shown that it is possible to motivate smaller consumers for and implement load reductions. 4) Technology for load management for the end user is evaluated. 5) A survey is made viewing the technology for two way communication. In addition the ''option'' market for the reserves of the Statnett has proved that a steady compensation is a sufficient incentive for producing substantial effect reserves in the load sector (power intensive industry). In the last part of the report the incentives and frame conditions for establishing technical solutions and infrastructure are discussed. Further work will focus on the consumer flexibility in shortage situations. The main challenges are connected to: 1) Establishing a foundation for decisions concerning cost efficient investments in necessary technical equipment. 2) To find an optimal combination of a price flexible and remote controlled load reduction

  12. Correlating consumer perception and consumer acceptability of traditional Doenjang in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mina K; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2014-11-01

    Doenjang is a traditional Korean food and is widely used for many Korean foods. Consumer perception and consumer acceptability on the typical sensory characteristics of traditional Doenjang remain unknown. The objective of the current study was to determine the consumer perception on traditional Doenjang characteristics and how preexisting consumer perception influenced the consumer liking for traditionally and commercially manufactured Doenjang. A consumer survey was conducted by presenting 26 sensory descriptions to consumers (n = 82) for check-all-that-apply measurement. Then, a consumer acceptance test was conducted over 2 d on 2 Doenjang samples representing commercially produced Doenjang and traditionally produced Doenjang: Day 1 consumers evaluated without any information (n = 182), and day 2 consumers evaluated samples informed that both samples were made by the "traditional" method (n = 109). Two-way ANOVA and multivariate analyses were conducted. Consumers' preexisting perceptions on the typical sensory characteristics of traditionally made Doenjang were similar in that they associate "gu-soo flavor," "dark color," "flavorful," and "well-fermented flavor" regardless of consumer demographics and Doenjang user status. However, these consumer perceptions on sensory attributes of traditional Doenjang did not agree with desirable sensory attributes for consumer liking, in that consumers preferred the commercially made Doenjang regardless of the evaluation condition and consumer user status. Findings from the current study therefore suggested a discrepancy between the preexisting current consumer perception and actual consumer acceptability of traditional Doenjang products. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Drivers to and barriers against sustainable consumption : exploring the role of consumer anticipated emotions in the context of consumer adoption of alternative fuel vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Rezvani, Zeinab

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing environmental problems, sustainable consumption is an important consumer behavior. Therefore, it is important to investigate further the significant drivers to and barriers against sustainable consumption, in order to increase the share of sustainable consumption and understanding of consumer behavior. This dissertation identifies two gaps. The first is in understanding consumer positive and negative anticipated emotions as an important factor influencing high-involvement ...

  14. Consumer protection and internet shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Blažková, Lenka

    2010-01-01

    The diploma thesis is devoted to the issue of online shopping. Its aim is to analyze internet shopping and see the rights and obligations of consumers and sellers, which are based on current legislation. The thesis is divided into two parts. The theoretical part deals with purchase over the internet and its regulations. There are explained the concepts internet, e-business and e-commerce and indicate the types of e-business and is mentioned certification of online stores. The practical part i...

  15. Consumers' perception of novel beers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacalone, Davide

    highlighted that consumers’ preferences for beers are highly heterogeneous, and segments based on preferences for specific sensory characteristics and beer styles were identified. It was further hypothesized that consumers’ preferences may be jointly determined by the presence of novel sensory elements......, and the way these fit with consumer’s previous experiences with beer. Empirical evidence gathered during the work generally supported this hypothesis, indicating that consumers prefer beers with novel flavors that are not perceived as too novel or discontinuous with their sensory expectations. The last part...

  16. Putting Consumers' Bodies to Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzkopf, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    in motion a cycle of performativity that ended up rendering the relationship between advertisements and consumers similar to that which had been constructed in the laboratory purely for research purposes. Advertisements in ‘real’ markets were increasingly designed in ways that fulfilled the predictions....... This reconfiguration enabled researchers and advertising practitioners to bypass consumers’ cognition and instead draw upon the ‘truth’ of their physiological reactions in order to create norms of accountability. These norms, in turn, allowed quantifiable market relations to be created around inherently qualitative...

  17. Halal Lifestyle: Understanding Muslim Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Halal Lifestyle: Understanding Muslim Consumers \\ud November 25th, 2013 Parallel Session 1C Hall C \\ud \\ud my talk starts at: 16:15-25:00 \\ud my answers start at 42:20 [to questions starting at 36:30] \\ud \\ud The Global Islamic Economy Summit 2013 was organized by Dubai Chamber of Commerce & Industry and Thomson Reuters, held on 25th-26th November, 2013 at Madinat Jumeirah, Dubai, UAE under the patronage of HH Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, \\ud Vice President and Prime Minister of the...

  18. Happy Festivus! Parody as playful consumer resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkonen, Ilona; Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    Drawing upon literary theory, play and consumer resistance literature, we conceptualize consumer parodic resistance – a resistant form of play that critically refunctions dominant consumption discourses and marketplace ideologies. We explore parodic resistance empirically by analyzing Festivus, a...

  19. evaluation of electricity consumer's behaviour towards electricity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy efficiency and sustainability: evaluation of electricity consumer's behaviour towards electricity usage and energy conservation. ... Remember me ... particularly about electricity consumer's attitudes, behaviour and practices with respect ...

  20. Consumer Social Responsibility: Example of Cycling Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesevičiūtė-Ufartienė Laima

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents research on consumer social responsibility based on the example of cycling service. The author analyses the tourism sector determining a relation between socially responsible behaviour of an organization and consumer behaviour.

  1. The female innovation-generation consumer's evaluation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The female innovation-generation consumer's evaluation of traditional and virtual displays in South. African clothing ..... only affect consumer behaviour by adding value to displayed ..... Promotional Management 19(5):652-632. FIORE, A.M. ...

  2. The Meaning of Happiness in Consumer Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandi Sørensen, Elin; Uth Thomsen, Thyra

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigate the meaning of happiness in a consumption context. We employ an inductive approach and present the results of an exploratory pilot study with eight consumers. The study is based on a Multi-Sensory-Sculpting (MSS) procedure in which we asked consumers to build sculptures...... that represent consumer happiness. Following the MSS guidelines, consumers were interviewed about the meanings of their sculpture in order to elicit embodied cognition about the topic at hand. In this paper we present the meanings of consumer happiness in the participants‟ accounts and discuss implications...... for consumer research. Further, we discuss the applicability of the MSS-procedure to the topic of consumer happiness, and how to optimize it for later studies on consumer happiness....

  3. Examining predictive relationships among consumer values: factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examining predictive relationships among consumer values: factors influencing behavioural intentions in retail purchase in Ghana. ... Journal of Business Research ... effects of age and gender differentials on values among retail consumers.

  4. A Consumer Protection Model for Regulating Lawyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfie, Deborah M.

    1992-01-01

    Describes and critiques the "discipline model" of lawyer regulation from a consumer point of view and outlines an alternative model for regulating lawyers that is grounded in consumer protection principles. (JOW)

  5. Consumer Ethnocentrism and Willingness to Buy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josiassen, Alexander; Assaf, A. Georg; Karpen, Ingo O.

    2011-01-01

    has also discovered important differences in the cognitive processes and behavior depending on demographic characteristics. However, there are competing views in the literature as to how these fundamental consumer characteristics influence and interact with consumer ethnocentrism. This study further......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to clarify how demographic consumer characteristics influence and interact with consumer ethnocentrism on willingness to buy. The authors analyze the direct effects of selected characteristics on the tendency for consumer ethnocentrism. Further, the moderating...... effects of these consumer characteristics are investigated. Design/methodology/approach – Data were gathered from 361 consumers in Australia. Data analysis was conducted using regression analysis with interactions and post hoc slope analysis. Findings – The empirical findings show that consumer tendencies...

  6. Outbred CD1 mice are as suitable as inbred C57BL/6J mice in performing social tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Lawrence S; Wen, John H; Miyares, Laura; Lombroso, Paul J; Bordey, Angélique

    2017-01-10

    Inbred mouse strains have been used preferentially for behavioral testing over outbred counterparts, even though outbred mice reflect the genetic diversity in the human population better. Here, we compare the sociability of widely available outbred CD1 mice with the commonly used inbred C57BL/6J (C57) mice in the one-chamber social interaction test and the three-chamber sociability test. In the one-chamber task, intra-strain pairs of juvenile, non-littermate, male CD1 or C57 mice display a series of social and aggressive behaviors. While CD1 and C57 pairs spend equal amount of time socializing, CD1 pairs spend significantly more time engaged in aggressive behaviors than C57 mice. In the three-chamber task, sociability of C57 mice was less dependent on acclimation paradigms than CD1 mice. Following acclimation to all three chambers, both groups of age-matched male mice spent more time in the chamber containing a stranger mouse than in the empty chamber, suggesting that CD1 mice are sociable like C57 mice. However, the observed power suggests that it is easier to achieve statistical significance with C57 than CD1 mice. Because the stranger mouse could be considered as a novel object, we assessed for a novelty effect by adding an object. CD1 mice spend more time in the chamber with a stranger mouse than that a novel object, suggesting that their preference is social in nature. Thus, outbred CD1 mice are as appropriate as inbred C57 mice for studying social behavior using either the single or the three-chamber test using a specific acclimation paradigm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Anti-stress effects of drinking green tea with lowered caffeine and enriched theanine, epigallocatechin and arginine on psychosocial stress induced adrenal hypertrophy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unno, Keiko; Hara, Ayane; Nakagawa, Aimi; Iguchi, Kazuaki; Ohshio, Megumi; Morita, Akio; Nakamura, Yoriyuki

    2016-11-15

    Theanine, an amino acid in tea, has significant anti-stress effects on animals and humans. However, the anti-stress effects of drinking green tea have not yet been elucidated. The present study aimed to explore anti-stress effects of green tea and roles of tea components in a mouse model of psychosocial stress. We examined anti-stress effects of three types of green teas, theanine-rich "Gyokuro", standard "Sencha", and Sencha with lowered caffeine (low-caffeine green tea). Furthermore, the roles of tea components such as caffeine, catechins, and other amino acids in anti-stress effects were examined. To prepare low-caffeine green tea, plucked new tea leaves were treated with a hot-water spray. Mice were psychosocially stressed from a conflict among male mice under confrontational housing. Mice consumed each tea that was eluted with room temperature water ad libitum. As a marker for the stress response, adrenal hypertrophy was compared with mice that ingested water. Caffeine was significantly lowered by spraying hot-water on tea leaves. While epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is the main catechin in tea leaves, epigallocatechin (EGC) was mainly infused into water at room temperature. Adrenal hypertrophy was significantly suppressed in mice that ingested theanine-rich and low-caffeine green tea that were eluted with water at room temperature. Caffeine and EGCG suppressed the anti-stress effects of theanine while EGC and arginine (Arg) retained these effects. These results suggest that drinking green tea exhibits anti-stress effects, where theanine, EGC and Arg cooperatively abolish the counter-effect of caffeine and EGCG on psychosocial stress induced adrenal hypertrophy in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Consumer protection: how much and who decides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowgill, C.A.

    1975-01-01

    Some topics discussed are: safety characteristics of electronic products such as color television sets and microwave ovens; impossibility of lay consumer determining frequency, severity, and probability of injury from radiation emissions; leakage of x radiation from color television sets; costs of safety standards to consumer; user habits and attitudes such as ignoring directions in instruction booklets; and consumer participation such as Consumers Union petition to amend the federal microwave standard and meetings of the technical electronic products radiation safety standards committee

  9. Advertising and Consumer Welfare: Scaling versus Translating

    OpenAIRE

    Alston, Julian M.; Chalfant, James A.; Piggott, Nicholas E.

    1997-01-01

    Controversy has surrounded the welfare effects of advertising, mainly concerning the consumer welfare effects. Unfortunately, the measures of consumer welfare effects in most studies have been ad hoc and incorrect. The consumer welfare consequences of advertising can be measured consistently when consumer demand equations are derived from an expenditure function. This is illustrated using the Almost Ideal demand system, which is popular in econometric estimation of food demand systems. An emp...

  10. Consumer Trust in E-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavsson, Malin; Johansson, Anne-Marie

    2006-01-01

    An often mentioned reason for consumers not purchasing from Internet vendors, is the lack of trust. The lack of physical clues and physical interaction in the online environment make it more difficult to establish trust with the consumers. So, it is important for companies to learn how to manage consumers’ trust in e-commerce. Although, building consumer trust on the Internet is a challenge for online vendors. The purpose with this dissertation was to get a better understanding of consumer t...

  11. Online consumer behavior among Norwegian business students

    OpenAIRE

    Møller-Hansen, Tor Ragnar

    2013-01-01

    Masteroppgave i økonomi og administrasjon - Universitetet i Agder 2013 E-commerce is an ever growing phenomenon which merits further research. This study conducts a literature review in the field of online consumer behavior, focusing on online consumer purchase intention and online consumer loyalty in the context of Norwegian business students. We also conduct a survey with 196 business students in Norway, and go on to identify three important variables impacting online consumer purchase i...

  12. CONSUMER BEHAVIOR VIEW FROM THREE DIFFERENT THEORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Salvador Romero A.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the subject is discussed from neoclassical concepts that explain consumer behavior by a utility function, taking into account budgetary constraints that determine it, as consumer behavior as revealed preferences are based on the transitivity also addresses variables to explain consumer final choice. It also integrates the innovative neuroeconomics approach, which explains the issue beyond budgetary constraints, delegating special interest in the study of cognitive aspects or brain impulses, as finally determined by consumer behavior.

  13. An Empirical Investigation of Food Consumer Behaviour in an Emerging Market

    OpenAIRE

    Petrovici, Dan Alex

    2005-01-01

    This study examines food consumers in the capital of Romania. A study of 485 consumers using the Theory of Reasoned Action underpinned the investigation of\\ud determinants of food choice. Drawing on a Structural Equation Models approach, causal paths for six commodities are estimated. Attitudes and habits tend to be significant predictors of intention to consume food. Intention is a significant, yet modest, predictor of actual behaviour. Although attitudes tend to be a key predictor in TRA, t...

  14. DETERMINANTS OF CONSUMER PREFERENCES IN ADDIS ABABA RESTAURANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejene Mamo BEKANA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was proposed to explore the determinants of consumer preferences in Addis Ababa restaurants. Using consumer behavior literatures and theories it was hypothesized that disposable income, price, quality, hygiene practices, friendliness of restaurant staff, safety of food and range or menu variety are important determinants of consumer choice for restaurants. Primary data were generated from 265 customers of 55 restaurants randomly selected with the use of questionnaire of which 258 of the questionnaire ended usable. The non parametric hypothesis testing statistical tool, chi –square tests, and measures of variation were used for statistical analysis purposes. The anticipation of the researcher was that the hypothesis testing results would be significant in parallel with the hypothesized facts. The findings of the research suggest that income has insignificant impact up on quality price trade of among consumers of different income categories. Other hypothesis associated with price, quality, friendliness of restaurant staff, quick table service and range or menu varieties are found to be statistically significant. Over all, the research results suggest that restaurateurs should design marketing strategy that integrates the attributes used in this study to satisfy the needs and wants of their customers and differentiation of their products and services on the basis of the variables scored as they are significant considerations by consumers.

  15. ACCEPTANCE OF FUNCTIONAL FOOD AMONG CHILEAN CONSUMERS: APPLE LEATHER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Maya; Adasme-Berrios, Cristian; Schnettler, Berta

    2015-10-01

    the aim of this study is to measure acceptance of a specific functional food: apple (fruit) leather, based on organoleptic characteristics and to identify consumer types and preferences for natural additives which increase the product's functionality and meet current nutritional needs. a sample of 800 consumers provided an evaluation of apple leather in terms of acceptance (liking). A sensorial panel was carried out using a 9-point hedonic scale. Cluster analysis was used to identify different acceptance-based consumer types. In addition, a conjoint analysis was carried out to determine preference for different additives. the cluster analysis resulted in four groups with significant differences in the average likings obtained from the sensory panel. Results indicate that the sweetness of the tested apple leather was evaluated best among all groups and, on average, color was rated as the worst attribute. However, overall likings differ significantly between groups. Results from the conjoint analysis indicate that, in general, consumers prefer natural additives included in the product which enhance functionality. although there is a "global acceptance" of the product, there are significant differences between groups. The results of the conjoint analysis indicate that, in general, consumers prefer the aggregation of natural additives which increase the product's functionality. Apple leather with natural additives, such as anticariogenics and antioxidants, can be considered a functional substitute of unhealthy snacks and/or sweets. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. Understanding Consumer Preferences for Australian Sparkling Wine vs. French Champagne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Culbert

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sparkling wine represents a small but significant proportion of the Australian wine industry’s total production. Yet, Australia remains a significant importer of French Champagne. This study investigated consumer preferences for Australian sparkling wine vs. French Champagne and any compositional and/or sensorial bases for these preferences. A range of French and Australian sparkling wines were analyzed by MIR spectroscopy to determine if sparkling wines could be differentiated according to country of origin. A subset of wines, comprising two French Champagnes, a French sparkling wine and three Australian sparkling wines, were selected for (i descriptive analysis to characterize their sensory profiles and (ii acceptance tests to determine consumer liking (n = 95 Australian wine consumers. Significant differences were observed between liking scores; on average, the $70 French Champagne was liked least and the $12 Australian sparkling wine liked most, but segmentation (based on individual liking scores identified clusters comprising consumers with distinct wine preferences. Interestingly, when consumers were shown wine bottle labels, they considered French wines to be more expensive than Australian wines, demonstrating a clear country of origin influence.

  17. Diet quality of Italian yogurt consumers: an application of the probability of adequate nutrient intake score (PANDiet).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistura, Lorenza; D'Addezio, Laura; Sette, Stefania; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Turrini, Aida

    2016-01-01

    The diet quality in yogurt consumers and non-consumers was evaluated by applying the probability of adequate nutrient intake (PANDiet) index to a sample of adults and elderly from the Italian food consumption survey INRAN SCAI 2005-06. Overall, yogurt consumers had a significantly higher mean intake of energy, calcium and percentage of energy from total sugars whereas the mean percentage of energy from total fat, saturated fatty acid and total carbohydrate were significantly (p yogurt consumers than in non-consumers, (60.58 ± 0.33 vs. 58.58 ± 0.19, p yogurt consumers. The items of calcium, potassium and riboflavin showed the major percentage variation between consumers and non-consumers. Yogurt consumers were more likely to have adequate intakes of vitamins and minerals, and a higher quality score of the diet.

  18. Dopamine D2 receptors mediate two-odor discrimination and reversal learning in C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandy David K

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dopamine modulation of neuronal signaling in the frontal cortex, midbrain, and striatum is essential for processing and integrating diverse external sensory stimuli and attaching salience to environmental cues that signal causal relationships, thereby guiding goal-directed, adaptable behaviors. At the cellular level, dopamine signaling is mediated through D1-like or D2-like receptors. Although a role for D1-like receptors in a variety of goal-directed behaviors has been identified, an explicit involvement of D2 receptors has not been clearly established. To determine whether dopamine D2 receptor-mediated signaling contributes to associative and reversal learning, we compared C57Bl/6J mice that completely lack functional dopamine D2 receptors to wild-type mice with respect to their ability to attach appropriate salience to external stimuli (stimulus discrimination and disengage from inappropriate behavioral strategies when reinforcement contingencies change (e.g. reversal learning. Results Mildly food-deprived female wild-type and dopamine D2 receptor deficient mice rapidly learned to retrieve and consume visible food reinforcers from a small plastic dish. Furthermore, both genotypes readily learned to dig through the same dish filled with sterile sand in order to locate a buried food pellet. However, the dopamine D2 receptor deficient mice required significantly more trials than wild-type mice to discriminate between two dishes, each filled with a different scented sand, and to associate one of the two odors with the presence of a reinforcer (food. In addition, the dopamine D2 receptor deficient mice repeatedly fail to alter their response patterns during reversal trials where the reinforcement rules were inverted. Conclusions Inbred C57Bl/6J mice that develop in the complete absence of functional dopamine D2 receptors are capable of olfaction but display an impaired ability to acquire odor-driven reinforcement contingencies

  19. Consumer Perception and Preference of Drinking Water Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadi, Seyed Ali; Alipour, Vali; Matlabi, Mohammad; Biglari, Hamed

    2016-11-01

    Understanding consumer perception of drinking water can contribute to improvements in water management and consumer satisfaction. The aim of this study was to assess the consumer perception of tap water quality and other drinking water sources in Gonabad as a small semiarid city. This study was performed in autumn and winter 2013. For collection data a researcher-made a questionnaire consisting of nine questions, based on demographic information prepared. Questions were asked for participants to provide information regarding household drinking water usage and patterns, opinion about tap water safety, taste and reasons for purchasing bottled water. For statistical analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS version 16 was applied in this study. Results showed that demographic variables had a significant relationship with consumer satisfaction (p Consumer reasons for using domestic water softeners are: suitable taste (80%), easy availability (71%), economical (56%) and low health side effects (34%). According to these results it was clear that each consumer group, based on self-condition, prefers using a specific drinking water source.

  20. Gender differences and influence on ethical behaviour of consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovač-Žnideršić Ružica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumerism, human existence, and the current business environment in which companies exist, are characterized by extreme complexity and dynamism, as a result of the simultaneous action of a large number of various factors, different in orientation and intensity. At a time when natural resources are consumed faster than they can be renewed, when the gap between rich and poor deepens, when the issue of sustainable development and socially responsible business practices are becoming a priority, the phenomena of ethical consumption and ethical consumer behaviour play a more prominent role in marketing theory and practice research. It is evident that consumers in both - developed and developing economies, are including the ethical evaluation of companies and their products and services on the market, in the process of forming their own opinions, preferences, and purchase decision. The modern consumer is sophisticated, knowledgeable and well informed, and as such is ready to decisively influence the companies to apply ethical practice. In order to fulfil these ethical demands of the market, marketing theory and practice pays great attention to the research of factors that influence the ethical behaviour of consumers. This paper tries to find an answer to the question - is there a significant difference between the ethical behavior of women and men as consumers.

  1. Consumer preferences for telemedicine devices and services in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Joongha; Shin, Jungwoo; Lee, Jongsu; Shin, Kwangsoo; Park, Hayoung

    2014-02-01

    The scope of healthcare has been expanding from caring for sick people to keeping people from becoming sick, and telemedicine will play a significant role in this new healthcare paradigm. This study investigated consumer preferences and willingness to pay for attributes of telemedicine services in South Korea. A market simulation was conducted to examine the market shares of alternative services and their relationships to the perceived usefulness of service types and preferred device types. Using a conjoint survey, we collected data on consumer preferences for six telemedicine service attributes. Data analysis used the Bayesian mixed logit model. The market simulation estimated the probabilities of a specific service alternative being chosen using estimated model coefficients. Wearable devices were the most preferred, followed by smart-home and smartphone devices. Consumers perceived managing blood glucose to be the most useful telemedicine service, followed by monitoring oxygen saturation and blood pressure. The market simulation indicated that consumer preferences for device types were associated with the types of chronic diseases for which management through telemedicine services is perceived to be useful. As the focus of healthcare moves from treating patients to keeping individuals healthy, a key factor for the successful deployment of telemedicine services is understanding consumer perceptions and attitudes. The results of this study revealed the dynamics of consumer preferences with regard to service attributes.

  2. Uncovering patterns of technology use in consumer health informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Man; Conrad, Jillian; Hon, Shirley D.; Cheng, Christine; Franklin, Jeremy D.; Tang, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Internet usage and accessibility has grown at a staggering rate, influencing technology use for healthcare purposes. The amount of health information technology (Health IT) available through the Internet is immeasurable and growing daily. Health IT is now seen as a fundamental aspect of patient care as it stimulates patient engagement and encourages personal health management. It is increasingly important to understand consumer health IT patterns including who is using specific technologies, how technologies are accessed, factors associated with use, and perceived benefits. To fully uncover consumer patterns it is imperative to recognize common barriers and which groups they disproportionately affect. Finally, exploring future demand and predictions will expose significant opportunities for health IT. The most frequently used health information technologies by consumers are gathering information online, mobile health (mHealth) technologies, and personal health records (PHRs). Gathering health information online is the favored pathway for healthcare consumers as it is used by more consumers and more frequently than any other technology. In regard to mHealth technologies, minority Americans, compared with White Americans utilize social media, mobile Internet, and mobile applications more frequently. Consumers believe PHRs are the most beneficial health IT. PHR usage is increasing rapidly due to PHR integration with provider health systems and health insurance plans. Key issues that have to be explicitly addressed in health IT are privacy and security concerns, health literacy, unawareness, and usability. Privacy and security concerns are rated the number one reason for the slow rate of health IT adoption. PMID:24904713

  3. Awakened Oscillations in Coupled Consumer-Resource Pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almaz Mustafin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns two interacting consumer-resource pairs based on chemostat-like equations under the assumption that the dynamics of the resource is considerably slower than that of the consumer. The presence of two different time scales enables to carry out a fairly complete analysis of the problem. This is done by treating consumers and resources in the coupled system as fast-scale and slow-scale variables, respectively, and subsequently considering developments in phase planes of these variables, fast and slow, as if they are independent. When uncoupled, each pair has unique asymptotically stable steady state and no self-sustained oscillatory behavior (although damped oscillations about the equilibrium are admitted. When the consumer-resource pairs are weakly coupled through direct reciprocal inhibition of consumers, the whole system exhibits self-sustained relaxation oscillations with a period that can be significantly longer than intrinsic relaxation time of either pair. It is shown that the model equations adequately describe locally linked consumer-resource systems of quite different nature: living populations under interspecific interference competition and lasers coupled via their cavity losses.

  4. Food safety and the reversed political consumer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tove; Denver, Sigrid; Mørkbak, Morten Raun

    We address the question of whether people act as political consumers in relation to food safety. By linking evidence from economic valuation studies on consumers' willingness to pay with sociological studies on consumer behaviour and market studies, we find that food safety does not call...

  5. Large-scale energy consumers pay less

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denneman, A.

    2012-01-01

    The price of electricity in the Netherlands rose with 6 percent in the first quarter of 2012, whereas large business consumers are paying less. The natural gas price has risen with about 10 percent in the last year, both for households and for large business consumers. Meanwhile, households are paying twice as much for electricity and gas as large business consumers. [nl

  6. 12 CFR 229.57 - Consumer awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (b) of this section, a brief disclosure to each of its consumer customers that describes— (1) That a... consumer customer who receives paid original checks or paid substitute checks with his or her periodic... October 28, 2004, for each consumer who is a customer of the bank on that date; and (ii) At the time the...

  7. Consumer ethnocentrism and Country of origin effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacob, Andrea Ioana

    The research on consumer ethnocentrism and country of origin effect is quite substantial in the area of consumer research, but there are competing views as to how low involvement products influence and interact with consumer ethnocentrism and country of origin in a transitional market setting...

  8. Consumer preferences for pork supply chain attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Lans, van der I.A.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2007-01-01

    Based on an extensive customized conjoint analysis with 24 attributes of pork production, covering issues from feed to fork, we identified six consumer segments: ecologists (17%), tradition-minded consumers (17%), animal friends (16%), health-concerned consumers (18%), economists (12%) and

  9. 12 CFR 561.12 - Consumer credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; loans in the nature of overdraft protection; and credit extended in connection with credit cards. ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer credit. 561.12 Section 561.12 Banks... AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.12 Consumer credit. The term consumer credit means credit extended...

  10. 45 CFR 98.33 - Consumer education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consumer education. 98.33 Section 98.33 Public... Program Operations (Child Care Services)-Parental Rights and Responsibilities § 98.33 Consumer education... public consumer education information that will promote informed child care choices including, at a...

  11. 15 CFR 16.12 - Consumer education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer education. 16.12 Section 16.12 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROCEDURES FOR A VOLUNTARY CONSUMER PRODUCT INFORMATION LABELING PROGRAM § 16.12 Consumer education. The Secretary, in close cooperation and...

  12. Managing consumer disengagement through green advertising strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Loh, E-Jian

    2017-01-01

    A discord is apparent between consumers’ concerns and their actual green behaviour – a surfacing issue that has obstructed effective green messages by advertisers. Four distinct consumer disengagement issues, including consumer backlash, environmental exhaustion, motivational challenges and social pressures were identified. This thesis explored cultural discourses surrounding green marketing and proposes green advertising strategies that address consumer disengagement. Using the Grounded Theo...

  13. Modelling consumer preferences for novel foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolgopolova, Irina; Teuber, Ramona; Bruschi, Viola

    2017-01-01

    Advances in the bioeconomy lead to a range of innovative products appearing at the consumer markets. However, these products often face consumer resistance. In this chapter we test if a reference point effects approach can provide more information about consumers decision-making regarding novel f...

  14. National Consumer and Financial Literacy Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerial Council for Education, Early Childhood Development and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    This document is a revised version of the National Consumer and Financial Literacy Framework (the Framework) originally developed in 2005. It articulates a rationale for consumer and financial education in Australian schools; describes essential consumer and financial capabilities that will support lifelong learning; and provides guidance on how…

  15. Course of Study for Consumer Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    Eleven units comprise this Consumer Mathematics course for secondary school students: Consumer Decision Making; Personal Transportation; Insurance; Credit; Banking; Investments; Income Taxes; Food, Clothing, Furniture, Appliances; Housing; Budgeting; and Travel. The introduction to the teaching guide for Consumer Mathematics includes a rationale…

  16. European consumers' acceptance of functional foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    the consumer perspective, synergies between healthiness and convenience, but may, in the consumer mind, lead to trade-offs between healthiness on the one side and taste and naturalness on the other side. This may explain the reluctance of European consumers to accept functional food products....

  17. Information, switching costs, and consumer choice:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anell, Anders; Dietrichson, Jens; Maria Ellegård, Lina

    Consumers of services that are financed by a third party, such as publicly financed health care or firm-sponsored health plans, are often allowed to freely choose provider. The rationale is that consumer choice may improve the matching of consumers and providers and spur quality competition...... by individuals living reasonably close to alternative providers....

  18. 7 CFR 1215.5 - Consumer information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer information. 1215.5 Section 1215.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... CONSUMER INFORMATION Popcorn Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1215.5...

  19. 7 CFR 1209.3 - Consumer information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer information. 1209.3 Section 1209.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING..., AND CONSUMER INFORMATION ORDER Mushroom Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order...

  20. 16 CFR 255.2 - Consumer endorsements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ENDORSEMENTS AND TESTIMONIALS IN ADVERTISING § 255.2 Consumer endorsements. (a) An advertisement employing endorsements by one or more consumers about the performance of an advertised product or service will be... persons in such advertisements are not actual consumers of the advertised product. Example 1: A brochure...